Science.gov

Sample records for range 500-1000degc form

  1. Cognition, Knowing, and Understanding: Levels, Forms, and Range.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, James E.

    Cognition, knowing, and understanding are analysed in terms of levels, forms, and range. It is found that cognition is knowing and that understanding is a range of knowing. Three levels of knowing (pre-conventional, conventional, post-conventional), three levels of understanding (prehension, apprehension, comprehension), and six forms of knowing…

  2. Inspection of free-form surfaces using dense range data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bispo, Edvaldo M.; Fisher, Robert B.

    1994-11-01

    This paper presents some research on the use of dense range data for the automatic inspection of mechanical parts that have free-form surfaces. Given a part to be inspected and a corresponding model of the part, the first step towards inspecting the part is the acquisition of a range image of it. In order to be able to compare the part image and its stored model, it is necessary to align the model with the range image of the part. This process, called registration, finds the rigid transformation that superposes model and data. After the registration, the actual inspection uses the range image to verify if all the features predicted in the model are presented and within tolerance. Free-form surfaces are particularly interesting in that few inspection processes can inspect surface shape across the whole surface. We focus on the inspection of free-form surfaces and present some results concerning the extraction of nominal shape models from dense range data using B-splines and the use of B-spline models of free-form surfaces for the purposes of registration.

  3. Prediction of glass forming ability and glass forming range for electrodeposited binary Co-W alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ashish; Iyer, Nikhilesh; Harimkar, Sandip P.

    2012-05-01

    This paper reports on the transition of crystalline to amorphous structure with increasing W content in electrodeposited binary Co-W alloys. The glass forming ability of the electrodeposited Co-based alloys, including Co-W alloy, is analyzed using deep eutectic criteria based on reduced liquidus temperature and relative composition ratio. MD simulations based on solid solution models indicated glass forming ability above 20 at. % W for Co-rich Co-W alloys, which is in good agreement with the experimental observations.

  4. Herschel spectral surveys of star-forming regions. Overview of the 555-636 GHz range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceccarelli, C.; Bacmann, A.; Boogert, A.; Caux, E.; Dominik, C.; Lefloch, B.; Lis, D.; Schilke, P.; van der Tak, F.; Caselli, P.; Cernicharo, J.; Codella, C.; Comito, C.; Fuente, A.; Baudry, A.; Bell, T.; Benedettini, M.; Bergin, E. A.; Blake, G. A.; Bottinelli, S.; Cabrit, S.; Castets, A.; Coutens, A.; Crimier, N.; Demyk, K.; Encrenaz, P.; Falgarone, E.; Gerin, M.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Helmich, F.; Hennebelle, P.; Henning, T.; Herbst, E.; Hily-Blant, P.; Jacq, T.; Kahane, C.; Kama, M.; Klotz, A.; Langer, W.; Lord, S.; Lorenzani, A.; Maret, S.; Melnick, G.; Neufeld, D.; Nisini, B.; Pacheco, S.; Pagani, L.; Parise, B.; Pearson, J.; Phillips, T.; Salez, M.; Saraceno, P.; Schuster, K.; Tielens, X.; van der Wiel, M. H. D.; Vastel, C.; Viti, S.; Wakelam, V.; Walters, A.; Wyrowski, F.; Yorke, H.; Liseau, R.; Olberg, M.; Szczerba, R.; Benz, A. O.; Melchior, M.

    2010-10-01

    High resolution line spectra of star-forming regions are mines of information: they provide unique clues to reconstruct the chemical, dynamical, and physical structure of the observed source. We present the first results from the Herschel key project “Chemical HErschel Surveys of Star forming regions”, CHESS. We report and discuss observations towards five CHESS targets, one outflow shock spot and four protostars with luminosities bewteen 20 and 2 × 105 L_⊙: L1157-B1, IRAS 16293-2422, OMC2-FIR4, AFGL 2591, and NGC 6334I. The observations were obtained with the heterodyne spectrometer HIFI on board Herschel, with a spectral resolution of 1 MHz. They cover the frequency range 555-636 GHz, a range largely unexplored before the launch of the Herschel satellite. A comparison of the five spectra highlights spectacular differences in the five sources, for example in the density of methanol lines, or the presence/absence of lines from S-bearing molecules or deuterated species. We discuss how these differences can be attributed to the different star-forming mass or evolutionary status. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Figures [see full textsee full text]-[see full textsee full text] and Tables 3, 4 (pages 6 to 8) are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  5. Extreme climatic event drives range contraction of a habitat-forming species.

    PubMed

    Smale, Dan A; Wernberg, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    Species distributions have shifted in response to global warming in all major ecosystems on the Earth. Despite cogent evidence for these changes, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood and currently imply gradual shifts. Yet there is an increasing appreciation of the role of discrete events in driving ecological change. We show how a marine heat wave (HW) eliminated a prominent habitat-forming seaweed, Scytothalia dorycarpa, at its warm distribution limit, causing a range contraction of approximately 100 km (approx. 5% of its global distribution). Seawater temperatures during the HW exceeded the seaweed's physiological threshold and caused extirpation of marginal populations, which are unlikely to recover owing to life-history traits and oceanographic processes. Scytothalia dorycarpa is an important canopy-forming seaweed in temperate Australia, and loss of the species at its range edge has caused structural changes at the community level and is likely to have ecosystem-level implications. We show that extreme warming events, which are increasing in magnitude and frequency, can force step-wise changes in species distributions in marine ecosystems. As such, return times of these events have major implications for projections of species distributions and ecosystem structure, which have typically been based on gradual warming trends. PMID:23325774

  6. Extreme climatic event drives range contraction of a habitat-forming species

    PubMed Central

    Smale, Dan A.; Wernberg, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Species distributions have shifted in response to global warming in all major ecosystems on the Earth. Despite cogent evidence for these changes, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood and currently imply gradual shifts. Yet there is an increasing appreciation of the role of discrete events in driving ecological change. We show how a marine heat wave (HW) eliminated a prominent habitat-forming seaweed, Scytothalia dorycarpa, at its warm distribution limit, causing a range contraction of approximately 100 km (approx. 5% of its global distribution). Seawater temperatures during the HW exceeded the seaweed's physiological threshold and caused extirpation of marginal populations, which are unlikely to recover owing to life-history traits and oceanographic processes. Scytothalia dorycarpa is an important canopy-forming seaweed in temperate Australia, and loss of the species at its range edge has caused structural changes at the community level and is likely to have ecosystem-level implications. We show that extreme warming events, which are increasing in magnitude and frequency, can force step-wise changes in species distributions in marine ecosystems. As such, return times of these events have major implications for projections of species distributions and ecosystem structure, which have typically been based on gradual warming trends. PMID:23325774

  7. Nanostructural Units in Disordered Network-Forming Materials and the Origin of Intermediate Range Order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massobrio, C.

    Disordered network-forming materials are characterized by structural order extending well beyond the first shell of neighbors. For these reasons, reliable atomic-scale modeling is ideally suited to complement experiments in the search of the microscopic origins of this behavior. A key to understand why these systems have specific structural properties is to focus on the nanostructural units by which they are composed. By analyzing the role played by these units, one is able to put forth a valuable rationale accounting for the occurrence of intermediate range order. In this review, we present recent results obtained via first-principles molecular dynamics on a set of disordered network-forming materials, with special emphasis on the prototypical system GeSe2. In a short introduction we begin with explicit examples of differences, at the structure factor and pair correlation level, between networks exhibiting intermediate range order and those purely disordered at any length scale. Concerning our theoretical approach, we rely on density functional theory and first-principles molecular dynamics to follow the time trajectories at finite temperature of these networks and obtain statistical averages to be compared with the experimental quantities. Specific methodological issues pertaining to the simulation of disordered materials are analyzed in detail (size of the computational cell, role of exchange-correlation functional, and production of an amorphous phase). Then, three specific points are addressed by considering both experimental and simulation results: first, the atomic-scale signature of intermediate range order as it manifests itself via the appearance of the first sharp diffraction peak in the total neutron structure factor; second, the correlation existing between fluctuations of concentration on the intermediate distances scale and the shape taken by the partial structure factors; and third, the establishment of the nanostructural units responsible for the

  8. Sympatric Woodland Myotis Bats Form Tight-Knit Social Groups with Exclusive Roost Home Ranges

    PubMed Central

    August, Tom A.; Nunn, Miles A.; Fensome, Amy G.; Linton, Danielle M.; Mathews, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    Background The structuring of wild animal populations can influence population dynamics, disease spread, and information transfer. Social network analysis potentially offers insights into these processes but is rarely, if ever, used to investigate more than one species in a community. We therefore compared the social, temporal and spatial networks of sympatric Myotis bats (M. nattereri (Natterer's bats) and M. daubentonii (Daubenton's bats)), and asked: (1) are there long-lasting social associations within species? (2) do the ranges occupied by roosting social groups overlap within or between species? (3) are M. daubentonii bachelor colonies excluded from roosting in areas used by maternity groups? Results Using data on 490 ringed M. nattereri and 978 M. daubentonii from 379 colonies, we found that both species formed stable social groups encompassing multiple colonies. M. nattereri formed 11 mixed-sex social groups with few (4.3%) inter-group associations. Approximately half of all M. nattereri were associated with the same individuals when recaptured, with many associations being long-term (>100 days). In contrast, M. daubentonii were sexually segregated; only a quarter of pairs were associated at recapture after a few days, and inter-sex associations were not long-lasting. Social groups of M. nattereri and female M. daubentonii had small roost home ranges (mean 0.2 km2 in each case). Intra-specific overlap was low, but inter-specific overlap was high, suggesting territoriality within but not between species. M. daubentonii bachelor colonies did not appear to be excluded from roosting areas used by females. Conclusions Our data suggest marked species- and sex-specific patterns of disease and information transmission are likely between bats of the same genus despite sharing a common habitat. The clear partitioning of the woodland amongst social groups, and their apparent reliance on small patches of habitat for roosting, means that localised woodland management

  9. Medium-range structure and glass forming ability in Zr–Cu–Al bulk metallic glasses

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhang, Pei; Maldonis, Jason J.; Besser, M. F.; Kramer, M. J.; Voyles, Paul M.

    2016-03-05

    Fluctuation electron microscopy experiments combined with hybrid reverse Monte Carlo modeling show a correlation between medium-range structure at the nanometer scale and glass forming ability in two Zr–Cu–Al bulk metallic glass (BMG) alloys. Both Zr50Cu35Al15 and Zr50Cu45Al5 exhibit two nanoscale structure types, one icosahedral and the other more crystal-like. In Zr50Cu35Al15, the poorer glass former, the crystal-like structure is more stable under annealing below the glass transition temperature, Tg, than in Zr50Cu45Al5. Variable resolution fluctuation microscopy of the MRO clusters show that in Zr50Cu35Al15 on sub-Tg annealing, the crystal-like clusters shrink even as they grow more ordered, while icosahedral-like clustersmore » grow. Furthermore, the results suggest that achieving better glass forming ability in this alloy system may depend more on destabilizing crystal-like structures than enhancing non-crystalline structures.« less

  10. Characterising flow-vegetation interactions in open channel flows across a range of plant forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marjoribanks, T.; Hardy, R. J.; Lane, S. N.; Parsons, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    The dynamic interactions between flow and vegetation within open channels have important implications for channel management. Vegetation canopies can alter the mean and turbulent flow properties, via drag, which in turn can affect conveyance and sediment transport. Therefore, a good understanding of these interactions is key to effective river management. Consequently, much research has been conducted into canopy layer theory. This has predominantly focused on terrestrial (semi-rigid) canopies of a particular morphology, such that a good understanding of canopy layer turbulence structure within these canopies has been developed. This conceptual model of the canopy shear layer hypothesizes that roller vortices form at the canopy top, due to the inflection in the velocity profile. These vortices then develop further into hairpin vortices with associated turbulent quadrant events. However, there has been little investigation of turbulence structure above complex, highly flexible, aquatic macrophyte canopies of the kind often found in lowland rivers. Therefore, there is a need to characterize turbulent flow dynamics in such cases. Here we report on a series of high resolution numerical experiments over a wide range of plant forms. These experiments are undertaken using two biomechanical vegetation models, developed to represent different plant morphologies. The models are implemented within a Large Eddy Simulation framework, enabling investigation of time-dependent vortex generation and evolution at high temporal and spatial resolution. In order to investigate the role of characteristics such as canopy density and flexural rigidity in determining turbulent structure, experiments were conducted across a wide parameter set. The results from the semi-rigid canopies support previous work, showing the development of a canopy shear layer. However, as canopy density increases, the system switches and more closely resembles a boundary layer. For the highly flexible canopies

  11. TOXOPLASMA GONDII ISOLATES FROM FREE-RANGE CHICKENS FORM THE NORTHEAST REGION OF BRAZIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging chickens is a good indicator of the prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in the soil because chickens feed from the ground. The prevalence of T. gondii in 152 free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) from 22 municipalities in 7 northeastern states (Perna...

  12. Alleviating a form of electric vehicle range anxiety through on-demand vehicle access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Christopher; Griggs, Wynita; Wirth, Fabian; Quinn, Karl; Shorten, Robert

    2015-04-01

    On-demand vehicle access is a method that can be used to reduce types of range anxiety problems related to planned travel for electric vehicle owners. Using ideas from elementary queueing theory, basic quality of service (QoS) metrics are defined to dimension a shared fleet to ensure high levels of vehicle access. Using mobility data from Ireland, it is argued that the potential cost of such a system is very low.

  13. Pion form factor in the range -10 GeV2 ≤ s ≤ 1 GeV2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achasov, N. N.; Kozhevnikov, A. A.

    2013-01-01

    Based on the field-theory-inspired approach, a new expression for the pion form factor F π is proposed. It takes into account the pseudoscalar meson loops π+π- and Kbar K and the mixing of ρ(770) with heavier ρ(1450) and ρ(1700) resonances. The expression ensures correct analytical properties and describes the data in the wide range of the energy squared -10 GeV2 ≤ s ≤ 1 GeV2 without introducing the phenomenological Blatt-Weisskopf range parameter R π.

  14. SYNCHROTRON AND SYNCHROTRON SELF-ABSORPTION FOR A POWER-LAW PARTICLE DISTRIBUTION: ASYMPTOTIC FORMS FOR FINITE ENERGY RANGE

    SciTech Connect

    Fouka, M.; Ouichaoui, S.

    2009-12-10

    We calculate and plot the synchrotron power, P {sub n}u, the absorption coefficient, alpha{sub n}u, and the source function, S {sub n}u, for a power-law distribution of charged particles with Lorentz parameter values gamma{sub 1} <= gamma <= gamma{sub 2}. For this purpose, we define parametric functions Z{sub p} (x, eta), H{sub p} (x, eta), and Y{sub p} (x, eta) with eta = gamma{sub 2}/gamma{sub 1}, such that P {sub n}u propor to Z{sub p} (gamma{sup -2} {sub 1}nu/nu{sub 0}, eta), alpha{sub n}u propor to H{sub p} (gamma{sup -2} {sub 1}nu/nu{sub 0}, eta), and S {sub n}u propor to Y{sub p} (gamma{sup -2} {sub 1}nu/nu{sub 0}, eta). Corresponding asymptotic forms are also calculated and plotted for three frequency ranges, i.e., x << 1, 1 << x << eta{sup 2}, and x >> eta{sup 2}, especially in the case of finite parameter eta. Asymptotic forms of the middle range are possible for functions Z{sub p} and Y{sub p} for p>1/3, and for function H{sub p} for all positive values of index p. A characteristic value, eta {sub c}(p, epsilon) (with epsilon << 1), is then defined for each of the above functions so that for eta approx> eta {sub c}(p, epsilon) the middle range asymptotic forms could be considered. Further calculation details are also presented and discussed.

  15. Microscopic origin of slow dynamics at the good glass forming composition range in Zr1-xCux metallic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, S. G.; Wang, C. Z.; Kramer, M. J.; Ho, K. M.

    2010-03-01

    We have studied the structure and dynamics of a series of Zr1-xCux metallic liquids at temperatures of 1500 and 1300 K. We found that as the Cu composition increases, the Zr-Zr order undergoes considerable transition, which can be attributed to the different size of Zr and Cu atoms. The diffusivities of both Cu and Zr atoms become lower at the composition range corresponding to good glass forming region, i.e., 0.50≤x≤0.70. We found that the lower diffusivities for the intermediate composition range are correlated with the concentration of some specific clusters, including icosahedra, which can be screened out automatically and unbiasedly by using direct atomic dynamics analysis. Our analysis for the dynamic properties of high temperature liquids of ZrCu metallic alloys shows that the icosahedral clusters together with some other pentagon-rich Voronoi clusters are responsible for slowing dynamics. Cluster lifetime analysis indicates that the slow clusters mobility could be originated in their energy.

  16. Diagenetic variation in the Oregon Coast Range: Implications for rock strength, soil production, hillslope form, and landscape evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Jill A.; Roering, Joshua J.

    2014-06-01

    The mechanisms by which lithology modulates geomorphic processes are poorly known. In the Oregon Coast Range (OCR), rhythmically bedded sandstones of the Eocene Tyee Formation underlie steep, soil-mantled hillslopes, with relatively uniform ridge-valley spacing. These characteristic landforms are perturbed where diagenetic variations manifest as resistant cliffs. Here we use petrology, rock mechanics, and lidar to characterize grain-scale variations in rock properties and their influence on rock strength, hillslope processes, and landscape morphology in two adjacent watersheds. Petrographic analyses suggest that a suite of diagenetic products in the "resistant" bedrock account for a 2.5 times increase in tensile strength relative to "typical" Tyee bedrock. Our reference catchment exhibits negligible resistant outcrops, and consistent hillslope gradients and longitudinal valley profiles. By contrast, the adjacent catchment teems with resistant, 1 to 10 m thick, noncontiguous sandstone beds that form hanging valleys with gentle upstream hillslopes and anomalously narrow valleys. Mechanical and topographic analyses suggest that the low fracture density characteristic of these resistant beds may render them relatively impervious to comminution by tree root activity, the dominant OCR soil production mechanism. Based on both hillslope gradient- and hilltop curvature-erosion models, we estimate that hillslopes perched above resistant beds erode at approximately half the pace of hillslopes unencumbered by downstream knickpoints. The diagenetic variations likely influence relief at the watershed scale. Depositional position and diagenetic processes appear to control the occurrence of resistant beds, providing a framework to quantify how seemingly subtle variations in rock properties can impose first-order controls on landscape form and evolution.

  17. D- 18O enriched waters of the Coast Range Mountains, northern California: Connate and ore-forming fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, E. Kirsten

    1993-03-01

    D and 18O enriched waters of several weight percent salinity issue from hot and cold springs in Franciscan Complex and Great Valley Sequence rocks in the northern Coast Range Mountains of California. Although these waters have been described separately in the past and called "metamorphic," "connate," and "serpentinizing fluids," this study shows that the hot and cold springs are all fed by one source of water—trapped Cretaceous seawater modified by a variety of reactions. The district is an example of the complexities of subsurface waters and their importance for our understanding of metamorphic fluid sources, oil-field waters, and ore transport problems. The subsurface waters have a range of δ 34S values, including some near marine sulfate values (+20%.), and δ 13C near marine calcite values (0%.). Strontium isotopic signatures in the spring waters are derived from the Great Valley Sequence ( 87Sr /86Sr values near 0.705). The most saline spring pool is lined with serpentine phases found together as a fine white precipitate and has a pH of 11. One portion of the subsurface water is heated and reduced; it transports Au, Ag, Sb, As, and Hg to the surface (gold grades of the hot spring precipitates range from less than 1 ppm to over 10 ppm). These heated waters are chemically and isotopically similar to the fluids which formed Au mineralization at the nearby McLaughlin gold mine. The hot springs precipitate pyrite and native sulfur and are supersaturated with respect to calcite. Other springs are less saline and are oxidized, cooler, and diluted versions of the hot spring fluid. They do not carry ore metals but they are supersaturated with respect to silica and calcite. 3He /4He ratios of the springs gases are all above atmospheric values and indicate a possible magmatic component, consistent with the presence of Quaternary Clear Lake Volcanics. 129I data yield a minimum age of 60-80 Ma for the source of the iodide in the waters, consistent with the connate

  18. Translationally invariant calculations of form factors, nucleon densities and momentum distributions for finite nuclei with short-range correlations included

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shebeko, A. V.; Grigorov, P. A.; Iurasov, V. S.

    2012-11-01

    Relying upon our previous treatment of the density matrices for nuclei (in general, nonrelativistic self-bound finite systems) we are studying a combined effect of center-of-mass motion and short-range nucleon-nucleon correlations on the nucleon density and momentum distributions in light nuclei (4He and 16O). Their intrinsic ground-state wave functions are constructed in the so-called fixed center-of-mass approximation, starting with mean-field Slater determinants modified by some correlator ( e.g., after Jastrow or Villars). We develop the formalism based upon the Cartesian or boson representation, in which the coordinate and momentum operators are linear combinations of the creation and annihilation operators for oscillatory quanta in the three different space directions, and get the own "Tassie-Barker" factors for each distribution and point out other model-independent results. After this separation of the center-of-mass motion effects we propose additional analytic means in order to simplify the subsequent calculations ( e.g., within the Jastrow approach or the unitary correlation operator method). The charge form factors, densities and momentum distributions of 4He and 16O evaluated by using the well-known cluster expansions are compared with data, our exact (numerical) results and microscopic calculations.

  19. Correlation between medium-range order structure and glass-forming ability for Al-based metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, N. C.; Yan, M.; Zuo, L.; Wang, J. Q.

    2014-01-28

    To clarify the correlation of medium-range order (MRO) structure with glass forming ability (GFA) of Al-based metallic glasses, Al{sub 86}Ni{sub 14-a}Y{sub a} (a = 2∼9 at. %) metallic glasses were analyzed by x-ray diffraction in detail and further verified by synchrotron high-energy x-ray diffraction. The prepeak that reflects the MRO structural evolution was found to be much sensitive to alloy composition. We have proposed an icosahedral supercluster MRO structure model in Al-TM (transition metal)-RE (rare earth metal) system, which consists of 12 RE(TM)-centered clusters on the vertex of icosahedral supercluster, one RE(TM)-centered clusters in the center, and TM(RE) atoms located at RE(TM)-centered cluster tetrahedral interstices in the icosahedral supercluster. It was indicated that the MRO structural stability mainly depends on the interaction of efficient dense packing and electrochemical potential equalization principle. The Al{sub 86}Ni{sub 9}Y(La){sub 5} alloys present good GFA due to the combination of the two structural factors.

  20. The energy spectra of solar energetic protons in the large energy range: their functional form and parameters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nymmik, Rikho; Pervaia, Taisia

    2016-07-01

    Experimental data on the fluxes of protons of solar energetic particles (SEP) are analyzed. It is known that above energies of 2-45 MeV (averaging 27-30 MeV), the proton spectra are a power-law function of the energy (at relativistic energies - from the momentum) of the particles. At lower energies, the spectra become harder, with the high-energy part of the spectra forming the "knee". This report is devoted to the determination of the parameters of the SEP spectra, having the form of a "double power-law shape", to ascertain the reliability of the parameters of the approximations of the experimental data.

  1. Anatomy of the Visual Word form Area: Adjacent Cortical Circuits and Long-Range White Matter Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeatman, Jason D.; Rauschecker, Andreas M.; Wandell, Brian A.

    2013-01-01

    Circuitry in ventral occipital-temporal cortex is essential for seeing words. We analyze the circuitry within a specific ventral-occipital region, the visual word form area (VWFA). The VWFA is immediately adjacent to the retinotopically organized VO-1 and VO-2 visual field maps and lies medial and inferior to visual field maps within motion…

  2. Topographic form of the Coast Ranges of the Cascadia Margin in relation ot coastal uplift rates and plate subduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelsey, Harvey M.; Engebretson, David C.; Mitchell, Clifton E.; Ticknor, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    The Coast Ranges of the Cascadia margin are overriding the subducted Juan de Fuca/Gorda plate. We investigate the extent to which the latitudinal change in attributes related to the subduction process. These attributes include the varibale age of the subducted slab that underlies the Coast Ranges and average vertical crustal velocities of the western margin of the Coast Rnages for two markedly different time periods, the last 45 years and the last 100 kyr. These vertical crustal velocities are computed from the resurveying of highway bech marks and from the present elevation of shore platforms that have been uplifted in the late Quaternary, respectively. Topogarphy of the Coast Ranges is in part a function of the age and bouyancy of the underlying subducted plate. This is evident in the fact that the two highest topographic elements of the Coast Rnages, the Klamath Mountains and the Olympic Mountains, are underlain by youngest subducted oceanic crust. The subducted Blanco Fracture Zone in southernmost Oregon is responsible for an age discontinuity of subducted crust under the Klamath Mountains. The norhtern terminus of hte topographically higher Klamaths is offset to the north relative to the position of the underlying Blanco Fracture Zone, teh offset being in the direction of migration of the farcture zone, as dictated by relative plate motions. Vertical crustal velocities at the coast, derived from becnh mark surveys, are as much as an order of magnitude greater than vertical crustal velocities derived from uplifted shore platforms. This uplift rate discrepancy indicates that strain is accumulating on the plate margin, to be released during the next interplate earthquake. In a latitudinal sense, average Coast Rnage topography is relatively high where bench mark-derived, short-term vertical crustal velocities are highest. Becuase the shore platform vertical crustal velocities reflect longer-term, premanent uplift, we infer that a small percentage of the

  3. Topographic form of the Coast Ranges of the Cascadia Margin in relation ot coastal uplift rates and plate subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelsey, Harvey M.; Engebretson, David C.; Mitchell, Clifton E.; Ticknor, Robert L.

    1994-06-01

    The Coast Ranges of the Cascadia margin are overriding the subducted Juan de Fuca/Gorda plate. We investigate the extent to which the latitudinal change in attributes related to the subduction process. These attributes include the varibale age of the subducted slab that underlies the Coast Ranges and average vertical crustal velocities of the western margin of the Coast Rnages for two markedly different time periods, the last 45 years and the last 100 kyr. These vertical crustal velocities are computed from the resurveying of highway bech marks and from the present elevation of shore platforms that have been uplifted in the late Quaternary, respectively. Topogarphy of the Coast Ranges is in part a function of the age and bouyancy of the underlying subducted plate. This is evident in the fact that the two highest topographic elements of the Coast Rnages, the Klamath Mountains and the Olympic Mountains, are underlain by youngest subducted oceanic crust. The subducted Blanco Fracture Zone in southernmost Oregon is responsible for an age discontinuity of subducted crust under the Klamath Mountains. The norhtern terminus of hte topographically higher Klamaths is offset to the north relative to the position of the underlying Blanco Fracture Zone, teh offset being in the direction of migration of the farcture zone, as dictated by relative plate motions. Vertical crustal velocities at the coast, derived from becnh mark surveys, are as much as an order of magnitude greater than vertical crustal velocities derived from uplifted shore platforms. This uplift rate discrepancy indicates that strain is accumulating on the plate margin, to be released during the next interplate earthquake. In a latitudinal sense, average Coast Rnage topography is relatively high where bench mark-derived, short-term vertical crustal velocities are highest. Becuase the shore platform vertical crustal velocities reflect longer-term, premanent uplift, we infer that a small percentage of the

  4. Correlation between Dynamic Heterogeneity and Medium-Range Order in Two-Dimensional Glass-Forming Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Kawasaki, Takeshi; Araki, Takeaki; Tanaka, Hajime

    2007-11-23

    A glassy state of matter results if crystallization is avoided upon cooling or increasing density. However, the physical factors controlling the ease of vitrification and nature of the glass transition remain elusive. Using numerical simulations of polydisperse hard disks, we find a direct relation between medium-range crystalline ordering and the slow dynamics which characterizes the glass transition. This suggests an intriguing scenario that the strength of frustration controls both the ease of vitrification and nature of the glass transition. Vitrification may be a process of hidden crystalline ordering under frustration, at least in our system.

  5. Medium-range icosahedral order in quasicrystal-forming Zr{sub 2}Pd binary metallic glass

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Li; Fang, X. W.; Wang, C. Z.; Ho, K. M.; Kramer, M. J.; Ding, Z. J.

    2011-06-06

    Medium-range order in Zr{sub 2}Pd metallic glass was studied using a combination of x-ray diffraction experiment and atomistic simulations. We show that, in contrast to earlier experimental interpretations, the icosahedral-like polyhedron is centered around Pd, rather than Zr. Furthermore, we find that the ordered icosahedral packing around Pd extends to the third shell in the way similar to that in the Bergman-type clusters. The existence of Bergman-type clusters sheds interesting light into the formation of nanoquasicrystal phase during crystallization process of Zr{sub 2}Pd metallic glass.

  6. Anatomy of the visual word form area: adjacent cortical circuits and long-range white matter connections

    PubMed Central

    Yeatman, Jason D.; Rauschecker, Andreas M.; Wandell, Brian A.

    2012-01-01

    Circuitry in ventral occipital-temporal cortex is essential for seeing words. We analyze the circuitry within a specific ventral-occipital region, the visual word form area (VWFA). The VWFA is immediately adjacent to the retinotopically organized VO-1 and VO-2 visual field maps and lies medial and inferior to visual field maps within motion selective human cortex. Three distinct white matter fascicles pass within close proximity to the VWFA: (1) the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, (2) the inferior frontal occipital fasciculus and (3) the vertical occipital fasciculus. The vertical occipital fasciculus terminates in or adjacent to the functionally defined VWFA voxels in every individual. The vertical occipital fasciculus projects dorsally to language and reading related cortex. The combination of functional responses from cortex and anatomical measures in the white matter provides an overview of how the written word is encoded and communicated along the ventral occipital-temporal circuitry for seeing words. PMID:22632810

  7. Short-range ordered photonic structures of lamellae-forming diblock copolymers for excitation-regulated fluorescence enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Se Hee; Kim, Ki-Se; Char, Kookheon; Yoo, Seong Il; Sohn, Byeong-Hyeok

    2016-05-01

    Photonic crystals can be represented by periodic nanostructures with alternating refractive indices, which create artificial stop bands with the appearance of colors. In this regard, nanodomains of block copolymers and the corresponding structural colors have been intensively studied in the past. However, the practical application of photonic crystals of block copolymers has been limited to a large degree because of the presence of large defects and grain boundaries in the nanodomains of block copolymers. The present study focuses on the alternative opportunity of short-range ordered nanodomains of block copolymers for fluorescence enhancement, which also has a direct relevance to the development of fluorescence sensors or detectors. The enhancement mechanism was found to be interconnected with the excitation process rather than the alternation of the decay kinetics. In particular, we demonstrate that randomly oriented, but regular grains of lamellae of polystyrene-block-polyisoprene, PS-b-PI, diblock copolymers and their blend with PS homopolymers can behave as Bragg mirrors to induce multiple reflections of the excitation source inside the photonic structures. This process in turn significantly increases the effective absorption of the given fluorophores inside the polymeric photonic structures to amplify the fluorescence signal.Photonic crystals can be represented by periodic nanostructures with alternating refractive indices, which create artificial stop bands with the appearance of colors. In this regard, nanodomains of block copolymers and the corresponding structural colors have been intensively studied in the past. However, the practical application of photonic crystals of block copolymers has been limited to a large degree because of the presence of large defects and grain boundaries in the nanodomains of block copolymers. The present study focuses on the alternative opportunity of short-range ordered nanodomains of block copolymers for fluorescence

  8. Riverine biophysical interactions in the form of channel-spanning logjams in the Colorado Front Range, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, E. E.; Beckman, N. D.

    2012-12-01

    Channel-spanning logjams completely span the active channel and create longitudinal discontinuities of the water surface and stream bed across at least two-thirds of the channel width. These jams disproportionately affect channel process and form relative to smaller jams that do not span the entire channel width. We analyze a spatially extensive dataset of 859 channel-spanning jams distributed along 124 km of 16 distinct rivers on the eastern side of Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA with drainage areas spanning 2.6 to 258 sq km and diverse valley geometry and forest stand age. We categorize valley geometry in terms of lateral confinement, which correlates with gradient. Jams exhibit substantial downstream variability in spacing at channel lengths of hundreds to thousands of meters. The number of jams within a reach is explained by a statistical model that includes drainage area, valley type, and channel width. Longitudinal spacing of jams drops substantially at drainage areas greater than ~ 20 sq km, although jam spacing exhibits tremendous variability at smaller drainage areas. The lack of jams at larger drainage areas likely reflects increasing transport capacity for instream wood. Variability in jam spacing at small drainage areas likely reflects local controls of valley geometry and associated wood recruitment and fluvial transport capacity. Management of instream wood designed to facilitate the formation of channel-spanning jams can be most effectively focused on smaller drainage areas where these jams were historically most abundant. Unmanaged streams in the study region with drainage area < 60 sq km have ~ 1.1 channel-spanning jams per 100 m length of stream. The cumulative effects of these jams on physical and biotic components of streams are substantial. Numerous jams create nonlinear complex responses that facilitate formation of multi-thread channels, as well as enhancing storage of carbon and other nutrients in channel and floodplain

  9. Emission intensity in the visible and IR spectral ranges from Si-based structures formed by direct bonding with simultaneous doping with erbium (Er) and europium (Eu)

    SciTech Connect

    Mezdrogina, M. M. Kostina, L. S.; Beliakova, E. I.; Kuzmin, R. V.

    2013-09-15

    The photo- and electroluminescence spectra of silicon-based structures formed by direct bonding with simultaneous doping with rare-earth metals are studied. It is shown that emission in the visible and IR spectral ranges can be obtained from n-Si:Er/p-Si and n-Si:Eu/p-Si structures fabricated by the method suggested in the study. The results obtained make this method promising for the fabrication of optoelectronic devices.

  10. Evidence that the structural conformation of envelope gp120 affects human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infectivity, host range, and syncytium-forming ability.

    PubMed Central

    Stamatatos, L; Cheng-Mayer, C

    1993-01-01

    We investigated how amino acid changes within and outside the V3 loop of the envelope glycoprotein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 influence the infectivity, host range, and syncytium-forming ability of the virus. Our studies show that on the genomic backgrounds of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 strains SF2 and SF13, a reciprocal exchange of full-loop sequences does not alter the syncytium-forming ability of the viruses, indicating that a determinant(s) for this biological property maps outside the loop. However, specific amino acid substitutions, both within and outside the V3 loop, resulted in loss of infectivity, host range, and syncytium-forming potential of the virus. Furthermore, it appears that a functional interaction of the V3 loop with regions in the C2 domain of envelope gp120 plays a role in determining these biological properties. Structural studies of mutant glycoproteins show that the mutations introduced affect the proper association of gp120 with the transmembrane glycoprotein gp41. Our results suggest that mutations that alter the structure of the V3 loop can affect the overall conformation of gp120 and that, reciprocally, the structure of the V3 loop is influenced by the conformation of other regions of gp120. Since the changes in the replicative potential, host range, and fusogenic ability of the mutant viruses correlate well with the changes in gp120 conformation, as monitored by the association of gp120 with gp41, our results support a close relationship between envelope gp120 structural conformation and the biological phenotype of the virus. Images PMID:8350416

  11. Sphaeromyxids form part of a diverse group of myxosporeans infecting the hepatic biliary systems of a wide range of host organisms

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Approximately 40 species of Sphaeromyxa have been described, all of which are coelozoic parasites from gall bladders of marine fish. They are unique amongst the myxosporeans as they have polar filaments that are flat and folded instead of being tubular and spirally wound. This unusual feature was used as a subordinal character to erect the suborder Sphaeromyxina, which contains one family, the Sphaeromyxidae, and a single genus Sphaeromyxa. Methods In the present study, we examine eelpout from the genus Lycodes from Iceland for the presence of myxosporean parasites in the gall bladder and perform morphological and DNA studies. Results A novel myxosporean, Sphaeromyxa lycodi n. sp., was identified in the gall bladders of five of the six species of Lycodes examined, with a prevalence ranging from 29 - 100%. The coelozoic plasmodia are large, polysporous and contain disporic pansporoblasts and mature spores which are arcuate. The pyriform polar capsules encase long and irregularly folded ribbon-like polar filaments. Each spore valve has two distinct ends and an almost 180° twist along the relatively indistinct suture line. The single sporoplasm is granular with two nuclei. Sphaeromyxa lycodi is phylogenetically related to other arcuate sphaeromyxids and is reproducibly placed with all known sphaeromyxids and forms part of a robustly supported clade of numerous myxosporean genera which infect the hepatic biliary systems of a wide range of hosts. Conclusions Sphaeromyxa lycodi is a common gall bladder myxosporean in eelpout of the genus Lycodes from Northern Iceland. It has characteristics typical of the genus and develops arcuate spores. Molecular phylogenetic analyses confirm that sphaeromyxids form a monophyletic group, subdivided into straight and arcuate spore forms, within the hepatic biliary clade that infect a wide range of freshwater associated animals. The ancestral spore form for the hepatic biliary clade was probably a Chloromyxum morphotype

  12. Surface-exposure ages of Front Range moraines that may have formed during the Younger Dryas, 8.2 cal ka, and Little Ice Age events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, L.; Madole, R.; Kubik, P.; McDonald, R.

    2007-01-01

    Surface-exposure (10Be) ages have been obtained on boulders from three post-Pinedale end-moraine complexes in the Front Range, Colorado. Boulder rounding appears related to the cirque-to-moraine transport distance at each site with subrounded boulders being typical of the 2-km-long Chicago Lakes Glacier, subangular boulders being typical of the 1-km-long Butler Gulch Glacier, and angular boulders being typical of the few-hundred-m-long Isabelle Glacier. Surface-exposure ages of angular boulders from the Isabelle Glacier moraine, which formed during the Little Ice Age (LIA) according to previous lichenometric dating, indicate cosmogenic inheritance values ranging from 0 to ???3.0 10Be ka.11Surface-exposure ages in this paper are labeled 10Be; radiocarbon ages are labeled 14C ka, calendar and calibrated radiocarbon ages are labeled cal ka, and layer-based ice-core ages are labeled ka. 14C ages, calibrated 14C ages, and ice core ages are given relative to AD 1950, whereas 10Be ages are given relative to the sampling date. Radiocarbon ages were calibrated using CALIB 5.01 and the INTCAL04 data base Stuiver et al. (2005). Ages estimated using CALIB 5.01 are shown in terms of their 1-sigma range. Subangular boulders from the Butler Gulch end moraine yielded surface-exposure ages ranging from 5 to 10.2 10Be ka. We suggest that this moraine was deposited during the 8.2 cal ka event, which has been associated with outburst floods from Lake Agassiz and Lake Ojibway, and that the large age range associated with the Butler Gulch end moraine is caused by cosmogenic shielding of and(or) spalling from boulders that have ages in the younger part of the range and by cosmogenic inheritance in boulders that have ages in the older part of the range. The surface-exposure ages of eight of nine subrounded boulders from the Chicago Lakes area fall within the 13.0-11.7 10Be ka age range, and appear to have been deposited during the Younger Dryas interval. The general lack of inheritance in

  13. Structure of short-range-ordered iron(III)-precipitates formed by iron(II) oxidation in water containing phosphate, silicate, and calcium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voegelin, A.; Frommer, J.; Vantelon, D.; Kaegi, R.; Hug, S. J.

    2009-04-01

    The oxidation of Fe(II) in water leads to the formation of Fe(III)-precipitates that strongly affect the fate of nutrients and contaminants in natural and engineered systems. Examples include the cycling of As in rice fields irrigated with As-rich groundwater or the treatment of drinking water for As removal. Knowledge of the types of Fe(III)-precipitates forming in such systems is essential for the quantitative modeling of nutrient and contaminant dynamics and for the optimization of water purification techniques on the basis of a mechanistic understanding of the relevant biogeochemical processes. In this study, we investigated the local coordination of Fe, P, and Ca in Fe(III)-precipitates formed by aeration of synthetic Fe(II)-containing groundwater with variable composition (pH 7, 2-30 mg/L Fe(II), 2-20 mg/L phosphate-P, 2-20 mg/L silicate-Si, 8 mM Na-bicarbonate or 2.5 mM Ca-&1.5 mM Mg-bicarbonate). After 4 hours of oxidation, Fe(III)-precipitates were collected on 0.2 µm nylon filters and dried. The precipitates were analyzed by Fe K-edge EXAFS (XAS beamline, ANKA, Germany) and by P and Ca K-edge XANES spectroscopy (LUCIA beamline, SLS, Switzerland). The Fe K-edge EXAFS spectra indicated that local Fe coordination in the precipitates systematically shifted with water composition. As long as water contained P, mainly short-range-ordered Fe(III)-phosphate formed (with molar P/Fe ~0.5). In the absence of P, Fe(III) precipitated as hydrous ferric oxide at high Si/Fe>0.5, as ferrihydrite at intermediate Si/Fe, and mainly as lepidocrocite at Si/Fe<0.2. Analysis of the EXAFS by shell-fitting indicated that Fe(III)-phosphates mainly contained mono- or oligomeric (edge- or corner-sharing) Fe and that the linkage between neighboring Fe(III)-octahedra changed from predominantly edge-sharing in Si-rich hydrous ferric oxide to edge- and corner-sharing in ferrihydrite. Electron microscopic data showed that changes in local precipitate structure were systematically

  14. Translationally Invariant Calculations of Form Factors, Densities and Momentum Distributions for Finite Nuclei with Short-Range Correlations Included: A Fresh Look

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shebeko, A.; Grigorov, P.; Iurasov, V.

    2014-08-01

    The approach proposed in the 70s (Dementiji et al. in Sov J Nucl Phys 22:6-9, 1976), when describing the elastic and inelastic electron scattering off 4 He, and elaborated in (Shebeko et al.in Eur Phys J A27:143-155, 2006) for calculations of the one-body, two-body and more complex density matrices of finite bound systems has been applied (Shebeko and Grigorov in Ukr J Phys 52:830-842, 2007; Shebeko et al. in Eur. Phys. J. A48:153-172, 2012) in studying a combined effect of the center-of-mass motion and nucleon-nucleon short-range correlations on the nucleon density and momentum distributions in light nuclei beyond the independent particle model. Unlike a common practice, suitable for infinite bound systems, these distributions are determined as expectation values of appropriate intrinsic operators that depend upon the relative coordinates and momenta (Jacobi variables) and act on the intrinsic ground-state wave functions (WFs). The latter are constructed in the so-called fixed center-of-mass approximation, starting with a mean-field Slater determinant modified by some correlator (e.g., after Jastrow or Villars). Our numerical calculations of the charge form factors ( F CH ( q)), densities and momentum distributions have been carried out for nuclei 4 He and 16 O choosing, respectively, the 1 s and 1 s-1 p Slater determinants of the harmonic oscillator model as trial, nontranslationally invariant WFs.

  15. Diversity in short-to-intermediate range order in pure forms of amorphous silicon generated by a variety of experimental and modeling techniques

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Holmstrom, Eero; Haberl, Bianca; Pakarinen, Olli H; Nordlund, Kai; Djurabekova, Flyura; Arenal, Raul; Williams, James S.; Bradby, Jodie E.; Petersen, Timothy C.; Liu, Amelia

    2016-01-01

    Variability in the short-to-intermediate range order of pure amorphous silicon prepared by different experimental and computational techniques is probed by measuring mass density, atomic coordination, bond-angle deviation, and dihedral angle deviation. It is found that there is significant variability in order parameters at these length scales in this archetypal covalently bonded, monoatomic system. This diversity strongly reflects preparation technique and thermal history in both experimental and simulated systems. Experiment and simulation do not fully quantitatively agree, partly due to differences in the way parameters are accessed. However, qualitative agreement in the trends is identified. Relaxed forms of amorphous silicon closelymore » resemble continuous random networks generated by a hybrid method of bond-switching Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulation. As-prepared ion implanted amorphous silicon can be adequately modeled using a structure generated from amorphization via ion bombardement using energetic recoils. Preparation methods which narrowly avoid crystallization such as experimental pressure-induced amorphization or simulated melt-quenching result in inhomogeneous structures that contain regions with significant variations in atomic ordering. Ad hoc simulated structures containing small (1 nm) diamond cubic crystal inclusions were found to possess relatively high bond-angle deviations and low dihedral angle deviations, a trend that could not be reconciled with any experimental material.« less

  16. Diversity in short-to-intermediate range order in pure forms of amorphous silicon generated by a variety of experimental and modeling techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Holmstrom, Eero; Haberl, Bianca; Pakarinen, Olli H; Nordlund, Kai; Djurabekova, Flyura; Arenal, Raul; Williams, James S.; Bradby, Jodie E.; Petersen, Timothy C.; Liu, Amelia

    2016-01-01

    Variability in the short-to-intermediate range order of pure amorphous silicon prepared by different experimental and computational techniques is probed by measuring mass density, atomic coordination, bond-angle deviation, and dihedral angle deviation. It is found that there is significant variability in order parameters at these length scales in this archetypal covalently bonded, monoatomic system. This diversity strongly reflects preparation technique and thermal history in both experimental and simulated systems. Experiment and simulation do not fully quantitatively agree, partly due to differences in the way parameters are accessed. However, qualitative agreement in the trends is identified. Relaxed forms of amorphous silicon closely resemble continuous random networks generated by a hybrid method of bond-switching Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulation. As-prepared ion implanted amorphous silicon can be adequately modeled using a structure generated from amorphization via ion bombardement using energetic recoils. Preparation methods which narrowly avoid crystallization such as experimental pressure-induced amorphization or simulated melt-quenching result in inhomogeneous structures that contain regions with significant variations in atomic ordering. Ad hoc simulated structures containing small (1 nm) diamond cubic crystal inclusions were found to possess relatively high bond-angle deviations and low dihedral angle deviations, a trend that could not be reconciled with any experimental material.

  17. THE ABUNDANCE OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES IN THE REDSHIFT RANGE 8.5-12: NEW RESULTS FROM THE 2012 HUBBLE ULTRA DEEP FIELD CAMPAIGN

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, Richard S.; Schenker, Matthew A.; McLure, Ross J.; Dunlop, James S.; Bowler, Rebecca A. A.; Rogers, Alexander B.; Curtis-Lake, Emma; Cirasuolo, Michele; Robertson, Brant E.; Schneider, Evan; Stark, Daniel P.; Ono, Yoshiaki; Ouchi, Masami; Koekemoer, Anton; Charlot, Stephane; Furlanetto, Steven R.

    2013-01-20

    We present the results of the deepest search to date for star-forming galaxies beyond a redshift z {approx_equal} 8.5 utilizing a new sequence of near-infrared Wide-Field Camera 3 (WFC3/IR) images of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (UDF). This 'UDF12' campaign completed in 2012 September doubles the earlier exposures with WFC3/IR in this field and quadruples the exposure in the key F105W filter used to locate such distant galaxies. Combined with additional imaging in the F140W filter, the fidelity of high-redshift candidates is greatly improved. Using spectral energy distribution fitting techniques on objects selected from a deep multi-band near-infrared stack, we find seven promising z > 8.5 candidates. As none of the previously claimed UDF candidates with 8.5 < z < 10 are confirmed by our deeper multi-band imaging, our campaign has transformed the measured abundance of galaxies in this redshift range. Although we recover the candidate UDFj-39546284 (previously proposed at z = 10.3), it is undetected in the newly added F140W image, implying that it lies at z = 11.9 or is an intense emission line galaxy at z {approx_equal} 2.4. Although no physically plausible model can explain the required line intensity given the lack of Ly{alpha} or broadband UV signal, without an infrared spectrum we cannot rule out an exotic interloper. Regardless, our robust z {approx_equal} 8.5-10 sample demonstrates a luminosity density that continues the smooth decline observed over 6 < z < 8. Such continuity has important implications for models of cosmic reionization and future searches for z >10 galaxies with James Webb Space Telescope.

  18. The Abundance of Star-forming Galaxies in the Redshift Range 8.5-12: New Results from the 2012 Hubble Ultra Deep Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Richard S.; McLure, Ross J.; Dunlop, James S.; Robertson, Brant E.; Ono, Yoshiaki; Schenker, Matthew A.; Koekemoer, Anton; Bowler, Rebecca A. A.; Ouchi, Masami; Rogers, Alexander B.; Curtis-Lake, Emma; Schneider, Evan; Charlot, Stephane; Stark, Daniel P.; Furlanetto, Steven R.; Cirasuolo, Michele

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of the deepest search to date for star-forming galaxies beyond a redshift z ~= 8.5 utilizing a new sequence of near-infrared Wide-Field Camera 3 (WFC3/IR) images of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (UDF). This "UDF12" campaign completed in 2012 September doubles the earlier exposures with WFC3/IR in this field and quadruples the exposure in the key F105W filter used to locate such distant galaxies. Combined with additional imaging in the F140W filter, the fidelity of high-redshift candidates is greatly improved. Using spectral energy distribution fitting techniques on objects selected from a deep multi-band near-infrared stack, we find seven promising z > 8.5 candidates. As none of the previously claimed UDF candidates with 8.5 < z < 10 are confirmed by our deeper multi-band imaging, our campaign has transformed the measured abundance of galaxies in this redshift range. Although we recover the candidate UDFj-39546284 (previously proposed at z = 10.3), it is undetected in the newly added F140W image, implying that it lies at z = 11.9 or is an intense emission line galaxy at z ~= 2.4. Although no physically plausible model can explain the required line intensity given the lack of Lyα or broadband UV signal, without an infrared spectrum we cannot rule out an exotic interloper. Regardless, our robust z ~= 8.5-10 sample demonstrates a luminosity density that continues the smooth decline observed over 6 < z < 8. Such continuity has important implications for models of cosmic reionization and future searches for z >10 galaxies with James Webb Space Telescope.

  19. Responses of free-ranging rhesus monkeys to a natural form of social separation. I. Parallels with mother-infant separation in captivity.

    PubMed

    Berman, C M; Rasmussen, K L; Suomi, S J

    1994-08-01

    Observations of 23 free-ranging rhesus monkey infants on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico, indicated that mothers' first postpartum estrous periods were marked by large increases in the amount of time infants were separated from their mothers, by disturbances in mother-infant relationships, and by increases in infant distress behavior. When their mothers resumed mating, most infants showed signs of agitation; a few briefly showed indications of depression. Male infants responded to their mothers' resumption of mating by playing more, whereas females engaged in less play and more allogrooming. The results suggest (a) that basic parallels exist between the behavioral responses of rhesus infants to their mothers' resumption of mating in the field and to forcible separation from their mothers in captivity and (b) that early separation experiences may play a role in the normal development or manifestation of sex differences in behavior. PMID:7956463

  20. A comparative study on the capacity of a range of food-grade particles to form stable O/W and W/O Pickering emulsions.

    PubMed

    Duffus, Laudina J; Norton, Jennifer E; Smith, Paul; Norton, Ian T; Spyropoulos, Fotios

    2016-07-01

    Whilst literature describing edible Pickering emulsions is becoming increasingly available, current understanding of these systems still suffers from a lack of consistency in terms of the (processing and formulation) conditions within which these structures have been studied. The current study aims to provide a comparative analysis of the behaviour of different edible Pickering candidates and their ability to stabilise emulsion droplets, under well-controlled and uniform experimental conditions, in order to clearly identify the particle properties necessary for successful Pickering functionality. More specifically, an extensive investigation into the suitability of various food-grade material to act as Pickering particles and provide stable oil-in-water (O/W) and water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions was carried out. Polysaccharide and flavonoid particles were characterised in terms of their size, ζ-potential, interfacial activity and wettability, under equivalent conditions. Particles were subsequently used to stabilise 20% w/w O/W and W/O emulsions, in the absence of added surfactant or other known emulsifying agents, through different processing routes. All formed Pickering emulsions were shown to resist significant droplet size variation and remain stable at particle concentrations between 2 and 3% w/w. The main particle prerequisites for successful Pickering stabilisation were: particle size (200nm - 1μm); an affinity for the emulsion continuous phase and a sufficient particle charge to extend stability. Depending upon the employed emulsification process, the resulting emulsion formation and stability behaviour can be reasonably predicted a priori from the evaluation of specific particle characteristics. PMID:27042820

  1. Investigation of medium range order and glass forming ability of metallic glass Co69Fe x Si21‑x B10 (x  =  3, 5, and 7)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, A. P.; Das, N.; Sharma, S. K.; Sinha, A. K.; Srivastava, D.; Pujari, P. K.; Dey, G. K.

    2016-06-01

    Metallic glass of composition Co69Fe x Si21‑x B10 (x  =  3, 5, and 7) was studied using spatially resolved x-ray diffraction and positron annihilation spectroscopy. It was observed that the solute centered clusters forming the metallic glasses were connected to a fractal network of a reduced dimension of 2.18. The medium range order in the present system is described with a correlation function and its validity is discussed. A theoretical estimation of its glass forming ability (GFA) complimented the observations made on the local structural changes due to variation in Si content. The distribution of open volume defects in the metallic glasses during processing was found to be related to the relative GFA of the alloy compositions.

  2. Measurement of the x-ray mass attenuation coefficient and determination of the imaginary component of the atomic form-factor of tin over the energy range of 29 keV-60 keV.

    SciTech Connect

    de Jonge, M. D.; Tran, C. Q.; Chantler, C. T.; Barnea, Z.; Dhal, B. P.; Paterson, D.; Kanter, E. P.; Southworth, S. H.; Young, L.; Beno, M. A.; Linton, J. A.; Jennings, G.; Univ. of Melbourne; Australian Synchrotron Project

    2007-01-01

    We use the x-ray extended-range technique (XERT) [C. T. Chantler et al., Phys. Rev. A 64, 062506 (2001)] to measure the mass attenuation coefficients of tin in the x-ray energy range of 29-60 keV to 0.04-3 % accuracy, and typically in the range 0.1-0.2 %. Measurements made over an extended range of the measurement parameter space are critically examined to identify, quantify, and correct a number of potential experimental systematic errors. These results represent the most extensive experimental data set for tin and include absolute mass attenuation coefficients in the regions of x-ray absorption fine structure, extended x-ray absorption fine structure, and x-ray absorption near-edge structure. The imaginary component of the atomic form factor f{sub 2} is derived from the photoelectric absorption after subtracting calculated Rayleigh and Compton scattering cross sections from the total attenuation. Comparison of the result with tabulations of calculated photoelectric absorption coefficients indicates that differences of 1-2 % persist between calculated and observed values.

  3. Measurement of the x-ray mass attenuation coefficient and determination of the imaginary component of the atomic form factor of molybdenum over the 13.5-41.5-keV energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jonge, Martin D.; Tran, Chanh Q.; Chantler, Christopher T.; Barnea, Zwi; Dhal, Bipin B.; Cookson, David J.; Lee, Wah-Keat; Mashayekhi, Ali

    2005-03-01

    We use the x-ray extended-range technique (XERT) [Chantler , Phys. Rev. A 64, 062506 (2001)] to measure the mass attenuation coefficients of molybdenum in the x-ray energy range of 13.5-41.5keV to 0.02-0.15 % accuracy. Measurements made over an extended range of the measurement parameter space are critically examined to identify, quantify, and correct where necessary a number of experimental systematic errors. These results represent the most extensive experimental data set for molybdenum and include absolute mass attenuation coefficients in the regions of the x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) and x-ray-absorption near-edge structure (XANES). The imaginary component of the atomic form-factor f2 is derived from the photoelectric absorption after subtracting calculated Rayleigh and Compton scattering cross sections from the total attenuation. Comparison of the result with tabulations of calculated photoelectric absorption coefficients indicates that differences of 1-15 % persist between the calculated and observed values.

  4. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  5. Range Ecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    After more than two hundred years, grazing remains California’s most extensive land use. The ‘Range Ecosystems’ chapter in the ‘Ecosystems of California’ sourcebook provides an integrated picture of the biophysical, social, and economic aspects of lands grazed by livestock in the state. Grazing mana...

  6. Range and range rate system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Olin L. (Inventor); Russell, Jim K. (Inventor); Epperly, Walter L. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A video controlled solid state range finding system which requires no radar, high power laser, or sophisticated laser target is disclosed. The effective range of the system is from 1 to about 200 ft. The system includes an opto-electric camera such as a lens CCD array device. A helium neon laser produces a source beam of coherent light which is applied to a beam splitter. The beam splitter applies a reference beam to the camera and produces an outgoing beam applied to a first angularly variable reflector which directs the outgoing beam to the distant object. An incoming beam is reflected from the object to a second angularly variable reflector which reflects the incoming beam to the opto-electric camera via the beam splitter. The first reflector and the second reflector are configured so that the distance travelled by the outgoing beam from the beam splitter and the first reflector is the same as the distance travelled by the incoming beam from the second reflector to the beam splitter. The reference beam produces a reference signal in the geometric center of the camera. The incoming beam produces an object signal at the camera.

  7. Beyond packing of hard spheres: The effects of core softness, non-additivity, intermediate-range repulsion, and many-body interactions on the glass-forming ability of bulk metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Kai; Fan, Meng; Liu, Yanhui; Schroers, Jan; Shattuck, Mark D.; O’Hern, Corey S.

    2015-11-14

    When a liquid is cooled well below its melting temperature at a rate that exceeds the critical cooling rate R{sub c}, the crystalline state is bypassed and a metastable, amorphous glassy state forms instead. R{sub c} (or the corresponding critical casting thickness d{sub c}) characterizes the glass-forming ability (GFA) of each material. While silica is an excellent glass-former with small R{sub c} < 10{sup −2} K/s, pure metals and most alloys are typically poor glass-formers with large R{sub c} > 10{sup 10} K/s. Only in the past thirty years have bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) been identified with R{sub c} approaching that for silica. Recent simulations have shown that simple, hard-sphere models are able to identify the atomic size ratio and number fraction regime where BMGs exist with critical cooling rates more than 13 orders of magnitude smaller than those for pure metals. However, there are a number of other features of interatomic potentials beyond hard-core interactions. How do these other features affect the glass-forming ability of BMGs? In this manuscript, we perform molecular dynamics simulations to determine how variations in the softness and non-additivity of the repulsive core and form of the interatomic pair potential at intermediate distances affect the GFA of binary alloys. These variations in the interatomic pair potential allow us to introduce geometric frustration and change the crystal phases that compete with glass formation. We also investigate the effect of tuning the strength of the many-body interactions from zero to the full embedded atom model on the GFA for pure metals. We then employ the full embedded atom model for binary BMGs and show that hard-core interactions play the dominant role in setting the GFA of alloys, while other features of the interatomic potential only change the GFA by one to two orders of magnitude. Despite their perturbative effect, understanding the detailed form of the intermetallic potential is important for

  8. Beyond packing of hard spheres: The effects of core softness, non-additivity, intermediate-range repulsion, and many-body interactions on the glass-forming ability of bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai; Fan, Meng; Liu, Yanhui; Schroers, Jan; Shattuck, Mark D.; O'Hern, Corey S.

    2015-11-01

    When a liquid is cooled well below its melting temperature at a rate that exceeds the critical cooling rate Rc, the crystalline state is bypassed and a metastable, amorphous glassy state forms instead. Rc (or the corresponding critical casting thickness dc) characterizes the glass-forming ability (GFA) of each material. While silica is an excellent glass-former with small Rc < 10-2 K/s, pure metals and most alloys are typically poor glass-formers with large Rc > 1010 K/s. Only in the past thirty years have bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) been identified with Rc approaching that for silica. Recent simulations have shown that simple, hard-sphere models are able to identify the atomic size ratio and number fraction regime where BMGs exist with critical cooling rates more than 13 orders of magnitude smaller than those for pure metals. However, there are a number of other features of interatomic potentials beyond hard-core interactions. How do these other features affect the glass-forming ability of BMGs? In this manuscript, we perform molecular dynamics simulations to determine how variations in the softness and non-additivity of the repulsive core and form of the interatomic pair potential at intermediate distances affect the GFA of binary alloys. These variations in the interatomic pair potential allow us to introduce geometric frustration and change the crystal phases that compete with glass formation. We also investigate the effect of tuning the strength of the many-body interactions from zero to the full embedded atom model on the GFA for pure metals. We then employ the full embedded atom model for binary BMGs and show that hard-core interactions play the dominant role in setting the GFA of alloys, while other features of the interatomic potential only change the GFA by one to two orders of magnitude. Despite their perturbative effect, understanding the detailed form of the intermetallic potential is important for designing BMGs with cm or greater casting thickness.

  9. Beyond packing of hard spheres: The effects of core softness, non-additivity, intermediate-range repulsion, and many-body interactions on the glass-forming ability of bulk metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Fan, Meng; Liu, Yanhui; Schroers, Jan; Shattuck, Mark D; O'Hern, Corey S

    2015-11-14

    When a liquid is cooled well below its melting temperature at a rate that exceeds the critical cooling rate Rc, the crystalline state is bypassed and a metastable, amorphous glassy state forms instead. Rc (or the corresponding critical casting thickness dc) characterizes the glass-forming ability (GFA) of each material. While silica is an excellent glass-former with small Rc < 10(-2) K/s, pure metals and most alloys are typically poor glass-formers with large Rc > 10(10) K/s. Only in the past thirty years have bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) been identified with Rc approaching that for silica. Recent simulations have shown that simple, hard-sphere models are able to identify the atomic size ratio and number fraction regime where BMGs exist with critical cooling rates more than 13 orders of magnitude smaller than those for pure metals. However, there are a number of other features of interatomic potentials beyond hard-core interactions. How do these other features affect the glass-forming ability of BMGs? In this manuscript, we perform molecular dynamics simulations to determine how variations in the softness and non-additivity of the repulsive core and form of the interatomic pair potential at intermediate distances affect the GFA of binary alloys. These variations in the interatomic pair potential allow us to introduce geometric frustration and change the crystal phases that compete with glass formation. We also investigate the effect of tuning the strength of the many-body interactions from zero to the full embedded atom model on the GFA for pure metals. We then employ the full embedded atom model for binary BMGs and show that hard-core interactions play the dominant role in setting the GFA of alloys, while other features of the interatomic potential only change the GFA by one to two orders of magnitude. Despite their perturbative effect, understanding the detailed form of the intermetallic potential is important for designing BMGs with cm or greater casting

  10. X-ray mass attenuation coefficients and imaginary components of the atomic form factor of zinc over the energy range of 7.2-15.2 keV

    SciTech Connect

    Rae, Nicholas A.; Chantler, Christopher T.; Barnea, Zwi; Jonge, Martin D. de; Tran, Chanh Q.; Hester, James R.

    2010-02-15

    The x-ray mass attenuation coefficients of zinc are measured in a high-accuracy experiment between 7.2 and 15.2 keV with an absolute accuracy of 0.044% and 0.197%. This is the most accurate determination of any attenuation coefficient on a bending-magnet beamline and reduces the absolute uncertainty by a factor of 3 compared to earlier work by advances in integrated column density determination and the full-foil mapping technique described herein. We define a relative accuracy of 0.006%, which is not the same as either the precision or the absolute accuracy. Relative accuracy is the appropriate parameter for standard implementation of analysis of near-edge spectra. Values of the imaginary components f'' of the x-ray form factor of zinc are derived. Observed differences between the measured mass attenuation coefficients and various theoretical calculations reach a maximum of about 5% at the absorption edge and up to 2% further than 1 keV away from the edge. The measurements invite improvements in the theoretical calculations of mass attenuation coefficients of zinc.

  11. Form classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, K. V. Umamaheswara; Govindaraju, Venu

    2008-01-01

    The problem of form classification is to assign a single-page form image to one of a set of predefined form types or classes. We classify the form images using low level pixel density information from the binary images of the documents. In this paper, we solve the form classification problem with a classifier based on the k-means algorithm, supported by adaptive boosting. Our classification method is tested on the NIST scanned tax forms data bases (special forms databases 2 and 6) which include machine-typed and handwritten documents. Our method improves the performance over published results on the same databases, while still using a simple set of image features.

  12. Permission Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2005-01-01

    The prevailing practice in public schools is to routinely require permission or release forms for field trips and other activities that pose potential for liability. The legal status of such forms varies, but they are generally considered to be neither rock-solid protection nor legally valueless in terms of immunity. The following case and the…

  13. Monocular visual ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witus, Gary; Hunt, Shawn

    2008-04-01

    The vision system of a mobile robot for checkpoint and perimeter security inspection performs multiple functions: providing surveillance video, providing high resolution still images, and providing video for semi-autonomous visual navigation. Mid-priced commercial digital cameras support the primary inspection functions. Semi-autonomous visual navigation is a tertiary function whose purpose is to reduce the burden of teleoperation and free the security personnel for their primary functions. Approaches to robot visual navigation require some form of depth perception for speed control to prevent the robot from colliding with objects. In this paper present the initial results of an exploration of the capabilities and limitations of using a single monocular commercial digital camera for depth perception. Our approach combines complementary methods in alternating stationary and moving behaviors. When the platform is stationary, it computes a range image from differential blur in the image stack collected at multiple focus settings. When the robot is moving, it extracts an estimate of range from the camera auto-focus function, and combines this with an estimate derived from angular expansion of a constellation of visual tracking points.

  14. Propagator for finite range potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Cacciari, Ilaria; Moretti, Paolo

    2006-12-15

    The Schroedinger equation in integral form is applied to the one-dimensional scattering problem in the case of a general finite range, nonsingular potential. A simple expression for the Laplace transform of the transmission propagator is obtained in terms of the associated Fredholm determinant, by means of matrix methods; the particular form of the kernel and the peculiar aspects of the transmission problem play an important role. The application to an array of delta potentials is shown.

  15. About White Sands Missile Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Information on the White Sands Missile Range is given in viewgraph form. Navy programs, test sites, rocket programs, research rockets' booster capacity, current boost capabilities, ordnance and payload assembly areas, commercial space launch history and agreements, and lead times are among the topics covered.

  16. Telemetry Ranging: Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamkins, J.; Kinman, P.; Xie, H.; Vilnrotter, V.; Dolinar, S.

    2015-11-01

    Telemetry ranging is a proposed alternative to conventional two-way ranging for determining the two-way time delay between a Deep Space Station (DSS) and a spacecraft. The advantage of telemetry ranging is that the ranging signal on the uplink is not echoed to the downlink, so that telemetry alone modulates the downlink carrier. The timing information needed on the downlink, in order to determine the two-way time delay, is obtained from telemetry frames. This article describes the phase and timing estimates required for telemetry ranging, and how two-way range is calculated from these estimates. It explains why the telemetry ranging architecture does not require the spacecraft transponder to have a high-frequency or high-quality oscillator, and it describes how a telemetry ranging system can be infused in the Deep Space Network.

  17. Limited range of motion

    MedlinePlus

    Limited range of motion is a term meaning that a joint or body part cannot move through its normal range of motion. ... Motion may be limited because of a problem within the joint, swelling of tissue around the joint, ...

  18. SAR ambiguous range suppression.

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2006-09-01

    Pulsed Radar systems suffer range ambiguities, that is, echoes from pulses transmitted at different times arrive at the receiver simultaneously. Conventional mitigation techniques are not always adequate. However, pulse modulation schemes exist that allow separation of ambiguous ranges in Doppler space, allowing easy filtering of problematic ambiguous ranges.

  19. RADIO RANGING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Nieset, R.T.

    1961-05-16

    A radio ranging device is described. It utilizes a super regenerative detector-oscillator in which echoes of transmitted pulses are received in proper phase to reduce noise energy at a selected range and also at multiples of the selected range.

  20. Long Range Technology Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambron, Sueann, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    This summary of a meeting of the Apple Education Advisory Council, on long range technology plans at the state, county, district, and school levels, includes highlights from group discussions on future planning, staff development, and curriculum. Three long range technology plans at the state level are provided: Long Range Educational Technology…

  1. Telemetry Ranging: Signal Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamkins, J.; Kinman, P.; Xie, H.; Vilnrotter, V.; Dolinar, S.

    2016-02-01

    This article describes the details of the signal processing used in a telemetry ranging system in which timing information is extracted from the downlink telemetry signal in order to compute spacecraft range. A previous article describes telemetry ranging concepts and architecture, which are a slight variation of a scheme published earlier. As in that earlier work, the telemetry ranging concept eliminates the need for a dedicated downlink ranging signal to communicate the necessary timing information. The present article describes the operation and performance of the major receiver functions on the spacecraft and the ground --- many of which are standard tracking loops already in use in JPL's flight and ground radios --- and how they can be used to provide the relevant information for making a range measurement. It also describes the implementation of these functions in software, and performance of an end-to-end software simulation of the telemetry ranging system.

  2. Telemetry-Based Ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamkins, Jon; Vilnrotter, Victor A.; Andrews, Kenneth S.; Shambayati, Shervin

    2011-01-01

    A telemetry-based ranging scheme was developed in which the downlink ranging signal is eliminated, and the range is computed directly from the downlink telemetry signal. This is the first Deep Space Network (DSN) ranging technology that does not require the spacecraft to transmit a separate ranging signal. By contrast, the evolutionary ranging techniques used over the years by NASA missions, including sequential ranging (transmission of a sequence of sinusoids) and PN-ranging (transmission of a pseudo-noise sequence) whether regenerative (spacecraft acquires, then regenerates and retransmits a noise-free ranging signal) or transparent (spacecraft feeds the noisy demodulated uplink ranging signal into the downlink phase modulator) relied on spacecraft power and bandwidth to transmit an explicit ranging signal. The state of the art in ranging is described in an emerging CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) standard, in which a pseudo-noise (PN) sequence is transmitted from the ground to the spacecraft, acquired onboard, and the PN sequence is coherently retransmitted back to the ground, where a delay measurement is made between the uplink and downlink signals. In this work, the telemetry signal is aligned with the uplink PN code epoch. The ground station computes the delay between the uplink signal transmission and the received downlink telemetry. Such a computation is feasible because symbol synchronizability is already an integral part of the telemetry design. Under existing technology, the telemetry signal cannot be used for ranging because its arrival-time information is not coherent with any Earth reference signal. By introducing this coherence, and performing joint telemetry detection and arrival-time estimation on the ground, a high-rate telemetry signal can provide all the precision necessary for spacecraft ranging.

  3. Short-range communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Howard, David E. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A short-range communication system includes an antenna, a transmitter, and a receiver. The antenna is an electrical conductor formed as a planar coil with rings thereof being uniformly spaced. The transmitter is spaced apart from the plane of the coil by a gap. An amplitude-modulated and asynchronous signal indicative of a data stream of known peak amplitude is transmitted into the gap. The receiver detects the coil's resonance and decodes same to recover the data stream.

  4. Tidal Forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolla Pittaluga, M.; Seminara, G.; Tambroni, N.

    2003-04-01

    We give an overview of some recent investigations on the mechanics of the processes whereby forms develop in tidal environments. The viewpoint taken here is mechanistic. Some of the questions which deserve an answer may be summarised as follows: i) do tidal channels tend to some altimetric long term equilibrium? ii) why are they typically convergent and weakly meandering? iii) how is such equilibrium affected by the hydrodynamics and morphodynamics of tidal inlets? iv) what is the hydrodynamic and morphodynamic role played by tidal flats adjacent to the channels? Some of the above questions have received a considerable attention in the last few years. Schuttelaars and de Swart (1996), Lanzoni and Seminara (2002) and, more recently, Bolla Pittaluga (2003) have investigated the first problem. In particular, the latter two contributions have shown that a straight tidal channel connected to a tidal sea at one end and closed at the other end tends to reach a long term equilibrium profile, which is slightly concave seaward and convex landward where a beach forms. The equilibrium profile is strongly sensitive to the harmonic content of the tidal forcing as well as to the value of sediment concentration established by the coastal hydrodynamics in the far field of the inlet region. Less important are the effect of channel convergence and the role of settling lag in the transport of suspended load. Insufficient attention has been devoted to the understanding of what mechanisms control channel convergence and meandering, though some similarities and differences between tidal and fluvial channels have emerged from some recent works. In particular, free bars form in tidal channels due to an instability mechanism essentially similar to that occurring under steady conditions though the oscillatory character of the flow field makes the bar pattern non migrating (Seminara and Tubino, 2001). Similarly, forced bars in curved tidal channels are driven by the development of

  5. Electromagnetic nucleon form factors

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, A.; Roberts, C.D.; Frank, M.R.

    1995-08-01

    The Dyson-Schwinger equation framework is employed to obtain expressions for the electromagnetic nucleon form factor. In generalized impulse approximation the form factor depends on the dressed quark propagator, the dressed quark-photon vertex, which is crucial to ensuring current conservation, and the nucleon Faddeev amplitude. The approach manifestly incorporates the large space-like-q{sup 2} renormalization group properties of QCD and allows a realistic extrapolation to small space-like-q{sup 2}. This extrapolation allows one to relate experimental data to the form of the quark-quark interaction at small space-like-q{sup 2}, which is presently unknown. The approach provides a means of unifying, within a single framework, the treatment of the perturbative and nonperturbative regimes of QCD. The wealth of experimental nucleon form factor data, over a large range of q{sup 2}, ensures that this application will provide an excellent environment to test, improve and extend our approach.

  6. Improved ranging systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry E.

    1989-01-01

    Spacecraft range measurements have provided the most accurate tests, to date, of some relativistic gravitational parameters, even though the measurements were made with ranging systems having error budgets of about 10 meters. Technology is now available to allow an improvement of two orders of magnitude in the accuracy of spacecraft ranging. The largest gains in accuracy result from the replacement of unstable analog components with high speed digital circuits having precisely known delays and phase shifts.

  7. Automatic range selector

    DOEpatents

    McNeilly, Clyde E.

    1977-01-04

    A device is provided for automatically selecting from a plurality of ranges of a scale of values to which a meter may be made responsive, that range which encompasses the value of an unknown parameter. A meter relay indicates whether the unknown is of greater or lesser value than the range to which the meter is then responsive. The rotatable part of a stepping relay is rotated in one direction or the other in response to the indication from the meter relay. Various positions of the rotatable part are associated with particular scales. Switching means are sensitive to the position of the rotatable part to couple the associated range to the meter.

  8. Laser ranging data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Near real-time Lageos laser ranging data are analyzed in terms of range bias, time bias, and internal precision, and estimates for earth orientation parameters X(sub p), Y(sub p), and UT1 are obtained. The results of these analyses are reported in a variety of formats. Copies of monthly summaries from November, 1986 through November, 1987 are included.

  9. Home range and travels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.

    1968-01-01

    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  10. CO2 laser ranging systems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filippi, C. A.

    1975-01-01

    The conceptual design and error performance of a CO2 laser ranging system are analyzed. Ranging signal and subsystem processing alternatives are identified, and their comprehensive evaluation yields preferred candidate solutions which are analyzed to derive range and range rate error contributions. The performance results are presented in the form of extensive tables and figures which identify the ranging accuracy compromises as a function of the key system design parameters and subsystem performance indexes. The ranging errors obtained are noted to be within the high accuracy requirements of existing NASA/GSFC missions with a proper system design.

  11. Preliminary error budget for an optical ranging system: Range, range rate, and differenced range observables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folkner, W. M.; Finger, M. H.

    1990-01-01

    Future missions to the outer solar system or human exploration of Mars may use telemetry systems based on optical rather than radio transmitters. Pulsed laser transmission can be used to deliver telemetry rates of about 100 kbits/sec with an efficiency of several bits for each detected photon. Navigational observables that can be derived from timing pulsed laser signals are discussed. Error budgets are presented based on nominal ground stations and spacecraft-transceiver designs. Assuming a pulsed optical uplink signal, two-way range accuracy may approach the few centimeter level imposed by the troposphere uncertainty. Angular information can be achieved from differenced one-way range using two ground stations with the accuracy limited by the length of the available baseline and by clock synchronization and troposphere errors. A method of synchronizing the ground station clocks using optical ranging measurements is presented. This could allow differenced range accuracy to reach the few centimeter troposphere limit.

  12. Snowy Range Wilderness, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Houston, R.S.; Bigsby, P.R.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Snowy Range Wilderness was undertaken by the USGS and USBM in 1976-1978 and was followed up with more detailed geologic and geochemical surveys, culminating in diamond drilling of one hole in the Snowy Range Wilderness. No mineral deposits were identified in the Snowy Range Wilderness, but inasmuch as low-grade uranium and associated gold resources were identified in rocks similar to those of the northern Snowy Range Wilderness in an area about 5 mi northeast of the wilderness boundary, we conclude that the northern half of the wilderness has a probable-resource potential for uranium and gold. Closely spaced drilling would be required to completely evaluate this mineral potential. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of fossil fuels.

  13. Full range resistive thermometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivieri, E.; Rotter, M.; De Combarieu, M.; Forget, P.; Marrache-Kikuchi, C.; Pari, P.

    2015-12-01

    Resistive thermometers are widely used in low temperature physics, thanks to portability, simplicity of operation and reduced size. The possibility to precisely follow the temperature from room temperature down to the mK region is of major interest for numerous applications, although no single thermometer can nowadays cover this entire temperature range. In this article we report on a method to realize a full range thermometer, capable to measure, by itself, temperatures in the whole above-cited temperature range, with constant sensitivity and sufficient precision for the typical cryogenic applications. We present here the first results for three different full range thermometer prototypes. A detailed description of the set-up used for measurements and characterization is also reported.

  14. Mu-2 ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, W. L.; Zygielbaum, A. I.

    1977-01-01

    The Mu-II Dual-Channel Sequential Ranging System designed as a model for future Deep Space Network ranging equipment is described. A list of design objectives is followed by a theoretical explanation of the digital demodulation techniques first employed in this machine. Hardware and software implementation are discussed, together with the details relating to the construction of the device. Two appendixes are included relating to the programming and operation of this equipment to yield the maximum scientific data.

  15. Quaternionic Numerical Ranges of Normal Quaternion Matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Feng Lianggui

    2009-09-09

    By the Jordan canonical block-entry form introduced in this paper, a practical method of determining the convexity and an estimation of the location on the quaternionic numerical range are given for a normal quaternion matrix.

  16. Laser Ranging Simulation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piazolla, Sabino; Hemmati, Hamid; Tratt, David

    2003-01-01

    Laser Ranging Simulation Program (LRSP) is a computer program that predicts selected aspects of the performances of a laser altimeter or other laser ranging or remote-sensing systems and is especially applicable to a laser-based system used to map terrain from a distance of several kilometers. Designed to run in a more recent version (5 or higher) of the MATLAB programming language, LRSP exploits the numerical and graphical capabilities of MATLAB. LRSP generates a graphical user interface that includes a pop-up menu that prompts the user for the input of data that determine the performance of a laser ranging system. Examples of input data include duration and energy of the laser pulse, the laser wavelength, the width of the laser beam, and several parameters that characterize the transmitting and receiving optics, the receiving electronic circuitry, and the optical properties of the atmosphere and the terrain. When the input data have been entered, LRSP computes the signal-to-noise ratio as a function of range, signal and noise currents, and ranging and pointing errors.

  17. Method of forming pointed structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pugel, Diane E. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method of forming an array of pointed structures comprises depositing a ferrofluid on a substrate, applying a magnetic field to the ferrofluid to generate an array of surface protrusions, and solidifying the surface protrusions to form the array of pointed structures. The pointed structures may have a tip radius ranging from approximately 10 nm to approximately 25 micron. Solidifying the surface protrusions may be carried out at a temperature ranging from approximately 10 degrees C. to approximately 30 degrees C.

  18. The range scheduling aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halbfinger, Eliezer M.; Smith, Barry D.

    1991-01-01

    The Air Force Space Command schedules telemetry, tracking and control activities across the Air Force Satellite Control network. The Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is a rapid prototype combining a user-friendly, portable, graphical interface with a sophisticated object-oriented database. The RSA has been a rapid prototyping effort whose purpose is to elucidate and define suitable technology for enhancing the performance of the range schedulers. Designing a system to assist schedulers in their task and using their current techniques as well as enhancements enabled by an electronic environment, has created a continuously developing model that will serve as a standard for future range scheduling systems. The RSA system is easy to use, easily ported between platforms, fast, and provides a set of tools for the scheduler that substantially increases his productivity.

  19. Satellite Laser Ranging operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, Michael R.

    1994-01-01

    Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) is currently providing precision orbit determination for measurements of: 1) Ocean surface topography from satellite borne radar altimetry, 2) Spatial and temporal variations of the gravity field, 3) Earth and ocean tides, 4) Plate tectonic and regional deformation, 5) Post-glacial uplift and subsidence, 6) Variations in the Earth's center-of-mass, and 7) Variations in Earth rotation. SLR also supports specialized programs in time transfer and classical geodetic positioning, and will soon provide precision ranging to support experiments in relativity.

  20. Western Aeronautical Test Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakahara, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the work of the Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR). NASA's Western Aeronautical Test Range is a network of facilities used to support aeronautical research, science missions, exploration system concepts, and space operations. The WATR resides at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center located at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The WATR is a part of NASA's Corporate Management of Aeronautical Facilities and funded by the Strategic Capability Asset Program (SCAP). Maps show the general location of the WATR area that is used for aeronautical testing and evaluation. The products, services and facilities of WATR are discussed,

  1. Mobile satellite ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverberg, E. C.

    1978-01-01

    A brief review of the constraints which have limited satellite ranging hardware and an outline of the steps which are underway to improve the status of the equipment in this area are given. In addition, some suggestions are presented for the utilization of newer instruments and for possible future research and development work in this area.

  2. STDN ranging equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    Final results of the Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network (STDN) Ranging Equipment program are summarized. Basic design concepts and final design approaches are described. Theoretical analyses which define requirements and support the design approaches are presented. Design verification criteria are delineated and verification test results are specified.

  3. Agriculture, forest, and range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The findings and recommendations of the panel for developing a satellite remote-sensing global information system in the next decade are reported. User requirements were identified in five categories: (1) cultivated crops, (2) land resources, (3)water resources, (4)forest management, and (5) range management. The benefits from the applications of satellite data are discussed.

  4. Agriculture, forestry, range resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crea, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    In the area of crop specie identification, it has been found that temporal data analysis, preliminary stratification, and unequal probability analysis were several of the factors that contributed to high identification accuracies. Single data set accuracies on fields of greater than 80,000 sq m (20 acres) are in the 70- to 90-percent range; however, with the use of temporal data, accuracies of 95 percent have been reported. Identification accuracy drops off significantly on areas of less than 80,000 sq m (20 acres) as does measurement accuracy. Forest stratification into coniferous and deciduous areas has been accomplished to a 90- to 95-percent accuracy level. Using multistage sampling techniques, the timber volume of a national forest district has been estimated to a confidence level and standard deviation acceptable to the Forest Service at a very favorable cost-benefit time ratio. Range specie/plant community vegetation mapping has been accomplished at various levels of success (69- to 90-percent accuracy). However, several investigators have obtained encouraging initial results in range biomass (forage production) estimation and range readiness predictions. Soil association map correction and soil association mapping in new area appear to have been proven feasible on large areas; however, testing in a complex soil area should be undertaken.

  5. Agriculture, forestry, range resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    The necessary elements to perform global inventories of agriculture, forestry, and range resources are being brought together through the use of satellites, sensors, computers, mathematics, and phenomenology. Results of ERTS-1 applications in these areas, as well as soil mapping, are described.

  6. Fact Sheet: Range Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornelson, C.; Fretter, E.

    2004-01-01

    NASA Ames has a long tradition in leadership with the use of ballistic ranges and shock tubes for the purpose of studying the physics and phenomena associated with hypervelocity flight. Cutting-edge areas of research run the gamut from aerodynamics, to impact physics, to flow-field structure and chemistry. This legacy of testing began in the NACA era of the 1940's with the Supersonic Free Flight Tunnel, and evolved dramatically up through the late 1950s with the pioneering work in the Ames Hypersonic Ballistic Range. The tradition continued in the mid-60s with the commissioning of the three newest facilities: the Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR) in 1964, the Hypervelocity Free Flight Facility (HFFF) in 1965 and the Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) in 1966. Today the Range Complex continues to provide unique and critical testing in support of the Nation's programs for planetary geology and geophysics; exobiology; solar system origins; earth atmospheric entry, planetary entry, and aerobraking vehicles; and various configurations for supersonic and hypersonic aircraft.

  7. RADIO RANGING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Bogle, R.W.

    1960-11-22

    A description is given of a super-regenerative oscillator ranging device provided with radiating and receiving means and being capable of indicating the occurrence of that distance between itself and a reflecting object which so phases the received echo of energy of a preceding emitted oscillation that the intervals between oscillations become uniform.

  8. Front Range Branch Officers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Front Range Branch of AGU has installed officers for 1990: Ray Noble, National Center for Atmospheric Research, chair; Sherry Oaks, U.S. Geological Survey, chair-elect; Howard Garcia, NOAA, treasurer; Catharine Skokan, Colorado School of Mines, secretary. JoAnn Joselyn of NOAA is past chair. Members at large are Wallace Campbell, NOAA; William Neff, USGS; and Stephen Schneider, NCAR.

  9. Space-Based Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Space-Based Range (SBR), previously known as Space-Based Telemetry and Range Safety (STARS), is a multicenter NASA proof-of-concept project to determine if space-based communications using NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) can support the Range Safety functions of acquiring tracking data and generating flight termination signals, while also providing broadband Range User data such as voice, video, and vehicle/payload data. There was a successful test of the Range Safety system at Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) on December 20, 2005, on a two-stage Terrier-Orion spin-stabilized sounding rocket. SBR transmitted GPS tracking data and maintained links with two TDRSS satellites simultaneously during the 10-min flight. The payload section deployed a parachute, landed in the Atlantic Ocean about 90 miles downrange from the launch site, and was successfully recovered. During the Terrier-Orion tests flights, more than 99 percent of all forward commands and more than 95 percent of all return frames were successfully received and processed. The time latency necessary for a command to travel from WFF over landlines to White Sands Complex and then to the vehicle via TDRSS, be processed onboard, and then be sent back to WFF was between 1.0 s and 1.1 s. The forward-link margins for TDRS-10 (TDRS East [TDE]) were 11 dB to 12 dB plus or minus 2 dB, and for TDRS-4 (TDRS Spare [TDS]) were 9 dB to 10 dB plus or minus 1.5 dB. The return-link margins for both TDE and TDS were 6 dB to 8 dB plus or minus 3 dB. There were 11 flights on an F-15B at Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) between November 2006 and February 2007. The Range User system tested a 184-element TDRSS Ku-band (15 GHz) phased-array antenna with data rates of 5 Mbps and 10 Mbps. This data was a combination of black-and-white cockpit video, Range Safety tracking and transceiver data, and aircraft and antenna controller data streams. IP data formatting was used.

  10. Long-range neural synchrony in behavior.

    PubMed

    Harris, Alexander Z; Gordon, Joshua A

    2015-07-01

    Long-range synchrony between distant brain regions accompanies multiple forms of behavior. This review compares and contrasts the methods by which long-range synchrony is evaluated in both humans and model animals. Three examples of behaviorally relevant long-range synchrony are discussed in detail: gamma-frequency synchrony during visual perception, hippocampal-prefrontal synchrony during working memory, and prefrontal-amygdala synchrony during anxiety. Implications for circuit mechanism, translation, and clinical relevance are discussed. PMID:25897876

  11. Long-range neural synchrony in behavior

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Alexander Z.; Gordon, Joshua A.

    2015-01-01

    Long-range synchrony between distant brain regions accompanies multiple forms of behavior. This review compares and contrasts the methods by which long-range synchrony is evaluated in both humans and model animals. Three examples of behaviorally-relevant long-range synchrony are discussed in detail: gamma-frequency synchrony during visual perception; hippocampal-prefrontal synchrony during working memory; and prefrontal-amygdala synchrony during anxiety. Implications for circuit mechanism, translation, and clinical relevance are discussed. PMID:25897876

  12. Light beam range finder

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1998-01-01

    A "laser tape measure" for measuring distance which includes a transmitter such as a laser diode which transmits a sequence of electromagnetic pulses in response to a transmit timing signal. A receiver samples reflections from objects within the field of the sequence of visible electromagnetic pulses with controlled timing, in response to a receive timing signal. The receiver generates a sample signal in response to the samples which indicates distance to the object causing the reflections. The timing circuit supplies the transmit timing signal to the transmitter and supplies the receive timing signal to the receiver. The receive timing signal causes the receiver to sample the reflection such that the time between transmission of pulses in the sequence in sampling by the receiver sweeps over a range of delays. The transmit timing signal causes the transmitter to transmit the sequence of electromagnetic pulses at a pulse repetition rate, and the received timing signal sweeps over the range of delays in a sweep cycle such that reflections are sampled at the pulse repetition rate and with different delays in the range of delays, such that the sample signal represents received reflections in equivalent time. The receiver according to one aspect of the invention includes an avalanche photodiode and a sampling gate coupled to the photodiode which is responsive to the received timing signal. The transmitter includes a laser diode which supplies a sequence of visible electromagnetic pulses. A bright spot projected on to the target clearly indicates the point that is being measured, and the user can read the range to that point with precision of better than 0.1%.

  13. Light beam range finder

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-06-16

    A ``laser tape measure`` for measuring distance is disclosed which includes a transmitter such as a laser diode which transmits a sequence of electromagnetic pulses in response to a transmit timing signal. A receiver samples reflections from objects within the field of the sequence of visible electromagnetic pulses with controlled timing, in response to a receive timing signal. The receiver generates a sample signal in response to the samples which indicates distance to the object causing the reflections. The timing circuit supplies the transmit timing signal to the transmitter and supplies the receive timing signal to the receiver. The receive timing signal causes the receiver to sample the reflection such that the time between transmission of pulses in the sequence in sampling by the receiver sweeps over a range of delays. The transmit timing signal causes the transmitter to transmit the sequence of electromagnetic pulses at a pulse repetition rate, and the received timing signal sweeps over the range of delays in a sweep cycle such that reflections are sampled at the pulse repetition rate and with different delays in the range of delays, such that the sample signal represents received reflections in equivalent time. The receiver according to one aspect of the invention includes an avalanche photodiode and a sampling gate coupled to the photodiode which is responsive to the received timing signal. The transmitter includes a laser diode which supplies a sequence of visible electromagnetic pulses. A bright spot projected on to the target clearly indicates the point that is being measured, and the user can read the range to that point with precision of better than 0.1%. 7 figs.

  14. Process to form mesostructured films

    DOEpatents

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Anderson, Mark T.; Ganguli, Rahul; Lu, Yunfeng

    1999-01-01

    This invention comprises a method to form a family of supported films film with pore size in the approximate range 0.8-20 nm exhibiting highly ordered microstructures and porosity derived from an ordered micellar or liquid-crystalline organic-inorganic precursor structure that forms during film deposition. Optically transparent, 100-500-nm thick films exhibiting a unique range of microstructures and uni-modal pore sizes are formed in seconds in a continuous coating operation. Applications of these films include sensors, membranes, low dielectric constant interlayers, anti-reflective coatings, and optical hosts.

  15. Process to form mesostructured films

    DOEpatents

    Brinker, C.J.; Anderson, M.T.; Ganguli, R.; Lu, Y.F.

    1999-01-12

    This invention comprises a method to form a family of supported films with pore size in the approximate range 0.8-20 nm exhibiting highly ordered microstructures and porosity derived from an ordered micellar or liquid-crystalline organic-inorganic precursor structure that forms during film deposition. Optically transparent, 100-500-nm thick films exhibiting a unique range of microstructures and uni-modal pore sizes are formed in seconds in a continuous coating operation. Applications of these films include sensors, membranes, low dielectric constant interlayers, anti-reflective coatings, and optical hosts. 12 figs.

  16. Warm Forming of Mg Sheets: From Incremental to Electromagnetic Forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulacia, Ibai; Galdos, Lander; Esnaola, Jon Ander; Larrañaga, Jon; Arruebarrena, Gurutze; de Argandoña, Eneko Saenz; Hurtado, Iñaki

    2014-07-01

    Magnesium alloys are generating interest in the automotive and aeronautic industries due to their low density and potential to reduce gross vehicular weight. However, the formability of these alloys is poor and they are very difficult to be formed at room temperature due to their strong basal texture in rolled form. In this paper, the potential of magnesium alloy sheets to be processed at warm conditions is studied for four different forming technologies: incremental forming (IF), deep drawing (DD), hydroforming (HF), and electromagnetic forming (EMF). Forming mechanisms and process window are experimentally characterized by monitoring different process parameters. Special focus is made on the influence of the forming temperature and the strain rate. Thus, experiments at temperatures from room to 523 K (250 °C) and a wide range of strain rates, between 10-3 up to 103 s-1 according to each process nature and scope, are conducted. It is observed that, even the inherent forming rate range of each process vary considerably, increasing forming temperature increases formability for all of these forming processes. In the other hand, an opposing effect of the strain rate is observed between the quasi-static processes (IF, DD, and HF) and the high speed process (EMF). Thus, a detrimental effect on formability is observed when increasing strain rate for quasi-static processes, while a mild increase is observed for EMF.

  17. Front Range Report, Abstracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, William

    The second regional conference of the Front Range Branch, AGU, was attended by more than 80 professionals and some 20 outstanding high school students. The conference included 2 days of interdisciplinary talks, and lots of discussion, that primarily were keyed to geophysical studies of Colorado, Wyoming, and New Mexico. Other talks reported on nonregional, and sometimes global, studies being done by geophypsicists of the Front Range region.Topics included tectonics of the Front Range and the Colorado Plateau, pollution of the Arkansas and Mississippi rivers, and a supreme polluting event that caused the late-Cretaceous extinctions. Other notable talks were on toxic cleanup, microburst (wind shear) detection at U.S. airports, and other meteorological studies. Several talks treated the audience to the excitement of new work and surprise discoveries. The meeting was multimedia, including the playing of two videos through a projection TV and the playing of a fascinating tape between an airport control tower and incoming pilots during a severe microburst event.

  18. Organic sonobuoy ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felgate, Nick

    2002-11-01

    It is important that military vessels periodically check their passive signatures for vunerabilities. Traditionally, this is undertaken on a fixed range (e.g., AUTEC, BUTEC) with low noise conditions. However, for operational and cost reasons it is desirable to be able to undertake such measurements while the asset is operating in other areas using expendable buoys deployed by the vessel itself. As well as the wet-end hardware for such organic sonobuoy ranging systems (e.g., calibrated sonobuoys, calibrated data uplink channels), careful consideration is needed of the signal-processing required in the harsher environmental conditions of the open ocean. In particular, it is noted that the open ocean is usually much noisier, and the propagation conditions more variable. To overcome signal-to-noise problems, techniques such as Doppler-correction, zero-padding/peak-picking, and noise estimation/correction techniques have been developed to provide accurate and unbiased estimates of received levels. To estimate propagation loss for source level estimation, a model of multipath effects has been included with the ability for analysts to compare predicted and observed received levels against time/range and adjust modeling parameters (e.g., surface loss, bottom loss, source depth) to improve the fit.

  19. Densified waste form and method for forming

    DOEpatents

    Garino, Terry J.; Nenoff, Tina M.; Sava Gallis, Dorina Florentina

    2016-05-17

    Materials and methods of making densified waste forms for temperature sensitive waste material, such as nuclear waste, formed with low temperature processing using metallic powder that forms the matrix that encapsulates the temperature sensitive waste material. The densified waste form includes a temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix, the matrix is a compacted metallic powder. The method for forming the densified waste form includes mixing a metallic powder and a temperature sensitive waste material to form a waste form precursor. The waste form precursor is compacted with sufficient pressure to densify the waste precursor and encapsulate the temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix.

  20. Densified waste form and method for forming

    SciTech Connect

    Garino, Terry J.; Nenoff, Tina M.; Sava Gallis, Dorina Florentina

    2015-08-25

    Materials and methods of making densified waste forms for temperature sensitive waste material, such as nuclear waste, formed with low temperature processing using metallic powder that forms the matrix that encapsulates the temperature sensitive waste material. The densified waste form includes a temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix, the matrix is a compacted metallic powder. The method for forming the densified waste form includes mixing a metallic powder and a temperature sensitive waste material to form a waste form precursor. The waste form precursor is compacted with sufficient pressure to densify the waste precursor and encapsulate the temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix.

  1. Waste-form development

    SciTech Connect

    Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Colombo, P.

    1982-01-01

    Contemporary solidification agents are being investigated relative to their applications to major fuel cycle and non-fuel cycle low-level waste (LLW) streams. Work is being conducted to determine the range of conditions under which these solidification agents can be applied to specific LLW streams. These studies are directed primarily towards defining operating parameters for both improved solidification of problem wastes and solidification of new LLW streams generated from advanced volume reduction technologies. Work is being conducted to measure relevant waste form properties. These data will be compiled and evaluated to demonstrate compliance with waste form performance and shallow land burial acceptance criteria and transportation requirements (both as they exist and as they are modified with time).

  2. Neutron range spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Manglos, S.H.

    1988-03-10

    A neutron range spectrometer and method for determining the neutron energy spectrum of a neutron emitting source are disclosed. Neutrons from the source are colliminated along a collimation axis and a position sensitive neutron counter is disposed in the path of the collimated neutron beam. The counter determines positions along the collimation axis of interactions between the neutrons in the neutron beam and a neutron-absorbing material in the counter. From the interaction positions, a computer analyzes the data and determines the neutron energy spectrum of the neutron beam. The counter is preferably shielded and a suitable neutron-absorbing material is He-3. 1 fig.

  3. Gas cooking range

    SciTech Connect

    Narang, R.K.; Narang, K.

    1984-02-14

    An energy-efficient gas cooking range features an oven section with improved heat circulation and air preheat, a compact oven/broiler burner, a smoke-free drip pan, an efficient piloted ignition, flame-containing rangetop burner rings, and a small, portable oven that can be supported on the burner rings. Panels spaced away from the oven walls and circulation fans provide very effective air flow within the oven. A gas shutoff valve automatically controls the discharge of heated gases from the oven so that they are discharged only when combustion is occurring.

  4. 2006 NASA Range Safety Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    TenHaken, Ron; Daniels, B.; Becker, M.; Barnes, Zack; Donovan, Shawn; Manley, Brenda

    2007-01-01

    Throughout 2006, Range Safety was involved in a number of exciting and challenging activities and events, from developing, implementing, and supporting Range Safety policies and procedures-such as the Space Shuttle Launch and Landing Plans, the Range Safety Variance Process, and the Expendable Launch Vehicle Safety Program procedures-to evaluating new technologies. Range Safety training development is almost complete with the last course scheduled to go on line in mid-2007. Range Safety representatives took part in a number of panels and councils, including the newly formed Launch Constellation Range Safety Panel, the Range Commanders Council and its subgroups, the Space Shuttle Range Safety Panel, and the unmanned aircraft systems working group. Space based range safety demonstration and certification (formerly STARS) and the autonomous flight safety system were successfully tested. The enhanced flight termination system will be tested in early 2007 and the joint advanced range safety system mission analysis software tool is nearing operational status. New technologies being evaluated included a processor for real-time compensation in long range imaging, automated range surveillance using radio interferometry, and a space based range command and telemetry processor. Next year holds great promise as we continue ensuring safety while pursuing our quest beyond the Moon to Mars.

  5. Western Aeronautical Test Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakahara, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) is a network of facilities used to support aeronautical research, science missions, exploration system concepts, and space operations. The WATR resides at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center located at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The WATR is a part of NASA's Corporate Management of Aeronautical Facilities and funded by the Strategic Capability Asset Program (SCAP). It is managed by the Aeronautics Test Program (ATP) of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) to provide the right facility at the right time. NASA is a tenant on Edwards Air Force Base and has an agreement with the Air Force Flight Test Center to use the land and airspace controlled by the Department of Defense (DoD). The topics include: 1) The WATR supports a variety of vehicles; 2) Dryden shares airspace with the AFFTC; 3) Restricted airspace, corridors, and special use areas are available for experimental aircraft; 4) WATR Products and Services; 5) WATR Support Configuration; 6) Telemetry Tracking; 7) Time Space Positioning; 8) Video; 9) Voice Communication; 10) Mobile Operations Facilities; 11) Data Processing; 12) Mission Control Center; 13) Real-Time Data Analysis; and 14) Range Safety.

  6. Range Process Simulation Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Dave; Haas, William; Barth, Tim; Benjamin, Perakath; Graul, Michael; Bagatourova, Olga

    2005-01-01

    Range Process Simulation Tool (RPST) is a computer program that assists managers in rapidly predicting and quantitatively assessing the operational effects of proposed technological additions to, and/or upgrades of, complex facilities and engineering systems such as the Eastern Test Range. Originally designed for application to space transportation systems, RPST is also suitable for assessing effects of proposed changes in industrial facilities and large organizations. RPST follows a model-based approach that includes finite-capacity schedule analysis and discrete-event process simulation. A component-based, scalable, open architecture makes RPST easily and rapidly tailorable for diverse applications. Specific RPST functions include: (1) definition of analysis objectives and performance metrics; (2) selection of process templates from a processtemplate library; (3) configuration of process models for detailed simulation and schedule analysis; (4) design of operations- analysis experiments; (5) schedule and simulation-based process analysis; and (6) optimization of performance by use of genetic algorithms and simulated annealing. The main benefits afforded by RPST are provision of information that can be used to reduce costs of operation and maintenance, and the capability for affordable, accurate, and reliable prediction and exploration of the consequences of many alternative proposed decisions.

  7. MiniAERCam Ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talley, Tom

    2003-01-01

    Johnson Space Center (JSC) is designing a small, remotely controlled vehicle that will carry two color and one black and white video cameras in space. The device will launch and retrieve from the Space Vehicle and be used for remote viewing. Off the shelf cellular technology is being used as the basis for communication system design. Existing plans include using multiple antennas to make simultaneous estimates of the azimuth of the MiniAERCam from several sites on the Space Station and use triangulation to find the location of the device. Adding range detection capability to each of the nodes on the Space Vehicle would allow an estimate of the location of the MiniAERCam to be made at each Communication And Telemetry Box (CATBox) independent of all the other communication nodes. This project will investigate the techniques used by the Global Positioning System (GPS) to achieve accurate positioning information and adapt those strategies that are appropriate to the design of the CATBox range determination system.

  8. Range imaging laser radar

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Marion W.

    1990-01-01

    A laser source is operated continuously and modulated periodically (typicy sinusoidally). A receiver imposes another periodic modulation on the received optical signal, the modulated signal being detected by an array of detectors of the integrating type. Range to the target determined by measuring the phase shift of the intensity modulation on the received optical beam relative to a reference. The receiver comprises a photoemitter for converting the reflected, periodically modulated, return beam to an accordingly modulated electron stream. The electron stream is modulated by a local demodulation signal source and subsequently converted back to a photon stream by a detector. A charge coupled device (CCD) array then averages and samples the photon stream to provide an electrical signal in accordance with the photon stream.

  9. Range imaging laser radar

    DOEpatents

    Scott, M.W.

    1990-06-19

    A laser source is operated continuously and modulated periodically (typically sinusoidally). A receiver imposes another periodic modulation on the received optical signal, the modulated signal being detected by an array of detectors of the integrating type. Range to the target determined by measuring the phase shift of the intensity modulation on the received optical beam relative to a reference. The receiver comprises a photoemitter for converting the reflected, periodically modulated, return beam to an accordingly modulated electron stream. The electron stream is modulated by a local demodulation signal source and subsequently converted back to a photon stream by a detector. A charge coupled device (CCD) array then averages and samples the photon stream to provide an electrical signal in accordance with the photon stream. 2 figs.

  10. Neutron range spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Manglos, Stephen H.

    1989-06-06

    A neutron range spectrometer and method for determining the neutron energy spectrum of a neutron emitting source are disclosed. Neutrons from the source are collimnated along a collimation axis and a position sensitive neutron counter is disposed in the path of the collimated neutron beam. The counter determines positions along the collimation axis of interactions between the neutrons in the neutron beam and a neutron-absorbing material in the counter. From the interaction positions, a computer analyzes the data and determines the neutron energy spectrum of the neutron beam. The counter is preferably shielded and a suitable neutron-absorbing material is He-3. The computer solves the following equation in the analysis: ##EQU1## where: N(x).DELTA.x=the number of neutron interactions measured between a position x and x+.DELTA.x, A.sub.i (E.sub.i).DELTA.E.sub.i =the number of incident neutrons with energy between E.sub.i and E.sub.i +.DELTA.E.sub.i, and C=C(E.sub.i)=N .sigma.(E.sub.i) where N=the number density of absorbing atoms in the position sensitive counter means and .sigma. (E.sub.i)=the average cross section of the absorbing interaction between E.sub.i and E.sub.i +.DELTA.E.sub.i.

  11. Undercuts by Laser Shock Forming

    SciTech Connect

    Wielage, Hanna; Vollertsen, Frank

    2011-05-04

    In laser shock forming TEA-CO{sub 2}-laser induced shock waves are used to form metal foils, such as aluminum or copper. The process utilizes an initiated plasma shock wave on the target surface, which leads to a forming of the foil. A challenge in forming technologies is the manufacturing of undercuts. By conventional forming methods these special forms are not feasible. In this article, it is presented that undercuts in the micro range can be produced by laser shock deep drawing. Different drawing die diameters, drawing die depths and the material aluminum in the thicknesses 20 and 50 {mu}m were investigated. It will be presented that smaller die diameters facilitate undercuts compared to bigger die diameters. The phenomena can be explained by Barlow's formula. Furthermore, it is shown which maximum undercut depth at different die diameters can be reached. To this end, cross-sections of the different parameter combinations are displayed.

  12. Careers (A Course of Study). Unit V: Forms, Forms, Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turley, Kay

    Designed to enable special needs students to understand and complete various job-related forms, this set of activities devoted to forms encountered before and after one obtains a job is the fifth in a nine-unit secondary level careers course intended to provide handicapped students with the knowledge and tools necessary to succeed in the world of…

  13. Passive long range acousto-optic sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Dan

    2006-08-01

    Alexander Graham Bell's photophone of 1880 was a simple free space optical communication device that used the sun to illuminate a reflective acoustic diaphragm. A selenium photocell located 213 m (700 ft) away converted the acoustically modulated light beam back into sound. A variation of the photophone is presented here that uses naturally formed free space acousto-optic communications links to provide passive multichannel long range acoustic sensing. This system, called RAS (remote acoustic sensor), functions as a long range microphone with a demonstrated range in excess of 40 km (25 miles).

  14. Reference Ranges & What They Mean

    MedlinePlus

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Reference Ranges and What They Mean Share this page: Was this page helpful? Overview | Reference range defined | Where are the reference ranges? | Limits ...

  15. The ideal Kolmogorov inertial range and constant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, YE

    1993-01-01

    The energy transfer statistics measured in numerically simulated flows are found to be nearly self-similar for wavenumbers in the inertial range. Using the measured self-similar form, an 'ideal' energy transfer function and the corresponding energy flux rate were deduced. From this flux rate, the Kolmogorov constant was calculated to be 1.5, in excellent agreement with experiments.

  16. Individual differences in BEV drivers' range stress during first encounter of a critical range situation.

    PubMed

    Franke, Thomas; Rauh, Nadine; Krems, Josef F

    2016-11-01

    It is commonly held that range anxiety, in the form of experienced range stress, constitutes a usage barrier, particularly during the early period of battery electric vehicle (BEV) usage. To better understand factors that play a role in range stress during this critical period of adaptation to limited-range mobility, we examined individual differences in experienced range stress in the context of a critical range situation. In a field experiment, 74 participants drove a BEV on a 94-km round trip, which was tailored to lead to a critical range situation (i.e., small available range safety buffer). Higher route familiarity, trust in the range estimation system, system knowledge, subjective range competence, and internal control beliefs in dealing with technology were clearly related to lower experienced range stress; emotional stability (i.e., low neuroticism) was partly related to lower range stress. These results can inform strategies aimed at reducing range stress during early BEV usage, as well as contribute to a better understanding of factors that drive user experience in low-resource systems, which is a key topic in the field of green ergonomics. PMID:26456746

  17. Space-Based Range Safety and Future Space Range Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, Donald E.; Valencia, Lisa M.; Simpson, James C.

    2005-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Space-Based Telemetry and Range Safety (STARS) study is a multiphase project to demonstrate the performance, flexibility and cost savings that can be realized by using space-based assets for the Range Safety [global positioning system (GPS) metric tracking data, flight termination command and range safety data relay] and Range User (telemetry) functions during vehicle launches and landings. Phase 1 included flight testing S-band Range Safety and Range User hardware in 2003 onboard a high-dynamic aircraft platform at Dryden Flight Research Center (Edwards, California, USA) using the NASA Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) as the communications link. The current effort, Phase 2, includes hardware and packaging upgrades to the S-band Range Safety system and development of a high data rate Ku-band Range User system. The enhanced Phase 2 Range Safety Unit (RSU) provided real-time video for three days during the historic Global Flyer (Scaled Composites, Mojave, California, USA) flight in March, 2005. Additional Phase 2 testing will include a sounding rocket test of the Range Safety system and aircraft flight testing of both systems. Future testing will include a flight test on a launch vehicle platform. This paper discusses both Range Safety and Range User developments and testing with emphasis on the Range Safety system. The operational concept of a future space-based range is also discussed.

  18. Space-Based Range Safety and Future Space Range Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, Donald E.; Valencia, Lisa M.; Simpson, James C.

    2005-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space-Based Telemetry and Range Safety study is a multiphase project to demonstrate the performance, flexibility and cost savings that can be realized by using space-based assets for the Range Safety (global positioning system metric tracking data, flight termination command and range safety data relay) and Range User (telemetry) functions during vehicle launches and landings. Phase 1 included flight testing S-band Range Safety and Range User hardware in 2003 onboard a high-dynamic aircraft platform at Dryden Flight Research Center (Edwards, California) using the NASA Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System as the communications link. The current effort, Phase 2, includes hardware and packaging upgrades to the S-band Range Safety system and development of a high data rate Ku-band Range User system. The enhanced Phase 2 Range Safety Unit provided real-time video for three days during the historic GlobalFlyer (Scaled Composites, Mojave, California) flight in March, 2005. Additional Phase 2 testing will include a sounding rocket test of the Range Safety system and aircraft flight testing of both systems. Future testing will include a flight test on a launch vehicle platform. This report discusses both Range Safety and Range User developments and testing with emphasis on the Range Safety system. The operational concept of a future space-based range is also discussed.

  19. INEL spray-forming research

    SciTech Connect

    McHugh, K.M.; Key, J.F.

    1992-12-31

    Spray forming is a near-net-shape fabrication technology in which a spray of finely atomized liquid droplets is deposited onto a suitably shaped substrate or mold to produce a coherent solid. The technology offers unique opportunities for simplifying materials processing without sacrificing, and oftentimes substantially improving, product quality. Spray forming can be performed with a wide range of metals and nonmetals, and offers property improvements resulting from rapid solidification (e.g. refined microstructures, extended solid solubilities and reduced segregation). Economic benefits result from process simplification and the elimination of unit operations. Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are developing spray-forming technology for producing near-net-shape solids and coatings of a variety of metals, polymers, and composite materials. Results from several spray-forming programs are presented to illustrate the range of capabilities of the technique as well as the accompanying technical and economic benefits. Low-carbon steel strip >0.75 mm thick and polymer membranes for gas/gas and liquid/liquid separations that were spray formed are discussed; recent advances in spray forming molds, dies, and other tooling using low-melting-point metals are described.

  20. INEL Spray-forming Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mchugh, Kevin M.; Key, James F.

    1993-01-01

    Spray forming is a near-net-shape fabrication technology in which a spray of finely atomized liquid droplets is deposited onto a suitably shaped substrate or mold to produce a coherent solid. The technology offers unique opportunities for simplifying materials processing without sacrificing, and oftentimes substantially improving, product quality. Spray forming can be performed with a wide range of metals and nonmetals, and offers property improvements resulting from rapid solidification (e.g., refined microstructures, extended solid solubilities and reduced segregation). Economic benefits result from process simplification and the elimination of unit operations. Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are developing spray-forming technology for producing near-net-shape solids and coatings of a variety of metals, polymers, and composite materials. Results from several spray forming programs are presented to illustrate the range of capabilities of the technique as well as the accompanying technical and economic benefits. Low-carbon steel strip greater than 0.75 mm thick and polymer membranes for gas/gas and liquid/liquid separations that were spray formed are discussed; recent advances in spray forming molds, dies, and other tooling using low-melting-point metals are described.

  1. The "FORM" Approach to Reading Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandel, Lenore

    The FORM approach is designed to help persons in the senior population with the task of filling out the forms or applications required for a myriad of societal and human needs. The acronym represents a four-part approach consisting of: Facing the issue; applying Overview; Rewriting headings as questions; and Matching information as appropriate…

  2. Pulse spreading and range correction analysis for satellite laser ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Jon A.

    1990-01-01

    The pulse spreading resulting from light detection and ranging measurements of the range to earth-orbiting satellites is described. An analysis quantifying this pulse spreading and the calculation of corrections to be applied to the lidar range determination of satellites is detailed.

  3. Pulse spreading and range correction analysis for satellite laser ranging.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, J A

    1990-09-01

    The pulse spreading resulting from light detection and ranging measurements of the range to earth-orbiting satellites is described. An analysis quantifying this pulse spreading and the calculation of corrections to be applied to the lidar range determination of satellites is detailed. PMID:20567459

  4. Test Review: Wilkinson, G. S., & Robertson, G. J. (2006). Wide Range Achievement Test--Fourth Edition. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources. WRAT4 Introductory Kit (Includes Manual, 25 Test/Response Forms [Blue and Green], and Accompanying Test Materials): $243.00

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dell, Cindy Ann; Harrold, Barbara; Dell, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The Wide Range Achievement Test-Fourth Edition (WRAT4) is designed to provide "a quick, simple, psychometrically sound assessment of academic skills". The test was first published in 1946 by Joseph F. Jastak, with the purpose of augmenting the cognitive performance measures of the Wechsler-Bellevue Scales, developed by David Wechsler. Jastak…

  5. Front Range of the Rockies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    These MISR images from May 12, 2001 (Terra orbit 7447) include portions of southern Wyoming, central Colorado, and western Nebraska. The top view is from the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. The bottom image is a stereo 'anaglyph' generated using data from the nadir and 46-degree-forward cameras. Viewing the anaglyph with red/blue glasses (red filter over your left eye) gives a 3-D effect. To facilitate stereo viewing, the images have been oriented with north at the left. Each image measures 422 kilometers x 213 kilometers.

    The South Platte River enters just to the right of center at the top of the images. It wends its way westward (down), then turns southward (right) where it flows through the city of Denver. Located at the western edge of the Great Plains, Denver is nicknamed the 'Mile High City', a consequence of its 1609-meter (5280-foot) elevation above sea level. It shows up in the imagery as a grayish patch surrounded by numerous agricultural fields to the north and east. Denver is situated just east of the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains, located in the lower right of the images. The Rockies owe their present forms to tectonic uplift and sculpting by millions of years of erosion. Scattered cumulus clouds floating above the mountain peaks are visible in these images, and stand out most dramatically in the 3-D stereo view.

    To the north of Denver, other urban areas included within these images are Boulder, Greeley, Longmont, and Fort Collins, Colorado; Cheyenne and Laramie, Wyoming; and Scottsbluff, Nebraska.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  6. Form 5-Mining venture agreement model form

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This text acts as a reference of the basic terms and conditions for a negotiated mining venture agreement. Alternative clauses and provisions, along with extensive commentary, are supplied. The model form contains many articles which define and detail the process.

  7. Colloidal thermoresponsive gel forming hybrids.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruixue; Tirelli, Nicola; Cellesi, Francesco; Saunders, Brian R

    2010-09-15

    Colloidal hybrids comprise organic and inorganic components and are attracting considerable attention in the literature. Recently, we reported hybrid anisotropic microsheets that formed thermoresponsive gels in polymer solutions [Liu et al., Langmuir, 25, 490, 2009]. Here, we investigate the composition and properties of these hybrid colloids themselves in detail for the first time. Three different cationic PNIPAm (N-isopropylacrylamide) graft copolymers and two inorganic nanoparticle types (laponite and Ludox silica) were used to prepare a range of hybrids. Anisotropic microsheets only formed when laponite particles were added to the copolymer implying directed self-assembly. Aqueous dispersions of the microsheets spontaneously formed gels at room temperature and these gels were thermoresponsive. They represent a new class of gel forming colloid and are termed thermoresponsive gel forming hybrids. The compositions of the hybrids were determined from thermogravimetric analysis and those that gave gel forming behaviour identified. Variable-temperature rheology experiments showed that the elasticity of the gels increased linearly with temperature. The reversibility of the thermally-triggered changes in gel elasticity was investigated. The concentration dependence of the rheology data was well described by elastic percolation scaling theory and the data could be collapsed onto a master curve. The concentration exponent for the elastic modulus was 2.5. The strong attractive interactions that exist between the dispersed gel forming hybrids was demonstrated by the formation of stable thermoresponsive hybrid hydrogels through casting of hybrid dispersions. PMID:20561633

  8. Handbook of Poetic Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Ron, Ed.

    Intended for secondary teachers and student writers but useful for anyone interested in poetic forms, this book defines 74 basic poetic forms, summarizes their histories, quotes examples from noted poets, and offers professional tricks of the trade on how to use each form. The book covers the following poetic forms: abstract poem, acrostic,…

  9. Bacteria form tellurium nanocrystals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oremland, R.S.

    2007-01-01

    A team of researchers have found two bacterial species that produce tellurium oxyanions as respiratory electron acceptors for growth, leaving elemental tellurium in the form of nanoparticles. The crystals from the two organisms exhibit distinctively different structures. Bacillus selenitireducens initially forms nanorods that cluster together to form rosettes. Sulfurospirillum barnesii forms irregularly-shaped nanospheres that coalesce into larger composite aggregates.

  10. Short-Range Structure of Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Higinbotham, Douglas W.

    2008-10-13

    The nucleons in a nucleus can form short-range correlated pairs. A recent Jefferson Lab electron scattering experiment, where a proton was knocked-out of the nucleus with high momentum transfer and high missing momentum, has shown that in {sup 12}C the neutron-proton pairs are nearly twenty times as prevalent as proton-proton pairs and, by inference, neutron-neutron pairs. This difference between the types of pairs has been shown to be due to the short-range tensor part of the nucleon-nucleon interaction.

  11. Sequential ranging: How it works

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baugh, Harold W.

    1993-01-01

    This publication is directed to the users of data from the Sequential Ranging Assembly (SRA), and to others who have a general interest in range measurements. It covers the hardware, the software, and the processes used in acquiring range data; it does not cover analytical aspects such as the theory of modulation, detection, noise spectral density, and other highly technical subjects. In other words, it covers how ranging is done, but not the details of why it works. The publication also includes an appendix that gives a brief discussion of PN ranging, a capability now under development.

  12. Automatic laser tracking and ranging system.

    PubMed

    Cooke, C R

    1972-02-01

    An automatic laser tracking and ranging system has been developed for use with cooperative retroreflective targets. Target position is determined with high precision at ranges out to 19 km and sample rates up to one hundred measurements per second. The data are recorded on a magnetic tape in the form of azimuth, elevation, range, and standard time and are computer-compatible. The system is fully automatic with the exception of the initial acquisition sequence, which is performed manually. This eliminates the need for expensive and time-consuming photographic data reduction. Also, position is uniquely determined by a single instrument. To provide convenient operation at remote sites, the system is van-mounted and operates off a portable power generator. The transmitter is a flash-pumped Q-spoiled Nd:YAG laser developing 1 MW peak power in a 10-mrad beam at a rate of 100 pps. The beam, which is coaxial with the receiver, is directed to the target by an azimuth-elevation mirror mount. The return beam is imaged o separate ranging and tracking receivers. The ranging receiver measures time of flight of the 25-nsec laser pulse with range accuracies of +/-15 cm. The tracking receiver uses a quadrant photodiode followed by matched log video amplifiers and achieves a tracking accuracy of +/-0.1 mrad. An optical dynamic range of 30 dB is provided to minimize error due to scintillation. Also, 80 dB of optical dynamic range is provided by adjustable neutral density filters to compensate for changes in target range. PMID:20111495

  13. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Chielo, Leonard Ikenna; Pike, Tom; Cooper, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources). These were: apron (0-10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments); enriched belt (10-50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided); and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture). Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND) of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower temperatures and increasing relative humidity, though use of apron and enriched belt was not affected by variation in these measures. These data support previous findings that outer range areas tend to be

  14. Extended inertial range phenomenology of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthaeus, William H.; Zhou, YE

    1989-01-01

    A phenomenological treatment of the inertial range of isotropic statistically steady magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is presented, extending the theory of Kraichnan (1965). The role of Alfven wave propagation is treated on equal footing with nonlinear convection, leading to a simple generalization of the relations between the times characteristic of wave propagation, convection, energy transfer, and decay of triple correlations. The theory leads to a closed-form steady inertial range spectral law that reduces to the Kraichnan and Kolmogorov laws in appropriate limits. The Kraichnan constant is found to be related in a simple way to the Kolmogorov constant; for typical values of the latter constant, the former has values in the range 1.22-1.87. Estimates of the time scale associated with spectral transfer of energy also emerge from the new approach, generalizing previously presented 'golden rules' for relating the spectral transfer time scale to the Alfven and eddy-turnover time scales.

  15. Transverse ranges and neotectonics of southern California

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    The Transverse Ranges and the east-trending folds and reverse faults that elevate them began forming in mid-Pleistocene time by regional north-south crustal shortening. The adjacent Mojave Desert and Basin and Range provinces continue to respond to this regional strain by east-west crustal extension. Before {approximately}5 Ma the regional structure was characterized by conjugate northwest-trending right-slip faults (San Andreas set) and northeast-trending left-slip faults (Garlock set). Thereafter, the San Andreas set of faults became simple shears separating the North American and Pacific plates. With the mid-Pleistocene inception of the Transverse Ranges, the San Andreas fault deviated from its N40{degree} - 45{degree}W trend in short N75{degree}W-trending segments on the north and south sides of these mountains in response to the new, and local, strain system of upward crustal extension.

  16. Forms of Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Forms of Arthritis Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents Today, ... of Linda Saisselin Osteoarthritis (OA) — the form of arthritis typically occurring during middle or old age, this ...

  17. Forms of Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... stiffness, inflammation, swelling and, sometimes, destruction of joints. Gout — a form of arthritis that occurs when uric ... the joints. Some 2.1 million Americans have gout. Lupus — a form of arthritis, like rheumatoid arthritis, ...

  18. Glasses formed by hypervelocity impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoeffler, D.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents description, classification, and geological setting of impact glasses, which are formed as a result of meteorite impacts with the planetary surface, and discusses the impact-glass formation process in the context of cratering mechanics. Impact glasses can be classified as belonging to two major groups: (1) mineral glasses, which are identical in composition to a mineral, and (2) rock glasses, which have the composition of a rock or a mixture of various rocks. Rock glasses may be (1) melt ejecta, (2) parts of a coherent melt layer inside the crater cavity, or (3) dikes or veins. The composition of rock glasses at a particular crater can be matched by that of the target. In nonporous rocks, the formation of rock glasses requires peak pressures in excess of 60-80 GPa, while mineral glasses are formed in the pressure range of about 25 to 55 GPa; in porous rocks, interstitial glass forms at pressures as low as 5 GPa.

  19. The lunar laser ranging experiment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, P. L.; Currie, D. G.; Poultney, S. K.; Dicke, R. H.; Eckhardt, D. H.; Kaula, W. M.; Mulholland, J. D.; Plotkin, H. H.; Silverberg, E. C.; Faller, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    The scientific objectives achievable through high-accuracy range measurements to lunar retroreflectors are considered. A specific study of design questions related to the operation of retroreflectors on the lunar surface indicated that a reflector panel containing a number of solid fused silica corner reflectors would be capable of maintaining essentially diffraction limited performance under direct solar illumination. Initial Apollo 11 observations are discussed together with the installation of additional lunar retroreflectors in connection with the Luna 17, Apollo 14, Apollo 15, and Luna 21 missions. Range measurements at the McDonald Observatory are considered along with new results from lunar range data, and prospects regarding future lunar ranging stations.

  20. Short-range/Long-range Integrated Target (SLIT) for Video Guidance Sensor Rendezvous and Docking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roe, Fred D. (Inventor); Bryan, Thomas C. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A laser target reflector assembly for mounting upon spacecraft having a long-range reflector array formed from a plurality of unfiltered light reflectors embedded in an array pattern upon a hemispherical reflector disposed upon a mounting plate. The reflector assembly also includes a short-range reflector array positioned upon the mounting body proximate to the long-range reflector array. The short-range reflector array includes three filtered light reflectors positioned upon extensions from the mounting body. The three filtered light reflectors retro-reflect substantially all incident light rays that are transmissive by their monochromatic filters and received by the three filtered light reflectors. In one embodiment the short-range reflector array is embedded within the hemispherical reflector,

  1. Mesonic Form Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Frederic D. R. Bonnet; Robert G. Edwards; George T. Fleming; Randal Lewis; David Richards

    2003-07-22

    We have started a program to compute the electromagnetic form factors of mesons. We discuss the techniques used to compute the pion form factor and present preliminary results computed with domain wall valence fermions on MILC asqtad lattices, as well as Wilson fermions on quenched lattices. These methods can easily be extended to rho-to-gamma-pi transition form factors.

  2. Method for forming ammonia

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C.; Pink, Robert J.; Zuck, Larry D.

    2008-08-19

    A method for forming ammonia is disclosed and which includes the steps of forming a plasma; providing a source of metal particles, and supplying the metal particles to the plasma to form metal nitride particles; and providing a substance, and reacting the metal nitride particles with the substance to produce ammonia, and an oxide byproduct.

  3. Forms in Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Paula

    1998-01-01

    Uses the work of M. C. Escher to instruct upper elementary students in the transformation of flat shape into three-dimensional form. Outlines the lesson as a series of sections: (1) reviewing form drawing; (2) creating three-dimensional effects; (3) imagining the forms in an inhabited world; and (4) using color and shading. (DSK)

  4. Range Restriction and Attenuation Corrections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumford, Michael D.; Mendoza, Jorge L.

    The present paper reviews the techniques commonly used to correct an observed correlation coefficient for the simultaneous influence of attenuation and range restriction effects. It is noted that the procedure which is currently in use may be somewhat biased because it treats range restriction and attenuation as independent restrictive influences.…

  5. Institutional Long-Range Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolin, John G.

    This booklet presents a general outline for conducting a long-range planning study that can be adapted for use by any institution of higher education. The basic components of an effective long-range plan should include: (1) purposes of the plan, which define the scope of the study and provide the setting in which it will be initiated; (2) a set of…

  6. Extended range chemical sensing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hughes, Robert C.; Schubert, W. Kent

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for sensing chemicals over extended range of concentrations. In particular, first and second sensors each having separate, but overlapping ranges for sensing concentrations of hydrogen are provided. Preferably, the first sensor is a MOS solid state device wherein the metal electrode or gate is a nickel alloy. The second sensor is a chemiresistor comprising a nickel alloy.

  7. Extended range chemical sensing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hughes, R.C.; Schubert, W.K.

    1994-01-18

    An apparatus is described for sensing chemicals over extended range of concentrations. In particular, first and second sensors each having separate, but overlapping ranges for sensing concentrations of hydrogen are provided. Preferably, the first sensor is a MOS solid state device wherein the metal electrode or gate is a nickel alloy. The second sensor is a chemiresistor comprising a nickel alloy. 6 figures.

  8. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Chielo, Leonard Ikenna; Pike, Tom; Cooper, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Commercial free-range production has become a significant sector of the fresh egg market due to legislation banning conventional cages and consumer preference for products perceived as welfare friendly, as access to outdoor range can lead to welfare benefits such as greater freedom of movement and enhanced behavioural opportunities. This study investigated dispersal patterns, feather condition and activity of laying hens in three distinct zones of the range area; the apron area near shed; enriched zone 10–50 m from shed; and outer range beyond 50 m, in six flocks of laying hens under commercial free-range conditions varying in size between 4000 and 24,000 hens. Each flock was visited for four days to record number of hens in each zone, their behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distances (NND), as well as record temperature and relative humidity during the visit. Temperature and relative humidity varied across the study period in line with seasonal variations and influenced the use of range with fewer hens out of shed as temperature fell or relative humidity rose. On average, 12.5% of the hens were observed on the range and most of these hens were recorded in the apron zone as hen density decreased rapidly with increasing distance from the shed. Larger flocks appeared to have a lower proportion of hens on range. The hens used the range more in the early morning followed by a progressive decrease through to early afternoon. The NND was greatest in the outer range and decreased towards the shed. Feather condition was generally good and hens observed in the outer range had the best overall feather condition. Standing, pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded behaviours and of these, standing occurred most in the apron whereas walking and foraging behaviours were recorded most in the outer range. This study supported the findings of previous studies that reported few hens in the range and greater use of areas closer

  9. [Close-range retinoscopy using integrated optic range finding].

    PubMed

    Kulnig, W

    1983-12-01

    A new type of retinoscope is described which permits all the theoretical advantages of close-range retinoscopy to be exploited in practice thanks to an integrated rangefinder which employs the coincident-image principle. PMID:6668884

  10. Methods of forming steel

    DOEpatents

    Branagan, Daniel J.; Burch, Joseph V.

    2001-01-01

    In one aspect, the invention encompasses a method of forming a steel. A metallic glass is formed and at least a portion of the glass is converted to a crystalline steel material having a nanocrystalline scale grain size. In another aspect, the invention encompasses another method of forming a steel. A molten alloy is formed and cooled the alloy at a rate which forms a metallic glass. The metallic glass is devitrified to convert the glass to a crystalline steel material having a nanocrystalline scale grain size. In yet another aspect, the invention encompasses another method of forming a steel. A first metallic glass steel substrate is provided, and a molten alloy is formed over the first metallic glass steel substrate to heat and devitrify at least some of the underlying metallic glass of the substrate.

  11. Range indices of geomagnetic activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuart, W.F.; Green, A.W., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The simplest index of geomagnetic activity is the range in nT from maximum to minimum value of the field in a given time interval. The hourly range R was recommended by IAGA for use at observatories at latitudes greater than 65??, but was superceded by AE. The most used geomagnetic index K is based on the range of activity in a 3 h interval corrected for the regular daily variation. In order to take advantage of real time data processing, now available at many observatories, it is proposed to introduce a 1 h range index and also a 3 h range index. Both will be computed hourly, i.e. each will have a series of 24 per day, the 3 h values overlapping. The new data will be available as the range (R) of activity in nT and also as a logarithmic index (I) of the range. The exponent relating index to range in nT is based closely on the scale used for computing K values. The new ranges and range indices are available, from June 1987, to users in real time and can be accessed by telephone connection or computer network. Their first year of production is regarded as a trial period during which their value to the scientific and commercial communities will be assessed, together with their potential as indicators of regional and global disturbances' and in which trials will be conducted into ways of eliminating excessive bias at quiet times due to the rate of change of the daily variation field. ?? 1988.

  12. Foraging optimally for home ranges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mitchell, Michael S.; Powell, Roger A.

    2012-01-01

    Economic models predict behavior of animals based on the presumption that natural selection has shaped behaviors important to an animal's fitness to maximize benefits over costs. Economic analyses have shown that territories of animals are structured by trade-offs between benefits gained from resources and costs of defending them. Intuitively, home ranges should be similarly structured, but trade-offs are difficult to assess because there are no costs of defense, thus economic models of home-range behavior are rare. We present economic models that predict how home ranges can be efficient with respect to spatially distributed resources, discounted for travel costs, under 2 strategies of optimization, resource maximization and area minimization. We show how constraints such as competitors can influence structure of homes ranges through resource depression, ultimately structuring density of animals within a population and their distribution on a landscape. We present simulations based on these models to show how they can be generally predictive of home-range behavior and the mechanisms that structure the spatial distribution of animals. We also show how contiguous home ranges estimated statistically from location data can be misleading for animals that optimize home ranges on landscapes with patchily distributed resources. We conclude with a summary of how we applied our models to nonterritorial black bears (Ursus americanus) living in the mountains of North Carolina, where we found their home ranges were best predicted by an area-minimization strategy constrained by intraspecific competition within a social hierarchy. Economic models can provide strong inference about home-range behavior and the resources that structure home ranges by offering falsifiable, a priori hypotheses that can be tested with field observations.

  13. Home range analysis using a mechanistic home range model

    SciTech Connect

    Moorcroft, P.R. . Dept. of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology); Lewis, M.A. . Dept. of Mathematics) Crabtree, R.L. . Dept. of Fish and Wildlife Resources)

    1999-07-01

    The traditional models used to characterize animal home ranges have no mechanistic basis underlying their descriptions of space use, and as a result, the analysis of animal home ranges has primarily been a descriptive endeavor. In this paper, the authors characterize coyote (Canis latrans) home range patterns using partial differential equations for expected space use that are formally derived from underlying descriptions of individual movement behavior. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first time that mechanistic models have been used to characterize animal home ranges. The results provide empirical support for a model formulation of movement response to scent marks, and suggest that having relocation data for individuals in adjacent groups is necessary to capture the spatial arrangement of home range boundaries. The authors then show how the model fits can be used to obtain predictions for individual movement and scent marking behavior and to predict changes in home range patterns. More generally, the findings illustrate how mechanistic models permit the development of a predictive theory for the relationship between movement behavior and animal spatial distribution.

  14. Streak camera dynamic range optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedwald, J.D.; Lerche, R.A.

    1987-09-01

    The LLNL optical streak camera is used by the Laser Fusion Program in a wide range of applications. Many of these applications require a large recorded dynamic range. Recent work has focused on maximizing the dynamic range of the streak camera recording system. For our streak cameras, image intensifier saturation limits the upper end of the dynamic range. We have developed procedures to set the image intensifier gain such that the system dynamic range is maximized. Specifically, the gain is set such that a single streak tube photoelectron is recorded with an exposure of about five times the recording system noise. This ensures detection of single photoelectrons, while not consuming intensifier or recording system dynamic range through excessive intensifier gain. The optimum intensifier gain has been determined for two types of film and for a lens-coupled CCD camera. We have determined that by recording the streak camera image with a CCD camera, the system is shot-noise limited up to the onset of image intensifier nonlinearity. When recording on film, the film determines the noise at high exposure levels. There is discussion of the effects of slit width and image intensifier saturation on dynamic range. 8 refs.

  15. The eclipse of species ranges.

    PubMed

    Hemerik, Lia; Hengeveld, Rob; Lippe, Ernst

    2006-01-01

    This paper distinguishes four recognisably different geographical processes in principle causing species to die out. One of these processes, the one we dub "range eclipse", holds that one range expands at the expense of another one, thereby usurping it. Channell and Lomolino (2000a, Journal of Biogeography 27: 169-179; 2000b, Nature 403: 84-87; see also Lomolino and Channell, 1995, Journal of Mammalogy 76: 335-347) measured the course of this process in terms of the proportion of the total range remaining in its original centre, thereby essentially assuming a homogeneous distribution of animals over the range. However, part of their measure seems mistaken. By giving a general, analytical formulation of eclipsing ranges, we estimate the exact course of this process. Also, our formulation does not partition a range into two spatially equal parts, its core and its edge, but it assumes continuity. For applying this model to data on the time evolution of species, individual time series should be available for each of them. For practical purposes we give an alternative way of plotting and interpreting such time series. Our approach, being more sensitive than Channell and Lomolino's, gives a less optimistic indication of range eclipses than theirs once these have started. PMID:17318329

  16. Passive ranging using a single IR sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey, W.; Gobel, R.W.; Draper, J.S.

    1994-12-31

    As current defense system architectures change and downsize there is a need to accomplish more with each sensors capability. Desert Storm`s missile to aircraft and missile to missile engagements elevated the need to better cope with early and stealthy assessment of the adversaries location while providing minimal compromise to the operator. The use of stealth vehicles introduces a requirement to deploy sensors that silently assess tactical and theater issues [battle damage assessment (BDA) and theater missile defense (TMD)] without preengagement detection. IR sensor system development and high speed, parallel, distributed processing make practical the implementation of compact passive ranging packages aboard satellites and aircraft. Here, single IR Sensor Passive Ranging from an observer to a target embedded in the atmosphere exploits the effect of atmospheric attenuation of the signal. By judicious choice of wavebands the range and altitude to a target can be determined passively with a single observer. This result will be shown to be relatively insensitive to assumed atmospheric models or precise source spectral content. A detailed closed-form solution relating range (and altitude) to observed target intensities will be presented. Previous studies of this type have required either detailed knowledge of the source spectra or spectral resolution of individual rotational lines. The single sensor passive ranging methodology requires no such detailed information.

  17. Alternative wavelengths for laser ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamal, Karel

    1993-01-01

    The following are considered to be necessary to accomplish multicolor laser ranging: the nature of the atmospheric dispersion and absorption, the satellite/lunar/ground retro-array characteristics, and ground/satellite ranging machine performance. The energy balance and jitter budget have to be considered as well. It is concluded that the existing satellite/laser retroreflectors seem inadequate for future experiments. The Raman Stokes/Anti-Stokes (0.68/0.43 micron) plus solid state detector appear to be promising instrumentation that satisfy the ground/satellite and satellite/ground ranging machine requirements on the precision, compactness, and data processing.

  18. GPS test range mission planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Iris P.; Hancock, Thomas P.

    The principal features of the Test Range User Mission Planner (TRUMP), a PC-resident tool designed to aid in deploying and utilizing GPS-based test range assets, are reviewed. TRUMP features time history plots of time-space-position information (TSPI); performance based on a dynamic GPS/inertial system simulation; time history plots of TSPI data link connectivity; digital terrain elevation data maps with user-defined cultural features; and two-dimensional coverage plots of ground-based test range assets. Some functions to be added during the next development phase are discussed.

  19. 43 CFR 3927.10 - Lease form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lease form. 3927.10 Section 3927.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) OIL SHALE LEASING Lease Terms § 3927.10 Lease form....

  20. The dynamic range of LZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, J.

    2016-02-01

    The electronics of the LZ experiment, the 7-tonne dark matter detector to be installed at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF), is designed to permit studies of physics where the energies deposited range from 1 keV of nuclear-recoil energy up to 3,000 keV of electron-recoil energy. The system is designed to provide a 70% efficiency for events that produce three photoelectrons in the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). This corresponds approximately to the lowest energy threshold achievable in multi-tonne time-projection chambers, and drives the noise specifications for the front end. The upper limit of the LZ dynamic range is defined to accommodate the electroluminescence (S2) signals. The low-energy channels of the LZ amplifiers provide the dynamic range required for the tritium and krypton calibrations. The high-energy channels provide the dynamic range required to measure the activated Xe lines.

  1. Intentionally Short Range Communications (ISRC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, J.; Poirier, P.; Obrien, M. E.; Gibeson, L.

    1993-05-01

    This document details the feasibility studies conducted for the Intentionally Short Range Communications (ISRC) project. The short-range limitation arises from the need for low probability of intercept (LPI), low probability of detection (LPD) communication links. The detection of an undecipherable transmission would still provide an enemy with information regarding transmitter location. The technologies being studied are ultraviolet (UV) lamps, UV lasers, infrared (IR) lasers, millimeter waves (MMW), and direct sequence spread spectrum.

  2. Accounting Forms. Instructor's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Itter, Pat

    Supporting performance objective of the 16 V-TECS (Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States) Bookkeeper Catalog, this instructor's manual contains copies of accounting forms which can be used to make spirit masters or transparencies. (This module is the first in a set of ten on bookkeeping [CE 019 480-489].) Twenty forms grouped under…

  3. Method of forming nanodielectrics

    DOEpatents

    Tuncer, Enis [Knoxville, TN; Polyzos, Georgios [Oak Ridge, TN

    2014-01-07

    A method of making a nanoparticle filled dielectric material. The method includes mixing nanoparticle precursors with a polymer material and reacting the nanoparticle mixed with the polymer material to form nanoparticles dispersed within the polymer material to form a dielectric composite.

  4. Long-range interaction of anisotropic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.-Y.; Schwingenschlögl, U.

    2015-02-01

    The first-order electrostatic interaction energy between two far-apart anisotropic atoms depends not only on the distance between them but also on their relative orientation, according to Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory. Using the first-order interaction energy and the continuum model, we study the long-range interaction between a pair of parallel pristine graphene sheets at zero temperature. The asymptotic form of the obtained potential density, \\varepsilon(D) \\propto -D-3-O(D-4) , is consistent with the random phase approximation and Lifshitz theory. Accordingly, neglectance of the anisotropy, especially the nonzero first-order interaction energy, is the reason why the widely used Lennard-Jones potential approach and dispersion corrections in density functional theory give a wrong asymptotic form \\varepsilon(D) \\propto -D-4 .

  5. Method for forming materials

    DOEpatents

    Tolle, Charles R.; Clark, Denis E.; Smartt, Herschel B.; Miller, Karen S.

    2009-10-06

    A material-forming tool and a method for forming a material are described including a shank portion; a shoulder portion that releasably engages the shank portion; a pin that releasably engages the shoulder portion, wherein the pin defines a passageway; and a source of a material coupled in material flowing relation relative to the pin and wherein the material-forming tool is utilized in methodology that includes providing a first material; providing a second material, and placing the second material into contact with the first material; and locally plastically deforming the first material with the material-forming tool so as mix the first material and second material together to form a resulting material having characteristics different from the respective first and second materials.

  6. Range gating experiments through a scattering media

    SciTech Connect

    Payton, J.; Cverna, F.; Gallegos, R.; McDonald, T.; Numkena, D.; Obst, A.; Pena-Abeyta, C.; Yates, G.

    1998-12-31

    This paper discusses range-gated imaging experiments performed recently at Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama. Range gating is an imaging technique that uses a pulsed laser and gated camera to image objects at specific ranges. The technique can be used for imaging through scattering media such as dense smoke or fog. Range gating uses the fact that light travels at 3 x 10{sup 8} m/s. Knowing the speed of light the authors can calculate the time it will take the laser light to travel a known distance, then gate open a Micro Channel Plate Image Intensifier (MCPII) at the time the reflected light returns from the target. In the Redstone experiment the gate width on the MCPII was set to equal the laser pulse width ({approximately} 8 ns) for the highest signal to noise ratio. The gate allows the light reflected form the target and a small portion of the light reflected from the smoke in the vicinity of the target to be imaged. They obtained good results in light and medium smoke but the laser they were used did not have sufficient intensity to penetrate the thickest smoke. They did not diverge the laser beam to cover the entire target in order to maintain a high flux that would achieve better penetration through the smoke. They were able to image an Armored Personnel Carrier (APC) through light and medium smoke but they were not able to image the APC through heavy smoke. The experiment and results are presented.

  7. Range Imaging for Underwater Vision Enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Rish, J.W.; Blume, B.; Nellums, B.; Sackos, J.; Foster, J.; Wood, J.L.

    1999-04-19

    This paper presents results from a series of preliminary tests to evaluate a scannerless range-imaging device as a potential sensory enhancement tool for divers and as a potential identification sensor for deployment on small unmanned underwater vehicles. The device, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, forms an image on the basis of point-to-point range to the target rather than an intensity map. The range image is constructed through a classical continuous wave phase detection technique in which the light source is amplitude modulated at radio frequencies. The receiver incorporates a gain-modulated image intensifier, and range information is calculated on the basis of the phase difference between the transmitted and reflected signal. The initial feasibility test at the Coastal Systems Station showed the device to be effective at imaging low-contrast underwater targets such as concertina wire. It also demonstrated success at imaging a 21-inch sphere at a depth of 10 feet in the water column through a wavy air-water interface.

  8. NASA Satellite Laser Ranging Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, David L.

    2004-01-01

    I will be participating in the International Workshop on Laser Ranging. I will be presenting to the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) general body meeting on the recent accomplishments and status of the NASA Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) Network. The recent accomplishments and NASA's future plans will be outlined and the benefits to the scientific community will be addressed. I am member of the ILRS governing board, the Missions working group, and the Networks & Engineering working group. I am the chairman of the Missions Working and will be hosting a meeting during the week of the workshop. I will also represent the NASA SLR program at the ILRS governing board and other working group meetings.

  9. APOLLO: millimeter lunar laser ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, T. W., Jr.; Adelberger, E. G.; Battat, J. B. R.; Hoyle, C. D.; Johnson, N. H.; McMillan, R. J.; Stubbs, C. W.; Swanson, H. E.

    2012-09-01

    Lunar laser ranging (LLR) has for decades stood at the forefront of tests of gravitational physics, including tests of the equivalence principle (EP). Current LLR results on the EP achieve a sensitivity of Δa/a ≈ 10-13 based on few-centimeter data/model fidelity. A recent push in LLR, called APOLLO (the Apache Point Observatory Lunar Laser-ranging Operation) produces millimeter-quality data. This paper demonstrates the few-millimeter range precision achieved by APOLLO, leading to an expectation that LLR will be able to extend EP sensitivity by an order-of-magnitude to Δa/a ˜ 10-14, once modeling efforts improve to this level.

  10. Laser system of extended range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehr, C. G.

    1972-01-01

    A pulsed laser system was developed for range measurements from the earth to retroreflecting satellites at distances up to that of the moon. The system has a transportable transmitter unit that can be moved from one location to another. This unit consists of a 0.2 m coude refractor and a high radiance, neodymium-glass, frequency doubled laser that operates in a single transverse mode. It can be used for lunar or distant satellite ranging at any observatory that has a telescope with an aperture diameter of about 1.5 m for the detection of the laser return pulses. This telescope is utilized in the same manner customarily employed for the observation of celestial objects. A special photometric package and the associated electronics are provided for laser ranging.

  11. Wide range magnetic electron spectrograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coplan, M. A.; Wang, L.-J.; Moore, J. H.; Hoffman, R. A.

    1989-01-01

    An electron spectrogrpah is described that covers electron energies from 400 eV to 200 keV with an energy resolution of 10 percent. This overlaps the range of electrostatic deflection devices at low energy and solid state detectors at high energy. The spectrograph uses magnetic deflection of the electrons to achieve energy separation and images the full range of energies on a single plane. The magnetic circuit uses the fringing field of two axially located magnets to attain the large energy range. Six separate electron beams can be dispersed in the field, each entering the circuit from a different angle. This is a particular advantage when measuring plasma electron three-dimensional velocity distributions. The angular response of the instrument is particularly favorable and the stray magnetic field is sufficiently low to meet spacecraft requirements.

  12. The Dynamic Range of LZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jun; LZ Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The electronics of the LZ experiment, the 7-ton dark matter detector to be installed at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF), is designed to provide a 70% efficiency for events that produce three photoelectrons in the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). This corresponds approximately to the lowest energy threshold achievable in such a detector, and drives the noise specifications for the front end. The upper limit of the LZ dynamic range is defined by the electroluminescence (S2) signals. The low-energy channels of the LZ amplifiers provide the dynamic range required for the tritium and krypton calibrations. The high-energy channels provide the dynamic range required to measure the activated Xe lines. S2 signals induced by alpha particles from radon decay will saturate one or more channels of the top PMT array but techniques are being developed to recover the information lost due to saturation. This work was supported by the Department of Energy, Grant DE-SC0006605.

  13. RANGE INCREASER FOR PNEUMATIC GAUGES

    DOEpatents

    Fowler, A.H.; Seaborn, G.B. Jr.

    1960-09-27

    An improved pneumatic gage is offered in which the linear range has been increased without excessive air consumption. This has been accomplished by providing an expansible antechamber connected to the nozzle of the gage so that the position of the nozzle with respect to the workpiece is varied automatically by variation in pressure within the antechamber. This arrangement ensures that the nozzle-to-workpiece clearance is maintained within certain limits, thus obtaining a linear relation of air flow to nozzle-to-workpiece clearance over a wider range.

  14. Spin forming development

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, W.G.

    1982-05-01

    Bendix product applications require the capability of fabricating heavy gage, high strength materials. Five commercial sources have been identified that have the capability of spin forming metal thicknesses greater than 9.5 mm and four equiment manufacturers produce machines with this capability. Twelve assemblies selected as candidates for spin forming applications require spin forming of titanium, 250 maraging steel, 17-4 pH stainless steel, Nitronic 40 steel, 304 L stainless steel, and 6061 aluminum. Twelve parts have been cold spin formed from a 250 maraging steel 8.1 mm wall thickness machine preform, and six have been hot spin formed directly from 31.8-mm-thick flat plate. Thirty-three Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy parts and 26 17-4 pH stainless steel parts have been hot spin formed directly from 31.8-mm-thick plate. Hot spin forming directly from plate has demonstrated the feasibility and favorable economics of this fabrication technique for Bendix applications.

  15. Back Home on the Range.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breining, Greg

    1992-01-01

    Presents the history of the buffalo's demise and reemergence in the United States and Canada. Discusses the problems facing herds today caused by a small genetic pool, disease, range concerns, lack of predation, and culling. Points out the benefits of buffalo raising as compared to cattle raising, including the marketing advantages. (MCO)

  16. Anatomy of a Mountain Range.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chew, Berkeley

    1993-01-01

    Provides written tour of Colorado Rockies along San Juan Skyway in which the geological features and formation of the mountain range is explored. Discusses evidence of geologic forces and products such as plate tectonic movement and the Ancestral Rockies; subduction and the Laramide Orogeny; volcanism and calderas; erosion, faulting, land…

  17. Long range fast tool servo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorefield, G. M., II; Dow, Thomas A.; Falter, Karl J.; Ro, Paul I.

    1993-05-01

    The PEC's MAC 100 Fast Tool Servo (FTS) System has demonstrated the efficacy of fabricating off-axis parabolic segments on axis by utilizing a fast tool motion to machine non-rotationally symmetric surfaces. The key to this technique was a servo for the tool motion that had a high-bandwidth coupled with a small range of motion. The Keck telescope, with its thirty-six (36) 1-meter diameter segments, would have been an excellent application for this technology. Since this technology was not available at the time of construction, each mirror segment was fabricated to its desired shape by loading it to a specified deformed shape and polishing it to a spherical contour, then removing the bending loads to allow the segment to relax to the desired asymmetric shape. If the segments of this optic had been constructed on axis with an FTS, the fabrication of the most extreme segment would have required only about 200 micrometers of non-rotational symmetry. However, the demand for larger displacement actuators is being driven by new applications with nonrotationally symmetric components in the millimeter range. This report describes the search for a suitable actuator for a long range fast tool servo system that would allow the fabrication of non-rotationally symmetric optical surfaces with a 1 mm range of servo motion. To allow cost-effective machining of these surfaces, the actuator must also possess a 50 Hz bandwidth (minimum) and 25 nanometer resolution.

  18. Wide Dynamic Range CCD Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younse, J. M.; Gove, R. J.; Penz, P. A.; Russell, D. E.

    1984-11-01

    A liquid crystal attenuator (LCA) operated as a variable neutral density filter has been attached to a charge-coupled device (CCD) imager to extend the dynamic range of a solid-state TV camera by an order of magnitude. Many applications are best served by a camera with a dynamic range of several thousand. For example, outside security systems must operate unattended with "dawn-to-dusk" lighting conditions. Although this can be achieved with available auto-iris lens assemblies, more elegant solutions which provide the small size, low power, high reliability advantages of solid state technology are now available. This paper will describe one such unique way of achieving these dynamic ranges using standard optics by making the CCD imager's glass cover a controllable neutral density filter. The liquid crystal attenuator's structure and theoretical properties for this application will be described along with measured transmittance. A small integrated TV camera which utilizes a "virtual-phase" CCD sensor coupled to a LCA will be described and test results for a number of the camera's optical and electrical parameters will be given. These include the following camera parameters: dynamic range, Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), spectral response, and uniformity. Also described will be circuitry which senses the ambient scene illuminance and automatically provides feedback signals to appropriately adjust the transmittance of the LCA. Finally, image photographs using this camera, under various scene illuminations, will be shown.

  19. Mobile Lunar Laser Ranging Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Intellect, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Harlan Smith, chairman of the University of Texas's Astronomy Department, discusses a mobile lunar laser ranging station which could help determine the exact rates of movement between continents and help geophysicists understand earthquakes. He also discusses its application for studying fundamental concepts of cosmology and physics. (Editor/RK)

  20. Image forming apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Satoh, Hisao; Haneda, Satoshi; Ikeda, Tadayoshi; Morita, Shizuo; Fukuchi, Masakazu

    1996-01-01

    In an image forming apparatus having a detachable process cartridge in which an image carrier on which an electrostatic latent image is formed, and a developing unit which develops the electrostatic latent image so that a toner image can be formed, both integrally formed into one unit. There is provided a developer container including a discharge section which can be inserted into a supply opening of the developing unit, and a container in which a predetermined amount of developer is contained, wherein the developer container is provided to the toner supply opening of the developing unit and the developer is supplied into the developing unit housing when a toner stirring screw of the developing unit is rotated.

  1. Handprinted Forms and Characters

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Handprinted Forms and Characters (PC database for purchase)   NIST Special Database 19 contains NIST's entire corpus of training materials for handprinted document and character recognition. It supersedes NIST Special Databases 3 and 7.

  2. Shell forming system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, Jr., James M. (Inventor); Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor); Elleman, Daniel D. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Hollow shells of high uniformity are formed by emitting liquid through an outer nozzle and gas through an inner nozzle, to form a hollow extrusion, by flowing the gas at a velocity between about 1.3 and 10 times the liquid velocity. The natural breakup rate of the extrusion can be increased to decrease shell size by applying periodic perturbations to one of the materials prior to exiting the nozzles, to a nozzle, or to the extrusion.

  3. Composite hot drape forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Thomas

    1994-02-01

    This program was initiated to replace labor-intensive ply-by-ply layup of composite I-beam posts and angle stiffeners used in the Space Station Freedom (SSF) rack structure. Hot drape forming (HDF) has been successfully implemented by BCAG for 777 composite I-stringers and by Bell Helicopter/Textron for the V-22 I-stingers. The two companies utilize two vastly different approaches to the I-beam fabrication process. A drape down process is used by Bell Helicopter where the compacted ply charge is placed on top of a forming mandrel and heated. When the heated ply charge reached a set temperature, vacuum pressure is applied and the plies are formed over the mandrel. The BCAG 777 process utilizes an inverted forming process where the ply stack is placed on a forming table and the mandrel is inverted and placed upon the ply stack. A heating and vacuum bladder underneath the ply stack form the play stack up onto the mandrels after reaching the temperature setpoint. Both methods have their advantages, but the drape down process was selected for SSF because it was more versatile and could be fabricated from readily available components.

  4. Composite hot drape forming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    This program was initiated to replace labor-intensive ply-by-ply layup of composite I-beam posts and angle stiffeners used in the Space Station Freedom (SSF) rack structure. Hot drape forming (HDF) has been successfully implemented by BCAG for 777 composite I-stringers and by Bell Helicopter/Textron for the V-22 I-stingers. The two companies utilize two vastly different approaches to the I-beam fabrication process. A drape down process is used by Bell Helicopter where the compacted ply charge is placed on top of a forming mandrel and heated. When the heated ply charge reached a set temperature, vacuum pressure is applied and the plies are formed over the mandrel. The BCAG 777 process utilizes an inverted forming process where the ply stack is placed on a forming table and the mandrel is inverted and placed upon the ply stack. A heating and vacuum bladder underneath the ply stack form the play stack up onto the mandrels after reaching the temperature setpoint. Both methods have their advantages, but the drape down process was selected for SSF because it was more versatile and could be fabricated from readily available components.

  5. Ultralong-range polyatomic Rydberg molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Ferez, Rosario

    2016-05-01

    Ultralong-range polyatomic Rydberg molecules are formed when a ground-state atom is bound to a Rydberg atom. The binding mechanism of these Rydberg molecules is based on the low-energy collisions between a Rydberg electron and a ground-state atom and leads to the unusual oscillatory behavior of the adiabatic potential energy curves. If the ground-state atom immersed into the Rydberg wave function is replaced by a heteronuclear diatomic molecule another type of polyatomic Rydberg molecules can form. In this case, the Rydberg electron is coupled to the internal states of the polar ground-state molecule. In this talk, we will explore the electronic structure and rovibrational properties of these ultralong-range polyatomic Rydberg molecule. For the second type of Rydberg molecules, the polar dimer is allowed to rotate in the electric fields generated by the Rydberg electron and Rydberg core as well as an additional external field. We will investigate the metamorphosis of the Born-Oppenheimer potential curves, essential for the binding mechanism, with varying electric field and analyze the resulting properties such as the vibrational structure and the alignment and orientation of the polar dimer.

  6. Method and apparatus for coherent burst ranging

    DOEpatents

    Wachter, Eric A.; Fisher, Walter G.

    1998-01-01

    A high resolution ranging method is described utilizing a novel modulated waveform, hereafter referred to as coherent burst modulation. In the coherent burst method, high frequency modulation of an acoustic or electromagnetic transmitter, such as a laser, is performed at a modulation frequency. This modulation frequency is transmitted quasi-continuously in the form of interrupted bursts of radiation. Energy from the transmitter is directed onto a target, interacts with the target, and the returning energy is collected. The encoded burst pattern contained in the collected return signal is detected coherently by a receiver that is tuned so as to be principally sensitive to the modulation frequency. The receiver signal is processed to determine target range using both time-of-flight of the burst envelope and phase shift of the high frequency modulation. This approach effectively decouples the maximum unambiguous range and range resolution relationship of earlier methods, thereby allowing high precision ranging to be conducted at arbitrarily long distances using at least one burst of encoded energy. The use of a receiver tuned to the high frequency modulation contained within the coherent burst vastly improves both sensitivity in the detection of the target return signal and rejection of background interferences, such as ambient acoustic or electromagnetic noise. Simultaneous transmission at several energies (or wavelengths) is possible by encoding each energy with a separate modulation frequency or pattern; electronic demodulation at the receiver allows the return pattern for each energy to be monitored independently. Radial velocity of a target can also be determined by monitoring change in phase shift of the return signal as a function of time.

  7. Method and apparatus for coherent burst ranging

    DOEpatents

    Wachter, E.A.; Fisher, W.G.

    1998-04-28

    A high resolution ranging method is described utilizing a novel modulated waveform, hereafter referred to as coherent burst modulation. In the coherent burst method, high frequency modulation of an acoustic or electromagnetic transmitter, such as a laser, is performed at a modulation frequency. This modulation frequency is transmitted quasi-continuously in the form of interrupted bursts of radiation. Energy from the transmitter is directed onto a target, interacts with the target, and the returning energy is collected. The encoded burst pattern contained in the collected return signal is detected coherently by a receiver that is tuned so as to be principally sensitive to the modulation frequency. The receiver signal is processed to determine target range using both time-of-flight of the burst envelope and phase shift of the high frequency modulation. This approach effectively decouples the maximum unambiguous range and range resolution relationship of earlier methods, thereby allowing high precision ranging to be conducted at arbitrarily long distances using at least one burst of encoded energy. The use of a receiver tuned to the high frequency modulation contained within the coherent burst vastly improves both sensitivity in the detection of the target return signal and rejection of background interferences, such as ambient acoustic or electromagnetic noise. Simultaneous transmission at several energies (or wavelengths) is possible by encoding each energy with a separate modulation frequency or pattern; electronic demodulation at the receiver allows the return pattern for each energy to be monitored independently. Radial velocity of a target can also be determined by monitoring change in phase shift of the return signal as a function of time. 12 figs.

  8. Contrails reduce daily temperature range.

    PubMed

    Travis, David J; Carleton, Andrew M; Lauritsen, Ryan G

    2002-08-01

    The potential of condensation trails (contrails) from jet aircraft to affect regional-scale surface temperatures has been debated for years, but was difficult to verify until an opportunity arose as a result of the three-day grounding of all commercial aircraft in the United States in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001. Here we show that there was an anomalous increase in the average diurnal temperature range (that is, the difference between the daytime maximum and night-time minimum temperatures) for the period 11-14 September 2001. Because persisting contrails can reduce the transfer of both incoming solar and outgoing infrared radiation and so reduce the daily temperature range, we attribute at least a portion of this anomaly to the absence of contrails over this period. PMID:12167846

  9. Ultrasonic ranging for the oculometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guy, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    Ultrasonic tracking techniques are investigated for an oculometer. Two methods are reported in detail. The first is based on measurements of time from the start of a transmit burst to a received echo. Knowing the sound velocity, distance can be calculated. In the second method, a continuous signal is transmitted. Target movement causes phase shifting of the echo. By accumulating these phase shifts, tracking from a set point can be achieved. Both systems have problems with contoured targets, but work well on flat plates and the back of a human head. Also briefly reported is an evaluation of an ultrasonic ranging system. Interface circuits make this system compatible with the echo time design. While the system is consistently accurate, it has a beam too narrow for oculometer use. Finally, comments are provided on a tracking system using the Doppler frequency shift to give range data.

  10. Range Expansion of Heterogeneous Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiter, Matthias; Rulands, Steffen; Frey, Erwin

    2014-04-01

    Risk spreading in bacterial populations is generally regarded as a strategy to maximize survival. Here, we study its role during range expansion of a genetically diverse population where growth and motility are two alternative traits. We find that during the initial expansion phase fast-growing cells do have a selective advantage. By contrast, asymptotically, generalists balancing motility and reproduction are evolutionarily most successful. These findings are rationalized by a set of coupled Fisher equations complemented by stochastic simulations.

  11. Range determination for scannerless imaging

    DOEpatents

    Muguira, Maritza Rosa; Sackos, John Theodore; Bradley, Bart Davis; Nellums, Robert

    2000-01-01

    A new method of operating a scannerless range imaging system (e.g., a scannerless laser radar) has been developed. This method is designed to compensate for nonlinear effects which appear in many real-world components. The system operates by determining the phase shift of the laser modulation, which is a physical quantity related physically to the path length between the laser source and the detector, for each pixel of an image.

  12. Range gated strip proximity sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-12-03

    A range gated strip proximity sensor uses one set of sensor electronics and a distributed antenna or strip which extends along the perimeter to be sensed. A micro-power RF transmitter is coupled to the first end of the strip and transmits a sequence of RF pulses on the strip to produce a sensor field along the strip. A receiver is coupled to the second end of the strip, and generates a field reference signal in response to the sequence of pulse on the line combined with received electromagnetic energy from reflections in the field. The sensor signals comprise pulses of radio frequency signals having a duration of less than 10 nanoseconds, and a pulse repetition rate on the order of 1 to 10 MegaHertz or less. The duration of the radio frequency pulses is adjusted to control the range of the sensor. An RF detector feeds a filter capacitor in response to received pulses on the strip line to produce a field reference signal representing the average amplitude of the received pulses. When a received pulse is mixed with a received echo, the mixing causes a fluctuation in the amplitude of the field reference signal, providing a range-limited Doppler type signature of a field disturbance. 6 figs.

  13. Range gated strip proximity sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    A range gated strip proximity sensor uses one set of sensor electronics and a distributed antenna or strip which extends along the perimeter to be sensed. A micro-power RF transmitter is coupled to the first end of the strip and transmits a sequence of RF pulses on the strip to produce a sensor field along the strip. A receiver is coupled to the second end of the strip, and generates a field reference signal in response to the sequence of pulse on the line combined with received electromagnetic energy from reflections in the field. The sensor signals comprise pulses of radio frequency signals having a duration of less than 10 nanoseconds, and a pulse repetition rate on the order of 1 to 10 MegaHertz or less. The duration of the radio frequency pulses is adjusted to control the range of the sensor. An RF detector feeds a filter capacitor in response to received pulses on the strip line to produce a field reference signal representing the average amplitude of the received pulses. When a received pulse is mixed with a received echo, the mixing causes a fluctuation in the amplitude of the field reference signal, providing a range-limited Doppler type signature of a field disturbance.

  14. Medium Range Forecasts Representation (and Long Range Forecasts?)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincendon, J.-C.

    2009-09-01

    The progress of the numerical forecasts urges us to interest us in more and more distant ranges. We thus supply more and more forecasts with term of some days. Nevertheless, precautions of use are necessary to give the most reliable and the most relevant possible information. Available in a TV bulletin or on quite other support (Internet, mobile phone), the interpretation and the representation of a medium range forecast (5 - 15 days) must be different from those of a short range forecast. Indeed, the "foresee-ability” of a meteorological phenomenon decreases gradually in the course of the ranges, it decreases all the more quickly that the phenomenon is of small scale. So, at the end of some days, the probability character of a forecast becomes very widely dominating. That is why in Meteo-France the forecasts of D+4 to D+7 are accompanied with a confidence index since around ten years. It is a figure between 1 and 5: the more we approach 5, the more the confidence in the supplied forecast is good. In the practice, an indication is supplied for period D+4 / D+5, the other one for period D+6 / D+7, every day being able to benefit from a different forecast, that is be represented in a independent way. We thus supply a global tendency over 24 hours with less and less precise symbols as the range goes away. Concrete examples will be presented. From now on two years, we also publish forecasts to D+8 / J+9, accompanied with a sign of confidence (" good reliability " or " to confirm "). These two days are grouped together on a single map because for us, the described tendency to this term is relevant on a duration about 48 hours with a spatial scale slightly superior to the synoptic scale. So, we avoid producing more than two zones of types of weather over France and we content with giving an evolution for the temperatures (still, in increase or in decline). Newspapers began to publish this information, it should soon be the case of televisions. It is particularly

  15. Laser forming process development

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, R.J.

    1996-12-31

    This paper is a summary of the activities performed for the process development of laser thermal forming sheet metal parts in support of rapid prototyping. A 400 watt pulsed Nd:YAG laser and 50 watt desktop CO{sub 2} laser were used during initial process development. Several tool-assisted laser forming approaches were conceived during the development of the process, and simple fixtures for process development/understanding were used throughout all testing. Much of the actual forming was performed with the base material in an unfixtured state. CRES (304) was used for baseline development, but the effort was directed toward forming titanium (e.g., 6Al-4V, 15V-3Cr-3Sn-3Al). Several DOE (i.e., Design of Experiment) techniques were employed during development and a Neural Net Computer Model was conceived for process control. This program was a joint effort in cooperation with the American Welding Society under contract with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). A synopsis of the laser forming process development, future opportunities, and applications are presented.

  16. Exhumation of the Shackleton Range, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucka, Nicole; Lisker, Frank; Läufer, Andreas; Spiegel, Cornelia

    2013-04-01

    The Shackleton Range is situated between 80° - 81°S and 19° - 31°W, where it forms the continuation of the Transantarctic Mountains in the Weddell Sea sector of Antarctica. There, Precambrian igneous and metamorphic basement is overlain by (meta-) sedimentary rocks of an Early Paleozoic nappe stack and post-orogenic red beds. Nappe stacking resulted from the collision of East and West Gondwana due to the closure of the Mozambique Ocean in pan-African times. The uplift and exhumation history of the Shackleton Range has been analysed earlier based on a series of vertical fission track profiles (Schäfer, 1998; Lisker et al., 1999). Zircon ages range from ~160 to 210 Ma while apatite ages between ~95 and ~170 Ma comprise a break in slope of the altitude regression at ~110 Ma, and are accompanied by mean track lengths of 12.7 - 14.1 µm (standard deviation 1.0 - 1.4 µm). These data have been interpreted qualitatively in terms of two cooling/ exhumation stages during Jurassic and mid-Cretaceous times. However, the recognition of Jurassic volcaniclastic rocks associated with the ~180 Ma Ferrar event in the vicinity of the sample locations (Buggisch et al., 1994) challenges this exhumation concept. Moreover, new fission track proxy data (Dpar) and apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He ages between 88 and 171 Ma allow thermal history modelling of the combined thermochronological data. First tentative thermal history models suggest early Mesozoic cooling followed by (post-) Jurassic heating and final cooling since the Late Cretaceous. This scenario requires burial of the Shackleton Range region, and therefore the existence of a sedimentary basin at least during the Jurassic-Early Cretaceous, and subsequent basin inversion. The thickness of the now vanished sedimentary strata did unlikely exceed 2 - 3 km. Future work including additional apatite fission track analyses will help to quantifying geometry, depth and timing of this depocentre and evaluating potential links with the coeval

  17. Invasive ants carry novel viruses in their new range and form reservoirs for a honeybee pathogen.

    PubMed

    Sébastien, Alexandra; Lester, Philip J; Hall, Richard J; Wang, Jing; Moore, Nicole E; Gruber, Monica A M

    2015-09-01

    When exotic animal species invade new environments they also bring an often unknown microbial diversity, including pathogens. We describe a novel and widely distributed virus in one of the most globally widespread, abundant and damaging invasive ants (Argentine ants, Linepithema humile). The Linepithema humile virus 1 is a dicistrovirus, a viral family including species known to cause widespread arthropod disease. It was detected in samples from Argentina, Australia and New Zealand. Argentine ants in New Zealand were also infected with a strain of Deformed wing virus common to local hymenopteran species, which is a major pathogen widely associated with honeybee mortality. Evidence for active replication of viral RNA was apparent for both viruses. Our results suggest co-introduction and exchange of pathogens within local hymenopteran communities. These viral species may contribute to the collapse of Argentine ant populations and offer new options for the control of a globally widespread invader. PMID:26562935

  18. Methods for forming particles

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Robert V.; Zhang, Fengyan; Rodriguez, Rene G.; Pak, Joshua J.; Sun, Chivin

    2016-06-21

    Single source precursors or pre-copolymers of single source precursors are subjected to microwave radiation to form particles of a I-III-VI.sub.2 material. Such particles may be formed in a wurtzite phase and may be converted to a chalcopyrite phase by, for example, exposure to heat. The particles in the wurtzite phase may have a substantially hexagonal shape that enables stacking into ordered layers. The particles in the wurtzite phase may be mixed with particles in the chalcopyrite phase (i.e., chalcopyrite nanoparticles) that may fill voids within the ordered layers of the particles in the wurtzite phase thus produce films with good coverage. In some embodiments, the methods are used to form layers of semiconductor materials comprising a I-III-VI.sub.2 material. Devices such as, for example, thin-film solar cells may be fabricated using such methods.

  19. Wide-range CCD spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolova, Elena A.; Reyes Cortes, Santiago D.

    1996-08-01

    The utilization of wide range spectrometers is a very important feature for the design of optical diagnostics. This paper describes an innovative approach, based on charged coupled device, which allows to analyze different spectral intervals with the same diffraction grating. The spectral interval is varied by changing the position of the entrance slit when the grating is stationary. The optical system can also include a spherical mirror. In this case the geometric position of the mirror is calculated aiming at compensating the first order astigmatism and the meridional coma of the grating. This device is planned to be used in Thomson scattering diagnostic of the TOKAMAK of Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (ISTTOK).

  20. Short Range Correlations in Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    L. B. Weinstein

    2006-11-01

    Short range correlations (SRC) are an extremely important part of nuclear structure. They are responsible for the high momentum part of the nuclear wavefunction. Instantaneous densities can significantly exceed the average neutron star density. Recent (e,e[prime]) measurements at Jefferson Lab have shown that SRC are universal in nuclei from deuterium to gold, that the probability of two-nucleon SRC is 5-25%, and that the probability of three-nucleon SRC is less than 1%. Recent (e,e[prime]pn) measurements have measured the SRC probabilities as a function of proton momentum and have measured the joint NN momentum distributions.

  1. Extended-range tiltable micromirror

    DOEpatents

    Allen, James J.; Wiens, Gloria J.; Bronson, Jessica R.

    2009-05-05

    A tiltable micromirror device is disclosed in which a micromirror is suspended by a progressive linkage with an electrostatic actuator (e.g. a vertical comb actuator or a capacitive plate electrostatic actuator) being located beneath the micromirror. The progressive linkage includes a pair of torsion springs which are connected together to operate similar to a four-bar linkage with spring joints. The progressive linkage provides a non-linear spring constant which can allow the micromirror to be tilted at any angle within its range substantially free from any electrostatic instability or hysteretic behavior.

  2. BENTON RANGE ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, Edwin H.; Rains, Richard L.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey, two parts of the Benton Range Roadless Area, California are considered to have mineral-resource potential. The central and southern part of the roadless area, near several nonoperating mines, has a probable potential for tungsten and gold-silver mineralization in tactite zones. The central part of the area has a substantiated resource potential for gold and silver in quartz veins. Detailed mapping and geochemical sampling for tungsten, gold, and silver in the central and southern part of the roadless area might indicate targets for shallow drilling exploration.

  3. Long-range atmospheric predictability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichler, Thomas Josef

    This study investigated the prospects and limits of global atmospheric predictability on the long range (beyond 2 weeks). Forecasting the atmosphere at this range is very challenging since elements of both weather and climate prediction enter the problem. The basic questions were: (1) how large is long-range predictability with perfect model and data; (2) how sensitive is such predictability to uncertainties in model and data; (3) which atmospheric processes are related to this predictability? These questions were answered through numerical experiments with an atmospheric general circulation model which is forced with different combinations of initial and boundary conditions. In particular, four tasks were accomplished: First, temporal variations of predictability and its relationship to initial and boundary conditions were examined. On average, initial conditions dominated predictability for the first 4 weeks, improved predictability for 6 weeks, and influenced predictability for 8 weeks. These time scales varied with season, region, and strength of the external forcing. Second, the global 3-dimensional structure of predictability was examined. Boundary forcing dominated over the tropics, and over the two main teleconnection regions in the North and South Pacific. Initial conditions influenced predictability almost everywhere, in particular when the external forcing was weak. This was mostly related to atmospheric persistence, which in turn was linked to low-frequency variability of major atmospheric modes. Third, predictability in the tropics was investigated for monthly means. Boundary forcing is generally dominating for this time scale, and its quality is crucial. The atmospheric response was strongly asymmetric to SST forcing, which suggests that tropical convection has a positive self-amplifying feedback. Initial conditions were also important, in particular over the Eastern Hemisphere. This was related to strong persistence of the divergent circulation and

  4. Long-range electron transfer

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Harry B.; Winkler, Jay R.

    2005-01-01

    Recent investigations have shed much light on the nuclear and electronic factors that control the rates of long-range electron tunneling through molecules in aqueous and organic glasses as well as through bonds in donor–bridge–acceptor complexes. Couplings through covalent and hydrogen bonds are much stronger than those across van der Waals gaps, and these differences in coupling between bonded and nonbonded atoms account for the dependence of tunneling rates on the structure of the media between redox sites in Ru-modified proteins and protein–protein complexes. PMID:15738403

  5. Literature: Internal Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Curriculum Project, Atlanta, GA.

    This curriculum guide in literature, developed as part of a total English curriculum for pre-kindergarten through grade 10, suggests that students can best understand literature by recognizing its internal forms (i.e., characteristics that recur in settings, characters, and narrative patterns). Materials cover (1) an overview for teachers on the…

  6. Apparatus for forming targets

    DOEpatents

    Woerner, Robert L.

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus and method for cryoinduced uniform deposition of cryogenic materials, such as deuterium-tritium (DT) mixtures, on the inner surface of hollow spherical members, such as inertially imploded targets. By vaporizing and quickly refreezing cryogenic materials contained within a hollow spherical member, a uniform layer of the materials is formed on the inner surface of the spherical member. Heating of the cryogenic material, located within a non-isothermal compact freezing cell, is accomplished by an electrical heat pulse, whereafter the material is quickly frozen forming a uniform layer on the inner surface of the spherical member. The method is not restricted to producing a frozen layer on only the inner surface of the innermost hollow member, but where multiple concentric hollow spheres are involved, such as in multiple shell targets for lasers, electron beams, etc., layers of cryogenic material may also be formed on the inner surface of intermediate or outer spherical members, thus providing the capability of forming targets having multiple concentric layers or shells of frozen DT.

  7. Method for forming targets

    DOEpatents

    Woerner, Robert L.

    1979-01-01

    Method for cryoinduced uniform deposition of cryogenic materials, such as deuterium-tritium (DT) mixtures, on the inner surface of hollow spherical members, such as inertially imploded targets. By vaporizing and quickly refreezing cryogenic materials contained within a hollow spherical member, a uniform layer of the materials is formed on the inner surface of the spherical member. Heating of the cryogenic material, located within a non-isothermal compact freezing cell, is accomplished by an electrical heat pulse, whereafter the material is quickly frozen forming a uniform layer on the inner surface of the spherical member. The method is not restricted to producing a frozen layer on only the inner surface of the innermost hollow member, but where multiple concentric hollow spheres are involved, such as in multiple shell targets for lasers, electron beams, etc., layers of cryogenic material may also be formed on the inner surface of intermediate or outer spherical members, thus providing the capability of forming targets having multiple concentric layers or shells of frozen DT.

  8. Literature: External Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Curriculum Project, Atlanta, GA.

    This curriculum guide, developed as part of a total English curriculum for pre-kindergarten through grade 10, suggests that students can best understand literature by understanding its recurring external forms or genres, and includes (1) an overview describing the four literary genres of drama, narrative poetry, narrative fiction, and lyric poetry…

  9. High energy forming facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciurlionis, B.

    1967-01-01

    Watertight, high-explosive forming facility, 25 feet in diameter and 15 feet deep, withstands repeated explosions of 10 pounds of TNT equivalent. The shell is fabricated of high strength steel and allows various structural elements to deform or move elastically and independently while retaining structural integrity.

  10. Geodiversity and land form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Murray

    2014-05-01

    The Earth's surface has a dynamic and topographically varied natural landscape. In some cases the resulting landforms are given generic names reflecting their form and/or origin, (e.g. sand dunes, eskers, ox-bow lakes) but in many cases the land surface has a more amorphous form and is less easily categorized other than at a landscape scale (e.g. dissected plateau, Chalk downland). Across much of Europe, while the natural vegetation has been removed or radically modified, the natural land form/topography remains in tact. In this context and in terms of geoconservation we ought to be: • allowing the dynamic natural processes that create, carve and modify landscapes to continue to operate; and • retaining natural topographic character and geomorphological authenticity in the face of human actions seeking to remodel the land surface. In this presentation examples of this approach to geoconservation of land form will be given from the UK and other parts of the world. This will include examples of both appropriate and inappropriate topographic modifications.

  11. Many Forms of Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Adam B.

    2009-01-01

    Psychologists interested in culture have focused primarily on East-West differences in individualism-collectivism, or independent-interdependent self-construal. As important as this dimension is, there are many other forms of culture with many dimensions of cultural variability. Selecting from among the many understudied cultures in psychology,…

  12. Formed photovoltaic module busbars

    DOEpatents

    Rose, Douglas; Daroczi, Shan; Phu, Thomas

    2015-11-10

    A cell connection piece for a photovoltaic module is disclosed herein. The cell connection piece includes an interconnect bus, a plurality of bus tabs unitarily formed with the interconnect bus, and a terminal bus coupled with the interconnect bus. The plurality of bus tabs extend from the interconnect bus. The terminal bus includes a non-linear portion.

  13. Inelastic Scattering Form Factors

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-01-01

    ATHENA-IV computes form factors for inelastic scattering calculations, using single-particle wave functions that are eigenstates of motion in either a Woods-Saxon potential well or a harmonic oscillator well. Two-body forces of Gauss, Coulomb, Yukawa, and a sum of cut-off Yukawa radial dependences are available.

  14. Forms of Soft Sculpture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Dorothy

    1978-01-01

    For the past several years, students at Madison Senior High School in San Diego have responded to the tactile texture and draping quality of soft materials. They experimented enthusiastically with three-dimensional forms made out of foam rubber. Here is the result of their efforts and experimentation. (Author/RK)

  15. Changing Organizational Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on changing organizational forms. "Goal Integration in a Multi-divisional Organization" (Richard J. Torraco, Mary Finnegan), reports on a study that examined how goals are integrated into organizational activities once they have been identified, proposes a model of goal integration, and develops…

  16. Live Fire Range Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1993-08-01

    The Central Training Academy (CTA) is a DOE Headquarters Organization located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, with the mission to effectively and efficiently educate and train personnel involved in the protection of vital national security interests of DOE. The CTA Live Fire Range (LFR), where most of the firearms and tactical training occurs, is a complex separate from the main campus. The purpose of the proposed action is to expand the LFR to allow more options of implementing required training. The Department of Energy has prepared this Environmental Assessment (EA) for the proposed construction and operation of an expanded Live Fire Range Facility at the Central Training Academy in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  17. The Ames Vertical Gun Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karcz, J. S.; Bowling, D.; Cornelison, C.; Parrish, A.; Perez, A.; Raiche, G.; Wiens, J.-P.

    2016-01-01

    The Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR) is a national facility for conducting laboratory- scale investigations of high-speed impact processes. It provides a set of light-gas, powder, and compressed gas guns capable of accelerating projectiles to speeds up to 7 km s(exp -1). The AVGR has a unique capability to vary the angle between the projectile-launch and gravity vectors between 0 and 90 deg. The target resides in a large chamber (diameter approximately 2.5 m) that can be held at vacuum or filled with an experiment-specific atmosphere. The chamber provides a number of viewing ports and feed-throughs for data, power, and fluids. Impacts are observed via high-speed digital cameras along with investigation-specific instrumentation, such as spectrometers. Use of the range is available via grant proposals through any Planetary Science Research Program element of the NASA Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES) calls. Exploratory experiments (one to two days) are additionally possible in order to develop a new proposal.

  18. Range-Measuring Video Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T.; Briscoe, Jeri M.; Corder, Eric L.; Broderick, David

    2006-01-01

    Optoelectronic sensors of a proposed type would perform the functions of both electronic cameras and triangulation- type laser range finders. That is to say, these sensors would both (1) generate ordinary video or snapshot digital images and (2) measure the distances to selected spots in the images. These sensors would be well suited to use on robots that are required to measure distances to targets in their work spaces. In addition, these sensors could be used for all the purposes for which electronic cameras have been used heretofore. The simplest sensor of this type, illustrated schematically in the upper part of the figure, would include a laser, an electronic camera (either video or snapshot), a frame-grabber/image-capturing circuit, an image-data-storage memory circuit, and an image-data processor. There would be no moving parts. The laser would be positioned at a lateral distance d to one side of the camera and would be aimed parallel to the optical axis of the camera. When the range of a target in the field of view of the camera was required, the laser would be turned on and an image of the target would be stored and preprocessed to locate the angle (a) between the optical axis and the line of sight to the centroid of the laser spot.

  19. Range Imaging without Moving Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, J. Bryan; Scott, V. Stanley, III; Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis

    2008-01-01

    Range-imaging instruments of a type now under development are intended to generate the equivalent of three-dimensional images from measurements of the round-trip times of flight of laser pulses along known directions. These instruments could also provide information on characteristics of targets, including roughnesses and reflectivities of surfaces and optical densities of such semi-solid objects as trees and clouds. Unlike in prior range-imaging instruments based on times of flight along known directions, there would be no moving parts; aiming of the laser beams along the known directions would not be accomplished by mechanical scanning of mirrors, prisms, or other optical components. Instead, aiming would be accomplished by using solid-state devices to switch input and output beams along different fiber-optic paths. Because of the lack of moving parts, these instruments could be extraordinarily reliable, rugged, and long-lasting. An instrument of this type would include an optical transmitter that would send out a laser pulse along a chosen direction to a target. An optical receiver coaligned with the transmitter would measure the temporally varying intensity of laser light reflected from the target to determine the distance and surface characteristics of the target. The transmitter would be a combination of devices for generating precise directional laser illumination. It would include a pulsed laser, the output of which would be coupled into a fiber-optic cable with a fan-out and solid-state optical switches that would enable switching of the laser beam onto one or more optical fibers terminated at known locations in an array on a face at the focal plane of a telescope. The array would be imaged by the telescope onto the target space. The receiver optical system could share the aforementioned telescope with the transmitter or could include a separate telescope aimed in the same direction as that of the transmitting telescope. In either case, light reflected

  20. Forms of organic phosphorus in wetland soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheesman, A. W.; Turner, B. L.; Reddy, K. R.

    2014-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) cycling in freshwater wetlands is dominated by biological mechanisms, yet there has been no comprehensive examination of the forms of biogenic P (i.e., forms derived from biological activity) in wetland soils. We used solution 31P NMR spectroscopy to identify and quantify P forms in surface soils of 28 palustrine wetlands spanning a range of climatic, hydrogeomorphic, and vegetation types. Total P concentrations ranged between 51 and 3516 μg P g-1, of which an average of 58% was extracted in a single-step NaOH-EDTA procedure. The extracts contained a broad range of P forms, including phosphomonoesters (averaging 24% of the total soil P), phosphodiesters (averaging 10% of total P), phosphonates (up to 4% of total P), and both pyrophosphate and long-chain polyphosphates (together averaging 6% of total P). Soil P composition was found to be dependant upon two key biogeochemical properties: organic matter content and pH. For example, stereoisomers of inositol hexakisphosphate were detected exclusively in acidic soils with high mineral content, while phosphonates were detected in soils from a broad range of vegetation and hydrogeomorphic types but only under acidic conditions. Conversely inorganic polyphosphates occurred in a broad range of wetland soils, and their abundance appears to reflect more broadly that of a "substantial" and presumably active microbial community with a significant relationship between total inorganic polyphosphates and microbial biomass P. We conclude that soil P composition varies markedly among freshwater wetlands but can be predicted by fundamental soil properties.

  1. Wind dynamic range video camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, G. D. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A television camera apparatus is disclosed in which bright objects are attenuated to fit within the dynamic range of the system, while dim objects are not. The apparatus receives linearly polarized light from an object scene, the light being passed by a beam splitter and focused on the output plane of a liquid crystal light valve. The light valve is oriented such that, with no excitation from the cathode ray tube, all light is rotated 90 deg and focused on the input plane of the video sensor. The light is then converted to an electrical signal, which is amplified and used to excite the CRT. The resulting image is collected and focused by a lens onto the light valve which rotates the polarization vector of the light to an extent proportional to the light intensity from the CRT. The overall effect is to selectively attenuate the image pattern focused on the sensor.

  2. Wide Range SET Pulse Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuler, Robert L.; Chen, Li

    2012-01-01

    A method for measuring a wide range of SET pulses is demonstrated. Use of dynamic logic, faster than ordinary CMOS, allows capture of short pulses. A weighted binning of SET lengths allows measurement of a wide range of pulse lengths with compact circuitry. A pulse-length-conservative pulse combiner tree routes SETs from combinational logic to the measurement circuit, allowing SET measurements in circuits that cannot easily be arranged in long chains. The method is applied to add-multiplex combinational logic, and to an array of NFET routing switches, at .35 micron. Pulses are captured in a chain of Domino Logic AND gates. Propagation through the chain is frozen on the trailing edge by dropping low the second "enable" input to the AND gates. Capacitive loading is increased in the latter stages to create an approximately logarithmic weighted binning, so that a broad range of pulse lengths can be captured with a 10 stage capture chain. Simulations show pulses can be captured which are 1/5th the length of those typically captured with leading edge triggered latch methods, and less than the length of those captured with a trailing edge latch method. After capture, the pulse pattern is transferred to an SEU protected shift register for readout. 64 instances of each of two types of logic are used as targets. One is a full adder with a 4 to 1 mux on its inputs. The other is a 4 x 4 NFET routing matrix. The outputs are passed through buffered XNOR comparators to identify pulses, which are merged in a buffered not-nand (OR) tree designed to avoid pulse absorption as much as possible. The output from each of the two test circuits are input into separate pulse measurement circuits. Test inputs were provided so that the circuit could be bench tested and calibrated. A third SET measurement circuit with no inputs was used to judge the contribution from direct hits on the measurement circuit. Heavy ions were used with an LET range from 12 to 176. At LET of 21 and below, the very

  3. Space - The long range future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Puttkamer, J.

    1985-01-01

    Space exploration goals for NASA in the year 2000 time frame are examined. A lunar base would offer the opportunity for continuous earth viewing, further cosmogeochemical exploration and rudimentary steps at self-sufficiency in space. The latter two factors are also compelling reasons to plan a manned Mars base. Furthermore, competition and cooperation in a Mars mission and further interplanetary exploration is an attractive substitute for war. The hardware requirements for various configurations of Mars missions are briefly addressed, along with other, unmanned missions to the asteroid belt, Mercury, Venus, Jupiter and the moons of Jupiter and Saturn. Finally, long-range technological requirements for providing adequate living/working facilities for larger human populations in Space Station environments are summarized.

  4. Extended range tankless water heater

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.A.

    1993-04-18

    In this research program, a laboratory test facility was built for the purpose of testing a gas-fired water heating appliance. This test facility can be used to examine the important performance characteristics of efficiency, dynamic response, and quality of combustion. An innovative design for a tankless water heater was built and then tested to determine its performance characteristics. This unit was tested over a 5:1 range in input (20,000 to 100,000 btuh heat input). The unit was then configured as a circulating hot water boiler, and a specially designed heat exchanger was used with it to generate domestic hot water. This unit was also tested, and was found to offer performance advantages with regard to low flow and temperature stability.

  5. Understanding synthesis imaging dynamic range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, R.

    2013-03-01

    We develop a general framework for quantifying the many different contributions to the noise budget of an image made with an array of dishes or aperture array stations. Each noise contribution to the visibility data is associated with a relevant correlation timescale and frequency bandwidth so that the net impact on a complete observation can be assessed when a particular effect is not captured in the instrumental calibration. All quantities are parameterised as function of observing frequency and the visibility baseline length. We apply the resulting noise budget analysis to a wide range of existing and planned telescope systems that will operate between about 100 MHz and 5 GHz to ascertain the magnitude of the calibration challenges that they must overcome to achieve thermal noise limited performance. We conclude that calibration challenges are increased in several respects by small dimensions of the dishes or aperture array stations. It will be more challenging to achieve thermal noise limited performance using 15 m class dishes rather than the 25 m dishes of current arrays. Some of the performance risks are mitigated by the deployment of phased array feeds and more with the choice of an (alt,az,pol) mount, although a larger dish diameter offers the best prospects for risk mitigation. Many improvements to imaging performance can be anticipated at the expense of greater complexity in calibration algorithms. However, a fundamental limitation is ultimately imposed by an insufficient number of data constraints relative to calibration variables. The upcoming aperture array systems will be operating in a regime that has never previously been addressed, where a wide range of effects are expected to exceed the thermal noise by two to three orders of magnitude. Achieving routine thermal noise limited imaging performance with these systems presents an extreme challenge. The magnitude of that challenge is inversely related to the aperture array station diameter.

  6. Expansion-based passive ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barniv, Yair

    1993-01-01

    A new technique of passive ranging which is based on utilizing the image-plane expansion experienced by every object as its distance from the sensor decreases is described. This technique belongs in the feature/object-based family. The motion and shape of a small window, assumed to be fully contained inside the boundaries of some object, is approximated by an affine transformation. The parameters of the transformation matrix are derived by initially comparing successive images, and progressively increasing the image time separation so as to achieve much larger triangulation baseline than currently possible. Depth is directly derived from the expansion part of the transformation. To a first approximation, image-plane expansion is independent of image-plane location with respect to the focus of expansion (FOE) and of platform maneuvers. Thus, an expansion-based method has the potential of providing a reliable range in the difficult image area around the FOE. In areas far from the FOE the shift parameters of the affine transformation can provide more accurate depth information than the expansion alone, and can thus be used similarly to the way they were used in conjunction with the Inertial Navigation Unit (INU) and Kalman filtering. However, the performance of a shift-based algorithm, when the shifts are derived from the affine transformation, would be much improved compared to current algorithms because the shifts - as well as the other parameters - can be obtained between widely separated images. Thus, the main advantage of this new approach is that, allowing the tracked window to expand and rotate, in addition to moving laterally, enables one to correlate images over a very long time span which, in turn, translates into a large spatial baseline - resulting in a proportionately higher depth accuracy.

  7. Expansion-based passive ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barniv, Yair

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a new technique of passive ranging which is based on utilizing the image-plane expansion experienced by every object as its distance from the sensor decreases. This technique belongs in the feature/object-based family. The motion and shape of a small window, assumed to be fully contained inside the boundaries of some object, is approximated by an affine transformation. The parameters of the transformation matrix are derived by initially comparing successive images, and progressively increasing the image time separation so as to achieve much larger triangulation baseline than currently possible. Depth is directly derived from the expansion part of the transformation. To a first approximation, image-plane expansion is independent of image-plane location with respect to the focus of expansion (FOE) and of platform maneuvers. Thus, an expansion-based method has the potential of providing a reliable range in the difficult image area around the FOE. In areas far from the FOE the shift parameters of the affine transformation can provide more accurate depth information than the expansion alone, and can thus be used similarly to the way they have been used in conjunction with the Inertial Navigation Unit (INU) and Kalman filtering. However, the performance of a shift-based algorithm, when the shifts are derived from the affine transformation, would be much improved compared to current algorithms because the shifts--as well as the other parameters--can be obtained between widely separated images. Thus, the main advantage of this new approach is that, allowing the tracked window to expand and rotate, in addition to moving laterally, enables one to correlate images over a very long time span which, in turn, translates into a large spatial baseline resulting in a proportionately higher depth accuracy.

  8. Earth rotation from lunar laser ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickey, J. O.; Williams, J. G.

    1983-01-01

    The rotational orientation (Universal Time and the variation of latitude at McDonald Observatory, Texas) of the earth has been determined between mid 1970 and mid 1982 from McDonald Observatory lunar laser ranging (LLR) data. Universal Time, UT1, is calculated and supplied in three forms, the raw daily decomposition values, the Gaussian filtered values and the Fourier smoothed values. Formal error estimates are available for all three types. LLR can calculate corrections to one component of polar motion, the variation of latitude at McDonald Observatory. Modelling improvements have been applied here and a significant drop is seen in the residuals. The rms weighted residual for the entire thirteen year data span (3,326 'normal' points acquired between August 1969 and May 1982) is 18.7 cm.

  9. Formed HIP Can Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, Kester Diederik

    2015-07-27

    The intent of this report is to document a procedure used at LANL for HIP bonding aluminum cladding to U-10Mo fuel foils using a formed HIP can for the Domestic Reactor Conversion program in the NNSA Office of Material, Management and Minimization, and provide some details that may not have been published elsewhere. The HIP process is based on the procedures that have been used to develop the formed HIP can process, including the baseline process developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The HIP bonding cladding process development is summarized in the listed references. Further iterations with Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) to refine the process to meet production and facility requirements is expected.

  10. Nucleon Electromagnetic Form Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Kees de Jager

    2004-08-01

    Although nucleons account for nearly all the visible mass in the universe, they have a complicated structure that is still incompletely understood. The first indication that nucleons have an internal structure, was the measurement of the proton magnetic moment by Frisch and Stern (1933) which revealed a large deviation from the value expected for a point-like Dirac particle. The investigation of the spatial structure of the nucleon, resulting in the first quantitative measurement of the proton charge radius, was initiated by the HEPL (Stanford) experiments in the 1950s, for which Hofstadter was awarded the 1961 Nobel prize. The first indication of a non-zero neutron charge distribution was obtained by scattering thermal neutrons off atomic electrons. The recent revival of its experimental study through the operational implementation of novel instrumentation has instigated a strong theoretical interest. Nucleon electro-magnetic form factors (EMFFs) are optimally studied through the exchange of a virtual photon, in elastic electron-nucleon scattering. The momentum transferred to the nucleon by the virtual photon can be selected to probe different scales of the nucleon, from integral properties such as the charge radius to scaling properties of its internal constituents. Polarization instrumentation, polarized beams and targets, and the measurement of the polarization of the recoiling nucleon have been essential in the accurate separation of the charge and magnetic form factors and in studies of the elusive neutron charge form factor.

  11. Electromagnetic pion form factor

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, C.D.

    1995-08-01

    A phenomenological Dyson-Schwinger/Bethe-Salpeter equation approach to QCD, formalized in terms of a QCD-based model field theory, the Global Color-symmetry Model (GCM), was used to calculate the generalized impulse approximation contribution to the electromagnetic pion form factor at space-like q{sup 2} on the domain [0,10] GeV{sup 2}. In effective field theories this form factor is sometimes understood as simply being due to Vector Meson Dominance (VMD) but this does not allow for a simple connection with QCD where the VMD contribution is of higher order than that of the quark core. In the GCM the pion is treated as a composite bound state of a confined quark and antiquark interacting via the exchange of colored vector-bosons. A direct study of the quark core contribution is made, using a quark propagator that manifests the large space-like-q{sup 2} properties of QCD, parameterizes the infrared behavior and incorporates confinement. It is shown that the few parameters which characterize the infrared form of the quark propagator may be chosen so as to yield excellent agreement with the available data. In doing this one directly relates experimental observables to properties of QCD at small space-like-q{sup 2}. The incorporation of confinement eliminates endpoint and pinch singularities in the calculation of F{sub {pi}}(q{sup 2}). With asymptotic freedom manifest in the dressed quark propagator the calculation yields q{sup 4}F{sub {pi}}(q{sup 2}) = constant, up to [q{sup 2}]- corrections, for space-like-q{sup 2} {approx_gt} 35 GeV{sup 2}, which indicates that soft, nonperturbative contributions dominate the form factor at presently accessible q{sup 2}. This means that the often-used factorization Ansatz fails in this exclusive process. A paper describing this work was submitted for publication. In addition, these results formed the basis for an invited presentation at a workshop on chiral dynamics and will be published in the proceedings.

  12. FMCW optical ranging technique in turbid waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illig, David W.; Laux, Alan; Lee, Robert W.; Jemison, William D.; Mullen, Linda J.

    2015-05-01

    The performance of a frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) hybrid lidar-radar system will be presented in the context of an underwater optical ranging application. In adapting this technique from the radar community, a laser is intensity-modulated with a linear frequency ramp. A custom wideband laser source modulated by a new wideband digital synthesizer board is used to transmit an 800 MHz wide chirp into the underwater channel. The transmitted signal is mixed with a reference copy to obtain a "beat" signal representing the distance to the desired object. The expected form of the return signal is derived for turbid waters, a highly scattering environment, indicating that FMCW can detect both the desired object and the volumetric center of the backscatter "clutter" signal. This result is verified using both laboratory experiments and a realistic simulation model of the underwater optical channel. Ranging performance is explored as a function of both object position and water turbidity. Experimental and simulated results are in good agreement and performance out to ten attenuation lengths is reported, equivalent to 100 meters in open ocean or 5 meters in a turbid harbor condition.

  13. Wide-range voltage modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Rust, K.R.; Wilson, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider`s Medium Energy Booster Abort (MEBA) kicker modulator will supply a current pulse to the abort magnets which deflect the proton beam from the MEB ring into a designated beam stop. The abort kicker will be used extensively during testing of the Low Energy Booster (LEB) and the MEB rings. When the Collider is in full operation, the MEBA kicker modulator will abort the MEB beam in the event of a malfunction during the filling process. The modulator must generate a 14-{mu}s wide pulse with a rise time of less than 1 {mu}s, including the delay and jitter times. It must also be able to deliver a current pulse to the magnet proportional to the beam energy at any time during ramp-up of the accelerator. Tracking the beam energy, which increases from 12 GeV at injection to 200 GeV at extraction, requires the modulator to operate over a wide range of voltages (4 kV to 80 kV). A vacuum spark gap and a thyratron have been chosen for test and evaluation as candidate switches for the abort modulator. Modulator design, switching time delay, jitter and pre-fire data are presented.

  14. Nucleon elastic form factors

    SciTech Connect

    D. Day

    2007-03-01

    The nucleon form factors are still the subject of active investigation even after an experimental effort spanning 50 years. This is because they are of critical importance to our understanding of the electromagnetic properties of nuclei and provide a unique testing ground for QCD motivated models of nucleon structure. Progress in polarized beams, polarized targets and recoil polarimetry have allowed an important and precise set of data to be collected over the last decade. I will review the experimental status of elastic electron scattering from the nucleon along with an outlook for future progress.

  15. Space form of motionsickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komendantov, G. L.; Kopanev, V. I.

    1975-01-01

    Spacesickness under weightlessness conditions is explained mainly by disruption of the activity of the functional system perceiving space and participating in carrying out the balancing function, consisting, in particular, of the vestibular, proprioceptive, interoceptive, visual and cutaneomechanical analyzers. It can be assumed that, under specific conditions, Coriolis acceleration also is a cause of spacesickness. Adaptation is possible by formation of a new functional system which is adequate to the new mechanical conditions of weightlessness. Selection, training, creation of optimum conditions in the spacecraft cabin, medicinal, and technical improvement of spacecraft play an important role in prophylaxis of the space form of seasickness.

  16. GlassForm

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2011-09-16

    GlassForm is a software tool for generating preliminary waste glass formulas for a given waste stream. The software is useful because it reduces the number of verification melts required to develop a suitable additive composition. The software includes property models that calculate glass properties of interest from the chemical composition of the waste glass. The software includes property models for glass viscosity, electrical conductivity, glass transition temperature, and leach resistance as measured by the 7-daymore » product consistency test (PCT).« less

  17. [Range and ecology of Dermacentor reticulatus (Fabricius, 1794) in Mazuria focus. I. Defining current range].

    PubMed

    Bogdaszewska, Zofia

    2004-01-01

    During the vegetation periods of five subsequent years, ie. 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000 and 2001, a field study aimed at defining, the current range of Dermacentor reticulatus in the so-called Mazuria focus was conducted on an area of about 24.000 km2 . The total of 68 sites covered by the study were located between the Great Mazurian Lakes District in the east and the lower Vistula valley in the west. The presence of adult forms of Dermacentor reticulatus was confirmed in 23 sites. The westernmost sites were discovered in the vicinity of Brodnica and Elblag. Both sites are located at longitude 19 degrees 20' East. PMID:16862808

  18. Equilibrium-range constant in wind-generated wave spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resio, Donald T.; Long, Charles E.; Vincent, C. Linwood

    2004-01-01

    The equilibrium range in wind-driven wave spectra is characterized to have an f-4 form in deep water (k-5/2 shallow-water form). Absolute energy levels for six physically diverse sites are shown to be well fit by an expression involving the wind speed measured at a fraction of a wavelength above the sea surface in combination with the phase speed of the spectral peak. Observed energy levels suggest that nonlinear wave-wave interactions are capable of maintaining the observed energy-flux balance in the equilibrium range.

  19. Space Based Range Demonstration and Certification (SBRDC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakahara, Robert

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the development, utilization and testing of technologies for range safety and range user systems. The contents include: 1) Space Based Range (SBR) Goals and Objectives; 2) Today s United States Range; 3) Future Range; 4) Another Vision for the Future Range; 5) STARS Project Goals; 6) STARS Content; 7) STARS Configuration Flight Demonstrations 1 & 2; 8) Spaceport And Range Technologies STARS Objectives and Results; 9) Spaceport And Range Technologies STARS FD2 Objectives; 10) Range Safety Hardware; 11) Range User Hardware; and 12) Past/Future Flight Demo Plans

  20. Aggregation of heteropolyanions in aqueous solutions exhibiting short-range attractions and long-range repulsions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bera, Mrinal K.; Qiao, Baofu; Seifert, Soenke; Burton-Pye, Benjamin P.; Monica Olvera de la Cruz; Antonio, Mark R.

    2015-12-15

    Charged colloids and proteins in aqueous solutions interact via short-range attractions and long-range repulsions (SALR) and exhibit complex structural phases. These include homogeneously dispersed monomers, percolated monomers, clusters, and percolated clusters. We report the structural architectures of simple charged systems in the form of spherical, Keggin-type heteropolyanions (HPAs) by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Structure factors obtained from the SAXS measurements show that the HPAs interact via SALR. Concentration and temperature dependences of the structure factors for HPAs with –3e (e is the charge of an electron) charge are consistent with a mixture of nonassociated monomersmore » and associated randomly percolated monomers, whereas those for HPAs with –4e and –5e charges exhibit only nonassociated monomers in aqueous solutions. Our experiments show that the increase in magnitude of the charge of the HPAs increases their repulsive interactions and inhibits their aggregation in aqueous solutions. MD simulations were done to reveal the atomistic scale origins of SALR between HPAs. As a result, the short-range attractions result from water or proton-mediated hydrogen bonds between neighboring HPAs, whereas the long-range repulsions are due to the distributions of ions surrounding the HPAs.« less

  1. Aggregation of heteropolyanions in aqueous solutions exhibiting short-range attractions and long-range repulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Bera, Mrinal K.; Qiao, Baofu; Seifert, Soenke; Burton-Pye, Benjamin P.; Monica Olvera de la Cruz; Antonio, Mark R.

    2015-12-15

    Charged colloids and proteins in aqueous solutions interact via short-range attractions and long-range repulsions (SALR) and exhibit complex structural phases. These include homogeneously dispersed monomers, percolated monomers, clusters, and percolated clusters. We report the structural architectures of simple charged systems in the form of spherical, Keggin-type heteropolyanions (HPAs) by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Structure factors obtained from the SAXS measurements show that the HPAs interact via SALR. Concentration and temperature dependences of the structure factors for HPAs with –3e (e is the charge of an electron) charge are consistent with a mixture of nonassociated monomers and associated randomly percolated monomers, whereas those for HPAs with –4e and –5e charges exhibit only nonassociated monomers in aqueous solutions. Our experiments show that the increase in magnitude of the charge of the HPAs increases their repulsive interactions and inhibits their aggregation in aqueous solutions. MD simulations were done to reveal the atomistic scale origins of SALR between HPAs. As a result, the short-range attractions result from water or proton-mediated hydrogen bonds between neighboring HPAs, whereas the long-range repulsions are due to the distributions of ions surrounding the HPAs.

  2. Joining and forming using torsional ultrasonic principles.

    PubMed

    Frost, M

    2009-10-01

    Developments in torsional ultrasonic joining mean that it is now used in a diverse range of joining, forming, selective weakening and "break-off" applications in the medical device industry.The principles and benefits of the technique are described together with application examples. PMID:20302140

  3. Spun Almost Normal Form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paullin, Katherine L.

    Many of a 3-manifold's properties are determined by the surfaces they contain, and this knowledge leads to the foundation of decision algorithms for 3- manifolds. Popular work influencing the work of 3-manifold algorithms has it's roots in normal surface theory. In a triangulated 3-manifold, Haken and Kneser showed that we could put any incompressible surface into normal form. Expanding on those techniques, Rubinstein and Stocking later showed we could put any strongly irreducible surface into almost normal form. Walsh has more recently shown that in an ideal triangulation of a hyperbolic manifold many surfaces can be spun normalized. One unsolved problem in 3-manifold algorithms is studying the complexity of Lens Space Recognition. Spun almost normalization appears to be a part of solving this larger problem. In this dissertation, I will first discuss a nontraditional technique using graphs of equivalence classes of compressing disks that allows us to take a combinatorial approach to generalize the result of Walsh's to nonhyperbolic manifolds. Using that method, I'll also explore the conditions needed to show that a surface can be spun almost normalized.

  4. MLKL forms cation channels

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Bingqing; Fang, Sui; Chen, Xueqin; Hu, Hong; Chen, Peiyuan; Wang, Huayi; Gao, Zhaobing

    2016-01-01

    The mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) protein is a key factor in tumor necrosis factor-induced necroptosis. Recent studies on necroptosis execution revealed a commitment role of MLKL in membrane disruption. However, our knowledge of how MLKL functions on membrane remains very limited. Here we demonstrate that MLKL forms cation channels that are permeable preferentially to Mg2+ rather than Ca2+ in the presence of Na+ and K+. Moreover, the N-terminal domain containing six helices (H1-H6) is sufficient to form channels. Using the substituted cysteine accessibility method, we further determine that helix H1, H2, H3, H5 and H6 are transmembrane segments, while H4 is located in the cytoplasm. Finally, MLKL-induced membrane depolarization and cell death exhibit a positive correlation to its channel activity. The Mg2+-preferred permeability and five transmembrane segment topology distinguish MLKL from previously identified Mg2+-permeable channels and thus establish MLKL as a novel class of cation channels. PMID:27033670

  5. Bipolar pulse forming line

    DOEpatents

    Rhodes, Mark A.

    2008-10-21

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, fourth, and fifth planar conductors which form an interleaved stack with dielectric layers between the conductors. Each conductor has a first end, and a second end adjacent an acceleration axis. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, the fourth and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, and the first and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the first ends via a shorting plate adjacent the first ends. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short a high voltage from the first end of the third planar conductor to the first end of the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  6. Makran Mountain Range, Indus River Valley, Pakistan, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The enormous geologic pressures exerted by continental drift can be very well illustrated by the long northward curving parallel folded mountain ridges and valleys of the coastal Makran Range of Pakistan (27.0N, 66.0E). As a result of the collision of the northward bound Indian sub-continent into the Asian Continent, the east/west parallel range has been bent in a great northward arc and forming the Indus River valley at the interface of the collision.

  7. 78 FR 58605 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 8453-EMP, Form 8453-F, Form 8453-FE, Form 8879-F...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... 8879-F, IRS e-file Signature Authorization for Form 1041. DATES: Written comments should be received on... (Form 1041). Title: U.S. Estate or Trust Declaration and Signature for an IRS e- File Return. OMB Number... Electronic Filing. This form will only be used as a signature letter to Form 1041. This new form...

  8. Shell forming system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, Jr., James M. (Inventor); Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor); Elleman, Daniel D. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus is provided for forming gas-filled spheres of metal, glass or other material, which produces spheres (12) of uniform size and wall thickness in a relatively simple system. The system includes concentric nozzles, including an inner nozzle (18) through which gas flows and and an outer nozzle (20), which jointly define an annular passageway (50) through which a liquid flows. The flow rates are adjusted so that the gas flows at greater velocity than does the liquid, out of their respective nozzles, e.g. three times as great, in order to produce an extrusion (30) which undergoes axisymmetric oscillations resulting in the pinch off into hollow spheres with very uniform spacing. The system is useful not only where gas-filled spheres are required, but also is useful to accurately control the dispensing of solid, liquid, or gaseous materials.

  9. Shell forming apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor); Granett, Dan (Inventor); Akutagawa, Wesley M. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A nozzle assembly is described for use in a system that forms small gas-filled shells, which avoids the need for holding a miniature inner nozzle precisely concentric with a miniature outer nozzle. The outer nozzle has a diameter which is less than about 0.7 millimeter, which results in fluid passing through the nozzle having a progressively greater velocity at locations progressively further from the walls of the outer nozzle across most of the nozzle. This highly variable velocity profile automatically forces gas to the center of the outer nozzle. The end of the inner nozzle, which emits gas, is spaced upstream from the tip of the outer nozzle, to provide a distance along which to center the gas. This self-centering characteristic permits the inner nozzle to be positioned so its axis is not concentric with the axis of the outer nozzle.

  10. Pion form factor

    SciTech Connect

    Ryong Ji, C.; Pang, A.; Szczepaniak, A.

    1994-04-01

    It is pointed out that the correct criterion to define the legal PQCD contribution to the exclusive processes in the lightcone perturbative expansion should be based on the large off-shellness of the lightcone energy in the intermediate states. In the lightcone perturbative QCD calculation of the pion form factor, the authors find that the legal PQCD contribution defined by the lightcone energy cut saturates in the smaller Q{sup 2} region compared to that defined by the gluon four-momentum square cut. This is due to the contribution by the highly off-energy-shell gluons in the end point regions of the phase space, indicating that the gluon four-momentum-square cut may have cut too much to define the legal PQCD.

  11. Nucleon Electromagnetic Form Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Marc Vanderhaeghen; Charles Perdrisat; Vina Punjabi

    2007-10-01

    There has been much activity in the measurement of the elastic electromagnetic proton and neutron form factors in the last decade, and the quality of the data has greatly improved by performing double polarization experiments, in comparison with previous unpolarized data. Here we review the experimental data base in view of the new results for the proton, and neutron, obtained at JLab, MAMI, and MIT-Bates. The rapid evolution of phenomenological models triggered by these high-precision experiments will be discussed, including the recent progress in the determination of the valence quark generalized parton distributions of the nucleon, as well as the steady rate of improvements made in the lattice QCD calculations.

  12. Spray-formed tooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHugh, K. M.; Key, J. F.

    The United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) has formed a partnership with the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to develop a process for the rapid production of low-cost tooling based on spray forming technology developed at the INEL. Phase 1 of the program will involve bench-scale system development, materials characterization, and process optimization. In Phase 2, prototype systems will be designed, constructed, evaluated, and optimized. Process control and other issues that influence commercialization will be addressed during this phase of the project. Technology transfer to USCAR, or a tooling vendor selected by USCAR, will be accomplished during Phase 3. The approach INEL is using to produce tooling, such as plastic injection molds and stamping dies, combines rapid solidification processing and net-shape materials processing into a single step. A bulk liquid metal is pressure-fed into a de Laval spray nozzle transporting a high velocity, high temperature inert gas. The gas jet disintegrates the metal into fine droplets and deposits them onto a tool pattern made from materials such as plastic, wax, clay, ceramics, and metals. The approach is compatible with solid freeform fabrication techniques such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering, and laminated object manufacturing. Heat is extracted rapidly, in-flight, by convection as the spray jet entrains cool inert gas to produce undercooled and semi-solid droplets. At the pattern, the droplets weld together while replicating the shape and surface features of the pattern. Tool formation is rapid; deposition rates in excess of 1 ton/h have been demonstrated for bench-scale nozzles.

  13. Spray-formed tooling

    SciTech Connect

    McHugh, K.M.; Key, J.F.

    1994-12-31

    The United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) has formed a partnership with the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to develop a process for the rapid production of low-cost tooling based on spray forming technology developed at the INEL. Phase 1 of the program will involve bench-scale system development, materials characterization, and process optimization. In Phase 2, prototype systems will be de signed, constructed, evaluated, and optimized. Process control and other issues that influence commercialization will be addressed during this phase of the project. Technology transfer to USCAR, or a tooling vendor selected by USCAR, will be accomplished during Phase 3. The approach INEL is using to produce tooling, such as plastic injection molds and stamping dies, combines rapid solidification processing and net-shape materials processing into a single step. A bulk liquid metal is pressure-fed into a de Laval spray nozzle transporting a high velocity, high temperature inert gas. The gas jet disintegrates the metal into fine droplets and deposits them onto a tool pattern made from materials such as plastic, wax, clay, ceramics, and metals. The approach is compatible with solid freeform fabrication techniques such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering, and laminated object manufacturing. Heat is extracted rapidly, in-flight, by convection as the spray jet entrains cool inert gas to produce undercooled and semi-solid droplets. At the pattern, the droplets weld together while replicating the shape and surface features of the pattern. Tool formation is rapid; deposition rates in excess of 1 ton/h have been demonstrated for bench-scale nozzles.

  14. Forming Spirals From Shadows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    What causes the large-scale spiral structures found in some protoplanetary disks? Most models assume theyre created by newly-forming planets, but a new study suggests that planets might have nothing to do with it.Perturbations from Planets?In some transition disks protoplanetary disks with gaps in their inner regions weve directly imaged large-scale spiral arms. Many theories currently attribute the formation of these structures to young planets: either the direct perturbations of a planet embedded in the disk cause the spirals, or theyre indirectly caused by the orbit of a planetary body outside of the arms.Another example of spiral arms detected in a protoplanetary disk, MWC 758. [NASA/ESA/ESO/M. Benisty et al.]But what if you could get spirals without any planets? A team of scientists led by Matas Montesinos (University of Chile) have recently published a study in which they examine what happens to a shadowed protoplanetary disk.Casting Shadows with WarpsIn the teams setup, they envision a protoplanetary disk that is warped: the inner region is slightly tilted relative to the outer region. As the central star casts light out over its protoplanetary disk, this disk warping would cause some regions of the disk to be shaded in a way that isnt axially symmetric with potentially interesting implications.Montesinos and collaborators ran 2D hydrodynamics simulations to determine what happens to the motion of particles within the disk when they pass in and out of the shadowed regions. Since the shadowed regions are significantly colder than the illuminated disk, the pressure in these regions is much lower. Particles are therefore accelerated and decelerated as they pass through these regions, and the lack of axial symmetry causes spiral density waves to form in the disk as a result.Initial profile for the stellar heating rate per unit area for one of the authors simulations. The regions shadowed as a result of the disk warp subtend 0.5 radians each (shown on the left

  15. Switched-capacitor neuromorphs with wide-range variable dynamics.

    PubMed

    Elias, J G; Northmore, D M

    1995-01-01

    The use of switched capacitors as wide-range, programmable resistive elements in spatially extensive artificial dendritic trees (ADT's) is described. We show that silicon neuro-morphs with ADT's can produce impulse responses that last millions of times longer than the initiating impulse and that dynamical responses are tunable in both shape and duration over a wide range. The switched-capacitor resistors forming a dendritic tree are shown indirectly to have a useful programmable resistance range between 500 KOmega and 1000 GOmega. Experimental results are presented that show variable impulse response functions, tunable frequency selectivity, and rate-invariance of spatiotemporal pattern responses. PMID:18263448

  16. Hyperfine-structure-induced purely long-range molecules.

    PubMed

    Enomoto, Katsunari; Kitagawa, Masaaki; Tojo, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yoshiro

    2008-03-28

    We have experimentally observed and theoretically identified a novel class of purely long-range molecules. This novel purely long-range state is formed due to a very weak hyperfine interaction that is usually treated only as a small perturbation in molecular spectra. Photoassociation spectroscopy of ultracold ytterbium (171Yb) atoms with the 1S0-3P1 intercombination transition presents clear identification of molecular states and the shallowest molecular potential depth of about 750 MHz among the purely long-range molecules ever observed. PMID:18517858

  17. Moon (Form-Origin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiapas, Elias

    2014-05-01

    When the Earth was formed, it was in a state of burning heat. As time went by, temperature on the planet's surface was falling due to radiation and heat transfer, and various components (crusts) began taking solid form at the Earth's poles. The formation of crusts took place at the Earth's poles, because the stirring of burning and fluid masses on the surface of the Earth was significantly slighter there than it was on the equator. Due to centrifugal force and Coriolis Effect, these solid masses headed towards the equator; those originating from the North Pole followed a south-western course, while those originating from the South Pole followed a north-western course and there they rotated from west to east at a lower speed than the underlying burning and liquid earth, because of their lower initial linear velocity, their solid state and inertia. Because inertia is proportional to mass, the initially larger solid body swept all new solid ones, incorporating them to its western side. The density of the new solid masses was higher, because the components on the surface would freeze and solidify first, before the underlying thicker components. As a result, the western side of the initial islet of solid rocks submerged, while the east side elevated. . As a result of the above, this initial islet began to spin in reverse, and after taking on the shape of a sphere, it formed the "heart" of the Moon. The Moon-sphere, rolling on the equator, would sink the solid rocks that continued to descend from the Earth's poles. The sinking rocks partially melted because of higher temperatures in the greater depths that the Moon descended to, while part of the rocks' mass bonded with the Moon and also served as a heat-insulating material, preventing the descended side of the sphere from melting. Combined with the Earth's liquid mass that covered its emerging eastern surface, new sphere-shaped shells were created, with increased density and very powerful structural cohesion. During the

  18. Moon (Form-Origin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiapas, Elias

    2015-04-01

    When the Earth was formed, it was in a state of burning heat. As time went by, temperature on the planet's surface was falling due to radiation and heat transfer, and various components (crusts) began taking solid form at the Earth's poles. The formation of crusts took place at the Earth's poles, because the stirring of burning and fluid masses on the surface of the Earth was significantly slighter there than it was on the equator. Due to centrifugal force and Coriolis Effect, these solid masses headed towards the equator; those originating from the North Pole followed a south-western course, while those originating from the South Pole followed a north-western course and there they rotated from west to east at a lower speed than the underlying burning and liquid earth, because of their lower initial linear velocity, their solid state and inertia. Because inertia is proportional to mass, the initially larger solid body swept all new solid ones, incorporating them to its western side. The density of the new solid masses was higher, because the components on the surface would freeze and solidify first, before the underlying thicker components. As a result, the western side of the initial islet of solid rocks submerged, while the east side elevated. . As a result of the above, this initial islet began to spin in reverse, and after taking on the shape of a sphere, it formed the "heart" of the Moon. The Moon-sphere, rolling on the equator, would sink the solid rocks that continued to descend from the Earth's poles. The sinking rocks partially melted because of higher temperatures in the greater depths that the Moon descended to, while part of the rocks' mass bonded with the Moon and also served as a heat-insulating material, preventing the descended side of the sphere from melting. Combined with the Earth's liquid mass that covered its emerging eastern surface, new sphere-shaped shells were created, with increased density and very powerful structural cohesion. During the

  19. Moon (Form-Origin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiapas, Elias

    2016-04-01

    When the Earth was formed, it was in a state of burning heat. As time went by, temperature on the planet's surface was falling due to radiation and heat transfer, and various components (crusts) began taking solid form at the Earth's poles. The formation of crusts took place at the Earth's poles, because the stirring of burning and fluid masses on the surface of the Earth was significantly slighter there than it was on the equator. Due to centrifugal force and Coriolis Effect, these solid masses headed towards the equator; those originating from the North Pole followed a south-western course, while those originating from the South Pole followed a north-western course and there they rotated from west to east at a lower speed than the underlying burning and liquid earth, because of their lower initial linear velocity, their solid state and inertia. Because inertia is proportional to mass, the initially larger solid body swept all new solid ones, incorporating them to its western side. The density of the new solid masses was higher, because the components on the surface would freeze and solidify first, before the underlying thicker components. As a result, the western side of the initial islet of solid rocks submerged, while the east side elevated. . As a result of the above, this initial islet began to spin in reverse, and after taking on the shape of a sphere, it formed the "heart" of the Moon. The Moon-sphere, rolling on the equator, would sink the solid rocks that continued to descend from the Earth's poles. The sinking rocks partially melted because of higher temperatures in the greater depths that the Moon descended to, while part of the rocks' mass bonded with the Moon and also served as a heat-insulating material, preventing the descended side of the sphere from melting. Combined with the Earth's liquid mass that covered its emerging eastern surface, new sphere-shaped shells were created, with increased density and very powerful structural cohesion. During the

  20. How delusion is formed?

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Suk; Kang, Ung Gu

    2016-02-01

    Traditionally, delusions have been considered to be the products of misinterpretation and irrationality. However, some theorists have argued that delusions are normal or rational cognitive responses to abnormal experiences. That is, when a recently experienced peculiar event is more plausibly explained by an extraordinary hypothesis, confidence in the veracity of this extraordinary explanation is reinforced. As the number of such experiences, driven by the primary disease process in the perceptual domain, increases, this confidence builds and solidifies, forming a delusion. We tried to understand the formation of delusions using a simulation based on Bayesian inference. We found that (1) even if a delusional explanation is only marginally more plausible than a non-delusional one, the repetition of the same experience results in a firm belief in the delusion. (2) The same process explains the systematization of delusions. (3) If the perceived plausibility of the explanation is not consistent but varies over time, the development of a delusion is delayed. Additionally, this model may explain why delusions are not corrected by persuasion or rational explanation. This Bayesian inference perspective can be considered a way to understand delusions in terms of rational human heuristics. However, such experiences of "rationality" can lead to irrational conclusions, depending on the characteristics of the subject. PMID:26826642

  1. How desert varnish forms?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Randall S.; Kolb, Vera M.; Lynne, Bridget Y.; Sephton, Mark A.; Mcloughlin, Nicola; Engel, Michael H.; Olendzenski, Lorraine; Brasier, Martin; Staley, James T., Jr.

    2005-09-01

    Desert varnish is a black, manganese-rich rock coating that is widespread on Earth. The mechanism underlying its formation, however, has remained unresolved. We present here new data and an associated model for how desert varnish forms, which substantively challenges previously accepted models. We tested both inorganic processes (e.g. clays and oxides cementing coatings) and microbial methods of formation. Techniques used in this preliminary study include SEM-EDAX with backscatter, HRTEM of focused ion beam prepared (FIB) wafers and several other methods including XRPD, Raman spectroscopy, XPS and Tof-SIMS. The only hypothesis capable of explaining a high water content, the presence of organic compounds, an amorphous silica phase (opal-A) and lesser quantities of clays than previously reported, is a mechanism involving the mobilization and redistribution of silica. The discovery of silica in desert varnish suggests labile organics are preserved by interaction with condensing silicic acid. Organisms are not needed for desert varnish formation but Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya, and other organic compounds are passively incorporated and preserved as organominerals. The rock coatings thus provide useful records of past environments on Earth and possibly other planets. Additionally this model also helps to explain the origin of key varnish and rock glaze features, including their hardness, the nature of the "glue" that binds heterogeneous components together, its layered botryoidal morphology, and its slow rate of formation.

  2. New education coalition formed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watt Ireto, M. Frank

    The Coalition for Earth Science Education (CESE) was recently formed to promote Earth science education at all levels. Earth science is a diverse group of sciences and as a result, professional and academic organizations from the various areas, though united in their goal to stimulate student enthusiasm for the Earth sciences, have not had an effective way of reaching students or their precollege teachers. Over the past year, meetings sponsored by the National Academy of Science's Board on Earth Sciences and Resources and the National Science Foundation have paved the way for this coalition. Victor Mayer, Director of the Program for Leadership in Earth Systems Science (PLESE) project at the University of Ohio, has been the leader in initiating and promoting this effort for the last several years.The purpose of CESE is to promote communication among the member organizations and to coordinate projects in Earth science education. Individual organizations will continue to develop and run projects, but will be able to find out what types of projects others are working on or have completed through a coalition clearinghouse. The clearinghouse should aid organizations as they design projects and should afford opportunities for collaborative efforts. This will directly benefit teachers, who will be able to contact one source for information on the multitude of projects in the Earth and space sciences. The new coalition's steering committee is working on goals and guidelines, and will give a report at the next coalition meeting at the National Science Teachers Association annual convention in Boston.

  3. Thermodynamics of Quantum Gases for the Entire Range of Temperature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biswas, Shyamal; Jana, Debnarayan

    2012-01-01

    We have analytically explored the thermodynamics of free Bose and Fermi gases for the entire range of temperature, and have extended the same for harmonically trapped cases. We have obtained approximate chemical potentials for the quantum gases in closed forms of temperature so that the thermodynamic properties of the quantum gases become…

  4. Present-day deformation of northern Pakistan from Salt Ranges to Karakorum Ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouanne, F.; Awan, A.; Pêcher, A.; Kausar, A.; Mugnier, J. L.; Khan, I.; Khan, N. A.; Van Melle, J.

    2014-03-01

    Episodic GPS measurements are used to quantify the present-day velocity field in the northwestern Himalaya from the southern Pamir to the Himalayan foreland. We report large postseismic displacements following the 2005 Kashmir earthquake and several mm/yr thrusting of the central segment of the Salt Ranges and Potwar Plateau over the foreland, westward thrusting of Nanga Parbat above the Kohistan Plateau, and ~12 mm/yr SSE velocities of the Karakorum Ranges and of the Deosai and Kohistan Plateaus relative to the Indian Plate. Numerical simulations allow to determine a first approximation of slip along active faults: (1) substantial creep of ~87 mm/yr between 2006 and 2012 along the flat northeast of the Balakot-Bagh Thrust affected by the 2005 earthquake; (2) ~5 mm/yr slip of the central segment of the Salt Ranges and Potwar Plateau, whereas their western boundaries are clearly inactive over the time span covered by our measurements; (3) 13 mm/yr ductile slip along the Main Himalayan Thrust modeled by a dislocation dipping 7° northward, locked at a depth of 15 km; and (4) ~20 mm/yr slip along the shear zone forming the western boundary of Nanga Parbat, between depths of 1.6 and 6.5 km. Residuals velocities suggest the existence of left-lateral strike slip along the Jhelum Fault.

  5. Watching How Planets Form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-09-01

    Anatomy of a Planet-Forming Disc around a Star More Massive than the Sun With the VISIR instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope, astronomers have mapped the disc around a star more massive than the Sun. The very extended and flared disc most likely contains enough gas and dust to spawn planets. It appears as a precursor of debris discs such as the one around Vega-like stars and thus provides the rare opportunity to witness the conditions prevailing prior to or during planet formation. "Planets form in massive, gaseous and dusty proto-planetary discs that surround nascent stars. This process must be rather ubiquitous as more than 200 planets have now been found around stars other than the Sun," said Pierre-Olivier Lagage, from CEA Saclay (France) and leader of the team that carried out the observations. "However, very little is known about these discs, especially those around stars more massive than the Sun. Such stars are much more luminous and could have a large influence on their disc, possibly quickly destroying the inner part." The astronomers used the VISIR instrument [1] on ESO's Very Large Telescope to map in the infrared the disc surrounding the young star HD 97048. With an age of a few million years [2], HD 97048 belongs to the Chameleon I dark cloud, a stellar nursery 600 light-years away. The star is 40 times more luminous than our Sun and is 2.5 times as massive. The astronomers could only have achieved such a detailed view due to the high angular resolution offered by an 8-metre size telescope in the infrared, reaching a resolution of 0.33 arcsecond. They discovered a very large disc, at least 12 times more extended than the orbit of the farthest planet in the Solar System, Neptune. The observations suggest the disc to be flared. "This is the first time such a structure, predicted by some theoretical models, is imaged around a massive star," said Lagage. ESO PR Photo 36/06 ESO PR Photo 36/06 A Flared Proto-Planetary Disc Such a geometry can only be

  6. Waste form product characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, L.L.; Shikashio, R.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy has operated nuclear facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to support national interests for several decades. Since 1953, it has supported the development of technologies for the storage and reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels (SNF) and the resultant wastes. However, the 1992 decision to discontinue reprocessing of SNF has left nearly 768 MT of SNF in storage at the INEL with unspecified plans for future dispositioning. Past reprocessing of these fuels for uranium and other resource recovery has resulted in the production of 3800 M{sup 3} calcine and a total inventory of 7600 M{sup 3} of radioactive liquids (1900 M{sup 3} destined for immediate calcination and the remaining sodium-bearing waste requiring further treatment before calcination). These issues, along with increased environmental compliance within DOE and its contractors, mandate operation of current and future facilities in an environmentally responsible manner. This will require satisfactory resolution of spent fuel and waste disposal issues resulting from the past activities. A national policy which identifies requirements for the disposal of SNF and high level wastes (HLW) has been established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) Sec.8,(b) para(3)) [1982]. The materials have to be conditioned or treated, then packaged for disposal while meeting US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. The spent fuel and HLW located at the INEL will have to be put into a form and package that meets these regulatory criteria. The emphasis of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) future operations has shifted toward investigating, testing, and selecting technologies to prepare current and future spent fuels and waste for final disposal. This preparation for disposal may include mechanical, physical and/or chemical processes, and may differ for each of the various fuels and wastes.

  7. Long range position and orientation tracking system

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, G.A.; Jansen, J.F.; Burks, B.L.; Bernacki, B.E.; Nypaver, D.J.

    1995-12-31

    The long range position and orientation tracking system (LRPOTS) will consist of two measurement pods, a VME-based computer system, and a detector array. The system is used to measure the position and orientation of a target that may be attached to a robotic arm, teleoperated manipulator, or autonomous vehicle. The pods have been designed to be mounted in the man-ways of the domes of the Fernald K-65 waste silos. Each pod has two laser scanner subsystems as well as lights and camera systems. One of the laser scanners will be oriented to scan in the pan direction, the other in the tilt direction. As the lasers scan across the detector array, the angles of incidence with each detector are recorded. Combining measurements from each of the four lasers yields sufficient data for a closed-form solution of the transform describing the location and orientation of the Content Mobilization System (CMS). Redundant detectors will be placed on the CMS to accommodate occlusions, to provide improved measurement accuracy, and to determine the CMS orientation.

  8. Doing Focus-on-Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Rod; Basturkmen, Helen; Loewen, Shawn

    2002-01-01

    Considers the rationale for using a focus on form approach to teaching form as opposed to the more traditional focus on forms approach where linguistic features are treated sequentially. Describes methodological options for attending to form in communication. (Author/VWL)

  9. Science Grade 7, Long Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Bureau of Curriculum Development.

    The Grade 7 Science course of study was prepared in two parallel forms. A short form designed for students who had achieved a high measure of success in previous science courses; the long form for those who have not been able to maintain the pace. Both forms contain similar content. The Grade 7 guide is the first in a three-year sequence for…

  10. Schools Of Up to A Dozen Animal Skeletons, Each In Form of the Ellipitcal Letter "O", Ranging in Height From 4 Inches to Over 1 Ft. and Body Thickness of 1/2-3/4 Inches, Have Been Found Embedded in Top 1 of Only 2 Extruded Limestone Streambeds That Run Across West Face of Grandeur Pk., Wasatch Range and Then Turn East, Going Upstream, to Church Fork (or Park), Millcreek Canyon, Remaining Separated. Lower Streambed Was Not Examined Beyond West Face. Various Other Skeletal Structures Exist and Strata of Seashells Have Previously Been Shown(1), Esp. in Antitributary Streams.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Keith L.; McDonald, Russell T.

    2004-05-01

    Walking s. along dirt road that lies above residential area at about Lake Bonneville shoreline (5,200 ft.) and viewing e. at the 8,299 ft. Gradeur Pk., we count e-w running subridges from Parleys Canyon and recognize that 4th such ridge is that which descends from Grandeur Pk. About 300 ft. below the peak (no surveyor's instruments are employed), the upper limestone streambed passes thru 4th subridge, where the streambed reaches its highest elevation on w. face, running due n. and then this white limestone streambed to its present main ravine, turns 90 degrees to w., down towards Salt Lake Valley and remains, closely, the former main drainage ravine. Intersection of this 4th subridge with upper limestone streambed locates about 1 dozen "0"-shaped skeletons. However, it is clear that at some period, upper stream turned 90 degrees to w. at this intersection, running down present 4th ridgecrest and then turned to n.w., 50-100 ft. later to travel a few hundred meters to intercept the former main revine. Some seashells and "0" skeletons are located in this 50-100 ft. distance but immed. beyond, on 4th subridge, we could find no evidence of streamflow, altho observations were too hasty and we could have gone further w. We Rocky Mts. were formed this 1st and smallest n.w. streambed was forced out of ground and is very appar. when viewed from S. L. Valley, but small. The lower extruded streambed, above, is probably younger than the above highest one, which is more rich in limestone over w. face of Grandeur Pk. and lies perhaps 300 ft below 1st streambed and connects to 4th subridge high up on it's s. side, near ridge crest, in a broad and spread out manner. It probably supplied all water for the extruded large 2nd, smaller 3rd, large 4th, n.w. oriented streambeds that each make a 45 degree angle with 4th subridge and terminate in above drainage ravine. These skeletal forms demonstrate early life that existed 1/4 - 1/3 billion years ago (permocarboniferous ice age) and

  11. Recent INEL spray-forming developments

    SciTech Connect

    McHugh, K.M.; Key, J.F.

    1992-12-31

    Spray forming is a near-net-shape fabrication technology in which a spray of finely atomized liquid droplets is deposited onto a suitably shaped substrate or mold to produce a coherent solid. The technology offers unique opportunities for simplifying materials processing, oftentimes while substantially improving product quality. Spray forming can be performed with a wide range of metals and nonmetals, and offersproperty improvements resulting from rapid solidification (eg. refined microstructures, extended solid solubilities and reduced segregation). Economic benefits result from process simplification and the elimination of unit operations. Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are developing spray-forming technology for producing near-net-shape solids and coatings of a variety of metals, polymers, and composite materials using de Laval nozzles. Results from several spray-forming programs are presented to illustrate the range of capabilities of the approach as well as the technical and economic benefits. These programs involved the production of low-carbon steel strip and SiC particulate reinforced aluminum strip; recent advances in spray forming tooling using low-melting-point metals are also described.

  12. Waste Form Evaluation Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, E.M.; Colombo, P.

    1985-09-01

    This report presents data that can be used to assess the acceptability of polyethylene and modified sulfur cement waste forms to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 61. The waste streams selected for this study include dry evaporator concentrate salts and incinerator ash as representative wastes which result from advanced volume reduction technologies and ion exchange resins which remain problematic for solidification using commercially available matrix materials. Property evaluation tests such as compressive strength, water immersion, thermal cycling, irradiation, biodegradation and leachability were conducted for polyethylene and sulfur cement waste forms over a range of waste-to-binder ratios. Based on the results of the tests, optimal waste loadings of 70 wt % sodium sulfate, 50 wt % boric acid, 40 wt % incinerator ash and 30 wt % ion exchange resins were established for polyethylene, although maximum loadings were considerably higher. For modified sulfur cement, optimal loadings of 40 wt % sodium sulfate, 40 wt % boric acid and 40 wt % incinerator ash are reported. Ion exchange resins are not recommended for incorporation into modified sulfur cement because of poor waste form performance even at very low waste concentrations. The results indicate that all waste forms tested within the range of optimal waste concentrations satisifed the requirements of the NRC Technical Position Paper on Waste Form.

  13. Filtrating forms of soil bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van'kova, A. A.; Ivanov, P. I.; Emtsev, V. T.

    2013-03-01

    Filtrating (ultramicroscopic) forms (FF) of bacteria were studied in a soddy-podzolic soil and the root zone of alfalfa plants as part of populations of the most widespread physiological groups of soil bacteria. FF were obtained by filtering soil solutions through membrane filters with a pore diameter of 0.22 μm. It was established that the greater part of the bacteria in the soil and in the root zone of the plants has an ultramicroscopic size: the average diameter of the cells is 0.3 μm, and their length is 0.6 μm, which is significantly less than the cell size of banal bacteria. The number of FF varies within a wide range depending on the physicochemical conditions of the habitat. The FF number's dynamics in the soil is of a seasonal nature; i.e., the number of bacteria found increases in the summer and fall and decreases in the winter-spring period. In the rhizosphere of the alfalfa, over the vegetation period, the number of FF and their fraction in the total mass of the bacteria increase. A reverse tendency is observed in the rhizoplane. The morphological particularities (identified by an electron microscopy) and the nature of the FF indicate their physiological activity.

  14. Centrelink forms -- a guide for GPs.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Kath

    2011-05-01

    Centrelink is a Commonwealth Government agency that delivers payments and services to the Australian community. This article highlights the range of forms general practitioners are commonly asked to complete for Centrelink clients and provides tips on accurate completion of these forms. This article is based on information outlined in the Centrelink factsheet 'Helpful information for medical practitioners: Centrelink medical report - Disability Support Pension' and on the Centrelink and Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs website. The information contained within this article has been checked for accuracy by Centrelink. PMID:21597557

  15. Analytical applications for pore-forming proteins.

    PubMed

    Kasianowicz, John J; Balijepalli, Arvind K; Ettedgui, Jessica; Forstater, Jacob H; Wang, Haiyan; Zhang, Huisheng; Robertson, Joseph W F

    2016-03-01

    Proteinaceous nanometer-scale pores are ubiquitous in biology. The canonical ionic channels (e.g., those that transport Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), and Cl(-) across cell membranes) play key roles in many cellular processes, including nerve and muscle activity. Another class of channels includes bacterial pore-forming toxins, which disrupt cell function, and can lead to cell death. We describe here the recent development of these toxins for a wide range of biological sensing applications. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Pore-Forming Toxins edited by Mauro Dalla Serra and Franco Gambale. PMID:26431785

  16. Radar range measurements in the atmosphere.

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2013-02-01

    The earth's atmosphere affects the velocity of propagation of microwave signals. This imparts a range error to radar range measurements that assume the typical simplistic model for propagation velocity. This range error is a function of atmospheric constituents, such as water vapor, as well as the geometry of the radar data collection, notably altitude and range. Models are presented for calculating atmospheric effects on radar range measurements, and compared against more elaborate atmospheric models.

  17. Lead exposure at uncovered outdoor firing ranges

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, R.L.; Hicks, A.M.; O'Leary, L.M.; London, S. )

    1991-06-01

    Excessive lead exposure in shooting instructors at indoor firing ranges and covered outdoor firing ranges has been documented. The City of Los Angeles assessed exposure of its full-time shooting instructors at uncovered outdoor ranges via air monitoring and blood lead-level measurements. Results of these tests revealed that significant lead exposure and absorption can occur at outdoor firing ranges. The use of copper-jacketed ammunition may decrease air lead levels and decrease lead absorption by range instructors.

  18. Plasma spray forming metals, intermetallics, and composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampath, Sanjay; Herman, Herbert

    1993-07-01

    Plasma spray processing is a droplet deposition method that combines the steps of melting, rapid solidification, and consolidation into a single step. The versatility of the technology enables the processing of freestanding bulk, near-net shapes of a wide range of alloys, intermetallics, ceramics, and composites, while still retaining the benefits of rapid solidification processing. In particular, it is possible to produce dense forms through vacuum plasma spraying.

  19. NASA Range Safety Annual Report 2007

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumont, Alan G.

    2007-01-01

    As always, Range Safety has been involved in a number of exciting and challenging activities and events. Throughout the year, we have strived to meet our goal of protecting the public, the workforce, and property during range operations. During the past year, Range Safety was involved in the development, implementation, and support of range safety policy. Range Safety training curriculum development was completed this year and several courses were presented. Tailoring exercises concerning the Constellation Program were undertaken with representatives from the Constellation Program, the 45th Space Wing, and the Launch Constellation Range Safety Panel. Range Safety actively supported the Range Commanders Council and it subgroups and remained involved in updating policy related to flight safety systems and flight safety analysis. In addition, Range Safety supported the Space Shuttle Range Safety Panel and addressed policy concerning unmanned aircraft systems. Launch operations at Kennedy Space Center, the Eastern and Western ranges, Dryden Flight Research Center, and Wallops Flight Facility were addressed. Range Safety was also involved in the evaluation of a number of research and development efforts, including the space-based range (formerly STARS), the autonomous flight safety system, the enhanced flight termination system, and the joint advanced range safety system. Flight safety system challenges were evaluated. Range Safety's role in the Space Florida Customer Assistance Service Program for the Eastern Range was covered along with our support for the Space Florida Educational Balloon Release Program. We hope you have found the web-based format both accessible and easy to use. Anyone having questions or wishing to have an article included in the 2008 Range Safety Annual Report should contact Alan Dumont, the NASA Range Safety Program Manager located at the Kennedy Space Center, or Michael Dook at NASA Headquarters.

  20. Range stacking: an interpolation-free SAR reconstruction algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soumekh, Mehrdad

    1998-09-01

    A method for digital image formation in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems is presented. The proposed approach is based on the wavefront reconstruction theory for SAR imaging systems. However, this is achieved without image formation in the spatial frequency domain of the target function which requires interpolation. The proposed method forms the target function at individual range points within the radar range swath; this is referred to as range stacking. The range stacking reconstruction method is applicable in stripmap and spotlight (broadside and squint) SAR systems. Results using a wide-beamwidth FOliage PENetrating (FOPEN) SAR database are provided, and the effect of beamwidth filtering on the signature of moving targets in the imaging scene is shown.

  1. Microprocessor realizations of range rate filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The performance of five digital range rate filters is evaluated. A range rate filter receives an input of range data from a radar unit and produces an output of smoothed range data and its estimated derivative range rate. The filters are compared through simulation on an IBM 370. Two of the filter designs are implemented on a 6800 microprocessor-based system. Comparisons are made on the bases of noise variance reduction ratios and convergence times of the filters in response to simulated range signals.

  2. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2010-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how waste form performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of waste form aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of waste form aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the waste forms come in contact with groundwater. The information presented in the report provides data that 1) quantify radionuclide retention within concrete waste form materials similar to those used to encapsulate waste in the Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG); 2) measure the effect of concrete waste form properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and 3) quantify the stability of uranium-bearing solid phases of limited solubility in concrete.

  3. On long-range forces of repulsion between biological cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derjaguin, B. V.; Golovanov, M. V.

    1992-05-01

    We have established experimentally that when biological cells, for example, blood, are suspended in concentrated solutions of inorganic electrolytes (for instance, in a 15% solution of sodium chloride) then around some cells (leucocytes, especially tumour cells) there form haloes, i.e., circular spaces free from background cells (erythrocytes, yeast cells, colloidal particles of Indian ink). In the medium made up of erythrocytes the haloes form during 5-10 min as a result of the background cells drawing apart from the central halo-forming cell (HFC) at a distance of 10-100 μm and more. In the medium made of the Indian ink particles, the haloes form during 2-4 s and attain a thickness of about 10-20 μm. The erythrocytes and the haloes forming in their medium can be preserved for about three to five days at room temperature. It has been established that, when tumour HFCs are present at sufficient concentrations, they form hexagonal periodic structures having a mean spacing between cells of up to 60 μm. The authors put forward as one probable suggestion that the formation of haloes is largely determined by long-range repulsive forces arising from the phenomenon of diffusiophoresis generated by the diffusion currents that emerge from the surface of halo-forming cells.

  4. Heated die facilitates tungsten forming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattin, J. H.; Haystrick, J. E.; Laughlin, J. C.; Leidy, R. A.

    1966-01-01

    Tungsten forming in a press brake employs a bottom die assembly with a heating manifold between two water-cooled die sections. The manifold has hydrogen-oxygen burners spaced along its length for even heat during forming.

  5. Plastic instability in omega forming alloy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, S.

    2006-11-01

    The plastic flow behaviour of two ω forming systems namely ordered Nb-40Ti-15Al and metastable Zr-Nb alloys has been studied over a range of strain rate and temperature to establish the domain of serrated flow or Protevin-Le Chatelier (PLC) effect. The observed features of serrated flow in these alloys are strikingly similar to that observed during PLC effect of solid solution alloys. Samples deformed in the serrated flow regime have been studied at different levels of magnification using light, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. A very characteristic feature of deformation in these alloys has been the presence precipitate free channels, microbands and deformation bands. The proposed mechanism of serrated flow involves creation of soft channels formed by shearing of ω-particles and dynamic restoration of ω-particles within the soft channel resulting in pinning of dislocation. It appears that this is the characteristic feature of deformation of ω forming system exhibiting PLC effect.

  6. Lightweight, Compact, Long Range Camera Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafer, Donald V.

    1983-08-01

    The model 700 camera is the latest in a 30-year series of LOROP cameras developed by McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company (MDAC) and their predecessor companies. The design achieves minimum size and weight and is optimized for low-contrast performance. The optical system includes a 66-inch focal length, f/5.6, apochromatic lens and three folding mirrors imaging on a 4.5-inch square format. A three-axis active stabilization system provides the capability for long exposure time and, hence, fine grain films can be used. The optical path forms a figure "4" behind the lens. In front of the lens is a 45° pointing mirror. This folded configuration contributed greatly to the lightweight and compact design. This sequential autocycle frame camera has three modes of operation with one, two, and three step positions to provide a choice of swath widths within the range of lateral coverage. The magazine/shutter assembly rotates in relationship with the pointing mirror and aircraft drift angle to maintain film format alignment with the flight path. The entire camera is angular rate stabilized in roll, pitch, and yaw. It also employs a lightweight, electro-magnetically damped, low-natural-frequency spring suspension for passive isolation from aircraft vibration inputs. The combined film transport and forward motion compensation (FMC) mechanism, which is operated by a single motor, is contained in a magazine that can, depending on accessibility which is installation dependent, be changed in flight. The design also stresses thermal control, focus control, structural stiffness, and maintainability. The camera is operated from a remote control panel. This paper describes the leading particulars and features of the camera as related to weight and configuration.

  7. Observation of ultralong range Rydberg molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaffer, James

    2009-05-01

    In 1934, Enrico Fermi described the scattering of a low energy electron from a neutral atom by using the ideas of scattering length and pseudopotential. Although the long range potential for an electron-atom interaction is always attractive, Fermi realized that the s-wave scattering length that characterizes the low energy collision can be either positive or negative. For a positive scattering length, the wavefunction of the electron is shifted away from the atom, the electron is repelled; whereas for a negative scattering length, the wavefunction of the electron is shifted to the atom, the electron is attracted. Based on Fermi's approach, Greene and co-workers predicted a novel molecular binding mechanism where a low energy Rydberg electron is scattered from a ground state atom in the case of negative scattering length. In this situation, the interaction between the electron and ground state atom is attractive and results in the formation of bound states of the ground state atom and the Rydberg atom. Molecules bound by electron scattering can have an internuclear separation of several thousand Bohr radii and are very different from molecules formed by 2 Rydberg atoms where the binding is the result of multipolar forces between the atoms alone. In this talk, we present experimental data on the observation of these exotic molecular states for Rb Rydberg atoms in S states for principal quantum numbers n between 34 and 40. The spectroscopic results for the vibrational ground and first excited state of the dimer Rb(5S)-Rb(nS) are presented and the s-wave scattering length for electron-Rb(5S) scattering in the low energy regime where the kinetic energy is less than 100 meV. Finally, we discuss and present data on the lifetimes and decay mechanisms of these molecules in a magnetic trap.

  8. The Dissipation Range of Interstellar Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spangler, Steven R.; Buffo, J. J.

    2013-06-01

    Turbulence may play an important role in a number of interstellar processes. One of these is heating of the interstellar gas, as the turbulent energy is dissipated and changed into thermal energy of the gas, or at least other forms of energy. There have been very promising recent results on the mechanism for dissipation of turbulence in the Solar Wind (Howes et al, Phys. Plasm. 18, 102305, 2011). In the Solar Wind, the dissipation arises because small-scale irregularities develop properties of kinetic Alfven waves, and apparently damp like kinetic Alfven waves. A property of kinetic Alfven waves is that they become significantly compressive on size scales of order the ion Larmor radius. Much is known about the plasma properties of ionized components of interstellar medium such as HII regions and the Diffuse Ionized Gas (DIG) phase, including information on the turbulence in these media. The technique of radio wave scintillations can yield properties of HII region and DIG turbulence on scales of order the ion Larmor radius, which we refer to as the dissipation scale. In this paper, we collect results from a number of published radio scattering measurements of interstellar turbulence on the dissipation scale. These studies show evidence for a spectral break on the dissipation scale, but no evidence for enhanced compressibility of the fluctuations. The simplest explanation of our result is that turbulence in the ionized interstellar medium does not possess properties of kinetic Alfven waves. This could point to an important difference with Solar Wind turbulence. New observations, particularly with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) could yield much better measurements of the power spectrum of interstellar turbulence in the dissipation range. This research was supported at the University of Iowa by grants AST09-07911 and ATM09-56901 from the National Science Foundation.

  9. 2012 NASA Range Safety Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumont, Alan G.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a NASA Range Safety (NRS) overview for current and potential range users. This report contains articles which cover a variety of subject areas, summaries of various NASA Range Safety Program (RSP) activities performed during the past year, links to past reports, and information on several projects that may have a profound impact on the way business will be conducted in the future. Specific topics discussed in the 2012 NASA Range Safety Annual Report include a program overview and 2012 highlights; Range Safety Training; Independent Assessments; Support to Program Operations at all ranges conducting NASA launch/flight operations; a continuing overview of emerging range safety-related technologies; and status reports from all of the NASA Centers that have Range Safety responsibilities.

  10. 2009 NASA Range Safety Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    This year, NASA Range Safety transitioned to a condensed annual report to allow for Secretariat support to the Range Safety Group, Risk Committee. Although much shorter than in previous years, this report contains full-length articles concerning various subject areas, as well as links to past reports. Additionally, summaries from various NASA Range Safety Program activities that took place throughout the year are presented, as well as information on several projects that may have a profound impact on the way business will be done in the future. The sections include a program overview and 2009 highlights; Range Safety Training; Range Safety Policy; Independent Assessments Support to Program Operations at all ranges conducting NASA launch operations; a continuing overview of emerging range safety-related technologies; and status reports from all of the NASA Centers that have Range Safety responsibilities.

  11. Investigating Form-Focused Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Rod

    2001-01-01

    Provides an historical sketch of form-focused instruction research, defines what is meant by form-focused instruction, and discusses the main research methods that have been used to investigate form-focused instruction in terms of a broad distinction between confirmatory and interpretive research. (Author/VWL)

  12. Universal, strong and long-ranged trapping by optical conveyors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffner, David; Grier, David G.

    2015-03-01

    Optical conveyors are active tractor beams that selectively transport illuminated objects either upstream or downstream along their axes. Formed by the coherent superposition of coaxial Bessel beams, an optical conveyor features an axial array of equally spaced intensity maxima that act as optical traps for small objects. We demonstrate through measurements on colloidal spheres and numerical calculations based on the generalized Lorenz-Mie theory that optical conveyors' interferometric structure endows them with trapping characteristics far superior to those of conventional optical tweezers. Optical conveyors form substantially stiffer traps and can transport a wider variety of materials over a much longer axial range.

  13. Universal, strong and long-ranged trapping by optical conveyors.

    PubMed

    Ruffner, David B; Grier, David G

    2014-11-01

    Optical conveyors are active tractor beams that selectively transport illuminated objects either upstream or downstream along their axes. Formed by the coherent superposition of coaxial Bessel beams, an optical conveyor features an axial array of equally spaced intensity maxima that act as optical traps for small objects. We demonstrate through measurements on colloidal spheres and numerical calculations based on the generalized Lorenz-Mie theory that optical conveyors' interferometric structure endows them with trapping characteristics far superior to those of conventional optical tweezers. Optical conveyors form substantially stiffer traps and can transport a wider variety of materials over a much longer axial range. PMID:25401830

  14. Uniform-droplet spray forming

    SciTech Connect

    Blue, C.A.; Sikka, V.K.; Chun, Jung-Hoon; Ando, T.

    1997-04-01

    The uniform-droplet process is a new method of liquid-metal atomization that results in single droplets that can be used to produce mono-size powders or sprayed-on to substrates to produce near-net shapes with tailored microstructure. The mono-sized powder-production capability of the uniform-droplet process also has the potential of permitting engineered powder blends to produce components of controlled porosity. Metal and alloy powders are commercially produced by at least three different methods: gas atomization, water atomization, and rotating disk. All three methods produce powders of a broad range in size with a very small yield of fine powders with single-sized droplets that can be used to produce mono-size powders or sprayed-on substrates to produce near-net shapes with tailored microstructures. The economical analysis has shown the process to have the potential of reducing capital cost by 50% and operating cost by 37.5% when applied to powder making. For the spray-forming process, a 25% savings is expected in both the capital and operating costs. The project is jointly carried out at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Tuffs University, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Preliminary interactions with both finished parts and powder producers have shown a strong interest in the uniform-droplet process. Systematic studies are being conducted to optimize the process parameters, understand the solidification of droplets and spray deposits, and develop a uniform-droplet-system (UDS) apparatus appropriate for processing engineering alloys.

  15. Spray forming of superplastic aluminum sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Lavender, C.A.; Smith, M.T.; McHugh, K.M.; Key, J.F.

    1995-12-31

    Ingot metallurgy (I/M) processing methods for superplastic aluminum sheet require substantial hot, warm and final cold rolling reduction steps to produce the desired fine grain size and thermally-stable microstructure necessary for superplastic forming (SPF). The rapid solidification rates associated with spray forming offer the potential for economic processing of near net-thickness SPF sheet having alloy compositions that are not possible with conventional ingot metallurgy. To evaluate the application of spray forming for SPF aluminum sheet, a modified 5083 alloy was supplied to Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for processing using laboratory spray-forming equipment. Spray-formed sheet specimens were then supplied to the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory for characterization and comparison with conventional I/M-based SPF sheet. Results show that the spray formed material, when processed using appropriate homogenization and cold reduction steps (3:1 total reduction), has an equiaxed grain size of 2--4 {micro}m near the deposition substrate. However, microstructural examination indicates that grain size increases as a function of the distance from the deposition substrate. Tensile tests were conducted at a temperature of 550 C and constant strain rates over a range of 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} to 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} s{sup {minus}1} to evaluate the superplastic behavior of the spray-formed samples. Results show that the spray-formed material having a 3:1 cold rolling reduction has superplastic elongation equivalent to I/M materials processed with a 60:1 reduction.

  16. The Colorado front range: anatomy of a Laramide uplift

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellogg, Karl; Bryant, Bruce; Reed, John C.

    2004-01-01

    Along a transect across the Front Range from Denver to the Blue River valley near Dillon, the trip explores the geologic framework and Laramide (Late Cretaceous to early Eocene) uplift history of this basement-cored mountain range. Specific items for discussion at various stops are (1) the sedimentary and structural record along the upturned eastern margin of the range, which contains several discontinuous, east-directed reverse faults; (2) the western structural margin of the range, which contains a minimum of 9 km of thrust overhang and is significantly different in structural style from the eastern margin; (3) mid- to late-Tertiary modifications to the western margin of the range from extensional faulting along the northern Rio Grande rift trend; (4) the thermal and uplift history of the range as revealed by apatite fission track analysis; (5) the Proterozoic basement of the range, including the significance of northeast-trending shear zones; and (6) the geologic setting of the Colorado mineral belt, formed during Laramide and mid-Tertiary igneous activity.

  17. 33 CFR 62.41 - Ranges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ranges. 62.41 Section 62.41 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.41 Ranges. Ranges are aids...

  18. 33 CFR 62.41 - Ranges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ranges. 62.41 Section 62.41 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.41 Ranges. Ranges are aids...

  19. 33 CFR 62.41 - Ranges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ranges. 62.41 Section 62.41 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.41 Ranges. Ranges are aids...

  20. 33 CFR 62.41 - Ranges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ranges. 62.41 Section 62.41 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.41 Ranges. Ranges are aids...

  1. 33 CFR 62.41 - Ranges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ranges. 62.41 Section 62.41 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.41 Ranges. Ranges are aids...

  2. 36 CFR 222.9 - Range improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Range improvements. 222.9 Section 222.9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.9 Range improvements. (a) The Chief, Forest Service, is authorized to install...

  3. Design of a high capacity long range cargo aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisshaar, Terrence A.

    1994-01-01

    This report examines the design of a long range cargo transport to attempt to reduce ton-mile shipping costs and to stimulate the air cargo market. This design effort involves the usual issues but must also include consideration of: airport terminal facilities; cargo loading and unloading; and defeating the 'square-cube' law to design large structures. This report reviews the long range transport design problem and several solutions developed by senior student design teams at Purdue University. The results show that it will be difficult to build large transports unless the infrastructure is changed and unless the basic form of the airplane changes so that aerodynamic and structural efficiencies are employed.

  4. View of concrete sand bag form concentration in the Merry ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of concrete sand bag form concentration in the Merry Generator House Southeast corner, looking north - Arthur Holmes Merry Generator House, Signal Lake North of Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  5. View of North half of concrete sand bag form concentration ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of North half of concrete sand bag form concentration in the Merry Generator House southeast corner, looking east - Arthur Holmes Merry Generator House, Signal Lake North of Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  6. View of South half of concrete sand bag form concentration ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of South half of concrete sand bag form concentration in the Merry Generator House Southeast corner, ooking east - Arthur Holmes Merry Generator House, Signal Lake North of Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  7. The X-33 Extended Flight Test Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackall, Dale A.; Sakahara, Robert; Kremer, Steven E.

    1998-01-01

    Development of an extended test range, with range instrumentation providing continuous vehicle communications, is required to flight-test the X-33, a scaled version of a reusable launch vehicle. The extended test range provides vehicle communications coverage from California to landing at Montana or Utah. This paper provides an overview of the approaches used to meet X-33 program requirements, including using multiple ground stations, and methods to reduce problems caused by reentry plasma radio frequency blackout. The advances used to develop the extended test range show other hypersonic and access-to-space programs can benefit from the development of the extended test range.

  8. Index of NASA prefixed forms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This Handbook sets forth information for the guidance of all users of the NASA Forms Management Program System. It is issued in accordance with the Federal Information Resources Management Regulation (FIRMR), Subpart 201-9.1. This Handbook sets forth an alpha-functional index of NASA-prefixed forms by title, identifying number, and unit of issue. The automated processing two-letter code (NF) has been substituted for the spelling out of the NASA form-prefix preceding the form number. To indicate a description in lieu of a distinct title, the entire reference under the Form Title/Description column has been enclosed in parentheses. A list of current forms, shown by number and page, is included for cross-reference and to preclude the ordering of those forms which have been deleted from the system. This Handbook will be updated, as appropriate. NHB 1420.2H dated July 1986, is cancelled.

  9. Wide temperature range electronic device with lead attachment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, R. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A electronic device including lead attachment structure which permits operation of the devices over a wide temperature range is reported. The device comprises a core conductor having a thin coating of metal thereon whereby only a limited amount of coating material is available to form an alloy which bonds the core conductor to the device electrode, the electrode composition thus being affected only in the region adjacent to the lead.

  10. The Comparative Effects of Chloramines on a Range of Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Viglierchio, D. R.; Croll, N. A.

    1969-01-01

    Chloramine-T (sodium p-toluene sulfonchloramide) was a good surface sterilant for Ditylenchus dipsaci, however it was somewhat nematicidal. These properties were presumably associated with its properties as an oxidizing chlorine. Other chloramines tested were also toxic. Its possible use as a nematicide is suggested in relation to dosage and phytotoxicity. The comparative effects of chloramines on a wide range of freeliving soil nematodes and freeliving infective larvae of animal parasitic forms are included. PMID:19325651

  11. Structure of potato tubers formed during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croxdale, J.; Cook, M.; Tibbitts, T. W.; Brown, C. S.; Wheeler, R. M.

    1997-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Norland) explants, consisting of a leaf, axillary bud, and small stem segment, were used as a model system to study the influence of spaceflight on the formation of sessile tubers from axillary buds. The explants were flown on the space shuttle Columbia (STS-73, 20 October to 5 November 1995) in the ASTROCULTURE (TM) flight package, which provided a controlled environment for plant growth. Light and scanning electron microscopy were used to compare the precisely ordered tissues of tubers formed on Earth with those formed during spaceflight. The structure of tubers produced during spaceflight was similar to that of tubers produced in a control experiment. The size and shape of tubers, the geometry of tuber tissues, and the distribution of starch grains and proteinaceous crystals were comparable in tubers formed in both environments. The shape, surface texture, and size range of starch grains from both environments were similar, but a greater percentage of smaller starch grains formed in spaceflight than on Earth. Since explant leaves must be of given developmental age before tubers form, instructions regarding the regular shape and ordered tissue geometry of tubers may have been provided in the presence of gravity. Regardless of when the signalling occurred, gravity was not required to produce a tuber of typical structure.

  12. Magnetic form factors of the trinucleons

    SciTech Connect

    Schiavilla, R; Pandharipande, V R; Riska, Dan-Olof

    1989-11-01

    The magnetic form factors of 3H and 3He are calculated with the Monte Carlo method from variational ground-state wave functions obtained for the Argonne and Urbana two- and three-nucleon interactions. The electromagnetic current operator contains one- and two-body terms that are constructed so as to satisfy the continuity equation with the two-nucleon potential in the Hamiltonian. The results obtained with the Argonne two-nucleon interaction are in overall agreement with the empirical values. It appears that the remaining theoretical uncertainty, in the calculation of these form factors from a given interaction model, is dominated by that in the electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon. It is found that the isovector magnetic form factors are rather sensitive to the details of the isospin-dependent tensor force, and they are much better reproduced with the Argonne than the Urbana potential. The isoscalar magnetic form factors appear to be sensitive to the spin-orbit interactions, and are better reproduced with the Urbana potential. The Argonne potential has a stronger τ1∙τ2 tensor force, while the Urbana one has a shorter-range spin-orbit interaction.

  13. Accuracy analysis of optical ranging in atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Hong-wu; Huang, Yin-bo; Mei, Hai-ping; Rao, Rui-zhong

    2009-07-01

    Optical ranging is one of the most precise techniques for distance measurement. The effects of the density variation of atmosphere, aerosols and clouds on optical ranging precision are generally considered, a new method is proposed for calculating the ranging precision in the presence of aerosol particles and clouds. The size distribution spectrum models for aerosols and clouds in the Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds Package (OPAC) are adopted. Results show that aerosols and clouds could introduce errors of several centimeters to several ten meters to the ranging. The relationship between the ranging precision and the relative humidity, the zenith angle of ranging direction and the optical wavelength is also analyzed. The ranging error doesn't have an obvious relationship with the wavelength, but depends on the zenith angle, especially for the angle larger than 70 degree. The ranging error depends on the relative humidity as well. The ranging error induced by aerosols increases gradually with the increase of the relative humidity when the relative humidity is less than 80%, but it increases rapidly when the relative humidity is larger than 80%. Our results could provide a theoretical basis and reference for the application of optical ranging.

  14. Tonopah Test Range capabilities: technical manual

    SciTech Connect

    Manhart, R.L.

    1982-11-01

    This manual describes Tonopah Test Range (TTR), defines its testing capabilities, and outlines the steps necessary to schedule tests on the Range. Operated by Sandia National Laboratories, TTR is a major test facility for DOE-funded weapon programs. The Range presents an integrated system for ballistic test vehicle tracking and data acquisition. Multiple radars, optical trackers, telemetry stations, a central computer complex, and combined landline/RF communications systems assure full Range coverage for any type of test. Range operations are conducted by a department within Sandia's Field Engineering Directorate. While the overall Range functions as a complete system, it is operationally divided into the Test Measurements, Instrumentation Development, and Range Operations divisions. The primary function of TTR is to support DOE weapons test activities. Management, however, encourages other Government agencies and their contractors to schedule tests on the Range which can make effective use of its capabilities. Information concerning Range use by organizations outside of DOE is presented. Range instrumentation and support facilities are described in detail. This equipment represents the current state-of-the-art and reflects a continuing commitment by TTR management to field the most effective tracking and data acquisition system available.

  15. On Free-Form Gaming. A Rand Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, William M.

    Free-form games are applicable to a range of problem-solving situations. This document discusses gaming as a procedure for organized study of the complex problems entailed in confrontations and crises. The major focus of the booklet is on the various forms of this game type, the kinds of problems to which it is best adapted, and some approaches to…

  16. Sheet fractures, other stress forms and some engineering implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal Romaní, J. R.; Twidale, C. R.

    1999-12-01

    Field evidence shows that, contrary to common belief, sheet fractures and structures are due to compressive stress. A suite of minor forms including A-tents or pop-ups are of similar origin. This interpretation carries a range of implications for civil engineering and quarrying projects. The minor forms are also indicators of seismicity.

  17. The semantics of biological forms.

    PubMed

    Albertazzi, Liliana; Canal, Luisa; Dadam, James; Micciolo, Rocco

    2014-01-01

    This study analyses how certain qualitative perceptual appearances of biological forms are correlated with expressions of natural language. Making use of the Osgood semantic differential, we presented the subjects with 32 drawings of biological forms and a list of 10 pairs of connotative adjectives to be put in correlations with them merely by subjective judgments. The principal components analysis made it possible to group the semantics of forms according to two distinct axes of variability: harmony and dynamicity. Specifically, the nonspiculed, nonholed, and flat forms were perceived as harmonic and static; the rounded ones were harmonic and dynamic. The elongated forms were somewhat disharmonious and somewhat static. The results suggest the existence in the general population of a correspondence between perceptual and semantic processes, and of a nonsymbolic relation between visual forms and their adjectival expressions in natural language. PMID:25669053

  18. Spanish Peaks, Sangre de Cristo Range, Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Spanish Peaks, on the eastern flank of the Sangre de Cristo range, abruptly rise 7,000 feet above the western Great Plains. Settlers, treasure hunters, trappers, gold and silver miners have long sighted on these prominent landmarks along the Taos branch of the Santa Fe trail. Well before the westward migration, the mountains figured in the legends and history of the Ute, Apache, Comanche, and earlier tribes. 'Las Cumbres Espanolas' are also mentioned in chronicles of exploration by Spaniards including Ulibarri in 1706 and later by de Anza, who eventually founded San Francisco (California). This exceptional view (STS108-720-32), captured by the crew of Space Shuttle mission STS108, portrays the Spanish Peaks in the context of the southern Rocky Mountains. Uplift of the Sangre de Cristo began about 75 million years ago and produced the long north-trending ridges of faulted and folded rock to the west of the paired peaks. After uplift had ceased (26 to 22 million years ago), the large masses of igneous rock (granite, granodiorite, syenodiorite) that form the Peaks were emplaced (Penn, 1995-2001). East and West Spanish Peaks are 'stocks'-bodies of molten rock that intruded sedimentary layers, cooled and solidified, and were later exposed by erosion. East Peak (E), at 12,708 ft is almost circular and is about 5 1/2 miles long by 3 miles wide, while West Peak (W), at 13,623 ft is roughly 2 3/4 miles long by 1 3/4 miles wide. Great dikes-long stone walls-radiate outward from the mountains like spokes of a wheel, a prominent one forms a broad arc northeast of East Spanish Peak. As the molten rock rose, it forced its way into vertical cracks and joints in the sedimentary strata; the less resistant material was then eroded away, leaving walls of hard rock from 1 foot to 100 feet wide, up to 100 feet high, and as long as 14 miles. Dikes trending almost east-west are also common in the region. For more information visit: Sangres.com: The Spanish Peaks (accessed January 16

  19. On Optimal Differentially Private Mechanisms for Count-Range Queries*

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Chen; Cai, Jin-Yi; Lu, Pinyan; Naughton, Jeffrey F.

    2014-01-01

    While there is a large and growing body of literature on differentially private mechanisms for answering various classes of queries, to the best of our knowledge “count-range” queries have not been studied. These are a natural class of queries that ask “is the number of rows in a relation satisfying a given predicate between two integers θ1 and θ2?” Such queries can be viewed as a simple form of SQL “having” queries. We begin by developing a provably optimal differentially private mechansim for count-range queries for a single consumer. For count queries (in contrast to count-range queries), Ghosh et al. [9] have provided a differentially private mechanism that simultaneously maximizes utility for multiple consumers. This raises the question of whether such a mechanism exists for count-range queries. We prove that the answer is no — for count range queries, no such mechanism exists. However, perhaps surprisingly, we prove that such a mechanism does exist for “threshold” queries, which are simply count-range queries for which either θ1 = 0 or θ2 = +∞. Furthermore, we prove that this mechanism is a two-approximation for general count-range queries. PMID:25364783

  20. Causality and quantum criticality in long-range lattice models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maghrebi, Mohammad F.; Gong, Zhe-Xuan; Foss-Feig, Michael; Gorshkov, Alexey V.

    2016-03-01

    Long-range quantum lattice systems often exhibit drastically different behavior than their short-range counterparts. In particular, because they do not satisfy the conditions for the Lieb-Robinson theorem, they need not have an emergent relativistic structure in the form of a light cone. Adopting a field-theoretic approach, we study the one-dimensional transverse-field Ising model with long-range interactions, and a fermionic model with long-range hopping and pairing terms, explore their critical and near-critical behavior, and characterize their response to local perturbations. We deduce the dynamic critical exponent, up to the two-loop order within the renormalization group theory, which we then use to characterize the emergent causal behavior. We show that beyond a critical value of the power-law exponent of the long-range couplings, the dynamics effectively becomes relativistic. Various other critical exponents describing correlations in the ground state, as well as deviations from a linear causal cone, are deduced for a wide range of the power-law exponent.

  1. Range filtering for sequential GPS receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paielli, Russell

    1987-01-01

    The filtering of the satellite range and range-rate measurements from single channel sequential Global Positioning System receivers is usually done with an extended Kalman filter which has state variables defined in terms of an orthogonal navigation reference frame. An attractive suboptimal alternative is range-domain filtering, in which the individual satellite measurements are filtered separately before they are combined for the navigation solution. The main advantages of range-domain filtering are decreased processing and storage requirements and simplified tuning. Several range filter mechanization alternatives are presented, along with an innovative approach for combining the filtered range-domain quantities to determine the navigation state estimate. In addition, a method is outlined for incorporating measurements from auxiliary sensors such as altimeters into the navigation state estimation scheme similarly to the satellite measurements. A method is also described for incorporating inertial measurements into the navigation state estimator as a process driver.

  2. Seal for fluid forming tools

    DOEpatents

    Golovashchenko, Sergey Fedorovich; Bonnen, John Joseph Francis

    2012-03-20

    An electro-hydraulic forming tool for forming a sheet metal blank in a one-sided die has first and second rigid rings that engage opposite sides of a sheet metal blank. The rigid rings are contained within slots on a die portion and a hydraulic force applicator portion of the forming tool. The seals are either resiliently biased by an elastomeric member or inherently resiliently biased into contact with the blank.

  3. Folding associated with extensional faulting: Sheep Range detachment, southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Guth, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    The Sheep Range detachment is a major Miocene extensional fault system of the Great Basin. Its major faults have a scoop shape, with straight, N-S traces extending 15-30 km and then abruptly turning to strike E-W. Tertiary deformation involved simultaneous normal faulting, sedimentation, landsliding, and strike-slip faulting. Folds occur in two settings: landslide blocks and drag along major faults. Folds occur in landslide blocks and beneath them. Most folds within landslide blocks are tight anticlines, with limbs dipping 40-60 degrees. Brecciation of the folds and landslide blocks suggests brittle deformation. Near Quijinump Canyon in the Sheep Range, at least three landslide blocks (up to 500 by 1500 m) slid into a small Tertiary basin. Tertiary limestone beneath the Paleozoic blocks was isoclinally folded. Westward dips reveal drag folds along major normal faults, as regional dips are consistently to the east. The Chowderhead anticline is the largest drag fold, along an extensional fault that offsets Ordovician units 8 km. East-dipping Ordovician and Silurian rocks in the Desert Range form the hanging wall. East-dipping Cambrian and Ordovician units in the East Desert Range form the foot wall and east limb of the anticline. Caught along the fault plane, the anticline's west-dipping west limb contains mostly Cambrian units.

  4. Reindeer ranges inventory in western Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, T. H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of LANDSAT data as a tool for reindeer range inventory on the tundra of northwestern Alaska is addressed. The specific goal is to map the range resource and estimate plant productivity of the Seward Peninsula. Information derived from these surveys is needed to develop range management plans for reindeer herding and to evaluate potential conflicting use between reindeer and caribou. The development of computer image classification techniques is discussed.

  5. An algorithm for segmenting range imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R.S.

    1997-03-01

    This report describes the technical accomplishments of the FY96 Cross Cutting and Advanced Technology (CC&AT) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The project focused on developing algorithms for segmenting range images. The image segmentation algorithm developed during the project is described here. In addition to segmenting range images, the algorithm can fuse multiple range images thereby providing true 3D scene models. The algorithm has been incorporated into the Rapid World Modelling System at Sandia National Laboratory.

  6. Clutter rejection limitations from ambiguous range clutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, J. Patrick

    Limitations on achievable clutter rejection due to ambiguous range clutter are described. The profile of clutter power versus range is shown to limit achievable clutter rejection. Ambiguous range effects are discussed in the context of sea clutter, using a model that includes propagation conditions, and rain clutter. Limitations in moving target indication systems are illustrated for sea clutter, where propagation is subject to evaporation ducts. Benefits of fill pulses are illustrated for rain and sea clutter.

  7. System for forming janus particles

    DOEpatents

    Hong, Liang; Jiang, Shan; Granick, Steve

    2011-01-25

    The invention is a method of forming Janus particles, that includes forming an emulsion that contains initial particles, a first liquid, and a second liquid; solidifying the first liquid to form a solid that contains at least a portion of the initial particles on a surface of the solid; and treating the exposed particle sides with a first surface modifying agent, to form the Janus particles. Each of the initial particles on the surface has an exposed particle side and a blocked particle side.

  8. L Form of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Richard B.

    1966-01-01

    Roberts, Richard B. (Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, D.C.). L form of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J. Bacteriol. 92:1609–1614. 1966.—L forms were produced by the penicillin gradient plate technique from a recently isolated strain of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. To date, these L forms have had 30 serial passages on medium containing penicillin. Stabilized L forms developed on penicillin-free medium after 10 or more passages in the presence of penicillin. Morphological characteristics of these organisms were identical to L forms of meningococci. Medium and environmental conditions necessary for optimal growth included: Brain Heart Infusion of pH 7.2 to 7.4, 1.1 to 1.3% agar, 10 to 20% sucrose, 10 to 20% horse serum, temperature at 35 to 36 C, and increased CO2 tension (candle jar). L forms were more resistant than the parent gonococcus to penicillin, ampicillin, methicillin, cycloserine, and cephalothin, whereas both organisms had similar sensitivities to bacitracin, vancomycin, ristocetin, novobiocin, tetracycline, and erythromycin. Revertant gonococci were produced on penicillin-free medium from L forms which had had 1, 5, and 10 serial passages. Morphology and fermentative reactions of revertant strains were identical to those of the parent gonococcus. Revertant strains produced L forms more readily than the parent organism; in fact, L forms from certain revertants did not require penicillin, but only serum and sucrose for their production and propagation on artificial medium. Images PMID:4959715

  9. The Mars Observer differential one-way range demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroger, P. M.; Border, J. S.; Nandi, S.

    1994-01-01

    Current methods of angular spacecraft positioning using station differenced range data require an additional observation of an extragalactic radio source (quasar) to estimate the timing offset between the reference clocks at the two Deep Space Stations. The quasar observation is also used to reduce the effects of instrumental and media delays on the radio metric observable by forming a difference with the spacecraft observation (delta differential one-way range, delta DOR). An experiment has been completed using data from the Global Positioning System satellites to estimate the station clock offset, eliminating the need for the quasar observation. The requirements for direct measurement of the instrumental delays that must be made in the absence of a quasar observation are assessed. Finally, the results of the 'quasar-free' differential one-way range, or DOR, measurements of the Mars Observer spacecraft are compared with those of simultaneous conventional delta DOR measurements.

  10. Cooperative secretions facilitate host range expansion in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    McNally, Luke; Viana, Mafalda; Brown, Sam P.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of emergent human pathogens are zoonotic in origin, that is, they can transmit to humans from other animals. Understanding the factors underlying the evolution of pathogen host range is therefore of critical importance in protecting human health. There are two main evolutionary routes to generalism: organisms can tolerate multiple environments or they can modify their environments to forms to which they are adapted. Here we use a combination of theory and a phylogenetic comparative analysis of 191 pathogenic bacterial species to show that bacteria use cooperative secretions that modify their environment to extend their host range and infect multiple host species. Our results suggest that cooperative secretions are key determinants of host range in bacteria, and that monitoring for the acquisition of secreted proteins by horizontal gene transfer can help predict emerging zoonoses. PMID:25091146

  11. The Dissipation Range in Rotating Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubinstein, Robert; Zhou, Ye

    1999-01-01

    The dissipation range energy balance of the direct interaction approximation is applied to rotating turbulence when rotation effects persist well into the dissipation range. Assuming that RoRe (exp 1/2) is much less than 1 and that three-wave interactions are dominant, the dissipation range is found to be concentrated in the wavevector plane perpendicular to the rotation axis. This conclusion is consistent with previous analyses of inertial range energy transfer in rotating turbulence, which predict the accumulation of energy in those scales.

  12. 2010 NASA Range Safety Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumont, Alan G.

    2010-01-01

    this report provides a NASA Range Safety overview for current and potential range users. This report contains articles which cover a variety of subject areas, summaries of various NASA Range Safety Program activities conducted during the past year, links to past reports, and information on several projects that may have a profound impact on the way business will be done in the future. Specific topics discussed in the 2010 NASA Range Safety Annual Report include a program overview and 2010 highlights; Range Safety Training; Range Safety Policy revision; Independent Assessments; Support to Program Operations at all ranges conducting NASA launch/flight operations; a continuing overview of emerging range safety-related technologies; and status reports from all of the NASA Centers that have Range Safety responsibilities. Every effort has been made to include the most current information available. We recommend this report be used only for guidance and that the validity and accuracy of all articles be verified for updates. Once again, the web-based format was used to present the annual report.

  13. Compact range test applications, phase 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Francis L.

    1992-01-01

    Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) has designed and fabricated a large outdoor Compact Antenna Range for the U.S. Army Electronic Proving Ground (USAEPG). This range enables USAEPG to test antenna systems of large ground vehicles or aircraft that weigh up to 70 tons and are up to 50 feet in size over a frequency range of 6 to 40 GHz. Ongoing investigation and study are being conducted to determine the compatibility and adaptability of this antenna pattern measurement range to measure other system parameters such as target return signals and system responses to specialized electromagnetic environments.

  14. Improving the forming capability of laser dynamic forming by using rubber as a forming medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Zongbao; Liu, Huixia; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Cuntang

    2016-04-01

    Laser dynamic forming (LDF) is a novel high velocity forming technique, which employs laser-generated shock wave to load the sample. The forming velocity induced by the high energy laser pulse may exceed the critical forming velocity, resulting in the occurrence of premature fracture. To avoid the above premature fracture, rubber is introduced in LDF as a forming medium to prolong the loading duration in this paper. Laser induced shock wave energy is transferred to the sample in different forming stages, so the forming velocity can be kept below the critical forming velocity when the initial laser energy is high for fracture. Bulge forming experiments with and without rubber were performed to study the effect of rubber on loading duration. The experimental results show that, the shock wave energy attenuates during the propagation through the rubber layer, the rubber can avoid the premature fracture. So the plastic deformation can continue, the forming capability of LDF is improved. Due to the severe plastic deformation under rubber compression, adiabatic shear bands (ASB) occur in LDF with rubber. The material softening in ASB leads to the irregular fracture, which is different from the premature fracture pattern (regular fracture) in LDF without rubber. To better understand this deformation behavior, Johnson-Cook model is used to simulate the dynamic response and the evolution of ASB of copper sample. The simulation results also indicate the rubber can prolong the loading duration.

  15. Toward Possibility: Expanding the Range of Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Maxine

    Signs or signifiers, composing what Lacan in 1968 called the "symbolic order," provide a means for making sense of the world and form a network enabling the human mind to form concepts. The signifier "literacy," for example, is often taken to refer to a fixed, isolatable concept, but this term would not be intelligible were it not for its…

  16. Legal forms and reproductive norms.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Ruth

    2003-06-01

    This article draws on Pashukanis's concept of legal form and on O'Brien's concept of synthetic value to argue that legal form plays a role in reproductive relations by constructing legal subjects as the bearers of reproductive responsibilities. Pashukanis conceived of legal form as playing a particular role in capitalist exchange relations by interpellating subjects as the bearers of property rights. O'Brien argued that reproduction's specific value is synthetic value, which represents the value of integrating nature and reason in species continuity. Synthetic value is distinct from exchange value or emotional value which may also attach to reproductive process. By working through Pashukanis's method of extracting legal form from specific social relations and by adapting it to reproductive relations, an example is provided of how legal form analysis can be extended beyond the particular context of capitalist exchange relations. Just as legal form constitutes owners and non-owners as legal subjects, so it constitutes reproducers and non-reproducers. By tracing the way in which law attributes reproductive responsibility, legal form analysis shows us how law draws a line between wanting to attribute responsibility and not to attribute it, and this contradiction is a hook which social forces such as sexuality, gender, race, class and disability can latch on to in pushing legal form to shape reproductive responsibilities in a particular way. Each legal form is also externally contradicted by other legal forms. When law negotiates a balance between the reproductive norms of responsibilities and rights, it demonstrates how particular legal forms manage the interaction of different sets of social relations, such as reproduction and exchange. PMID:15871155

  17. 2011 NASA Range Safety Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumont, Alan G.

    2012-01-01

    Welcome to the 2011 edition of the NASA Range Safety Annual Report. Funded by NASA Headquarters, this report provides a NASA Range Safety overview for current and potential range users. As is typical with odd year editions, this is an abbreviated Range Safety Annual Report providing updates and links to full articles from the previous year's report. It also provides more complete articles covering new subject areas, summaries of various NASA Range Safety Program activities conducted during the past year, and information on several projects that may have a profound impact on the way business will be done in the future. Specific topics discussed and updated in the 2011 NASA Range Safety Annual Report include a program overview and 2011 highlights; Range Safety Training; Range Safety Policy revision; Independent Assessments; Support to Program Operations at all ranges conducting NASA launch/flight operations; a continuing overview of emerging range safety-related technologies; and status reports from all of the NASA Centers that have Range Safety responsibilities. Every effort has been made to include the most current information available. We recommend this report be used only for guidance and that the validity and accuracy of all articles be verified for updates. Once again the web-based format was used to present the annual report. We continually receive positive feedback on the web-based edition and hope you enjoy this year's product as well. As is the case each year, contributors to this report are too numerous to mention, but we thank individuals from the NASA Centers, the Department of Defense, and civilian organizations for their contributions. In conclusion, it has been a busy and productive year. I'd like to extend a personal Thank You to everyone who contributed to make this year a successful one, and I look forward to working with all of you in the upcoming year.

  18. Automated Test-Form Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.; Diao, Qi

    2011-01-01

    In automated test assembly (ATA), the methodology of mixed-integer programming is used to select test items from an item bank to meet the specifications for a desired test form and optimize its measurement accuracy. The same methodology can be used to automate the formatting of the set of selected items into the actual test form. Three different…

  19. When Permission Forms Work Best

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2005-01-01

    Public schools routinely require permission or release forms for field trips and other activities of potential liability. The legal status of such forms varies, but they are generally considered neither rock-solid protection nor legally valueless in terms of immunity. This article presents a case involving a student who sustained bicycle injuries…

  20. Method of forming ceramic bricks

    DOEpatents

    Poeppel, Roger B.; Claar, Terry D.; Silkowski, Peter

    1988-01-01

    A method for forming free standing ceramic bricks for use as tritium breeder material is disclosed. Aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate are mixed with an organic hydrocolloid dispersion and powdered lithium carbonate, spray dried, and ceramic bricks formed by molding in a die and firing.

  1. Method of forming ceramic bricks

    DOEpatents

    Poeppel, Roger B.; Claar, Terry D.; Silkowski, Peter

    1988-09-06

    A method for forming free standing ceramic bricks for use as tritium breeder material is disclosed. Aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate are mixed with an organic hydrocolloid dispersion and powdered lithium carbonate, spray dried, and ceramic bricks formed by molding in a die and firing.

  2. Method of forming ceramic bricks

    DOEpatents

    Poeppel, R.B.; Claar, T.D.; Silkowski, P.

    1987-04-22

    A method for forming free standing ceramic bricks for use as tritium breeder material is disclosed. Aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate are mixed with an organic hydrocolloid dispersion and powdered lithium carbonate, spray dried, and ceramic bricks formed by molding in a die and firing.

  3. Cutting Costs on Computer Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rupp, Robert V., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Using the experience of Ford Motor Company, Oscar Meyer, and IBM, this article shows that companies are enjoying high quality product performance and substantially lower costs by converting from premium white bond computer stock forms to blended bond forms. School administrators are advised to do likewise. (MLH)

  4. Organic forms of soil nitrogen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chemical forms of soil organic nitrogen (N) are thought to influence the cycling rates of soil N. Limited evidence for this relationship is available, though, because until recently technical constraints have not allowed adequate elucidation of the chemical forms. Recent developments in spectros...

  5. 1995-1998 Long Range Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania Coll. of Technology, Williamsport.

    At Pennsylvania College of Technology (PCT), in Williamsport, long range planning is used to define institutional philosophy and mission and determine strategies to make the best use of available resources and implement actions to fulfill institutional mission. This document presents PCT's long-range plan for 1995-98 in three parts. Following an…

  6. Long Range Plan: 1992-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania Coll. of Technology, Williamsport.

    Intended to enhance strategic planning and enable staff to work as a team toward a shared vision and common goals, this report presents the 1992-95 long-range plan of the Pennsylvania College of Technology (PCT). Part I defines long-range planning; describes the structure and use of the plan at PCT; presents PCT's philosophy, mission, and vision…

  7. Long Range Plan, 1991-1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania Coll. of Technology, Williamsport.

    This long-range plan for the Pennsylvania College of Technology (PCT) is divided into three main sections. Part I provides an overview of planning at PCT, including a definition of long-range planning, the college philosophy, mission, and vision statements, major institutional initiatives for 1991-92, and accreditation agency recommendations…

  8. Long Range Plan, 1997-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania Coll. of Technology, Williamsport. Office of Strategic Planning and Research.

    At Pennsylvania College of Technology (PCT), long range planning is used to define institutional philosophy and mission and determine strategies to make the best use of available resources and implement actions to fulfill institutional mission. This document presents PCT's long-range plan for 1997-2000 in three parts. The first part describes long…

  9. College and University Long-Range Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Raymond M.

    The system for long-range planning at West Virginia University is described, with emphasis on how it relates to short-range planning and how it is carried out operationally. Planning tools used include (1) an inventory of the past and present of the institution, (2) a statement of the division of labor within the institution and the objectives of…

  10. 36 CFR 222.9 - Range improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.9 Range improvements. (a) The Chief... needed to manage the range resource on National Forest System lands and other lands controlled by the... performed by a cooperator or permittee on National Forest System lands shall not confer the exclusive...

  11. 36 CFR 222.9 - Range improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.9 Range improvements. (a) The Chief... needed to manage the range resource on National Forest System lands and other lands controlled by the... performed by a cooperator or permittee on National Forest System lands shall not confer the exclusive...

  12. 36 CFR 222.9 - Range improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.9 Range improvements. (a) The Chief... needed to manage the range resource on National Forest System lands and other lands controlled by the... performed by a cooperator or permittee on National Forest System lands shall not confer the exclusive...

  13. Personality Correlates of Social Role Range.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McReynolds, Paul; And Others

    The concept of social role range (SRR) deals with the magnitude of an individual's repertoire of different interpersonal behavior patterns and exhibits the properties of a personality trait. Over a broad range of interpersonal settings, individuals tend to be consistent in the magnitude of their SRR's. A role play technique was devised for…

  14. Undergraduate range management exam: 1999-2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Undergraduate Range Management Exam (URME) has been administered to undergraduate students at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Range Management since 1983, with students demonstrating their higher order learning skills and synthesis knowledge of the art and science of rangeland management. ...

  15. Multi-target compressive laser ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandit, Pushkar P.; Dahl, Jason R.; Barber, Zeb W.; Babbitt, W. Randall

    2014-05-01

    Compressive laser ranging (CLR) is a method that exploits the sparsity available in the range domain using compressive sensing methods to directly obtain range domain information. Conventional ranging methods are marred by requirements of high bandwidth analog detection which includes severe SNR fall off with bandwidth in analog-to-digital conversion (ADC). Compressive laser ranging solves this problem by obtaining sub-centimeter resolution while using low bandwidth detection. High rate digital pulse pattern generators and off the shelf photonic devices are used to modulate the transmitted and received light from a superluminescent diode. CLR detection is demonstrated using low bandwidth, high dynamic range detectors along with photon counting techniques. The use of an incoherent source eliminates speckle issues and enables simplified CLR methods to get multi-target range profiles with 1-3cm resolution. Using compressive sensing methods CLR allows direct range measurements in the sub-Nyquist regime while reducing system resources, in particular the need for high bandwidth ADC.

  16. 5 CFR 534.502 - Pay range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pay range. 534.502 Section 534.502 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.502 Pay range. A pay rate fixed under...

  17. 5 CFR 534.502 - Pay range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pay range. 534.502 Section 534.502 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.502 Pay range. A pay rate fixed under...

  18. 5 CFR 534.502 - Pay range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pay range. 534.502 Section 534.502 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.502 Pay range. A pay rate fixed under this subpart shall be— (a) Not less...

  19. 5 CFR 534.502 - Pay range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay range. 534.502 Section 534.502 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.502 Pay range. A pay rate fixed under...

  20. Experiments: Test range facilities, part 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudley, D. G.

    1987-06-01

    A description is given of the electromagnetic transient range facility at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The range design and the instrumentation for both time domain and broadband frequency domain measurements are discussed. Two examples of experiments are given: scattering from a conducting plate and transmission through an aperture in a screen.

  1. Nevada Livestock Grazing and Range Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The range livestock industry had a very slow start in Nevada because it was commonly accepted that the environment would not support livestock production. Freighters discovered that oxen could winter on the dry herbage of desert bunchgrasses and come off the range in excellent condition in the spri...

  2. Range contraction in large pelagic predators

    PubMed Central

    Worm, Boris; Tittensor, Derek P.

    2011-01-01

    Large reductions in the abundance of exploited land predators have led to significant range contractions for those species. This pattern can be formalized as the range–abundance relationship, a general macroecological pattern that has important implications for the conservation of threatened species. Here we ask whether similar responses may have occurred in highly mobile pelagic predators, specifically 13 species of tuna and billfish. We analyzed two multidecadal global data sets on the spatial distribution of catches and fishing effort targeting these species and compared these with available abundance time series from stock assessments. We calculated the effort needed to reliably detect the presence of a species and then computed observed range sizes in each decade from 1960 to 2000. Results suggest significant range contractions in 9 of the 13 species considered here (between 2% and 46% loss of observed range) and significant range expansions in two species (11–29% increase). Species that have undergone the largest declines in abundance and are of particular conservation concern tended to show the largest range contractions. These include all three species of bluefin tuna and several marlin species. In contrast, skipjack tuna, which may have increased its abundance in the Pacific, has also expanded its range size. These results mirror patterns described for many land predators, despite considerable differences in habitat, mobility, and dispersal, and imply ecological extirpation of heavily exploited species across parts of their range. PMID:21693644

  3. The Geoscience Laser Altimetry/Ranging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Steven C.; Degnan, John J., III; Bufton, Jack L.; Garvin, James B.; Abshire, James B.

    1987-01-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimetry/Ranging System (GLARS), a combined laser ranging and altimetry system capable of subcentimeter position determinations of retroflector targets and subdecimeter profiling of topography, is described. The system uses advanced but currently available state-of-the-art components. Laboratory, field, and numerical experiments have indicated the suitability of GLARS as an instrument for Eos and other space platforms.

  4. Exploration of polygonal environments using range data.

    PubMed

    Ekman, A; Torne, A; Stromberg, D

    1997-01-01

    Several robotic problems involve the systematic traversal of the environment, commonly referred to as exploration. We present a strategy for the exploration of unknown finite polygonal environments, using a point robot with 1) no positional uncertainty and 2) an ideal range sensor that measures range in N uniformly distributed directions. The range data vector, obtained from the range sensor, corresponds to a sampled version of a visibility polygon. Visibility polygon edges that do not correspond to environmental edges are called jump edges and the exploration strategy is based on the fact that jump edges indicate directions of possibly unexplored environmental regions. We describe conditions under which it is possible to identify jump edges in the range data. We also show how the exploration strategy can be used in a solution to the terrain acquisition problem and describe conditions under which a solution is guaranteed within a finite number of measurements. PMID:18255863

  5. Range gated imaging experiments using gated intensifiers

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, T.E. Jr.; Yates, G.J.; Cverna, F.H.; Gallegos, R.A.; Jaramillo, S.A.; Numkena, D.M.; Payton, J.; Pena-Abeyta, C.R.

    1999-03-01

    A variety of range gated imaging experiments using high-speed gated/shuttered proximity focused microchannel plate image intensifiers (MCPII) are reported. Range gated imaging experiments were conducted in water for detection of submerged mines in controlled turbidity tank test and in sea water for the Naval Coastal Sea Command/US Marine Corps. Field experiments have been conducted consisting of kilometer range imaging of resolution targets and military vehicles in atmosphere at Eglin Air Force Base for the US Air Force, and similar imaging experiments, but in smoke environment, at Redstone Arsenal for the US Army Aviation and Missile Command (AMCOM). Wavelength of the illuminating laser was 532 nm with pulse width ranging from 6 to 12 ns and comparable gate widths. These tests have shown depth resolution in the tens of centimeters range from time phasing reflected LADAR images with MCPII shutter opening.

  6. Eighth International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degnan, John J. (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    The Eighth International Workshop for Laser Ranging Instrumentation was held in Annapolis, Maryland in May 1992, and was sponsored by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. The workshop is held once every 2 to 3 years under differing institutional sponsorship and provides a forum for participants to exchange information on the latest developments in satellite and lunar laser ranging hardware, software, science applications, and data analysis techniques. The satellite laser ranging (SLR) technique provides sub-centimeter precision range measurements to artificial satellites and the Moon. The data has application to a wide range of Earth and lunar science issues including precise orbit determination, terrestrial reference frames, geodesy, geodynamics, oceanography, time transfer, lunar dynamics, gravity and relativity.

  7. Tests of gravity Using Lunar Laser Ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merkowitz, Stephen M.

    2010-01-01

    Lunar laser ranging (LLR) has been a workhorse for testing general relativity over the pat four decades. The three retrorefiector arrays put on the Moon by the Apollo astronauts and the French built array on the second Soviet Lunokhod rover continue to be useful targets, and have provided the most stringent tests of the Strong Equivalence Principle and the time variation of Newton's gravitational constant. The relatively new ranging system at the Apache Point :3.5 meter telescope now routinely makes millimeter level range measurements. Incredibly. it has taken 40 years for ground station technology to advance to the point where characteristics of the lunar retrorefiectors are limiting the precision of the range measurements. In this article. we review the gravitational science and technology of lunar laser ranging and discuss prospects for the future.

  8. Clinical Forms and Animal Models of Hypophosphatasia.

    PubMed

    Salles, Jean Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is due to mutations of the tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) gene expressed in the liver, kidney, and bone. TNAP substrates include inorganic pyrophosphate cleaved into inorganic phosphate (Pi) in bone, pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP), the circulating form of vitamin B6, and phosphoethanolamine (PEA). As an autosomal recessive or dominant disease, HPP results in a range of clinical forms. Its hallmarks are low alkaline phosphatase (AP) and elevated PLP and PEA levels. Perinatal HPP may cause early death with respiratory insufficiency and hypomineralization resulting in deformed limbs and sometimes near-absence of bones and skull. Infantile HPP is diagnosed before 6 months of life. Respiratory failure, rib fractures and seizures due to vitamin B6 deficiency in the brain indicate poor prognosis. Craniosynostosis is frequent. Unlike in other forms of rickets, calcium and phosphorus are not decreased, resulting in hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis. Hypercalcemic crisis may occur. Failure to thrive and growth retardation are concerns. In infantile and adult forms of HPP, non-traumatic fractures may be the prominent manifestation, with otherwise unexplained chronic pain. Progressive myopathy has been described. Dental manifestations with early loss of teeth are usual in HPP and in a specific form, odontohypophosphatasia. HPP has been studied in knock-out mice models which mimic its severe form. Animal models have made a major contribution to the development of an original enzyme therapy for human infantile HPP, which is however essentially targeted at mineralized tissues. Better knowledge of its extraskeletal manifestations, including pain and neurological symptoms, is therefore required. PMID:26219704

  9. Illuminating geographical patterns in species' range shifts.

    PubMed

    Grenouillet, Gaël; Comte, Lise

    2014-10-01

    Species' range shifts in response to ongoing climate change have been widely documented, but although complex spatial patterns in species' responses are expected to be common, comprehensive comparisons of species' ranges over time have undergone little investigation. Here, we outline a modeling framework based on historical and current species distribution records for disentangling different drivers (i.e. climatic vs. nonclimatic) and assessing distinct facets (i.e. colonization, extirpation, persistence, and lags) of species' range shifts. We used extensive monitoring data for stream fish assemblages throughout France to assess range shifts for 32 fish species between an initial period (1980-1992) and a contemporary one (2003-2009). Our results provide strong evidence that the responses of individual species varied considerably and exhibited complex mosaics of spatial rearrangements. By dissociating range shifts in climatically suitable and unsuitable habitats, we demonstrated that patterns in climate-driven colonization and extirpation were less marked than those attributed to nonclimatic drivers, although this situation could rapidly shift in the near future. We also found evidence that range shifts could be related to some species' traits and that the traits involved varied depending on the facet of range shift considered. The persistence of populations in climatically unsuitable areas was greater for short-lived species, whereas the extent of the lag behind climate change was greater for long-lived, restricted-range, and low-elevation species. We further demonstrated that nonclimatic extirpations were primarily related to the size of the species' range, whereas climate-driven extirpations were better explained by thermal tolerance. Thus, the proposed framework demonstrated its potential for markedly improving our understanding of the key processes involved in range shifting and also offers a template for informing management decisions. Conservation strategies

  10. 2013 NASA Range Safety Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumont, Alan G.

    2013-01-01

    Welcome to the 2013 edition of the NASA Range Safety Annual Report. Funded by NASA Headquarters, this report provides an Agency overview for current and potential range users. This report contains articles which cover a variety of subject areas, summaries of various activities performed during the past year, links to past reports, and information on several projects that may have a profound impact on the way business will be conducted in the future. Specific topics discussed in the 2013 NASA Range Safety Annual Report include a program overview and 2013 highlights, Range Safety Training, Independent Assessments, support to Program Operations at all ranges conducting NASA launch/flight operations, a continuing overview of emerging range safety-related technologies, and status reports from all of the NASA Centers that have Range Safety responsibilities. Every effort has been made to include the most current information available. We recommend this report be used only for guidance and that the validity and accuracy of all articles be verified for updates. As is the case each year, we had a wide variety of contributors to this report from across our NASA Centers and the national range safety community at large, and I wish to thank them all. On a sad note, we lost one of our close colleagues, Dr. Jim Simpson, due to his sudden passing in December. His work advancing the envelope of autonomous flight safety systems software/hardware development leaves a lasting impression on our community. Such systems are being flight tested today and may one day be considered routine in the range safety business. The NASA family has lost a pioneer in our field, and he will surely be missed. In conclusion, it has been a very busy and productive year, and I look forward to working with all of you in NASA Centers/Programs/Projects and with the national Range Safety community in making Flight/Space activities as safe as they can be in the upcoming year.

  11. Continuous spray forming of functionally gradient materials

    SciTech Connect

    McKechnie, T.N.; Richardson, E.H.

    1995-12-01

    Researchers at Plasma Processes Inc. have produced a Functional Gradient Material (FGM) through advanced vacuum plasma spray processing for high heat flux applications. Outlined in this paper are the manufacturing methods used to develop a four component functional gradient material of copper, tungsten, boron, and boron nitride. The FGM was formed with continuous gradients and integral cooling channels eliminating bondlines and providing direct heat transfer from the high temperature exposed surface to a cooling medium. Metallurgical and x-ray diffraction analyses of the materials formed through innovative VPS (vacuum plasma spray) processing are also presented. Applications for this functional gradient structural material range from fusion reactor plasma facing components to missile nose cones to boilers.

  12. Modified locking thread form for fastener

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roopnarine, (Inventor); Vranish, John D. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A threaded fastener has a standard part with a standard thread form characterized by thread walls with a standard included angle, and a modified part complementary to the standard part having a modified thread form characterized by thread walls which are symmetrically inclined with a modified included angle that is different from the standard included angle of the standard part's thread walls, such that the threads of one part make pre-loaded edge contact with the thread walls of the other part. The thread form of the modified part can have an included angle that is greater, less, or compound as compared to the included angle of the standard part. The standard part may be a bolt and the modified part a nut, or vice versa. The modified thread form holds securely even under large vibrational forces, it permits bi-directional use of standard mating threads, is impervious to the build up of tolerances and can be manufactured with a wider range of tolerances without loss of functionality, and distributes loading stresses (per thread) in a manner that decreases the possibility of single thread failure.

  13. Quantum modular forms, mock modular forms, and partial theta functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimport, Susanna

    Defined by Zagier in 2010, quantum modular forms have been the subject of an explosion of recent research. Many of these results are aimed at discovering examples of these functions, which are defined on the rational numbers and have "nice" modularity properties. Though the subject is in its early stages, numerous results (including Zagier's original examples) show these objects naturally arising from many areas of mathematics as limits of other modular-like functions. One such family of examples is due to Folsom, Ono, and Rhoades, who connected these new objects to partial theta functions (introduced by Rogers in 1917) and mock modular forms (about which there is a rich theory, whose origins date back to Ramanujan in 1920). In this thesis, we build off of the work of Folsom, Ono, and Rhoades by providing an infinite family of quantum modular forms of arbitrary positive half-integral weight. Further, this family of quantum modular forms "glues" mock modular forms to partial theta functions and is constructed from a so-called "universal" mock theta function by extending a method of Eichler and Zagier (originally defined for holomorphic Jacobi forms) into a non-holomorphic setting. In addition to the infinite family, we explore the weight 1/2 and 3/2 functions in more depth. For both of these weights, we are able to explicitly write down the quantum modular form, as well as the corresponding "errors to modularity," which can be shown to be Mordell integrals of specific theta functions and, as a consequence, are real-analytic functions. Finally, we turn our attention to the partial theta functions associated with these low weight examples. Berndt and Kim provide asymptotic expansions for a certain class of partial theta functions as q approaches 1 radially within the unit disk. Here, we extend this work to not only obtain asymptotic expansions for this class of functions as q approaches any root of unity, but also for a certain class of derivatives of these functions

  14. Alkali Silicate Vehicle Forms Durable, Fireproof Paint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutt, John B.; Seindenberg, Benjamin

    1964-01-01

    The problem: To develop a paint for use on satellites or space vehicles that exhibits high resistance to cracking, peeling, or flaking when subjected to a wide range of temperatures. Organic coatings will partially meet the required specifications but have the inherent disadvantage of combustibility. Alkali-silicate binders, used in some industrial coatings and adhesives, show evidence of forming a fireproof paint, but the problem of high surface-tension, a characteristic of alkali silicates, has not been resolved. The solution: Use of a suitable non-ionic wetting agent combined with a paint incorporating alkali silicate as the binder.

  15. Rational design of fiber forming supramolecular structures.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vivek A; Wang, Benjamin K; Kanahara, Satoko M

    2016-05-01

    Recent strides in the development of multifunctional synthetic biomimetic materials through the self-assembly of multi-domain peptides and proteins over the past decade have been realized. Such engineered systems have wide-ranging application in bioengineering and medicine. This review focuses on fundamental fiber forming α-helical coiled-coil peptides, peptide amphiphiles, and amyloid-based self-assembling peptides; followed by higher order collagen- and elastin-mimetic peptides with an emphasis on chemical / biological characterization and biomimicry. PMID:27022140

  16. Pion form factor from a contact interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez-Guerrero, L. X.; Bashir, A.; Cloeet, I. C.; Roberts, C. D.

    2010-06-15

    In a Poincare-covariant vector-boson-exchange theory, the pion possesses components of pseudovector origin, which materially influence its observable properties. For a range of such quantities, we explore the consequences of a momentum-independent interaction, regularized in a symmetry-preserving manner. The contact interaction, while capable of describing pion static properties, produces a form factor whose evolution for Q{sup 2}>0.17 GeV{sup 2} disagrees markedly with experiment and whose asymptotic power-law behavior conflicts strongly with perturbative QCD.

  17. Pion form factor from a contact interaction.

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez-Guerrero, L. X.; Bashir, A.; Cloet, I. C.; Roberts, C. D.

    2010-01-01

    In a Poincare-covariant vector-boson-exchange theory, the pion possesses components of pseudovector origin, which materially influence its observable properties. For a range of such quantities, we explore the consequences of a momentum-independent interaction, regularized in a symmetry-preserving manner. The contact interaction, while capable of describing pion static properties, produces a form factor whose evolution for Q{sup 2} > 0.17 GeV{sup 2} disagrees markedly with experiment and whose asymptotic power-law behavior conflicts strongly with perturbative QCD.

  18. Tenascin-C: Form versus function

    PubMed Central

    Giblin, Sean P; Midwood, Kim S

    2015-01-01

    Tenascin-C is a large, multimodular, extracellular matrix glycoprotein that exhibits a very restricted pattern of expression but an enormously diverse range of functions. Here, we discuss the importance of deciphering the expression pattern of, and effects mediated by, different forms of this molecule in order to fully understand tenascin-C biology. We focus on both post transcriptional and post translational events such as splicing, glycosylation, assembly into a 3D matrix and proteolytic cleavage, highlighting how these modifications are key to defining tenascin-C function. PMID:25482829

  19. Trilateration range and range rate system. Volume 1: CDA system manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This document is one of a series of manuals designed to provide the information required to operate and maintain the Command and Data Acquisition (CDA) equipment of the Trilateration Range and Range Rate (TRRR) System. Information pertaining to the equipment in the Trilateration Range and Range Rate System which is designed to interface with existing NASA equipment located at Wallops Island, Virginia is presented.

  20. Canonical forms for nonlinear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, R.; Hunt, L. R.; Meyer, G.

    1983-01-01

    Necessary and sufficient conditions for transforming a nonlinear system to a controllable linear system have been established, and this theory has been applied to the automatic flight control of aircraft. These transformations show that the nonlinearities in a system are often not intrinsic, but are the result of unfortunate choices of coordinates in both state and control variables. Given a nonlinear system (that may not be transformable to a linear system), we construct a canonical form in which much of the nonlinearity is removed from the system. If a system is not transformable to a linear one, then the obstructions to the transformation are obvious in canonical form. If the system can be transformed (it is called a linear equivalent), then the canonical form is a usual one for a controllable linear system. Thus our theory of canonical forms generalizes the earlier transformation (to linear systems) results. Our canonical form is not unique, except up to solutions of certain partial differential equations we discuss. In fact, the important aspect of this paper is the constructive procedure we introduce to reach the canonical form. As is the case in many areas of mathematics, it is often easier to work with the canonical form than in arbitrary coordinate variables.

  1. Range and habitats of the desert tortoise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Germano, D.J.; Bury, R.B.; Esque, T.C.; Fritts, T.H.

    1994-01-01

    We determined the current range of the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) based on the available latest data from government agencies, the literature, and our experience. We developed the first detailed range map of this species and summarized information about habitat preferences. New records of occurrences were incorporated, and some peripheral localities of questionable authenticity were deleted. The distribution oCG. agassizii covers the broadest range of latitude, climatic regimes, habitats, and biotic regions of any North American tortoise. The northern portion ofits range is in the Mojave Desert of sDuth"eastern California, southern Nevada, southwestern Utah, and northwestern Arizona. The central portion of the range consists of several subdivisions of the Sonaran Desert in southeastern California, western and southern Arizona, and western Sonora, Mexico. The southern edge of its range is in the semitropical Sinaloan thornscrub and Sinaloan deciduous forest of eastern Sonora and northern Sinaloa, Mexico. This species has marked geogi-aphic differences but seems to construct burrows throughout its range.

  2. Passive ranging within a differential framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qingguo; Liu, Liren; Liu, De'an; Sun, Jianfeng; Zhu, Yongjian; Lu, Wei

    2006-08-01

    Finding the distance of object in a scene from vision information is an important problem in machine vision. A large number of techniques for passive ranging of unknown objects have been developed over the years (i.e. range from stereo, motion, focus and defocus). Nearly all such techniques may be framed in terms of a differential formalism. In the case of binocular stereo, two different images are taken from cameras at different discrete viewpoints, similarly, difference between consecutive images are often used to determine viewpoint derivatives for structure from motion and two or more different images taken from cameras with different aperture size are used to compute the derivative respect to aperture size for range from focus and defocus method. All this methods may be fallen into a discrete differentiation category. Farid proposed a consecutive differentiation method for range estimation which employs the intensity variation of the images along with the aperture changes to measure the range information. In this paper, we first consider the plenoptic function which is a powerful mathematical tool for understanding the primary vision problem. We then show an algorithm within a differential framework for range estimation based on the assumption of brightness constancy. Finally we show several implementations of passive ranging using this differential algorithm.

  3. Strainrange partitioning: A total strain range version

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halford, G. R.; Saltsman, J. F.

    1983-01-01

    Procedures are presented for expressing the Strainrange Partitioning (SRP) method for creep fatigue life prediction in terms of total strain range. Inelastic and elastic strain-range - life relations are summed to give total strain-range - life relations. The life components due to inelastic strains are dealt with using conventional SRP procedures while the life components due to elastic strains are expressed as families of time-dependent terms for each type of SRP cycle. Cyclic constitutive material behavior plays an important role in establishing the elastic strain-range - life relations as well as the partitioning of the inelastic strains. To apply the approach, however, it is not necessary to have to determine the magnitude of the inelastic strain range. The total strain SRP approach is evaluated and verified using two nickel base superalloys, AF2-1DA and Rene 95. Excellent agreement is demonstrated between observed and predicted cyclic lifetimes with 70 to 80 percent of the predicted lives falling within factors of two of the observed lives. The total strain-range SRP approach should be of considerable practical value to designers who are faced with creep-fatigue problems for which the inelastic strains cannot be calculated with sufficient accuracy to make reliable life predictions by the conventional inelastic strain range SRP approach.

  4. Laser System for Precise, Unambiguous Range Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubovitsky, Serge; Lay, Oliver

    2005-01-01

    The Modulation Sideband Technology for Absolute Range (MSTAR) architecture is the basis of design of a proposed laser-based heterodyne interferometer that could measure a range (distance) as great as 100 km with a precision and resolution of the order of 1 nm. Simple optical interferometers can measure changes in range with nanometer resolution, but cannot measure range itself because interference is subject to the well-known integer-multiple-of-2 -radians phase ambiguity, which amounts to a range ambiguity of the order of 1 m at typical laser wavelengths. Existing rangefinders have a resolution of the order of 10 m and are therefore unable to resolve the ambiguity. The proposed MSTAR architecture bridges the gap, enabling nanometer resolution with an ambiguity range that can be extended to arbitrarily large distances. The MSTAR architecture combines the principle of the heterodyne interferometer with the principle of extending the ambiguity range of an interferometer by using light of two wavelengths. The use of two wavelengths for this purpose is well established in optical metrology, radar, and sonar. However, unlike in traditional two-color laser interferometry, light of two wavelengths would not be generated by two lasers. Instead, multiple wavelengths would be generated as sidebands of phase modulation of the light from a single frequency- stabilized laser. The phase modulation would be effected by applying sinusoidal signals of suitable frequencies (typically tens of gigahertz) to high-speed electro-optical phase modulators. Intensity modulation can also be used

  5. Demonstration of high sensitivity laser ranging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millar, Pamela S.; Christian, Kent D.; Field, Christopher T.

    1994-01-01

    We report on a high sensitivity semiconductor laser ranging system developed for the Gravity and Magnetic Earth Surveyor (GAMES) for measuring variations in the planet's gravity field. The GAMES laser ranging instrument (LRI) consists of a pair of co-orbiting satellites, one which contains the laser transmitter and receiver and one with a passive retro-reflector mounted in an drag-stabilized housing. The LRI will range up to 200 km in space to the retro-reflector satellite. As the spacecraft pair pass over the spatial variations in the gravity field, they experience along-track accelerations which change their relative velocity. These time displaced velocity changes are sensed by the LRI with a resolution of 20-50 microns/sec. In addition, the pair may at any given time be drifting together or apart at a rate of up to 1 m/sec, introducing a Doppler shift into the ranging signals. An AlGaAs laser transmitter intensity modulated at 2 GHz and 10 MHz is used as fine and medium ranging channels. Range is measured by comparing phase difference between the transmit and received signals at each frequency. A separate laser modulated with a digital code, not reported in this paper, will be used for coarse ranging to unambiguously determine the distance up to 200 km.

  6. Effective-range approximations for resonant scattering of cold atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackley, Caroline L.; Julienne, Paul S.; Hutson, Jeremy M.

    2014-04-01

    Studies of cold atom collisions and few-body interactions often require the energy dependence of the scattering phase shift, which is usually expressed in terms of an effective-range expansion. We use accurate coupled-channel calculations on 6Li, 39K, and 133Cs to explore the behavior of the effective range in the vicinity of both broad and narrow Feshbach resonances. We show that commonly used expressions for the effective range break down dramatically for narrow resonances and near the zero crossings of broad resonances. We present an alternative parametrization of the effective range that is accurate through both the pole and the zero crossing for both broad and narrow resonances. However, the effective-range expansion can still fail at quite low collision energies, particularly around narrow resonances. We demonstrate that an analytical form of an energy and magnetic-field-dependent phase shift, based on multichannel quantum defect theory, gives accurate results for the energy-dependent scattering length.

  7. Ladar range image denoising by a nonlocal probability statistics algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Zhi-Wei; Li, Qi; Xiong, Zhi-Peng; Wang, Qi

    2013-01-01

    According to the characteristic of range images of coherent ladar and the basis of nonlocal means (NLM), a nonlocal probability statistics (NLPS) algorithm is proposed in this paper. The difference is that NLM performs denoising using the mean of the conditional probability distribution function (PDF) while NLPS using the maximum of the marginal PDF. In the algorithm, similar blocks are found out by the operation of block matching and form a group. Pixels in the group are analyzed by probability statistics and the gray value with maximum probability is used as the estimated value of the current pixel. The simulated range images of coherent ladar with different carrier-to-noise ratio and real range image of coherent ladar with 8 gray-scales are denoised by this algorithm, and the results are compared with those of median filter, multitemplate order mean filter, NLM, median nonlocal mean filter and its incorporation of anatomical side information, and unsupervised information-theoretic adaptive filter. The range abnormality noise and Gaussian noise in range image of coherent ladar are effectively suppressed by NLPS.

  8. Determination of range parameters of observation devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bareła, J.; Kastek, M.; Firmanty, K.; Trzaskawka, P.; Dulski, R.; Kucharz, J.

    2012-10-01

    Range parameters of observation devices can be determined on the basis of numerical simulations (NVTherm) or on the basis of measured characteristics. Those measurements can be conducted in both laboratory and field conditions. It is, however, difficult to carry on reliable field measurements of range parameters because they are strongly depended on atmospheric conditions. Thus the laboratory measurements are more favorable option. Analysis of literature and catalogue specifications reveal, that range parameters are given mainly on the basis of Johnson criteria or TTP model. The Johnson criteria has been used since the 50s and most of catalogue range specifications are determined according to it. There are also NATO standards, which describe the measurement procedures and methodology required to define the detection, recognition and identification ranges for standard NATO targets. For the determination of range parameters the following device characteristics must be known: minimal resolvable temperature for thermal imaging devices and minimal resolvable contrast for VIS devices. The TTP model offers a new approach to the determination of range characteristics of observation devices. It has been developed by U.S. Army's Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate since the year 2000. It was created because the modified Johnson criteria did not yield reliable results in case of modern systems with digital image processing. In order to determine the range parameters using TTP model, the modulation transfer function MTF, presample MTF function, and 3D noise of a tested system must be known as well as its basic design data as optical magnification and display type. The paper describes the measurement stand, measurement methodology and the procedure for the determination of range parameters. The results for thermal and VIS cameras are also presented, and they are analyzed and compared with the results obtained from current methods, including the measurement

  9. 2008 NASA Range Safety Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamoreaux, Richard W.

    2008-01-01

    Welcome to the 2008 edition of the NASA Range Safety Annual Report. Funded by NASA Headquarters, this report provides a NASA Range Safety overview for current and potential range users. This year, along with full length articles concerning various subject areas, we have provided updates to standard subjects with links back to the 2007 original article. Additionally, we present summaries from the various NASA Range Safety Program activities that took place throughout the year, as well as information on several special projects that may have a profound impact on the way we will do business in the future. The sections include a program overview and 2008 highlights of Range Safety Training; Range Safety Policy; Independent Assessments and Common Risk Analysis Tools Development; Support to Program Operations at all ranges conducting NASA launch operations; a continuing overview of emerging Range Safety-related technologies; Special Interests Items that include recent changes in the ELV Payload Safety Program and the VAS explosive siting study; and status reports from all of the NASA Centers that have Range Safety responsibilities. As is the case each year, contributors to this report are too numerous to mention, but we thank individuals from the NASA Centers, the Department of Defense, and civilian organizations for their contributions. We have made a great effort to include the most current information available. We recommend that this report be used only for guidance and that the validity and accuracy of all articles be verified for updates. This is the third year we have utilized this web-based format for the annual report. We continually receive positive feedback on the web-based edition, and we hope you enjoy this year's product as well. It has been a very busy and productive year on many fronts as you will note as you review this report. Thank you to everyone who contributed to make this year a successful one, and I look forward to working with all of you in the

  10. Supergravity actions with integral forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellani, L.; Catenacci, R.; Grassi, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Integral forms provide a natural and powerful tool for the construction of supergravity actions. They are generalizations of usual differential forms and are needed for a consistent theory of integration on supermanifolds. The group geometrical approach to supergravity and its variational principle are reformulated and clarified in this language. Central in our analysis is the Poincaré dual of a bosonic manifold embedded into a supermanifold. Finally, using integral forms we provide a proof of Gates' so-called "Ectoplasmic Integration Theorem", relating superfield actions to component actions.

  11. Ranging performance of satellite laser altimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Chester S.

    1992-01-01

    Detailed expressions for the range and pulse width measurement accuracies are developed and used to evaluate the ranging performances of several satellite laser altimeters currently under development by NASA for launch during the next decade. The analysis includes the effects of the target surface characteristics, spacecraft pointing jitter, and waveform digitizer characteristics. The results show that ranging accuracy is critically dependent on the pointing accuracy and stability of the altimeter especially over high relief terrain where surface slopes are large. At typical orbital altitudes of several hundred kilometers, single-shot accuracies of a few centimeters can be achieved only when the pointing jitter is on the order of 10 microrad or less.

  12. An improved light source for laser ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamal, Karel; Richardson, Martin

    1993-01-01

    The development of a new laser material, Cr-doped LiSAF, makes possible the development of a laser source for satellite ranging systems that is more superior in performance capabilities than current Nd:YAG-based laser sources. This new material offers the potential of shorter pulses and more preferable wavelengths (850 and 425 nm) than multiwavelength Nd:YAG systems, leading to superior ranging resolution and greater detection sensitivity. We are embarking on a feasibility study of a two-wavelength, mode-locked laser system based on Cr:LiSAF, providing shorter pulses for improved ranging resolution.

  13. Remote sensing applications for range management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of satellite information for range management is discussed. The use of infrared photography and color photography for analysis of vegetation cover is described. The methods of interpreting LANDSAT imagery are highlighted and possible applications of such interpretive methods to range management are considered. The concept of using LANDSAT as a sampling frame for renewable natural resource inventories was examined. It is concluded that a blending of LANDSAT vegetation data with soils and digital terrain data, will define a basic sampling unit that is appropriate for range management utilization.

  14. Triad interactions in the dissipation range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kida, S.; Kraichnan, Robert H.; Rogallo, R. S.; Waleffe, F.; Zhou, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Nonlocality of the triad interactions in the dissipation range of developed turbulence is investigated by numerical simulation and the quasi-normal theories. It is found that the energy transfer is dominated by nonlocal triad interactions over the wavenumber range 0.1 is less than k/k(sub d) is less than 4, where k(sub d) is the Kolmogorov wave number. The nonlocality of the interaction has a close relation with the power of an algebraic prefactor of the exponential decay of the energy spectrum in the far-dissipation range.

  15. Techniques for optically compressing light intensity ranges

    DOEpatents

    Rushford, M.C.

    1989-03-28

    A pin hole camera assembly for use in viewing an object having a relatively large light intensity range, for example a crucible containing molten uranium in an atomic vapor laser isotope separator (AVLIS) system is disclosed herein. The assembly includes means for optically compressing the light intensity range appearing at its input sufficient to make it receivable and decipherable by a standard video camera. A number of different means for compressing the intensity range are disclosed. These include the use of photogray glass, the use of a pair of interference filters, and the utilization of a new liquid crystal notch filter in combination with an interference filter. 18 figs.

  16. Techniques for optically compressing light intensity ranges

    DOEpatents

    Rushford, Michael C.

    1989-01-01

    A pin hole camera assembly for use in viewing an object having a relatively large light intensity range, for example a crucible containing molten uranium in an atomic vapor laser isotope separator (AVLIS) system is disclosed herein. The assembly includes means for optically compressing the light intensity range appearing at its input sufficient to make it receivable and decipherable by a standard video camera. A number of different means for compressing the intensity range are disclosed. These include the use of photogray glass, the use of a pair of interference filters, and the utilization of a new liquid crystal notch filter in combination with an interference filter.

  17. Triggered pore-forming agents

    DOEpatents

    Bayley, Hagan; Walker, Barbara J.; Chang, Chung-yu; Niblack, Brett; Panchal, Rekha

    1998-01-01

    An inactive pore-forming agent which is activated to lytic function by a condition such as pH, light, heat, reducing potential, or metal ion concentration, or substance such as a protease, at the surface of a cell.

  18. Process for forming planarized films

    DOEpatents

    Pang, Stella W.; Horn, Mark W.

    1991-01-01

    A planarization process and apparatus which employs plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) to form plarnarization films of dielectric or conductive carbonaceous material on step-like substrates.

  19. Arbitrary p-form Galileons

    SciTech Connect

    Deffayet, C.; Deser, S.; Esposito-Farese, G.

    2010-09-15

    We show that scalar, 0-form, Galileon actions--models whose field equations contain only second derivatives--can be generalized to arbitrary even p-forms. More generally, they need not even depend on a single form, but may involve mixed p combinations, including equal p multiplets, where odd p fields are also permitted: We construct, for given dimension D, general actions depending on scalars, vectors, and higher p-form field strengths, whose field equations are of exactly second derivative order. We also discuss and illustrate their curved-space generalizations, especially the delicate nonminimal couplings required to maintain this order. Concrete examples of pure and mixed actions, field equations, and their curved-space extensions are presented.

  20. Differential form analysis using MACSYMA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahlquist, H. D.

    1977-01-01

    The MACSYMA file was written to perform these operations and discusses the improvements and additions which are needed to accomplish a complete and efficient implementation. Examples of differential form calculations are displayed.

  1. Confectionery-based dose forms.

    PubMed

    Tangso, Kristian J; Ho, Quy Phuong; Boyd, Ben J

    2015-01-01

    Conventional dosage forms such as tablets, capsules and syrups are prescribed in the normal course of practice. However, concerns about patient preferences and market demands have given rise to the exploration of novel unconventional dosage forms. Among these, confectionery-based dose forms have strong potential to overcome compliance problems. This report will review the availability of these unconventional dose forms used in treating the oral cavity and for systemic drug delivery, with a focus on medicated chewing gums, medicated lollipops, and oral bioadhesive devices. The aim is to stimulate increased interest in the opportunities for innovative new products that are available to formulators in this field, particularly for atypical patient populations. PMID:25146440

  2. Estimability and simple dynamical analyses of range (range-rate range-difference) observations to artificial satellites. [laser range observations to LAGEOS using non-Bayesian statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vangelder, B. H. W.

    1978-01-01

    Non-Bayesian statistics were used in simulation studies centered around laser range observations to LAGEOS. The capabilities of satellite laser ranging especially in connection with relative station positioning are evaluated. The satellite measurement system under investigation may fall short in precise determinations of the earth's orientation (precession and nutation) and earth's rotation as opposed to systems as very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) and lunar laser ranging (LLR). Relative station positioning, determination of (differential) polar motion, positioning of stations with respect to the earth's center of mass and determination of the earth's gravity field should be easily realized by satellite laser ranging (SLR). The last two features should be considered as best (or solely) determinable by SLR in contrast to VLBI and LLR.

  3. Ranging performance of satellite laser altimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Chester S.

    1992-01-01

    Topographic mapping of the earth, moon and planets can be accomplished with high resolution and accuracy using satellite laser altimeters. These systems employ nanosecond laser pulses and microradian beam divergences to achieve submeter vertical range resolution from orbital altitudes of several hundred kilometers. Here, we develop detailed expressions for the range and pulse width measurement accuracies and use the results to evaluate the ranging performances of several satellite laser altimeters currently under development by NASA for launch during the next decade. Our analysis includes the effects of the target surface characteristics, spacecraft pointing jitter and waveform digitizer characteristics. The results show that ranging accuracy is critically dependent on the pointing accuracy and stability of the altimeter especially over high relief terrain where surface slopes are large. At typical orbital altitudes of several hundred kilometers, single-shot accuracies of a few centimeters can be achieved only when the pointing jitter is on the order of 10 mu rad or less.

  4. Shock absorber operates over wide range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creasy, W. K.; Jones, J. C.

    1965-01-01

    Piston-type hydraulic shock absorber, with a metered damping system, operates over a wide range of kinetic energy loading rates. It is used for absorbing shock and vibration on mounted machinery and heavy earth-moving equipment.

  5. JOINT SMALL-ARMS RANGE REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) demonstration conducted by the Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) and the Army Environmental Center (AEC) removed lead and other heavy metals from small-arms range soils by a combination of phys...

  6. Subjective evaluation of higher dynamic range video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanhart, Philippe; Korshunov, Pavel; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2014-09-01

    High dynamic range (HDR) imaging is able to capture a wide range of luminance values, closer to what the human eye can perceive. However, for capture and display technologies, it is important to answer the question on the significance of higher dynamic range for user preference. This paper answers this question by investigating the added value of higher dynamic range via a rigorous set of subjective experiments using paired comparison methodology. Video sequences at four different peak luminance levels were displayed side-by-side on a Dolby Research HDR RGB backlight dual modulation display (aka `Pulsar'), which is capable of reliably displaying video content at 4000 cd=m2 peak luminance. The results of the subjective experiment demonstrate that the preference of an average viewer increases logarithmically with the increase in the maximum luminance level at which HDR content is displayed, with 4000 cd=m2 being the most attractive option.

  7. Universal time - Results from lunar laser ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, R. W.; Counselman, C. C., III; Shapiro, I. I.

    1978-01-01

    A least squares analysis of lunar laser ranging observations from the McDonald Observatory is used to estimate universal time. In addition to the ranging observations, the analysis simultaneously takes into account the parameters representing the locations of McDonald and the lunar retroreflectors, the orbits of the earth and the moon, and the moon's physical libration. The root-mean-square of the postfit range residuals for the 5-year period from October 1970 to November 1975 is 28 cm. The results are compared with those obtained by the Bureau International de l'Heure and by Stolz et al. (1976), and the reasons for discrepancies are discussed. It is suggested that problems in modeling the moon's motion make difficult the determination of UT with the accuracy inherent in the ranging observations.

  8. Intentionally Short-Range Communications (ISRC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, J.; Poirier, P.; Obrien, M.

    1994-02-01

    The U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) desired to develop short-range communications links whose ranges are intentionally limited to very short distances. These links support tactical missions such as LAN Backbone, Wideband Data Link, and Company Radio. The short-range limitation arises from the need for low probability of detection and intercept (LPD/LPI). Since the detection of an undecipherable transmission would still provide an enemy with information regarding transmitter location and allow him to take countermeasures, the Marine Corps Systems Command (MARCORSYSCOM) is sponsoring the development of technologies that can be LPD by their very nature. The Intentionally Short-Range Communications (ISRC) project at the Naval Command, Control and Ocean Surveillance Center (NCCOSC) RDT&E Division (NRaD) is pursuing feasibility studies for these USMC missions based on such technologies as ultraviolet (LTV) lamps, UV lasers, infrared (IR) lasers, millimeter waves and direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) at radio frequencies.

  9. Photoresistance analog multiplier has wide range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartenstein, R. G.

    1965-01-01

    Photoactivated bridge facilitates equal performance of analog multipliers over a wide frequency range. The multiplier operates from direct current to an upper frequency limited by either the light source or the closed-loop amplifier.

  10. Recent firing range suicides in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Austin, Amy E; van den Heuvel, Corinna; Heath, Karen; Gilbert, John D; Byard, Roger W

    2012-11-01

    Two cases are reported from South Australia, where deaths occurred that were due to single self-inflicted gunshot wounds to the head in individuals who were visiting indoor firearm ranges. Case 1: A 54-year-old man visiting an indoor firing range placed a .357 magnum handgun to his head and fired one shot. Case 2: A 23-year-old woman who was being instructed in firearm usage at an indoor firing range placed a 9 mm handgun to her head and fired one shot. In both cases, deaths were due to cerebral laceration with skull fracture. Firing ranges may be utilized by individuals who are seeking weapons for suicide attempts, and suicide may be successfully undertaken at such locations even while a victim is under direct supervision. In jurisdictions, where firearm ownership is strictly legislated, it may be that clubs can inadvertently provide access to firearms for this type of activity. PMID:22471964

  11. Full range pawl and ratchet clutch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zobott, Keith D.; Burch, Darrel W.

    1992-10-01

    The full-range pawl-and-ratchet clutch will permit very versatile operation of an air turbine starter. The need for a full-range pawl-and-ratchet clutch arises from various aircraft anomalies that may lead to ordinary clutch failures and therefore cause unnecessary delays for commercial as well as military aircraft. Air turbine starters containing a full-range pawl-and-ratchet clutch permit running engagement starts of aircraft jet engines at any speed from zero to above 10,000 rpm. The starter automatically disengages from the engine after completing the start and spins down to zero rpm. The concept embodied in the full-range pawl-and-ratchet clutch will provide a new generation of aircraft starters and represents a revolutionary advancement in the state of the art for air turbine starters.

  12. High range resolution micro-Doppler analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cammenga, Zachary A.; Smith, Graeme E.; Baker, Christopher J.

    2015-05-01

    This paper addresses use of the micro-Doppler effect and the use of high range-resolution profiles to observe complex targets in complex target scenes. The combination of micro-Doppler and high range-resolution provides the ability to separate the motion of complex targets from one another. This ability leads to the differentiation of targets based on their micro-Doppler signatures. Without the high-range resolution, this would not be possible because the individual signatures would not be separable. This paper also addresses the use of the micro-Doppler information and high range-resolution profiles to generate an approximation of the scattering properties of a complex target. This approximation gives insight into the structure of the complex target and, critically, is created without using a pre-determined target model.

  13. Structural transect across Ventua basin and western Transverse Ranges

    SciTech Connect

    Namson, J.S.

    1987-05-01

    A retrodeformable cross section that integrates surface and subsurface data across the Ventura basin and western Transverse Ranges illustrates the structural style and evolution of Oligocene to Holocene age structures. Three deformational events are recognized: Oligocene to early Miocene compression, late Miocene through Pliocene normal faulting, and Pleistocene to Holocene compression. Oligocene to early Miocene compression caused uplift and formation of a large antiform north of the Santa Ynez fault in the central part of the range. This antiform is interpreted to be a ramp-related fold associated with movement on a southwest-verging blind thrust fault. Late Miocene through Pliocene age normal faulting along the Oak Ridge fault formed the southern boundary of the Ventura basin. The basin formed by simple block rotation along the normal fault and was filled by up to 6 km of Pliocene and Pleistocene clastic sediment. During Pleistocene to Holocene compression, the Ventura basin and western Transverse Ranges were deformed by both north- and south-verging thrust faults and related folds. The Ventura Avenue anticline is interpreted to be the result of imbricate thrust faulting in the Rincon and Monterey formations. Along the Oak Ridge trend, thrust-related folds rotated and reactivated the late Miocene and Pliocene age normal faults. A restoration of the regional transect documents 34% or 35 km of shortening by thrusting and folding during the Pleistocene to Holocene phase of compression.

  14. Comparative analysis of planetary laser ranging concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirkx, D.; Bauer, S.; Noomen, R.; Vermeersen, B. L. A.; Visser, P. N.

    2014-12-01

    Laser ranging is an emerging technology for tracking interplanetary missions, offering improved range accuracy and precision (mm-cm), compared to existing DSN tracking. The ground segment uses existing Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) technology, whereas the space segment is modified with an active system. In a one-way system, such as that currently being used on the LRO spacecraft (Zuber et al., 2010), only an active detector is required on the spacecraft. For a two-way system, such as that tested by using the laser altimeter system on the MESSENGER spacecraft en route to Mercury (Smith et al., 2006), a laser transmitter system is additionally placed on the space segment, which will asynchronously fire laser pulses towards the ground stations. Although the one-way system requires less hardware, clock errors on both the space and ground segments will accumulate over time, polluting the range measurements. For a two-way system, the range measurements are only sensitive to clock errors integrated over the the two-way light time.We investigate the performance of both one- and two-way laser range systems by simulating their operation. We generate realizations of clock error time histories from Allan variance profiles, and use them to create range measurement error profiles. We subsequently perform the orbit determination process from this data to quanitfy the system's performance. For our simulations, we use two test cases: a lunar orbiter similar to LRO and a Phobos lander similar to the Phobos Laser Ranging concept (Turyshev et al., 2010). For the lunar orbiter, we include an empirical model for unmodelled non-gravitational accelerations in our truth model to include errors ihe dynamics. We include the estimation of clock parameters over a number of arc lengths for our simulations of the one-way range system and use a variety of state arc durations for the lunar orbiter simulations.We perform Monte Carlo simulations and generate true error distributions for both

  15. Superplastic forming of alloy 718

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.D.; Flower, H.L. )

    1994-04-01

    Inconel Alloy 718 (UNS N07718) is now available in a fine-grained, controlled composition modification that can be super-plastically formed. The new superplastic forming (SPF) capability allows the manufacture of large, complex, and detailed parts, which improves integrity by reducing the need for joining. Furthermore, it allows designers to fabricate components having higher strength, fatigue resistance, and temperature capability than parts made of aluminum or titanium alloys.

  16. Method for forming metal contacts

    SciTech Connect

    Reddington, Erik; Sutter, Thomas C; Bu, Lujia; Cannon, Alexandra; Habas, Susan E; Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alexander; Ginley, David S; Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria

    2013-09-17

    Methods of forming metal contacts with metal inks in the manufacture of photovoltaic devices are disclosed. The metal inks are selectively deposited on semiconductor coatings by inkjet and aerosol apparatus. The composite is heated to selective temperatures where the metal inks burn through the coating to form an electrical contact with the semiconductor. Metal layers are then deposited on the electrical contacts by light induced or light assisted plating.

  17. Preliminary crystallographic studies of four crystal forms of serum albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, D. C.; Chang, B.; Ho, J. X.; Keeling, K.; Krishnasami, Z.

    1994-01-01

    Several crystal forms of serum albumin suitable for three-dimensional structure determination have been grown. These forms include crystals of recombinant and wild-type human serum albumin, baboon serum albumin, and canine serum albumin. The intrinsic limits of X-ray diffraction for these crystals are in the range 0.28-0.22 nm. Two of the crystal forms produced from human and canine albumin include incorporated long-chain fatty acids. Molecular replacement experiments have been successfully conducted on each crystal form using the previously determined atomic coordinates of human serum albumin illustrating the conserved tertiary structure.

  18. Preliminary crystallographic studies of four crystal forms of serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Carter, D C; Chang, B; Ho, J X; Keeling, K; Krishnasami, Z

    1994-12-15

    Several crystal forms of serum albumin suitable for three-dimensional structure determination have been grown. These forms include crystals of recombinant and wild-type human serum albumin, baboon serum albumin, and canine serum albumin. The intrinsic limits of X-ray diffraction for these crystals are in the range 0.28-0.22 nm. Two of the crystal forms produced from human and canine albumin include incorporated long-chain fatty acids. Molecular replacement experiments have been successfully conducted on each crystal form using the previously determined atomic coordinates of human serum albumin illustrating the conserved tertiary structure. PMID:7813459

  19. Analytical evaluation of atomic form factors: Application to Rayleigh scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Safari, L.; Santos, J. P.; Amaro, P.; Jänkälä, K.; Fratini, F.

    2015-05-15

    Atomic form factors are widely used for the characterization of targets and specimens, from crystallography to biology. By using recent mathematical results, here we derive an analytical expression for the atomic form factor within the independent particle model constructed from nonrelativistic screened hydrogenic wave functions. The range of validity of this analytical expression is checked by comparing the analytically obtained form factors with the ones obtained within the Hartee-Fock method. As an example, we apply our analytical expression for the atomic form factor to evaluate the differential cross section for Rayleigh scattering off neutral atoms.

  20. Makran Mountain Range, Iran and Pakistan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The long folded mountain ridges and valleys of the coastal Makran Ranges of Iran and Pakistan (26.0N, 63.0E) illustrate the classical Trellis type of drainage pattern, common in this region. The Dasht River and its tributaries is the principal drainage network for this area. To the left, the continental drift of the northward bound Indian sub-continent has caused the east/west parallel ranges to bend in a great northward arc.

  1. High Dynamic Range Digital Imaging of Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, Brian A.; Chalmers, Alan; Debattista, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    The ability to capture engineering imagery with a wide degree of dynamic range during rocket launches is critical for post launch processing and analysis [USC03, NNC86]. Rocket launches often present an extreme range of lightness, particularly during night launches. Night launches present a two-fold problem: capturing detail of the vehicle and scene that is masked by darkness, while also capturing detail in the engine plume.

  2. Ground based laser ranging for satellite location

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbreath, G. C.; Newby, Harold D.

    1993-01-01

    In this article, we describe a new satellite laser ranging capability which is a joint effort between the Naval Research Laboratory and Air Force Optical Tracking Facility at Malabar, Florida. Initial measurements off LAGEOS indicate that uncorrected radial range rms values of 8 mm are readily achievable. The number of photoelectron counts are on the order of 180 which are off by an order of magnitude from predicted values.

  3. Poisson filtering of laser ranging data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricklefs, Randall L.; Shelus, Peter J.

    1993-01-01

    The filtering of data in a high noise, low signal strength environment is a situation encountered routinely in lunar laser ranging (LLR) and, to a lesser extent, in artificial satellite laser ranging (SLR). The use of Poisson statistics as one of the tools for filtering LLR data is described first in a historical context. The more recent application of this statistical technique to noisy SLR data is also described.

  4. Entrainment ranges of forced phase oscillators.

    PubMed

    Previte, Joseph P; Sheils, Natalie; Hoffman, Kathleen A; Kiemel, Tim; Tytell, Eric D

    2011-04-01

    In the vertebrate spinal cord, a neural circuit called the central pattern generator produces the basic locomotory rhythm. Short and long distance intersegmental connections serve to maintain coordination along the length of the body. As a way of examining the influence of such connections, we consider a model of a chain of coupled phase oscillators in which one oscillator receives a periodic forcing stimulus. For a certain range of forcing frequencies, the chain will match the stimulus frequency, a phenomenon called entrainment. Motivated by recent experiments in lampreys, we derive analytical expressions for the range of forcing frequencies that entrain the chain, and how that range depends on the forcing location. For short intersegmental connections, in which an oscillator is connected only to its nearest neighbors, we describe two ways in which entrainment is lost: internally, in which oscillators within the chain no longer oscillate at the same frequency; and externally, in which the the chain no longer has the same frequency as the forcing. By analyzing chains in which every oscillator is connected to every other oscillator (i.e., all-to-all connections), we show that the presence of connections with lengths greater than one do not necessarily change the entrainment ranges based on the nearest-neighbor model. We derive a criterion for the ratio of connection strengths under which the connections of length greater than one do not change the entrainment ranges produced in the nearest-neighbor model, provided entrainment is lost externally. However, when this criterion holds, the range of entrained frequencies is a monotonic function of forcing location, unlike experimental results, in which entrainment ranges are larger near the middle of the chain than at the ends. Numerically, we show that similar non-monotonic entrainment ranges are possible if the ratio criterion does not hold, suggesting that in the lamprey central pattern generator, intersegmental

  5. Positron range estimations with PeneloPET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cal-González, J.; Herraiz, J. L.; España, S.; Corzo, P. M. G.; Vaquero, J. J.; Desco, M.; Udias, J. M.

    2013-08-01

    Technical advances towards high resolution PET imaging try to overcome the inherent physical limitations to spatial resolution. Positrons travel in tissue until they annihilate into the two gamma photons detected. This range is the main detector-independent contribution to PET imaging blurring. To a large extent, it can be remedied during image reconstruction if accurate estimates of positron range are available. However, the existing estimates differ, and the comparison with the scarce experimental data available is not conclusive. In this work we present positron annihilation distributions obtained from Monte Carlo simulations with the PeneloPET simulation toolkit, for several common PET isotopes (18F, 11C, 13N, 15O, 68Ga and 82Rb) in different biological media (cortical bone, soft bone, skin, muscle striated, brain, water, adipose tissue and lung). We compare PeneloPET simulations against experimental data and other simulation results available in the literature. To this end the different positron range representations employed in the literature are related to each other by means of a new parameterization for positron range profiles. Our results are generally consistent with experiments and with most simulations previously reported with differences of less than 20% in the mean and maximum range values. From these results, we conclude that better experimental measurements are needed, especially to disentangle the effect of positronium formation in positron range. Finally, with the aid of PeneloPET, we confirm that scaling approaches can be used to obtain universal, material and isotope independent, positron range profiles, which would considerably simplify range correction.

  6. Topological defects with long-range interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mello, B. A.; González, J. A.; Guerrero, L. E.; López-Atencio, E.

    1998-07-01

    We investigate a modified sine-Gordon equation which possesses soliton solutions with long-range interaction. We introduce a generalized version of the Ginzburg-Landau equation which supports long-range topological defects in D = 1 and D > 1. The interaction force between the defects decays so slowly that it is possible to enter the non-extensivity regime. These results can be applied to non-equilibrium systems, pattern formation and growth models.

  7. Determining Spatial Coordinates By Laser Ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumacher, Larry L.

    1990-01-01

    Three range-measuring lasers arranged in triangle measure location of point. Set of three measurements of distances (ranges) of retroreflector on object from three rangefinders provides sufficient information to calculate coordinates of retroreflector in coordinate system defined by rangefinders. If at least three noncollinear retroreflectors attached to object, orientation of object also determined. Potential applications include observation and control of large structures, robotics, and machine vision.

  8. Orbit determination by range-only data.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, N.; Winn, C. B.

    1973-01-01

    The determination of satellite orbits for use in geodesy using range-only data has been examined. A recently developed recursive algorithm for rectification of the nominal orbit after processing each observation has been tested. It is shown that when a synchronous satellite is tracked simultaneously with a subsynchronous geodetic target satellite, the orbits of each may be readily determined by processing the range information. Random data errors and satellite perturbations are included in the examples presented.

  9. Programmable near-infrared ranging system

    DOEpatents

    Everett, Jr., Hobart R.

    1989-01-01

    A high angular resolution ranging system particularly suitable for indoor plications involving mobile robot navigation and collision avoidance uses a programmable array of light emitters that can be sequentially incremented by a microprocessor. A plurality of adjustable level threshold detectors are used in an optical receiver for detecting the threshold level of the light echoes produced when light emitted from one or more of the emitters is reflected by a target or object in the scan path of the ranging system.

  10. Form 6 - gas balancing agreement

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    In 1988, a special Committee of the Rocky Mountain Mineral Law Foundation undertook a project to draft a model from gas balancing agreement. This project was initiated at the request of a number of Foundation members who felt that a model form gas balancing agreement would facilitate the negotiation of operating agreement, since gas balancing issues had become sticking points in the process. The Committee was composed of attorneys representing a wide cross-section of the oil and gas industry including both major and independent oil companies, production companies with interstate pipeline affiliates, and private practitioners. The Committee attempted to address the more controversial issues in gas balancing with optional provisions in the Form. To facilitate the negotiation process, the number of optional provisions was minimized. This form may be used as an Appendix to the new A.A.P.L. Form 610-1989 Model Form Operating Agreement. This book includes provision of this Form which are: Ownership of gas production; Balancing of production accounts; Cash balancing upon depletion; Deliverability tests; Nominations; Statements; Payment of taxes; Operating expenses; Overproducing allowable; Payment of leasehold burdens; Operator's liability; Successors and assigns; Audits; Arbitration; and Operator's fees.

  11. Superplastic forming of ceramic insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nieh, T. G.; Wittenauer, J. P.; Wadsworth, J.

    1992-01-01

    Superplasticity has been demonstrated in many fine-grained structural ceramics and ceramic composites, including yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (YTZP), alumina, and Al2O3-reinforced zirconia (Al2O3/YTZ) duplex composites and SiC-reinforced Si3N4. These superplastic ceramics obviously offer the potential benefit of forming net shape or near net shape parts. This could be particularly useful for forming complicated shapes that are difficult to achieve using conventional forming techniques, or require elaborate, subsequent machining. In the present study, we successfully demonstrated the following: (1) superplastic 3Y-TXP and 20 percent Al2O3/YTZ composite have for the first time been successfully deformed into hemispherical caps via a biaxial gas-pressure forming technique; (2) no experimental difficulty was encountered in applying the required gas pressures and temperatures to achieve the results, thus, it is certain that higher rates of deformation than those presented in this study will be possible by using the current test apparatus at higher temperatures and pressures; and (3) an analytical model incorporating material parameters, such as variations during forming in the strain rate sensitivity exponent and grain growth-induced strain hardening, is needed to model accurately and therefore precisely control the biaxial gas-pressure forming of superplastic ceramics. Based on the results of this study, we propose to fabricate zirconia insulation tubes by superplastic extrusion of zirconia polycrystal. This would not only reduce the cost, but also improve the reliability of the tube products.

  12. Passive ranging through the Earth's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasson, Victor H.; Dupuis, Christopher R.

    2002-02-01

    Many luminous sources provide continuous or quasi-continuous radiation at near IR and longer wavelengths. The radiation continuum serves as a source of background photons, which can be used for discrete line-of-site absorption measurements by-known atmospheric constituents. The intensity ratio is uniquely determined by the absorption coefficient and range, is independent of broadband attenuations and scattering. The absorption coefficients are known and/or can be accurately calculated for a wide range of practical viewing conditions (i.e., sensor height, viewing angle, etc.). Hence, the intensity ratio and/or integrated intensity ratio can be used to uniquely derive the range of the radiating source. Fabry-Perot interferometers can provide the high throughputs and resolving powers required in compact packages. The measurements and analyses show that ranging accuracies representing down to 1 - 2% of the total range should be achievable at stand-off ranges of upto hundreds of kilometers depending on the size of the collection optics, brightness of the source and available observation times. The paper will provide an overview of the patented Textron concepts, trade-offs associated with instrument resolving powers and hardware implementation issues.

  13. Exploration and mating range in African Pygmies.

    PubMed

    Cavalli-Sforza, L L; Hewlett, B

    1982-07-01

    The distributions of exploration range and of mating range were studied among Aka Pygmies of the Central African Republic. Exploration range is defined and methods of estimation for single individuals suggested. A simple exponential distribution is found for individual Aka Pygmies, with variation of exploration range (the parameter defining mobility) with sex, age and ethnic affiliation. Distribution of distances from birthplace and place of residence are compared and show modest differences. The frequency of visits to a given place has also been studied. The average distance between birthplaces of mates is very similar to the mean exploration range. Correlations between individual exploration and mating ranges suggest that it is the male who may be choosing a marriage partner among Pygmies. A theory by Boyce, Küchemann & Harrison (1967) on the relations between "neighbourhood knowledge" and mating distance is inapplicable because of its reliance on the Pareto distribution, which does not apply in the present case, and of other unnecessary assumptions, but the general principle of a close relationship between exploratory activity and mating distance seems valid, at least in the present case. Suggestions are made for causes for the difference between the present distributions and those with other shapes observed in less primitive economies. PMID:7125597

  14. Ranging/tracking system for proximity operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nilsen, P.; Udalov, S.

    1982-01-01

    The hardware development and testing phase of a hand held radar for the ranging and tracking for Shuttle proximity operations are considered. The radar is to measure range to a 3 sigma accuracy of 1 m (3.28 ft) to a maximum range of 1850 m (6000 ft) and velocity to a 3 sigma accuracy of 0.03 m/s (0.1 ft/s). Size and weight are similar to hand held radars, frequently seen in use by motorcycle police officers. Meeting these goals for a target in free space was very difficult to obtain in the testing program; however, at a range of approximately 700 m, the 3 sigma range error was found to be 0.96 m. It is felt that much of this error is due to clutter in the test environment. As an example of the velocity accuracy, at a range of 450 m, a 3 sigma velocity error of 0.02 m/s was measured. The principles of the radar and recommended changes to its design are given. Analyses performed in support of the design process, the actual circuit diagrams, and the software listing are included.

  15. Conductance measurement circuit with wide dynamic range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mount, Bruce E. (Inventor); Von Esch, Myron (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A conductance measurement circuit to measure conductance of a solution under test with an output voltage proportional to conductance over a 5-decade range, i.e., 0.01 uS to 1000 uS or from 0.1 uS to 10,000 uS. An increase in conductance indicates growth, or multiplication, of the bacteria in the test solution. Two circuits are used each for an alternate half-cycle time periods of an alternate squarewave in order to cause alternate and opposite currents to be applied to the test solution. The output of one of the two circuits may be scaled for a different range optimum switching frequency dependent upon the solution conductance and to enable uninterrupted measurement over the complete 5-decade range. This circuitry provides two overlapping ranges of conductance which can be read simultaneously without discontinuity thereby eliminating range switching within the basic circuitry. A VCO is used to automatically change the operating frequency according to the particular value of the conductance being measured, and comparators indicate which range is valid and also facilitate computer-controlled data acquisition. A multiplexer may be used to monitor any number of solutions under test continuously.

  16. Discrete range clustering using Monte Carlo methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterji, G. B.; Sridhar, B.

    1993-01-01

    For automatic obstacle avoidance guidance during rotorcraft low altitude flight, a reliable model of the nearby environment is needed. Such a model may be constructed by applying surface fitting techniques to the dense range map obtained by active sensing using radars. However, for covertness, passive sensing techniques using electro-optic sensors are desirable. As opposed to the dense range map obtained via active sensing, passive sensing algorithms produce reliable range at sparse locations, and therefore, surface fitting techniques to fill the gaps in the range measurement are not directly applicable. Both for automatic guidance and as a display for aiding the pilot, these discrete ranges need to be grouped into sets which correspond to objects in the nearby environment. The focus of this paper is on using Monte Carlo methods for clustering range points into meaningful groups. One of the aims of the paper is to explore whether simulated annealing methods offer significant advantage over the basic Monte Carlo method for this class of problems. We compare three different approaches and present application results of these algorithms to a laboratory image sequence and a helicopter flight sequence.

  17. Conjoint Forming - Technologies for Simultaneous Forming and Joining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groche, P.; Wohletz, S.; Mann, A.; Krech, M.; Monnerjahn, V.

    2016-03-01

    The market demand for new products optimized for e. g. lightweight applications or smart components leads to new challenges in production engineering. Hybrid structures represent one promising approach. They aim at higher product performance by using a suitable combination of different materials. The developments of hybrid structures stimulate the research on joining of dissimilar materials. Since they allow for joining dissimilar materials without external heating technologies based on joining by plastic deformation seem to be of special attractiveness. The paper at hand discusses the conjoint forming approach. This approach combines forming and joining in one process. Two or more workpieces are joined while at least one workpiece is plastically deformed. After presenting the fundamental joining mechanisms, the conjoint forming approach is discussed comprehensively. Examples of conjoint processes demonstrate the effectiveness and reveal the underlying phenomena.

  18. The Relation of Power of Statistical Tests to Range of Talent: A Correction and Amplification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Lloyd G.

    1991-01-01

    The difference in effect on power of restriction of range between treatments under experimental control and categories formed from examinee (individual differences) variables is discussed. Conditions under which there is loss or increase of power are explained. (SLD)

  19. Canine hip extension range during gait.

    PubMed

    van der Walt, A M; Stewart, A V; Joubert, K E; Bekker, P

    2008-12-01

    Assessment of canine gait is frequently used by veterinary clinicians to establish the presence of orthopaedic pain. As up to 30% of canine orthopaedic conditions affect the pelvic limb, knowledge of pelvic limb biomechanics during gait is very important. Previous studies have investigated the biomechanics at the tarsus and stifle, but little information is available regarding hip motion during gait. The aim of this study was to determine the maximum hip extension range achieved during the stance phase of gait in normal canines. In addition, this study aimed to determine the difference between maximum passive hip extension and maximum hip extension during gait. Using a sample of 30 morphologically similar normal dogs, mean maximum passive hip extension was measured using a goniometer and mean maximum hip extension range during gait was determined videographically. Inter- and intra-assessor reliability studies performed at the start of the study showed that the measurement tools and techniques used in this study were valid and reliable. The goniometric data showed that mean maximum passive hip extension range was 162.44 degrees (+/-3.94) with no significant difference between the left and the right hind limbs. The videographic data showed that mean maximum hip extension range during gait was 119.9 degrees (+/-9.26) with no significant difference between the left and right hind limbs. The results of this study provided reference values for active and passive hip extension range and showed that the degree of hip extension range required for normal gait is significantly less than maximum passive hip extension range. PMID:19496317

  20. Servomotor and Controller Having Large Dynamic Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean C.; Howard, David E.; Smith, Dennis A.; Dutton, Ken; Paulson, M. Scott

    2007-01-01

    A recently developed micro-commanding rotational-position-control system offers advantages of less mechanical complexity, less susceptibility to mechanical resonances, less power demand, less bulk, less weight, and lower cost, relative to prior rotational-position-control systems based on stepping motors and gear drives. This system includes a digital-signal- processor (DSP)-based electronic controller, plus a shaft-angle resolver and a servomotor mounted on the same shaft. Heretofore, micro-stepping has usually been associated with stepping motors, but in this system, the servomotor is micro-commanded in response to rotational-position feedback from the shaft-angle resolver. The shaft-angle resolver is of a four-speed type chosen because it affords four times the resolution of a single-speed resolver. A key innovative aspect of this system is its position-feedback signal- conditioning circuits, which condition the resolver output signal for multiple ranges of rotational speed. In the preferred version of the system, two rotational- speed ranges are included, but any number of ranges could be added to expand the speed range or increase resolution in particular ranges. In the preferred version, the resolver output is conditioned with two resolver-to-digital converters (RDCs). One RDC is used for speeds from 0.00012 to 2.5 rpm; the other RDC is used for speeds of 2.5 to 6,000 rpm. For the lower speed range, the number of discrete steps of RDC output per revolution was set at 262,144 (4 quadrants at 16 bits per quadrant). For the higher speed range, the number of discrete steps per revolution was set at 4,096 (4 quadrants at 10 bits per quadrant).

  1. Method of forming oriented block copolymer line patterns, block copolymer line patterns formed thereby, and their use to form patterned articles

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Thomas P.; Hong, Sung Woo; Lee, Doug Hyun; Park, Soojin; Xu, Ting

    2015-10-13

    A block copolymer film having a line pattern with a high degree of long-range order is formed by a method that includes forming a block copolymer film on a substrate surface with parallel facets, and annealing the block copolymer film to form an annealed block copolymer film having linear microdomains parallel to the substrate surface and orthogonal to the parallel facets of the substrate. The line-patterned block copolymer films are useful for the fabrication of magnetic storage media, polarizing devices, and arrays of nanowires.

  2. Review of high-level waste form properties. [146 bibliographies

    SciTech Connect

    Rusin, J.M.

    1980-12-01

    This report is a review of waste form options for the immobilization of high-level-liquid wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle. This review covers the status of international research and development on waste forms as of May 1979. Although the emphasis in this report is on waste form properties, process parameters are discussed where they may affect final waste form properties. A summary table is provided listing properties of various nuclear waste form options. It is concluded that proposed waste forms have properties falling within a relatively narrow range. In regard to crystalline versus glass waste forms, the conclusion is that either glass of crystalline materials can be shown to have some advantage when a single property is considered; however, at this date no single waste form offers optimum properties over the entire range of characteristics investigated. A long-term effort has been applied to the development of glass and calcine waste forms. Several additional waste forms have enough promise to warrant continued research and development to bring their state of development up to that of glass and calcine. Synthetic minerals, the multibarrier approach with coated particles in a metal matrix, and high pressure-high temperature ceramics offer potential advantages and need further study. Although this report discusses waste form properties, the total waste management system should be considered in the final selection of a waste form option. Canister design, canister materials, overpacks, engineered barriers, and repository characteristics, as well as the waste form, affect the overall performance of a waste management system. These parameters were not considered in this comparison.

  3. GEOLOGIC FRAMEWORK FOR GEOTHERMAL ENERGY IN THE CASCADE RANGE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffield, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    Quaternary volcanoes of the Cascade Range form a 1200-km-long belt from northern California to southwest British Columbia and lie above the subduction zone formed as the Juan de Fuca plate is consumed beneath North America. Volcanoes throughout this belt may have been active during Quaternary time, and many have erupted within Holocene time. Thermal springs are few and inconspicuous. Surface expression of hydrothermal systems possibly is masked by infiltration of abundant rainwater and snowmelt. Several geologic and geophysical features suggest that the Oregon and California parts of the Cascades are characterized by moderate east-west crustal extension, tectonic regime conducive to relatively widespread volcanism and to the formation of normal fault zones of potentially high permeability. Refs.

  4. Method for detection and imaging over a broad spectral range

    DOEpatents

    Yefremenko, Volodymyr; Gordiyenko, Eduard; Pishko, legal representative, Olga; Novosad, Valentyn; Pishko, deceased; Vitalii

    2007-09-25

    A method of controlling the coordinate sensitivity in a superconducting microbolometer employs localized light, heating or magnetic field effects to form normal or mixed state regions on a superconducting film and to control the spatial location. Electron beam lithography and wet chemical etching were applied as pattern transfer processes in epitaxial Y--Ba--Cu--O films. Two different sensor designs were tested: (i) a 3 millimeter long and 40 micrometer wide stripe and (ii) a 1.25 millimeters long, and 50 micron wide meandering-like structure. Scanning the laser beam along the stripe leads to physical displacement of the sensitive area, and, therefore, may be used as a basis for imaging over a broad spectral range. Forming the superconducting film as a meandering structure provides the equivalent of a two-dimensional detector array. Advantages of this approach are simplicity of detector fabrication, and simplicity of the read-out process requiring only two electrical terminals.

  5. Creation and initial evaluation of a stool form scale for children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alterations in stool form and frequency are associated with numerous gastrointestinal disorders, ranging from inflammatory disorders to functional gastrointestinal disorders. Diagnostic criteria for gastrointestinal disorders may depend, in part, on whether changes in stool form are associated with ...

  6. Protected areas facilitate species' range expansions.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Chris D; Gillingham, Phillipa K; Bradbury, Richard B; Roy, David B; Anderson, Barbara J; Baxter, John M; Bourn, Nigel A D; Crick, Humphrey Q P; Findon, Richard A; Fox, Richard; Hodgson, Jenny A; Holt, Alison R; Morecroft, Mike D; O'Hanlon, Nina J; Oliver, Tom H; Pearce-Higgins, James W; Procter, Deborah A; Thomas, Jeremy A; Walker, Kevin J; Walmsley, Clive A; Wilson, Robert J; Hill, Jane K

    2012-08-28

    The benefits of protected areas (PAs) for biodiversity have been questioned in the context of climate change because PAs are static, whereas the distributions of species are dynamic. Current PAs may, however, continue to be important if they provide suitable locations for species to colonize at their leading-edge range boundaries, thereby enabling spread into new regions. Here, we present an empirical assessment of the role of PAs as targets for colonization during recent range expansions. Records from intensive surveys revealed that seven bird and butterfly species have colonized PAs 4.2 (median) times more frequently than expected from the availability of PAs in the landscapes colonized. Records of an additional 256 invertebrate species with less-intensive surveys supported these findings and showed that 98% of species are disproportionately associated with PAs in newly colonized parts of their ranges. Although colonizing species favor PAs in general, species vary greatly in their reliance on PAs, reflecting differences in the dependence of individual species on particular habitats and other conditions that are available only in PAs. These findings highlight the importance of current PAs for facilitating range expansions and show that a small subset of the landscape receives a high proportion of colonizations by range-expanding species. PMID:22893689

  7. Testing gravitational physics with satellite laser ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciufolini, Ignazio; Paolozzi, Antonio; Pavlis, Erricos C.; Ries, John; Koenig, Rolf; Matzner, Richard; Sindoni, Giampiero; Neumeyer, Hans

    2011-08-01

    Laser ranging, both Lunar (LLR) and Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), is one of the most accurate techniques to test gravitational physics and Einstein's theory of General Relativity. Lunar Laser Ranging has provided very accurate tests of both the strong equivalence principle, at the foundations of General Relativity, and of the weak equivalence principle, at the basis of any metric theory of gravity; it has provided strong limits to the values of the so-called PPN (Parametrized Post-Newtonian) parameters, that are used to test the post-Newtonian limit of General Relativity, strong limits to conceivable deviations to the inverse square law for very weak gravity and accurate measurements of the geodetic precession, an effect predicted by General Relativity. Satellite laser ranging has provided strong limits to deviations to the inverse square gravity law, at a different range with respect to LLR, and in particular has given the first direct test of the gravitomagnetic field by measuring the gravitomagnetic shift of the node of a satellite, a frame-dragging effect also called Lense-Thirring effect. Here, after an introduction to gravitomagnetism and frame-dragging, we describe the latest results in measuring the Lense-Thirring effect using the LAGEOS satellites and the latest gravity field models obtained by the space mission GRACE. Finally, we describe an update of the LARES (LAser RElativity Satellite) mission. LARES is planned for launch in 2011 to further improve the accuracy in the measurement of frame-dragging.

  8. Two wavelength satellite laser ranging using SPAD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prochazka, Ivan; Hamal, Karel; Jelinkova, Helena; Kirchner, Georg; Koidl, F.

    1993-01-01

    When ranging to satellites with lasers, there are several principal contributions to the error budget: from the laser ranging system on the ground, from the satellite retroarray geometry, and from the atmosphere. Using a single wavelength, we have routinely achieved a ranging precision of 8 millimeters when ranging to the ERS-1 and Starlette satellites. The systematic error of the atmosphere, assuming the existing dispersion models, is expected to be of the order of 1 cm. Multiple wavelengths ranging might contribute to the refinement of the existing models. Taking into account the energy balance, the existing picosecond lasers and the existing receiver and detection technology, several pairs or multiple wavelengths may be considered. To be able to improve the atmospheric models to the subcentimeter accuracy level, the differential time interval (DTI) has to be determined within a few picoseconds depending on the selected wavelength pair. There exist several projects based on picosecond lasers as transmitters and on two types of detection techniques: one is based on photodetectors, like photomultipliers or photodiodes connected to the time interval meters. Another technique is based on the use of a streak camera as an echo signal detector, temporal analyzer, and time interval vernier. The temporal analysis at a single wavelength using the streak camera showed the complexity of the problem.

  9. Long range target discrimination using UV fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, Mark; Lepley, Jason

    2011-06-01

    An active imaging system using UV fluorescence for target discrimination is proposed. The emission wavelength is characteristic of the target material and allows spectral discrimination of targets from clutter. The burst-illumination-LIDAR system transmits a laser pulse and the fluorescent return is detected with a synchronised gated imaging receiver. The short gate length (~ns) allowed by a micro-channel plate CCD reduces solar clutter. Detector noise is not the limiting factor because of the high MCP-CCD detectivity. Laser choice is constrained by the required laser pulse energy, laser size and robustness. The COTS solution identified is a diode-pumped, 4th harmonic converted, 1064nm laser. Nd:YAG, Nd:YLF and Nd:Alexandrite lasers have superior performance but require some development for this application. A pessimistic range model evaluates the optical powers. Comparison of the received fluorescent energy to the detector noise equivalent energy and the solar energy received provides the detection range limit. Performance of the proposed systems exceeds the detection range requirement for all samples evaluated and all varying conditions explored. The lowest range is for black paint with the COTS laser system and is 2860m; the best ranges exceed 5km.

  10. Devonian magmatism in Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Dillion, J.T.; Tilton, G.R.

    1985-04-01

    Devonian bimodel metaplutonic and metavolcanic rocks lie in parallel, west-trending belts in the southern Brooks Range. Overlapping distribution of the plutonic and volcanic rocks occurs in volcanic centers found south of the Doonerak window in the Wiseman, Chandalar, and Colleen quadrangles, and near the Beaver Creek pluton in the Survey Pass quadrangle. The Devonian age is interpreted from isotopic analyses of U and Pb of over 55 zircon fractions from these felsic metaigneous units. Considering concordia plots and Pb-Pb ages from over 40 discordant zircon fractions and fossil ages derived from marbles intercalated in the volcanic sequences, the authors see an age range of 360-410 Ma. The age range is attributed to variation in crystallization ages, as well as the U-Pb systematics of the Brooks Range zircons. Their overlapping age and distribution provides evidence for cogenesis of the Devonian plutonic and volcanic rocks, and also for their correlation with Devonian magmatic rocks of the North American Cordilleran. Lower intercepts on U-Pb concordia diagrams for these zircons range from 105 to 150 Ma, bracketing the end of lead loss resulting from metamorphism. The age of this metamorphic event corresponds to the Late Jurassic and earliest Cretaceous emplacement of the Angayucham terrane. U-Pb concordia plots of 15 zircon fractions from five samples of the Ernie Lake granitic gneiss bodies are explained as latest Proterozoic intrusion of granitic magma with entrained 2-Ga-old zircons, which subsequently lost lead during Mesozoic metamorphism.

  11. Passive ranging of boost-phase missiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawks, Michael; Perram, Glen

    2007-04-01

    The depth of absorption bands in observed spectra of distant, bright sources can be used to estimate range to the source. Previous efforts in this area relied on Beer's Law to estimate range from observations of infrared CO II bands, with disappointing results. A modified approach is presented that uses band models and observations of the O II absorption band near 762 nm. This band is spectrally isolated from other atmospheric bands, which enables direct estimation of molecular absorption from observed intensity. Range is estimated by comparing observed values of band-average absorption, (see manuscript), against predicted curves derived from either historical data or model predictions. Accuracy of better than 0.5% has been verified in short-range (up to 3km) experiments using a Fourier transform interferometer at 1cm -1 resolution. A conceptual design is described for a small, affordable passive ranging sensor suitable for use on tactical aircraft for missile attack warning and time-to-impact estimation. Models are used to extrapolate experimental results (using 1 cm -1 resolution data) to analyze expected performance of this filter-based system.

  12. Protected areas facilitate species’ range expansions

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Chris D.; Gillingham, Phillipa K.; Bradbury, Richard B.; Roy, David B.; Anderson, Barbara J.; Baxter, John M.; Bourn, Nigel A. D.; Crick, Humphrey Q. P.; Findon, Richard A.; Fox, Richard; Hodgson, Jenny A.; Holt, Alison R.; Morecroft, Mike D.; O’Hanlon, Nina J.; Oliver, Tom H.; Pearce-Higgins, James W.; Procter, Deborah A.; Thomas, Jeremy A.; Walker, Kevin J.; Walmsley, Clive A.; Wilson, Robert J.; Hill, Jane K.

    2012-01-01

    The benefits of protected areas (PAs) for biodiversity have been questioned in the context of climate change because PAs are static, whereas the distributions of species are dynamic. Current PAs may, however, continue to be important if they provide suitable locations for species to colonize at their leading-edge range boundaries, thereby enabling spread into new regions. Here, we present an empirical assessment of the role of PAs as targets for colonization during recent range expansions. Records from intensive surveys revealed that seven bird and butterfly species have colonized PAs 4.2 (median) times more frequently than expected from the availability of PAs in the landscapes colonized. Records of an additional 256 invertebrate species with less-intensive surveys supported these findings and showed that 98% of species are disproportionately associated with PAs in newly colonized parts of their ranges. Although colonizing species favor PAs in general, species vary greatly in their reliance on PAs, reflecting differences in the dependence of individual species on particular habitats and other conditions that are available only in PAs. These findings highlight the importance of current PAs for facilitating range expansions and show that a small subset of the landscape receives a high proportion of colonizations by range-expanding species. PMID:22893689

  13. Vision-based stereo ranging as an optimal control problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, P. K. A.; Sridhar, B.; Chatterji, G. B.

    1992-01-01

    The recent interest in the use of machine vision for flight vehicle guidance is motivated by the need to automate the nap-of-the-earth flight regime of helicopters. Vision-based stereo ranging problem is cast as an optimal control problem in this paper. A quadratic performance index consisting of the integral of the error between observed image irradiances and those predicted by a Pade approximation of the correspondence hypothesis is then used to define an optimization problem. The necessary conditions for optimality yield a set of linear two-point boundary-value problems. These two-point boundary-value problems are solved in feedback form using a version of the backward sweep method. Application of the ranging algorithm is illustrated using a laboratory image pair.

  14. A broadband multifocal metalens in the terahertz frequency range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemi, Mahdieh; Moazami, Amin; Naserpour, Mahin; Zapata-Rodríguez, Carlos J.

    2016-07-01

    Metasurfaces, the 2D form of metamaterials with their ability in phase, amplitude and polarization manipulation are widely used in designing optical devices. Efforts to find proper photonic components in the terahertz (THz) range of frequency lead us to adopt metasurfaces as their constituent elements. Here, we conceived a broadband THz lens with an adjustable number and arrangement of focal points. To have a full control over the lens functionality, we used a metasurface with the capability of simultaneously modulating the amplitude and phase of the incident wave. C-shaped ring resonators (CSRRs) with different geometry and orientation capable of simultaneously manipulating phase and amplitude of the scattered fields, are proper choice to design the lens. We show that the introduced lens in a one-dimensional layout has a wide range of working frequencies within the THz spectrum, which can be used in a plethora of applications.

  15. New consideration of atmospheric refraction in laser ranging data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Haojian; Wang, Guangli

    1999-08-01

    In this paper we reconsider the formulae of tropospheric refraction correction for the Satellite Laser Range technique. From the expansion of the complementary error function, a new continued fraction form of the mapping function at optical frequencies is derived. The correction terms related to the operation frequency of the laser beam are considered in both the zenith delay and the mapping function. The correction for low-elevation satellites is briefly reviewed. The theoretical accuracy of the new mapping function has been analysed via the ray tracing integrals under the standard atmospheric profile. With respect to the radiosonde data, the deviations of the new mapping function are investigated in an elevation range down to near 1 deg, which is comparable with the results of the Marini-Murray formulae.

  16. Quantum Defect Theory for Long-range Anisotropic Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzic, Brandon P.; Bohn, John L.; Greene, Chris H.

    2014-05-01

    Quantum Defect Theory (QDT) is a numerically efficient and accurate tool for studying a wide variety of ultracold atomic collisions, where the asymptotic behavior of the atoms is well described by a set of simple parameters. However, analytic formulas for these parameters only exist for the pure - 1 /R6 potential. The long-range parameters are given by simple power law equations in the collision energy, and the bound state energies of different partial waves are simply related. We extend these formulas to encompass all potentials of the form - 1 /Rn , where n > 2 . Moreover, the accuracy of QDT is limited by long-range anisotropic interactions, which, for example, play an important role in collisions of dysprosium or erbium atoms. We present our recent developments on numerically treating this type of interaction within perturbation theory. This work is supported by the US Department of Energy.

  17. Acceptance of Ideas of Others [Number Form and Star Form].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, James R.; Laverty, Grace E.

    As part of the instrumentation to assess the effectiveness of the Schools Without Failure (SWF) program in 10 elementary schools in the New Castle, Pa. School District, the Acceptance of Ideas of Others (Number and Star Forms) were developed to determine pupils' attitudes toward classmates. Given a list of all class members, pupils are asked to…

  18. Form und Sinn: Sprachwissenschaftliche Betrachtungen (Form and Meaning: Linguistic Observations).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakobson, Roman

    This collection of 14 papers and articles by Roman Jakobson contains works written and published between 1931 and 1970 which deal either with global aspects of language or with specific grammatical issues. The collection emphasizes Jakobson's concern for finding the links between form and meaning in language. The text is entirely in German with…

  19. Sixth-Form Colleges: An Endangered Organisational Form?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoten, David William

    2014-01-01

    The sixth-form college sector is often marginalised in policy and academic discourse, where the much larger school and further education sectors dominate. This paper sets out to describe the sector's key features, assess its position within the wider education system and consider its future in an increasingly competitive education market. The…

  20. 43 CFR 4300.2 - Is there a special form for my application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...; REINDEER; GENERAL General Information § 4300.2 Is there a special form for my application? All applications... are the Grazing Lease or Permit Application (Form 4201-1), the Reindeer Grazing Permit (Form 4132-2), and the Range Improvement Permit (Form 4120-7). Before You Apply for a Reindeer Grazing Permit...

  1. 43 CFR 4300.2 - Is there a special form for my application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...; REINDEER; GENERAL General Information § 4300.2 Is there a special form for my application? All applications... are the Grazing Lease or Permit Application (Form 4201-1), the Reindeer Grazing Permit (Form 4132-2), and the Range Improvement Permit (Form 4120-7). Before You Apply for a Reindeer Grazing Permit...

  2. 43 CFR 4300.2 - Is there a special form for my application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...; REINDEER; GENERAL General Information § 4300.2 Is there a special form for my application? All applications... are the Grazing Lease or Permit Application (Form 4201-1), the Reindeer Grazing Permit (Form 4132-2), and the Range Improvement Permit (Form 4120-7). Before You Apply for a Reindeer Grazing Permit...

  3. 43 CFR 4300.2 - Is there a special form for my application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...; REINDEER; GENERAL General Information § 4300.2 Is there a special form for my application? All applications... are the Grazing Lease or Permit Application (Form 4201-1), the Reindeer Grazing Permit (Form 4132-2), and the Range Improvement Permit (Form 4120-7). Before You Apply for a Reindeer Grazing Permit...

  4. Range fluctuations of high energy muons passing through matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minorikawa, Y.; Mitsui, K.

    1985-01-01

    The information about energy spectrum of sea level muons at high energies beyond magnetic spectrographs can be obtained from the underground intensity measurements if the fluctuations problems are solved. The correction factor R for the range fluctuations of high energy muons were calculated by analytical method of Zatsepin, where most probable energy loss parameter are used. It is shown that by using the R at great depth together with the slope, lambda, of the vertical depth-intensity (D-I) curve in the form of exp(-t/lambda), the spectral index, gamma, in the power law energy spectrum of muons at sea level can be obtained.

  5. Inhomogeneous Generalization of a Multispecies Totally Asymmetric Zero Range Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuniba, Atsuo; Maruyama, Shouya; Okado, Masato

    2016-06-01

    The n-species totally asymmetric zero range process (n-TAZRP) on a one-dimensional periodic chain studied recently by the authors is a continuous time Markov process where arbitrary number of particles can occupy the same sites and hop to the adjacent sites only in one direction with a priority constraint according to their species. In this paper we introduce an n-parameter generalization of the n-TAZRP having inhomogeneous transition rate. The steady state probability is obtained in a matrix product form and also by an algorithm related to combinatorial R.

  6. Energy Spectrum in the Dissipation Range of Fluid Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, D. O.; Chen, S.; Doolen, G. D.; Kraichnan, R. H.; Wang, L.-P.; Zhou, Y.

    1996-01-01

    High resolution, direct numerical simulations of the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are carried out to study the energy spectrum in the dissipation range. An energy spectrum of the form A(k/k( sub d))(sup alpha) exp[- betak/k(sub d) is confirmed. The possible values of the parameters alpha and beta, as well as their dependence on Revnolds numbers and length scales, are investigated, showing good agreement with recent theoretical predictions. A "bottleneck'-type effect is reported at k/k(sub d) approximately 4, exhibiting a possible transition from near-dissipation to far- dissipation.

  7. Highly compressed ammonia forms an ionic crystal.

    PubMed

    Pickard, Chris J; Needs, R J

    2008-10-01

    Ammonia is an important compound with many uses, such as in the manufacture of fertilizers, explosives and pharmaceuticals. As an archetypal hydrogen-bonded system, the properties of ammonia under pressure are of fundamental interest, and compressed ammonia has a significant role in planetary physics. We predict new high-pressure crystalline phases of ammonia (NH(3)) through a computational search based on first-principles density-functional-theory calculations. Ammonia is known to form hydrogen-bonded solids, but we predict that at higher pressures it will form ammonium amide ionic solids consisting of alternate layers of NH(4)(+) and NH(2)(-) ions. These ionic phases are predicted to be stable over a wide range of pressures readily obtainable in laboratory experiments. The occurrence of ionic phases is rationalized in terms of the relative ease of forming ammonium and amide ions from ammonia molecules, and the volume reduction on doing so. We also predict that the ionic bonding cannot be sustained under extreme compression and that, at pressures beyond the reach of current static-loading experiments, ammonia will return to hydrogen-bonded structures consisting of neutral NH(3) molecules. PMID:18724375

  8. Method and Apparatus for Forming Nanodroplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackley, Donald; Forster, Anita

    2011-01-01

    This innovation uses partially miscible fluids to form nano- and microdroplets in a microfluidic droplet generator system. Droplet generators fabricated in PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) are currently being used to fabricate engineered nanoparticles and microparticles. These droplet generators were first demonstrated in a T-junction configuration, followed by a cross-flow configuration. All of these generating devices have used immiscible fluids, such as oil and water. This immiscible fluid system can produce mono-dispersed distributions of droplets and articles with sizes ranging from a few hundred nanometers to a few hundred microns. For applications such as drug delivery, the ability to encapsulate aqueous solutions of drugs within particles formed from the droplets is desirable. Of particular interest are non-polar solvents that can dissolve lipids for the formation of liposomes in the droplet generators. Such fluids include ether, cyclohexane, butanol, and ethyl acetate. Ethyl acetate is of particular interest for two reasons. It is relatively nontoxic and it is formed from ether and acetic acid, and maybe broken down into its constituents at relatively low concentrations.

  9. Global alliances effect in coalition forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradova, Galina; Galam, Serge

    2014-11-01

    Coalition forming is investigated among countries, which are coupled with short range interactions, under the influence of externally-set opposing global alliances. The model extends a recent Natural Model of coalition forming inspired from Statistical Physics, where instabilities are a consequence of decentralized maximization of the individual benefits of actors. In contrast to physics where spins can only evaluate the immediate cost/benefit of a flip of orientation, countries have a long horizon of rationality, which associates with the ability to envision a way up to a better configuration even at the cost of passing through intermediate loosing states. The stabilizing effect is produced through polarization by the global alliances of either a particular unique global interest factor or multiple simultaneous ones. This model provides a versatile theoretical tool for the analysis of real cases and design of novel strategies. Such analysis is provided for several real cases including the Eurozone. The results shed a new light on the understanding of the complex phenomena of planned stabilization in the coalition forming.

  10. High resolution, large dynamic range field map estimation

    PubMed Central

    Dagher, Joseph; Reese, Timothy; Bilgin, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We present a theory and a corresponding method to compute high resolution field maps over a large dynamic range. Theory and Methods We derive a closed-form expression for the error in the field map value when computed from two echoes. We formulate an optimization problem to choose three echo times which result in a pair of maximally distinct error distributions. We use standard field mapping sequences at the prescribed echo times. We then design a corresponding estimation algorithm which takes advantage of the optimized echo times to disambiguate the field offset value. Results We validate our method using high resolution images of a phantom at 7T. The resulting field maps demonstrate robust mapping over both a large dynamic range, and in low SNR regions. We also present high resolution offset maps in vivo using both, GRE and MEGE sequences. Even though the proposed echo time spacings are larger than the well known phase aliasing cutoff, the resulting field maps exhibit a large dynamic range without the use of phase unwrapping or spatial regularization techniques. Conclusion We demonstrate a novel 3-echo field map estimation method which overcomes the traditional noise-dynamic range trade-off. PMID:23401245

  11. Light Scattering and Intermediate Range Order in Glasses: Nanoscale Inhomogeneities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, John; Kratzer, Joseph H.; Moynihan, Cornelius T.; Hwa, Luu-Gen

    2002-03-01

    Light scattering from oxide and halide glasses at temperatures up to the glass transition region exhibits anomalous Rayleigh scattering. In all glasses a hysteresis effect is seen in the Rayleigh scattering intensity behavior when heating and cooling experiments are compared. This hysteresis effect in the Rayleigh scattering is an indication that an intermediate range order exists in these glasses. Measurements of the Boson peak, a low lying Raman line that is intrinsic to all glass systems, located about 20/cm to 110/cm from the exciting line frequency are identified with the existence of intermediate range order in glass. Large pressure induced changes in the Boson peak frequency location are observed and predicted from existing theory. The non-coincidence effect, a comparison of the Boson peak maximum location for isotropic versus anisotropic spectra, gives additional evidence that glasses have tendencies to form intermediate range order. This intermediate range order or nanoscale inhomogeneities extend from about two to five nanometers in size for the glasses under consideration. These nanoscale inhomogeneities will be identified as a possible source for non-exponential structural relaxation kinetics in all glasses. The nature of the Boson peak, the anomalous Rayleigh scattering and non-coincidence effect in glasses, is discussed with respect to their interrelationships in terms of existing theories.

  12. Supersymmetric inversion of effective-range expansions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Midya, Bikashkali; Evrard, Jérémie; Abramowicz, Sylvain; Ramírez Suárez, O. L.; Sparenberg, Jean-Marc

    2015-05-01

    A complete and consistent inversion technique is proposed to derive an accurate interaction potential from an effective-range function for a given partial wave in the neutral case. First, the effective-range function is Taylor or Padé expanded, which allows high precision fitting of the experimental scattering phase shifts with a minimal number of parameters on a large energy range. Second, the corresponding poles of the scattering matrix are extracted in the complex wave-number plane. Third, the interaction potential is constructed with supersymmetric transformations of the radial Schrödinger equation. As an illustration, the method is applied to the experimental phase shifts of the neutron-proton elastic scattering in the 1S0 and 1D2 channels on the [0 -350 ] MeV laboratory energy interval.

  13. Long-range correlations in nucleotide sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, C.-K.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Goldberger, A. L.; Havlin, S.; Sciortino, F.; Simons, M.; Stanley, H. E.

    1992-03-01

    DNA SEQUENCES have been analysed using models, such as an it-step Markov chain, that incorporate the possibility of short-range nucleotide correlations1. We propose here a method for studying the stochastic properties of nucleotide sequences by constructing a 1:1 map of the nucleotide sequence onto a walk, which we term a 'DNA walk'. We then use the mapping to provide a quantitative measure of the correlation between nucleotides over long distances along the DNA chain. Thus we uncover in the nucleotide sequence a remarkably long-range power law correlation that implies a new scale-invariant property of DNA. We find such long-range correlations in intron-containing genes and in nontranscribed regulatory DNA sequences, but not in complementary DNA sequences or intron-less genes.

  14. Extended range radiation dose-rate monitor

    DOEpatents

    Valentine, Kenneth H.

    1988-01-01

    An extended range dose-rate monitor is provided which utilizes the pulse pileup phenomenon that occurs in conventional counting systems to alter the dynamic response of the system to extend the dose-rate counting range. The current pulses from a solid-state detector generated by radiation events are amplified and shaped prior to applying the pulses to the input of a comparator. The comparator generates one logic pulse for each input pulse which exceeds the comparator reference threshold. These pulses are integrated and applied to a meter calibrated to indicate the measured dose-rate in response to the integrator output. A portion of the output signal from the integrator is fed back to vary the comparator reference threshold in proportion to the output count rate to extend the sensitive dynamic detection range by delaying the asymptotic approach of the integrator output toward full scale as measured by the meter.

  15. On-Orbit Range Set Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzinger, M.; Scheeres, D.

    2011-09-01

    History and methodology of ∆v range set computation is briefly reviewed, followed by a short summary of the ∆v optimal spacecraft servicing problem literature. Service vehicle placement is approached from a ∆v range set viewpoint, providing a framework under which the analysis becomes quite geometric and intuitive. The optimal servicing tour design problem is shown to be a specific instantiation of the metric- Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP), which in general is an NP-hard problem. The ∆v-TSP is argued to be quite similar to the Euclidean-TSP, for which approximate optimal solutions may be found in polynomial time. Applications of range sets are demonstrated using analytical and simulation results.

  16. Results of laser ranging collocations during 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolenkiewicz, R.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of laser ranging collocations is to compare the ability of two satellite laser ranging systems, located in the vicinity of one another, to measure the distance to an artificial Earth satellite in orbit over the sites. The similar measurement of this distance is essential before a new or modified laser system is deployed to worldwide locations in order to gather the data necessary to meet the scientific goals of the Crustal Dynamics Project. In order to be certain the laser systems are operating properly, they are periodically compared with each other. These comparisons or collocations are performed by locating the lasers side by side when they track the same satellite during the same time or pass. The data is then compared to make sure the lasers are giving essentially the same range results. Results of the three collocations performed during 1983 are given.

  17. High dynamic range infrared radiometry and imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coon, Darryl D.; Karunasiri, R. P. G.; Bandara, K. M. S. V.

    1988-01-01

    The use is described of cryogenically cooled, extrinsic silicon infrared detectors in an unconventional mode of operation which offers an unusually large dynamic range. The system performs intensity-to-frequency conversion at the focal plane via simple circuits with very low power consumption. The incident IR intensity controls the repetition rate of short duration output pulses over a pulse rate dynamic range of about 10(6). Theory indicates the possibility of monotonic and approx. linear response over the full dynamic range. A comparison between the theoretical and the experimental results shows that the model provides a reasonably good description of experimental data. Some measurements of survivability with a very intense IR source were made on these devices and found to be very encouraging. Evidence continues to indicate that some variations in interpulse time intervals are deterministic rather than probabilistic.

  18. Tropospheric range error parameters: Further studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopfield, H. S.

    1972-01-01

    Improved parameters are presented for predicting the tropospheric effect on electromagnetic range measurements from surface meteorological data. Parameters are given for computing the dry component of the zenith radio range effect from surface pressure alone with an rms error of 1 to 2 mm, or the total range effect from the dry and wet components of the surface refractivity, N, and a two-part quartic profile model. The parameters were obtained from meteorological balloon data with improved procedures, including the conversion of the geopotential heights of the balloon data to actual or geometric heights before using the data. The revised values of the parameter k show more latitude variation than is accounted for by the variation of g. This excess variation of k indicates a small latitude variation in the mean molecular weight of air and yields information about the latitude-varying water vapor content of air.

  19. Dynamic range tuning of graphene nanoresonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmar, Marsha M.; Gangavarapu, P. R. Yasasvi; Naik, A. K.

    2015-09-01

    From sensing perspective, smaller electromechanical devices, in general, are expected to be more responsive to the stimuli. This enhanced performance, however, is contingent upon the noise sources remaining unchanged and the onset of nonlinear behavior not being precipitated by miniaturization. In this paper, we study the effect of strain on the nonlinearities and dynamic range in graphene nanoresonators. The dynamic response and the onset of nonlinearity in these devices are sensitive both to the electrostatic field used to actuate the device and the strain. By tuning the strain of the device by two orders of magnitude, we observe an enhancement of 25 dB in the dynamic range leading to a mass resolution of 100 yoctogram. The increase in dynamic range in our devices is modeled as a combined effect of strain and partial cancellation of elastic and electrostatic nonlinearities.

  20. Modeling Production Plant Forming Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Rhee, M; Becker, R; Couch, R; Li, M

    2004-09-22

    Engineering has simulation tools and experience in modeling forming processes. Y-12 personnel have expressed interest in validating our tools and experience against their manufacturing process activities such as rolling, casting, and forging etc. We have demonstrated numerical capabilities in a collaborative DOE/OIT project with ALCOA that is nearing successful completion. The goal was to use ALE3D to model Alcoa's slab rolling process in order to demonstrate a computational tool that would allow Alcoa to define a rolling schedule that would minimize the probability of ingot fracture, thus reducing waste and energy consumption. It is intended to lead to long-term collaboration with Y-12 and perhaps involvement with other components of the weapons production complex. Using simulations to aid in design of forming processes can: decrease time to production; reduce forming trials and associated expenses; and guide development of products with greater uniformity and less scrap.

  1. Methods of forming boron nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Trowbridge, Tammy L; Wertsching, Alan K; Pinhero, Patrick J; Crandall, David L

    2015-03-03

    A method of forming a boron nitride. The method comprises contacting a metal article with a monomeric boron-nitrogen compound and converting the monomeric boron-nitrogen compound to a boron nitride. The boron nitride is formed on the same or a different metal article. The monomeric boron-nitrogen compound is borazine, cycloborazane, trimethylcycloborazane, polyborazylene, B-vinylborazine, poly(B-vinylborazine), or combinations thereof. The monomeric boron-nitrogen compound is polymerized to form the boron nitride by exposure to a temperature greater than approximately 100.degree. C. The boron nitride is amorphous boron nitride, hexagonal boron nitride, rhombohedral boron nitride, turbostratic boron nitride, wurzite boron nitride, combinations thereof, or boron nitride and carbon. A method of conditioning a ballistic weapon and a metal article coated with the monomeric boron-nitrogen compound are also disclosed.

  2. Substrate system for spray forming

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Men G.; Chernicoff, William P.

    2002-01-01

    A substrate system for receiving a deposit of sprayed metal droplets including a movable outer substrate on which the sprayed metal droplets are deposited. The substrate system also includes an inner substrate disposed adjacent the outer substrate where the sprayed metal droplets are deposited on the outer substrate. The inner substrate includes zones of differing thermal conductivity to resist substrate layer porosity and to resist formation of large grains and coarse constituent particles in a bulk layer of the metal droplets which have accumulated on the outer substrate. A spray forming apparatus and associated method of spray forming a molten metal to form a metal product using the substrate system of the invention is also provided.

  3. Substrate system for spray forming

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Men G.; Chernicoff, William P.

    2000-01-01

    A substrate system for receiving a deposit of sprayed metal droplets including a movable outer substrate on which the sprayed metal droplets are deposited. The substrate system also includes an inner substrate disposed adjacent the outer substrate where the sprayed metal droplets are deposited on the outer substrate. The inner substrate includes zones of differing thermal conductivity to resist substrate layer porosity and to resist formation of large grains and coarse constituent particles in a bulk layer of the metal droplets which have accumulated on the outer substrate. A spray forming apparatus and associated method of spray forming a molten metal to form a metal product using the substrate system of the invention is also provided.

  4. Method of forming structural heliostat

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Alfred J.

    1984-06-26

    In forming a heliostat having a main support structure and pivoting and tilting motors and gears and a mirror module for reflecting solar energy onto a collector, the improvement characterized by a method of forming the mirror module in which the mirror is laid upon a solid rigid supporting bed in one or more sections, with or without focusing; a mirror backing sheet is applied by first applying respective thin layers of silicone grease and, thereafter, progressively rolling application to eliminate air bubbles; followed by affixing of a substrate assembly to the mirror backing sheet to form a mirror module that does not curve because of thermally induced stresses and differential thermal expansion or contraction effects. The silicone grease also serves to dampen fluttering of the mirror and protect the mirror backside against adverse effects of the weather. Also disclosed are specific details of preferred embodiments.

  5. PROCESS OF FORMING POWDERED MATERIAL

    DOEpatents

    Glatter, J.; Schaner, B.E.

    1961-07-14

    A process of forming high-density compacts of a powdered ceramic material is described by agglomerating the powdered ceramic material with a heat- decompossble binder, adding a heat-decompossble lubricant to the agglomerated material, placing a quantity of the material into a die cavity, pressing the material to form a compact, pretreating the compacts in a nonoxidizing atmosphere to remove the binder and lubricant, and sintering the compacts. When this process is used for making nuclear reactor fuel elements, the ceramic material is an oxide powder of a fissionsble material and after forming, the compacts are placed in a cladding tube which is closed at its ends by vapor tight end caps, so that the sintered compacts are held in close contact with each other and with the interior wall of the cladding tube.

  6. Seismicity of the Coso Range, California

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, A.W.; Weaver, C.S.

    1980-05-10

    A 16-station seismographic network, approximately 40 km north-south by 30 km east-west, was installed in the Coso Range, California, in September 1975 as part of a geological and geophysical assessment of the geothermal resource potential of range. During the first 2 years of network operations, 4216 local earthquakes (0.5< or =m< or =3.9) defined zones of seismicity that strike radially outward from a Pleistocene rhyolite field located near the center of the Coso Range. Most earthquakes were located in zones showing a general northwest trend across the range. Six earthquake swarms occurred within the area that includes the rhyolite field. Fault plane solutions show regional north-south compression: earthquakes located in northwest striking zones generally had right lateral strike slip focal mechanisms, those in northeast striking zones left lateral strike slip focal mechanisms, and those in north-south striking zones both normal and strike slip focal mechanisms. Earthquake depths showed little variation across the Coso Range; the depth distribution is similar to that of several carefully studied segments of the central San Andreas fault. The b value calculated for the entire range is 0.99 +- 0.08. The rhyolite field has a significantly higher b value of 1.26 +- 0.16; if only the shallow events (depth <5 km) are used in the calculation, the b value for this area becomes even higher, 1.34 +- 0.24. The higher b values were interpreted as reflecting the existence of short average fault lengths (<5 km) within the rhyolite field. The seismic data and other data suggest that the fault system lying between the rhyolite field and the adjacent Coso Basin is an important tectonic boundary. Present information is insufficient to determine the geothermal production capability of this fault system, but is does suggest that the system is a good target for further exploration.

  7. Study on short distance laser ranging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Jianan; Li, Jicheng; Zhang, Cong

    2015-02-01

    Laser ranging technology is an industrial non contact measuring technology. With the rapidly development of electronics and optical technology, the measuring precision has been improved continuously. In this paper, a simple structure measuring system which based on laser triangulation measuring theory, was built. The system consist of single point laser and CMOS receiver, its measuring range is from 90mm to 110mm. In order to get a higher position accuracy of light spot, gauss cumulative method was used in this paper. For realize the precision system calibration, a linear calibration method was introduced. The experiment shows that the system get a measuring precision of 10um.

  8. Current Trends in Satellite Laser Ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, M. R.; Appleby, G. M.; Kirchner, G.; McGarry, J.; Murphy, T.; Noll, C. E.; Pavlis, E. C.; Pierron, F.

    2010-01-01

    Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) techniques are used to accurately measure the distance from ground stations to retroreflectors on satellites and the moon. SLR is one of the fundamental techniques that define the international Terrestrial Reference Frame (iTRF), which is the basis upon which we measure many aspects of global change over space, time, and evolving technology. It is one of the fundamental techniques that define at a level of precision of a few mm the origin and scale of the ITRF. Laser Ranging provides precision orbit determination and instrument calibration/validation for satellite-borne altimeters for the better understanding of sea level change, ocean dynamics, ice budget, and terrestrial topography. Laser ranging is also a tool to study the dynamics of the Moon and fundamental constants. Many of the GNSS satellites now carry retro-reflectors for improved orbit determination, harmonization of reference frames, and in-orbit co-location and system performance validation. The GNSS Constellations will be the means of making the reference frame available to worldwide users. Data and products from these measurements support key aspects of the GEOSS 10-Year implementation Plan adopted on February 16, 2005, The ITRF has been identified as a key contribution of the JAG to GEOSS and the ILRS makes a major contribution for its development since its foundation. The ILRS delivers weekly additional realizations that are accumulated sequentially to extend the ITRF and the Earth Orientation Parameter (EOP) series with a daily resolution. Additional products are currently under development such as precise orbits of satellites, EOP with daily availability, low-degree gravitational harmonics for studies of Earth dynamics and kinematics, etc. SLR technology continues to evolve toward the next generation laser ranging systems as programmatic requirements become more stringent. Ranging accuracy is improving as higher repetition rate, narrower pulse lasers and faster

  9. Safety assessment of outdoor live fire range

    SciTech Connect

    1989-05-01

    The following Safety Assessment (SA) pertains to the outdoor live fire range facility (LFR). The purpose of this facility is to supplement the indoor LFR. In particular it provides capacity for exercises that would be inappropriate on the indoor range. This SA examines the risks that are attendant to the training on the outdoor LFR. The outdoor LFR used by EG&G Mound is privately owned. It is identified as the Miami Valley Shooting Grounds. Mondays are leased for the exclusive use of EG&G Mound.

  10. Wide-range radiation dose monitor

    DOEpatents

    Kopp, Manfred K.

    1986-01-01

    A radiation dose-rate monitor is provided which operates in a conventional linear mode for radiation in the 0 to 0.5 R/h range and utilizes a nonlinear mode of operation for sensing radiation from 0.5 R/h to over 500 R/h. The nonlinear mode is achieved by a feedback circuit which adjusts the high voltage bias of the proportional counter, and hence its gas gain, in accordance with the amount of radiation being monitored. This allows compression of readout onto a single scale over the range of 0 to greater than 500 R/h without scale switching operations.

  11. Wide-range radiation dose monitor

    DOEpatents

    Kopp, M.K.

    1984-09-20

    A radiation dose-rate monitor is provided which operates in a conventional linear mode for radiation in the 0 to 0.5 R/h range and utilizes a nonlinear mode of operation for sensing radiation from 0.5 R/h to over 500 R/h. The nonlinear mode is achieved by a feedback circuit which adjusts the high voltage bias of the proportional counter, and hence its gas gain, in accordance with the amount of radiation being monitored. This allows compression of readout onto a single scale over the range of 0 to greater than 500 R/h without scale switching operations.

  12. Atmospheric refraction errors in laser ranging systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, C. S.; Rowlett, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of horizontal refractivity gradients on the accuracy of laser ranging systems were investigated by ray tracing through three dimensional refractivity profiles. The profiles were generated by performing a multiple regression on measurements from seven or eight radiosondes, using a refractivity model which provided for both linear and quadratic variations in the horizontal direction. The range correction due to horizontal gradients was found to be an approximately sinusoidal function of azimuth having a minimum near 0 deg azimuth and a maximum near 180 deg azimuth. The peak to peak variation was approximately 5 centimeters at 10 deg elevation and decreased to less than 1 millimeter at 80 deg elevation.

  13. Photon assisted long-range tunneling

    SciTech Connect

    Gallego-Marcos, Fernando; Sánchez, Rafael; Platero, Gloria

    2015-03-21

    We analyze long-range transport through an ac driven triple quantum dot with a single electron. Resonant transitions between separated and detuned dots are mediated by the exchange of n photons with the time-dependent field. An effective model is proposed in terms of second order (cotunneling) processes which dominate the long-range transport between the edge quantum dots. The ac field renormalizes the inter dot hopping, modifying the level hybridization. It results in a non-trivial behavior of the current with the frequency and amplitude of the external ac field.

  14. High dynamic range holographic data storage media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askham, Fred; Ayres, Mark R.; Urness, Adam C.

    2015-08-01

    Holographic data storage (HDS) employs the physics of holography to record digital data in three dimensions in a highly stable photopolymer medium. The photopolymer medium must provide the essential characteristics of low scatter and high dynamic range while maintaining low recording induced physical shrinkage and long archival lifetimes. In this article, we report on media advancements employing Akonia's DREDTM technology which provide a 5x increase in media dynamic range with unchanged media shrinkage. We also discuss the implications of these results for photopolymer media mechanistic models.

  15. Long-range imaging ladar flight test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, James; Steiner, Todd D.; Mandeville, William J.; Dinndorf, Kenneth M.; Krasutsky, Nick J.; Minor, John L.

    1995-06-01

    Wright Laboratory and Loral Vought Systems (LVS) have been involved for the last nine years in the research and development of high power diode pumped solid state lasers for medium to long range laser radar (LADAR) seekers for tactical air-to-ground munitions. LVS provided the lead in three key LADAR programs at Wright Lab; the Submunition Guidance Program (Subguide), the Low Cost Anti-Armor Submunition Program (LOCAAS) and the Diode Laser and Detector Array Development Program (3-D). This paper discusses recent advances through the 3-D program that provide the opportunity to obtain three dimensional laser radar imagery in captive flight at a range of 5 km.

  16. Range Filtering For Navigation By Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paielli, Russell

    1989-01-01

    Less processing and storage of data needed. Mathematical basis developed for Kalman filtering of sequential measurements of range from single-channel receiver in Global Positioning System (GPS) to each of several navigation satellites. Range filtering involves separate applications of kinematic Kalman tracking filter to measurements of signal from each satellite in use. State vector consists of pseudorange and time derivatives. Main advantages: simplification of tuning and decreases in required amounts of storage and processing of data for navigation in ships, airplanes, and ground vehicles.

  17. Inertial Range Dynamics in Boussinesq Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubinstein, Robert

    1996-01-01

    L'vov and Falkovich have shown that the dimensionally possible inertial range scaling laws for Boussinesq turbulence, Kolmogorov and Bolgiano scaling, describe steady states with constant flux of kinetic energy and of entropy respectively. These scaling laws are treated as similarity solutions of the direct interaction approximation for Boussinesq turbulence. The Kolmogorov scaling solution corresponds to a weak perturbation by gravity of a state in which the temperature is a passive scalar but in which a source of temperature fluctuations exists. Using standard inertial range balances, the renormalized viscosity and conductivity, turbulent Prandtl number, and spectral scaling law constants are computed for Bolgiano scaling.

  18. Laser Doppler And Range Systems For Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinman, P. W.; Gagliardi, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    Report discusses two types of proposed laser systems containing active transponders measuring distance (range) and line-of-sight velocity (via Doppler effect) between deep space vehicle and earth-orbiting satellite. Laser system offers diffraction advantage over microwave system. Delivers comparable power to distant receiver while using smaller transmitting and receiving antennas and less-powerful transmitter. Less subject to phase scintillations caused by passage through such inhomogeneous media as solar corona. One type of system called "incoherent" because range and Doppler measurements do not require coherence with laser carrier signals. Other type of system called "coherent" because successful operation requires coherent tracking of laser signals.

  19. GOPEX at the Starfire Optical Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fugate, R. Q.

    1993-01-01

    The Starfire Optical Range successfully conducted laser upink experiments to the Galileo spacecraft during the early morning hours of December 9, 10, 11, and 12, 1992, when the spacecraft was at ranges between 700,000 and 3 million km from Earth. Analysts at JPL have reported as many as 79 pulse detections by the spacecraft. The best weather conditions occurred on the second night when 37 pulses were detected with as many as five on one frame. Signal levels at the spacecraft generally agree with predictions.

  20. Forest and Range Inventory and Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldrich, R. C.

    1971-01-01

    The state of the art in remote sensing for forest and range inventories and mapping has been discussed. There remains a long way to go before some of these techniques can be used on an operational basis. By the time that the Earth Resources Technology Satellite and Skylab space missions are flown, it should be possible to tell what kind and what quality of information can be extracted from remote sensors and how it can be used for surveys of forest and range resources.