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Sample records for range procesy ekskluzywnej

  1. A conjecture of Procesi and the straightening algorithm of Rota.

    PubMed Central

    Allen, E E

    1992-01-01

    Let R = Q[x1, x2,..., xn] and R* denote the quotient of R by the ideal generated by the elementary symmetric functions. R*, under the action of Sn, yields a graded version of the left regular representation. Procesi asked for a basis of R* consisting of homogeneous polynomials Gamma[S, C] indexed by pairs of tableaux, with S standard and C cocharge, that exhibits the decomposition of R* into its irreducible components. Procesi also suggested a way to construct the Gamma[S, C]. Using Rota's straightening algorithm, I show that certain polynomials [S, C] closely related to the Gamma[S, C] terms yield the desired basis. Parallel to the ring R* there is a family of Sn-modules R that have recently been studied by Garsia and Procesi. These modules have a graded character that is closely related to the q-Kostka-Foulkes polynomials Klambdamu(q). The [S, C] can be shown to yield also a basis when restricted to a given R. Through this connection the work reported here leads to an additional way of proving the charge interpretation for the polynomials Klambdamu(q). PMID:11607289

  2. A Riemann-Hilbert approach for the Degasperis-Procesi equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutet de Monvel, Anne; Shepelsky, Dmitry

    2013-07-01

    We present an inverse scattering transform approach to the Cauchy problem on the line for the Degasperis-Procesi equation \\begin{equation*}u_t-u_{txx}+3\\omega u_x+4uu_x=3u_xu_{xx}+uu_{xxx} \\end{equation*} in the form of an associated Riemann-Hilbert problem. This approach allows us to give a representation of the solution to the Cauchy problem, which can be efficiently used in studying its long-time behaviour.

  3. Organizational, Design and Technology Issues in the Process of Protection of Underground Historic Monuments/ Probelmy Organizacyjne, Projektowe I Technologiczne W Procesie Zabezpieczania Zabytkowych Podziemi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartos, Maciej; Chmura, Janusz; Wieja, Tomasz

    2015-06-01

    Underground historic monuments constitute the immanent part of the cultural and natural heritage. Protecting and opening underground historic objects, as the investment aim, is a process of renewed actions taken in objects that are degraded or out of order, contributing to improvement of quality of life of residents, restoring new functions, reconstruction of social bonds. Underground historic buildings should be subjected to processes of protecting and revitalization. Determining the state of a given building and the adjustability of its spatial structure to introducing a new function or making it available to tourist purposes are the basis for these actions. Zabytkowe podziemia stanowią immanentną część dziedzictwa kulturowego i przyrodniczego. Zabezpieczenie i udostępnienie podziemnych obiektów zabytkowych, jako zamierzenia inwestycyjnego, jest procesem ponownych działań podejmowanych w zdegradowanych lub nieczynnych obiektach, przyczyniając się do poprawy jakości życia mieszkańców, przywrócenia nowych funkcji, odbudowy więzi społecznych. Podziemne obiekty zabytkowe powinny być poddane procesom zabezpieczenia i rewitalizacji. Podstawą tych działań jest określenie stanu zachowania danego obiektu oraz możliwości dostosowania jego struktury przestrzennej do wprowadzenia nowej funkcji lub udostępnienia w celach turystycznych. Zasadniczym problemem jest, na etapie organizacyjnym, brak jednolitego ustawodawstwa prawnego dotyczącego procesu zabezpieczania podziemnych obiektów. W artykule przedstawiamy zasadnicze problemy organizacyjne, projektowe i technologiczne występujące w procesie inwestycyjnym zabezpieczania podziemnych obiektów zabytkowych. Efektem tych prac jest transformacja podziemnego obiektu w strukturę przestrzenną o nowej funkcji użytkowej.

  4. Thermodynamic Processes Involving Liquefied Natural Gas at the LNG Receiving Terminals / Procesy termodynamiczne z wykorzystaniem skroplonego gazu ziemnego w terminalach odbiorczych LNG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łaciak, Mariusz

    2013-06-01

    The increase in demand for natural gas in the world, cause that the production of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and in consequences its regasification becoming more common process related to its transportation. Liquefied gas is transported in the tanks at a temperature of about 111K at atmospheric pressure. The process required to convert LNG from a liquid to a gas phase for further pipeline transport, allows the use of exergy of LNG to various applications, including for electricity generation. Exergy analysis is a well known technique for analyzing irreversible losses in a separate process. It allows to specify the distribution, the source and size of the irreversible losses in energy systems, and thus provide guidelines for energy efficiency. Because both the LNG regasification and liquefaction of natural gas are energy intensive, exergy analysis process is essential for designing highly efficient cryogenic installations. Wzrost zapotrzebowania na gaz ziemny na świecie powoduje, że produkcja skroplonego gazu ziemnego (LNG), a w konsekwencji jego regazyfikacja, staje się coraz bardziej powszechnym procesem związanym z jego transportem. Skroplony gaz transportowany jest w zbiornikach w temperaturze około 111K pod ciśnieniem atmosferycznym. Przebieg procesu regazyfikacji niezbędny do zamiany LNG z fazy ciekłej w gazową dla dalszego transportu w sieci, umożliwia wykorzystanie egzergii LNG do różnych zastosowań, między innymi do produkcji energii elektrycznej. Analiza egzergii jest znaną techniką analizowania nieodwracalnych strat w wydzielonym procesie. Pozwala na określenie dystrybucji, źródła i wielkości nieodwracalnych strat w systemach energetycznych, a więc ustalić wytyczne dotyczące efektywnego zużycia energii. Ponieważ zarówno regazyfikacja LNG jak i skraplanie gazu ziemnego są energochłonne, proces analizy egzergii jest niezbędny do projektowania wysoce wydajnych instalacji kriogenicznych.

  5. Underground Tourist Routes in the Context of Sustainable Development / Podziemne Trasy Turystyczne W Procesie Zrównoważonego Rozwoju

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieja, Tomasz; Chmura, Janusz; Bartos, Maciej

    2015-09-01

    residence patterns that have emerged over centuries. Well - preserved and protected excavations are the relics of the past, are part of the cultural heritage and become a rich source of knowledge about history. Ostanie lata przyniosły rozwój skoncentrowany na maksymalizacji zysków ekonomicznych i politycznych. Doprowadził on do kryzysów środowiskowych, społecznych, a nawet gospodarczych. Przyczyniło się to do powstania koncepcji zrównoważonego rozwoju. Jest to dążenie do poprawy jakości życia przy zachowaniu równości społecznej, bioróżnorodności i bogactwa zasobów naturalnych. Bardziej świadome i aktywne społeczeństwo ma do odegrania kluczową rolę w zrównoważonym rozwoju. Z jednej strony jest regulatorem wpływu gospodarki na środowisko, zaś z drugiej kapitał społeczny zapewnia ciągłość wizji rozwoju i planowania jej realizacji. Ochrona zabytkowych podziemi bardzo dobrze wpisuje sie w proces zrównoważonego rozwoju. Zachowane i udostępnione zabytkowe podziemia są częścią dziedzictwa kulturowego i mają za zadanie zachowania wartości historycznych, kulturowych, przyrodniczych, a także użytkowych. W ostatnich latach obserwuje się intensywny rozwój działań zmierzających do wykorzystania zabytkowych podziemi do celów użytkowych. Problem rewitalizacji zabytkowych podziemi, a więc przywracanie "do życia" starych wyrobisk, jest bardzo skomplikowanym procesem przywracania pierwotnych funkcji nieczynnym lub zdegradowanym obiektom podziemnym. W procesie projektowania bardzo ważne są działania zgodnie z procesami naturalnymi obowiązującymi w przyrodzie. Zabezpieczane i adaptowane podziemia muszą w rezultacie działań człowieka być "przyjazne" i akceptowane przez użytkowników, będąc elementem ochrony dziedzictwa kulturowego człowieka, a więc częścią składową zrównoważonego rozwoju. Problemy techniczne występujące przy adaptacji zabytkowych podziemi są nie tylko praktycznym zastosowaniem nauki, ale tak

  6. Underground Tourist Routes in the Context of Sustainable Development / Podziemne Trasy Turystyczne W Procesie Zrównoważonego Rozwoju

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieja, Tomasz; Chmura, Janusz; Bartos, Maciej

    2015-09-01

    residence patterns that have emerged over centuries. Well - preserved and protected excavations are the relics of the past, are part of the cultural heritage and become a rich source of knowledge about history. Ostanie lata przyniosły rozwój skoncentrowany na maksymalizacji zysków ekonomicznych i politycznych. Doprowadził on do kryzysów środowiskowych, społecznych, a nawet gospodarczych. Przyczyniło się to do powstania koncepcji zrównoważonego rozwoju. Jest to dążenie do poprawy jakości życia przy zachowaniu równości społecznej, bioróżnorodności i bogactwa zasobów naturalnych. Bardziej świadome i aktywne społeczeństwo ma do odegrania kluczową rolę w zrównoważonym rozwoju. Z jednej strony jest regulatorem wpływu gospodarki na środowisko, zaś z drugiej kapitał społeczny zapewnia ciągłość wizji rozwoju i planowania jej realizacji. Ochrona zabytkowych podziemi bardzo dobrze wpisuje sie w proces zrównoważonego rozwoju. Zachowane i udostępnione zabytkowe podziemia są częścią dziedzictwa kulturowego i mają za zadanie zachowania wartości historycznych, kulturowych, przyrodniczych, a także użytkowych. W ostatnich latach obserwuje się intensywny rozwój działań zmierzających do wykorzystania zabytkowych podziemi do celów użytkowych. Problem rewitalizacji zabytkowych podziemi, a więc przywracanie "do życia" starych wyrobisk, jest bardzo skomplikowanym procesem przywracania pierwotnych funkcji nieczynnym lub zdegradowanym obiektom podziemnym. W procesie projektowania bardzo ważne są działania zgodnie z procesami naturalnymi obowiązującymi w przyrodzie. Zabezpieczane i adaptowane podziemia muszą w rezultacie działań człowieka być "przyjazne" i akceptowane przez użytkowników, będąc elementem ochrony dziedzictwa kulturowego człowieka, a więc częścią składową zrównoważonego rozwoju. Problemy techniczne występujące przy adaptacji zabytkowych podziemi są nie tylko praktycznym zastosowaniem nauki, ale tak

  7. Range Ecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    After more than two hundred years, grazing remains California’s most extensive land use. The ‘Range Ecosystems’ chapter in the ‘Ecosystems of California’ sourcebook provides an integrated picture of the biophysical, social, and economic aspects of lands grazed by livestock in the state. Grazing mana...

  8. Range and range rate system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Olin L. (Inventor); Russell, Jim K. (Inventor); Epperly, Walter L. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A video controlled solid state range finding system which requires no radar, high power laser, or sophisticated laser target is disclosed. The effective range of the system is from 1 to about 200 ft. The system includes an opto-electric camera such as a lens CCD array device. A helium neon laser produces a source beam of coherent light which is applied to a beam splitter. The beam splitter applies a reference beam to the camera and produces an outgoing beam applied to a first angularly variable reflector which directs the outgoing beam to the distant object. An incoming beam is reflected from the object to a second angularly variable reflector which reflects the incoming beam to the opto-electric camera via the beam splitter. The first reflector and the second reflector are configured so that the distance travelled by the outgoing beam from the beam splitter and the first reflector is the same as the distance travelled by the incoming beam from the second reflector to the beam splitter. The reference beam produces a reference signal in the geometric center of the camera. The incoming beam produces an object signal at the camera.

  9. Telemetry Ranging: Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamkins, J.; Kinman, P.; Xie, H.; Vilnrotter, V.; Dolinar, S.

    2015-11-01

    Telemetry ranging is a proposed alternative to conventional two-way ranging for determining the two-way time delay between a Deep Space Station (DSS) and a spacecraft. The advantage of telemetry ranging is that the ranging signal on the uplink is not echoed to the downlink, so that telemetry alone modulates the downlink carrier. The timing information needed on the downlink, in order to determine the two-way time delay, is obtained from telemetry frames. This article describes the phase and timing estimates required for telemetry ranging, and how two-way range is calculated from these estimates. It explains why the telemetry ranging architecture does not require the spacecraft transponder to have a high-frequency or high-quality oscillator, and it describes how a telemetry ranging system can be infused in the Deep Space Network.

  10. Limited range of motion

    MedlinePlus

    Limited range of motion is a term meaning that a joint or body part cannot move through its normal range of motion. ... Motion may be limited because of a problem within the joint, swelling of tissue around the joint, ...

  11. SAR ambiguous range suppression.

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2006-09-01

    Pulsed Radar systems suffer range ambiguities, that is, echoes from pulses transmitted at different times arrive at the receiver simultaneously. Conventional mitigation techniques are not always adequate. However, pulse modulation schemes exist that allow separation of ambiguous ranges in Doppler space, allowing easy filtering of problematic ambiguous ranges.

  12. RADIO RANGING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Nieset, R.T.

    1961-05-16

    A radio ranging device is described. It utilizes a super regenerative detector-oscillator in which echoes of transmitted pulses are received in proper phase to reduce noise energy at a selected range and also at multiples of the selected range.

  13. Long Range Technology Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambron, Sueann, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    This summary of a meeting of the Apple Education Advisory Council, on long range technology plans at the state, county, district, and school levels, includes highlights from group discussions on future planning, staff development, and curriculum. Three long range technology plans at the state level are provided: Long Range Educational Technology…

  14. Telemetry Ranging: Signal Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamkins, J.; Kinman, P.; Xie, H.; Vilnrotter, V.; Dolinar, S.

    2016-02-01

    This article describes the details of the signal processing used in a telemetry ranging system in which timing information is extracted from the downlink telemetry signal in order to compute spacecraft range. A previous article describes telemetry ranging concepts and architecture, which are a slight variation of a scheme published earlier. As in that earlier work, the telemetry ranging concept eliminates the need for a dedicated downlink ranging signal to communicate the necessary timing information. The present article describes the operation and performance of the major receiver functions on the spacecraft and the ground --- many of which are standard tracking loops already in use in JPL's flight and ground radios --- and how they can be used to provide the relevant information for making a range measurement. It also describes the implementation of these functions in software, and performance of an end-to-end software simulation of the telemetry ranging system.

  15. Telemetry-Based Ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamkins, Jon; Vilnrotter, Victor A.; Andrews, Kenneth S.; Shambayati, Shervin

    2011-01-01

    A telemetry-based ranging scheme was developed in which the downlink ranging signal is eliminated, and the range is computed directly from the downlink telemetry signal. This is the first Deep Space Network (DSN) ranging technology that does not require the spacecraft to transmit a separate ranging signal. By contrast, the evolutionary ranging techniques used over the years by NASA missions, including sequential ranging (transmission of a sequence of sinusoids) and PN-ranging (transmission of a pseudo-noise sequence) whether regenerative (spacecraft acquires, then regenerates and retransmits a noise-free ranging signal) or transparent (spacecraft feeds the noisy demodulated uplink ranging signal into the downlink phase modulator) relied on spacecraft power and bandwidth to transmit an explicit ranging signal. The state of the art in ranging is described in an emerging CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) standard, in which a pseudo-noise (PN) sequence is transmitted from the ground to the spacecraft, acquired onboard, and the PN sequence is coherently retransmitted back to the ground, where a delay measurement is made between the uplink and downlink signals. In this work, the telemetry signal is aligned with the uplink PN code epoch. The ground station computes the delay between the uplink signal transmission and the received downlink telemetry. Such a computation is feasible because symbol synchronizability is already an integral part of the telemetry design. Under existing technology, the telemetry signal cannot be used for ranging because its arrival-time information is not coherent with any Earth reference signal. By introducing this coherence, and performing joint telemetry detection and arrival-time estimation on the ground, a high-rate telemetry signal can provide all the precision necessary for spacecraft ranging.

  16. Improved ranging systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry E.

    1989-01-01

    Spacecraft range measurements have provided the most accurate tests, to date, of some relativistic gravitational parameters, even though the measurements were made with ranging systems having error budgets of about 10 meters. Technology is now available to allow an improvement of two orders of magnitude in the accuracy of spacecraft ranging. The largest gains in accuracy result from the replacement of unstable analog components with high speed digital circuits having precisely known delays and phase shifts.

  17. Automatic range selector

    DOEpatents

    McNeilly, Clyde E.

    1977-01-04

    A device is provided for automatically selecting from a plurality of ranges of a scale of values to which a meter may be made responsive, that range which encompasses the value of an unknown parameter. A meter relay indicates whether the unknown is of greater or lesser value than the range to which the meter is then responsive. The rotatable part of a stepping relay is rotated in one direction or the other in response to the indication from the meter relay. Various positions of the rotatable part are associated with particular scales. Switching means are sensitive to the position of the rotatable part to couple the associated range to the meter.

  18. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  19. Laser ranging data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Near real-time Lageos laser ranging data are analyzed in terms of range bias, time bias, and internal precision, and estimates for earth orientation parameters X(sub p), Y(sub p), and UT1 are obtained. The results of these analyses are reported in a variety of formats. Copies of monthly summaries from November, 1986 through November, 1987 are included.

  20. Home range and travels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.

    1968-01-01

    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  1. Preliminary error budget for an optical ranging system: Range, range rate, and differenced range observables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folkner, W. M.; Finger, M. H.

    1990-01-01

    Future missions to the outer solar system or human exploration of Mars may use telemetry systems based on optical rather than radio transmitters. Pulsed laser transmission can be used to deliver telemetry rates of about 100 kbits/sec with an efficiency of several bits for each detected photon. Navigational observables that can be derived from timing pulsed laser signals are discussed. Error budgets are presented based on nominal ground stations and spacecraft-transceiver designs. Assuming a pulsed optical uplink signal, two-way range accuracy may approach the few centimeter level imposed by the troposphere uncertainty. Angular information can be achieved from differenced one-way range using two ground stations with the accuracy limited by the length of the available baseline and by clock synchronization and troposphere errors. A method of synchronizing the ground station clocks using optical ranging measurements is presented. This could allow differenced range accuracy to reach the few centimeter troposphere limit.

  2. Snowy Range Wilderness, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Houston, R.S.; Bigsby, P.R.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Snowy Range Wilderness was undertaken by the USGS and USBM in 1976-1978 and was followed up with more detailed geologic and geochemical surveys, culminating in diamond drilling of one hole in the Snowy Range Wilderness. No mineral deposits were identified in the Snowy Range Wilderness, but inasmuch as low-grade uranium and associated gold resources were identified in rocks similar to those of the northern Snowy Range Wilderness in an area about 5 mi northeast of the wilderness boundary, we conclude that the northern half of the wilderness has a probable-resource potential for uranium and gold. Closely spaced drilling would be required to completely evaluate this mineral potential. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of fossil fuels.

  3. Full range resistive thermometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivieri, E.; Rotter, M.; De Combarieu, M.; Forget, P.; Marrache-Kikuchi, C.; Pari, P.

    2015-12-01

    Resistive thermometers are widely used in low temperature physics, thanks to portability, simplicity of operation and reduced size. The possibility to precisely follow the temperature from room temperature down to the mK region is of major interest for numerous applications, although no single thermometer can nowadays cover this entire temperature range. In this article we report on a method to realize a full range thermometer, capable to measure, by itself, temperatures in the whole above-cited temperature range, with constant sensitivity and sufficient precision for the typical cryogenic applications. We present here the first results for three different full range thermometer prototypes. A detailed description of the set-up used for measurements and characterization is also reported.

  4. Mu-2 ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, W. L.; Zygielbaum, A. I.

    1977-01-01

    The Mu-II Dual-Channel Sequential Ranging System designed as a model for future Deep Space Network ranging equipment is described. A list of design objectives is followed by a theoretical explanation of the digital demodulation techniques first employed in this machine. Hardware and software implementation are discussed, together with the details relating to the construction of the device. Two appendixes are included relating to the programming and operation of this equipment to yield the maximum scientific data.

  5. Laser Ranging Simulation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piazolla, Sabino; Hemmati, Hamid; Tratt, David

    2003-01-01

    Laser Ranging Simulation Program (LRSP) is a computer program that predicts selected aspects of the performances of a laser altimeter or other laser ranging or remote-sensing systems and is especially applicable to a laser-based system used to map terrain from a distance of several kilometers. Designed to run in a more recent version (5 or higher) of the MATLAB programming language, LRSP exploits the numerical and graphical capabilities of MATLAB. LRSP generates a graphical user interface that includes a pop-up menu that prompts the user for the input of data that determine the performance of a laser ranging system. Examples of input data include duration and energy of the laser pulse, the laser wavelength, the width of the laser beam, and several parameters that characterize the transmitting and receiving optics, the receiving electronic circuitry, and the optical properties of the atmosphere and the terrain. When the input data have been entered, LRSP computes the signal-to-noise ratio as a function of range, signal and noise currents, and ranging and pointing errors.

  6. The range scheduling aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halbfinger, Eliezer M.; Smith, Barry D.

    1991-01-01

    The Air Force Space Command schedules telemetry, tracking and control activities across the Air Force Satellite Control network. The Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is a rapid prototype combining a user-friendly, portable, graphical interface with a sophisticated object-oriented database. The RSA has been a rapid prototyping effort whose purpose is to elucidate and define suitable technology for enhancing the performance of the range schedulers. Designing a system to assist schedulers in their task and using their current techniques as well as enhancements enabled by an electronic environment, has created a continuously developing model that will serve as a standard for future range scheduling systems. The RSA system is easy to use, easily ported between platforms, fast, and provides a set of tools for the scheduler that substantially increases his productivity.

  7. Satellite Laser Ranging operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, Michael R.

    1994-01-01

    Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) is currently providing precision orbit determination for measurements of: 1) Ocean surface topography from satellite borne radar altimetry, 2) Spatial and temporal variations of the gravity field, 3) Earth and ocean tides, 4) Plate tectonic and regional deformation, 5) Post-glacial uplift and subsidence, 6) Variations in the Earth's center-of-mass, and 7) Variations in Earth rotation. SLR also supports specialized programs in time transfer and classical geodetic positioning, and will soon provide precision ranging to support experiments in relativity.

  8. Western Aeronautical Test Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakahara, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the work of the Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR). NASA's Western Aeronautical Test Range is a network of facilities used to support aeronautical research, science missions, exploration system concepts, and space operations. The WATR resides at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center located at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The WATR is a part of NASA's Corporate Management of Aeronautical Facilities and funded by the Strategic Capability Asset Program (SCAP). Maps show the general location of the WATR area that is used for aeronautical testing and evaluation. The products, services and facilities of WATR are discussed,

  9. Mobile satellite ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverberg, E. C.

    1978-01-01

    A brief review of the constraints which have limited satellite ranging hardware and an outline of the steps which are underway to improve the status of the equipment in this area are given. In addition, some suggestions are presented for the utilization of newer instruments and for possible future research and development work in this area.

  10. STDN ranging equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    Final results of the Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network (STDN) Ranging Equipment program are summarized. Basic design concepts and final design approaches are described. Theoretical analyses which define requirements and support the design approaches are presented. Design verification criteria are delineated and verification test results are specified.

  11. Agriculture, forest, and range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The findings and recommendations of the panel for developing a satellite remote-sensing global information system in the next decade are reported. User requirements were identified in five categories: (1) cultivated crops, (2) land resources, (3)water resources, (4)forest management, and (5) range management. The benefits from the applications of satellite data are discussed.

  12. Agriculture, forestry, range resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crea, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    In the area of crop specie identification, it has been found that temporal data analysis, preliminary stratification, and unequal probability analysis were several of the factors that contributed to high identification accuracies. Single data set accuracies on fields of greater than 80,000 sq m (20 acres) are in the 70- to 90-percent range; however, with the use of temporal data, accuracies of 95 percent have been reported. Identification accuracy drops off significantly on areas of less than 80,000 sq m (20 acres) as does measurement accuracy. Forest stratification into coniferous and deciduous areas has been accomplished to a 90- to 95-percent accuracy level. Using multistage sampling techniques, the timber volume of a national forest district has been estimated to a confidence level and standard deviation acceptable to the Forest Service at a very favorable cost-benefit time ratio. Range specie/plant community vegetation mapping has been accomplished at various levels of success (69- to 90-percent accuracy). However, several investigators have obtained encouraging initial results in range biomass (forage production) estimation and range readiness predictions. Soil association map correction and soil association mapping in new area appear to have been proven feasible on large areas; however, testing in a complex soil area should be undertaken.

  13. Agriculture, forestry, range resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    The necessary elements to perform global inventories of agriculture, forestry, and range resources are being brought together through the use of satellites, sensors, computers, mathematics, and phenomenology. Results of ERTS-1 applications in these areas, as well as soil mapping, are described.

  14. Fact Sheet: Range Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornelson, C.; Fretter, E.

    2004-01-01

    NASA Ames has a long tradition in leadership with the use of ballistic ranges and shock tubes for the purpose of studying the physics and phenomena associated with hypervelocity flight. Cutting-edge areas of research run the gamut from aerodynamics, to impact physics, to flow-field structure and chemistry. This legacy of testing began in the NACA era of the 1940's with the Supersonic Free Flight Tunnel, and evolved dramatically up through the late 1950s with the pioneering work in the Ames Hypersonic Ballistic Range. The tradition continued in the mid-60s with the commissioning of the three newest facilities: the Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR) in 1964, the Hypervelocity Free Flight Facility (HFFF) in 1965 and the Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) in 1966. Today the Range Complex continues to provide unique and critical testing in support of the Nation's programs for planetary geology and geophysics; exobiology; solar system origins; earth atmospheric entry, planetary entry, and aerobraking vehicles; and various configurations for supersonic and hypersonic aircraft.

  15. RADIO RANGING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Bogle, R.W.

    1960-11-22

    A description is given of a super-regenerative oscillator ranging device provided with radiating and receiving means and being capable of indicating the occurrence of that distance between itself and a reflecting object which so phases the received echo of energy of a preceding emitted oscillation that the intervals between oscillations become uniform.

  16. Front Range Branch Officers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Front Range Branch of AGU has installed officers for 1990: Ray Noble, National Center for Atmospheric Research, chair; Sherry Oaks, U.S. Geological Survey, chair-elect; Howard Garcia, NOAA, treasurer; Catharine Skokan, Colorado School of Mines, secretary. JoAnn Joselyn of NOAA is past chair. Members at large are Wallace Campbell, NOAA; William Neff, USGS; and Stephen Schneider, NCAR.

  17. Space-Based Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Space-Based Range (SBR), previously known as Space-Based Telemetry and Range Safety (STARS), is a multicenter NASA proof-of-concept project to determine if space-based communications using NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) can support the Range Safety functions of acquiring tracking data and generating flight termination signals, while also providing broadband Range User data such as voice, video, and vehicle/payload data. There was a successful test of the Range Safety system at Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) on December 20, 2005, on a two-stage Terrier-Orion spin-stabilized sounding rocket. SBR transmitted GPS tracking data and maintained links with two TDRSS satellites simultaneously during the 10-min flight. The payload section deployed a parachute, landed in the Atlantic Ocean about 90 miles downrange from the launch site, and was successfully recovered. During the Terrier-Orion tests flights, more than 99 percent of all forward commands and more than 95 percent of all return frames were successfully received and processed. The time latency necessary for a command to travel from WFF over landlines to White Sands Complex and then to the vehicle via TDRSS, be processed onboard, and then be sent back to WFF was between 1.0 s and 1.1 s. The forward-link margins for TDRS-10 (TDRS East [TDE]) were 11 dB to 12 dB plus or minus 2 dB, and for TDRS-4 (TDRS Spare [TDS]) were 9 dB to 10 dB plus or minus 1.5 dB. The return-link margins for both TDE and TDS were 6 dB to 8 dB plus or minus 3 dB. There were 11 flights on an F-15B at Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) between November 2006 and February 2007. The Range User system tested a 184-element TDRSS Ku-band (15 GHz) phased-array antenna with data rates of 5 Mbps and 10 Mbps. This data was a combination of black-and-white cockpit video, Range Safety tracking and transceiver data, and aircraft and antenna controller data streams. IP data formatting was used.

  18. Light beam range finder

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1998-01-01

    A "laser tape measure" for measuring distance which includes a transmitter such as a laser diode which transmits a sequence of electromagnetic pulses in response to a transmit timing signal. A receiver samples reflections from objects within the field of the sequence of visible electromagnetic pulses with controlled timing, in response to a receive timing signal. The receiver generates a sample signal in response to the samples which indicates distance to the object causing the reflections. The timing circuit supplies the transmit timing signal to the transmitter and supplies the receive timing signal to the receiver. The receive timing signal causes the receiver to sample the reflection such that the time between transmission of pulses in the sequence in sampling by the receiver sweeps over a range of delays. The transmit timing signal causes the transmitter to transmit the sequence of electromagnetic pulses at a pulse repetition rate, and the received timing signal sweeps over the range of delays in a sweep cycle such that reflections are sampled at the pulse repetition rate and with different delays in the range of delays, such that the sample signal represents received reflections in equivalent time. The receiver according to one aspect of the invention includes an avalanche photodiode and a sampling gate coupled to the photodiode which is responsive to the received timing signal. The transmitter includes a laser diode which supplies a sequence of visible electromagnetic pulses. A bright spot projected on to the target clearly indicates the point that is being measured, and the user can read the range to that point with precision of better than 0.1%.

  19. Light beam range finder

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-06-16

    A ``laser tape measure`` for measuring distance is disclosed which includes a transmitter such as a laser diode which transmits a sequence of electromagnetic pulses in response to a transmit timing signal. A receiver samples reflections from objects within the field of the sequence of visible electromagnetic pulses with controlled timing, in response to a receive timing signal. The receiver generates a sample signal in response to the samples which indicates distance to the object causing the reflections. The timing circuit supplies the transmit timing signal to the transmitter and supplies the receive timing signal to the receiver. The receive timing signal causes the receiver to sample the reflection such that the time between transmission of pulses in the sequence in sampling by the receiver sweeps over a range of delays. The transmit timing signal causes the transmitter to transmit the sequence of electromagnetic pulses at a pulse repetition rate, and the received timing signal sweeps over the range of delays in a sweep cycle such that reflections are sampled at the pulse repetition rate and with different delays in the range of delays, such that the sample signal represents received reflections in equivalent time. The receiver according to one aspect of the invention includes an avalanche photodiode and a sampling gate coupled to the photodiode which is responsive to the received timing signal. The transmitter includes a laser diode which supplies a sequence of visible electromagnetic pulses. A bright spot projected on to the target clearly indicates the point that is being measured, and the user can read the range to that point with precision of better than 0.1%. 7 figs.

  20. Front Range Report, Abstracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, William

    The second regional conference of the Front Range Branch, AGU, was attended by more than 80 professionals and some 20 outstanding high school students. The conference included 2 days of interdisciplinary talks, and lots of discussion, that primarily were keyed to geophysical studies of Colorado, Wyoming, and New Mexico. Other talks reported on nonregional, and sometimes global, studies being done by geophypsicists of the Front Range region.Topics included tectonics of the Front Range and the Colorado Plateau, pollution of the Arkansas and Mississippi rivers, and a supreme polluting event that caused the late-Cretaceous extinctions. Other notable talks were on toxic cleanup, microburst (wind shear) detection at U.S. airports, and other meteorological studies. Several talks treated the audience to the excitement of new work and surprise discoveries. The meeting was multimedia, including the playing of two videos through a projection TV and the playing of a fascinating tape between an airport control tower and incoming pilots during a severe microburst event.

  1. Organic sonobuoy ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felgate, Nick

    2002-11-01

    It is important that military vessels periodically check their passive signatures for vunerabilities. Traditionally, this is undertaken on a fixed range (e.g., AUTEC, BUTEC) with low noise conditions. However, for operational and cost reasons it is desirable to be able to undertake such measurements while the asset is operating in other areas using expendable buoys deployed by the vessel itself. As well as the wet-end hardware for such organic sonobuoy ranging systems (e.g., calibrated sonobuoys, calibrated data uplink channels), careful consideration is needed of the signal-processing required in the harsher environmental conditions of the open ocean. In particular, it is noted that the open ocean is usually much noisier, and the propagation conditions more variable. To overcome signal-to-noise problems, techniques such as Doppler-correction, zero-padding/peak-picking, and noise estimation/correction techniques have been developed to provide accurate and unbiased estimates of received levels. To estimate propagation loss for source level estimation, a model of multipath effects has been included with the ability for analysts to compare predicted and observed received levels against time/range and adjust modeling parameters (e.g., surface loss, bottom loss, source depth) to improve the fit.

  2. Neutron range spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Manglos, S.H.

    1988-03-10

    A neutron range spectrometer and method for determining the neutron energy spectrum of a neutron emitting source are disclosed. Neutrons from the source are colliminated along a collimation axis and a position sensitive neutron counter is disposed in the path of the collimated neutron beam. The counter determines positions along the collimation axis of interactions between the neutrons in the neutron beam and a neutron-absorbing material in the counter. From the interaction positions, a computer analyzes the data and determines the neutron energy spectrum of the neutron beam. The counter is preferably shielded and a suitable neutron-absorbing material is He-3. 1 fig.

  3. Gas cooking range

    SciTech Connect

    Narang, R.K.; Narang, K.

    1984-02-14

    An energy-efficient gas cooking range features an oven section with improved heat circulation and air preheat, a compact oven/broiler burner, a smoke-free drip pan, an efficient piloted ignition, flame-containing rangetop burner rings, and a small, portable oven that can be supported on the burner rings. Panels spaced away from the oven walls and circulation fans provide very effective air flow within the oven. A gas shutoff valve automatically controls the discharge of heated gases from the oven so that they are discharged only when combustion is occurring.

  4. Monocular visual ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witus, Gary; Hunt, Shawn

    2008-04-01

    The vision system of a mobile robot for checkpoint and perimeter security inspection performs multiple functions: providing surveillance video, providing high resolution still images, and providing video for semi-autonomous visual navigation. Mid-priced commercial digital cameras support the primary inspection functions. Semi-autonomous visual navigation is a tertiary function whose purpose is to reduce the burden of teleoperation and free the security personnel for their primary functions. Approaches to robot visual navigation require some form of depth perception for speed control to prevent the robot from colliding with objects. In this paper present the initial results of an exploration of the capabilities and limitations of using a single monocular commercial digital camera for depth perception. Our approach combines complementary methods in alternating stationary and moving behaviors. When the platform is stationary, it computes a range image from differential blur in the image stack collected at multiple focus settings. When the robot is moving, it extracts an estimate of range from the camera auto-focus function, and combines this with an estimate derived from angular expansion of a constellation of visual tracking points.

  5. Western Aeronautical Test Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakahara, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) is a network of facilities used to support aeronautical research, science missions, exploration system concepts, and space operations. The WATR resides at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center located at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The WATR is a part of NASA's Corporate Management of Aeronautical Facilities and funded by the Strategic Capability Asset Program (SCAP). It is managed by the Aeronautics Test Program (ATP) of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) to provide the right facility at the right time. NASA is a tenant on Edwards Air Force Base and has an agreement with the Air Force Flight Test Center to use the land and airspace controlled by the Department of Defense (DoD). The topics include: 1) The WATR supports a variety of vehicles; 2) Dryden shares airspace with the AFFTC; 3) Restricted airspace, corridors, and special use areas are available for experimental aircraft; 4) WATR Products and Services; 5) WATR Support Configuration; 6) Telemetry Tracking; 7) Time Space Positioning; 8) Video; 9) Voice Communication; 10) Mobile Operations Facilities; 11) Data Processing; 12) Mission Control Center; 13) Real-Time Data Analysis; and 14) Range Safety.

  6. Range Process Simulation Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Dave; Haas, William; Barth, Tim; Benjamin, Perakath; Graul, Michael; Bagatourova, Olga

    2005-01-01

    Range Process Simulation Tool (RPST) is a computer program that assists managers in rapidly predicting and quantitatively assessing the operational effects of proposed technological additions to, and/or upgrades of, complex facilities and engineering systems such as the Eastern Test Range. Originally designed for application to space transportation systems, RPST is also suitable for assessing effects of proposed changes in industrial facilities and large organizations. RPST follows a model-based approach that includes finite-capacity schedule analysis and discrete-event process simulation. A component-based, scalable, open architecture makes RPST easily and rapidly tailorable for diverse applications. Specific RPST functions include: (1) definition of analysis objectives and performance metrics; (2) selection of process templates from a processtemplate library; (3) configuration of process models for detailed simulation and schedule analysis; (4) design of operations- analysis experiments; (5) schedule and simulation-based process analysis; and (6) optimization of performance by use of genetic algorithms and simulated annealing. The main benefits afforded by RPST are provision of information that can be used to reduce costs of operation and maintenance, and the capability for affordable, accurate, and reliable prediction and exploration of the consequences of many alternative proposed decisions.

  7. MiniAERCam Ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talley, Tom

    2003-01-01

    Johnson Space Center (JSC) is designing a small, remotely controlled vehicle that will carry two color and one black and white video cameras in space. The device will launch and retrieve from the Space Vehicle and be used for remote viewing. Off the shelf cellular technology is being used as the basis for communication system design. Existing plans include using multiple antennas to make simultaneous estimates of the azimuth of the MiniAERCam from several sites on the Space Station and use triangulation to find the location of the device. Adding range detection capability to each of the nodes on the Space Vehicle would allow an estimate of the location of the MiniAERCam to be made at each Communication And Telemetry Box (CATBox) independent of all the other communication nodes. This project will investigate the techniques used by the Global Positioning System (GPS) to achieve accurate positioning information and adapt those strategies that are appropriate to the design of the CATBox range determination system.

  8. Range imaging laser radar

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Marion W.

    1990-01-01

    A laser source is operated continuously and modulated periodically (typicy sinusoidally). A receiver imposes another periodic modulation on the received optical signal, the modulated signal being detected by an array of detectors of the integrating type. Range to the target determined by measuring the phase shift of the intensity modulation on the received optical beam relative to a reference. The receiver comprises a photoemitter for converting the reflected, periodically modulated, return beam to an accordingly modulated electron stream. The electron stream is modulated by a local demodulation signal source and subsequently converted back to a photon stream by a detector. A charge coupled device (CCD) array then averages and samples the photon stream to provide an electrical signal in accordance with the photon stream.

  9. Range imaging laser radar

    DOEpatents

    Scott, M.W.

    1990-06-19

    A laser source is operated continuously and modulated periodically (typically sinusoidally). A receiver imposes another periodic modulation on the received optical signal, the modulated signal being detected by an array of detectors of the integrating type. Range to the target determined by measuring the phase shift of the intensity modulation on the received optical beam relative to a reference. The receiver comprises a photoemitter for converting the reflected, periodically modulated, return beam to an accordingly modulated electron stream. The electron stream is modulated by a local demodulation signal source and subsequently converted back to a photon stream by a detector. A charge coupled device (CCD) array then averages and samples the photon stream to provide an electrical signal in accordance with the photon stream. 2 figs.

  10. Neutron range spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Manglos, Stephen H.

    1989-06-06

    A neutron range spectrometer and method for determining the neutron energy spectrum of a neutron emitting source are disclosed. Neutrons from the source are collimnated along a collimation axis and a position sensitive neutron counter is disposed in the path of the collimated neutron beam. The counter determines positions along the collimation axis of interactions between the neutrons in the neutron beam and a neutron-absorbing material in the counter. From the interaction positions, a computer analyzes the data and determines the neutron energy spectrum of the neutron beam. The counter is preferably shielded and a suitable neutron-absorbing material is He-3. The computer solves the following equation in the analysis: ##EQU1## where: N(x).DELTA.x=the number of neutron interactions measured between a position x and x+.DELTA.x, A.sub.i (E.sub.i).DELTA.E.sub.i =the number of incident neutrons with energy between E.sub.i and E.sub.i +.DELTA.E.sub.i, and C=C(E.sub.i)=N .sigma.(E.sub.i) where N=the number density of absorbing atoms in the position sensitive counter means and .sigma. (E.sub.i)=the average cross section of the absorbing interaction between E.sub.i and E.sub.i +.DELTA.E.sub.i.

  11. Reference Ranges & What They Mean

    MedlinePlus

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Reference Ranges and What They Mean Share this page: Was this page helpful? Overview | Reference range defined | Where are the reference ranges? | Limits ...

  12. Space-Based Range Safety and Future Space Range Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, Donald E.; Valencia, Lisa M.; Simpson, James C.

    2005-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Space-Based Telemetry and Range Safety (STARS) study is a multiphase project to demonstrate the performance, flexibility and cost savings that can be realized by using space-based assets for the Range Safety [global positioning system (GPS) metric tracking data, flight termination command and range safety data relay] and Range User (telemetry) functions during vehicle launches and landings. Phase 1 included flight testing S-band Range Safety and Range User hardware in 2003 onboard a high-dynamic aircraft platform at Dryden Flight Research Center (Edwards, California, USA) using the NASA Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) as the communications link. The current effort, Phase 2, includes hardware and packaging upgrades to the S-band Range Safety system and development of a high data rate Ku-band Range User system. The enhanced Phase 2 Range Safety Unit (RSU) provided real-time video for three days during the historic Global Flyer (Scaled Composites, Mojave, California, USA) flight in March, 2005. Additional Phase 2 testing will include a sounding rocket test of the Range Safety system and aircraft flight testing of both systems. Future testing will include a flight test on a launch vehicle platform. This paper discusses both Range Safety and Range User developments and testing with emphasis on the Range Safety system. The operational concept of a future space-based range is also discussed.

  13. Space-Based Range Safety and Future Space Range Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, Donald E.; Valencia, Lisa M.; Simpson, James C.

    2005-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space-Based Telemetry and Range Safety study is a multiphase project to demonstrate the performance, flexibility and cost savings that can be realized by using space-based assets for the Range Safety (global positioning system metric tracking data, flight termination command and range safety data relay) and Range User (telemetry) functions during vehicle launches and landings. Phase 1 included flight testing S-band Range Safety and Range User hardware in 2003 onboard a high-dynamic aircraft platform at Dryden Flight Research Center (Edwards, California) using the NASA Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System as the communications link. The current effort, Phase 2, includes hardware and packaging upgrades to the S-band Range Safety system and development of a high data rate Ku-band Range User system. The enhanced Phase 2 Range Safety Unit provided real-time video for three days during the historic GlobalFlyer (Scaled Composites, Mojave, California) flight in March, 2005. Additional Phase 2 testing will include a sounding rocket test of the Range Safety system and aircraft flight testing of both systems. Future testing will include a flight test on a launch vehicle platform. This report discusses both Range Safety and Range User developments and testing with emphasis on the Range Safety system. The operational concept of a future space-based range is also discussed.

  14. Pulse spreading and range correction analysis for satellite laser ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Jon A.

    1990-01-01

    The pulse spreading resulting from light detection and ranging measurements of the range to earth-orbiting satellites is described. An analysis quantifying this pulse spreading and the calculation of corrections to be applied to the lidar range determination of satellites is detailed.

  15. Pulse spreading and range correction analysis for satellite laser ranging.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, J A

    1990-09-01

    The pulse spreading resulting from light detection and ranging measurements of the range to earth-orbiting satellites is described. An analysis quantifying this pulse spreading and the calculation of corrections to be applied to the lidar range determination of satellites is detailed. PMID:20567459

  16. Sequential ranging: How it works

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baugh, Harold W.

    1993-01-01

    This publication is directed to the users of data from the Sequential Ranging Assembly (SRA), and to others who have a general interest in range measurements. It covers the hardware, the software, and the processes used in acquiring range data; it does not cover analytical aspects such as the theory of modulation, detection, noise spectral density, and other highly technical subjects. In other words, it covers how ranging is done, but not the details of why it works. The publication also includes an appendix that gives a brief discussion of PN ranging, a capability now under development.

  17. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Chielo, Leonard Ikenna; Pike, Tom; Cooper, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources). These were: apron (0-10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments); enriched belt (10-50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided); and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture). Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND) of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower temperatures and increasing relative humidity, though use of apron and enriched belt was not affected by variation in these measures. These data support previous findings that outer range areas tend to be

  18. The lunar laser ranging experiment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, P. L.; Currie, D. G.; Poultney, S. K.; Dicke, R. H.; Eckhardt, D. H.; Kaula, W. M.; Mulholland, J. D.; Plotkin, H. H.; Silverberg, E. C.; Faller, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    The scientific objectives achievable through high-accuracy range measurements to lunar retroreflectors are considered. A specific study of design questions related to the operation of retroreflectors on the lunar surface indicated that a reflector panel containing a number of solid fused silica corner reflectors would be capable of maintaining essentially diffraction limited performance under direct solar illumination. Initial Apollo 11 observations are discussed together with the installation of additional lunar retroreflectors in connection with the Luna 17, Apollo 14, Apollo 15, and Luna 21 missions. Range measurements at the McDonald Observatory are considered along with new results from lunar range data, and prospects regarding future lunar ranging stations.

  19. Range Restriction and Attenuation Corrections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumford, Michael D.; Mendoza, Jorge L.

    The present paper reviews the techniques commonly used to correct an observed correlation coefficient for the simultaneous influence of attenuation and range restriction effects. It is noted that the procedure which is currently in use may be somewhat biased because it treats range restriction and attenuation as independent restrictive influences.…

  20. Institutional Long-Range Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolin, John G.

    This booklet presents a general outline for conducting a long-range planning study that can be adapted for use by any institution of higher education. The basic components of an effective long-range plan should include: (1) purposes of the plan, which define the scope of the study and provide the setting in which it will be initiated; (2) a set of…

  1. Extended range chemical sensing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hughes, Robert C.; Schubert, W. Kent

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for sensing chemicals over extended range of concentrations. In particular, first and second sensors each having separate, but overlapping ranges for sensing concentrations of hydrogen are provided. Preferably, the first sensor is a MOS solid state device wherein the metal electrode or gate is a nickel alloy. The second sensor is a chemiresistor comprising a nickel alloy.

  2. Extended range chemical sensing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hughes, R.C.; Schubert, W.K.

    1994-01-18

    An apparatus is described for sensing chemicals over extended range of concentrations. In particular, first and second sensors each having separate, but overlapping ranges for sensing concentrations of hydrogen are provided. Preferably, the first sensor is a MOS solid state device wherein the metal electrode or gate is a nickel alloy. The second sensor is a chemiresistor comprising a nickel alloy. 6 figures.

  3. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Chielo, Leonard Ikenna; Pike, Tom; Cooper, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Commercial free-range production has become a significant sector of the fresh egg market due to legislation banning conventional cages and consumer preference for products perceived as welfare friendly, as access to outdoor range can lead to welfare benefits such as greater freedom of movement and enhanced behavioural opportunities. This study investigated dispersal patterns, feather condition and activity of laying hens in three distinct zones of the range area; the apron area near shed; enriched zone 10–50 m from shed; and outer range beyond 50 m, in six flocks of laying hens under commercial free-range conditions varying in size between 4000 and 24,000 hens. Each flock was visited for four days to record number of hens in each zone, their behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distances (NND), as well as record temperature and relative humidity during the visit. Temperature and relative humidity varied across the study period in line with seasonal variations and influenced the use of range with fewer hens out of shed as temperature fell or relative humidity rose. On average, 12.5% of the hens were observed on the range and most of these hens were recorded in the apron zone as hen density decreased rapidly with increasing distance from the shed. Larger flocks appeared to have a lower proportion of hens on range. The hens used the range more in the early morning followed by a progressive decrease through to early afternoon. The NND was greatest in the outer range and decreased towards the shed. Feather condition was generally good and hens observed in the outer range had the best overall feather condition. Standing, pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded behaviours and of these, standing occurred most in the apron whereas walking and foraging behaviours were recorded most in the outer range. This study supported the findings of previous studies that reported few hens in the range and greater use of areas closer

  4. [Close-range retinoscopy using integrated optic range finding].

    PubMed

    Kulnig, W

    1983-12-01

    A new type of retinoscope is described which permits all the theoretical advantages of close-range retinoscopy to be exploited in practice thanks to an integrated rangefinder which employs the coincident-image principle. PMID:6668884

  5. Range indices of geomagnetic activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuart, W.F.; Green, A.W., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The simplest index of geomagnetic activity is the range in nT from maximum to minimum value of the field in a given time interval. The hourly range R was recommended by IAGA for use at observatories at latitudes greater than 65??, but was superceded by AE. The most used geomagnetic index K is based on the range of activity in a 3 h interval corrected for the regular daily variation. In order to take advantage of real time data processing, now available at many observatories, it is proposed to introduce a 1 h range index and also a 3 h range index. Both will be computed hourly, i.e. each will have a series of 24 per day, the 3 h values overlapping. The new data will be available as the range (R) of activity in nT and also as a logarithmic index (I) of the range. The exponent relating index to range in nT is based closely on the scale used for computing K values. The new ranges and range indices are available, from June 1987, to users in real time and can be accessed by telephone connection or computer network. Their first year of production is regarded as a trial period during which their value to the scientific and commercial communities will be assessed, together with their potential as indicators of regional and global disturbances' and in which trials will be conducted into ways of eliminating excessive bias at quiet times due to the rate of change of the daily variation field. ?? 1988.

  6. Foraging optimally for home ranges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mitchell, Michael S.; Powell, Roger A.

    2012-01-01

    Economic models predict behavior of animals based on the presumption that natural selection has shaped behaviors important to an animal's fitness to maximize benefits over costs. Economic analyses have shown that territories of animals are structured by trade-offs between benefits gained from resources and costs of defending them. Intuitively, home ranges should be similarly structured, but trade-offs are difficult to assess because there are no costs of defense, thus economic models of home-range behavior are rare. We present economic models that predict how home ranges can be efficient with respect to spatially distributed resources, discounted for travel costs, under 2 strategies of optimization, resource maximization and area minimization. We show how constraints such as competitors can influence structure of homes ranges through resource depression, ultimately structuring density of animals within a population and their distribution on a landscape. We present simulations based on these models to show how they can be generally predictive of home-range behavior and the mechanisms that structure the spatial distribution of animals. We also show how contiguous home ranges estimated statistically from location data can be misleading for animals that optimize home ranges on landscapes with patchily distributed resources. We conclude with a summary of how we applied our models to nonterritorial black bears (Ursus americanus) living in the mountains of North Carolina, where we found their home ranges were best predicted by an area-minimization strategy constrained by intraspecific competition within a social hierarchy. Economic models can provide strong inference about home-range behavior and the resources that structure home ranges by offering falsifiable, a priori hypotheses that can be tested with field observations.

  7. Home range analysis using a mechanistic home range model

    SciTech Connect

    Moorcroft, P.R. . Dept. of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology); Lewis, M.A. . Dept. of Mathematics) Crabtree, R.L. . Dept. of Fish and Wildlife Resources)

    1999-07-01

    The traditional models used to characterize animal home ranges have no mechanistic basis underlying their descriptions of space use, and as a result, the analysis of animal home ranges has primarily been a descriptive endeavor. In this paper, the authors characterize coyote (Canis latrans) home range patterns using partial differential equations for expected space use that are formally derived from underlying descriptions of individual movement behavior. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first time that mechanistic models have been used to characterize animal home ranges. The results provide empirical support for a model formulation of movement response to scent marks, and suggest that having relocation data for individuals in adjacent groups is necessary to capture the spatial arrangement of home range boundaries. The authors then show how the model fits can be used to obtain predictions for individual movement and scent marking behavior and to predict changes in home range patterns. More generally, the findings illustrate how mechanistic models permit the development of a predictive theory for the relationship between movement behavior and animal spatial distribution.

  8. Streak camera dynamic range optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedwald, J.D.; Lerche, R.A.

    1987-09-01

    The LLNL optical streak camera is used by the Laser Fusion Program in a wide range of applications. Many of these applications require a large recorded dynamic range. Recent work has focused on maximizing the dynamic range of the streak camera recording system. For our streak cameras, image intensifier saturation limits the upper end of the dynamic range. We have developed procedures to set the image intensifier gain such that the system dynamic range is maximized. Specifically, the gain is set such that a single streak tube photoelectron is recorded with an exposure of about five times the recording system noise. This ensures detection of single photoelectrons, while not consuming intensifier or recording system dynamic range through excessive intensifier gain. The optimum intensifier gain has been determined for two types of film and for a lens-coupled CCD camera. We have determined that by recording the streak camera image with a CCD camera, the system is shot-noise limited up to the onset of image intensifier nonlinearity. When recording on film, the film determines the noise at high exposure levels. There is discussion of the effects of slit width and image intensifier saturation on dynamic range. 8 refs.

  9. The eclipse of species ranges.

    PubMed

    Hemerik, Lia; Hengeveld, Rob; Lippe, Ernst

    2006-01-01

    This paper distinguishes four recognisably different geographical processes in principle causing species to die out. One of these processes, the one we dub "range eclipse", holds that one range expands at the expense of another one, thereby usurping it. Channell and Lomolino (2000a, Journal of Biogeography 27: 169-179; 2000b, Nature 403: 84-87; see also Lomolino and Channell, 1995, Journal of Mammalogy 76: 335-347) measured the course of this process in terms of the proportion of the total range remaining in its original centre, thereby essentially assuming a homogeneous distribution of animals over the range. However, part of their measure seems mistaken. By giving a general, analytical formulation of eclipsing ranges, we estimate the exact course of this process. Also, our formulation does not partition a range into two spatially equal parts, its core and its edge, but it assumes continuity. For applying this model to data on the time evolution of species, individual time series should be available for each of them. For practical purposes we give an alternative way of plotting and interpreting such time series. Our approach, being more sensitive than Channell and Lomolino's, gives a less optimistic indication of range eclipses than theirs once these have started. PMID:17318329

  10. Alternative wavelengths for laser ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamal, Karel

    1993-01-01

    The following are considered to be necessary to accomplish multicolor laser ranging: the nature of the atmospheric dispersion and absorption, the satellite/lunar/ground retro-array characteristics, and ground/satellite ranging machine performance. The energy balance and jitter budget have to be considered as well. It is concluded that the existing satellite/laser retroreflectors seem inadequate for future experiments. The Raman Stokes/Anti-Stokes (0.68/0.43 micron) plus solid state detector appear to be promising instrumentation that satisfy the ground/satellite and satellite/ground ranging machine requirements on the precision, compactness, and data processing.

  11. GPS test range mission planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Iris P.; Hancock, Thomas P.

    The principal features of the Test Range User Mission Planner (TRUMP), a PC-resident tool designed to aid in deploying and utilizing GPS-based test range assets, are reviewed. TRUMP features time history plots of time-space-position information (TSPI); performance based on a dynamic GPS/inertial system simulation; time history plots of TSPI data link connectivity; digital terrain elevation data maps with user-defined cultural features; and two-dimensional coverage plots of ground-based test range assets. Some functions to be added during the next development phase are discussed.

  12. The dynamic range of LZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, J.

    2016-02-01

    The electronics of the LZ experiment, the 7-tonne dark matter detector to be installed at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF), is designed to permit studies of physics where the energies deposited range from 1 keV of nuclear-recoil energy up to 3,000 keV of electron-recoil energy. The system is designed to provide a 70% efficiency for events that produce three photoelectrons in the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). This corresponds approximately to the lowest energy threshold achievable in multi-tonne time-projection chambers, and drives the noise specifications for the front end. The upper limit of the LZ dynamic range is defined to accommodate the electroluminescence (S2) signals. The low-energy channels of the LZ amplifiers provide the dynamic range required for the tritium and krypton calibrations. The high-energy channels provide the dynamic range required to measure the activated Xe lines.

  13. Intentionally Short Range Communications (ISRC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, J.; Poirier, P.; Obrien, M. E.; Gibeson, L.

    1993-05-01

    This document details the feasibility studies conducted for the Intentionally Short Range Communications (ISRC) project. The short-range limitation arises from the need for low probability of intercept (LPI), low probability of detection (LPD) communication links. The detection of an undecipherable transmission would still provide an enemy with information regarding transmitter location. The technologies being studied are ultraviolet (UV) lamps, UV lasers, infrared (IR) lasers, millimeter waves (MMW), and direct sequence spread spectrum.

  14. NASA Satellite Laser Ranging Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, David L.

    2004-01-01

    I will be participating in the International Workshop on Laser Ranging. I will be presenting to the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) general body meeting on the recent accomplishments and status of the NASA Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) Network. The recent accomplishments and NASA's future plans will be outlined and the benefits to the scientific community will be addressed. I am member of the ILRS governing board, the Missions working group, and the Networks & Engineering working group. I am the chairman of the Missions Working and will be hosting a meeting during the week of the workshop. I will also represent the NASA SLR program at the ILRS governing board and other working group meetings.

  15. APOLLO: millimeter lunar laser ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, T. W., Jr.; Adelberger, E. G.; Battat, J. B. R.; Hoyle, C. D.; Johnson, N. H.; McMillan, R. J.; Stubbs, C. W.; Swanson, H. E.

    2012-09-01

    Lunar laser ranging (LLR) has for decades stood at the forefront of tests of gravitational physics, including tests of the equivalence principle (EP). Current LLR results on the EP achieve a sensitivity of Δa/a ≈ 10-13 based on few-centimeter data/model fidelity. A recent push in LLR, called APOLLO (the Apache Point Observatory Lunar Laser-ranging Operation) produces millimeter-quality data. This paper demonstrates the few-millimeter range precision achieved by APOLLO, leading to an expectation that LLR will be able to extend EP sensitivity by an order-of-magnitude to Δa/a ˜ 10-14, once modeling efforts improve to this level.

  16. Laser system of extended range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehr, C. G.

    1972-01-01

    A pulsed laser system was developed for range measurements from the earth to retroreflecting satellites at distances up to that of the moon. The system has a transportable transmitter unit that can be moved from one location to another. This unit consists of a 0.2 m coude refractor and a high radiance, neodymium-glass, frequency doubled laser that operates in a single transverse mode. It can be used for lunar or distant satellite ranging at any observatory that has a telescope with an aperture diameter of about 1.5 m for the detection of the laser return pulses. This telescope is utilized in the same manner customarily employed for the observation of celestial objects. A special photometric package and the associated electronics are provided for laser ranging.

  17. Wide range magnetic electron spectrograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coplan, M. A.; Wang, L.-J.; Moore, J. H.; Hoffman, R. A.

    1989-01-01

    An electron spectrogrpah is described that covers electron energies from 400 eV to 200 keV with an energy resolution of 10 percent. This overlaps the range of electrostatic deflection devices at low energy and solid state detectors at high energy. The spectrograph uses magnetic deflection of the electrons to achieve energy separation and images the full range of energies on a single plane. The magnetic circuit uses the fringing field of two axially located magnets to attain the large energy range. Six separate electron beams can be dispersed in the field, each entering the circuit from a different angle. This is a particular advantage when measuring plasma electron three-dimensional velocity distributions. The angular response of the instrument is particularly favorable and the stray magnetic field is sufficiently low to meet spacecraft requirements.

  18. The Dynamic Range of LZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jun; LZ Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The electronics of the LZ experiment, the 7-ton dark matter detector to be installed at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF), is designed to provide a 70% efficiency for events that produce three photoelectrons in the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). This corresponds approximately to the lowest energy threshold achievable in such a detector, and drives the noise specifications for the front end. The upper limit of the LZ dynamic range is defined by the electroluminescence (S2) signals. The low-energy channels of the LZ amplifiers provide the dynamic range required for the tritium and krypton calibrations. The high-energy channels provide the dynamic range required to measure the activated Xe lines. S2 signals induced by alpha particles from radon decay will saturate one or more channels of the top PMT array but techniques are being developed to recover the information lost due to saturation. This work was supported by the Department of Energy, Grant DE-SC0006605.

  19. RANGE INCREASER FOR PNEUMATIC GAUGES

    DOEpatents

    Fowler, A.H.; Seaborn, G.B. Jr.

    1960-09-27

    An improved pneumatic gage is offered in which the linear range has been increased without excessive air consumption. This has been accomplished by providing an expansible antechamber connected to the nozzle of the gage so that the position of the nozzle with respect to the workpiece is varied automatically by variation in pressure within the antechamber. This arrangement ensures that the nozzle-to-workpiece clearance is maintained within certain limits, thus obtaining a linear relation of air flow to nozzle-to-workpiece clearance over a wider range.

  20. Back Home on the Range.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breining, Greg

    1992-01-01

    Presents the history of the buffalo's demise and reemergence in the United States and Canada. Discusses the problems facing herds today caused by a small genetic pool, disease, range concerns, lack of predation, and culling. Points out the benefits of buffalo raising as compared to cattle raising, including the marketing advantages. (MCO)

  1. Anatomy of a Mountain Range.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chew, Berkeley

    1993-01-01

    Provides written tour of Colorado Rockies along San Juan Skyway in which the geological features and formation of the mountain range is explored. Discusses evidence of geologic forces and products such as plate tectonic movement and the Ancestral Rockies; subduction and the Laramide Orogeny; volcanism and calderas; erosion, faulting, land…

  2. Long range fast tool servo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorefield, G. M., II; Dow, Thomas A.; Falter, Karl J.; Ro, Paul I.

    1993-05-01

    The PEC's MAC 100 Fast Tool Servo (FTS) System has demonstrated the efficacy of fabricating off-axis parabolic segments on axis by utilizing a fast tool motion to machine non-rotationally symmetric surfaces. The key to this technique was a servo for the tool motion that had a high-bandwidth coupled with a small range of motion. The Keck telescope, with its thirty-six (36) 1-meter diameter segments, would have been an excellent application for this technology. Since this technology was not available at the time of construction, each mirror segment was fabricated to its desired shape by loading it to a specified deformed shape and polishing it to a spherical contour, then removing the bending loads to allow the segment to relax to the desired asymmetric shape. If the segments of this optic had been constructed on axis with an FTS, the fabrication of the most extreme segment would have required only about 200 micrometers of non-rotational symmetry. However, the demand for larger displacement actuators is being driven by new applications with nonrotationally symmetric components in the millimeter range. This report describes the search for a suitable actuator for a long range fast tool servo system that would allow the fabrication of non-rotationally symmetric optical surfaces with a 1 mm range of servo motion. To allow cost-effective machining of these surfaces, the actuator must also possess a 50 Hz bandwidth (minimum) and 25 nanometer resolution.

  3. About White Sands Missile Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Information on the White Sands Missile Range is given in viewgraph form. Navy programs, test sites, rocket programs, research rockets' booster capacity, current boost capabilities, ordnance and payload assembly areas, commercial space launch history and agreements, and lead times are among the topics covered.

  4. Wide Dynamic Range CCD Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younse, J. M.; Gove, R. J.; Penz, P. A.; Russell, D. E.

    1984-11-01

    A liquid crystal attenuator (LCA) operated as a variable neutral density filter has been attached to a charge-coupled device (CCD) imager to extend the dynamic range of a solid-state TV camera by an order of magnitude. Many applications are best served by a camera with a dynamic range of several thousand. For example, outside security systems must operate unattended with "dawn-to-dusk" lighting conditions. Although this can be achieved with available auto-iris lens assemblies, more elegant solutions which provide the small size, low power, high reliability advantages of solid state technology are now available. This paper will describe one such unique way of achieving these dynamic ranges using standard optics by making the CCD imager's glass cover a controllable neutral density filter. The liquid crystal attenuator's structure and theoretical properties for this application will be described along with measured transmittance. A small integrated TV camera which utilizes a "virtual-phase" CCD sensor coupled to a LCA will be described and test results for a number of the camera's optical and electrical parameters will be given. These include the following camera parameters: dynamic range, Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), spectral response, and uniformity. Also described will be circuitry which senses the ambient scene illuminance and automatically provides feedback signals to appropriately adjust the transmittance of the LCA. Finally, image photographs using this camera, under various scene illuminations, will be shown.

  5. Mobile Lunar Laser Ranging Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Intellect, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Harlan Smith, chairman of the University of Texas's Astronomy Department, discusses a mobile lunar laser ranging station which could help determine the exact rates of movement between continents and help geophysicists understand earthquakes. He also discusses its application for studying fundamental concepts of cosmology and physics. (Editor/RK)

  6. Contrails reduce daily temperature range.

    PubMed

    Travis, David J; Carleton, Andrew M; Lauritsen, Ryan G

    2002-08-01

    The potential of condensation trails (contrails) from jet aircraft to affect regional-scale surface temperatures has been debated for years, but was difficult to verify until an opportunity arose as a result of the three-day grounding of all commercial aircraft in the United States in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001. Here we show that there was an anomalous increase in the average diurnal temperature range (that is, the difference between the daytime maximum and night-time minimum temperatures) for the period 11-14 September 2001. Because persisting contrails can reduce the transfer of both incoming solar and outgoing infrared radiation and so reduce the daily temperature range, we attribute at least a portion of this anomaly to the absence of contrails over this period. PMID:12167846

  7. Ultrasonic ranging for the oculometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guy, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    Ultrasonic tracking techniques are investigated for an oculometer. Two methods are reported in detail. The first is based on measurements of time from the start of a transmit burst to a received echo. Knowing the sound velocity, distance can be calculated. In the second method, a continuous signal is transmitted. Target movement causes phase shifting of the echo. By accumulating these phase shifts, tracking from a set point can be achieved. Both systems have problems with contoured targets, but work well on flat plates and the back of a human head. Also briefly reported is an evaluation of an ultrasonic ranging system. Interface circuits make this system compatible with the echo time design. While the system is consistently accurate, it has a beam too narrow for oculometer use. Finally, comments are provided on a tracking system using the Doppler frequency shift to give range data.

  8. Short-range communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Howard, David E. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A short-range communication system includes an antenna, a transmitter, and a receiver. The antenna is an electrical conductor formed as a planar coil with rings thereof being uniformly spaced. The transmitter is spaced apart from the plane of the coil by a gap. An amplitude-modulated and asynchronous signal indicative of a data stream of known peak amplitude is transmitted into the gap. The receiver detects the coil's resonance and decodes same to recover the data stream.

  9. Propagator for finite range potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Cacciari, Ilaria; Moretti, Paolo

    2006-12-15

    The Schroedinger equation in integral form is applied to the one-dimensional scattering problem in the case of a general finite range, nonsingular potential. A simple expression for the Laplace transform of the transmission propagator is obtained in terms of the associated Fredholm determinant, by means of matrix methods; the particular form of the kernel and the peculiar aspects of the transmission problem play an important role. The application to an array of delta potentials is shown.

  10. Range Expansion of Heterogeneous Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiter, Matthias; Rulands, Steffen; Frey, Erwin

    2014-04-01

    Risk spreading in bacterial populations is generally regarded as a strategy to maximize survival. Here, we study its role during range expansion of a genetically diverse population where growth and motility are two alternative traits. We find that during the initial expansion phase fast-growing cells do have a selective advantage. By contrast, asymptotically, generalists balancing motility and reproduction are evolutionarily most successful. These findings are rationalized by a set of coupled Fisher equations complemented by stochastic simulations.

  11. Range determination for scannerless imaging

    DOEpatents

    Muguira, Maritza Rosa; Sackos, John Theodore; Bradley, Bart Davis; Nellums, Robert

    2000-01-01

    A new method of operating a scannerless range imaging system (e.g., a scannerless laser radar) has been developed. This method is designed to compensate for nonlinear effects which appear in many real-world components. The system operates by determining the phase shift of the laser modulation, which is a physical quantity related physically to the path length between the laser source and the detector, for each pixel of an image.

  12. Range gated strip proximity sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-12-03

    A range gated strip proximity sensor uses one set of sensor electronics and a distributed antenna or strip which extends along the perimeter to be sensed. A micro-power RF transmitter is coupled to the first end of the strip and transmits a sequence of RF pulses on the strip to produce a sensor field along the strip. A receiver is coupled to the second end of the strip, and generates a field reference signal in response to the sequence of pulse on the line combined with received electromagnetic energy from reflections in the field. The sensor signals comprise pulses of radio frequency signals having a duration of less than 10 nanoseconds, and a pulse repetition rate on the order of 1 to 10 MegaHertz or less. The duration of the radio frequency pulses is adjusted to control the range of the sensor. An RF detector feeds a filter capacitor in response to received pulses on the strip line to produce a field reference signal representing the average amplitude of the received pulses. When a received pulse is mixed with a received echo, the mixing causes a fluctuation in the amplitude of the field reference signal, providing a range-limited Doppler type signature of a field disturbance. 6 figs.

  13. Range gated strip proximity sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    A range gated strip proximity sensor uses one set of sensor electronics and a distributed antenna or strip which extends along the perimeter to be sensed. A micro-power RF transmitter is coupled to the first end of the strip and transmits a sequence of RF pulses on the strip to produce a sensor field along the strip. A receiver is coupled to the second end of the strip, and generates a field reference signal in response to the sequence of pulse on the line combined with received electromagnetic energy from reflections in the field. The sensor signals comprise pulses of radio frequency signals having a duration of less than 10 nanoseconds, and a pulse repetition rate on the order of 1 to 10 MegaHertz or less. The duration of the radio frequency pulses is adjusted to control the range of the sensor. An RF detector feeds a filter capacitor in response to received pulses on the strip line to produce a field reference signal representing the average amplitude of the received pulses. When a received pulse is mixed with a received echo, the mixing causes a fluctuation in the amplitude of the field reference signal, providing a range-limited Doppler type signature of a field disturbance.

  14. Medium Range Forecasts Representation (and Long Range Forecasts?)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincendon, J.-C.

    2009-09-01

    The progress of the numerical forecasts urges us to interest us in more and more distant ranges. We thus supply more and more forecasts with term of some days. Nevertheless, precautions of use are necessary to give the most reliable and the most relevant possible information. Available in a TV bulletin or on quite other support (Internet, mobile phone), the interpretation and the representation of a medium range forecast (5 - 15 days) must be different from those of a short range forecast. Indeed, the "foresee-ability” of a meteorological phenomenon decreases gradually in the course of the ranges, it decreases all the more quickly that the phenomenon is of small scale. So, at the end of some days, the probability character of a forecast becomes very widely dominating. That is why in Meteo-France the forecasts of D+4 to D+7 are accompanied with a confidence index since around ten years. It is a figure between 1 and 5: the more we approach 5, the more the confidence in the supplied forecast is good. In the practice, an indication is supplied for period D+4 / D+5, the other one for period D+6 / D+7, every day being able to benefit from a different forecast, that is be represented in a independent way. We thus supply a global tendency over 24 hours with less and less precise symbols as the range goes away. Concrete examples will be presented. From now on two years, we also publish forecasts to D+8 / J+9, accompanied with a sign of confidence (" good reliability " or " to confirm "). These two days are grouped together on a single map because for us, the described tendency to this term is relevant on a duration about 48 hours with a spatial scale slightly superior to the synoptic scale. So, we avoid producing more than two zones of types of weather over France and we content with giving an evolution for the temperatures (still, in increase or in decline). Newspapers began to publish this information, it should soon be the case of televisions. It is particularly

  15. Wide-range CCD spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolova, Elena A.; Reyes Cortes, Santiago D.

    1996-08-01

    The utilization of wide range spectrometers is a very important feature for the design of optical diagnostics. This paper describes an innovative approach, based on charged coupled device, which allows to analyze different spectral intervals with the same diffraction grating. The spectral interval is varied by changing the position of the entrance slit when the grating is stationary. The optical system can also include a spherical mirror. In this case the geometric position of the mirror is calculated aiming at compensating the first order astigmatism and the meridional coma of the grating. This device is planned to be used in Thomson scattering diagnostic of the TOKAMAK of Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (ISTTOK).

  16. Short Range Correlations in Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    L. B. Weinstein

    2006-11-01

    Short range correlations (SRC) are an extremely important part of nuclear structure. They are responsible for the high momentum part of the nuclear wavefunction. Instantaneous densities can significantly exceed the average neutron star density. Recent (e,e[prime]) measurements at Jefferson Lab have shown that SRC are universal in nuclei from deuterium to gold, that the probability of two-nucleon SRC is 5-25%, and that the probability of three-nucleon SRC is less than 1%. Recent (e,e[prime]pn) measurements have measured the SRC probabilities as a function of proton momentum and have measured the joint NN momentum distributions.

  17. Extended-range tiltable micromirror

    DOEpatents

    Allen, James J.; Wiens, Gloria J.; Bronson, Jessica R.

    2009-05-05

    A tiltable micromirror device is disclosed in which a micromirror is suspended by a progressive linkage with an electrostatic actuator (e.g. a vertical comb actuator or a capacitive plate electrostatic actuator) being located beneath the micromirror. The progressive linkage includes a pair of torsion springs which are connected together to operate similar to a four-bar linkage with spring joints. The progressive linkage provides a non-linear spring constant which can allow the micromirror to be tilted at any angle within its range substantially free from any electrostatic instability or hysteretic behavior.

  18. BENTON RANGE ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, Edwin H.; Rains, Richard L.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey, two parts of the Benton Range Roadless Area, California are considered to have mineral-resource potential. The central and southern part of the roadless area, near several nonoperating mines, has a probable potential for tungsten and gold-silver mineralization in tactite zones. The central part of the area has a substantiated resource potential for gold and silver in quartz veins. Detailed mapping and geochemical sampling for tungsten, gold, and silver in the central and southern part of the roadless area might indicate targets for shallow drilling exploration.

  19. Long-range atmospheric predictability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichler, Thomas Josef

    This study investigated the prospects and limits of global atmospheric predictability on the long range (beyond 2 weeks). Forecasting the atmosphere at this range is very challenging since elements of both weather and climate prediction enter the problem. The basic questions were: (1) how large is long-range predictability with perfect model and data; (2) how sensitive is such predictability to uncertainties in model and data; (3) which atmospheric processes are related to this predictability? These questions were answered through numerical experiments with an atmospheric general circulation model which is forced with different combinations of initial and boundary conditions. In particular, four tasks were accomplished: First, temporal variations of predictability and its relationship to initial and boundary conditions were examined. On average, initial conditions dominated predictability for the first 4 weeks, improved predictability for 6 weeks, and influenced predictability for 8 weeks. These time scales varied with season, region, and strength of the external forcing. Second, the global 3-dimensional structure of predictability was examined. Boundary forcing dominated over the tropics, and over the two main teleconnection regions in the North and South Pacific. Initial conditions influenced predictability almost everywhere, in particular when the external forcing was weak. This was mostly related to atmospheric persistence, which in turn was linked to low-frequency variability of major atmospheric modes. Third, predictability in the tropics was investigated for monthly means. Boundary forcing is generally dominating for this time scale, and its quality is crucial. The atmospheric response was strongly asymmetric to SST forcing, which suggests that tropical convection has a positive self-amplifying feedback. Initial conditions were also important, in particular over the Eastern Hemisphere. This was related to strong persistence of the divergent circulation and

  20. Long-range electron transfer

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Harry B.; Winkler, Jay R.

    2005-01-01

    Recent investigations have shed much light on the nuclear and electronic factors that control the rates of long-range electron tunneling through molecules in aqueous and organic glasses as well as through bonds in donor–bridge–acceptor complexes. Couplings through covalent and hydrogen bonds are much stronger than those across van der Waals gaps, and these differences in coupling between bonded and nonbonded atoms account for the dependence of tunneling rates on the structure of the media between redox sites in Ru-modified proteins and protein–protein complexes. PMID:15738403

  1. Live Fire Range Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1993-08-01

    The Central Training Academy (CTA) is a DOE Headquarters Organization located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, with the mission to effectively and efficiently educate and train personnel involved in the protection of vital national security interests of DOE. The CTA Live Fire Range (LFR), where most of the firearms and tactical training occurs, is a complex separate from the main campus. The purpose of the proposed action is to expand the LFR to allow more options of implementing required training. The Department of Energy has prepared this Environmental Assessment (EA) for the proposed construction and operation of an expanded Live Fire Range Facility at the Central Training Academy in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  2. The Ames Vertical Gun Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karcz, J. S.; Bowling, D.; Cornelison, C.; Parrish, A.; Perez, A.; Raiche, G.; Wiens, J.-P.

    2016-01-01

    The Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR) is a national facility for conducting laboratory- scale investigations of high-speed impact processes. It provides a set of light-gas, powder, and compressed gas guns capable of accelerating projectiles to speeds up to 7 km s(exp -1). The AVGR has a unique capability to vary the angle between the projectile-launch and gravity vectors between 0 and 90 deg. The target resides in a large chamber (diameter approximately 2.5 m) that can be held at vacuum or filled with an experiment-specific atmosphere. The chamber provides a number of viewing ports and feed-throughs for data, power, and fluids. Impacts are observed via high-speed digital cameras along with investigation-specific instrumentation, such as spectrometers. Use of the range is available via grant proposals through any Planetary Science Research Program element of the NASA Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES) calls. Exploratory experiments (one to two days) are additionally possible in order to develop a new proposal.

  3. Range-Measuring Video Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T.; Briscoe, Jeri M.; Corder, Eric L.; Broderick, David

    2006-01-01

    Optoelectronic sensors of a proposed type would perform the functions of both electronic cameras and triangulation- type laser range finders. That is to say, these sensors would both (1) generate ordinary video or snapshot digital images and (2) measure the distances to selected spots in the images. These sensors would be well suited to use on robots that are required to measure distances to targets in their work spaces. In addition, these sensors could be used for all the purposes for which electronic cameras have been used heretofore. The simplest sensor of this type, illustrated schematically in the upper part of the figure, would include a laser, an electronic camera (either video or snapshot), a frame-grabber/image-capturing circuit, an image-data-storage memory circuit, and an image-data processor. There would be no moving parts. The laser would be positioned at a lateral distance d to one side of the camera and would be aimed parallel to the optical axis of the camera. When the range of a target in the field of view of the camera was required, the laser would be turned on and an image of the target would be stored and preprocessed to locate the angle (a) between the optical axis and the line of sight to the centroid of the laser spot.

  4. Range Imaging without Moving Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, J. Bryan; Scott, V. Stanley, III; Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis

    2008-01-01

    Range-imaging instruments of a type now under development are intended to generate the equivalent of three-dimensional images from measurements of the round-trip times of flight of laser pulses along known directions. These instruments could also provide information on characteristics of targets, including roughnesses and reflectivities of surfaces and optical densities of such semi-solid objects as trees and clouds. Unlike in prior range-imaging instruments based on times of flight along known directions, there would be no moving parts; aiming of the laser beams along the known directions would not be accomplished by mechanical scanning of mirrors, prisms, or other optical components. Instead, aiming would be accomplished by using solid-state devices to switch input and output beams along different fiber-optic paths. Because of the lack of moving parts, these instruments could be extraordinarily reliable, rugged, and long-lasting. An instrument of this type would include an optical transmitter that would send out a laser pulse along a chosen direction to a target. An optical receiver coaligned with the transmitter would measure the temporally varying intensity of laser light reflected from the target to determine the distance and surface characteristics of the target. The transmitter would be a combination of devices for generating precise directional laser illumination. It would include a pulsed laser, the output of which would be coupled into a fiber-optic cable with a fan-out and solid-state optical switches that would enable switching of the laser beam onto one or more optical fibers terminated at known locations in an array on a face at the focal plane of a telescope. The array would be imaged by the telescope onto the target space. The receiver optical system could share the aforementioned telescope with the transmitter or could include a separate telescope aimed in the same direction as that of the transmitting telescope. In either case, light reflected

  5. Wind dynamic range video camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, G. D. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A television camera apparatus is disclosed in which bright objects are attenuated to fit within the dynamic range of the system, while dim objects are not. The apparatus receives linearly polarized light from an object scene, the light being passed by a beam splitter and focused on the output plane of a liquid crystal light valve. The light valve is oriented such that, with no excitation from the cathode ray tube, all light is rotated 90 deg and focused on the input plane of the video sensor. The light is then converted to an electrical signal, which is amplified and used to excite the CRT. The resulting image is collected and focused by a lens onto the light valve which rotates the polarization vector of the light to an extent proportional to the light intensity from the CRT. The overall effect is to selectively attenuate the image pattern focused on the sensor.

  6. Wide Range SET Pulse Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuler, Robert L.; Chen, Li

    2012-01-01

    A method for measuring a wide range of SET pulses is demonstrated. Use of dynamic logic, faster than ordinary CMOS, allows capture of short pulses. A weighted binning of SET lengths allows measurement of a wide range of pulse lengths with compact circuitry. A pulse-length-conservative pulse combiner tree routes SETs from combinational logic to the measurement circuit, allowing SET measurements in circuits that cannot easily be arranged in long chains. The method is applied to add-multiplex combinational logic, and to an array of NFET routing switches, at .35 micron. Pulses are captured in a chain of Domino Logic AND gates. Propagation through the chain is frozen on the trailing edge by dropping low the second "enable" input to the AND gates. Capacitive loading is increased in the latter stages to create an approximately logarithmic weighted binning, so that a broad range of pulse lengths can be captured with a 10 stage capture chain. Simulations show pulses can be captured which are 1/5th the length of those typically captured with leading edge triggered latch methods, and less than the length of those captured with a trailing edge latch method. After capture, the pulse pattern is transferred to an SEU protected shift register for readout. 64 instances of each of two types of logic are used as targets. One is a full adder with a 4 to 1 mux on its inputs. The other is a 4 x 4 NFET routing matrix. The outputs are passed through buffered XNOR comparators to identify pulses, which are merged in a buffered not-nand (OR) tree designed to avoid pulse absorption as much as possible. The output from each of the two test circuits are input into separate pulse measurement circuits. Test inputs were provided so that the circuit could be bench tested and calibrated. A third SET measurement circuit with no inputs was used to judge the contribution from direct hits on the measurement circuit. Heavy ions were used with an LET range from 12 to 176. At LET of 21 and below, the very

  7. Space - The long range future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Puttkamer, J.

    1985-01-01

    Space exploration goals for NASA in the year 2000 time frame are examined. A lunar base would offer the opportunity for continuous earth viewing, further cosmogeochemical exploration and rudimentary steps at self-sufficiency in space. The latter two factors are also compelling reasons to plan a manned Mars base. Furthermore, competition and cooperation in a Mars mission and further interplanetary exploration is an attractive substitute for war. The hardware requirements for various configurations of Mars missions are briefly addressed, along with other, unmanned missions to the asteroid belt, Mercury, Venus, Jupiter and the moons of Jupiter and Saturn. Finally, long-range technological requirements for providing adequate living/working facilities for larger human populations in Space Station environments are summarized.

  8. Extended range tankless water heater

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.A.

    1993-04-18

    In this research program, a laboratory test facility was built for the purpose of testing a gas-fired water heating appliance. This test facility can be used to examine the important performance characteristics of efficiency, dynamic response, and quality of combustion. An innovative design for a tankless water heater was built and then tested to determine its performance characteristics. This unit was tested over a 5:1 range in input (20,000 to 100,000 btuh heat input). The unit was then configured as a circulating hot water boiler, and a specially designed heat exchanger was used with it to generate domestic hot water. This unit was also tested, and was found to offer performance advantages with regard to low flow and temperature stability.

  9. Understanding synthesis imaging dynamic range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, R.

    2013-03-01

    We develop a general framework for quantifying the many different contributions to the noise budget of an image made with an array of dishes or aperture array stations. Each noise contribution to the visibility data is associated with a relevant correlation timescale and frequency bandwidth so that the net impact on a complete observation can be assessed when a particular effect is not captured in the instrumental calibration. All quantities are parameterised as function of observing frequency and the visibility baseline length. We apply the resulting noise budget analysis to a wide range of existing and planned telescope systems that will operate between about 100 MHz and 5 GHz to ascertain the magnitude of the calibration challenges that they must overcome to achieve thermal noise limited performance. We conclude that calibration challenges are increased in several respects by small dimensions of the dishes or aperture array stations. It will be more challenging to achieve thermal noise limited performance using 15 m class dishes rather than the 25 m dishes of current arrays. Some of the performance risks are mitigated by the deployment of phased array feeds and more with the choice of an (alt,az,pol) mount, although a larger dish diameter offers the best prospects for risk mitigation. Many improvements to imaging performance can be anticipated at the expense of greater complexity in calibration algorithms. However, a fundamental limitation is ultimately imposed by an insufficient number of data constraints relative to calibration variables. The upcoming aperture array systems will be operating in a regime that has never previously been addressed, where a wide range of effects are expected to exceed the thermal noise by two to three orders of magnitude. Achieving routine thermal noise limited imaging performance with these systems presents an extreme challenge. The magnitude of that challenge is inversely related to the aperture array station diameter.

  10. Expansion-based passive ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barniv, Yair

    1993-01-01

    A new technique of passive ranging which is based on utilizing the image-plane expansion experienced by every object as its distance from the sensor decreases is described. This technique belongs in the feature/object-based family. The motion and shape of a small window, assumed to be fully contained inside the boundaries of some object, is approximated by an affine transformation. The parameters of the transformation matrix are derived by initially comparing successive images, and progressively increasing the image time separation so as to achieve much larger triangulation baseline than currently possible. Depth is directly derived from the expansion part of the transformation. To a first approximation, image-plane expansion is independent of image-plane location with respect to the focus of expansion (FOE) and of platform maneuvers. Thus, an expansion-based method has the potential of providing a reliable range in the difficult image area around the FOE. In areas far from the FOE the shift parameters of the affine transformation can provide more accurate depth information than the expansion alone, and can thus be used similarly to the way they were used in conjunction with the Inertial Navigation Unit (INU) and Kalman filtering. However, the performance of a shift-based algorithm, when the shifts are derived from the affine transformation, would be much improved compared to current algorithms because the shifts - as well as the other parameters - can be obtained between widely separated images. Thus, the main advantage of this new approach is that, allowing the tracked window to expand and rotate, in addition to moving laterally, enables one to correlate images over a very long time span which, in turn, translates into a large spatial baseline - resulting in a proportionately higher depth accuracy.

  11. Expansion-based passive ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barniv, Yair

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a new technique of passive ranging which is based on utilizing the image-plane expansion experienced by every object as its distance from the sensor decreases. This technique belongs in the feature/object-based family. The motion and shape of a small window, assumed to be fully contained inside the boundaries of some object, is approximated by an affine transformation. The parameters of the transformation matrix are derived by initially comparing successive images, and progressively increasing the image time separation so as to achieve much larger triangulation baseline than currently possible. Depth is directly derived from the expansion part of the transformation. To a first approximation, image-plane expansion is independent of image-plane location with respect to the focus of expansion (FOE) and of platform maneuvers. Thus, an expansion-based method has the potential of providing a reliable range in the difficult image area around the FOE. In areas far from the FOE the shift parameters of the affine transformation can provide more accurate depth information than the expansion alone, and can thus be used similarly to the way they have been used in conjunction with the Inertial Navigation Unit (INU) and Kalman filtering. However, the performance of a shift-based algorithm, when the shifts are derived from the affine transformation, would be much improved compared to current algorithms because the shifts--as well as the other parameters--can be obtained between widely separated images. Thus, the main advantage of this new approach is that, allowing the tracked window to expand and rotate, in addition to moving laterally, enables one to correlate images over a very long time span which, in turn, translates into a large spatial baseline resulting in a proportionately higher depth accuracy.

  12. Wide-range voltage modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Rust, K.R.; Wilson, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider`s Medium Energy Booster Abort (MEBA) kicker modulator will supply a current pulse to the abort magnets which deflect the proton beam from the MEB ring into a designated beam stop. The abort kicker will be used extensively during testing of the Low Energy Booster (LEB) and the MEB rings. When the Collider is in full operation, the MEBA kicker modulator will abort the MEB beam in the event of a malfunction during the filling process. The modulator must generate a 14-{mu}s wide pulse with a rise time of less than 1 {mu}s, including the delay and jitter times. It must also be able to deliver a current pulse to the magnet proportional to the beam energy at any time during ramp-up of the accelerator. Tracking the beam energy, which increases from 12 GeV at injection to 200 GeV at extraction, requires the modulator to operate over a wide range of voltages (4 kV to 80 kV). A vacuum spark gap and a thyratron have been chosen for test and evaluation as candidate switches for the abort modulator. Modulator design, switching time delay, jitter and pre-fire data are presented.

  13. Front Range of the Rockies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    These MISR images from May 12, 2001 (Terra orbit 7447) include portions of southern Wyoming, central Colorado, and western Nebraska. The top view is from the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. The bottom image is a stereo 'anaglyph' generated using data from the nadir and 46-degree-forward cameras. Viewing the anaglyph with red/blue glasses (red filter over your left eye) gives a 3-D effect. To facilitate stereo viewing, the images have been oriented with north at the left. Each image measures 422 kilometers x 213 kilometers.

    The South Platte River enters just to the right of center at the top of the images. It wends its way westward (down), then turns southward (right) where it flows through the city of Denver. Located at the western edge of the Great Plains, Denver is nicknamed the 'Mile High City', a consequence of its 1609-meter (5280-foot) elevation above sea level. It shows up in the imagery as a grayish patch surrounded by numerous agricultural fields to the north and east. Denver is situated just east of the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains, located in the lower right of the images. The Rockies owe their present forms to tectonic uplift and sculpting by millions of years of erosion. Scattered cumulus clouds floating above the mountain peaks are visible in these images, and stand out most dramatically in the 3-D stereo view.

    To the north of Denver, other urban areas included within these images are Boulder, Greeley, Longmont, and Fort Collins, Colorado; Cheyenne and Laramie, Wyoming; and Scottsbluff, Nebraska.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  14. Space Based Range Demonstration and Certification (SBRDC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakahara, Robert

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the development, utilization and testing of technologies for range safety and range user systems. The contents include: 1) Space Based Range (SBR) Goals and Objectives; 2) Today s United States Range; 3) Future Range; 4) Another Vision for the Future Range; 5) STARS Project Goals; 6) STARS Content; 7) STARS Configuration Flight Demonstrations 1 & 2; 8) Spaceport And Range Technologies STARS Objectives and Results; 9) Spaceport And Range Technologies STARS FD2 Objectives; 10) Range Safety Hardware; 11) Range User Hardware; and 12) Past/Future Flight Demo Plans

  15. Radar range measurements in the atmosphere.

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2013-02-01

    The earth's atmosphere affects the velocity of propagation of microwave signals. This imparts a range error to radar range measurements that assume the typical simplistic model for propagation velocity. This range error is a function of atmospheric constituents, such as water vapor, as well as the geometry of the radar data collection, notably altitude and range. Models are presented for calculating atmospheric effects on radar range measurements, and compared against more elaborate atmospheric models.

  16. Lead exposure at uncovered outdoor firing ranges

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, R.L.; Hicks, A.M.; O'Leary, L.M.; London, S. )

    1991-06-01

    Excessive lead exposure in shooting instructors at indoor firing ranges and covered outdoor firing ranges has been documented. The City of Los Angeles assessed exposure of its full-time shooting instructors at uncovered outdoor ranges via air monitoring and blood lead-level measurements. Results of these tests revealed that significant lead exposure and absorption can occur at outdoor firing ranges. The use of copper-jacketed ammunition may decrease air lead levels and decrease lead absorption by range instructors.

  17. NASA Range Safety Annual Report 2007

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumont, Alan G.

    2007-01-01

    As always, Range Safety has been involved in a number of exciting and challenging activities and events. Throughout the year, we have strived to meet our goal of protecting the public, the workforce, and property during range operations. During the past year, Range Safety was involved in the development, implementation, and support of range safety policy. Range Safety training curriculum development was completed this year and several courses were presented. Tailoring exercises concerning the Constellation Program were undertaken with representatives from the Constellation Program, the 45th Space Wing, and the Launch Constellation Range Safety Panel. Range Safety actively supported the Range Commanders Council and it subgroups and remained involved in updating policy related to flight safety systems and flight safety analysis. In addition, Range Safety supported the Space Shuttle Range Safety Panel and addressed policy concerning unmanned aircraft systems. Launch operations at Kennedy Space Center, the Eastern and Western ranges, Dryden Flight Research Center, and Wallops Flight Facility were addressed. Range Safety was also involved in the evaluation of a number of research and development efforts, including the space-based range (formerly STARS), the autonomous flight safety system, the enhanced flight termination system, and the joint advanced range safety system. Flight safety system challenges were evaluated. Range Safety's role in the Space Florida Customer Assistance Service Program for the Eastern Range was covered along with our support for the Space Florida Educational Balloon Release Program. We hope you have found the web-based format both accessible and easy to use. Anyone having questions or wishing to have an article included in the 2008 Range Safety Annual Report should contact Alan Dumont, the NASA Range Safety Program Manager located at the Kennedy Space Center, or Michael Dook at NASA Headquarters.

  18. Microprocessor realizations of range rate filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The performance of five digital range rate filters is evaluated. A range rate filter receives an input of range data from a radar unit and produces an output of smoothed range data and its estimated derivative range rate. The filters are compared through simulation on an IBM 370. Two of the filter designs are implemented on a 6800 microprocessor-based system. Comparisons are made on the bases of noise variance reduction ratios and convergence times of the filters in response to simulated range signals.

  19. CO2 laser ranging systems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filippi, C. A.

    1975-01-01

    The conceptual design and error performance of a CO2 laser ranging system are analyzed. Ranging signal and subsystem processing alternatives are identified, and their comprehensive evaluation yields preferred candidate solutions which are analyzed to derive range and range rate error contributions. The performance results are presented in the form of extensive tables and figures which identify the ranging accuracy compromises as a function of the key system design parameters and subsystem performance indexes. The ranging errors obtained are noted to be within the high accuracy requirements of existing NASA/GSFC missions with a proper system design.

  20. 2006 NASA Range Safety Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    TenHaken, Ron; Daniels, B.; Becker, M.; Barnes, Zack; Donovan, Shawn; Manley, Brenda

    2007-01-01

    Throughout 2006, Range Safety was involved in a number of exciting and challenging activities and events, from developing, implementing, and supporting Range Safety policies and procedures-such as the Space Shuttle Launch and Landing Plans, the Range Safety Variance Process, and the Expendable Launch Vehicle Safety Program procedures-to evaluating new technologies. Range Safety training development is almost complete with the last course scheduled to go on line in mid-2007. Range Safety representatives took part in a number of panels and councils, including the newly formed Launch Constellation Range Safety Panel, the Range Commanders Council and its subgroups, the Space Shuttle Range Safety Panel, and the unmanned aircraft systems working group. Space based range safety demonstration and certification (formerly STARS) and the autonomous flight safety system were successfully tested. The enhanced flight termination system will be tested in early 2007 and the joint advanced range safety system mission analysis software tool is nearing operational status. New technologies being evaluated included a processor for real-time compensation in long range imaging, automated range surveillance using radio interferometry, and a space based range command and telemetry processor. Next year holds great promise as we continue ensuring safety while pursuing our quest beyond the Moon to Mars.

  1. 2012 NASA Range Safety Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumont, Alan G.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a NASA Range Safety (NRS) overview for current and potential range users. This report contains articles which cover a variety of subject areas, summaries of various NASA Range Safety Program (RSP) activities performed during the past year, links to past reports, and information on several projects that may have a profound impact on the way business will be conducted in the future. Specific topics discussed in the 2012 NASA Range Safety Annual Report include a program overview and 2012 highlights; Range Safety Training; Independent Assessments; Support to Program Operations at all ranges conducting NASA launch/flight operations; a continuing overview of emerging range safety-related technologies; and status reports from all of the NASA Centers that have Range Safety responsibilities.

  2. 2009 NASA Range Safety Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    This year, NASA Range Safety transitioned to a condensed annual report to allow for Secretariat support to the Range Safety Group, Risk Committee. Although much shorter than in previous years, this report contains full-length articles concerning various subject areas, as well as links to past reports. Additionally, summaries from various NASA Range Safety Program activities that took place throughout the year are presented, as well as information on several projects that may have a profound impact on the way business will be done in the future. The sections include a program overview and 2009 highlights; Range Safety Training; Range Safety Policy; Independent Assessments Support to Program Operations at all ranges conducting NASA launch operations; a continuing overview of emerging range safety-related technologies; and status reports from all of the NASA Centers that have Range Safety responsibilities.

  3. 33 CFR 62.41 - Ranges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ranges. 62.41 Section 62.41 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.41 Ranges. Ranges are aids...

  4. 33 CFR 62.41 - Ranges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ranges. 62.41 Section 62.41 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.41 Ranges. Ranges are aids...

  5. 33 CFR 62.41 - Ranges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ranges. 62.41 Section 62.41 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.41 Ranges. Ranges are aids...

  6. 33 CFR 62.41 - Ranges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ranges. 62.41 Section 62.41 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.41 Ranges. Ranges are aids...

  7. 33 CFR 62.41 - Ranges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ranges. 62.41 Section 62.41 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.41 Ranges. Ranges are aids...

  8. 36 CFR 222.9 - Range improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Range improvements. 222.9 Section 222.9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.9 Range improvements. (a) The Chief, Forest Service, is authorized to install...

  9. The X-33 Extended Flight Test Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackall, Dale A.; Sakahara, Robert; Kremer, Steven E.

    1998-01-01

    Development of an extended test range, with range instrumentation providing continuous vehicle communications, is required to flight-test the X-33, a scaled version of a reusable launch vehicle. The extended test range provides vehicle communications coverage from California to landing at Montana or Utah. This paper provides an overview of the approaches used to meet X-33 program requirements, including using multiple ground stations, and methods to reduce problems caused by reentry plasma radio frequency blackout. The advances used to develop the extended test range show other hypersonic and access-to-space programs can benefit from the development of the extended test range.

  10. Accuracy analysis of optical ranging in atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Hong-wu; Huang, Yin-bo; Mei, Hai-ping; Rao, Rui-zhong

    2009-07-01

    Optical ranging is one of the most precise techniques for distance measurement. The effects of the density variation of atmosphere, aerosols and clouds on optical ranging precision are generally considered, a new method is proposed for calculating the ranging precision in the presence of aerosol particles and clouds. The size distribution spectrum models for aerosols and clouds in the Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds Package (OPAC) are adopted. Results show that aerosols and clouds could introduce errors of several centimeters to several ten meters to the ranging. The relationship between the ranging precision and the relative humidity, the zenith angle of ranging direction and the optical wavelength is also analyzed. The ranging error doesn't have an obvious relationship with the wavelength, but depends on the zenith angle, especially for the angle larger than 70 degree. The ranging error depends on the relative humidity as well. The ranging error induced by aerosols increases gradually with the increase of the relative humidity when the relative humidity is less than 80%, but it increases rapidly when the relative humidity is larger than 80%. Our results could provide a theoretical basis and reference for the application of optical ranging.

  11. Tonopah Test Range capabilities: technical manual

    SciTech Connect

    Manhart, R.L.

    1982-11-01

    This manual describes Tonopah Test Range (TTR), defines its testing capabilities, and outlines the steps necessary to schedule tests on the Range. Operated by Sandia National Laboratories, TTR is a major test facility for DOE-funded weapon programs. The Range presents an integrated system for ballistic test vehicle tracking and data acquisition. Multiple radars, optical trackers, telemetry stations, a central computer complex, and combined landline/RF communications systems assure full Range coverage for any type of test. Range operations are conducted by a department within Sandia's Field Engineering Directorate. While the overall Range functions as a complete system, it is operationally divided into the Test Measurements, Instrumentation Development, and Range Operations divisions. The primary function of TTR is to support DOE weapons test activities. Management, however, encourages other Government agencies and their contractors to schedule tests on the Range which can make effective use of its capabilities. Information concerning Range use by organizations outside of DOE is presented. Range instrumentation and support facilities are described in detail. This equipment represents the current state-of-the-art and reflects a continuing commitment by TTR management to field the most effective tracking and data acquisition system available.

  12. Range filtering for sequential GPS receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paielli, Russell

    1987-01-01

    The filtering of the satellite range and range-rate measurements from single channel sequential Global Positioning System receivers is usually done with an extended Kalman filter which has state variables defined in terms of an orthogonal navigation reference frame. An attractive suboptimal alternative is range-domain filtering, in which the individual satellite measurements are filtered separately before they are combined for the navigation solution. The main advantages of range-domain filtering are decreased processing and storage requirements and simplified tuning. Several range filter mechanization alternatives are presented, along with an innovative approach for combining the filtered range-domain quantities to determine the navigation state estimate. In addition, a method is outlined for incorporating measurements from auxiliary sensors such as altimeters into the navigation state estimation scheme similarly to the satellite measurements. A method is also described for incorporating inertial measurements into the navigation state estimator as a process driver.

  13. Reindeer ranges inventory in western Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, T. H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of LANDSAT data as a tool for reindeer range inventory on the tundra of northwestern Alaska is addressed. The specific goal is to map the range resource and estimate plant productivity of the Seward Peninsula. Information derived from these surveys is needed to develop range management plans for reindeer herding and to evaluate potential conflicting use between reindeer and caribou. The development of computer image classification techniques is discussed.

  14. An algorithm for segmenting range imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R.S.

    1997-03-01

    This report describes the technical accomplishments of the FY96 Cross Cutting and Advanced Technology (CC&AT) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The project focused on developing algorithms for segmenting range images. The image segmentation algorithm developed during the project is described here. In addition to segmenting range images, the algorithm can fuse multiple range images thereby providing true 3D scene models. The algorithm has been incorporated into the Rapid World Modelling System at Sandia National Laboratory.

  15. Long-range neural synchrony in behavior.

    PubMed

    Harris, Alexander Z; Gordon, Joshua A

    2015-07-01

    Long-range synchrony between distant brain regions accompanies multiple forms of behavior. This review compares and contrasts the methods by which long-range synchrony is evaluated in both humans and model animals. Three examples of behaviorally relevant long-range synchrony are discussed in detail: gamma-frequency synchrony during visual perception, hippocampal-prefrontal synchrony during working memory, and prefrontal-amygdala synchrony during anxiety. Implications for circuit mechanism, translation, and clinical relevance are discussed. PMID:25897876

  16. Clutter rejection limitations from ambiguous range clutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, J. Patrick

    Limitations on achievable clutter rejection due to ambiguous range clutter are described. The profile of clutter power versus range is shown to limit achievable clutter rejection. Ambiguous range effects are discussed in the context of sea clutter, using a model that includes propagation conditions, and rain clutter. Limitations in moving target indication systems are illustrated for sea clutter, where propagation is subject to evaporation ducts. Benefits of fill pulses are illustrated for rain and sea clutter.

  17. Long-range neural synchrony in behavior

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Alexander Z.; Gordon, Joshua A.

    2015-01-01

    Long-range synchrony between distant brain regions accompanies multiple forms of behavior. This review compares and contrasts the methods by which long-range synchrony is evaluated in both humans and model animals. Three examples of behaviorally-relevant long-range synchrony are discussed in detail: gamma-frequency synchrony during visual perception; hippocampal-prefrontal synchrony during working memory; and prefrontal-amygdala synchrony during anxiety. Implications for circuit mechanism, translation, and clinical relevance are discussed. PMID:25897876

  18. The Dissipation Range in Rotating Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubinstein, Robert; Zhou, Ye

    1999-01-01

    The dissipation range energy balance of the direct interaction approximation is applied to rotating turbulence when rotation effects persist well into the dissipation range. Assuming that RoRe (exp 1/2) is much less than 1 and that three-wave interactions are dominant, the dissipation range is found to be concentrated in the wavevector plane perpendicular to the rotation axis. This conclusion is consistent with previous analyses of inertial range energy transfer in rotating turbulence, which predict the accumulation of energy in those scales.

  19. 2010 NASA Range Safety Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumont, Alan G.

    2010-01-01

    this report provides a NASA Range Safety overview for current and potential range users. This report contains articles which cover a variety of subject areas, summaries of various NASA Range Safety Program activities conducted during the past year, links to past reports, and information on several projects that may have a profound impact on the way business will be done in the future. Specific topics discussed in the 2010 NASA Range Safety Annual Report include a program overview and 2010 highlights; Range Safety Training; Range Safety Policy revision; Independent Assessments; Support to Program Operations at all ranges conducting NASA launch/flight operations; a continuing overview of emerging range safety-related technologies; and status reports from all of the NASA Centers that have Range Safety responsibilities. Every effort has been made to include the most current information available. We recommend this report be used only for guidance and that the validity and accuracy of all articles be verified for updates. Once again, the web-based format was used to present the annual report.

  20. Compact range test applications, phase 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Francis L.

    1992-01-01

    Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) has designed and fabricated a large outdoor Compact Antenna Range for the U.S. Army Electronic Proving Ground (USAEPG). This range enables USAEPG to test antenna systems of large ground vehicles or aircraft that weigh up to 70 tons and are up to 50 feet in size over a frequency range of 6 to 40 GHz. Ongoing investigation and study are being conducted to determine the compatibility and adaptability of this antenna pattern measurement range to measure other system parameters such as target return signals and system responses to specialized electromagnetic environments.

  1. 2011 NASA Range Safety Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumont, Alan G.

    2012-01-01

    Welcome to the 2011 edition of the NASA Range Safety Annual Report. Funded by NASA Headquarters, this report provides a NASA Range Safety overview for current and potential range users. As is typical with odd year editions, this is an abbreviated Range Safety Annual Report providing updates and links to full articles from the previous year's report. It also provides more complete articles covering new subject areas, summaries of various NASA Range Safety Program activities conducted during the past year, and information on several projects that may have a profound impact on the way business will be done in the future. Specific topics discussed and updated in the 2011 NASA Range Safety Annual Report include a program overview and 2011 highlights; Range Safety Training; Range Safety Policy revision; Independent Assessments; Support to Program Operations at all ranges conducting NASA launch/flight operations; a continuing overview of emerging range safety-related technologies; and status reports from all of the NASA Centers that have Range Safety responsibilities. Every effort has been made to include the most current information available. We recommend this report be used only for guidance and that the validity and accuracy of all articles be verified for updates. Once again the web-based format was used to present the annual report. We continually receive positive feedback on the web-based edition and hope you enjoy this year's product as well. As is the case each year, contributors to this report are too numerous to mention, but we thank individuals from the NASA Centers, the Department of Defense, and civilian organizations for their contributions. In conclusion, it has been a busy and productive year. I'd like to extend a personal Thank You to everyone who contributed to make this year a successful one, and I look forward to working with all of you in the upcoming year.

  2. 1995-1998 Long Range Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania Coll. of Technology, Williamsport.

    At Pennsylvania College of Technology (PCT), in Williamsport, long range planning is used to define institutional philosophy and mission and determine strategies to make the best use of available resources and implement actions to fulfill institutional mission. This document presents PCT's long-range plan for 1995-98 in three parts. Following an…

  3. Long Range Plan: 1992-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania Coll. of Technology, Williamsport.

    Intended to enhance strategic planning and enable staff to work as a team toward a shared vision and common goals, this report presents the 1992-95 long-range plan of the Pennsylvania College of Technology (PCT). Part I defines long-range planning; describes the structure and use of the plan at PCT; presents PCT's philosophy, mission, and vision…

  4. Long Range Plan, 1991-1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania Coll. of Technology, Williamsport.

    This long-range plan for the Pennsylvania College of Technology (PCT) is divided into three main sections. Part I provides an overview of planning at PCT, including a definition of long-range planning, the college philosophy, mission, and vision statements, major institutional initiatives for 1991-92, and accreditation agency recommendations…

  5. Long Range Plan, 1997-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania Coll. of Technology, Williamsport. Office of Strategic Planning and Research.

    At Pennsylvania College of Technology (PCT), long range planning is used to define institutional philosophy and mission and determine strategies to make the best use of available resources and implement actions to fulfill institutional mission. This document presents PCT's long-range plan for 1997-2000 in three parts. The first part describes long…

  6. College and University Long-Range Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Raymond M.

    The system for long-range planning at West Virginia University is described, with emphasis on how it relates to short-range planning and how it is carried out operationally. Planning tools used include (1) an inventory of the past and present of the institution, (2) a statement of the division of labor within the institution and the objectives of…

  7. 36 CFR 222.9 - Range improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.9 Range improvements. (a) The Chief... needed to manage the range resource on National Forest System lands and other lands controlled by the... performed by a cooperator or permittee on National Forest System lands shall not confer the exclusive...

  8. 36 CFR 222.9 - Range improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.9 Range improvements. (a) The Chief... needed to manage the range resource on National Forest System lands and other lands controlled by the... performed by a cooperator or permittee on National Forest System lands shall not confer the exclusive...

  9. 36 CFR 222.9 - Range improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.9 Range improvements. (a) The Chief... needed to manage the range resource on National Forest System lands and other lands controlled by the... performed by a cooperator or permittee on National Forest System lands shall not confer the exclusive...

  10. Personality Correlates of Social Role Range.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McReynolds, Paul; And Others

    The concept of social role range (SRR) deals with the magnitude of an individual's repertoire of different interpersonal behavior patterns and exhibits the properties of a personality trait. Over a broad range of interpersonal settings, individuals tend to be consistent in the magnitude of their SRR's. A role play technique was devised for…

  11. Undergraduate range management exam: 1999-2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Undergraduate Range Management Exam (URME) has been administered to undergraduate students at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Range Management since 1983, with students demonstrating their higher order learning skills and synthesis knowledge of the art and science of rangeland management. ...

  12. Multi-target compressive laser ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandit, Pushkar P.; Dahl, Jason R.; Barber, Zeb W.; Babbitt, W. Randall

    2014-05-01

    Compressive laser ranging (CLR) is a method that exploits the sparsity available in the range domain using compressive sensing methods to directly obtain range domain information. Conventional ranging methods are marred by requirements of high bandwidth analog detection which includes severe SNR fall off with bandwidth in analog-to-digital conversion (ADC). Compressive laser ranging solves this problem by obtaining sub-centimeter resolution while using low bandwidth detection. High rate digital pulse pattern generators and off the shelf photonic devices are used to modulate the transmitted and received light from a superluminescent diode. CLR detection is demonstrated using low bandwidth, high dynamic range detectors along with photon counting techniques. The use of an incoherent source eliminates speckle issues and enables simplified CLR methods to get multi-target range profiles with 1-3cm resolution. Using compressive sensing methods CLR allows direct range measurements in the sub-Nyquist regime while reducing system resources, in particular the need for high bandwidth ADC.

  13. 5 CFR 534.502 - Pay range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pay range. 534.502 Section 534.502 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.502 Pay range. A pay rate fixed under...

  14. 5 CFR 534.502 - Pay range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pay range. 534.502 Section 534.502 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.502 Pay range. A pay rate fixed under...

  15. 5 CFR 534.502 - Pay range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pay range. 534.502 Section 534.502 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.502 Pay range. A pay rate fixed under this subpart shall be— (a) Not less...

  16. 5 CFR 534.502 - Pay range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay range. 534.502 Section 534.502 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.502 Pay range. A pay rate fixed under...

  17. Experiments: Test range facilities, part 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudley, D. G.

    1987-06-01

    A description is given of the electromagnetic transient range facility at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The range design and the instrumentation for both time domain and broadband frequency domain measurements are discussed. Two examples of experiments are given: scattering from a conducting plate and transmission through an aperture in a screen.

  18. Nevada Livestock Grazing and Range Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The range livestock industry had a very slow start in Nevada because it was commonly accepted that the environment would not support livestock production. Freighters discovered that oxen could winter on the dry herbage of desert bunchgrasses and come off the range in excellent condition in the spri...

  19. Range contraction in large pelagic predators

    PubMed Central

    Worm, Boris; Tittensor, Derek P.

    2011-01-01

    Large reductions in the abundance of exploited land predators have led to significant range contractions for those species. This pattern can be formalized as the range–abundance relationship, a general macroecological pattern that has important implications for the conservation of threatened species. Here we ask whether similar responses may have occurred in highly mobile pelagic predators, specifically 13 species of tuna and billfish. We analyzed two multidecadal global data sets on the spatial distribution of catches and fishing effort targeting these species and compared these with available abundance time series from stock assessments. We calculated the effort needed to reliably detect the presence of a species and then computed observed range sizes in each decade from 1960 to 2000. Results suggest significant range contractions in 9 of the 13 species considered here (between 2% and 46% loss of observed range) and significant range expansions in two species (11–29% increase). Species that have undergone the largest declines in abundance and are of particular conservation concern tended to show the largest range contractions. These include all three species of bluefin tuna and several marlin species. In contrast, skipjack tuna, which may have increased its abundance in the Pacific, has also expanded its range size. These results mirror patterns described for many land predators, despite considerable differences in habitat, mobility, and dispersal, and imply ecological extirpation of heavily exploited species across parts of their range. PMID:21693644

  20. The Geoscience Laser Altimetry/Ranging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Steven C.; Degnan, John J., III; Bufton, Jack L.; Garvin, James B.; Abshire, James B.

    1987-01-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimetry/Ranging System (GLARS), a combined laser ranging and altimetry system capable of subcentimeter position determinations of retroflector targets and subdecimeter profiling of topography, is described. The system uses advanced but currently available state-of-the-art components. Laboratory, field, and numerical experiments have indicated the suitability of GLARS as an instrument for Eos and other space platforms.

  1. Exploration of polygonal environments using range data.

    PubMed

    Ekman, A; Torne, A; Stromberg, D

    1997-01-01

    Several robotic problems involve the systematic traversal of the environment, commonly referred to as exploration. We present a strategy for the exploration of unknown finite polygonal environments, using a point robot with 1) no positional uncertainty and 2) an ideal range sensor that measures range in N uniformly distributed directions. The range data vector, obtained from the range sensor, corresponds to a sampled version of a visibility polygon. Visibility polygon edges that do not correspond to environmental edges are called jump edges and the exploration strategy is based on the fact that jump edges indicate directions of possibly unexplored environmental regions. We describe conditions under which it is possible to identify jump edges in the range data. We also show how the exploration strategy can be used in a solution to the terrain acquisition problem and describe conditions under which a solution is guaranteed within a finite number of measurements. PMID:18255863

  2. Range gated imaging experiments using gated intensifiers

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, T.E. Jr.; Yates, G.J.; Cverna, F.H.; Gallegos, R.A.; Jaramillo, S.A.; Numkena, D.M.; Payton, J.; Pena-Abeyta, C.R.

    1999-03-01

    A variety of range gated imaging experiments using high-speed gated/shuttered proximity focused microchannel plate image intensifiers (MCPII) are reported. Range gated imaging experiments were conducted in water for detection of submerged mines in controlled turbidity tank test and in sea water for the Naval Coastal Sea Command/US Marine Corps. Field experiments have been conducted consisting of kilometer range imaging of resolution targets and military vehicles in atmosphere at Eglin Air Force Base for the US Air Force, and similar imaging experiments, but in smoke environment, at Redstone Arsenal for the US Army Aviation and Missile Command (AMCOM). Wavelength of the illuminating laser was 532 nm with pulse width ranging from 6 to 12 ns and comparable gate widths. These tests have shown depth resolution in the tens of centimeters range from time phasing reflected LADAR images with MCPII shutter opening.

  3. Eighth International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degnan, John J. (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    The Eighth International Workshop for Laser Ranging Instrumentation was held in Annapolis, Maryland in May 1992, and was sponsored by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. The workshop is held once every 2 to 3 years under differing institutional sponsorship and provides a forum for participants to exchange information on the latest developments in satellite and lunar laser ranging hardware, software, science applications, and data analysis techniques. The satellite laser ranging (SLR) technique provides sub-centimeter precision range measurements to artificial satellites and the Moon. The data has application to a wide range of Earth and lunar science issues including precise orbit determination, terrestrial reference frames, geodesy, geodynamics, oceanography, time transfer, lunar dynamics, gravity and relativity.

  4. Tests of gravity Using Lunar Laser Ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merkowitz, Stephen M.

    2010-01-01

    Lunar laser ranging (LLR) has been a workhorse for testing general relativity over the pat four decades. The three retrorefiector arrays put on the Moon by the Apollo astronauts and the French built array on the second Soviet Lunokhod rover continue to be useful targets, and have provided the most stringent tests of the Strong Equivalence Principle and the time variation of Newton's gravitational constant. The relatively new ranging system at the Apache Point :3.5 meter telescope now routinely makes millimeter level range measurements. Incredibly. it has taken 40 years for ground station technology to advance to the point where characteristics of the lunar retrorefiectors are limiting the precision of the range measurements. In this article. we review the gravitational science and technology of lunar laser ranging and discuss prospects for the future.

  5. Illuminating geographical patterns in species' range shifts.

    PubMed

    Grenouillet, Gaël; Comte, Lise

    2014-10-01

    Species' range shifts in response to ongoing climate change have been widely documented, but although complex spatial patterns in species' responses are expected to be common, comprehensive comparisons of species' ranges over time have undergone little investigation. Here, we outline a modeling framework based on historical and current species distribution records for disentangling different drivers (i.e. climatic vs. nonclimatic) and assessing distinct facets (i.e. colonization, extirpation, persistence, and lags) of species' range shifts. We used extensive monitoring data for stream fish assemblages throughout France to assess range shifts for 32 fish species between an initial period (1980-1992) and a contemporary one (2003-2009). Our results provide strong evidence that the responses of individual species varied considerably and exhibited complex mosaics of spatial rearrangements. By dissociating range shifts in climatically suitable and unsuitable habitats, we demonstrated that patterns in climate-driven colonization and extirpation were less marked than those attributed to nonclimatic drivers, although this situation could rapidly shift in the near future. We also found evidence that range shifts could be related to some species' traits and that the traits involved varied depending on the facet of range shift considered. The persistence of populations in climatically unsuitable areas was greater for short-lived species, whereas the extent of the lag behind climate change was greater for long-lived, restricted-range, and low-elevation species. We further demonstrated that nonclimatic extirpations were primarily related to the size of the species' range, whereas climate-driven extirpations were better explained by thermal tolerance. Thus, the proposed framework demonstrated its potential for markedly improving our understanding of the key processes involved in range shifting and also offers a template for informing management decisions. Conservation strategies

  6. 2013 NASA Range Safety Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumont, Alan G.

    2013-01-01

    Welcome to the 2013 edition of the NASA Range Safety Annual Report. Funded by NASA Headquarters, this report provides an Agency overview for current and potential range users. This report contains articles which cover a variety of subject areas, summaries of various activities performed during the past year, links to past reports, and information on several projects that may have a profound impact on the way business will be conducted in the future. Specific topics discussed in the 2013 NASA Range Safety Annual Report include a program overview and 2013 highlights, Range Safety Training, Independent Assessments, support to Program Operations at all ranges conducting NASA launch/flight operations, a continuing overview of emerging range safety-related technologies, and status reports from all of the NASA Centers that have Range Safety responsibilities. Every effort has been made to include the most current information available. We recommend this report be used only for guidance and that the validity and accuracy of all articles be verified for updates. As is the case each year, we had a wide variety of contributors to this report from across our NASA Centers and the national range safety community at large, and I wish to thank them all. On a sad note, we lost one of our close colleagues, Dr. Jim Simpson, due to his sudden passing in December. His work advancing the envelope of autonomous flight safety systems software/hardware development leaves a lasting impression on our community. Such systems are being flight tested today and may one day be considered routine in the range safety business. The NASA family has lost a pioneer in our field, and he will surely be missed. In conclusion, it has been a very busy and productive year, and I look forward to working with all of you in NASA Centers/Programs/Projects and with the national Range Safety community in making Flight/Space activities as safe as they can be in the upcoming year.

  7. Trilateration range and range rate system. Volume 1: CDA system manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This document is one of a series of manuals designed to provide the information required to operate and maintain the Command and Data Acquisition (CDA) equipment of the Trilateration Range and Range Rate (TRRR) System. Information pertaining to the equipment in the Trilateration Range and Range Rate System which is designed to interface with existing NASA equipment located at Wallops Island, Virginia is presented.

  8. Range and habitats of the desert tortoise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Germano, D.J.; Bury, R.B.; Esque, T.C.; Fritts, T.H.

    1994-01-01

    We determined the current range of the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) based on the available latest data from government agencies, the literature, and our experience. We developed the first detailed range map of this species and summarized information about habitat preferences. New records of occurrences were incorporated, and some peripheral localities of questionable authenticity were deleted. The distribution oCG. agassizii covers the broadest range of latitude, climatic regimes, habitats, and biotic regions of any North American tortoise. The northern portion ofits range is in the Mojave Desert of sDuth"eastern California, southern Nevada, southwestern Utah, and northwestern Arizona. The central portion of the range consists of several subdivisions of the Sonaran Desert in southeastern California, western and southern Arizona, and western Sonora, Mexico. The southern edge of its range is in the semitropical Sinaloan thornscrub and Sinaloan deciduous forest of eastern Sonora and northern Sinaloa, Mexico. This species has marked geogi-aphic differences but seems to construct burrows throughout its range.

  9. Passive ranging within a differential framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qingguo; Liu, Liren; Liu, De'an; Sun, Jianfeng; Zhu, Yongjian; Lu, Wei

    2006-08-01

    Finding the distance of object in a scene from vision information is an important problem in machine vision. A large number of techniques for passive ranging of unknown objects have been developed over the years (i.e. range from stereo, motion, focus and defocus). Nearly all such techniques may be framed in terms of a differential formalism. In the case of binocular stereo, two different images are taken from cameras at different discrete viewpoints, similarly, difference between consecutive images are often used to determine viewpoint derivatives for structure from motion and two or more different images taken from cameras with different aperture size are used to compute the derivative respect to aperture size for range from focus and defocus method. All this methods may be fallen into a discrete differentiation category. Farid proposed a consecutive differentiation method for range estimation which employs the intensity variation of the images along with the aperture changes to measure the range information. In this paper, we first consider the plenoptic function which is a powerful mathematical tool for understanding the primary vision problem. We then show an algorithm within a differential framework for range estimation based on the assumption of brightness constancy. Finally we show several implementations of passive ranging using this differential algorithm.

  10. Strainrange partitioning: A total strain range version

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halford, G. R.; Saltsman, J. F.

    1983-01-01

    Procedures are presented for expressing the Strainrange Partitioning (SRP) method for creep fatigue life prediction in terms of total strain range. Inelastic and elastic strain-range - life relations are summed to give total strain-range - life relations. The life components due to inelastic strains are dealt with using conventional SRP procedures while the life components due to elastic strains are expressed as families of time-dependent terms for each type of SRP cycle. Cyclic constitutive material behavior plays an important role in establishing the elastic strain-range - life relations as well as the partitioning of the inelastic strains. To apply the approach, however, it is not necessary to have to determine the magnitude of the inelastic strain range. The total strain SRP approach is evaluated and verified using two nickel base superalloys, AF2-1DA and Rene 95. Excellent agreement is demonstrated between observed and predicted cyclic lifetimes with 70 to 80 percent of the predicted lives falling within factors of two of the observed lives. The total strain-range SRP approach should be of considerable practical value to designers who are faced with creep-fatigue problems for which the inelastic strains cannot be calculated with sufficient accuracy to make reliable life predictions by the conventional inelastic strain range SRP approach.

  11. Laser System for Precise, Unambiguous Range Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubovitsky, Serge; Lay, Oliver

    2005-01-01

    The Modulation Sideband Technology for Absolute Range (MSTAR) architecture is the basis of design of a proposed laser-based heterodyne interferometer that could measure a range (distance) as great as 100 km with a precision and resolution of the order of 1 nm. Simple optical interferometers can measure changes in range with nanometer resolution, but cannot measure range itself because interference is subject to the well-known integer-multiple-of-2 -radians phase ambiguity, which amounts to a range ambiguity of the order of 1 m at typical laser wavelengths. Existing rangefinders have a resolution of the order of 10 m and are therefore unable to resolve the ambiguity. The proposed MSTAR architecture bridges the gap, enabling nanometer resolution with an ambiguity range that can be extended to arbitrarily large distances. The MSTAR architecture combines the principle of the heterodyne interferometer with the principle of extending the ambiguity range of an interferometer by using light of two wavelengths. The use of two wavelengths for this purpose is well established in optical metrology, radar, and sonar. However, unlike in traditional two-color laser interferometry, light of two wavelengths would not be generated by two lasers. Instead, multiple wavelengths would be generated as sidebands of phase modulation of the light from a single frequency- stabilized laser. The phase modulation would be effected by applying sinusoidal signals of suitable frequencies (typically tens of gigahertz) to high-speed electro-optical phase modulators. Intensity modulation can also be used

  12. Demonstration of high sensitivity laser ranging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millar, Pamela S.; Christian, Kent D.; Field, Christopher T.

    1994-01-01

    We report on a high sensitivity semiconductor laser ranging system developed for the Gravity and Magnetic Earth Surveyor (GAMES) for measuring variations in the planet's gravity field. The GAMES laser ranging instrument (LRI) consists of a pair of co-orbiting satellites, one which contains the laser transmitter and receiver and one with a passive retro-reflector mounted in an drag-stabilized housing. The LRI will range up to 200 km in space to the retro-reflector satellite. As the spacecraft pair pass over the spatial variations in the gravity field, they experience along-track accelerations which change their relative velocity. These time displaced velocity changes are sensed by the LRI with a resolution of 20-50 microns/sec. In addition, the pair may at any given time be drifting together or apart at a rate of up to 1 m/sec, introducing a Doppler shift into the ranging signals. An AlGaAs laser transmitter intensity modulated at 2 GHz and 10 MHz is used as fine and medium ranging channels. Range is measured by comparing phase difference between the transmit and received signals at each frequency. A separate laser modulated with a digital code, not reported in this paper, will be used for coarse ranging to unambiguously determine the distance up to 200 km.

  13. Determination of range parameters of observation devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bareła, J.; Kastek, M.; Firmanty, K.; Trzaskawka, P.; Dulski, R.; Kucharz, J.

    2012-10-01

    Range parameters of observation devices can be determined on the basis of numerical simulations (NVTherm) or on the basis of measured characteristics. Those measurements can be conducted in both laboratory and field conditions. It is, however, difficult to carry on reliable field measurements of range parameters because they are strongly depended on atmospheric conditions. Thus the laboratory measurements are more favorable option. Analysis of literature and catalogue specifications reveal, that range parameters are given mainly on the basis of Johnson criteria or TTP model. The Johnson criteria has been used since the 50s and most of catalogue range specifications are determined according to it. There are also NATO standards, which describe the measurement procedures and methodology required to define the detection, recognition and identification ranges for standard NATO targets. For the determination of range parameters the following device characteristics must be known: minimal resolvable temperature for thermal imaging devices and minimal resolvable contrast for VIS devices. The TTP model offers a new approach to the determination of range characteristics of observation devices. It has been developed by U.S. Army's Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate since the year 2000. It was created because the modified Johnson criteria did not yield reliable results in case of modern systems with digital image processing. In order to determine the range parameters using TTP model, the modulation transfer function MTF, presample MTF function, and 3D noise of a tested system must be known as well as its basic design data as optical magnification and display type. The paper describes the measurement stand, measurement methodology and the procedure for the determination of range parameters. The results for thermal and VIS cameras are also presented, and they are analyzed and compared with the results obtained from current methods, including the measurement

  14. Automatic laser tracking and ranging system.

    PubMed

    Cooke, C R

    1972-02-01

    An automatic laser tracking and ranging system has been developed for use with cooperative retroreflective targets. Target position is determined with high precision at ranges out to 19 km and sample rates up to one hundred measurements per second. The data are recorded on a magnetic tape in the form of azimuth, elevation, range, and standard time and are computer-compatible. The system is fully automatic with the exception of the initial acquisition sequence, which is performed manually. This eliminates the need for expensive and time-consuming photographic data reduction. Also, position is uniquely determined by a single instrument. To provide convenient operation at remote sites, the system is van-mounted and operates off a portable power generator. The transmitter is a flash-pumped Q-spoiled Nd:YAG laser developing 1 MW peak power in a 10-mrad beam at a rate of 100 pps. The beam, which is coaxial with the receiver, is directed to the target by an azimuth-elevation mirror mount. The return beam is imaged o separate ranging and tracking receivers. The ranging receiver measures time of flight of the 25-nsec laser pulse with range accuracies of +/-15 cm. The tracking receiver uses a quadrant photodiode followed by matched log video amplifiers and achieves a tracking accuracy of +/-0.1 mrad. An optical dynamic range of 30 dB is provided to minimize error due to scintillation. Also, 80 dB of optical dynamic range is provided by adjustable neutral density filters to compensate for changes in target range. PMID:20111495

  15. 2008 NASA Range Safety Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamoreaux, Richard W.

    2008-01-01

    Welcome to the 2008 edition of the NASA Range Safety Annual Report. Funded by NASA Headquarters, this report provides a NASA Range Safety overview for current and potential range users. This year, along with full length articles concerning various subject areas, we have provided updates to standard subjects with links back to the 2007 original article. Additionally, we present summaries from the various NASA Range Safety Program activities that took place throughout the year, as well as information on several special projects that may have a profound impact on the way we will do business in the future. The sections include a program overview and 2008 highlights of Range Safety Training; Range Safety Policy; Independent Assessments and Common Risk Analysis Tools Development; Support to Program Operations at all ranges conducting NASA launch operations; a continuing overview of emerging Range Safety-related technologies; Special Interests Items that include recent changes in the ELV Payload Safety Program and the VAS explosive siting study; and status reports from all of the NASA Centers that have Range Safety responsibilities. As is the case each year, contributors to this report are too numerous to mention, but we thank individuals from the NASA Centers, the Department of Defense, and civilian organizations for their contributions. We have made a great effort to include the most current information available. We recommend that this report be used only for guidance and that the validity and accuracy of all articles be verified for updates. This is the third year we have utilized this web-based format for the annual report. We continually receive positive feedback on the web-based edition, and we hope you enjoy this year's product as well. It has been a very busy and productive year on many fronts as you will note as you review this report. Thank you to everyone who contributed to make this year a successful one, and I look forward to working with all of you in the

  16. Ranging performance of satellite laser altimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Chester S.

    1992-01-01

    Detailed expressions for the range and pulse width measurement accuracies are developed and used to evaluate the ranging performances of several satellite laser altimeters currently under development by NASA for launch during the next decade. The analysis includes the effects of the target surface characteristics, spacecraft pointing jitter, and waveform digitizer characteristics. The results show that ranging accuracy is critically dependent on the pointing accuracy and stability of the altimeter especially over high relief terrain where surface slopes are large. At typical orbital altitudes of several hundred kilometers, single-shot accuracies of a few centimeters can be achieved only when the pointing jitter is on the order of 10 microrad or less.

  17. An improved light source for laser ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamal, Karel; Richardson, Martin

    1993-01-01

    The development of a new laser material, Cr-doped LiSAF, makes possible the development of a laser source for satellite ranging systems that is more superior in performance capabilities than current Nd:YAG-based laser sources. This new material offers the potential of shorter pulses and more preferable wavelengths (850 and 425 nm) than multiwavelength Nd:YAG systems, leading to superior ranging resolution and greater detection sensitivity. We are embarking on a feasibility study of a two-wavelength, mode-locked laser system based on Cr:LiSAF, providing shorter pulses for improved ranging resolution.

  18. Passive long range acousto-optic sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Dan

    2006-08-01

    Alexander Graham Bell's photophone of 1880 was a simple free space optical communication device that used the sun to illuminate a reflective acoustic diaphragm. A selenium photocell located 213 m (700 ft) away converted the acoustically modulated light beam back into sound. A variation of the photophone is presented here that uses naturally formed free space acousto-optic communications links to provide passive multichannel long range acoustic sensing. This system, called RAS (remote acoustic sensor), functions as a long range microphone with a demonstrated range in excess of 40 km (25 miles).

  19. Remote sensing applications for range management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of satellite information for range management is discussed. The use of infrared photography and color photography for analysis of vegetation cover is described. The methods of interpreting LANDSAT imagery are highlighted and possible applications of such interpretive methods to range management are considered. The concept of using LANDSAT as a sampling frame for renewable natural resource inventories was examined. It is concluded that a blending of LANDSAT vegetation data with soils and digital terrain data, will define a basic sampling unit that is appropriate for range management utilization.

  20. Triad interactions in the dissipation range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kida, S.; Kraichnan, Robert H.; Rogallo, R. S.; Waleffe, F.; Zhou, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Nonlocality of the triad interactions in the dissipation range of developed turbulence is investigated by numerical simulation and the quasi-normal theories. It is found that the energy transfer is dominated by nonlocal triad interactions over the wavenumber range 0.1 is less than k/k(sub d) is less than 4, where k(sub d) is the Kolmogorov wave number. The nonlocality of the interaction has a close relation with the power of an algebraic prefactor of the exponential decay of the energy spectrum in the far-dissipation range.

  1. Techniques for optically compressing light intensity ranges

    DOEpatents

    Rushford, M.C.

    1989-03-28

    A pin hole camera assembly for use in viewing an object having a relatively large light intensity range, for example a crucible containing molten uranium in an atomic vapor laser isotope separator (AVLIS) system is disclosed herein. The assembly includes means for optically compressing the light intensity range appearing at its input sufficient to make it receivable and decipherable by a standard video camera. A number of different means for compressing the intensity range are disclosed. These include the use of photogray glass, the use of a pair of interference filters, and the utilization of a new liquid crystal notch filter in combination with an interference filter. 18 figs.

  2. Techniques for optically compressing light intensity ranges

    DOEpatents

    Rushford, Michael C.

    1989-01-01

    A pin hole camera assembly for use in viewing an object having a relatively large light intensity range, for example a crucible containing molten uranium in an atomic vapor laser isotope separator (AVLIS) system is disclosed herein. The assembly includes means for optically compressing the light intensity range appearing at its input sufficient to make it receivable and decipherable by a standard video camera. A number of different means for compressing the intensity range are disclosed. These include the use of photogray glass, the use of a pair of interference filters, and the utilization of a new liquid crystal notch filter in combination with an interference filter.

  3. Estimability and simple dynamical analyses of range (range-rate range-difference) observations to artificial satellites. [laser range observations to LAGEOS using non-Bayesian statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vangelder, B. H. W.

    1978-01-01

    Non-Bayesian statistics were used in simulation studies centered around laser range observations to LAGEOS. The capabilities of satellite laser ranging especially in connection with relative station positioning are evaluated. The satellite measurement system under investigation may fall short in precise determinations of the earth's orientation (precession and nutation) and earth's rotation as opposed to systems as very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) and lunar laser ranging (LLR). Relative station positioning, determination of (differential) polar motion, positioning of stations with respect to the earth's center of mass and determination of the earth's gravity field should be easily realized by satellite laser ranging (SLR). The last two features should be considered as best (or solely) determinable by SLR in contrast to VLBI and LLR.

  4. Ranging performance of satellite laser altimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Chester S.

    1992-01-01

    Topographic mapping of the earth, moon and planets can be accomplished with high resolution and accuracy using satellite laser altimeters. These systems employ nanosecond laser pulses and microradian beam divergences to achieve submeter vertical range resolution from orbital altitudes of several hundred kilometers. Here, we develop detailed expressions for the range and pulse width measurement accuracies and use the results to evaluate the ranging performances of several satellite laser altimeters currently under development by NASA for launch during the next decade. Our analysis includes the effects of the target surface characteristics, spacecraft pointing jitter and waveform digitizer characteristics. The results show that ranging accuracy is critically dependent on the pointing accuracy and stability of the altimeter especially over high relief terrain where surface slopes are large. At typical orbital altitudes of several hundred kilometers, single-shot accuracies of a few centimeters can be achieved only when the pointing jitter is on the order of 10 mu rad or less.

  5. Shock absorber operates over wide range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creasy, W. K.; Jones, J. C.

    1965-01-01

    Piston-type hydraulic shock absorber, with a metered damping system, operates over a wide range of kinetic energy loading rates. It is used for absorbing shock and vibration on mounted machinery and heavy earth-moving equipment.

  6. JOINT SMALL-ARMS RANGE REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) demonstration conducted by the Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) and the Army Environmental Center (AEC) removed lead and other heavy metals from small-arms range soils by a combination of phys...

  7. Quaternionic Numerical Ranges of Normal Quaternion Matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Feng Lianggui

    2009-09-09

    By the Jordan canonical block-entry form introduced in this paper, a practical method of determining the convexity and an estimation of the location on the quaternionic numerical range are given for a normal quaternion matrix.

  8. Subjective evaluation of higher dynamic range video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanhart, Philippe; Korshunov, Pavel; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2014-09-01

    High dynamic range (HDR) imaging is able to capture a wide range of luminance values, closer to what the human eye can perceive. However, for capture and display technologies, it is important to answer the question on the significance of higher dynamic range for user preference. This paper answers this question by investigating the added value of higher dynamic range via a rigorous set of subjective experiments using paired comparison methodology. Video sequences at four different peak luminance levels were displayed side-by-side on a Dolby Research HDR RGB backlight dual modulation display (aka `Pulsar'), which is capable of reliably displaying video content at 4000 cd=m2 peak luminance. The results of the subjective experiment demonstrate that the preference of an average viewer increases logarithmically with the increase in the maximum luminance level at which HDR content is displayed, with 4000 cd=m2 being the most attractive option.

  9. Universal time - Results from lunar laser ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, R. W.; Counselman, C. C., III; Shapiro, I. I.

    1978-01-01

    A least squares analysis of lunar laser ranging observations from the McDonald Observatory is used to estimate universal time. In addition to the ranging observations, the analysis simultaneously takes into account the parameters representing the locations of McDonald and the lunar retroreflectors, the orbits of the earth and the moon, and the moon's physical libration. The root-mean-square of the postfit range residuals for the 5-year period from October 1970 to November 1975 is 28 cm. The results are compared with those obtained by the Bureau International de l'Heure and by Stolz et al. (1976), and the reasons for discrepancies are discussed. It is suggested that problems in modeling the moon's motion make difficult the determination of UT with the accuracy inherent in the ranging observations.

  10. Intentionally Short-Range Communications (ISRC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, J.; Poirier, P.; Obrien, M.

    1994-02-01

    The U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) desired to develop short-range communications links whose ranges are intentionally limited to very short distances. These links support tactical missions such as LAN Backbone, Wideband Data Link, and Company Radio. The short-range limitation arises from the need for low probability of detection and intercept (LPD/LPI). Since the detection of an undecipherable transmission would still provide an enemy with information regarding transmitter location and allow him to take countermeasures, the Marine Corps Systems Command (MARCORSYSCOM) is sponsoring the development of technologies that can be LPD by their very nature. The Intentionally Short-Range Communications (ISRC) project at the Naval Command, Control and Ocean Surveillance Center (NCCOSC) RDT&E Division (NRaD) is pursuing feasibility studies for these USMC missions based on such technologies as ultraviolet (LTV) lamps, UV lasers, infrared (IR) lasers, millimeter waves and direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) at radio frequencies.

  11. Photoresistance analog multiplier has wide range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartenstein, R. G.

    1965-01-01

    Photoactivated bridge facilitates equal performance of analog multipliers over a wide frequency range. The multiplier operates from direct current to an upper frequency limited by either the light source or the closed-loop amplifier.

  12. Recent firing range suicides in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Austin, Amy E; van den Heuvel, Corinna; Heath, Karen; Gilbert, John D; Byard, Roger W

    2012-11-01

    Two cases are reported from South Australia, where deaths occurred that were due to single self-inflicted gunshot wounds to the head in individuals who were visiting indoor firearm ranges. Case 1: A 54-year-old man visiting an indoor firing range placed a .357 magnum handgun to his head and fired one shot. Case 2: A 23-year-old woman who was being instructed in firearm usage at an indoor firing range placed a 9 mm handgun to her head and fired one shot. In both cases, deaths were due to cerebral laceration with skull fracture. Firing ranges may be utilized by individuals who are seeking weapons for suicide attempts, and suicide may be successfully undertaken at such locations even while a victim is under direct supervision. In jurisdictions, where firearm ownership is strictly legislated, it may be that clubs can inadvertently provide access to firearms for this type of activity. PMID:22471964

  13. Full range pawl and ratchet clutch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zobott, Keith D.; Burch, Darrel W.

    1992-10-01

    The full-range pawl-and-ratchet clutch will permit very versatile operation of an air turbine starter. The need for a full-range pawl-and-ratchet clutch arises from various aircraft anomalies that may lead to ordinary clutch failures and therefore cause unnecessary delays for commercial as well as military aircraft. Air turbine starters containing a full-range pawl-and-ratchet clutch permit running engagement starts of aircraft jet engines at any speed from zero to above 10,000 rpm. The starter automatically disengages from the engine after completing the start and spins down to zero rpm. The concept embodied in the full-range pawl-and-ratchet clutch will provide a new generation of aircraft starters and represents a revolutionary advancement in the state of the art for air turbine starters.

  14. High range resolution micro-Doppler analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cammenga, Zachary A.; Smith, Graeme E.; Baker, Christopher J.

    2015-05-01

    This paper addresses use of the micro-Doppler effect and the use of high range-resolution profiles to observe complex targets in complex target scenes. The combination of micro-Doppler and high range-resolution provides the ability to separate the motion of complex targets from one another. This ability leads to the differentiation of targets based on their micro-Doppler signatures. Without the high-range resolution, this would not be possible because the individual signatures would not be separable. This paper also addresses the use of the micro-Doppler information and high range-resolution profiles to generate an approximation of the scattering properties of a complex target. This approximation gives insight into the structure of the complex target and, critically, is created without using a pre-determined target model.

  15. Comparative analysis of planetary laser ranging concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirkx, D.; Bauer, S.; Noomen, R.; Vermeersen, B. L. A.; Visser, P. N.

    2014-12-01

    Laser ranging is an emerging technology for tracking interplanetary missions, offering improved range accuracy and precision (mm-cm), compared to existing DSN tracking. The ground segment uses existing Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) technology, whereas the space segment is modified with an active system. In a one-way system, such as that currently being used on the LRO spacecraft (Zuber et al., 2010), only an active detector is required on the spacecraft. For a two-way system, such as that tested by using the laser altimeter system on the MESSENGER spacecraft en route to Mercury (Smith et al., 2006), a laser transmitter system is additionally placed on the space segment, which will asynchronously fire laser pulses towards the ground stations. Although the one-way system requires less hardware, clock errors on both the space and ground segments will accumulate over time, polluting the range measurements. For a two-way system, the range measurements are only sensitive to clock errors integrated over the the two-way light time.We investigate the performance of both one- and two-way laser range systems by simulating their operation. We generate realizations of clock error time histories from Allan variance profiles, and use them to create range measurement error profiles. We subsequently perform the orbit determination process from this data to quanitfy the system's performance. For our simulations, we use two test cases: a lunar orbiter similar to LRO and a Phobos lander similar to the Phobos Laser Ranging concept (Turyshev et al., 2010). For the lunar orbiter, we include an empirical model for unmodelled non-gravitational accelerations in our truth model to include errors ihe dynamics. We include the estimation of clock parameters over a number of arc lengths for our simulations of the one-way range system and use a variety of state arc durations for the lunar orbiter simulations.We perform Monte Carlo simulations and generate true error distributions for both

  16. Makran Mountain Range, Iran and Pakistan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The long folded mountain ridges and valleys of the coastal Makran Ranges of Iran and Pakistan (26.0N, 63.0E) illustrate the classical Trellis type of drainage pattern, common in this region. The Dasht River and its tributaries is the principal drainage network for this area. To the left, the continental drift of the northward bound Indian sub-continent has caused the east/west parallel ranges to bend in a great northward arc.

  17. High Dynamic Range Digital Imaging of Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, Brian A.; Chalmers, Alan; Debattista, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    The ability to capture engineering imagery with a wide degree of dynamic range during rocket launches is critical for post launch processing and analysis [USC03, NNC86]. Rocket launches often present an extreme range of lightness, particularly during night launches. Night launches present a two-fold problem: capturing detail of the vehicle and scene that is masked by darkness, while also capturing detail in the engine plume.

  18. Ground based laser ranging for satellite location

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbreath, G. C.; Newby, Harold D.

    1993-01-01

    In this article, we describe a new satellite laser ranging capability which is a joint effort between the Naval Research Laboratory and Air Force Optical Tracking Facility at Malabar, Florida. Initial measurements off LAGEOS indicate that uncorrected radial range rms values of 8 mm are readily achievable. The number of photoelectron counts are on the order of 180 which are off by an order of magnitude from predicted values.

  19. Poisson filtering of laser ranging data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricklefs, Randall L.; Shelus, Peter J.

    1993-01-01

    The filtering of data in a high noise, low signal strength environment is a situation encountered routinely in lunar laser ranging (LLR) and, to a lesser extent, in artificial satellite laser ranging (SLR). The use of Poisson statistics as one of the tools for filtering LLR data is described first in a historical context. The more recent application of this statistical technique to noisy SLR data is also described.

  20. Entrainment ranges of forced phase oscillators.

    PubMed

    Previte, Joseph P; Sheils, Natalie; Hoffman, Kathleen A; Kiemel, Tim; Tytell, Eric D

    2011-04-01

    In the vertebrate spinal cord, a neural circuit called the central pattern generator produces the basic locomotory rhythm. Short and long distance intersegmental connections serve to maintain coordination along the length of the body. As a way of examining the influence of such connections, we consider a model of a chain of coupled phase oscillators in which one oscillator receives a periodic forcing stimulus. For a certain range of forcing frequencies, the chain will match the stimulus frequency, a phenomenon called entrainment. Motivated by recent experiments in lampreys, we derive analytical expressions for the range of forcing frequencies that entrain the chain, and how that range depends on the forcing location. For short intersegmental connections, in which an oscillator is connected only to its nearest neighbors, we describe two ways in which entrainment is lost: internally, in which oscillators within the chain no longer oscillate at the same frequency; and externally, in which the the chain no longer has the same frequency as the forcing. By analyzing chains in which every oscillator is connected to every other oscillator (i.e., all-to-all connections), we show that the presence of connections with lengths greater than one do not necessarily change the entrainment ranges based on the nearest-neighbor model. We derive a criterion for the ratio of connection strengths under which the connections of length greater than one do not change the entrainment ranges produced in the nearest-neighbor model, provided entrainment is lost externally. However, when this criterion holds, the range of entrained frequencies is a monotonic function of forcing location, unlike experimental results, in which entrainment ranges are larger near the middle of the chain than at the ends. Numerically, we show that similar non-monotonic entrainment ranges are possible if the ratio criterion does not hold, suggesting that in the lamprey central pattern generator, intersegmental

  1. Positron range estimations with PeneloPET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cal-González, J.; Herraiz, J. L.; España, S.; Corzo, P. M. G.; Vaquero, J. J.; Desco, M.; Udias, J. M.

    2013-08-01

    Technical advances towards high resolution PET imaging try to overcome the inherent physical limitations to spatial resolution. Positrons travel in tissue until they annihilate into the two gamma photons detected. This range is the main detector-independent contribution to PET imaging blurring. To a large extent, it can be remedied during image reconstruction if accurate estimates of positron range are available. However, the existing estimates differ, and the comparison with the scarce experimental data available is not conclusive. In this work we present positron annihilation distributions obtained from Monte Carlo simulations with the PeneloPET simulation toolkit, for several common PET isotopes (18F, 11C, 13N, 15O, 68Ga and 82Rb) in different biological media (cortical bone, soft bone, skin, muscle striated, brain, water, adipose tissue and lung). We compare PeneloPET simulations against experimental data and other simulation results available in the literature. To this end the different positron range representations employed in the literature are related to each other by means of a new parameterization for positron range profiles. Our results are generally consistent with experiments and with most simulations previously reported with differences of less than 20% in the mean and maximum range values. From these results, we conclude that better experimental measurements are needed, especially to disentangle the effect of positronium formation in positron range. Finally, with the aid of PeneloPET, we confirm that scaling approaches can be used to obtain universal, material and isotope independent, positron range profiles, which would considerably simplify range correction.

  2. Topological defects with long-range interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mello, B. A.; González, J. A.; Guerrero, L. E.; López-Atencio, E.

    1998-07-01

    We investigate a modified sine-Gordon equation which possesses soliton solutions with long-range interaction. We introduce a generalized version of the Ginzburg-Landau equation which supports long-range topological defects in D = 1 and D > 1. The interaction force between the defects decays so slowly that it is possible to enter the non-extensivity regime. These results can be applied to non-equilibrium systems, pattern formation and growth models.

  3. Determining Spatial Coordinates By Laser Ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumacher, Larry L.

    1990-01-01

    Three range-measuring lasers arranged in triangle measure location of point. Set of three measurements of distances (ranges) of retroreflector on object from three rangefinders provides sufficient information to calculate coordinates of retroreflector in coordinate system defined by rangefinders. If at least three noncollinear retroreflectors attached to object, orientation of object also determined. Potential applications include observation and control of large structures, robotics, and machine vision.

  4. Orbit determination by range-only data.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, N.; Winn, C. B.

    1973-01-01

    The determination of satellite orbits for use in geodesy using range-only data has been examined. A recently developed recursive algorithm for rectification of the nominal orbit after processing each observation has been tested. It is shown that when a synchronous satellite is tracked simultaneously with a subsynchronous geodetic target satellite, the orbits of each may be readily determined by processing the range information. Random data errors and satellite perturbations are included in the examples presented.

  5. Programmable near-infrared ranging system

    DOEpatents

    Everett, Jr., Hobart R.

    1989-01-01

    A high angular resolution ranging system particularly suitable for indoor plications involving mobile robot navigation and collision avoidance uses a programmable array of light emitters that can be sequentially incremented by a microprocessor. A plurality of adjustable level threshold detectors are used in an optical receiver for detecting the threshold level of the light echoes produced when light emitted from one or more of the emitters is reflected by a target or object in the scan path of the ranging system.

  6. Passive ranging through the Earth's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasson, Victor H.; Dupuis, Christopher R.

    2002-02-01

    Many luminous sources provide continuous or quasi-continuous radiation at near IR and longer wavelengths. The radiation continuum serves as a source of background photons, which can be used for discrete line-of-site absorption measurements by-known atmospheric constituents. The intensity ratio is uniquely determined by the absorption coefficient and range, is independent of broadband attenuations and scattering. The absorption coefficients are known and/or can be accurately calculated for a wide range of practical viewing conditions (i.e., sensor height, viewing angle, etc.). Hence, the intensity ratio and/or integrated intensity ratio can be used to uniquely derive the range of the radiating source. Fabry-Perot interferometers can provide the high throughputs and resolving powers required in compact packages. The measurements and analyses show that ranging accuracies representing down to 1 - 2% of the total range should be achievable at stand-off ranges of upto hundreds of kilometers depending on the size of the collection optics, brightness of the source and available observation times. The paper will provide an overview of the patented Textron concepts, trade-offs associated with instrument resolving powers and hardware implementation issues.

  7. Exploration and mating range in African Pygmies.

    PubMed

    Cavalli-Sforza, L L; Hewlett, B

    1982-07-01

    The distributions of exploration range and of mating range were studied among Aka Pygmies of the Central African Republic. Exploration range is defined and methods of estimation for single individuals suggested. A simple exponential distribution is found for individual Aka Pygmies, with variation of exploration range (the parameter defining mobility) with sex, age and ethnic affiliation. Distribution of distances from birthplace and place of residence are compared and show modest differences. The frequency of visits to a given place has also been studied. The average distance between birthplaces of mates is very similar to the mean exploration range. Correlations between individual exploration and mating ranges suggest that it is the male who may be choosing a marriage partner among Pygmies. A theory by Boyce, Küchemann & Harrison (1967) on the relations between "neighbourhood knowledge" and mating distance is inapplicable because of its reliance on the Pareto distribution, which does not apply in the present case, and of other unnecessary assumptions, but the general principle of a close relationship between exploratory activity and mating distance seems valid, at least in the present case. Suggestions are made for causes for the difference between the present distributions and those with other shapes observed in less primitive economies. PMID:7125597

  8. Ranging/tracking system for proximity operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nilsen, P.; Udalov, S.

    1982-01-01

    The hardware development and testing phase of a hand held radar for the ranging and tracking for Shuttle proximity operations are considered. The radar is to measure range to a 3 sigma accuracy of 1 m (3.28 ft) to a maximum range of 1850 m (6000 ft) and velocity to a 3 sigma accuracy of 0.03 m/s (0.1 ft/s). Size and weight are similar to hand held radars, frequently seen in use by motorcycle police officers. Meeting these goals for a target in free space was very difficult to obtain in the testing program; however, at a range of approximately 700 m, the 3 sigma range error was found to be 0.96 m. It is felt that much of this error is due to clutter in the test environment. As an example of the velocity accuracy, at a range of 450 m, a 3 sigma velocity error of 0.02 m/s was measured. The principles of the radar and recommended changes to its design are given. Analyses performed in support of the design process, the actual circuit diagrams, and the software listing are included.

  9. Conductance measurement circuit with wide dynamic range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mount, Bruce E. (Inventor); Von Esch, Myron (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A conductance measurement circuit to measure conductance of a solution under test with an output voltage proportional to conductance over a 5-decade range, i.e., 0.01 uS to 1000 uS or from 0.1 uS to 10,000 uS. An increase in conductance indicates growth, or multiplication, of the bacteria in the test solution. Two circuits are used each for an alternate half-cycle time periods of an alternate squarewave in order to cause alternate and opposite currents to be applied to the test solution. The output of one of the two circuits may be scaled for a different range optimum switching frequency dependent upon the solution conductance and to enable uninterrupted measurement over the complete 5-decade range. This circuitry provides two overlapping ranges of conductance which can be read simultaneously without discontinuity thereby eliminating range switching within the basic circuitry. A VCO is used to automatically change the operating frequency according to the particular value of the conductance being measured, and comparators indicate which range is valid and also facilitate computer-controlled data acquisition. A multiplexer may be used to monitor any number of solutions under test continuously.

  10. Discrete range clustering using Monte Carlo methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterji, G. B.; Sridhar, B.

    1993-01-01

    For automatic obstacle avoidance guidance during rotorcraft low altitude flight, a reliable model of the nearby environment is needed. Such a model may be constructed by applying surface fitting techniques to the dense range map obtained by active sensing using radars. However, for covertness, passive sensing techniques using electro-optic sensors are desirable. As opposed to the dense range map obtained via active sensing, passive sensing algorithms produce reliable range at sparse locations, and therefore, surface fitting techniques to fill the gaps in the range measurement are not directly applicable. Both for automatic guidance and as a display for aiding the pilot, these discrete ranges need to be grouped into sets which correspond to objects in the nearby environment. The focus of this paper is on using Monte Carlo methods for clustering range points into meaningful groups. One of the aims of the paper is to explore whether simulated annealing methods offer significant advantage over the basic Monte Carlo method for this class of problems. We compare three different approaches and present application results of these algorithms to a laboratory image sequence and a helicopter flight sequence.

  11. Canine hip extension range during gait.

    PubMed

    van der Walt, A M; Stewart, A V; Joubert, K E; Bekker, P

    2008-12-01

    Assessment of canine gait is frequently used by veterinary clinicians to establish the presence of orthopaedic pain. As up to 30% of canine orthopaedic conditions affect the pelvic limb, knowledge of pelvic limb biomechanics during gait is very important. Previous studies have investigated the biomechanics at the tarsus and stifle, but little information is available regarding hip motion during gait. The aim of this study was to determine the maximum hip extension range achieved during the stance phase of gait in normal canines. In addition, this study aimed to determine the difference between maximum passive hip extension and maximum hip extension during gait. Using a sample of 30 morphologically similar normal dogs, mean maximum passive hip extension was measured using a goniometer and mean maximum hip extension range during gait was determined videographically. Inter- and intra-assessor reliability studies performed at the start of the study showed that the measurement tools and techniques used in this study were valid and reliable. The goniometric data showed that mean maximum passive hip extension range was 162.44 degrees (+/-3.94) with no significant difference between the left and the right hind limbs. The videographic data showed that mean maximum hip extension range during gait was 119.9 degrees (+/-9.26) with no significant difference between the left and right hind limbs. The results of this study provided reference values for active and passive hip extension range and showed that the degree of hip extension range required for normal gait is significantly less than maximum passive hip extension range. PMID:19496317

  12. Servomotor and Controller Having Large Dynamic Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean C.; Howard, David E.; Smith, Dennis A.; Dutton, Ken; Paulson, M. Scott

    2007-01-01

    A recently developed micro-commanding rotational-position-control system offers advantages of less mechanical complexity, less susceptibility to mechanical resonances, less power demand, less bulk, less weight, and lower cost, relative to prior rotational-position-control systems based on stepping motors and gear drives. This system includes a digital-signal- processor (DSP)-based electronic controller, plus a shaft-angle resolver and a servomotor mounted on the same shaft. Heretofore, micro-stepping has usually been associated with stepping motors, but in this system, the servomotor is micro-commanded in response to rotational-position feedback from the shaft-angle resolver. The shaft-angle resolver is of a four-speed type chosen because it affords four times the resolution of a single-speed resolver. A key innovative aspect of this system is its position-feedback signal- conditioning circuits, which condition the resolver output signal for multiple ranges of rotational speed. In the preferred version of the system, two rotational- speed ranges are included, but any number of ranges could be added to expand the speed range or increase resolution in particular ranges. In the preferred version, the resolver output is conditioned with two resolver-to-digital converters (RDCs). One RDC is used for speeds from 0.00012 to 2.5 rpm; the other RDC is used for speeds of 2.5 to 6,000 rpm. For the lower speed range, the number of discrete steps of RDC output per revolution was set at 262,144 (4 quadrants at 16 bits per quadrant). For the higher speed range, the number of discrete steps per revolution was set at 4,096 (4 quadrants at 10 bits per quadrant).

  13. Individual differences in BEV drivers' range stress during first encounter of a critical range situation.

    PubMed

    Franke, Thomas; Rauh, Nadine; Krems, Josef F

    2016-11-01

    It is commonly held that range anxiety, in the form of experienced range stress, constitutes a usage barrier, particularly during the early period of battery electric vehicle (BEV) usage. To better understand factors that play a role in range stress during this critical period of adaptation to limited-range mobility, we examined individual differences in experienced range stress in the context of a critical range situation. In a field experiment, 74 participants drove a BEV on a 94-km round trip, which was tailored to lead to a critical range situation (i.e., small available range safety buffer). Higher route familiarity, trust in the range estimation system, system knowledge, subjective range competence, and internal control beliefs in dealing with technology were clearly related to lower experienced range stress; emotional stability (i.e., low neuroticism) was partly related to lower range stress. These results can inform strategies aimed at reducing range stress during early BEV usage, as well as contribute to a better understanding of factors that drive user experience in low-resource systems, which is a key topic in the field of green ergonomics. PMID:26456746

  14. Protected areas facilitate species' range expansions.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Chris D; Gillingham, Phillipa K; Bradbury, Richard B; Roy, David B; Anderson, Barbara J; Baxter, John M; Bourn, Nigel A D; Crick, Humphrey Q P; Findon, Richard A; Fox, Richard; Hodgson, Jenny A; Holt, Alison R; Morecroft, Mike D; O'Hanlon, Nina J; Oliver, Tom H; Pearce-Higgins, James W; Procter, Deborah A; Thomas, Jeremy A; Walker, Kevin J; Walmsley, Clive A; Wilson, Robert J; Hill, Jane K

    2012-08-28

    The benefits of protected areas (PAs) for biodiversity have been questioned in the context of climate change because PAs are static, whereas the distributions of species are dynamic. Current PAs may, however, continue to be important if they provide suitable locations for species to colonize at their leading-edge range boundaries, thereby enabling spread into new regions. Here, we present an empirical assessment of the role of PAs as targets for colonization during recent range expansions. Records from intensive surveys revealed that seven bird and butterfly species have colonized PAs 4.2 (median) times more frequently than expected from the availability of PAs in the landscapes colonized. Records of an additional 256 invertebrate species with less-intensive surveys supported these findings and showed that 98% of species are disproportionately associated with PAs in newly colonized parts of their ranges. Although colonizing species favor PAs in general, species vary greatly in their reliance on PAs, reflecting differences in the dependence of individual species on particular habitats and other conditions that are available only in PAs. These findings highlight the importance of current PAs for facilitating range expansions and show that a small subset of the landscape receives a high proportion of colonizations by range-expanding species. PMID:22893689

  15. Testing gravitational physics with satellite laser ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciufolini, Ignazio; Paolozzi, Antonio; Pavlis, Erricos C.; Ries, John; Koenig, Rolf; Matzner, Richard; Sindoni, Giampiero; Neumeyer, Hans

    2011-08-01

    Laser ranging, both Lunar (LLR) and Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), is one of the most accurate techniques to test gravitational physics and Einstein's theory of General Relativity. Lunar Laser Ranging has provided very accurate tests of both the strong equivalence principle, at the foundations of General Relativity, and of the weak equivalence principle, at the basis of any metric theory of gravity; it has provided strong limits to the values of the so-called PPN (Parametrized Post-Newtonian) parameters, that are used to test the post-Newtonian limit of General Relativity, strong limits to conceivable deviations to the inverse square law for very weak gravity and accurate measurements of the geodetic precession, an effect predicted by General Relativity. Satellite laser ranging has provided strong limits to deviations to the inverse square gravity law, at a different range with respect to LLR, and in particular has given the first direct test of the gravitomagnetic field by measuring the gravitomagnetic shift of the node of a satellite, a frame-dragging effect also called Lense-Thirring effect. Here, after an introduction to gravitomagnetism and frame-dragging, we describe the latest results in measuring the Lense-Thirring effect using the LAGEOS satellites and the latest gravity field models obtained by the space mission GRACE. Finally, we describe an update of the LARES (LAser RElativity Satellite) mission. LARES is planned for launch in 2011 to further improve the accuracy in the measurement of frame-dragging.

  16. Two wavelength satellite laser ranging using SPAD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prochazka, Ivan; Hamal, Karel; Jelinkova, Helena; Kirchner, Georg; Koidl, F.

    1993-01-01

    When ranging to satellites with lasers, there are several principal contributions to the error budget: from the laser ranging system on the ground, from the satellite retroarray geometry, and from the atmosphere. Using a single wavelength, we have routinely achieved a ranging precision of 8 millimeters when ranging to the ERS-1 and Starlette satellites. The systematic error of the atmosphere, assuming the existing dispersion models, is expected to be of the order of 1 cm. Multiple wavelengths ranging might contribute to the refinement of the existing models. Taking into account the energy balance, the existing picosecond lasers and the existing receiver and detection technology, several pairs or multiple wavelengths may be considered. To be able to improve the atmospheric models to the subcentimeter accuracy level, the differential time interval (DTI) has to be determined within a few picoseconds depending on the selected wavelength pair. There exist several projects based on picosecond lasers as transmitters and on two types of detection techniques: one is based on photodetectors, like photomultipliers or photodiodes connected to the time interval meters. Another technique is based on the use of a streak camera as an echo signal detector, temporal analyzer, and time interval vernier. The temporal analysis at a single wavelength using the streak camera showed the complexity of the problem.

  17. Long range target discrimination using UV fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, Mark; Lepley, Jason

    2011-06-01

    An active imaging system using UV fluorescence for target discrimination is proposed. The emission wavelength is characteristic of the target material and allows spectral discrimination of targets from clutter. The burst-illumination-LIDAR system transmits a laser pulse and the fluorescent return is detected with a synchronised gated imaging receiver. The short gate length (~ns) allowed by a micro-channel plate CCD reduces solar clutter. Detector noise is not the limiting factor because of the high MCP-CCD detectivity. Laser choice is constrained by the required laser pulse energy, laser size and robustness. The COTS solution identified is a diode-pumped, 4th harmonic converted, 1064nm laser. Nd:YAG, Nd:YLF and Nd:Alexandrite lasers have superior performance but require some development for this application. A pessimistic range model evaluates the optical powers. Comparison of the received fluorescent energy to the detector noise equivalent energy and the solar energy received provides the detection range limit. Performance of the proposed systems exceeds the detection range requirement for all samples evaluated and all varying conditions explored. The lowest range is for black paint with the COTS laser system and is 2860m; the best ranges exceed 5km.

  18. Devonian magmatism in Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Dillion, J.T.; Tilton, G.R.

    1985-04-01

    Devonian bimodel metaplutonic and metavolcanic rocks lie in parallel, west-trending belts in the southern Brooks Range. Overlapping distribution of the plutonic and volcanic rocks occurs in volcanic centers found south of the Doonerak window in the Wiseman, Chandalar, and Colleen quadrangles, and near the Beaver Creek pluton in the Survey Pass quadrangle. The Devonian age is interpreted from isotopic analyses of U and Pb of over 55 zircon fractions from these felsic metaigneous units. Considering concordia plots and Pb-Pb ages from over 40 discordant zircon fractions and fossil ages derived from marbles intercalated in the volcanic sequences, the authors see an age range of 360-410 Ma. The age range is attributed to variation in crystallization ages, as well as the U-Pb systematics of the Brooks Range zircons. Their overlapping age and distribution provides evidence for cogenesis of the Devonian plutonic and volcanic rocks, and also for their correlation with Devonian magmatic rocks of the North American Cordilleran. Lower intercepts on U-Pb concordia diagrams for these zircons range from 105 to 150 Ma, bracketing the end of lead loss resulting from metamorphism. The age of this metamorphic event corresponds to the Late Jurassic and earliest Cretaceous emplacement of the Angayucham terrane. U-Pb concordia plots of 15 zircon fractions from five samples of the Ernie Lake granitic gneiss bodies are explained as latest Proterozoic intrusion of granitic magma with entrained 2-Ga-old zircons, which subsequently lost lead during Mesozoic metamorphism.

  19. Passive ranging using a single IR sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey, W.; Gobel, R.W.; Draper, J.S.

    1994-12-31

    As current defense system architectures change and downsize there is a need to accomplish more with each sensors capability. Desert Storm`s missile to aircraft and missile to missile engagements elevated the need to better cope with early and stealthy assessment of the adversaries location while providing minimal compromise to the operator. The use of stealth vehicles introduces a requirement to deploy sensors that silently assess tactical and theater issues [battle damage assessment (BDA) and theater missile defense (TMD)] without preengagement detection. IR sensor system development and high speed, parallel, distributed processing make practical the implementation of compact passive ranging packages aboard satellites and aircraft. Here, single IR Sensor Passive Ranging from an observer to a target embedded in the atmosphere exploits the effect of atmospheric attenuation of the signal. By judicious choice of wavebands the range and altitude to a target can be determined passively with a single observer. This result will be shown to be relatively insensitive to assumed atmospheric models or precise source spectral content. A detailed closed-form solution relating range (and altitude) to observed target intensities will be presented. Previous studies of this type have required either detailed knowledge of the source spectra or spectral resolution of individual rotational lines. The single sensor passive ranging methodology requires no such detailed information.

  20. Passive ranging of boost-phase missiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawks, Michael; Perram, Glen

    2007-04-01

    The depth of absorption bands in observed spectra of distant, bright sources can be used to estimate range to the source. Previous efforts in this area relied on Beer's Law to estimate range from observations of infrared CO II bands, with disappointing results. A modified approach is presented that uses band models and observations of the O II absorption band near 762 nm. This band is spectrally isolated from other atmospheric bands, which enables direct estimation of molecular absorption from observed intensity. Range is estimated by comparing observed values of band-average absorption, (see manuscript), against predicted curves derived from either historical data or model predictions. Accuracy of better than 0.5% has been verified in short-range (up to 3km) experiments using a Fourier transform interferometer at 1cm -1 resolution. A conceptual design is described for a small, affordable passive ranging sensor suitable for use on tactical aircraft for missile attack warning and time-to-impact estimation. Models are used to extrapolate experimental results (using 1 cm -1 resolution data) to analyze expected performance of this filter-based system.

  1. Protected areas facilitate species’ range expansions

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Chris D.; Gillingham, Phillipa K.; Bradbury, Richard B.; Roy, David B.; Anderson, Barbara J.; Baxter, John M.; Bourn, Nigel A. D.; Crick, Humphrey Q. P.; Findon, Richard A.; Fox, Richard; Hodgson, Jenny A.; Holt, Alison R.; Morecroft, Mike D.; O’Hanlon, Nina J.; Oliver, Tom H.; Pearce-Higgins, James W.; Procter, Deborah A.; Thomas, Jeremy A.; Walker, Kevin J.; Walmsley, Clive A.; Wilson, Robert J.; Hill, Jane K.

    2012-01-01

    The benefits of protected areas (PAs) for biodiversity have been questioned in the context of climate change because PAs are static, whereas the distributions of species are dynamic. Current PAs may, however, continue to be important if they provide suitable locations for species to colonize at their leading-edge range boundaries, thereby enabling spread into new regions. Here, we present an empirical assessment of the role of PAs as targets for colonization during recent range expansions. Records from intensive surveys revealed that seven bird and butterfly species have colonized PAs 4.2 (median) times more frequently than expected from the availability of PAs in the landscapes colonized. Records of an additional 256 invertebrate species with less-intensive surveys supported these findings and showed that 98% of species are disproportionately associated with PAs in newly colonized parts of their ranges. Although colonizing species favor PAs in general, species vary greatly in their reliance on PAs, reflecting differences in the dependence of individual species on particular habitats and other conditions that are available only in PAs. These findings highlight the importance of current PAs for facilitating range expansions and show that a small subset of the landscape receives a high proportion of colonizations by range-expanding species. PMID:22893689

  2. Supersymmetric inversion of effective-range expansions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Midya, Bikashkali; Evrard, Jérémie; Abramowicz, Sylvain; Ramírez Suárez, O. L.; Sparenberg, Jean-Marc

    2015-05-01

    A complete and consistent inversion technique is proposed to derive an accurate interaction potential from an effective-range function for a given partial wave in the neutral case. First, the effective-range function is Taylor or Padé expanded, which allows high precision fitting of the experimental scattering phase shifts with a minimal number of parameters on a large energy range. Second, the corresponding poles of the scattering matrix are extracted in the complex wave-number plane. Third, the interaction potential is constructed with supersymmetric transformations of the radial Schrödinger equation. As an illustration, the method is applied to the experimental phase shifts of the neutron-proton elastic scattering in the 1S0 and 1D2 channels on the [0 -350 ] MeV laboratory energy interval.

  3. Extended inertial range phenomenology of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthaeus, William H.; Zhou, YE

    1989-01-01

    A phenomenological treatment of the inertial range of isotropic statistically steady magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is presented, extending the theory of Kraichnan (1965). The role of Alfven wave propagation is treated on equal footing with nonlinear convection, leading to a simple generalization of the relations between the times characteristic of wave propagation, convection, energy transfer, and decay of triple correlations. The theory leads to a closed-form steady inertial range spectral law that reduces to the Kraichnan and Kolmogorov laws in appropriate limits. The Kraichnan constant is found to be related in a simple way to the Kolmogorov constant; for typical values of the latter constant, the former has values in the range 1.22-1.87. Estimates of the time scale associated with spectral transfer of energy also emerge from the new approach, generalizing previously presented 'golden rules' for relating the spectral transfer time scale to the Alfven and eddy-turnover time scales.

  4. Transverse ranges and neotectonics of southern California

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    The Transverse Ranges and the east-trending folds and reverse faults that elevate them began forming in mid-Pleistocene time by regional north-south crustal shortening. The adjacent Mojave Desert and Basin and Range provinces continue to respond to this regional strain by east-west crustal extension. Before {approximately}5 Ma the regional structure was characterized by conjugate northwest-trending right-slip faults (San Andreas set) and northeast-trending left-slip faults (Garlock set). Thereafter, the San Andreas set of faults became simple shears separating the North American and Pacific plates. With the mid-Pleistocene inception of the Transverse Ranges, the San Andreas fault deviated from its N40{degree} - 45{degree}W trend in short N75{degree}W-trending segments on the north and south sides of these mountains in response to the new, and local, strain system of upward crustal extension.

  5. Long-range correlations in nucleotide sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, C.-K.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Goldberger, A. L.; Havlin, S.; Sciortino, F.; Simons, M.; Stanley, H. E.

    1992-03-01

    DNA SEQUENCES have been analysed using models, such as an it-step Markov chain, that incorporate the possibility of short-range nucleotide correlations1. We propose here a method for studying the stochastic properties of nucleotide sequences by constructing a 1:1 map of the nucleotide sequence onto a walk, which we term a 'DNA walk'. We then use the mapping to provide a quantitative measure of the correlation between nucleotides over long distances along the DNA chain. Thus we uncover in the nucleotide sequence a remarkably long-range power law correlation that implies a new scale-invariant property of DNA. We find such long-range correlations in intron-containing genes and in nontranscribed regulatory DNA sequences, but not in complementary DNA sequences or intron-less genes.

  6. Extended range radiation dose-rate monitor

    DOEpatents

    Valentine, Kenneth H.

    1988-01-01

    An extended range dose-rate monitor is provided which utilizes the pulse pileup phenomenon that occurs in conventional counting systems to alter the dynamic response of the system to extend the dose-rate counting range. The current pulses from a solid-state detector generated by radiation events are amplified and shaped prior to applying the pulses to the input of a comparator. The comparator generates one logic pulse for each input pulse which exceeds the comparator reference threshold. These pulses are integrated and applied to a meter calibrated to indicate the measured dose-rate in response to the integrator output. A portion of the output signal from the integrator is fed back to vary the comparator reference threshold in proportion to the output count rate to extend the sensitive dynamic detection range by delaying the asymptotic approach of the integrator output toward full scale as measured by the meter.

  7. On-Orbit Range Set Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzinger, M.; Scheeres, D.

    2011-09-01

    History and methodology of ∆v range set computation is briefly reviewed, followed by a short summary of the ∆v optimal spacecraft servicing problem literature. Service vehicle placement is approached from a ∆v range set viewpoint, providing a framework under which the analysis becomes quite geometric and intuitive. The optimal servicing tour design problem is shown to be a specific instantiation of the metric- Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP), which in general is an NP-hard problem. The ∆v-TSP is argued to be quite similar to the Euclidean-TSP, for which approximate optimal solutions may be found in polynomial time. Applications of range sets are demonstrated using analytical and simulation results.

  8. Results of laser ranging collocations during 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolenkiewicz, R.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of laser ranging collocations is to compare the ability of two satellite laser ranging systems, located in the vicinity of one another, to measure the distance to an artificial Earth satellite in orbit over the sites. The similar measurement of this distance is essential before a new or modified laser system is deployed to worldwide locations in order to gather the data necessary to meet the scientific goals of the Crustal Dynamics Project. In order to be certain the laser systems are operating properly, they are periodically compared with each other. These comparisons or collocations are performed by locating the lasers side by side when they track the same satellite during the same time or pass. The data is then compared to make sure the lasers are giving essentially the same range results. Results of the three collocations performed during 1983 are given.

  9. High dynamic range infrared radiometry and imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coon, Darryl D.; Karunasiri, R. P. G.; Bandara, K. M. S. V.

    1988-01-01

    The use is described of cryogenically cooled, extrinsic silicon infrared detectors in an unconventional mode of operation which offers an unusually large dynamic range. The system performs intensity-to-frequency conversion at the focal plane via simple circuits with very low power consumption. The incident IR intensity controls the repetition rate of short duration output pulses over a pulse rate dynamic range of about 10(6). Theory indicates the possibility of monotonic and approx. linear response over the full dynamic range. A comparison between the theoretical and the experimental results shows that the model provides a reasonably good description of experimental data. Some measurements of survivability with a very intense IR source were made on these devices and found to be very encouraging. Evidence continues to indicate that some variations in interpulse time intervals are deterministic rather than probabilistic.

  10. Tropospheric range error parameters: Further studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopfield, H. S.

    1972-01-01

    Improved parameters are presented for predicting the tropospheric effect on electromagnetic range measurements from surface meteorological data. Parameters are given for computing the dry component of the zenith radio range effect from surface pressure alone with an rms error of 1 to 2 mm, or the total range effect from the dry and wet components of the surface refractivity, N, and a two-part quartic profile model. The parameters were obtained from meteorological balloon data with improved procedures, including the conversion of the geopotential heights of the balloon data to actual or geometric heights before using the data. The revised values of the parameter k show more latitude variation than is accounted for by the variation of g. This excess variation of k indicates a small latitude variation in the mean molecular weight of air and yields information about the latitude-varying water vapor content of air.

  11. Dynamic range tuning of graphene nanoresonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmar, Marsha M.; Gangavarapu, P. R. Yasasvi; Naik, A. K.

    2015-09-01

    From sensing perspective, smaller electromechanical devices, in general, are expected to be more responsive to the stimuli. This enhanced performance, however, is contingent upon the noise sources remaining unchanged and the onset of nonlinear behavior not being precipitated by miniaturization. In this paper, we study the effect of strain on the nonlinearities and dynamic range in graphene nanoresonators. The dynamic response and the onset of nonlinearity in these devices are sensitive both to the electrostatic field used to actuate the device and the strain. By tuning the strain of the device by two orders of magnitude, we observe an enhancement of 25 dB in the dynamic range leading to a mass resolution of 100 yoctogram. The increase in dynamic range in our devices is modeled as a combined effect of strain and partial cancellation of elastic and electrostatic nonlinearities.

  12. Long- and Short-Term Processes Indicated by the Displacement of the Chamber Roofs in the Monumental Wieliczka Salt Mine / Długo- i krótkotrwałe procesy sygnalizowane przemieszczeniami stropu komór w zabytkowej kopalni soli wieliczka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortas, Grzegorz

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents several processes that are characteristic for the salt rock mass, which have been found upon analysis of observations of the chamber roof displacements in the monumental Wieliczka Salt Mine. Those processes are revealed in different time frames and they range from short- to long-term ones. A regular long-term increase or decrease of creeping rate in the chamber roof is expressed by power function of time. It was found that an annual component of that process consists in the season cycle, marked by increased displacement rates in the summer and reduced ones in the winter. The seasonal changes in air humidity are the cause of those cycles. A rock slip cycle is observed in some chambers during several months. In those periods, we can identify displacements that happen when internal static and dynamic friction is overcome. In 2007-2009, single signals from large-area rock-mass movements were recorded in several chambers. They were probably associated with the change of geo-mechanical conditions in northern region of rock mass after a leak had been plugged in the cross-corridor Mina. The results of our analysis have revealed new cognitive components contributing to the description of rock behaviour in specific geological and mining conditions of Miocene salt deposits.

  13. Seismicity of the Coso Range, California

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, A.W.; Weaver, C.S.

    1980-05-10

    A 16-station seismographic network, approximately 40 km north-south by 30 km east-west, was installed in the Coso Range, California, in September 1975 as part of a geological and geophysical assessment of the geothermal resource potential of range. During the first 2 years of network operations, 4216 local earthquakes (0.5< or =m< or =3.9) defined zones of seismicity that strike radially outward from a Pleistocene rhyolite field located near the center of the Coso Range. Most earthquakes were located in zones showing a general northwest trend across the range. Six earthquake swarms occurred within the area that includes the rhyolite field. Fault plane solutions show regional north-south compression: earthquakes located in northwest striking zones generally had right lateral strike slip focal mechanisms, those in northeast striking zones left lateral strike slip focal mechanisms, and those in north-south striking zones both normal and strike slip focal mechanisms. Earthquake depths showed little variation across the Coso Range; the depth distribution is similar to that of several carefully studied segments of the central San Andreas fault. The b value calculated for the entire range is 0.99 +- 0.08. The rhyolite field has a significantly higher b value of 1.26 +- 0.16; if only the shallow events (depth <5 km) are used in the calculation, the b value for this area becomes even higher, 1.34 +- 0.24. The higher b values were interpreted as reflecting the existence of short average fault lengths (<5 km) within the rhyolite field. The seismic data and other data suggest that the fault system lying between the rhyolite field and the adjacent Coso Basin is an important tectonic boundary. Present information is insufficient to determine the geothermal production capability of this fault system, but is does suggest that the system is a good target for further exploration.

  14. Study on short distance laser ranging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Jianan; Li, Jicheng; Zhang, Cong

    2015-02-01

    Laser ranging technology is an industrial non contact measuring technology. With the rapidly development of electronics and optical technology, the measuring precision has been improved continuously. In this paper, a simple structure measuring system which based on laser triangulation measuring theory, was built. The system consist of single point laser and CMOS receiver, its measuring range is from 90mm to 110mm. In order to get a higher position accuracy of light spot, gauss cumulative method was used in this paper. For realize the precision system calibration, a linear calibration method was introduced. The experiment shows that the system get a measuring precision of 10um.

  15. Current Trends in Satellite Laser Ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, M. R.; Appleby, G. M.; Kirchner, G.; McGarry, J.; Murphy, T.; Noll, C. E.; Pavlis, E. C.; Pierron, F.

    2010-01-01

    Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) techniques are used to accurately measure the distance from ground stations to retroreflectors on satellites and the moon. SLR is one of the fundamental techniques that define the international Terrestrial Reference Frame (iTRF), which is the basis upon which we measure many aspects of global change over space, time, and evolving technology. It is one of the fundamental techniques that define at a level of precision of a few mm the origin and scale of the ITRF. Laser Ranging provides precision orbit determination and instrument calibration/validation for satellite-borne altimeters for the better understanding of sea level change, ocean dynamics, ice budget, and terrestrial topography. Laser ranging is also a tool to study the dynamics of the Moon and fundamental constants. Many of the GNSS satellites now carry retro-reflectors for improved orbit determination, harmonization of reference frames, and in-orbit co-location and system performance validation. The GNSS Constellations will be the means of making the reference frame available to worldwide users. Data and products from these measurements support key aspects of the GEOSS 10-Year implementation Plan adopted on February 16, 2005, The ITRF has been identified as a key contribution of the JAG to GEOSS and the ILRS makes a major contribution for its development since its foundation. The ILRS delivers weekly additional realizations that are accumulated sequentially to extend the ITRF and the Earth Orientation Parameter (EOP) series with a daily resolution. Additional products are currently under development such as precise orbits of satellites, EOP with daily availability, low-degree gravitational harmonics for studies of Earth dynamics and kinematics, etc. SLR technology continues to evolve toward the next generation laser ranging systems as programmatic requirements become more stringent. Ranging accuracy is improving as higher repetition rate, narrower pulse lasers and faster

  16. Safety assessment of outdoor live fire range

    SciTech Connect

    1989-05-01

    The following Safety Assessment (SA) pertains to the outdoor live fire range facility (LFR). The purpose of this facility is to supplement the indoor LFR. In particular it provides capacity for exercises that would be inappropriate on the indoor range. This SA examines the risks that are attendant to the training on the outdoor LFR. The outdoor LFR used by EG&G Mound is privately owned. It is identified as the Miami Valley Shooting Grounds. Mondays are leased for the exclusive use of EG&G Mound.

  17. Wide-range radiation dose monitor

    DOEpatents

    Kopp, Manfred K.

    1986-01-01

    A radiation dose-rate monitor is provided which operates in a conventional linear mode for radiation in the 0 to 0.5 R/h range and utilizes a nonlinear mode of operation for sensing radiation from 0.5 R/h to over 500 R/h. The nonlinear mode is achieved by a feedback circuit which adjusts the high voltage bias of the proportional counter, and hence its gas gain, in accordance with the amount of radiation being monitored. This allows compression of readout onto a single scale over the range of 0 to greater than 500 R/h without scale switching operations.

  18. Wide-range radiation dose monitor

    DOEpatents

    Kopp, M.K.

    1984-09-20

    A radiation dose-rate monitor is provided which operates in a conventional linear mode for radiation in the 0 to 0.5 R/h range and utilizes a nonlinear mode of operation for sensing radiation from 0.5 R/h to over 500 R/h. The nonlinear mode is achieved by a feedback circuit which adjusts the high voltage bias of the proportional counter, and hence its gas gain, in accordance with the amount of radiation being monitored. This allows compression of readout onto a single scale over the range of 0 to greater than 500 R/h without scale switching operations.

  19. Atmospheric refraction errors in laser ranging systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, C. S.; Rowlett, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of horizontal refractivity gradients on the accuracy of laser ranging systems were investigated by ray tracing through three dimensional refractivity profiles. The profiles were generated by performing a multiple regression on measurements from seven or eight radiosondes, using a refractivity model which provided for both linear and quadratic variations in the horizontal direction. The range correction due to horizontal gradients was found to be an approximately sinusoidal function of azimuth having a minimum near 0 deg azimuth and a maximum near 180 deg azimuth. The peak to peak variation was approximately 5 centimeters at 10 deg elevation and decreased to less than 1 millimeter at 80 deg elevation.

  20. Short-Range Structure of Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Higinbotham, Douglas W.

    2008-10-13

    The nucleons in a nucleus can form short-range correlated pairs. A recent Jefferson Lab electron scattering experiment, where a proton was knocked-out of the nucleus with high momentum transfer and high missing momentum, has shown that in {sup 12}C the neutron-proton pairs are nearly twenty times as prevalent as proton-proton pairs and, by inference, neutron-neutron pairs. This difference between the types of pairs has been shown to be due to the short-range tensor part of the nucleon-nucleon interaction.

  1. Photon assisted long-range tunneling

    SciTech Connect

    Gallego-Marcos, Fernando; Sánchez, Rafael; Platero, Gloria

    2015-03-21

    We analyze long-range transport through an ac driven triple quantum dot with a single electron. Resonant transitions between separated and detuned dots are mediated by the exchange of n photons with the time-dependent field. An effective model is proposed in terms of second order (cotunneling) processes which dominate the long-range transport between the edge quantum dots. The ac field renormalizes the inter dot hopping, modifying the level hybridization. It results in a non-trivial behavior of the current with the frequency and amplitude of the external ac field.

  2. High dynamic range holographic data storage media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askham, Fred; Ayres, Mark R.; Urness, Adam C.

    2015-08-01

    Holographic data storage (HDS) employs the physics of holography to record digital data in three dimensions in a highly stable photopolymer medium. The photopolymer medium must provide the essential characteristics of low scatter and high dynamic range while maintaining low recording induced physical shrinkage and long archival lifetimes. In this article, we report on media advancements employing Akonia's DREDTM technology which provide a 5x increase in media dynamic range with unchanged media shrinkage. We also discuss the implications of these results for photopolymer media mechanistic models.

  3. Long-range imaging ladar flight test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, James; Steiner, Todd D.; Mandeville, William J.; Dinndorf, Kenneth M.; Krasutsky, Nick J.; Minor, John L.

    1995-06-01

    Wright Laboratory and Loral Vought Systems (LVS) have been involved for the last nine years in the research and development of high power diode pumped solid state lasers for medium to long range laser radar (LADAR) seekers for tactical air-to-ground munitions. LVS provided the lead in three key LADAR programs at Wright Lab; the Submunition Guidance Program (Subguide), the Low Cost Anti-Armor Submunition Program (LOCAAS) and the Diode Laser and Detector Array Development Program (3-D). This paper discusses recent advances through the 3-D program that provide the opportunity to obtain three dimensional laser radar imagery in captive flight at a range of 5 km.

  4. Range Filtering For Navigation By Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paielli, Russell

    1989-01-01

    Less processing and storage of data needed. Mathematical basis developed for Kalman filtering of sequential measurements of range from single-channel receiver in Global Positioning System (GPS) to each of several navigation satellites. Range filtering involves separate applications of kinematic Kalman tracking filter to measurements of signal from each satellite in use. State vector consists of pseudorange and time derivatives. Main advantages: simplification of tuning and decreases in required amounts of storage and processing of data for navigation in ships, airplanes, and ground vehicles.

  5. Inertial Range Dynamics in Boussinesq Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubinstein, Robert

    1996-01-01

    L'vov and Falkovich have shown that the dimensionally possible inertial range scaling laws for Boussinesq turbulence, Kolmogorov and Bolgiano scaling, describe steady states with constant flux of kinetic energy and of entropy respectively. These scaling laws are treated as similarity solutions of the direct interaction approximation for Boussinesq turbulence. The Kolmogorov scaling solution corresponds to a weak perturbation by gravity of a state in which the temperature is a passive scalar but in which a source of temperature fluctuations exists. Using standard inertial range balances, the renormalized viscosity and conductivity, turbulent Prandtl number, and spectral scaling law constants are computed for Bolgiano scaling.

  6. Laser Doppler And Range Systems For Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinman, P. W.; Gagliardi, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    Report discusses two types of proposed laser systems containing active transponders measuring distance (range) and line-of-sight velocity (via Doppler effect) between deep space vehicle and earth-orbiting satellite. Laser system offers diffraction advantage over microwave system. Delivers comparable power to distant receiver while using smaller transmitting and receiving antennas and less-powerful transmitter. Less subject to phase scintillations caused by passage through such inhomogeneous media as solar corona. One type of system called "incoherent" because range and Doppler measurements do not require coherence with laser carrier signals. Other type of system called "coherent" because successful operation requires coherent tracking of laser signals.

  7. GOPEX at the Starfire Optical Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fugate, R. Q.

    1993-01-01

    The Starfire Optical Range successfully conducted laser upink experiments to the Galileo spacecraft during the early morning hours of December 9, 10, 11, and 12, 1992, when the spacecraft was at ranges between 700,000 and 3 million km from Earth. Analysts at JPL have reported as many as 79 pulse detections by the spacecraft. The best weather conditions occurred on the second night when 37 pulses were detected with as many as five on one frame. Signal levels at the spacecraft generally agree with predictions.

  8. Forest and Range Inventory and Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldrich, R. C.

    1971-01-01

    The state of the art in remote sensing for forest and range inventories and mapping has been discussed. There remains a long way to go before some of these techniques can be used on an operational basis. By the time that the Earth Resources Technology Satellite and Skylab space missions are flown, it should be possible to tell what kind and what quality of information can be extracted from remote sensors and how it can be used for surveys of forest and range resources.

  9. Frequency skewed optical pulses for range detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozharar, Sarper; Gee, Sangyoun; Quinlan, Franklyn; Delfyett, Peter J., Jr.

    2007-04-01

    Frequency skewed optical pulses are generated via both a composite cavity structure in a fiberized semiconductor optical amplifier ring laser and a frequency skew loop outside the laser cavity. The composite cavity technique is similar to rational harmonic mode-locking, however it is based on cavity detuning rather than frequency detuning. These frequency skewed pulses are ideal for range detection applications since their interference results in a range dependent RF signal. The intracavity frequency skewed pulse train showed superior performance in both stability and signal quality.

  10. Lunar laser ranging data identification and management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Activity under the subject grant during the first half of fiscal year 1979 at the University of Texas at Austin is reported. Raw lunar laser ranging data submitted by McDonald Observatory, Fort Davis, Texas and by the Australian Division of National Mapping at Orroral Valley, Australia were processed. This processing includes the filtering of signal events from noise photons, normal point formation, data archive management, and data distribution. System-wide program maintenance and up-grade carried out wherever and whenever necessary. Lunar laser ranging data is being transmitted from Austin to Paris for the extraction of earth rotation information during the EROLD campaign.

  11. Photon assisted long-range tunneling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego-Marcos, Fernando; Sánchez, Rafael; Platero, Gloria

    2015-03-01

    We analyze long-range transport through an ac driven triple quantum dot with a single electron. Resonant transitions between separated and detuned dots are mediated by the exchange of n photons with the time-dependent field. An effective model is proposed in terms of second order (cotunneling) processes which dominate the long-range transport between the edge quantum dots. The ac field renormalizes the inter dot hopping, modifying the level hybridization. It results in a non-trivial behavior of the current with the frequency and amplitude of the external ac field.

  12. Exploiting range imagery: techniques and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armbruster, Walter

    2009-07-01

    Practically no applications exist for which automatic processing of 2D intensity imagery can equal human visual perception. This is not the case for range imagery. The paper gives examples of 3D laser radar applications, for which automatic data processing can exceed human visual cognition capabilities and describes basic processing techniques for attaining these results. The examples are drawn from the fields of helicopter obstacle avoidance, object detection in surveillance applications, object recognition at high range, multi-object-tracking, and object re-identification in range image sequences. Processing times and recognition performances are summarized. The techniques used exploit the bijective continuity of the imaging process as well as its independence of object reflectivity, emissivity and illumination. This allows precise formulations of the probability distributions involved in figure-ground segmentation, feature-based object classification and model based object recognition. The probabilistic approach guarantees optimal solutions for single images and enables Bayesian learning in range image sequences. Finally, due to recent results in 3D-surface completion, no prior model libraries are required for recognizing and re-identifying objects of quite general object categories, opening the way to unsupervised learning and fully autonomous cognitive systems.

  13. Transponder System for High-Frequency Ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichtenberg, C. L.; Shores, P. W.; Kobayashi, H. S.

    1986-01-01

    Transponder system uses phase difference between transmitted and reflected high-frequency radio waves to measure distance to target. To suppress spurious measurements of reflections from objects near target at transmitted frequency and its harmonics, transponder at target generates return signal at half transmitted frequency. System useful in such applications as surveying, docking of ships, and short-range navigation.

  14. SALMONELLA ON FREE-RANGE CHICKENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many consumers assume that broiler chickens grown under traditional commercial conditions will have more salmonella than free-range chickens which are usually less crowded and have access to outside spaces during grow-out. However, because of the lack of published information about the microbiologi...

  15. Least limiting water range of soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The least limiting water range (LLWR) has been developed as an index of the soil structural quality. The LLWR was defined as the region bounded by the upper and lower soil water content over which water, oxygen, and mechanical resistance become major limitations for root growth. Thus, it combines th...

  16. Long-Range Plan, 1978-83.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonas, Stephen

    This nine-part, long-range plan discusses the internal and external factors that will affect Lorain County Community College's (LCCC's) development from 1978 to 1983 and presents a forecast of LCCC's future needs. Part I traces the history of LCCC, provides a conceptual framework for college planning, and discusses the plan development process…

  17. Range gating experiments through a scattering media

    SciTech Connect

    Payton, J.; Cverna, F.; Gallegos, R.; McDonald, T.; Numkena, D.; Obst, A.; Pena-Abeyta, C.; Yates, G.

    1998-12-31

    This paper discusses range-gated imaging experiments performed recently at Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama. Range gating is an imaging technique that uses a pulsed laser and gated camera to image objects at specific ranges. The technique can be used for imaging through scattering media such as dense smoke or fog. Range gating uses the fact that light travels at 3 x 10{sup 8} m/s. Knowing the speed of light the authors can calculate the time it will take the laser light to travel a known distance, then gate open a Micro Channel Plate Image Intensifier (MCPII) at the time the reflected light returns from the target. In the Redstone experiment the gate width on the MCPII was set to equal the laser pulse width ({approximately} 8 ns) for the highest signal to noise ratio. The gate allows the light reflected form the target and a small portion of the light reflected from the smoke in the vicinity of the target to be imaged. They obtained good results in light and medium smoke but the laser they were used did not have sufficient intensity to penetrate the thickest smoke. They did not diverge the laser beam to cover the entire target in order to maintain a high flux that would achieve better penetration through the smoke. They were able to image an Armored Personnel Carrier (APC) through light and medium smoke but they were not able to image the APC through heavy smoke. The experiment and results are presented.

  18. Controlling a wide range of flow rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, G. S.

    1979-01-01

    Servo-operated valve and two flowmeters allow accurate control over 1,900:1 flow-rate range. It was developed as part of laboratory instrument for measuring properties of confined fluids under conditions analogous to those encountered in deep drilling operations.

  19. Shadow Attenuation With High Dynamic Range Images

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shadow often interferes with accurate image analysis. To mitigate shadow effects in near-earth imagery (2 m above ground level), we created high dynamic range (HDR) nadir images and used them to measure grassland ground cover. HDR composites were created by merging three differentially-exposed image...

  20. Wide temperature range seal for demountable joints

    DOEpatents

    Sixsmith, Herbert; Valenzuela, Javier A.; Nutt, William E.

    1991-07-23

    The present invention is directed to a seal for demountable joints operating over a wide temperature range down to liquid helium temperatures. The seal has anti-extrusion guards which prevent extrusion of the soft ductile sealant material, which may be indium or an alloy thereof.

  1. Global Test Range: Toward Airborne Sensor Webs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mace, Thomas H.; Freudinger, Larry; DelFrate John H.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the planned global sensor network that will monitor the Earth's climate, and resources using airborne sensor systems. The vision is an intelligent, affordable Earth Observation System. Global Test Range is a lab developing trustworthy services for airborne instruments - a specialized Internet Service Provider. There is discussion of several current and planned missions.

  2. Discussion of long-range weather prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1998-09-10

    A group of scientists at Los Alamos have held a series of discussions of the issues in and prospects for improvements in Long-range Weather Predictions Enabled by Proving of the Atmosphere at High Space-Time Resolution. The group contained the requisite skills for a full evaluation, although this report presents only an informal discussion of the main technical issues. The group discussed all aspects of the proposal, which are grouped below into the headings: (1) predictability; (2) sensors and satellites, (3) DIAL and atmospheric sensing; (4) localized transponders; and (5) summary and integration. Briefly, the group agreed that the relative paucity of observations of the state of the atmosphere severely inhibits the accuracy of weather forecasts, and any program that leads to a more dense and uniform observational network is welcome. As shown in Long-range Weather more dense and uniform observational network is welcome. As shown in Long-range Weather Predictions, the pay-back of accurate long-range forecasts should more than justify the expenditure associated with improved observations and forecast models required. The essential step is to show that the needed technologies are available for field test and space qualification.

  3. Compact range for variable-zone measurements

    DOEpatents

    Burnside, Walter D.; Rudduck, Roger C.; Yu, Jiunn S.

    1988-01-01

    A compact range for testing antennas or radar targets includes a source for directing energy along a feedline toward a parabolic reflector. The reflected wave is a spherical wave with a radius dependent on the distance of the source from the focal point of the reflector.

  4. Compact range for variable-zone measurements

    DOEpatents

    Burnside, W.D.; Rudduck, R.C.; Yu, J.S.

    1987-02-27

    A compact range for testing antennas or radar targets includes a source for directing energy along a feedline toward a parabolic reflector. The reflected wave is a spherical wave with a radius dependent on the distance of the source from the focal point of the reflector. 2 figs.

  5. Predicting individual fusional range from optometric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endrikhovski, Serguei; Jin, Elaine; Miller, Michael E.; Ford, Robert W.

    2005-03-01

    A model was developed to predict the range of disparities that can be fused by an individual user from optometric measurements. This model uses parameters, such as dissociated phoria and fusional reserves, to calculate an individual user"s fusional range (i.e., the disparities that can be fused on stereoscopic displays) when the user views a stereoscopic stimulus from various distances. This model is validated by comparing its output with data from a study in which the individual fusional range of a group of users was quantified while they viewed a stereoscopic display from distances of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 meters. Overall, the model provides good data predictions for the majority of the subjects and can be generalized for other viewing conditions. The model may, therefore, be used within a customized stereoscopic system, which would render stereoscopic information in a way that accounts for the individual differences in fusional range. Because the comfort of an individual user also depends on the user"s ability to fuse stereo images, such a system may, consequently, improve the comfort level and viewing experience for people with different stereoscopic fusional capabilities.

  6. Look Ahead: Long-Range Learning Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2010-01-01

    Faced with an unsteady economy and fluctuating learning needs, planning a learning strategy designed to last longer than the next six months can be a tall order. But a long-range learning plan can provide a road map for success. In this article, four companies (KPMG LLP, CarMax, DPR Construction, and EMC Corp.) describe their learning plans, and…

  7. The ideal Kolmogorov inertial range and constant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, YE

    1993-01-01

    The energy transfer statistics measured in numerically simulated flows are found to be nearly self-similar for wavenumbers in the inertial range. Using the measured self-similar form, an 'ideal' energy transfer function and the corresponding energy flux rate were deduced. From this flux rate, the Kolmogorov constant was calculated to be 1.5, in excellent agreement with experiments.

  8. Wide temperature range seal for demountable joints

    DOEpatents

    Sixsmith, H.; Valenzuela, J.A.; Nutt, W.E.

    1991-07-23

    The present invention is directed to a seal for demountable joints operating over a wide temperature range down to liquid helium temperatures. The seal has anti-extrusion guards which prevent extrusion of the soft ductile sealant material, which may be indium or an alloy thereof. 6 figures.

  9. Antenna induced range smearing in MST radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, B. J.; Johnston, P. E.

    1984-01-01

    There is considerable interest in developing stratosphere troposphere (ST) and mesosphere stratosphere troposphere (MST) radars for higher resolution to study small-scale turbulent structures and waves. At present most ST and MST radars have resolutions of 150 meters or larger, and are not able to distinguish the thin (40 - 100 m) turbulent layers that are known to occur in the troposphere and stratosphere, and possibly in the mesosphere. However the antenna beam width and sidelobe level become important considerations for radars with superior height resolution. The objective of this paper is to point out that for radars with range resolutions of about 150 meters or less, there may be significant range smearing of the signals from mesospheric altitudes due to the finite beam width of the radar antenna. At both stratospheric and mesospheric heights the antenna sidelobe level for lear equally spaced phased arrays may also produce range aliased signals. To illustrate this effect the range smearing functions for two vertically directed antennas have been calculated, (1) an array of 32 coaxial-collinear strings each with 48 elements that simulates the vertical beam of the Poker Flat, Glaska, MST radar; and (2) a similar, but smaller, array of 16 coaxial-collinear strings each with 24 elements.

  10. Constrained optimum trajectories with specified range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, H.; Lee, H.

    1980-01-01

    The characteristics of optimum fixed-range trajectories whose structure is constrained to climb, steady cruise, and descent segments are derived by application of optimal control theory. The performance function consists of the sum of fuel and time costs, referred to as direct operating costs (DOC). The state variable is range-to-go and the independent variable is energy. In this formulation a cruise segment always occurs at the optimum cruise energy for sufficiently large range. At short ranges (500 n. mi. and less) a cruise segment may also occur below the optimum cruise energy. The existence of such a cruise segment depends primarily on the fuel flow vs thrust characteristics and on thrust constraints. If thrust is a free control variable along with airspeed, it is shown that such cruise segments will not generally occur. If thrust is constrained to some maximum value in climb and to some minimum in descent, such cruise segments generally will occur. The performance difference between free thrust and constrained thrust trajectories has been determined in computer calculations for an example transport aircraft.

  11. Compact range for variable-zone measurements

    DOEpatents

    Burnside, Walter D.; Rudduck, Roger C.; Yu, Jiunn S.

    1988-08-02

    A compact range for testing antennas or radar targets includes a source for directing energy along a feedline toward a parabolic reflector. The reflected wave is a spherical wave with a radius dependent on the distance of the source from the focal point of the reflector.

  12. Nonperturbative short-range dynamics in TMDs

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, Christian

    2013-05-01

    This presentation covers: deep inelastic processes and transverse momentum distributions; chiral symmetry breaking, including the physical picture, the dynamical model, and parton distributions; partonic structures, including transverse momentum distributions, coordinate space correlator, and short range correlations; and measurements of semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering, correlations, and multi-parton processes in pp interactions.

  13. Range Imaging for Underwater Vision Enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Rish, J.W.; Blume, B.; Nellums, B.; Sackos, J.; Foster, J.; Wood, J.L.

    1999-04-19

    This paper presents results from a series of preliminary tests to evaluate a scannerless range-imaging device as a potential sensory enhancement tool for divers and as a potential identification sensor for deployment on small unmanned underwater vehicles. The device, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, forms an image on the basis of point-to-point range to the target rather than an intensity map. The range image is constructed through a classical continuous wave phase detection technique in which the light source is amplitude modulated at radio frequencies. The receiver incorporates a gain-modulated image intensifier, and range information is calculated on the basis of the phase difference between the transmitted and reflected signal. The initial feasibility test at the Coastal Systems Station showed the device to be effective at imaging low-contrast underwater targets such as concertina wire. It also demonstrated success at imaging a 21-inch sphere at a depth of 10 feet in the water column through a wavy air-water interface.

  14. Resources and Long-Range Forecasts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Waldo E.

    1973-01-01

    The author argues that forecasts of quick depletion of resources in the environment as a result of overpopulation and increased usage may not be free from error. Ignorance still exists in understanding the recovery mechanisms of nature. Long-range forecasts are likely to be wrong in such situations. (PS)

  15. TEMPERATURE AND RANGE EXTENSION BY PERKINSUS MARINUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Between 1990 and 1992, Dermo disease of oysters, caused by Perkinsus marinus, experienced a 500-km northward range extension and is now established as far north as Massachusetts. Climate warming during the 1980s and early 1990s, combined with historical introductions of infected ...

  16. Signal phase switches offer greater dynamic range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crow, R. B.

    1970-01-01

    Circuit, placed in the signal path of a closed-loop receiver to modulate telemetered data in the 10-MHz spectrum, improves signal-to-noise ratio by 3 db in a communication receiver. The switch enables bandwidth reduction which reduces noise overload on the following stages, giving the system greater dynamic range.

  17. Impulse radar with swept range gate

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-09-08

    A radar range finder and hidden object locator is based on ultra-wide band radar with a high resolution swept range gate. The device generates an equivalent time amplitude scan with a typical range of 4 inches to 20 feet, and an analog range resolution as limited by a jitter of on the order of 0.01 inches. A differential sampling receiver is employed to effectively eliminate ringing and other aberrations induced in the receiver by the near proximity of the transmit antenna, so a background subtraction is not needed, simplifying the circuitry while improving performance. Techniques are used to reduce clutter in the receive signal, such as decoupling the receive and transmit cavities by placing a space between them, using conductive or radiative damping elements on the cavities, and using terminating plates on the sides of the openings. The antennas can be arranged in a side-by-side parallel spaced apart configuration or in a coplanar opposed configuration which significantly reduces main bang coupling. 25 figs.

  18. Impulse radar with swept range gate

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1998-09-08

    A radar range finder and hidden object locator is based on ultra-wide band radar with a high resolution swept range gate. The device generates an equivalent time amplitude scan with a typical range of 4 inches to 20 feet, and an analog range resolution as limited by a jitter of on the order of 0.01 inches. A differential sampling receiver is employed to effectively eliminate ringing and other aberrations induced in the receiver by the near proximity of the transmit antenna (10), so a background subtraction is not needed, simplifying the circuitry while improving performance. Techniques are used to reduce clutter in the receive signal, such as decoupling the receive (24) and transmit cavities (22) by placing a space between them, using conductive or radiative damping elements on the cavities, and using terminating plates on the sides of the openings. The antennas can be arranged in a side-by-side parallel spaced apart configuration or in a coplanar opposed configuration which significantly reduces main bang coupling.

  19. Narrowband filters for the FUV range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-de Marcos, Luis; Larruquert, Juan I.; Méndez, José A.; Aznárez, José A.; Fu, Liping

    2015-05-01

    We address the design, fabrication, and characterization of transmittance filters for the Ionosphere Photometer instrument (IP), developed by the Center for Space Science and Applied Research (CSSAR). IP, a payload of Feng-Yun 3D meteorological satellite, to be launched on 2016, is aimed to perform photometry measurements of Earth's ionosphere by the analysis of the OI (135.6 nm) spectral line and N2 Lyman-Birge-Hopfield (LBH, 140-180 nm) band, both of them in the far ultraviolet (FUV) range. The most convenient procedure to isolate a spectral band is the use of tunable transmittance filters. In many applications the intensity of the ultraviolet, visible and infrared background is higher than the intensity of the target FUV lines; therefore one of the most important requirements for transmittance filters is to reject (by reflecting and/or by absorbing) as efficiently as possible the visible and close ranges. In the FUV range, (Al/MgF2)n transmittance filters are the most common, and they are suitable to reject the visible and adjacent ranges. These materials present unique properties in this range: MgF2 is transparent down to ˜115 nm and Al has a very low refractive index in the FUV that contrasts well with MgF2. Narrowband tunable filters with very low transmittance at long wavelengths are achievable. The main data on the preparation and characterization of IP filters by Grupo de Óptica de Láminas Delgadas (GOLD) is detailed. In this proceeding we present (Al/MgF2)3 filters peaked at either 135.6 nm or at the center of the LBH band (˜160 nm). Filters were characterized in the 125-800 nm range (143-800 nm range for the LBH filter). After some storage in a desiccator, both coatings kept a transmittance of ~0.14 at their target wavelengths, with visible-to-peak transmittance ratios of 1.2·10-4 (OI filter) and 1.3·10-4 (LBH filter). One filter tuned at each target wavelength was exposed to ~300 Gy 60Co gamma dose, with no significant transmittance change.

  20. Range Safety Flight Elevation Limit Calculation Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanzi, Raymond J

    2014-01-01

    This program was developed to fill a need within the Wallops Flight Facility workflow for automation of the development of vertical plan limit lines used by flight safety officers during the conduct of expendable launch vehicle missions. Vertical plane present-position-based destruct lines have been used by range safety organizations at numerous launch ranges to mitigate launch vehicle risks during the early phase of flight. Various ranges have implemented data submittal and processing workflows to develop these destruct lines. As such, there is significant prior art in this field. The ElLimits program was developed at NASA's Wallops Flight Facility to automate the process for developing vertical plane limit lines using current computing technologies. The ElLimits program is used to configure launch-phase range safety flight control lines for guided missiles. The name of the program derives itself from the fundamental quantity that is computed - flight elevation limits. The user specifies the extent and resolution of a grid in the vertical plane oriented along the launch azimuth. At each grid point, the program computes the maximum velocity vector flight elevation that can be permitted without endangering a specified back-range location. Vertical plane x-y limit lines that can be utilized on a present position display are derived from the flight elevation limit data by numerically propagating 'streamlines' through the grid. The failure turn and debris propagation simulation technique used by the application is common to all of its analysis options. A simulation is initialized at a vertical plane grid point chosen by the program. A powered flight failure turn is then propagated in the plane for the duration of the so-called RSO reaction time. At the end of the turn, a delta-velocity is imparted, and a ballistic trajectory is propagated to impact. While the program possesses capability for powered flight failure turn modeling, it does not require extensive user

  1. Exhumation of the Shackleton Range, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucka, Nicole; Lisker, Frank; Läufer, Andreas; Spiegel, Cornelia

    2013-04-01

    The Shackleton Range is situated between 80° - 81°S and 19° - 31°W, where it forms the continuation of the Transantarctic Mountains in the Weddell Sea sector of Antarctica. There, Precambrian igneous and metamorphic basement is overlain by (meta-) sedimentary rocks of an Early Paleozoic nappe stack and post-orogenic red beds. Nappe stacking resulted from the collision of East and West Gondwana due to the closure of the Mozambique Ocean in pan-African times. The uplift and exhumation history of the Shackleton Range has been analysed earlier based on a series of vertical fission track profiles (Schäfer, 1998; Lisker et al., 1999). Zircon ages range from ~160 to 210 Ma while apatite ages between ~95 and ~170 Ma comprise a break in slope of the altitude regression at ~110 Ma, and are accompanied by mean track lengths of 12.7 - 14.1 µm (standard deviation 1.0 - 1.4 µm). These data have been interpreted qualitatively in terms of two cooling/ exhumation stages during Jurassic and mid-Cretaceous times. However, the recognition of Jurassic volcaniclastic rocks associated with the ~180 Ma Ferrar event in the vicinity of the sample locations (Buggisch et al., 1994) challenges this exhumation concept. Moreover, new fission track proxy data (Dpar) and apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He ages between 88 and 171 Ma allow thermal history modelling of the combined thermochronological data. First tentative thermal history models suggest early Mesozoic cooling followed by (post-) Jurassic heating and final cooling since the Late Cretaceous. This scenario requires burial of the Shackleton Range region, and therefore the existence of a sedimentary basin at least during the Jurassic-Early Cretaceous, and subsequent basin inversion. The thickness of the now vanished sedimentary strata did unlikely exceed 2 - 3 km. Future work including additional apatite fission track analyses will help to quantifying geometry, depth and timing of this depocentre and evaluating potential links with the coeval

  2. An Efficient Search Algorithm for Finding Genomic-Range Overlaps Based on the Maximum Range Length.

    PubMed

    Seok, Ho-Sik; Song, Taemin; Kong, Sek Won; Hwang, Kyu-Baek

    2015-01-01

    Efficient search algorithms for finding genomic-range overlaps are essential for various bioinformatics applications. A majority of fast algorithms for searching the overlaps between a query range (e.g., a genomic variant) and a set of N reference ranges (e.g., exons) has time complexity of O(k + logN), where kdenotes a term related to the length and location of the reference ranges. Here, we present a simple but efficient algorithm that reduces k, based on the maximum reference range length. Specifically, for a given query range and the maximum reference range length, the proposed method divides the reference range set into three subsets: always, potentially, and never overlapping. Therefore, search effort can be reduced by excluding never overlapping subset. We demonstrate that the running time of the proposed algorithm is proportional to potentially overlapping subset size, that is proportional to the maximum reference range length if all the other conditions are the same. Moreover, an implementation of our algorithm was 13.8 to 30.0 percent faster than one of the fastest range search methods available when tested on various genomic-range data sets. The proposed algorithm has been incorporated into a disease-linked variant prioritization pipeline for WGS (http://gnome.tchlab.org) and its implementation is available at http://ml.ssu.ac.kr/gSearch. PMID:26357316

  3. Laser one-dimensional range profile and the laser two-dimensional range profile of cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yanjun; Wang, Mingjun; Gong, Lei

    2015-10-01

    Laser one-dimensional range profile, that is scattering power from pulse laser scattering of target, is a radar imaging technology. The laser two-dimensional range profile is two-dimensional scattering imaging of pulse laser of target. Laser one-dimensional range profile and laser two-dimensional range profile are called laser range profile(LRP). The laser range profile can reflect the characteristics of the target shape and surface material. These techniques were motivated by applications of laser radar to target discrimination in ballistic missile defense. The radar equation of pulse laser is given in this paper. This paper demonstrates the analytical model of laser range profile of cylinder based on the radar equation of the pulse laser. Simulations results of laser one-dimensional range profiles of some cylinders are given. Laser range profiles of cylinder, whose surface material with diffuse lambertian reflectance, is given in this paper. Laser range profiles of different pulse width of cylinder are given in this paper. The influences of geometric parameters, pulse width, attitude on the range profiles are analyzed.

  4. Use of laser range finders and range image analysis in automated assembly tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvertos, Nicolas; Dcunha, Ivan

    1990-01-01

    A proposition to study the effect of filtering processes on range images and to evaluate the performance of two different laser range mappers is made. Median filtering was utilized to remove noise from the range images. First and second order derivatives are then utilized to locate the similarities and dissimilarities between the processed and the original images. Range depth information is converted into spatial coordinates, and a set of coefficients which describe 3-D objects is generated using the algorithm developed in the second phase of this research. Range images of spheres and cylinders are used for experimental purposes. An algorithm was developed to compare the performance of two different laser range mappers based upon the range depth information of surfaces generated by each of the mappers. Furthermore, an approach based on 2-D analytic geometry is also proposed which serves as a basis for the recognition of regular 3-D geometric objects.

  5. Flow Range of Centrifugal Compressor Being Extended

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skoch, Gary J.

    2001-01-01

    General Aviation will benefit from turbine engines that are both fuel-efficient and reliable. Current engines fall short of their potential to achieve these attributes. The reason is compressor surge, which is a flow stability problem that develops when the compressor is subjected to conditions that are outside of its operating range. Compressor surge can occur when fuel flow to the engine is increased, temporarily back pressuring the compressor and pushing it past its stability limit, or when the compressor is subjected to inlet flow-field distortions that may occur during takeoff and landing. Compressor surge can result in the loss of an aircraft. As a result, engine designers include a margin of safety between the operating line of the engine and the stability limit line of the compressor. Unfortunately, the most efficient operating line for the compressor is usually closer to its stability limit line than it is to the line that provides an adequate margin of safety. A wider stable flow range will permit operation along the most efficient operating line of the compressor, improving the specific fuel consumption of the engine and reducing emissions. The NASA Glenn Research Center is working to extend the stable flow range of the compressor. Significant extension has been achieved in axial compressors by injecting air upstream of the compressor blade rows. Recently, the technique was successfully applied to a 4:1 pressure ratio centrifugal compressor by injecting streams of air into the diffuser. Both steady and controlled unsteady injection were used to inject air through the diffuser shroud surface and extend the range. Future work will evaluate the effect of air injection through the diffuser hub surface and diffuser vanes with the goal of maximizing the range extension while minimizing the amount of injected air that is required.

  6. Method and apparatus for coherent burst ranging

    DOEpatents

    Wachter, Eric A.; Fisher, Walter G.

    1998-01-01

    A high resolution ranging method is described utilizing a novel modulated waveform, hereafter referred to as coherent burst modulation. In the coherent burst method, high frequency modulation of an acoustic or electromagnetic transmitter, such as a laser, is performed at a modulation frequency. This modulation frequency is transmitted quasi-continuously in the form of interrupted bursts of radiation. Energy from the transmitter is directed onto a target, interacts with the target, and the returning energy is collected. The encoded burst pattern contained in the collected return signal is detected coherently by a receiver that is tuned so as to be principally sensitive to the modulation frequency. The receiver signal is processed to determine target range using both time-of-flight of the burst envelope and phase shift of the high frequency modulation. This approach effectively decouples the maximum unambiguous range and range resolution relationship of earlier methods, thereby allowing high precision ranging to be conducted at arbitrarily long distances using at least one burst of encoded energy. The use of a receiver tuned to the high frequency modulation contained within the coherent burst vastly improves both sensitivity in the detection of the target return signal and rejection of background interferences, such as ambient acoustic or electromagnetic noise. Simultaneous transmission at several energies (or wavelengths) is possible by encoding each energy with a separate modulation frequency or pattern; electronic demodulation at the receiver allows the return pattern for each energy to be monitored independently. Radial velocity of a target can also be determined by monitoring change in phase shift of the return signal as a function of time.

  7. Method and apparatus for coherent burst ranging

    DOEpatents

    Wachter, E.A.; Fisher, W.G.

    1998-04-28

    A high resolution ranging method is described utilizing a novel modulated waveform, hereafter referred to as coherent burst modulation. In the coherent burst method, high frequency modulation of an acoustic or electromagnetic transmitter, such as a laser, is performed at a modulation frequency. This modulation frequency is transmitted quasi-continuously in the form of interrupted bursts of radiation. Energy from the transmitter is directed onto a target, interacts with the target, and the returning energy is collected. The encoded burst pattern contained in the collected return signal is detected coherently by a receiver that is tuned so as to be principally sensitive to the modulation frequency. The receiver signal is processed to determine target range using both time-of-flight of the burst envelope and phase shift of the high frequency modulation. This approach effectively decouples the maximum unambiguous range and range resolution relationship of earlier methods, thereby allowing high precision ranging to be conducted at arbitrarily long distances using at least one burst of encoded energy. The use of a receiver tuned to the high frequency modulation contained within the coherent burst vastly improves both sensitivity in the detection of the target return signal and rejection of background interferences, such as ambient acoustic or electromagnetic noise. Simultaneous transmission at several energies (or wavelengths) is possible by encoding each energy with a separate modulation frequency or pattern; electronic demodulation at the receiver allows the return pattern for each energy to be monitored independently. Radial velocity of a target can also be determined by monitoring change in phase shift of the return signal as a function of time. 12 figs.

  8. High Precision Ranging and Range-Rate Measurements over Free-Space-Laser Communication Link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Guangning; Lu, Wei; Krainak, Michael; Sun, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    We present a high-precision ranging and range-rate measurement system via an optical-ranging or combined ranging-communication link. A complete bench-top optical communication system was built. It included a ground terminal and a space terminal. Ranging and range rate tests were conducted in two configurations. In the communication configuration with 622 data rate, we achieved a two-way range-rate error of 2 microns/s, or a modified Allan deviation of 9 x 10 (exp -15) with 10 second averaging time. Ranging and range-rate as a function of Bit Error Rate of the communication link is reported. They are not sensitive to the link error rate. In the single-frequency amplitude modulation mode, we report a two-way range rate error of 0.8 microns/s, or a modified Allan deviation of 2.6 x 10 (exp -15) with 10 second averaging time. We identified the major noise sources in the current system as the transmitter modulation injected noise and receiver electronics generated noise. A new improved system will be constructed to further improve the system performance for both operating modes.

  9. Radar ranging to Ganymede and Callisto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, J. K.; Ostro, S. J.; Chandler, J. F.; Hudson, R. S.

    1994-01-01

    Arecibo observations from 1992 February to March have yielded the first successful radar range measurements to the Galilean satellites. Round-up time delays were measured for Ganymede and Callisto with accuracies of 20 to 50 micrometer (3 to 7 km) and 90 micrometer (14 km), respectively. Both satellites showed round-trip delay residuals (relative to the E-3 ephemeris) of about a millisecond, most of which can be attributed to errors in the predicted along-track positions (orbital phases). Using a simple model that assumed that all of the ephemeris error was due to constant orbital phase and Jupiter range errors we estimate that Ganymede was leading its ephemeris by 122 +/- 4 km, Callisto was lagging its ephemeris by 307 +/- 14 km, and Jupiter was 11 +/- 4 km more distant than predicted by the PEP740 planetary ephemeris.

  10. Using quality metrics with laser range scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKinnon, David K.; Aitken, Victor; Blais, Francois

    2008-02-01

    We have developed a series of new quality metrics that are generalizable to a variety of laser range scanning systems, including those acquiring measurements in the mid-field. Moreover, these metrics can be integrated into either an automated scanning system, or a system that guides a minimally trained operator through the scanning process. In particular, we represent the quality of measurements with regard to aliasing and sampling density for mid-field measurements, two issues that have not been well addressed in contemporary literature. We also present a quality metric that addresses the issue of laser spot motion during sample acquisition. Finally, we take into account the interaction between measurement resolution and measurement uncertainty where necessary. These metrics are presented within the context of an adaptive scanning system in which quality metrics are used to minimize the number of measurements obtained during the acquisition of a single range image.

  11. High dynamic range Josephson parametric amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roch, Nicolas; Murch, Kater W.; Vijay, Rajamani

    Josephson parametric amplifiers (JPAs) have become the technology of choice to amplify small amplitude microwave signals since they show noise performances close to the quantum limit of amplification. An important challenge that faces this technology is the low dynamic range of current devices, which limits the number of measurements that can be performed concurrently and the rate of information acquisition for single measurements. We have fabricated and tested novel parametric amplifiers based on arrays of up to 100 SQUIDS. The amplifiers produce gain in excess of 20 dB over a large bandwidth and match the dynamic range achieved with traveling wave devices. Compared to the latter devices they are fabricated in a single lithography step and we will show that their bandwidth performance can be further extended using a recently developed impedance matching technique.

  12. Multilayer Coatings for UV Spectral Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloushev, Ilko; Tenev, Tihomir; Peyeva, Rumiana; Panajotov, Krassimir

    2010-01-01

    Optical coatings for the UV spectral range play currently a significant role in the modern optical devices. For reducing of manufacturing cost the reliable design is essential. Therefore, better understanding of the optical properties of the used materials is indispensable for the proper design and manufacturing of the multilayer UV coatings. In this work we present some results on the preparation of reflective UV coatings. The implemented materials are magnesium fluoride and lanthanum fluoride. Their optical constants are determined from spectral characteristics of single layers in the 200-800 nm spectral range, obtained by thermal boat evaporation in high vacuum conditions. These results are subsequently used for the analysis of high reflection (HR) stack made of 40 layers deposited by the same deposition process.

  13. Critical Hamiltonians with long range hopping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levitov, L. S.

    1999-11-01

    Critical states are studied by a real space RG in the problem with strong diagonal disorder and long range power law hopping. The RG ow of the distribution of coupling parameters is characterized by a family of non-trivial fix points. We consider the RG flow of the distribution of participation ratios of eigenstates. Scaling of participation ratios is sensitive to the nature of the RG fix point. For some fix points, scaling of participation ratios is characterized by a distribution of exponents, rather than by a single exponent.The RG method can be generalized to treat certain fermionic Hamiltonians with disorder and long range hopping. We derive the RG for a model of interacting two-level systems. Besides couplings, in this problem the RG includes the density of states. The density of states is renormalized so that it develops a singularity near zero energy.

  14. Increasing dual band infrared zoom ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vizgaitis, Jay

    2015-09-01

    Pixel binning actively changes the pixel size of a detector element in an optical system. When combined with a fixed focal length lens it has the same effect on field of view as changing the focal length of a lens with a fixed pixel size. The change in pixel size scales the instantaneous field of view, and if the size of the FPA scales equally, so does the field of view. This capability can be combined with traditional optical zoom lenses to significantly increase the overall zoom range of an optical system. In a multi-spectral, dual band zoom lens, the combination of optical and pixel zoom reduces the complexity of the optics while significantly increasing the overall zoom range. The benefits of combining both optical and pixel zoom in a dual band infrared system is explored in this paper.

  15. A Long-Range Video Observation Post

    SciTech Connect

    Arlowe, D.

    1995-07-01

    The Long Range Video Observation Post (LRVOP) Project is a cooperative effort between the US and a Middle Eastern country to develop an improved version of their current video observation post. This project is part of a larger effort to cooperatively develop anti-terrorist technology. This particular equipment is required to facilitate the recording and identification of humans at a range of 1000 meters in day-light and 500 meters at night. The project objective was to take advantage of recent advances in camera technology, recorders, and image processing to provide an significant increase in performance with only a minimum increase in size, weight, and cost. The goal of the project was to convert the users general needs and desires into specific requirements that could be bid on by several companies. This paper covers the specific performance requirements, generally describe the components that might be used, and concentrate on describing the more difficult issues and technical challenges.

  16. Acoustic detection and ranging using solvable chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corron, Ned J.; Stahl, Mark T.; Chase Harrison, R.; Blakely, Jonathan N.

    2013-06-01

    Acoustic experiments demonstrate a novel approach to ranging and detection that exploits the properties of a solvable chaotic oscillator. This nonlinear oscillator includes an ordinary differential equation and a discrete switching condition. The chaotic waveform generated by this hybrid system is used as the transmitted waveform. The oscillator admits an exact analytic solution that can be written as the linear convolution of binary symbols and a single basis function. This linear representation enables coherent reception using a simple analog matched filter and without need for digital sampling or signal processing. An audio frequency implementation of the transmitter and receiver is described. Successful acoustic ranging measurements in the presence of noise and interference from a second chaotic emitter are presented to demonstrate the viability of the approach.

  17. Acoustic detection and ranging using solvable chaos.

    PubMed

    Corron, Ned J; Stahl, Mark T; Harrison, R Chase; Blakely, Jonathan N

    2013-06-01

    Acoustic experiments demonstrate a novel approach to ranging and detection that exploits the properties of a solvable chaotic oscillator. This nonlinear oscillator includes an ordinary differential equation and a discrete switching condition. The chaotic waveform generated by this hybrid system is used as the transmitted waveform. The oscillator admits an exact analytic solution that can be written as the linear convolution of binary symbols and a single basis function. This linear representation enables coherent reception using a simple analog matched filter and without need for digital sampling or signal processing. An audio frequency implementation of the transmitter and receiver is described. Successful acoustic ranging measurements in the presence of noise and interference from a second chaotic emitter are presented to demonstrate the viability of the approach. PMID:23822484

  18. Short range atomic migration in amorphous silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauß, F.; Jerliu, B.; Geue, T.; Stahn, J.; Schmidt, H.

    2016-05-01

    Experiments on self-diffusion in amorphous silicon between 400 and 500 °C are presented, which were carried out by neutron reflectometry in combination with 29Si/natSi isotope multilayers. Short range diffusion is detected on a length scale of about 2 nm, while long range diffusion is absent. Diffusivities are in the order of 10-19-10-20 m2/s and decrease with increasing annealing time, reaching an undetectable low value for long annealing times. This behavior is strongly correlated to structural relaxation and can be explained as a result of point defect annihilation. Diffusivities for short annealing times of 60 s follow the Arrhenius law with an activation enthalpy of (0.74 ± 0.21) eV, which is interpreted as the activation enthalpy of Si migration.

  19. Radar ranging to Ganymede and Callisto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, J. K.; Ostro, S. J.; Chandler, J. F.; Hudson, R. S.

    1994-03-01

    Arecibo observations from 1992 February to March have yielded the first successful radar range measurements to the Galilean satellites. Round-up time delays were measured for Ganymede and Callisto with accuracies of 20 to 50 micrometer (3 to 7 km) and 90 micrometer (14 km), respectively. Both satellites showed round-trip delay residuals (relative to the E-3 ephemeris) of about a millisecond, most of which can be attributed to errors in the predicted along-track positions (orbital phases). Using a simple model that assumed that all of the ephemeris error was due to constant orbital phase and Jupiter range errors we estimate that Ganymede was leading its ephemeris by 122 +/- 4 km, Callisto was lagging its ephemeris by 307 +/- 14 km, and Jupiter was 11 +/- 4 km more distant than predicted by the PEP740 planetary ephemeris.

  20. Host Range and Emerging and Reemerging Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Gowtage-Sequeria, Sonya

    2005-01-01

    An updated literature survey identified 1,407 recognized species of human pathogen, 58% of which are zoonotic. Of the total, 177 are regarded as emerging or reemerging. Zoonotic pathogens are twice as likely to be in this category as are nonzoonotic pathogens. Emerging and reemerging pathogens are not strongly associated with particular types of nonhuman hosts, but they are most likely to have the broadest host ranges. Emerging and reemerging zoonoses are associated with a wide range of drivers, but changes in land use and agriculture and demographic and societal changes are most commonly cited. However, although zoonotic pathogens do represent the most likely source of emerging and reemerging infectious disease, only a small minority have proved capable of causing major epidemics in the human population. PMID:16485468

  1. Climatology: Contrails reduce daily temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travis, David J.; Carleton, Andrew M.; Lauritsen, Ryan G.

    2002-08-01

    The potential of condensation trails (contrails) from jet aircraft to affect regional-scale surface temperatures has been debated for years, but was difficult to verify until an opportunity arose as a result of the three-day grounding of all commercial aircraft in the United States in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001. Here we show that there was an anomalous increase in the average diurnal temperature range (that is, the difference between the daytime maximum and night-time minimum temperatures) for the period 11-14 September 2001. Because persisting contrails can reduce the transfer of both incoming solar and outgoing infrared radiation and so reduce the daily temperature range, we attribute at least a portion of this anomaly to the absence of contrails over this period.

  2. Wide power range microwave feedback controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titus, L. E. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A substantially constant power level is derived over a predetermined frequency band, in each of a plurality of relatively widely spaced power ranges, from a microwave load having a predetermined amplitude versus frequency response, such as an antenna. A microwave source of substantially constant amplitude drives a forward path connected between the source and the load. A feedback path responsive to the microwave power level in the forward path derives a control voltage for the PIN attenuator. The equalizer attenuator drives a linear, crystal amplitude detector. Attenuating means included in the forward and feedback paths are selectively connected in circuit to maintain the power level of the microwave input to the amplitude detector substantially constant, even though different power ranges are supplied to the load by the forward path.

  3. Short-Range Nucleon-Nucleon Correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas Higinbotham

    2011-10-01

    Valence-shell nucleon knock-out experiments, such as 12C(e,e'p)11B, measure less strength then is predicted by independent particle shell model calculations. The theoretical solution to this problem is to include the correlations between the nucleons in the nucleus in the calculations. Motivated by these results, many electron scattering experiments have tried to directly observe these correlations in order to gain new insight into the short-range part of the nucleon-nucleon potential. Unfortunately, many competing mechanisms can cause the same observable final-state as an initial-state correlation, making truly isolating the signal extremely challenging. This paper reviews the recent experimental evidence for short-range correlations, as well as explores the possibility that such correlations are responsible for the EMC effect in the 0.3 < xB < 0.7 deep inelastic scattering ratios.

  4. Tonopah Test Range closure sites revegetation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.C.; Hall, D.B.

    1997-05-01

    This document is a revegetation plan for long-term stabilization (revegetation) of land disturbed by activities associated with the closure of a Bomblet Pit and the Five Points Landfill. Both sites are on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) located in south-central Nevada. This document contains general reclamation practices and procedures that will be followed during the revegetation of these sites. The revegetation procedures proposed have been developed over several years of research and include the results of reclamation trials at Area 11 and Area 19 on the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and more recently at the Double Tracks (Nellis Air Force Range) reclamation demonstration plots. In addition, the results of reclamation efforts and concurrent research efforts at the Yucca Mountain Project have been considered in the preparation of this revegetation plan.

  5. Detecting range expansions from genetic data

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Benjamin M; Slatkin, Montgomery

    2014-01-01

    We propose a method that uses genetic data to test for the occurrence of a recent range expansion and to infer the location of the origin of the expansion. We introduce a statistic ψ (the directionality index) that detects asymmetries in the two-dimensional allele frequency spectrum of pairs of population. These asymmetries are caused by the series of founder events that happen during an expansion and they arise because low frequency alleles tend to be lost during founder events, thus creating clines in the frequencies of surviving low-frequency alleles. Using simulations, we show that ψ is more powerful for detecting range expansions than both FST and clines in heterozygosity. We also show how we can adapt our approach to more complicated scenarios such as expansions with multiple origins or barriers to migration and we illustrate the utility of ψ by applying it to a data set from modern humans. PMID:24152007

  6. Gemini: A long-range cargo transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The proposed Gemini, a long-range cargo transport, is designed as a high capacity, dedicated cargo transporter of 8'x8'x20' inter-modal containers, and long-range design. These requirements will result in a design that is larger than any existing aircraft. Due to the size, a conventional configuration would result in an aircraft unable to operate economically at existing airports. It is necessary to design for a minimum possible empty weight, wingspan, and landing gear track. After considering both a single fuselage biplane and a double fuselage biplane configuration, the design team choose the double fuselage biplane configuration. Both of these configuration choices result in a reduced wing root bending moment and subsequently in substantial savings in the wing weight. An overall decrease in the weight of the airplane, its systems, and fuel will be a direct result of the wing weight savings.

  7. Geothermal systems of the Cascade Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muffler, L.J.; Bacon, Charles R.; Duffield, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    In the central and southern Cascade Range, plate convergence is oblique, and Quaternary volcanism produces mostly basalt and mafic andesite; large andesite-dacite composite volcanoes and silicic dome fields occur in restricted areas of long-lived igneous activity. To the north, plate convergence is normal, producing widely spaced centers in which mafic lavas are minor. Most Cascade volcanoes are short-lived and unlikely to be underlain at shallow levels by large magma bodies that could support high-temperature geothermal systems. Such systems are known, however, near Meager Mountain, at Newberry Volcano, and near Lassen Peak. Persistent fumaroles occur on several major composite volcanoes, but drilling to date has been insufficient to determine whether exploitable geothermal reservoirs occur at depth. Thermal springs away from the major volcanic centers are few and generally inconspicuous. However, significant geothermal systems along and west of the Cascade Range may well be masked by abundant cold ground water.

  8. Holographic thermalization with initial long range correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shu

    2016-01-01

    We studied the evolution of the Wightman correlator in a thermalizing state modeled by AdS3 -Vaidya background. We gave a prescription for calculating the Wightman correlator in coordinate space without using any approximation. For equal-time correlator ⟨ O (v ,x )O (v ,0 )⟩ , we obtained an enhancement factor v2 due to long range correlation present in the initial state. This was missed by previous studies based on geodesic approximation. We found that the long range correlation in initial state does not lead to significant modification to thermalization time as compared to known results with generic initial state. We also studied the spatially integrated Wightman correlator and showed evidence on the distinction between long distance and small momentum physics for an out-of-equilibrium state. We also calculated the radiation spectrum of particles weakly coupled to O and found that lower frequency mode approaches thermal spectrum faster than high frequency mode.

  9. Holographic thermalization with initial long range correlation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lin, Shu

    2016-01-19

    Here, we studied the evolution of the Wightman correlator in a thermalizing state modeled by AdS3-Vaidya background. A prescription was given for calculating the Wightman correlator in coordinate space without using any approximation. For equal-time correlator , we obtained an enhancement factor v2 due to long range correlation present in the initial state. This was missed by previous studies based on geodesic approximation. Moreover, we found that the long range correlation in initial state does not lead to significant modification to thermalization time as compared to known results with generic initial state. We also studied the spatially integrated Wightman correlatormore » and showed evidence on the distinction between long distance and small momentum physics for an out-of-equilibrium state. We also calculated the radiation spectrum of particles weakly coupled to O and found that lower frequency mode approaches thermal spectrum faster than high frequency mode.« less

  10. Wide range radioactive gas concentration detector

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, David F.

    1984-01-01

    A wide range radioactive gas concentration detector and monitor which is capable of measuring radioactive gas concentrations over a range of eight orders of magnitude. The device of the present invention is designed to have an ionization chamber which is sufficiently small to give a fast response time for measuring radioactive gases but sufficiently large to provide accurate readings at low concentration levels. Closely spaced parallel plate grids provide a uniform electric field in the active region to improve the accuracy of measurements and reduce ion migration time so as to virtually eliminate errors due to ion recombination. The parallel plate grids are fabricated with a minimal surface area to reduce the effects of contamination resulting from absorption of contaminating materials on the surface of the grids. Additionally, the ionization chamber wall is spaced a sufficient distance from the active region of the ionization chamber to minimize contamination effects.

  11. Long-range charge transfer in biopolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astakhova, T. Yu; Likhachev, V. N.; Vinogradov, G. A.

    2012-11-01

    The results of theoretical and experimental studies on the charge transfer in biopolymers, namely, DNA and peptides, are presented. Conditions that ensure the efficient long-range charge transport (by several tens of nanometres) are considered. The known theoretical models of charge transfer mechanisms are discussed and the scopes of their application are analyzed. Attention is focused on the charge transport by the polaron mechanism. The bibliography includes 262 references.

  12. Video sensor with range measurement capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briscoe, Jeri M. (Inventor); Corder, Eric L. (Inventor); Howard, Richard T. (Inventor); Broderick, David J. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A video sensor device is provided which incorporates a rangefinder function. The device includes a single video camera and a fixed laser spaced a predetermined distance from the camera for, when activated, producing a laser beam. A diffractive optic element divides the beam so that multiple light spots are produced on a target object. A processor calculates the range to the object based on the known spacing and angles determined from the light spots on the video images produced by the camera.

  13. PREDICTING RANGES FOR PULSARS' BRAKING INDICES

    SciTech Connect

    Magalhaes, Nadja S.; Miranda, Thaysa A.; Frajuca, Carlos

    2012-08-10

    The theoretical determination of braking indices of pulsars is still an open problem. In this paper we report results of a study concerning such determination based on a modification of the canonical model, which admits that pulsars are rotating magnetic dipoles, and on data from the seven pulsars with known braking indices. In order to test the modified model, we predict ranges for the braking indices of other pulsars.

  14. Lunar orbiter ranging data: initial results.

    PubMed

    Mulholland, J D; Sjogren, W L

    1967-01-01

    Data from two Lunar Orbiter spacecraft have been used to test the significance of corrections to the lunar ephemeris. Range residuals of up to 1700 meters were reduced by an order of magnitude by application of the corrections, with most of the residuals reduced to less than 100 meters. Removal of gross errors in the ephemeris reveals residual patterns that may indicate errors in location of observing stations, as well as the expected effects of Lunar nonsphericity. PMID:17799149

  15. The Potential Geographic Range of Pyrenophora semeniperda.

    PubMed

    Yonow, Tania; Kriticos, Darren J; Medd, Richard W

    2004-08-01

    ABSTRACT There is no evidence that Pyrenophora semeniperda, the causal agent of leaf spotting in many annual and perennial grasses, currently occurs in Europe or Asia. However, there is potential phytosanitary concern that the importation of infected commodities could result in the introduction of this fungus into Eurasia, putting crops at risk and possibly resulting in economic losses. To assist in assessing the risk of geographic range extension of P. semeniperda, an analysis was undertaken to estimate the potential global distribution of this species, based on climatic suitability. Geographic distribution data for P. semeniperda in part of its current range were used to fit parameter values in a CLIMEX pest risk assessment model, and the remaining distribution data were used to validate the model. The CLIMEX model correctly predicts that virtually all locations where P. semeniperda has been found are climatically suitable. Only five locations worldwide where the fungus was recorded present are predicted as being unsuitable. These "outliers" may have been transient populations occurring during a favorable season and then dying out. Exploratory adjustments of the model to accommodate these records created unsatisfactory distortions in the projected climatic suitability surfaces, extending the suitable climatic zone beyond well-established traditional range boundaries. We are therefore confident that the model is credibly predicting the potential distribution of P. semeniperda worldwide. The CLIMEX model suggests that P. semeniperda could potentially extend its range throughout Europe and temperate regions of Asia, Africa, and South America. Our heavy reliance upon geographic data to build this CLIMEX model departs from most previous published examples in plant pathology, which have depended primarily upon experimentally derived physiological data to estimate model parameters. The use of geographic data to infer climate parameters is popular in CLIMEX models of

  16. Long range coherence in free electron lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colson, W. B.

    1984-01-01

    The simple free electron laser (FEL) design uses a static, periodic, transverse magnetic field to undulate relativistic electrons traveling along its axis. This allows coupling to a co-propagating optical wave and results in bunching to produce coherent radiation. The advantages of the FEL are continuous tunability, operation at wavelengths ranging from centimeters to angstroms, and high efficiency resulting from the fact that the interaction region only contains light, relativistic electrons, and a magnetic field. Theoretical concepts and operational principles are discussed.

  17. Visual information for judging temporal range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Mowafy, Lyn

    1993-01-01

    Work in our laboratory suggests that pilots can extract temporal range information (i.e., the time to pass a given waypoint) directly from out-the-window motion information. This extraction does not require the use of velocity or distance, but rather operates solely on a 2-D motion cue. In this paper, we present the mathematical derivation of this information, psychophysical evidence of human observers' sensitivity, and possible advantages and limitations of basing vehicle control on this parameter.

  18. Optoelectronic Ranging Sensor For Robotic Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian H.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed optoelectronic ranging system for robotic vehicle provides information on distances to points in natural scene by use of pinhole mask to sample texture in scene and determines whether portion of scene corresponds to each pinhole in focus (whether it lies at focal distance). System has no moving parts, requires little computation, and consumes only few watts of power. Passive in sense that it does not include any artificial sources of light, relying instead on sunlight reflected from scene.

  19. Lake Buchannan, Great Dividing Range, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Lake Buchannan, a small but blue and prominent in the center of the view, lies in the Great Dividing of Queensland, Australia (22.0S, 146.0E). The mountain range in this case is a low plateau of no more than 2,000 to 3,000 ft altitude. The interior is dry, mostly in pasture but the coastal zone in contrast, is wet tropical country where bananas and sugarcane are grown.

  20. Ranging performance of active laser detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Huayan; Xiong, Fei; Gu, Suolin

    2006-06-01

    Ranging performance is described for photoelectric equipment reconnaissance using an active laser detection system that is based on the 'cat's eyes' effect of optical windows. Active laser detection systems have an advantage over passive systems because they can measure target velocity and spatial coordinates. However, there are several challenging problems here because of the great distances involved, the low returned power of the uncooperative target, and the optical aberrations induced by the atmosphere. In the design of this system, the principle of detection is based on the 'cat's eyes' effect according to which the optical windows of photoelectric equipments have a strong reflect character towards incident laser beam. With 'cat's eyes' effect, the detection of uncooperative target can be translated into one of a cooperative target, so the ratio of returned laser can be increased. In this paper, the ranging performance presented here takes into account all the various elements of the system, from the laser emission, target, atmospheric propagation to the detector. The characteristics of back-reflected laser and an estimate of the laser Cross Section (LCS) from 'cat's eyes target' are investigated in theory and simulation. The Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) is calculated by combining the probability of detection of the system for given electronic characteristics of the system and for a given probability of false alarms. On the basis of analysis of SNR, minimum detectable signal power, operating distance of the system and factors affecting the ranging performance is analyzed. Results indicate that system has characters of long range, and high sensitivity. It can be used to detect the aerial targets such as reconnaissance drone, navigate missile, reconnaissance satellite etc.

  1. Capacitive Proximity Sensor Has Longer Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M.

    1992-01-01

    Capacitive proximity sensor on robot arm detects nearby object via capacitive effect of object on frequency of oscillator. Sensing element part of oscillator circuit operating at about 20 kHz. Total capacitance between sensing element and ground constitutes tuning capacitance of oscillator. Sensor circuit includes shield driven by replica of alternating voltage applied to sensing element. Driven shield concentrates sensing electrostatic field in exterior region to enhance sensitivity to object. Sensitivity and dynamic range has corresponding 12-to-1 improvement.

  2. Causality and the effective range expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Hammer, H.-W.; Lee, Dean

    2010-10-15

    We derive the generalization of Wigner's causality bounds and Bethe's integral formula for the effective range parameter to arbitrary dimension and arbitrary angular momentum. We also discuss the impact of these constraints on the separation of low- and high-momentum scales and universality in low-energy scattering. Some of our results were summarized earlier in a letter publication. In this work, we present full derivations and several detailed examples.

  3. Inexpensive range camera operating at video speed.

    PubMed

    Kramer, J; Seitz, P; Baltes, H

    1993-05-01

    An optoelectronic device has been developed and built that acquires and displays the range data of an object surface in space in video real time. The recovery of depth is performed with active triangulation. A galvanometer scanner system sweeps a sheet of light across the object at a video field rate of 50 Hz. High-speed signal processing is achieved through the use of a special optical sensor and hardware implementation of the simple electronic-processing steps. Fifty range maps are generated per second and converted into a European standard video signal where the depth is encoded in gray levels or color. The image resolution currently is 128 x 500 pixels with a depth accuracy of 1.5% of the depth range. The present setup uses a 500-mW diode laser for the generation of the light sheet. A 45-mm imaging lens covers a measurement volume of 93 mm x 61 mm x 63 mm at a medium distance of 250 mm from the camera, but this can easily be adapted to other dimensions. PMID:20820391

  4. Scientific analysis of satellite ranging data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David E.

    1994-01-01

    A network of satellite laser ranging (SLR) tracking systems with continuously improving accuracies is challenging the modelling capabilities of analysts worldwide. Various data analysis techniques have yielded many advances in the development of orbit, instrument and Earth models. The direct measurement of the distance to the satellite provided by the laser ranges has given us a simple metric which links the results obtained by diverse approaches. Different groups have used SLR data, often in combination with observations from other space geodetic techniques, to improve models of the static geopotential, the solid Earth, ocean tides, and atmospheric drag models for low Earth satellites. Radiation pressure models and other non-conservative forces for satellite orbits above the atmosphere have been developed to exploit the full accuracy of the latest SLR instruments. SLR is the baseline tracking system for the altimeter missions TOPEX/Poseidon, and ERS-1 and will play an important role in providing the reference frame for locating the geocentric position of the ocean surface, in providing an unchanging range standard for altimeter calibration, and for improving the geoid models to separate gravitational from ocean circulation signals seen in the sea surface. However, even with the many improvements in the models used to support the orbital analysis of laser observations, there remain systematic effects which limit the full exploitation of SLR accuracy today.

  5. Atmospheric refractivity corrections in satellite laser ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, J. B.; Gardner, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    Atmospheric refraction can cause significant errors in satellite laser ranging (SLR) systems. There are two techniques which can be used to correct for these errors. Atmospheric models based upon surface measurements of pressure, temperature, and relative humidity have been shown by ray tracing to be accurate to within a few centimeters at 20 deg elevation angle. The residual errors in the models are thought to be primarily caused by horizontal gradients in the refractivity. Although models have been developed to predict the gradient effects, initial studies show that they can be sensitive to local topographic effects. Atmospheric turbulence can introduce random fluctuations in the refractivity, but only introduces centimeter level errors at elevation angles below 10 deg. Pulsed two-color ranging systems can directly measure the atmospheric delay in satellite ranging. These systems require mode-locked multiple-frequency lasers and streak-camera-based receivers and currently appear capable of measuring the atmospheric delay with an accuracy of 0.5 cm or better.

  6. A Computational Approach to Competitive Range Expansions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Markus F.; Poxleitner, Gabriele; Hebisch, Elke; Frey, Erwin; Opitz, Madeleine

    2014-03-01

    Bacterial communities represent complex and dynamic ecological systems. Environmental conditions and microbial interactions determine whether a bacterial strain survives an expansion to new territory. In our work, we studied competitive range expansions in a model system of three Escherichia coli strains. In this system, a colicin producing strain competed with a colicin resistant, and with a colicin sensitive strain for new territory. Genetic engineering allowed us to tune the strains' growth rates and to study their expansion in distinct ecological scenarios (with either cyclic or hierarchical dominance). The control over growth rates also enabled us to construct and to validate a predictive computational model of the bacterial dynamics. The model rested on an agent-based, coarse-grained description of the expansion process and we conducted independent experiments on the growth of single-strain colonies for its parametrization. Furthermore, the model considered the long-range nature of the toxin interaction between strains. The integration of experimental analysis with computational modeling made it possible to quantify how the level of biodiversity depends on the interplay between bacterial growth rates, the initial composition of the inoculum, and the toxin range.

  7. In vivo proton range verification: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knopf, Antje-Christin; Lomax, Antony

    2013-08-01

    Protons are an interesting modality for radiotherapy because of their well defined range and favourable depth dose characteristics. On the other hand, these same characteristics lead to added uncertainties in their delivery. This is particularly the case at the distal end of proton dose distributions, where the dose gradient can be extremely steep. In practice however, this gradient is rarely used to spare critical normal tissues due to such worries about its exact position in the patient. Reasons for this uncertainty are inaccuracies and non-uniqueness of the calibration from CT Hounsfield units to proton stopping powers, imaging artefacts (e.g. due to metal implants) and anatomical changes of the patient during treatment. In order to improve the precision of proton therapy therefore, it would be extremely desirable to verify proton range in vivo, either prior to, during, or after therapy. In this review, we describe and compare state-of-the art in vivo proton range verification methods currently being proposed, developed or clinically implemented.

  8. Raman Amplifier Performance under New Wavelength Ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalaf, Ashraf A. M.; Mustafa, Fathy M.

    2016-03-01

    Due to the benefits of Raman amplifier (RA) for long-haul Ultra Wideband (UW)-WDM optical communications systems, we are studying and investigating how to widen the bandwidth and flatten the gain of RA by testing it in a new wider range of wavelengths (1.4 μm≤λsignal≤1.7 μm) instead of the benchmark range (1.45 μm≤λsignal≤1.65 μm). Four different ranges of signal wavelengths are used in this paper with the aim of testing the performance of RA model proposed in [13-15]: 1. 1.4 μm≤λsignal≤1.45 μm 2. 1.45 μm≤λsignal≤1.65 μm 3. 1.65 μm≤λsignal≤1.75 μm 4. 1.43 μm≤λsignal≤1.7 μm Different model sizes are used and analyzed to get wider bandwidth and more flat gain.

  9. Inertial range turbulence in kinetic plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Howes, Gregory G.

    2008-05-15

    The transfer of turbulent energy through an inertial range from the driving scale to dissipative scales in a kinetic plasma followed by the conversion of this energy into heat is a fundamental plasma physics process. A theoretical foundation for the study of this process is constructed, but the details of the kinetic cascade are not well understood. Several important properties are identified: (a) The conservation of a generalized energy by the cascade; (b) the need for collisions to increase entropy and realize irreversible plasma heating; and (c) the key role played by the entropy cascade--a dual cascade of energy to small scales in both physical and velocity space--to convert ultimately the turbulent energy into heat. A strategy for nonlinear numerical simulations of kinetic turbulence is outlined. Initial numerical results are consistent with the operation of the entropy cascade. Inertial range turbulence arises in a broad range of space and astrophysical plasmas and may play an important role in the thermalization of fusion energy in burning plasmas.

  10. ATS simultaneous and turnaround ranging experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, J. S.; Putney, B. H.

    1971-01-01

    This report explains the data reduction and spacecraft position determination used in conjunction with two ATS experiments - Trilateration and Turnaround Ranging - and describes in detail a multilateration program that is used for part of the data reduction process. The process described is for the determination of the inertial position of the satellite, and for formating input for related programs. In the trilateration procedure, a geometric determination of satellite position is made from near simultaneous range measurements made by three different tracking stations. Turnaround ranging involves two stations; one, the master station, transmits the signal to the satellite and the satellite retransmits the signal to the slave station which turns the signal around to the satellite which in turn retransmits the signal to the master station. The results of the satellite position computations using the multilateration program are compared to results of other position determination programs used at Goddard. All programs give nearly the same results which indicates that because of its simplicity and computational speed the trilateration technique is useful in obtaining spacecraft positions for near synchronous satellites.

  11. Enhanced Graphics for Extended Scale Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Andrew J.; Chi-Wing Fu, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Enhanced Graphics for Extended Scale Range is a computer program for rendering fly-through views of scene models that include visible objects differing in size by large orders of magnitude. An example would be a scene showing a person in a park at night with the moon, stars, and galaxies in the background sky. Prior graphical computer programs exhibit arithmetic and other anomalies when rendering scenes containing objects that differ enormously in scale and distance from the viewer. The present program dynamically repartitions distance scales of objects in a scene during rendering to eliminate almost all such anomalies in a way compatible with implementation in other software and in hardware accelerators. By assigning depth ranges correspond ing to rendering precision requirements, either automatically or under program control, this program spaces out object scales to match the precision requirements of the rendering arithmetic. This action includes an intelligent partition of the depth buffer ranges to avoid known anomalies from this source. The program is written in C++, using OpenGL, GLUT, and GLUI standard libraries, and nVidia GEForce Vertex Shader extensions. The program has been shown to work on several computers running UNIX and Windows operating systems.

  12. Long-range hybrid wedge plasmonic waveguide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhonglai; Wang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    We design a novel long-range hybrid wedge plasmonic (LRHWP) waveguide composed of two identical dielectric nanowires symmetrically placed on two opposed wedges of a diamond shaped metal wire. With strong coupling between the dielectric nanowire mode and long-range surface plasmon polariton (SPP) mode, both deep subwavelength mode confinement and low propagation loss are achieved. On one hand, when compared to the previous long-range hybrid SPP waveguide, LRHWP waveguide can achieve smaller mode size with similar propagation length; on the other hand, when compared to the previous hybrid wedge SPP waveguide, LRHWP waveguide can provide an order of magnitude longer propagation length with similar level of mode confinement. The designed LRHWP waveguide also features an overall advantage of one-order improvement of Figure of Merit. We further evaluate in detail the impacts of possible practical fabrication imperfections on the mode properties. The obtained results of mode properties show that the proposed LRHWP waveguide with an optimized wedge tip angle of 140 degree is fairly tolerant to practical fabrication errors in geometry parameters such as misalignment in the horizontal direction, asymmetry in the vertical direction, variation of wedge tip angle, tilt or rotation of metal wire, and variation of wedge tip curvature radius. PMID:25362900

  13. Long-range hybrid wedge plasmonic waveguide

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhonglai; Wang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    We design a novel long-range hybrid wedge plasmonic (LRHWP) waveguide composed of two identical dielectric nanowires symmetrically placed on two opposed wedges of a diamond shaped metal wire. With strong coupling between the dielectric nanowire mode and long-range surface plasmon polariton (SPP) mode, both deep subwavelength mode confinement and low propagation loss are achieved. On one hand, when compared to the previous long-range hybrid SPP waveguide, LRHWP waveguide can achieve smaller mode size with similar propagation length; on the other hand, when compared to the previous hybrid wedge SPP waveguide, LRHWP waveguide can provide an order of magnitude longer propagation length with similar level of mode confinement. The designed LRHWP waveguide also features an overall advantage of one-order improvement of Figure of Merit. We further evaluate in detail the impacts of possible practical fabrication imperfections on the mode properties. The obtained results of mode properties show that the proposed LRHWP waveguide with an optimized wedge tip angle of 140 degree is fairly tolerant to practical fabrication errors in geometry parameters such as misalignment in the horizontal direction, asymmetry in the vertical direction, variation of wedge tip angle, tilt or rotation of metal wire, and variation of wedge tip curvature radius. PMID:25362900

  14. Real-Time Local Range On-Demand and Dynamic Regional Range Images

    SciTech Connect

    Tsap, L.V.

    2000-02-22

    This paper presents a new approach to a gesture tracking system using real-time range on-demand. The system represents a gesture-controlled interface for interactive visual exploration of large data sets. The paper describes a method performing range processing only when necessary and where necessary. Range data is processed only for non-static regions of interest. This is accomplished by a set of filters on the color, motion, and range data. The speedup achieved is between 41% and 54%. The algorithm also includes a robust skin color segmentation insensitive to illumination changes. Selective range processing results in dynamic regional range images (DRRIs). This development is also placed in a broader context of a biological visual system emulation, specifically redundancies and attention mechanisms.

  15. Real-Time Local Range On-Demand for Tracking Gestures and Dynamic Regional Range Images

    SciTech Connect

    Tsap, L.V.

    2000-05-30

    This paper presents a new approach to a gesture-tracking system using real-time range on-demand. The system represents a gesture-controlled interface for interactive visual exploration of large data sets. The paper describes a method performing range processing only when necessary and where necessary. Range data is processed only for non-static regions of interest. This is accomplished by a set of filters on the color, motion, and range data. The speedup achieved is between 41% and 54%. The algorithm also includes a robust skin-color segmentation insensitive to illumination changes. Selective range processing results in dynamic regional range images (DRRIs). This development is also placed in a broader context of a biological visual system emulation, specifically redundancies and attention mechanisms.

  16. Effect of dispersal at range edges on the structure of species ranges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bahn, V.; O'Connor, R.J.; Krohn, W.B.

    2006-01-01

    Range edges are of particular interest to ecology because they hold key insights into the limits of the realized niche and associated population dynamics. A recent feature of Oikos summarized the state of the art on range edge ecology. While the typical question is what causes range edges, another important question is how range edges influence the distribution of abundances across a species geographic range when dispersal is present. We used a single species population dynamics model on a coupled-lattice to determine the effects of dispersal on peripheral populations as compared to populations at the core of the range. In the absence of resource gradients, the reduced neighborhood and thus lower connectivity or higher isolation among populations at the range edge alone led to significantly lower population sizes in the periphery of the range than in the core. Lower population sizes mean higher extinction risks and lower adaptability at the range edge, which could inhibit or slow range expansions, and thus effectively stabilize range edges. The strength of this effect depended on the potential population growth rate and the maximum dispersal distance. Lower potential population growth rates led to a stronger effect of dispersal resulting in a higher difference in population sizes between the two areas. The differential effect of dispersal on population sizes at the core and periphery of the range in the absence of resource gradients implies that traditional, habitat-based distribution models could result in misleading conclusions about the habitat quality in the periphery. Lower population sizes at the periphery are also relevant to conservation, because habitat removal not only eliminates populations but also creates new edges. Populations bordering these new edges may experience declines, due to their increased isolation. ?? OIKOS.

  17. Passive range estimation using ship-radiated noise in range-dependent shallow water environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sell, Alexander W.

    The motivation for this work is a desire to exploit ship-radiated noise in shallow water environments for the purpose of passive range estimation. The method presented utilizes range-frequency intensity striations, arising from multi-path interference in shallow water waveguides and measured across a horizontal line array, to estimate range between a source and a receiver array. This method is based upon the premise that the effects of waveguide geometry on multi-path interference may be represented by a single parameter, beta, called the waveguide invariant, which relates striation slope to source range. Much of the literature on striation-based passive range estimation is focused on range-independent environments or relies on the assumption that beta ≈ 1 in shallow water waveguides in order to eliminate the requirement of knowing the specific values of propagation parameters a priori. However, prior work has shown that range-dependent effects from bathymetry or sound speed profiles can cause the value of beta to vary from its canonical shallow water value and introduce significant bias to range estimates. This work specifically focuses on the effects of range-dependent bathymetry in shallow water waveguides and discusses issues surrounding normal mode propagation and mode coupling. Beyond discussing range-dependent modal propagation, several signal, array, and image processing techniques are presented, which enable estimation of range-frequency intensity images from acoustic data and permit the images to be characterized in terms of striation angle and slope distributions. Using these techniques, a method for estimating range from striation patterns is developed and applied to simulated striation patterns and acoustic data from a 2007 experiment performed off the coast of Port Everglades, Florida. To improve range estimates obtained from the application of this method, an analytical formulation of a waveguide invariant distribution is derived, which takes into

  18. Southern Taiwan - an Evolving "Coastal Range"?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, F. T.; McIntosh, K.; Lavier, L. L.

    2008-12-01

    As a part of the TAIGER research, existing tectonic concepts are continuously being reviewed in light of new data and for experimental design. One of the critical areas for understanding the tectonics of Taiwan is southern Taiwan. Seismicity and recent tomographic imaging confirm that the tectonics of Taiwan is controlled by the subduction and collision of two plates: the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) and the Eurasian plate (EUR). In northern and central Taiwan the PSP is in collision with EUR, and at the same time subducts northward under northern Taiwan [Wu et al., 2008]. Before the PSP subducts to sufficient depth, the collision of PSP and EUR produced the Foothills and the Central Range on the EUR and the Coastal Range on the PSP side. For southern Taiwan, with 22.7°N as a rough demarcation, the tectonic interpretation is at variance and still in debate. To the east of southern Taiwan the inactive andesitic volcanic islands of Lutao and Lanhsu mark the top of the Luzon arc, separated from Taiwan by a somewhat deformed fore-arc basin [McIntosh et al., 2005]. To its west the Manila Trench is the western limit of a series of trend-parallel small thrusts on the ocean floor [Lunberg et al., 1997]. As the Trench approaches the continental shelf from the south it gradually loses its bathymetric signature. Southern Taiwan itself is commonly viewed as a part of the accretionary prism, and yet is also considered a continuation of the Central Range, produced by the collision of the Luzon arc and continental shelf. Suppe [1981] and many others had long recognized the central Taiwan orogeny, as a result of the collision of the Luzon Arc with the EUR continental shelf and Central Range, is built from rocks of the continental shelf. Inspection of a map of bathymetry around Taiwan shows that the continental shelf turns noticeably westward offshore of southwestern Taiwan, and that southern Taiwan is situated off the continental shelf. The presence of the Benioff zone under

  19. Narrowband filters for the FUV range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-De Marcos, Luis; Larruquert, Juan I.; Méndez, José A.; Aznárez, José A.; Vidal-Dasilva, Manuela; Fu, Liping

    2014-07-01

    Space observations in the far ultraviolet (FUV, 100-200 nm) are aimed at providing essential information for astrophysics, solar physics, and atmosphere physics. There are key spectral lines and bands in the FUV for the above disciplines. Despite various developments in the recent decades, yet many observations are not possible due to technical limitations, of which one of the most important is the lack of efficient optical coatings. Hence for solar physics applications there are needs of narrowband coatings for key wavelengths such as H Lyman β (102.6 nm) and OVI lines (103.2 and 103.8 nm). For atmosphere physics, narrowband coatings are required for observations at spectral lines such as OI (135.6 nm) and at the N2 Lyman-Birge-Hopfield band (LBH, 127-240 nm). In solar corona observations, often the intensities of the target lines are weak, and this radiation may be masked by more intense lines, such as H Lyman α at 121.6 nm. Until now, no narrowband multilayers peaked in the ~100-105 nm range have been reported, which is due to the absorption of materials at these wavelengths. When efficient narrowband coatings are not possible, an option is the use of coatings with high reflectance at the target wavelength and simultaneously low reflectance at the undesired wavelength, such as Lyman α. We have developed novel multilayers to address this target, with combinations of these materials: Al, LiF, SiC and C. We developed multilayers based on the following three systems, Al/LiF/SiC, Al/LiF/SiC/C, and Al/LiF/SiC/LiF. Their reflectance was measured both when fresh and after some storage in a desiccator. Al/LiF/SiC and Al/LiF/SiC/C systems displayed a high Lyman β/Lyman α reflectance ratio when fresh, although they resulted in an undesired reflectance increase at Lyman α for the aged samples and the reflectance ratio Lyman β/Lyman α became small; this behavior turned these systems useless for the present application. The most promising multilayers were the ones

  20. Space Debris Laser Ranging at Graz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchner, Georg; Koidl, Franz; Kucharski, Daniel; Ploner, Martin; Riede, Wolfgang; Voelker, Uwe; Buske, Ivo; Friedrich, Fabian; Baur, Oliver; Krauss, Sandro; Wirnsberger, Harald

    2013-08-01

    The Graz Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) station usually measures distances to retro-reflector equipped satellites with an accuracy of few millimetres, using short laser pulses with 10 ps pulse width, a low energy of 400 μJ, and a repetition rate of 2 kHz. To test laser ranging possibilities to space debris, we installed two stronger lasers (a diode-pumped 25 mJ / 1 kHz / 10 ns / 532 nm laser, exchanged later to a flash lamp pumped 150 mJ / 100 Hz / 3 ns / 532 nm laser) - both on loan from DLR / German Aerospace Centre Stuttgart -, and built lownoise single-photon detection units. With this configuration, we successfully tracked ≈ 100 passes of almost 50 different space debris targets, in distances between 600 km and up to more than 2500 km, with radar cross sections from > 15 m2 down to < 0.3 m2 , and measured their distances with an average accuracy of 0.7 m (10 ns laser) resp. ≈ 0.5 m (3 ns laser) RMS. The resulting data will be used to calculate improved orbits of the tracked debris objects, and to compare them with radar-based TLE (two-line element) orbits. As demonstration experiment, here we provide findings for ENVISAT normal point analysis. As a next step, we plan to additionally taking pointing information into account. Potentially, the joint analysis of both ranges and orientation angles further improves space debris orbit accuracy. Orbit determination and prediction was done with the GEODYN software package. In addition, we successfully tested a 'bi-static' mode: Graz fired laser pulses to ENVISAT; while Graz detected photons reflected from the retro-reflector, the Swiss SLR station Zimmerwald detected the photons diffusely reflected from the satellite body.

  1. Wide-range dynamic magnetic resonance elastography.

    PubMed

    Riek, Kerstin; Klatt, Dieter; Nuzha, Hassan; Mueller, Susanne; Neumann, Ulf; Sack, Ingolf; Braun, Jürgen

    2011-04-29

    Tissue mechanical parameters have been shown to be highly sensitive to disease by elastography. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) in the human body relies on the low-dynamic range of tissue mechanics <100 Hz. In contrast, MRE suited for investigations of mice or small tissue samples requires vibration frequencies 10-20 times higher than those used in human MRE. The dispersion of the complex shear modulus (G(⁎)) prevents direct comparison of elastography data at different frequency bands and, consequently, frequency-independent viscoelastic models that fit to G(*) over a wide dynamic range have to be employed. This study presents data of G(*) of samples of agarose gel, liver, brain, and muscle measured by high-resolution MRE in a 7T-animal scanner at 200-800 Hz vibration frequency. Material constants μ and α according to the springpot model and related to shear elasticity and slope of the G(*)-dispersion were determined. Both μ and α of calf brain and bovine liver were found to be similar, while a sample of fibrotic human liver (METAVIR score of 3) displayed about fifteen times higher shear elasticity, similar to μ of bovine muscle measured in muscle fiber direction. α was the highest in fibrotic liver, followed by normal brain and liver, while muscle had the lowest α-values of all biological samples investigated in this study. As expected, the least G(*)-dispersion was seen in soft gel. The proposed technique of wide-range dynamic MRE can provide baseline data for both human MRE and high-dynamic MRE for better understanding tissue mechanics of different tissue structures. PMID:21295305

  2. A contribution to laser range imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defigueiredo, Rui J. P.; Denney, Bradley S.

    1991-02-01

    The goal of the project was to develop a methodology for fusion of a Laser Range Imaging Device (LRID) and camera data. Our initial work in the project led to the conclusion that none of the LRID's that were available were sufficiently adequate for this purpose. Thus we spent the time and effort on the development of the new LRID with several novel features which elicit the desired fusion objectives. In what follows, we describe the device developed and built under contract. The Laser Range Imaging Device (LRID) is an instrument which scans a scene using a laser and returns range and reflection intensity data. Such a system would be extremely useful in scene analysis in industry and space applications. The LRID will be eventually implemented on board a mobile robot. The current system has several advantages over some commercially available systems. One improvement is the use of X-Y galvonometer scanning mirrors instead of polygonal mirrors present in some systems. The advantage of the X-Y scanning mirrors is that the mirror system can be programmed to provide adjustable scanning regions. For each mirror there are two controls accessible by the computer. The first is the mirror position and the second is a zoom factor which modifies the amplitude of the position of the parameter. Another advantage of the LRID is the use of a visible low power laser. Some of the commercial systems use a higher intensity invisible laser which causes safety concerns. By using a low power visible laser, not only can one see the beam and avoid direct eye contact, but also the lower intensity reduces the risk of damage to the eye, and no protective eyeware is required.

  3. Latest Cretaceous sedimentation on Peninsular Ranges block

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, P.L.

    1986-04-01

    The Peninsular Ranges block is dominated by a Late Jurassic-middle Cretaceous batholithic belt that extends from the Santa Ana Mountains in southern California southward through the state of Baja California. From paleomagnetic evidence, the block appears to have moved north about 11/sup 0/ with respect to the North American craton since the Late Cretaceous. The Campanian-Maestrichtian sedimentary record along the western side of the block shows that sedimentation occurred contemporaneously with faulting. Dominantly coarse sediments were stripped off the batholithic complex, carried westward relatively short distances, and deposited in alluvial-fan, fluvial, fan-delta, and shelf environments as well as in submarine fans built into local, fault-created basins. The Peninsular Ranges block apparently moved northward in response to oblique subduction of the Farallon plate; it seemingly rode along on a reasonably even keel as transcurrent faulting wrenched pieces off its western side. The steady keel allowed the sedimentary record to reflect eustatic changes. Along the west side of the Peninsular Ranges block, the Campanian column typically has a retrogradational sequence lower in the section that is overlain by a progradational sequence. This pattern holds for the Santa Ana Mountains, San Diego, California, and Descanso, Salsipuedes, and El Rosario, Baja California. Eustatic sea level changes left a dominant imprint on the entire stratigraphic column, although local facies may be distinctly different because basins were created by contemporaneous faulting. The fault basins may have had a borderland-style topography, judging from their relatively small size, discontinuous and sporadic development, and apparently linear margins.

  4. Optimum wavelengths for two color ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degnan, John J.

    1993-01-01

    The range uncertainties associated with the refractive atmosphere can be mitigated by the technique of two color, or dual wavelength, ranging. The precision of the differential time of flight (DTOF) measurement depends on the atmospheric dispersion between the two wavelengths, the received pulsewidths and photoelectron counts, and on the amount of temporal averaging. In general, the transmitted wavelengths are not independently chosen but instead are generated via nonlinear optics techniques (harmonic crystals, Raman scattering, etc.) which also determine their relative pulsewidths. The mean received photoelectrons at each wavelength are calculated via the familiar radar link equation which contains several wavelength dependent parameters. By collecting the various wavelength dependent terms, one can define a wavelength figure of merit for a two color laser ranging system. In this paper, we apply the wavelength figure of merit to the case of an extremely clear atmosphere and draw several conclusions regarding the relative merits of fundamental-second harmonic, fundamental-third harmonic, second-third harmonic, and Raman two color systems. We find that, in spite of the larger dispersion between wavelengths, fundamental-third harmonic systems have the lowest figure of merit due to a combination of poor detector performance at the fundamental and poor atmospheric transmission at the third harmonic. The fundamental-second harmonic systems (approximately 700 nm and 350 nm) have the highest figure of merit, but second-third harmonic systems, using fundamental transmitters near 1000 nm, are a close second. Raman-shifted transmitters appear to offer no advantage over harmonic systems because of the relatively small wavelength separation that can be achieved in light gases such as hydrogen and the lack of good ultrashort pulse transmitters with an optimum fundamental wavelength near 400 nm.

  5. Large dynamic range relative B1+ mapping

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Aaron T.; Aljabar, Paul; Malik, Shaihan J.; Jezzard, Peter; Robson, Matthew D.; Hajnal, Joseph V.; Koopmans, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Parallel transmission (PTx) requires knowledge of the B1+ produced by each element. However, B1+ mapping can be challenging when transmit fields exhibit large dynamic range. This study presents a method to produce high quality relative B1+ maps when this is the case. Theory and Methods The proposed technique involves the acquisition of spoiled gradient echo (SPGR) images at multiple radiofrequency drive levels for each transmitter. The images are combined using knowledge of the SPGR signal equation using maximum likelihood estimation, yielding an image for each channel whose signal is proportional to the B1+ field strength. Relative B1+ maps are then obtained by taking image ratios. The method was tested using numerical simulations, phantom imaging, and through in vivo experiments. Results The numerical simulations demonstrated that the proposed method can reconstruct relative transmit sensitivities over a wide range of B1+ amplitudes and at several SNR levels. The method was validated at 3 Tesla (T) by comparing it with an alternative B1+ mapping method, and demonstrated in vivo at 7T. Conclusion Relative B1+ mapping in the presence of large dynamic range has been demonstrated through numerical simulations, phantom imaging at 3T and experimentally at 7T. The method will enable PTx to be applied in challenging imaging scenarios at ultrahigh field. Magn Reson Med 76:490–499, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. PMID:26308375

  6. Lidar measurements of slant visual range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balin, Y. S.; Kavkyanov, S. I.; Krekov, G. M.; Razenkov, I. A.

    1986-01-01

    When converting the lidar equation relative to the extinction coefficient and, correspondingly, the visual range, the instability of the solution at the increase of the optical density of the sounding path is encountered. The search for a stable solution has resulted in the appearance of a set of inversion algorithms differing mainly in the manner of assigning the a priori information on the profile sought. A stable algorithm of inversion is suggested and a comparative analysis and experimental verification of some methods of processing the signals at sounding the optically dense atmospheric formations are given.

  7. Fan-less long range alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Bounds, John A.

    1994-01-01

    A fan-less long range alpha detector which operates by using an electrical field between a signal plane and the surface or substance to be monitored for air ions created by collisions with alpha radiation. Without a fan, the detector can operate without the possibility of spreading dust and potential contamination into the atmosphere. A guard plane between the signal plane and the electrically conductive enclosure and maintained at the same voltage as the signal plane, reduces leakage currents. The detector can easily monitor soil, or other solid or liquid surfaces.

  8. Fan-less long range alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.; Bounds, J.A.

    1994-05-10

    A fan-less long range alpha detector is disclosed which operates by using an electrical field between a signal plane and the surface or substance to be monitored for air ions created by collisions with alpha radiation. Without a fan, the detector can operate without the possibility of spreading dust and potential contamination into the atmosphere. A guard plane between the signal plane and the electrically conductive enclosure and maintained at the same voltage as the signal plane, reduces leakage currents. The detector can easily monitor soil, or other solid or liquid surfaces. 2 figures.

  9. Tonopah Test Range 2030 Meeting Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-04-01

    Corrective Action Sites (CASs) and Corrective Action Units (CAUs) at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) may be placed into three categories: Closed, Closed in Place, or Closure in Progress. CASs and CAUs where contaminants were either not detected or were cleaned up to within regulatory action levels are summarized. CASs and CAUs where contaminants and/or waste have been closed in place are summarized. There is also a table that summarizes the contaminant that has been closed at each site, if land-use restrictions are present, and if post-closure inspections are required.

  10. A criterion autoscheduler for long range planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sponsler, Jeffrey L.

    1994-01-01

    A constraint-based scheduling system called SPIKE is used to create long-term schedules for the Hubble Space Telescope. A meta-level scheduler called the Criterion Autoscheduler for Long range planning (CASL) was created to guide SPIKE's schedule generation according to the agenda of the planning scientists. It is proposed that sufficient flexibility exists in a schedule to allow high level planning heuristics to be applied without adversely affected crucial constraints such as spacecraft efficiency. This hypothesis is supported by test data which is described.

  11. Integration of Dynamic Models in Range Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardina, Jorge; Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar

    2004-01-01

    This work addresses the various model interactions in real-time to make an efficient internet based decision making tool for Shuttle launch. The decision making tool depends on the launch commit criteria coupled with physical models. Dynamic interaction between a wide variety of simulation applications and techniques, embedded algorithms, and data visualizations are needed to exploit the full potential of modeling and simulation. This paper also discusses in depth details of web based 3-D graphics and applications to range safety. The advantages of this dynamic model integration are secure accessibility and distribution of real time information to other NASA centers.

  12. The primordial black hole mass range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frampton, Paul H.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate Primordial Black Hole (PBH) formation by which we mean black holes produced in the early Universe during radiation domination. After discussing the range of PBH mass permitted in the original mechanism of Carr and Hawking, hybrid inflation with parametric resonance is presented as an existence theorem for PBHs of arbitrary mass. As proposed in arXiv:1510.00400, PBHs with many solar masses can provide a solution to the dark matter problem in galaxies. PBHs can also explain dark matter observed in clusters and suggest a primordial origin for Supermassive Black Holes (SMBHs) in galactic cores.

  13. NASA's Long-range Technology Goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This document is part of the Final Report performed under contract NASW-3864, titled "NASA's Long-Range Technology Goals". The objectives of the effort were: To identify technologies whose development falls within NASA's capability and purview, and which have high potential for leapfrog advances in the national industrial posture in the 2005-2010 era. To define which of these technologies can also enable quantum jumps in the national space program. To assess mechanisms of interaction between NASA and industry constituencies for realizing the leapfrog technologies. This Volume details the findings pertaining to the advanced space-enabling technologies.

  14. Jupiter's Tidal Q: The Range of Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, Richard; Barnes, R.; Jackson, B.

    2008-09-01

    Jupiter's Q, which quantifies the net effect of poorly understood dissipative processes, is central to the physical and orbital history of the Galilean satellites and to studies of extra-solar planets. A standard procedure for determining orbits from observations of extra-solar planets is to estimate e-damping times, using for Q a "commonly accepted value” 105-106, based on supposed constraints on Jupiter's Q: If the damping time is short, orbits are assumed circular; if the data nevertheless require a finite e, it is attributed to perturbations by unseen planets. But those now-standard procedures are flawed because, in fact, there are no firm constraints on Jupiter's Q. Given the dynamics of the system and its Laplace resonance, knowledge of the tidal dissipation rate in Io (from heat flux) and of Io's orbital acceleration dn1/dt (from mutual occultations and eclipses) should determine the effective value of QJ. If the Laplace resonance were in an equilibrium steady-state, then either one of those measured values yield QJ. Aksnes and Franklin's ("A&F's” 2001) solution for dn1/dt of 3.6x10-10/yr and McEwen et al.'s (1992) Io heat flux 1.3x1014W, gives QJ=2x105, the solution A&F highlighted. However, slight changes from those measured values, well within the uncertainty range, would yield infinite QJ. Another fit to the mutual event data allowed dn1/dt=0, but A&F rejected this result because the implied QJ ( 3x104) was outside the conventionally accepted range. In fact, that range is based on the steady-state condition of the resonance (placing an upper limit on QJ) and on the assumption that dn1/dt<0; (which gives a lower limit), both of which are ruled out by A&F's results. Our study of tidal evolution of "hot Jupiters” (Jackson et al. 2008) suggests typical Q values of 106.5, somewhat above the widely assumed range, but below the real upper limit (infinity) for Jupiter.

  15. Wide dynamic range beam profile monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.M.; van Dyck, O.B.; Bilskie, J.R.; Brown, D.; Hardekopf, R.

    1985-10-01

    An economical harp multiplexer system has been developed to achieve a wide dynamic range. The harp system incorporates a pneumatically actuated harp detector with ceramic boards and carbon wires; a high-sensitivity multiplexer packaged in a double-wide NIM module; and flat, shielded ribbon cable consisting of individual twisted pairs. The system multiplexes 30 wires in each of the x and y planes simultaneously and operates with or without computer control. The system has operated in beams of 100 nA to 1 mA, 1- to 120-Hz repetition rate, with a signal-to-noise ratio of greater than 10/1.

  16. Wide dynamic range beam profile monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.M.; Brown, D.; Hardekopf, R.; Bilskie, J.R.; van Dyck, O.B.V.

    1985-01-01

    An economical harp multiplexer system has been developed to achieve a wide dynamic range. The harp system incorporates a pneumatically actuated harp detector with ceramic boards and carbon wires; a high-sensitivity multiplexer packaged in a double-wide NIM module; and flat, shielded ribbon cable consisting of individual twisted pairs. The system multiplexes 30 wires in each of the x and y planes simultaneously and operates with or without computer control. The system has operated in beams of 100 nA to 1 mA, 1- to 120-Hz repetition rate, with a signal-to-noise ratio of greater than 10/1.

  17. Himalayan Mountain Range, India/China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The frontier between India (Kashmir) and China (Tibet) (33.5N, 79.5E) lies across the narrow land bridge between the two lakes near the center of this photo. Many of the peaks in this region of the Karakoram and Latakh ranges of the Himalayan Mountains, exceed 20,000 ft. making it one of the most remote regions of the Earth. The large end lake is the Kako in China and the long narrow lake is the Pangong in India.

  18. Global positioning system missile test range applications

    SciTech Connect

    Partridge, M.E.

    1986-06-01

    Using the Global Positioning System (GPS), a missile under test could transmit its own position, reducing radar tracking requirements while still providing three-dimensional position and velocity data with the required accuracy. This study investigated minimum package size requirements for GPS implementation on the SRAM II missile as part of the joint test assembly telemetry system. Reported GPS missile test range applications are reviewed. The two missile tracking system implementations considered are a complete GPS package onboard the missile and onboard frequency translator that retransmits the GPS satellite signals. Accuracy and operation of the two methods are compared. A functional description of the GPS is provided.

  19. Close-Range Photogrammetry with Video Cameras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, A. W.; Snow, W. L.; Goad, W. K.

    1983-01-01

    Examples of photogrammetric measurements made with video cameras uncorrected for electronic and optical lens distortions are presented. The measurement and correction of electronic distortions of video cameras using both bilinear and polynomial interpolation are discussed. Examples showing the relative stability of electronic distortions over long periods of time are presented. Having corrected for electronic distortion, the data are further corrected for lens distortion using the plumb line method. Examples of close-range photogrammetric data taken with video cameras corrected for both electronic and optical lens distortion are presented.

  20. Close-range photogrammetry with video cameras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, A. W.; Snow, W. L.; Goad, W. K.

    1985-01-01

    Examples of photogrammetric measurements made with video cameras uncorrected for electronic and optical lens distortions are presented. The measurement and correction of electronic distortions of video cameras using both bilinear and polynomial interpolation are discussed. Examples showing the relative stability of electronic distortions over long periods of time are presented. Having corrected for electronic distortion, the data are further corrected for lens distortion using the plumb line method. Examples of close-range photogrammetric data taken with video cameras corrected for both electronic and optical lens distortion are presented.

  1. Geodynamic laser ranging system laser transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dallas, J. L.; Czechanski, J. P.; Coyle, D. B.; Zukowski, B. J.; Seery, B. D.

    1991-01-01

    A description is given of the requirements and design options in the development of a spaceborne laser transmitter for NASA's Geodynamic Laser Ranging System. Three different oscillators are considered. The first is an injection-seeded ring oscillator yielding 1 mJ of energy within a 120-ps pulse. The second is a frequency-modulated mode-locked oscillator emitting 0.30 nJ in a 20-ps pulse. The third is a self-starting, additive pulse mode-locked laser. Detailed design considerations and preliminary results of these lasers are reported as well as the design of a unique multipass amplifier.

  2. Hardware test program for evaluation of baseline range/range rate sensor concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The Hardware Test Program for evaluation of the baseline range/range rate sensor concept was initiated 11 September 1984. This ninth report covers the period 12 May through 11 June 1885. A contract amendment adding a second phase has extended the Hardware Test Program through 10 December 1985. The objective of the added program phase is to establish range and range measurement accuracy and radar signature characteristics for a typical spacecraft target. Phase I of the Hardware Test Program was designed to reduce the risks associated with the Range/Range Rate (R/R) Sensor baseline design approach. These risks are associated with achieving the sensor performance required for the two modes of operation, the Interrupted CW (ICW) mode for initial acquisition and tracking to close-in ranges, and the CW mode, providing coverage during the final docking maneuver. The risks associated with these modes of operation have to do with the realization of adequate sensitivity to operate to their individual maximum ranges.

  3. Fast range estimation based on active range-gated imaging for coastal surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Qingshan; Cao, Yinan; Wang, Xinwei; Tong, Youwan; Zhou, Yan; Liu, Yuliang

    2012-11-01

    Coastal surveillance is very important because it is useful for search and rescue, illegal immigration, or harbor security and so on. Furthermore, range estimation is critical for precisely detecting the target. Range-gated laser imaging sensor is suitable for high accuracy range especially in night and no moonlight. Generally, before detecting the target, it is necessary to change delay time till the target is captured. There are two operating mode for range-gated imaging sensor, one is passive imaging mode, and the other is gate viewing mode. Firstly, the sensor is passive mode, only capturing scenes by ICCD, once the object appears in the range of monitoring area, we can obtain the course range of the target according to the imaging geometry/projecting transform. Then, the sensor is gate viewing mode, applying micro second laser pulses and sensor gate width, we can get the range of targets by at least two continuous images with trapezoid-shaped range intensity profile. This technique enables super-resolution depth mapping with a reduction of imaging data processing. Based on the first step, we can calculate the rough value and quickly fix delay time which the target is detected. This technique has overcome the depth resolution limitation for 3D active imaging and enables super-resolution depth mapping with a reduction of imaging data processing. By the two steps, we can quickly obtain the distance between the object and sensor.

  4. Noise and range considerations for close-range radar sensing of life signs underwater.

    PubMed

    Hafner, Noah; Lubecke, Victor

    2011-01-01

    Close-range underwater sensing of motion-based life signs can be performed with low power Doppler radar and ultrasound techniques. Corresponding noise and range performance trade-offs are examined here, with regard to choice of frequency and technology. The frequency range examined includes part of the UHF and microwave spectrum. Underwater detection of motion by radar in freshwater and saltwater are demonstrated. Radar measurements exhibited reduced susceptibility to noise as compared to ultrasound. While higher frequency radar exhibited better signal to noise ratio, propagation was superior for lower frequencies. Radar detection of motion through saltwater was also demonstrated at restricted ranges (1-2 cm) with low power transmission (10 dBm). The results facilitate the establishment of guidelines for optimal choice in technology for the underwater measurement motion-based life signs, with respect to trade offs involving range and noise. PMID:22254246

  5. Short-range/Long-range Integrated Target (SLIT) for Video Guidance Sensor Rendezvous and Docking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roe, Fred D. (Inventor); Bryan, Thomas C. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A laser target reflector assembly for mounting upon spacecraft having a long-range reflector array formed from a plurality of unfiltered light reflectors embedded in an array pattern upon a hemispherical reflector disposed upon a mounting plate. The reflector assembly also includes a short-range reflector array positioned upon the mounting body proximate to the long-range reflector array. The short-range reflector array includes three filtered light reflectors positioned upon extensions from the mounting body. The three filtered light reflectors retro-reflect substantially all incident light rays that are transmissive by their monochromatic filters and received by the three filtered light reflectors. In one embodiment the short-range reflector array is embedded within the hemispherical reflector,

  6. Climate-driven range extension of Amphistegina (protista, foraminiferida): models of current and predicted future ranges.

    PubMed

    Langer, Martin R; Weinmann, Anna E; Lötters, Stefan; Bernhard, Joan M; Rödder, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Species-range expansions are a predicted and realized consequence of global climate change. Climate warming and the poleward widening of the tropical belt have induced range shifts in a variety of marine and terrestrial species. Range expansions may have broad implications on native biota and ecosystem functioning as shifting species may perturb recipient communities. Larger symbiont-bearing foraminifera constitute ubiquitous and prominent components of shallow water ecosystems, and range shifts of these important protists are likely to trigger changes in ecosystem functioning. We have used historical and newly acquired occurrence records to compute current range shifts of Amphistegina spp., a larger symbiont-bearing foraminifera, along the eastern coastline of Africa and compare them to analogous range shifts currently observed in the Mediterranean Sea. The study provides new evidence that amphisteginid foraminifera are rapidly progressing southwestward, closely approaching Port Edward (South Africa) at 31°S. To project future species distributions, we applied a species distribution model (SDM) based on ecological niche constraints of current distribution ranges. Our model indicates that further warming is likely to cause a continued range extension, and predicts dispersal along nearly the entire southeastern coast of Africa. The average rates of amphisteginid range shift were computed between 8 and 2.7 km year(-1), and are projected to lead to a total southward range expansion of 267 km, or 2.4° latitude, in the year 2100. Our results corroborate findings from the fossil record that some larger symbiont-bearing foraminifera cope well with rising water temperatures and are beneficiaries of global climate change. PMID:23405081

  7. Climate-Driven Range Extension of Amphistegina (Protista, Foraminiferida): Models of Current and Predicted Future Ranges

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Martin R.; Weinmann, Anna E.; Lötters, Stefan; Bernhard, Joan M.; Rödder, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Species-range expansions are a predicted and realized consequence of global climate change. Climate warming and the poleward widening of the tropical belt have induced range shifts in a variety of marine and terrestrial species. Range expansions may have broad implications on native biota and ecosystem functioning as shifting species may perturb recipient communities. Larger symbiont-bearing foraminifera constitute ubiquitous and prominent components of shallow water ecosystems, and range shifts of these important protists are likely to trigger changes in ecosystem functioning. We have used historical and newly acquired occurrence records to compute current range shifts of Amphistegina spp., a larger symbiont-bearing foraminifera, along the eastern coastline of Africa and compare them to analogous range shifts currently observed in the Mediterranean Sea. The study provides new evidence that amphisteginid foraminifera are rapidly progressing southwestward, closely approaching Port Edward (South Africa) at 31°S. To project future species distributions, we applied a species distribution model (SDM) based on ecological niche constraints of current distribution ranges. Our model indicates that further warming is likely to cause a continued range extension, and predicts dispersal along nearly the entire southeastern coast of Africa. The average rates of amphisteginid range shift were computed between 8 and 2.7 km year−1, and are projected to lead to a total southward range expansion of 267 km, or 2.4° latitude, in the year 2100. Our results corroborate findings from the fossil record that some larger symbiont-bearing foraminifera cope well with rising water temperatures and are beneficiaries of global climate change. PMID:23405081

  8. EMIR high-dynamic range readout modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuñez, Miguel; Gago, Fernando; Garzón, Francisco; Díaz, José J.; Barreto, Mary; Patrón, Jesús; González-Fenández, Carlos; Hammersley, Peter L.; López, Luis; Castro, Nieves

    2012-07-01

    EMIR is the NIR imager and multiobject spectrograph being built as a common user instrument for the GTC and it is currently entering in the integration and verification phase at system level. EMIR is being built by a Consortium of Spanish and French institutes led by the IAC. In this paper we describe the readout modes of EMIR detector, a Hawaii2 FPA, after two full calibrations campaigns. Besides the standard set of modes (reset-read, CDS, Fowler, Follow-up the ramp), the modified SDSU-III hardware and home made software will also offer high dynamic range readout modes, which will improve the ability of the instrument to sound densely populated areas which often are made of objects with large differences in brightness. These new high dynamic range modes are: single readout with very short integration time, window mode and combination of both. The results show that the new modes behave linearly with different exposition times, improve the maximum frame rate and increase the saturation limit in image mode for EMIR instrument.

  9. Long range position and Orientation Tracking System

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, G.A.; Jansen, J.F.; Burks, B.L.

    1996-02-01

    The long range Position and Orientation Tracking System is an active triangulation-based system that is being developed to track a target to a resolution of 6.35 mm (0.25 in.) and 0.009{degrees}(32.4 arcseconds) over a range of 13.72 m (45 ft.). The system update rate is currently set at 20 Hz but can be increased to 100 Hz or more. The tracking is accomplished by sweeping two pairs of orthogonal line lasers over infrared (IR) sensors spaced with known geometry with respect to one another on the target (the target being a rigid body attached to either a remote vehicle or a remote manipulator arm). The synchronization and data acquisition electronics correlates the time that an IR sensor has been hit by one of the four lasers and the angle of the respective mirror at the time of the hit. This information is combined with the known geometry of the IR sensors on the target to determine position and orientation of the target. This method has the advantage of allowing the target to be momentarily lost due to occlusions and then reacquired without having to return the target to a known reference point. The system also contains a camera with operator controlled lighting in each pod that allows the target to be continuously viewed from either pod, assuming their are no occlusions.

  10. Mitochondrial uncouplers with an extraordinary dynamic range.

    PubMed

    Lou, Phing-How; Hansen, Birgit S; Olsen, Preben H; Tullin, Søren; Murphy, Michael P; Brand, Martin D

    2007-10-01

    We have discovered that some weak uncouplers (typified by butylated hydroxytoluene) have a dynamic range of more than 10(6) in vitro: the concentration giving measurable uncoupling is less than one millionth of the concentration causing full uncoupling. They achieve this through a high-affinity interaction with the mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocase that causes significant but limited uncoupling at extremely low uncoupler concentrations, together with more conventional uncoupling at much higher concentrations. Uncoupling at the translocase is not by a conventional weak acid/anion cycling mechanism since it is also caused by substituted triphenylphosphonium molecules, which are not anionic and cannot protonate. Covalent attachment of the uncoupler to a mitochondrially targeted hydrophobic cation sensitizes it to membrane potential, giving a small additional effect. The wide dynamic range of these uncouplers in isolated mitochondria and intact cells reveals a novel allosteric activation of proton transport through the adenine nucleotide translocase and provides a promising starting point for designing safer uncouplers for obesity therapy. PMID:17608618

  11. Mitochondrial uncouplers with an extraordinary dynamic range

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Phing-How; Hansen, Birgit S.; Olsen, Preben H.; Tullin, Søren; Murphy, Michael P.; Brand, Martin D.

    2007-01-01

    We have discovered that some weak uncouplers (typified by butylated hydroxytoluene) have a dynamic range of more than 106 in vitro: the concentration giving measurable uncoupling is less than one millionth of the concentration causing full uncoupling. They achieve this through a high-affinity interaction with the mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocase that causes significant but limited uncoupling at extremely low uncoupler concentrations, together with more conventional uncoupling at much higher concentrations. Uncoupling at the translocase is not by a conventional weak acid/anion cycling mechanism since it is also caused by substituted triphenylphosphonium molecules, which are not anionic and cannot protonate. Covalent attachment of the uncoupler to a mitochondrially targeted hydrophobic cation sensitizes it to membrane potential, giving a small additional effect. The wide dynamic range of these uncouplers in isolated mitochondria and intact cells reveals a novel allosteric activation of proton transport through the adenine nucleotide translocase and provides a promising starting point for designing safer uncouplers for obesity therapy. PMID:17608618

  12. Cretaceous Olistostrome Model, Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Crane, R.C.

    1985-04-01

    The foothills area of the Brooks Range thrust belt in the area between the Itkillik River and the Etivluk River is composed dominantly of shallow, thrusted olistostrome sheets. Three olistostrome units can be recognized based on the dominant lithology of contained olistoliths and age of the matrix shales. The lower unit is Thithonian to mid-Valanginian in age and is characterized by abundant graywacke and turbidite, mafic rocks, black cherts, olistoliths of Norian-Rhaetic shales, Nuka sands, and glide sheets of Upper Devonian to Lower Mississippian rocks. Olistolights were derived from the Misheguk, Ipnavik, and Nuka Ridge allochthonous sequences. The middle unit is of late Valanginian age and has olistoliths of Norian shales; more abundant Upper Triassic chert; Otuk Formation; variegated, radiolarian, black and white cherts; Siksikpuk facies red, green and black shales; Upper Jurassic graywacke; and minor occurrences of mafic rocks. The unit is characterized by glide sheets of Triassic white and multicolor cherts. Olistoliths are derived from Nuka Ridge and Brooks Range sequences. The upper unit is Hauterivian in age and olistoliths included reworked material from all older units. Olistoliths are few and widely scattered. Isolated outcrops of white chert and conglomerate boulders are characteristic.

  13. Wide-Temperature-Range Integrated Operational Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mojarradi, Mohammad; Levanas, Greg; Chen, Yuan; Kolawa, Elizabeth; Cozy, Raymond; Blalock, Benjamin; Greenwell, Robert; Terry, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    A document discusses a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) integrated- circuit operational amplifier to be replicated and incorporated into sensor and actuator systems of Mars-explorer robots. This amplifier is designed to function at a supply potential less than or equal to 5.5 V, at any temperature from -180 to +120 C. The design is implemented on a commercial radiation-hard SOI CMOS process rated for a supply potential of less than or equal to 3.6 V and temperatures from -55 to +110 C. The design incorporates several innovations to achieve this, the main ones being the following: NMOS transistor channel lengths below 1 m are generally not used because research showed that this change could reduce the adverse effect of hot carrier injection on the lifetimes of transistors at low temperatures. To enable the amplifier to withstand the 5.5-V supply potential, a circuit topology including cascade devices, clamping devices, and dynamic voltage biasing was adopted so that no individual transistor would be exposed to more than 3.6 V. To minimize undesired variations in performance over the temperature range, the transistors in the amplifier are biased by circuitry that maintains a constant inversion coefficient over the temperature range.

  14. Gastrointestinal parasites of free-range chickens.

    PubMed

    Tomza-Marciniak, Agnieszka; Pilarczyk, Bogumiła; Tobiańska, Berenika; Tarasewicz, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and intensity of parasitic gastrointestinal infections in free-range chickens from the West Pomerania province. Experimental material for the study was taken from 10 farms. Breeds raised in farms participating in the study included miniature chickens called Polish Lilliputians and Green- legged Partridge. A total of 104 samples of faeces were examined. The Willis-Schlaff flotation method was used to assess the prevalence of infection, and McMaster's method to evaluate the intensity. The presence of gastrointestinal parasites was found in 9 of the 10 farms. Oocysts of the genus Eimeria and eggs of gastrointestinal nematodes Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum and Trichostrongylus tenuis were isolated from the chicken faeces. Coccidiosis was found to be dominant parasitosis. The prevalence of infections on these farms with protozoa of Eimeria spp. was on average 32.7%, while for nematode species they amounted to 9.6% for Ascaridia galli, 5.7% for Heterakis gallinarum and 12.5% for Trichostrongylus tenuis. The results indicate the need to take preventive measures, designed to eliminate/reduce the risk of parasitoses in poultry from free-range systems. Focus should be placed on the hygiene of the farming conditions. PMID:25706430

  15. Development of a novel laser range scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pheiffer, Thomas S.; Lennon, Brian; Simpson, Amber L.; Miga, Michael I.

    2011-03-01

    Laser range scanning an organ surface intraoperatively provides a cost effective and accurate means of measuring geometric changes in tissue. A novel laser range scanner with integrated tracking was designed, developed, and analyzed with the goal of providing intraoperative surface data during neurosurgery. The scanner is fitted with passive spheres to be optically tracked in the operating room. The design notably includes a single-lens system capable of acquiring the geometric information (as a Cartesian point cloud) via laser illumination and charge-coupled device (CCD) collection, as well as the color information via visible light collection on the same CCD. The geometric accuracy was assessed by scanning a machined phantom of known dimensions and comparing relative distances of landmarks from the point cloud to the known distances. The ability of the scanner to be tracked was first evaluated by perturbing its orientation in front of the optical tracking camera and recording the number of spheres visible to the camera at each orientation, and then by observing the variance in point cloud locations of a fixed object when the tracking camera is moved around the scanner. The scanning accuracy test resulted in an RMS error of 0.47 mm with standard deviation of 0.40 mm. The sphere visibility test showed that four diodes were visible in most of the probable operating orientations, and the overall tracking standard deviation was observed to be 1.49 mm. Intraoperative collection of cortical surface scans using the new scanner is currently underway.

  16. Vehicle Based Laser Range Finding in Crops

    PubMed Central

    Ehlert, Detlef; Adamek, Rolf; Horn, Hans-Juergen

    2009-01-01

    Laser rangefinders and laser scanners are widely used for industrial purposes and for remote sensing. In agriculture information about crop parameters like volume, height, and density can support the optimisation of production processes. In scientific papers the measurement of these parameters by low cost laser rangefinders with one echo has been presented for short ranges. Because the cross section area of the beam increases with the measuring range, it can be expected that laser rangefinders will have a reduced measuring accuracy in small sized crops and when measuring far distances. These problems are caused by target areas smaller than the beam and by the beam striking the edges of crop objects. Lab tests under defined conditions and a real field test were performed to assess the measuring properties under such difficult conditions of a chosen low cost sensor. Based on lab tests it was shown that the accuracy was reduced, but the successful use of the sensor under field conditions demonstrated the potential to meet the demands for agricultural applications, Insights resulting from investigations made in the paper contribute to facilitating the choice or the development of laser rangefinder sensors for vehicle based measurement of crop parameters for optimisation of production processes. PMID:22412333

  17. FMCW optical ranging technique in turbid waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illig, David W.; Laux, Alan; Lee, Robert W.; Jemison, William D.; Mullen, Linda J.

    2015-05-01

    The performance of a frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) hybrid lidar-radar system will be presented in the context of an underwater optical ranging application. In adapting this technique from the radar community, a laser is intensity-modulated with a linear frequency ramp. A custom wideband laser source modulated by a new wideband digital synthesizer board is used to transmit an 800 MHz wide chirp into the underwater channel. The transmitted signal is mixed with a reference copy to obtain a "beat" signal representing the distance to the desired object. The expected form of the return signal is derived for turbid waters, a highly scattering environment, indicating that FMCW can detect both the desired object and the volumetric center of the backscatter "clutter" signal. This result is verified using both laboratory experiments and a realistic simulation model of the underwater optical channel. Ranging performance is explored as a function of both object position and water turbidity. Experimental and simulated results are in good agreement and performance out to ten attenuation lengths is reported, equivalent to 100 meters in open ocean or 5 meters in a turbid harbor condition.

  18. Ultralong-range polyatomic Rydberg molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Ferez, Rosario

    2016-05-01

    Ultralong-range polyatomic Rydberg molecules are formed when a ground-state atom is bound to a Rydberg atom. The binding mechanism of these Rydberg molecules is based on the low-energy collisions between a Rydberg electron and a ground-state atom and leads to the unusual oscillatory behavior of the adiabatic potential energy curves. If the ground-state atom immersed into the Rydberg wave function is replaced by a heteronuclear diatomic molecule another type of polyatomic Rydberg molecules can form. In this case, the Rydberg electron is coupled to the internal states of the polar ground-state molecule. In this talk, we will explore the electronic structure and rovibrational properties of these ultralong-range polyatomic Rydberg molecule. For the second type of Rydberg molecules, the polar dimer is allowed to rotate in the electric fields generated by the Rydberg electron and Rydberg core as well as an additional external field. We will investigate the metamorphosis of the Born-Oppenheimer potential curves, essential for the binding mechanism, with varying electric field and analyze the resulting properties such as the vibrational structure and the alignment and orientation of the polar dimer.

  19. Coupling governs entrainment range of circadian clocks

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Ute; Granada, Adrián E; Westermark, Pål O; Heine, Markus; Kramer, Achim; Herzel, Hanspeter

    2010-01-01

    Circadian clocks are endogenous oscillators driving daily rhythms in physiology and behavior. Synchronization of these timers to environmental light–dark cycles (‘entrainment') is crucial for an organism's fitness. Little is known about which oscillator qualities determine entrainment, i.e., entrainment range, phase and amplitude. In a systematic theoretical and experimental study, we uncovered these qualities for circadian oscillators in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN—the master clock in mammals) and the lung (a peripheral clock): (i) the ratio between stimulus (zeitgeber) strength and oscillator amplitude and (ii) the rigidity of the oscillatory system (relaxation rate upon perturbation) determine entrainment properties. Coupling among oscillators affects both qualities resulting in increased amplitude and rigidity. These principles explain our experimental findings that lung clocks entrain to extreme zeitgeber cycles, whereas SCN clocks do not. We confirmed our theoretical predictions by showing that pharmacological inhibition of coupling in the SCN leads to larger ranges of entrainment. These differences between master and the peripheral clocks suggest that coupling-induced rigidity in the SCN filters environmental noise to create a robust circadian system. PMID:21119632

  20. High-dynamic-range MCP structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, David C.; Timothy, J. G.

    1991-01-01

    We report on the development of a new high-dynamic-range two-stage Multi-Anode Microchannel Array (MAMA) imaging tube designed for improved high count rate performance at FUV and EUV wavelengths. The new two-stage MAMA tube employs two 25-mm-diameter format MCPs placed in tandem with a small gap between the plates. The front (input) MCP is designed to be a low-gain converter plate that supports an opaque photocathode and converts the detected photons to electrons, while the second (output) MCP is of higher conductivity and thus maintains the overall gain of the multiplier at high count rates. The second MCP is mounted in proximity focus with a (224 x 960)-pixel fine-fine coincidence MAMA array for high-spatial-resolution imaging studies. The applied voltage across each MCP can be controlled independently. We report on the gain and dynamic range performance characteristics of the two-stage MAMA tube in two different configurations: first, with the output MCP having moderate conductivity (about 100 MOhm); and second, with the output MCP having very high conductivity (about 2 MOhm). These results are compared and contrasted with those of the more conventional MAMA tube configuration which employs a single high-gain curved-channel MCP.

  1. Aspects of short-range interconnect packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlfeld, Denis; Brenner, Karl-Heinz

    2012-01-01

    In short-range interconnect applications, one question arises frequently: When should optical solutions be chosen over electrical wiring? The answer to this question of course depends on several factors like costs, performance, reliability, availability of testing equipment and knowledge about optical technologies, and last but not least, it strongly depends on the application itself. Networking in high performance computing (HPC) is one such example. With bit rates around 10 Gbit/s per channel and cable length above 2 m, the high attenuation of electrical cables leads to a clear preference of optical or active optical cables (AOC) for most planned HPC systems. For AOCs, the electro-optical conversion is realized inside the connector housing, while for purely optical cables, the conversion is done at the edge of the board. Proceeding to 25 Gbit/s and higher, attenuation and loss of signal quality become critical. Therefore, either significantly more effort has to be spent on the electrical side, or the package for conversion has to be integrated closer to the chip, thus requiring new packaging technologies. The paper provides a state of the art overview of packaging concepts for short range interconnects, it describes the main challenges of optical package integration and illustrates new concepts and trends in this research area.

  2. Exposure Range For Cine Radiographic Procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Robert J.

    1980-08-01

    Based on the author's experience, state-of-the-art cine radiographic equipment of the type used in modern cardiovascular laboratories for selective coronary arteriography must perform at well-defined levels to produce cine images with acceptable quantum mottle, contrast, and detail, as judged by consensus of across section of American cardiologists/radiologists experienced in viewing such images. Accordingly, a "standard" undertable state-of-the-art cine radiographic imaging system is postulated to answer the question of what patient exposure range is necessary to obtain cine images of acceptable quality. It is shown that such a standard system would be expected to produce a 'tabletop exposure of about 25 milliRoentgens per frame for the "standard" adult patient, plus-or-minus 33% for accept-able variation of system parameters. This means that for cine radiography at 60 frames per second (30 frames per second) the exposure rate range based on this model is 60 to 120 Roentgens per minute (30 to 60 Roentgens per minute). The author contends that studies at exposure levels below these will yield cine images of questionable diagnostic value; studies at exposure levels above these may yield cine images of excellent visual quality but having little additional diagnostic value, at the expense of added patient/personnel radiation exposure and added x-ray tube heat loading.

  3. Parallel Track Initiation for Optical Space Surveillance Using Range and Range Rate Bounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, P.; Roscoe, C.; Wilkins, M.

    2013-09-01

    As new optical sensors come online and more optical observations become available for space objects previously too small or too far away to detect, the space surveillance community is presented with the computationally challenging problem of generating initial orbit solutions (data association hypotheses) for a large number of short-arc line-of-sight observations. Traditional methods of angles-only orbit determination do not scale well to large problems because of the large number of combinations of observations that must be evaluated, since these methods require at least 3 observations for each initial orbit determination (IOD). On the other hand, if unique ranges are known (or assumed) then IOD can be performed with 2 observations using a Lambert-based approach. Furthermore, if angles and angle rates are available and range and range rate are both known (or assumed) then a complete orbit solution can be obtained for a single observation and the IOD computational load is only O(N). One possible method to deal with line-of-sight data is to assign a number of range hypotheses to each angles-only observation and develop data association hypotheses to be either confirmed or eliminated for each one. This approach would allow the use of the already proven Search and Determine (SAD) algorithm and software that was designed for generating and testing data association hypotheses for position-type observations typical of radar sensors. If the number of range hypotheses can be limited then this method will be more computationally efficient than performing pure angles-only IOD. If angle rates are available or can be derived from the observation data then another possible approach is to assign range and range rate hypotheses to each angle-angle rate pair and develop data association hypotheses based on their corresponding orbit solutions, which will be extremely efficient if the range-range rate hypothesis set can be limited. For both of these methods, once range and range

  4. Energy Expenditure Ranges and Muscular Work Grades

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J. R.; Crowden, G. P.

    1963-01-01

    This paper is based on the findings of a field study which was planned to ascertain by metabolic measurement the rates of energy expenditure of men and women on productive effort at work in modern factories. The investigation which is described was carried out during a period of peace-time full employment, mainly in factories associated with the Slough Industrial Health Service in which a nutritional survey of the calorie intake of male operatives had been made by the Ministry of Health and the Medical Research Council in 1952. The rates of energy expenditure of 70 men and 54 women in 27 occupational groups were measured by indirect calorimetric methods. On the basis of the criteria for the classification of work according grades to its heaviness, adopted by the Factory Department of the Ministry of Labour, muscular work grades have been ascribed to the occupations studied. From the distribution of 390 metabolic measurements, ranges of energy expenditure have been computed for occupations classed as sedentary, light, moderate, heavy, or very heavy, Observation of recurrent phase variations in types of productive effort in the work-cycle indicated that wider work grades, such as light-to-moderate or moderate-to-heavy, are needed to cover the energy expenditure rates of men and women in many occupations. The data obtained in this study have enabled a table termed the “Slough Scales” to be compiled giving ranges of energy expenditure and pulmonary ventilation rates for the various work grades ascribed to occupations. The mean rates of energy expenditure of 257 workers (in industries in different parts of England and Scotland) which have been calculated from data published by other investigators have been found to fall within the ranges specified in these scales for the work grades of their occupations. It is felt, therefore, that the Slough Scales represent a reasonably true appraisal of the relation between the Ministry of Labour occupational work grades and the

  5. Colorado Front Range Surface Ozone Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClure-Begley, A.; Petropavlovskikh, I. V.; Oltmans, S. J.; Kofler, J.; Petron, G.; Cothrel, H.

    2014-12-01

    The Colorado Front Range is a unique geographical region for air quality studies, including research of surface level ozone. Not only does surface ozone play a critical role in regulating the oxidation capacity of the atmosphere, but is a primary contributor to local smog and leads to public health complications and altered ecosystem functioning. The high frequency of sunny days, increasing population and pollution, and Mountain/Valley air dynamics of this region provide atmospheric conditions suitable for production and accumulation of ozone at the surface. This region of Colorado is currently in an ozone non-attainment status due to an assortment of contributing factors. Precursor emissions from pollution, wild-fires, and gas and oil production; along with stratosphere-troposphere exchange, can all result in high ozone episodes over the Colorado Front Range. To understand the dynamics of ozone accumulation in this region, Thermo-Scientific ozone monitors have been continuously sampling ozone from 4 different altitudes since the early 2000s. Analysis of ozone data in relation to Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Methane (CH4), Carbon Monoxide (CO), wind-conditions and back-trajectory air mass origins help to address local ozone precursor emissions and resulting high ozone episodes. Increased ozone episodes are scrutinized with regards to dominant wind direction to determine main precursor emission sources. Analysis of this data reveals a strong influence of precursor emissions from the North-East wind sector, with roughly 50% of ozone exceedances originating from winds prevailing from this direction. Further, correlation with methane is enhanced when prevailing winds are from the North-East; indicative of influence from natural gas processes and feedlot activity. Similar analysis is completed for the North-West wind sector exceedances, with strong correlation to carbon monoxide; likely related to emissions from biomass burning events and forest fires. In depth analysis of

  6. Optical Range-Finding from Image Focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weckler, Paul Reese

    Scope of the study. Much of the labor-intensive work in agriculture consists of reaching out, grasping an object, and then placing the object in a desired position. This repetitious work exploits the unsurpassed hand-eye coordination in human beings. Substitution of machines for manual labor will require simulation of human hand-eye coordination. Most robots in agricultural applications will need the ability to recognize and manipulate three-dimensional objects. With present technology, this requirement makes agricultural robotic systems uneconomical, except for special applications. A method for gauging the distance from a video camera to an object of interest was investigated. By using a calibrated camera-lens system, range was related to focus. Optimum focus of the image was determined by maximizing the high -frequency content of the Fourier transform of the object image. The Walsh-Hadamard transform was investigated as an alternative focusing function. Software was developed to determine optimum image focus and control a motorized camera lens. Findings and conclusions. Range values from the video camera to target objects were calculated by the system. Calculated values were compared with measured distances. Differences between calculated and actual distance averaged less than 0.5%. The Walsh-Hadamard transform provided focus information comparable to the Fourier transform. Using double precision floating-point arithmetic, the Walsh-Hadamard transform executed more than three times faster than the Fourier transform. Distance values calculated using the Walsh -Hadamard transform differed from values calculated with the Fourier transform by less than 1%. This system used a passive, non-triangulation technique to obtain the distance from the machine vision camera to the object of interest. A passive non-triangulation system was the simplest image acquisition requirements, since it does not require a second camera, structured lighting, camera movement, or time

  7. Climate structures genetic variation across a species' elevation range: a test of range limits hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Sexton, Jason P; Hufford, Matthew B; Bateman, Ashley C; Lowry, David B; Meimberg, Harald; Strauss, Sharon Y; Rice, Kevin J

    2016-02-01

    Gene flow may influence the formation of species range limits, and yet little is known about the patterns of gene flow with respect to environmental gradients or proximity to range limits. With rapid environmental change, it is especially important to understand patterns of gene flow to inform conservation efforts. Here we investigate the species range of the selfing, annual plant, Mimulus laciniatus, in the California Sierra Nevada. We assessed genetic variation, gene flow, and population abundance across the entire elevation-based climate range. Contrary to expectations, within-population plant density increased towards both climate limits. Mean genetic diversity of edge populations was equivalent to central populations; however, all edge populations exhibited less genetic diversity than neighbouring interior populations. Genetic differentiation was fairly consistent and moderate among all populations, and no directional signals of contemporary gene flow were detected between central and peripheral elevations. Elevation-driven gene flow (isolation by environment), but not isolation by distance, was found across the species range. These findings were the same towards high- and low-elevation range limits and were inconsistent with two common centre-edge hypotheses invoked for the formation of species range limits: (i) decreasing habitat quality and population size; (ii) swamping gene flow from large, central populations. This pattern demonstrates that climate, but not centre-edge dynamics, is an important range-wide factor structuring M. laciniatus populations. To our knowledge, this is the first empirical study to relate environmental patterns of gene flow to range limits hypotheses. Similar investigations across a wide variety of taxa and life histories are needed. PMID:26756973

  8. BLACK RANGE PRIMITIVE AREA, NEW MEXICO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ericksen, George E.; Leland, George R.

    1984-01-01

    A study of the Black Range Primitive Area, New Mexico indicated that the area had little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. A few miles north of the area, a unit of rhyolite in the otherwise barren volcanic rocks of the Mogollon-Datil volcanic field contains local concentrations of the tin mineral cassiterite, and streams draining outcrop areas of this rhyolite within the primitive area may contain very small cassiterite placer deposits. None were observed in this study and no resource potential was identified. Paleozoic sedimentary rocks and Precambrian granitic and metamorphic rocks exposed just east and south of the primitive area contain small polymetallic deposits with varying amounts of silver, lead, zinc, copper, and gold. These same rocks lie beneath the volcanic cover within the primitive area and are likely to contain similar deposits, but no resource potential was identified.

  9. SERIES - Satellite Emission Range Inferred Earth Surveying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdoran, P. F.; Spitzmesser, D. J.; Buennagel, L. A.

    1983-01-01

    The Satellite Emission Range Inferred Earth Surveying (SERIES) concept is based on the utilization of NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS) radio transmissions without any satellite modifications and in a totally passive mode. The SERIES stations are equipped with lightweight 1.5 m diameter dish antennas mounted on trailers. A series baseline measurement accuracy demonstration is considered, taking into account a 100 meter baseline estimation from approximately one hour of differential Doppler data. It is planned to conduct the next phase of experiments on a 150 m baseline. Attention is given to details regarding future baseline measurement accuracy demonstrations, aspects of ionospheric calibration in connection with subdecimeter baseline accuracy requirements of geodesy, and advantages related to the use of the differential Doppler or pseudoranging mode.

  10. Scannerless loss modulated flash color range imaging

    DOEpatents

    Sandusky, John V.; Pitts, Todd Alan

    2008-09-02

    Scannerless loss modulated flash color range imaging methods and apparatus are disclosed for producing three dimensional (3D) images of a target within a scene. Apparatus and methods according to the present invention comprise a light source providing at least three wavelengths (passbands) of illumination that are each loss modulated, phase delayed and simultaneously directed to illuminate the target. Phase delayed light backscattered from the target is spectrally filtered, demodulated and imaged by a planar detector array. Images of the intensity distributions for the selected wavelengths are obtained under modulated and unmodulated (dc) illumination of the target, and the information contained in the images combined to produce a 3D image of the target.

  11. Scannerless loss modulated flash color range imaging

    DOEpatents

    Sandusky, John V.; Pitts, Todd Alan

    2009-02-24

    Scannerless loss modulated flash color range imaging methods and apparatus are disclosed for producing three dimensional (3D) images of a target within a scene. Apparatus and methods according to the present invention comprise a light source providing at least three wavelengths (passbands) of illumination that are each loss modulated, phase delayed and simultaneously directed to illuminate the target. Phase delayed light backscattered from the target is spectrally filtered, demodulated and imaged by a planar detector array. Images of the intensity distributions for the selected wavelengths are obtained under modulated and unmodulated (dc) illumination of the target, and the information contained in the images combined to produce a 3D image of the target.

  12. Satellite laser ranging and its applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tapley, B. D.; Schutz, B. E.; Eanes, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    Satellite laser ranging (SLR) provides an important capability for precise orbit determination and for geophysical parameter estimation to support a number of contemporary geodynamic and oceanographic investigations. The precision of the SLR measurement has improved from the early meter-level systems to the current capabilities of a few centimeters for the best systems. The accuracy of the orbits and geophysical parameter recovery have shown an associated improvement. Polar motion with accuracies of 2 mas, station coordinates better than 10 cm, and interstation baseline rates indicative of tectonic motion are determined routinely with the current set of global SLR data. This discussion reviews the SLR measurement, analysis approach, and some of the recent results derived from the current SLR data set.

  13. Compositional range in the Canyon Diablo meteoroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasson, John T.; Ouyang, Xinwei

    1990-11-01

    The compositional range within the Canyon Diablo (CD) iron meteorites associated with the formation of the Meteor Crater (Arizona) was examined, using the INAA to analyze a set of CD samples consisting of nine irons collected within 7 km of the Meteor Crater, four Arizona IAB irons that were identified by Wasson (1968) as transported CD fragments, and irons from Las Vegas (Nevada) and Moab (Utah) that Buchwald (1975) suggested to be transported CD fragments. Results show that the irons named Helt Township, Idaho, Las Vegas, Mamaroneck, Moab, and Pulaski County are, most likely, mislabeled CD specimens. On the other hand, meteorites named Alexander County, Allan Hills A77283, Ashfork, Fairfield, and Rifle are identified as compositionally distinct independent falls.

  14. Compositional range in the Canyon Diablo meteoroid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasson, John T.; Ouyang, Xinwei

    1990-01-01

    The compositional range within the Canyon Diablo (CD) iron meteorites associated with the formation of the Meteor Crater (Arizona) was examined, using the INAA to analyze a set of CD samples consisting of nine irons collected within 7 km of the Meteor Crater, four Arizona IAB irons that were identified by Wasson (1968) as transported CD fragments, and irons from Las Vegas (Nevada) and Moab (Utah) that Buchwald (1975) suggested to be transported CD fragments. Results show that the irons named Helt Township, Idaho, Las Vegas, Mamaroneck, Moab, and Pulaski County are, most likely, mislabeled CD specimens. On the other hand, meteorites named Alexander County, Allan Hills A77283, Ashfork, Fairfield, and Rifle are identified as compositionally distinct independent falls.

  15. The phenotype range of achondrogenesis 1A.

    PubMed

    Grigelioniene, Giedre; Geiberger, Stefan; Papadogiannakis, Nikos; Mäkitie, Outi; Nishimura, Gen; Nordgren, Ann; Conner, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Achondrogenesis 1A (ACG1A; OMIM 200600) is an autosomal recessive perinatally lethal skeletal dysplasia comprising intrauterine growth failure, micromelia, minor facial anomalies, deficient ossification of the skull, absent or extremely defective spinal ossification, short beaded ribs, and short deformed long bones with a stellate appearance. ACG1A is caused by mutations in the TRIP11 gene, resulting in deficiency of the Golgi microtubule associated protein 210. In this study we describe dizygotic twins with a clinical and radiological phenotype of ACG1A who were homozygous for a novel nonsense mutation in the TRIP11 gene. In addition, another patient with a milder manifestation, not readily distinguishable from those of other lethal skeletal dysplasias, was found to be a compound heterozygote for a nonsense mutation and a deletion of the 3' end of the TRIP11 gene. We conclude that mutations of the TRIP11 gene may encompass a wider phenotypic range than previously recognized. PMID:23956106

  16. Logarithmic circuit with wide dynamic range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiley, P. H.; Manus, E. A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A circuit deriving an output voltage that is proportional to the logarithm of a dc input voltage susceptible to wide variations in amplitude includes a constant current source which forward biases a diode so that the diode operates in the exponential portion of its voltage versus current characteristic, above its saturation current. The constant current source includes first and second, cascaded feedback, dc operational amplifiers connected in negative feedback circuit. An input terminal of the first amplifier is responsive to the input voltage. A circuit shunting the first amplifier output terminal includes a resistor in series with the diode. The voltage across the resistor is sensed at the input of the second dc operational feedback amplifier. The current flowing through the resistor is proportional to the input voltage over the wide range of variations in amplitude of the input voltage.

  17. Long-range interaction of anisotropic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.-Y.; Schwingenschlögl, U.

    2015-02-01

    The first-order electrostatic interaction energy between two far-apart anisotropic atoms depends not only on the distance between them but also on their relative orientation, according to Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory. Using the first-order interaction energy and the continuum model, we study the long-range interaction between a pair of parallel pristine graphene sheets at zero temperature. The asymptotic form of the obtained potential density, \\varepsilon(D) \\propto -D-3-O(D-4) , is consistent with the random phase approximation and Lifshitz theory. Accordingly, neglectance of the anisotropy, especially the nonzero first-order interaction energy, is the reason why the widely used Lennard-Jones potential approach and dispersion corrections in density functional theory give a wrong asymptotic form \\varepsilon(D) \\propto -D-4 .

  18. In vitro host range of feline morbillivirus

    PubMed Central

    SAKAGUCHI, Shoichi; KOIDE, Rie; MIYAZAWA, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    Feline morbillivirus (FmoPV) is an emerging virus in cats, which is associated with tubulointerstitial nephritis. To study the in vitro host range of FmoPV, we inoculated FmoPV strain SS1 to 32 cell lines originated from 13 species and cultured for 2 weeks, followed by RNA extraction and reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction for FmoPV detection. As a result, only cell lines derived from cats and African green monkeys were susceptible to FmoPV. FmoPV infects diverse feline cell lines: epithelial, fibroblastic, lymphoid and glial cells. These results indicate that the receptor (s) for FmoPV are ubiquitously expressed in cats. No infectivity of FmoPV was observed in human cell lines, which suggests least threatening of cross-species transmission of FmoPV from cats to humans. PMID:26027844

  19. Multistatic short range imaging with multipath signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumbmann, Frank; Ahmed, Sherif S.

    2014-10-01

    Active imaging systems in the millimeter wave region have proven to offer good results for security applications. Especially a coherent signal detection results in a high dynamic range. Several techniques and systems were published in the last years. The drawback of an active illumination of the measurement object is the effect of shading and poor illuminated areas due to specular reflections from smooth surfaces. The visibility of an object depends on its surface roughness and its relative positioning to the imaging sensor. Especially in personnel screening, the human skin behaves as a smooth mirror for millimeter waves. This paper describes the incorporation of multipath signals in the imaging process to enhance the illumination properties of active imaging systems. The proposed multipath concept is demonstrated with an active multistatic imaging system working from 70 to 80 GHz for security applications.

  20. Long-range polarimetric imaging through fog.

    PubMed

    Fade, Julien; Panigrahi, Swapnesh; Carré, Anthony; Frein, Ludovic; Hamel, Cyril; Bretenaker, Fabien; Ramachandran, Hema; Alouini, Mehdi

    2014-06-20

    We report an experimental implementation of long-range polarimetric imaging through fog over kilometric distance in real field atmospheric conditions. An incoherent polarized light source settled on a telecommunication tower is imaged at a distance of 1.3 km with a snapshot polarimetric camera including a birefringent Wollaston prism, allowing simultaneous acquisition of two images along orthogonal polarization directions. From a large number of acquisitions datasets and under various environmental conditions (clear sky/fog/haze, day/night), we compare the efficiency of using polarized light for source contrast increase with different signal representations (intensity, polarimetric difference, polarimetric contrast, etc.). With the limited-dynamics detector used, a maximum fourfold increase in contrast was demonstrated under bright background illumination using polarimetric difference image. PMID:24979415

  1. Extended temperature range ACPS thruster investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blubaugh, A. L.; Schoenman, L.

    1974-01-01

    The successful hot fire demonstration of a pulsing liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen and gaseous hydrogen/liquid oxygen attitude control propulsion system thruster is described. The test was the result of research to develop a simple, lightweight, and high performance reaction control system without the traditional requirements for extensive periods of engine thermal conditioning, or the use of complex equipment to convert both liquid propellants to gas prior to delivery to the engine. Significant departures from conventional injector design practice were employed to achieve an operable design. The work discussed includes thermal and injector manifold priming analyses, subscale injector chilldown tests, and 168 full scale and 550 N (1250 lbF) rocket engine tests. Ignition experiments, at propellant temperatures ranging from cryogenic to ambient, led to the generation of a universal spark ignition system which can reliably ignite an engine when supplied with liquid, two phase, or gaseous propellants. Electrical power requirements for spark igniter are very low.

  2. Fe-based long range ordered alloys

    DOEpatents

    Liu, C.T.

    Malleable long range ordered alloys with high critical ordering temperatures exist in the V(Co,Fe)/sub 3/ and V(Co,Fe,Ni)/sub 3/ system. The composition comprising by weight 22 to 23% V, 35 to 50% Fe, 0 to 22% Co and 19 to 40% Ni with an electron density no greater than 8.00. Excellent high temperature properties occur in alloys having compositions comprising by weight 22 to 23% V, 35 to 45% Fe, 0 to 10% Co, 25 to 35% Ni; 22 to 23% V, 28 to 33% Ni and the remainder Fe; and 22 to 23% V, 19 to 22% Co and the remainder Fe. The alloys are fabricable by casting, deforming and annealing for sufficient time to provide ordered structure.

  3. Fe-based long range ordered alloys

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Chain T; Inouye, Henry; Schaffhauser, Anthony C.

    1980-01-01

    Malleable long range ordered alloys having high critical ordering temperatures exist in the V(Co,Fe).sub.3 and V(Co,Fe,Ni).sub.3 system having the composition comprising by weight 22-23% V, 35-50% Fe, 0-22% Co and 19-40% Ni with an electron density no greater than 8.00. Excellent high temperature properties occur in alloys having compositions comprising by weight 22-23% V, 35-45% Fe, 0-10% Co, 25-35% Ni; 22-23% V, 28-33% Ni and the remainder Fe; and 22-23% V, 19-22% Ni, 19-22% Co and the remainder Fe. The alloys are fabricable by casting, deforming and annealing for sufficient time to provide ordered structure.

  4. Cruise performance and range prediction reconsidered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torenbeek, Egbert

    1997-05-01

    A unified analytical treatment of the cruise performance of subsonic transport aircraft is derived, valid for gas turbine powerplant installations: turboprop, turbojet and turbofan powered aircraft. Different from the classical treatment the present article deals with compressibility effects on the aerodynamic characteristics. Analytical criteria are derived for optimum cruise lift coefficient and Mach number, with and without constraints on the altitude and engine rating. A simple alternative to the Bréguet range equation is presented which applies to several practical cruising flight techniques: flight at constant altitude and Mach number and stepped cruise/climb. A practical non-iterative procedure for computing mission and reserve fuel loads in the preliminary design stage is proposed.

  5. Broader range of skills distinguishes successful CFOs.

    PubMed

    Doody, M F

    2000-09-01

    In recent years, healthcare CFOs have seen their role expand significantly beyond traditional financial duties. A series of trended surveys on CFO roles and responsibilities reveals that today's healthcare CFO requires a broad new range of traits and skills in the areas of leadership, operations, and healthcare strategy. CFOs regard strategic thinking and the ability to communicate clearly as the most important of their essential leadership traits and skills, respectively. Among operational and strategic skills, CFOs most often cite the importance of being able to improve organizational performance and benchmark. Healthcare CFOs can enhance their chances of success by focusing self-improvement efforts on five key areas: implementing the organization's vision; developing tactics that stimulate change; enhancing communication skills; focusing on managing and leading; and strengthening relationships. PMID:11066389

  6. Ultra High Mass Range Mass Spectrometer System

    DOEpatents

    Reilly, Peter T. A. [Knoxville, TN

    2005-12-06

    Applicant's present invention comprises mass spectrometer systems that operate in a mass range from 1 to 10.sup.16 DA. The mass spectrometer system comprising an inlet system comprising an aerodynamic lens system, a reverse jet being a gas flux generated in an annulus moving in a reverse direction and a multipole ion guide; a digital ion trap; and a thermal vaporization/ionization detector system. Applicant's present invention further comprises a quadrupole mass spectrometer system comprising an inlet system having a quadrupole mass filter and a thermal vaporization/ionization detector system. Applicant's present invention further comprises an inlet system for use with a mass spectrometer system, a method for slowing energetic particles using an inlet system. Applicant's present invention also comprises a detector device and a method for detecting high mass charged particles.

  7. Rescaled range analysis of resting respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoop, Bernard; Kazemi, Homayoun; Liebovitch, Larry

    1993-01-01

    Fluctuations in resting depth of breathing (tidal volume) at constant breathing rate in the anesthetized adult rat exhibit fractal properties when analyzed by a rescaled range method characterized by a mean (±SD) exponent H=0.83±0.02 and 0.92±0.03 with and without sighs, respectively, for up to 400 breaths. Values of H determined from shuffled tidal volumes and simulated tidal volumes taken randomly from a Gaussian distribution of mean and variance approximating that of the actual data are consistent with the expected value of H=0.5 for an independent random process with finite variances. An empirical description is proposed to predict the change in H with length of time record.

  8. Earth rotation from lunar laser ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickey, J. O.; Williams, J. G.

    1983-01-01

    The rotational orientation (Universal Time and the variation of latitude at McDonald Observatory, Texas) of the earth has been determined between mid 1970 and mid 1982 from McDonald Observatory lunar laser ranging (LLR) data. Universal Time, UT1, is calculated and supplied in three forms, the raw daily decomposition values, the Gaussian filtered values and the Fourier smoothed values. Formal error estimates are available for all three types. LLR can calculate corrections to one component of polar motion, the variation of latitude at McDonald Observatory. Modelling improvements have been applied here and a significant drop is seen in the residuals. The rms weighted residual for the entire thirteen year data span (3,326 'normal' points acquired between August 1969 and May 1982) is 18.7 cm.

  9. Ultrasonic ranging and data telemetry system

    DOEpatents

    Brashear, Hugh R.; Blair, Michael S.; Phelps, James E.; Bauer, Martin L.; Nowlin, Charles H.

    1990-01-01

    An ultrasonic ranging and data telemetry system determines a surveyor's position and automatically links it with other simultaneously taken survey data. An ultrasonic and radio frequency (rf) transmitter are carried by the surveyor in a backpack. The surveyor's position is determined by calculations that use the measured transmission times of an airborne ultrasonic pulse transmitted from the backpack to two or more prepositioned ultrasonic transceivers. Once a second, rf communications are used both to synchronize the ultrasonic pulse transmission-time measurements and to transmit other simultaneously taken survey data. The rf communications are interpreted by a portable receiver and microcomputer which are brought to the property site. A video display attached to the computer provides real-time visual monitoring of the survey progress and site coverage.

  10. Synchronous Phase-Resolving Flash Range Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata; Hancock, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    An apparatus, now undergoing development, for range imaging based on measurement of the round-trip phase delay of a pulsed laser beam is described. The apparatus would operate in a staring mode. A pulsed laser would illuminate a target. Laser light reflected from the target would be imaged on a verylarge- scale integrated (VLSI)-circuit image detector, each pixel of which would contain a photodetector and a phase-measuring circuit. The round-trip travel time for the reflected laser light incident on each pixel, and thus the distance to the portion of the target imaged in that pixel, would be measured in terms of the phase difference between (1) the photodetector output pulse and (2) a local-oscillator signal that would have a frequency between 10 and 20 MHz and that would be synchronized with the laser-pulse-triggering signal.

  11. Intermediate range order in alkaline borate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crupi, C.; Carini, G.; Ruello, G.; D'Angelo, G.

    2016-03-01

    We describe the neutron diffraction patterns of a series of alkaline borate glasses at different metal oxide content. Strong differences are observed in the intermediate range order as a function of the specific alkaline ion and of its concentration. On these results, we propose that the first sharp diffraction peak arises from correlations of atoms of voids and show that the compositional variation of this peak intensity in alkaline borate glasses is due to changes in the distribution of void sizes within the three-dimensional network. We argue that our interpretation in terms of interstitial (empty and/or filled) voids, having different sizes, provides a general explanation for all anomalous behaviours revealed for the first sharp diffraction peak.

  12. Range corrections in proton halo nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryberg, Emil; Forssén, Christian; Hammer, H.-W.; Platter, Lucas

    2016-04-01

    We analyze the effects of finite-range corrections in halo effective field theory for S-wave proton halo nuclei. We calculate the charge radius to next-to-leading order and the astrophysical S-factor for low-energy proton capture to fifth order in the low-energy expansion. As an application, we confront our results with experimental data for the S-factor for proton capture on Oxygen-16 into the excited 1 /2+ state of Fluorine-17. Our low-energy theory is characterized by a systematic low-energy expansion, which can be used to quantify an energy-dependent model error to be utilized in data fitting. Finally, we show that the existence of proton halos is suppressed by the need for two fine tunings in the underlying theory.

  13. FLINT CREEK RANGE WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ericksen, George E.; Marks, Lawrence Y.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Flint Creek Range Wilderness study area, Montana shows the presence of mineral deposits. By far the most important are low-grade, potentially large, contact-metamorphic tungsten deposits. A large stockwork molybdenum deposit is probably low in grade. The areas of these tungsten and molybdenum deposits have substantiated mineral-resource potential. A multimillion ton phosphate-rock deposit occurs in an area of substantiated resource potential in the Permian Phosphoria Formation in the south-central part of the study area. Deposits of massive quartz, perhaps suitable for smelter flux, a demonstrated resource. Small scattered silver- and gold-bearing veins are present, but no resource potential was identified.

  14. Ranging light sensing guide with periodic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornreich, Philipp; Farell, Bart

    2014-09-01

    A true three dimensional camera is described here, that without using the stereoscopic effect can measure the distance from each pixel to the point on the object that is in focus at the pixel. It is useful for providing detailed range information for guiding autonomous vehicles and general robotic vision. It is conventionally assumed that humans have three dimensional vision because each object is observed from a slightly different direction with each eye. That is, humans have stereoscopic vision. This is true. However, there is another mechanism in animal eyes that also contributes to three dimensional vision. The Depth Perception Camera described here also uses this mechanism. The Depth Perception Camera can be be constructed by conventional semiconductor device fabrication technology. It can also be constructed using a three dimensioal printer that can handle differently doped semiconductors.

  15. Short Range Correlations and the EMC Effect

    SciTech Connect

    L.B. Weinstein, E. Piasetzky, D.W. Higinbotham, J. Gomez, O. Hen, R. Shneor

    2011-02-01

    This Letter shows quantitatively that the magnitude of the EMC effect measured in electron deep inelastic scattering at intermediate xB, 0.35≤xB≤0.7, is linearly related to the short range correlation (SRC) scale factor obtained from electron inclusive scattering at xB≥1. The observed phenomenological relationship is used to extract the ratio of the deuteron to the free pn pair cross sections and F2n/F2p, the ratio of the free neutron to free proton structure functions. We speculate that the observed correlation is because both the EMC effect and SRC are dominated by the high virtuality (high momentum) nucleons in the nucleus.

  16. Short range gravity and T-Violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Saki

    2014-09-01

    A torsion balance experiment Newton-IVh at Rikkyo University, aiming to test gravitational inverse square law at millimeter scale, and the MTV-G experiment searching a strong gravity at around nuclei utilizing detector setup for a T-Violation (the MTV) experiment at TRIUMF will be introduced. In addition, comparison with the LHC results on search for the large extra dimension and the sensitivity of the short range gravity experiments will be discussed on the contexts of conventional Yukawa and power law parameterizations. The experimental constraints obtained from atomic spectroscopy including anti-protonic helium atom, together with our results at Rikkyo University on the test of universality of free fall in centimeter scale, will also be discussed as a test of inverse square law and composition depending gravity, which can be investigated at antimatter gravity experiments.

  17. Long range inductive power transfer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, James; Pinuela, Manuel; Yates, David C.; Lucyszyn, Stepan; Mitcheson, Paul D.

    2013-12-01

    We report upon a recently developed long range inductive power transfer system (IPT) designed to power remote sensors with mW level power consumption at distances up to 7 m. In this paper an inductive link is established between a large planar (1 × 1 m) transmit coil (Tx) and a small planer (170 × 170 mm) receiver coil (Rx), demonstrating the viability of highly asymmetrical coil configurations that real-world applications such as sensor networks impose. High Q factor Tx and Rx coils required for viable power transfer efficiencies over such distances are measured using a resonant method. The applicability of the Class-E amplifier in very low magnetic coupling scenarios and at the high frequencies of operation required for high Q operation is demonstrated by its usage as the Tx coil driver.

  18. Inertial Range Behavior of Anisotropic Magnetic Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terry, P. W.; Fernandez, Eduardo

    2001-10-01

    Toward the inner scale of turbulence in the warm diffuse component of the local interstellar medium, the electron density is expected to change from passive to active. Using an anisotropic reduced MHD model augmented with electron density evolution under advection and compression along the local field, we study the inertial range interactions of density, flow, and magnetic field in the long and short wavelength regimes of passive and active electron density evolution [1]. Employing numerical simulation and statistical closure theory we find that even for strong anisotropy, Alfvénic decorrelation alone mediates energy transfer in the equation for the magnetic field. Alfvénic interactions couple magnetic field to the flow at long wavelengths and magnetic field to density at short wavelengths. The coupling, which drives equipartition between the coupled fields, decorrelates on the Alfvén time scale. The fluid straining decorrelation, or eddy turnover rate, affects only the cascade of internal energy at long wavelengths, and the cascade of kinetic energy at short wavelengths. This interplay between Alfvénic and fluid straining decorrelations across a spectrum with long and short wavelength ranges indicates that a single decorrelation rate cannot apply to all interactions. The spectra associated with these processes have indices of -3/2 for magnetic and kinetic energy, and -7/4 for internal energy in the long wavelength regime; and -2 for magnetic and internal energy, and -5/3 for kinetic energy in the short wavelength regime. 1. P.W. Terry, et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 2707 (2001).

  19. Matera Laser Ranging Observatory (MLRO): An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varghese, Thomas K.; Decker, Winfield M.; Crooks, Henry A.; Bianco, Giuseppe

    1993-01-01

    The Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI) is currently under negotiation with the Bendix Field Engineering Corporation (BFEC) of the Allied Signal Aerospace Company (ASAC) to build a state-of-the-art laser ranging observatory for the Centro di Geodesia Spaziale, in Matera, Italy. The contract calls for the delivery of a system based on a 1.5 meter afocal Cassegrain astronomical quality telescope with multiple ports to support a variety of experiments for the future, with primary emphasis on laser ranging. Three focal planes, viz. Cassegrain, Coude, and Nasmyth will be available for these experiments. The open telescope system will be protected from dust and turbulence using a specialized dome which will be part of the building facilities to be provided by ASI. The fixed observatory facility will be partitioned into four areas for locating the following: laser, transmit/receive optics, telescope/dome enclosure, and the operations console. The optical tables and mount rest on a common concrete pad for added mechanical stability. Provisions will be in place for minimizing the effects of EMI, for obtaining maximum cleanliness for high power laser and transmit optics, and for providing an ergonomic environment fitting to a state-of-the-art multipurpose laboratory. The system is currently designed to be highly modular and adaptable for scaling or changes in technology. It is conceived to be a highly automated system with superior performance specifications to any currently operational system. Provisions are also made to adapt and accommodate changes that are of significance during the course of design and integration.

  20. Tonopah Test Range Post-Closure Inspection Annual Report, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Calendar Year 2003

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

    2004-04-01

    This post-closure inspection report provides documentation of the semiannual inspection activities, maintenance and repair activities, and conclusions and recommendations for calendar year 2003 for eight corrective action units located on the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada.

  1. Short range, ultra-wideband radar with high resolution swept range gate

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-05-26

    A radar range finder and hidden object locator is based on ultra-wide band radar with a high resolution swept range gate. The device generates an equivalent time amplitude scan with a typical range of 4 inches to 20 feet, and an analog range resolution as limited by a jitter of on the order of 0.01 inches. A differential sampling receiver is employed to effectively eliminate ringing and other aberrations induced in the receiver by the near proximity of the transmit antenna, so a background subtraction is not needed, simplifying the circuitry while improving performance. Uses of the invention include a replacement of ultrasound devices for fluid level sensing, automotive radar, such as cruise control and parking assistance, hidden object location, such as stud and rebar finding. Also, this technology can be used when positioned over a highway lane to collect vehicle count and speed data for traffic control. 14 figs.

  2. Short range, ultra-wideband radar with high resolution swept range gate

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1998-05-26

    A radar range finder and hidden object locator is based on ultra-wide band radar with a high resolution swept range gate. The device generates an equivalent time amplitude scan with a typical range of 4 inches to 20 feet, and an analog range resolution as limited by a jitter of on the order of 0.01 inches. A differential sampling receiver is employed to effectively eliminate ringing and other aberrations induced in the receiver by the near proximity of the transmit antenna, so a background subtraction is not needed, simplifying the circuitry while improving performance. Uses of the invention include a replacement of ultrasound devices for fluid level sensing, automotive radar, such as cruise control and parking assistance, hidden object location, such as stud and rebar finding. Also, this technology can be used when positioned over a highway lane to collect vehicle count and speed data for traffic control.

  3. Wykorzystanie walorów turystycznych w procesie edukacji regionalnej na Południowym Podlasiu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boczukowa, Beata

    2009-01-01

    The article discuses the contribution of the tourism in the development of the regional education. Then the tourist virtues of Southern Podlasie and their use in the didactic and educational process were presented. The role of school in the implementation of the idea of regionalism was justified. It was introduced in the system of Polish education together with the school reform in 1999 as a intersubjective trial, which was called regional education. In the preface there was emphasized the meaning of regionalism in the contemporary world and its close connection with tourism. Using of tourist virtues (such as natural and anthropogenic virtues) in the process of regional education in South Podlasie was discussed. Simultaneously the regional education issue, which is being systematically introduced to nursery schools and other schools of South Podlasie, was exhibited. An important element of the program of the cultural heritage in the region is ecological education. For that reason the importance and results of nature contests and actions for students from primary schools and secondary school of the region was discussed. The author of this article was trying to prove that the essential component of regional education is cultivation of local traditions. These traditions are connected with Podlasie folklore because the culture and folk art in that region have special importance in the local community and contribute to its integration. In conclusion, pedagogical aspects of tourism, especially: shaping of socialization, individuality, creative work, companionship and others, were specified.

  4. Critical configurations (determinantal loci) for range and range difference satellite networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsimis, E.

    1973-01-01

    The observational modes of Geometric Satellite Geodesy are discussed. The geometrical analysis of the problem yielded a regression model for the adjustment of the observations along with a suitable and convenient metric for the least-squares criterion. The determinantal loci (critical configurations) for range networks are analyzed. An attempt is made to apply elements of the theory of variants for this purpose. The use of continuously measured range differences for loci determination is proposed.

  5. Range effect on percolation threshold and structural properties for short-range attractive spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jiachen; Xu, Limei; Song, Fan

    2015-01-01

    Percolation or aggregation in colloidal system is important in many fields of science and technology. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we study the percolation behavior for systems consisting of spheres interacting with short-range square-well (SRSW) which mimic colloidal particles, with different interaction ranges. We specifically focus on how the interaction range affects the percolation thresholds in the supercritical region. We find that the contact percolation boundaries are strongly dependent on the interaction ranges of SRSW, especially away from the liquid-liquid critical point. However, varying the interaction ranges of SRSW does not affect much the structure along percolation boundaries especially for low packing fractions. For instance, along the percolation boundary, distributions of coordination number show convergence, and distributions of cluster size are universal for different interaction ranges considered. In addition, either the bond percolation boundaries or isolines of average bond coordination number collapse to those for Baxter sticky model on phase diagram, which confirms the extended law of corresponding states.

  6. Smoothing of functions of range and range rate measurements from earth orbiting satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grenchik, T. J.; Murray, C. W., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    It is shown that for satellites in circular Earth orbits with altitudes of 500 kilometers to 1500 kilometers, and for satellites in elliptical orbits with an approximate 4000 kilometer height of perigee, a high degree least squares polynomial (e.g., a 9th or 10th degree in some cases) is required to smooth both range and range rate data for purposes of input to orbit determination programs. In order to circumvent this problem, functions of range and range rate are smoothed with lower degree least squares polynomials (e.g., 3rd and 4th degree) and it is shown that under the above geometric constraints the standard deviation of fit can be reduced to levels commensurate with typical S-band tracking system resolution which is 1 to 2 meters in range and 0.005 meters/second in range rate for a 1 per second data rate. Also shown are the effects of Gaussian random noise, biases, and periodic noise. This analysis includes numerous examples applied to the 44 point data smoothing interval currently used in much of the operational preprocessing at the Goddard Space Flight Center.

  7. Kwajalein missile range, Kwajalein, Marshall Islands range reference atmosphere 0-70 km altitude

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Atmospheric parameters are essential to the research and development of missiles and aerospace vehicles. The need for realistic atmospheric models derived in a consistent manner for each of the several major test ranges was recognized in the early 1960's. An atmospheric model which is derived from statistical data for a particular geographical location is referred to as a reference atmosphere. This committee, Task MG-1, establishes RRAs Range Reference Atmospheres for the several ranges as provided by the RCC Range Commander's Council. An RRA is a model of the Earth's atmosphere over a geographical location of interest for use by DOD and other U.S. Government range users. The RRA is used to provide planning data for evaluating environmental constraints for the particular configurations of environment-sensitive systems and components being developed or undergoing tests. Using the best available upper atmosphere data base to include rawinsonde, rocketsonde and possibly other high-altitude data sources for the range location, the task is to establish a model of certain statistics for wind and thermodynamic quantities derived in a uniform manner and published in a standardized format.

  8. A study of the sensitivity of long-range passive ranging techniques to atmospheric scintillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Villiers, Jason; Wilson, Fintan; Nicolls, Fred

    2012-05-01

    This work aims to quantify and improve the sensitivity of monocular passive ranging techniques in sequences that are degraded by the the quasi-periodic inter frame motion and localised blurring associated with atmospheric scintillation. Ranges from tens of meters up to 1km in uncontrolled outdoor conditions were investigated. This work has application in surveillance, border control, artillery, and the autonomous navigation of ground vehicles. A field trial with long focal length, large aperture cameras was held. The targets were placed at known distances and a scintillometer was used to measure the turbulence between the cameras and each target. A variety of depth from defocus and depth from focus algorithms were applied to a the video sequences to determine range to the targets. Increasing levels of atmospheric turbulence were observed ranging from no turbulence to mild, moderate and severe turbulence. Algorithms for the mitigation of atmospheric turbulence were applied to the recorded video sequences. The passive ranging techniques were then applied to the turbulence-mitigated video sequences and the results compared to that of the raw sequences. Finally, findings regarding the best performing combination of ranging and mitigation techniques to use under different scintillation conditions are presented.

  9. Evolution of Topography in Glaciated Mountain Ranges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brocklehurst, Simon H.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis examines the response of alpine landscapes to the onset of glaciation. The basic approach is to compare fluvial and glacial laudscapes, since it is the change from the former to the latter that accompanies climatic cooling. This allows a detailed evaluation of hypotheses relating climate change to tectonic processes in glaciated mountain belts. Fieldwork was carried out in the eastern Sierra Nevada, California, and the Sangre de Cristo Range, Colorado, alongside digital elevation model analyses in the western US, the Southern Alps of New Zealand, and the Himalaya of northwestern Pakistan. hypothesis is overstated in its appeal to glacial erosion as a major source of relief production and subsequent peak uplift. Glaciers in the eastern Sierra Nevada and the western Sangre de Cristos have redistributed relief, but have produced only modest relief by enlarging drainage basins at the expense of low-relief topography. Glaciers have lowered valley floors and ridgelines by similar amounts, limiting the amount of "missing mass' that can be generated, and causing a decrease in drainage basin relief. The principal response of glaciated landscapes to rapid rock uplift is the development of towering cirque headwalls. This represents considerable relief production, but is not caused by glacial erosion alone. Large valley glaciers can maintain their low gradient regardless of uplift rate, which supports the "glacial buzzsaw" hypothesis. However, the inability of glaciers to erode steep hillslopes as rapidly can cause mean elevations to rise. Cosmogenic isotope dating is used to show that (i) where plucking is active, the last major glaciation removed sufficient material to reset the cosmogenic clock; and (ii) former glacial valley floors now stranded near the crest of the Sierra Nevada are at varying stages of abandonment, suggesting a cycle of drainage reorganiszation and relief inversion due to glacial erosion similar to that observed in river networks. Glaciated

  10. Medium range flood forecasts at global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voisin, N.; Wood, A. W.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Wood, E. F.

    2006-12-01

    average surface air temperature (with temperature ranges adjusted to a station-based climatology). In the retrospective forecasting mode, VIC is driven by global NCEP ensemble 15-day reforecasts provided by Tom Hamill (NOAA/ERL), bias corrected with respect to the adjusted ERA40 data and further downscaled spatially using higher spatial resolution Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) 1dd daily precipitation. Downward solar and longwave radiation, surface relative humidity, and other model forcings are derived from relationships with the daily temperature range during both the retrospective (spinup) and forecast period. The initial system is implemented globally at one-half degree spatial resolution. We evaluate model performance retrospectively for predictions of major floods for the Oder River in 1997, the Mekong River in 2000 and the Limpopo River in 2000.

  11. Satellite laser ranging to GPS and GLONASS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sośnica, Krzysztof; Thaller, Daniela; Dach, Rolf; Steigenberger, Peter; Beutler, Gerhard; Arnold, Daniel; Jäggi, Adrian

    2015-07-01

    Satellite laser ranging (SLR) to the satellites of the global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) provides substantial and valuable information about the accuracy and quality of GNSS orbits and allows for the SLR-GNSS co-location in space. In the framework of the NAVSTAR-SLR experiment two GPS satellites of Block-IIA were equipped with laser retroreflector arrays (LRAs), whereas all satellites of the GLONASS system are equipped with LRAs in an operational mode. We summarize the outcome of the NAVSTAR-SLR experiment by processing 20 years of SLR observations to GPS and 12 years of SLR observations to GLONASS satellites using the reprocessed microwave orbits provided by the center for orbit determination in Europe (CODE). The dependency of the SLR residuals on the size, shape, and number of corner cubes in LRAs is studied. We show that the mean SLR residuals and the RMS of residuals depend on the coating of the LRAs and the block or type of GNSS satellites. The SLR mean residuals are also a function of the equipment used at SLR stations including the single-photon and multi-photon detection modes. We also show that the SLR observations to GNSS satellites are important to validate GNSS orbits and to assess deficiencies in the solar radiation pressure models. We found that the satellite signature effect, which is defined as a spread of optical pulse signals due to reflection from multiple reflectors, causes the variations of mean SLR residuals of up to 15 mm between the observations at nadir angles of 0 and 14. in case of multi-photon SLR stations. For single-photon SLR stations this effect does not exceed 1 mm. When using the new empirical CODE orbit model (ECOM), the SLR mean residual falls into the range 0.1-1.8 mm for high-performing single-photon SLR stations observing GLONASS-M satellites with uncoated corner cubes. For best-performing multi-photon stations the mean SLR residuals are between and mm due to the satellite signature effect.

  12. Contribution of laser ranging to Earth's sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Exertier, Pierre; Bonnefond, Pascal; Deleflie, Florent; Barlier, François; Kasser, Michel; Biancale, Richard; Ménard, Yves

    2006-11-01

    Satellite and Lunar Laser Ranging (SLR and LLR, respectively) are based on a direct measurement of a distance by exactly measuring the time transit of a laser beam between a station and a space target. These techniques have proven to be very efficient methods for contributing to the tracking of both artificial satellites and the Moon, and for determining accurately their orbit and the associated geodynamical parameters, although hampered by the non-worldwide coverage and the meteorological conditions. Since more than 40 years, the French community (today 'Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur', CNES, 'Observatoire de Paris', and IGN) is largely involved in the technological developments as well as in the scientific achievements. The role of the laser technique has greatly evolved thanks to the success of GPS and DORIS; the laser technique teams have learnt to focus their effort in fields where this technique is totally specific and irreplaceable. The role of SLR data in the determination of terrestrial reference systems and in the modelling of the first terms of the gravity field (including the terrestrial constant GM that defines the scale of orbits) has to be emphasized, which is of primary importance in orbitography, whatever the tracking technique used. In addition, the role of LLR data (with two main stations, at Mac Donald (United States) and Grasse (France), since 30 years) has been of particular importance for improving solar system ephemeris and contributing to some features of fundamental physics (equivalence principle). Today, the role of the SLR technique is ( i) to determine and to maintain the scale factor of the global terrestrial reference frame, ( ii) to strengthen the vertical component (including velocity) of the positioning, which is crucial for altimetry missions and tectonic motions, ( iii) to locate the geocenter with respect to the Earth's crust, ( iv) to avoid any secular and undesirable drift of geodetic systems thanks to a very good accuracy

  13. Aircraft Range Optimization Using Singular Perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oconnor, Joseph Taffe

    1973-01-01

    An approximate analytic solution is developed for the problem of maximizing the range of an aircraft for a fixed end state. The problem is formulated as a singular perturbation and solved by matched inner and outer asymptotic expansions and the minimum principle of Pontryagin. Cruise in the stratosphere, and on transition to and from cruise at constant Mach number are discussed. The state vector includes altitude, flight path angle, and mass. Specific fuel consumption becomes a linear function of power approximating that of the cruise values. Cruise represents the outer solution; altitude and flight path angle are constants, and only mass changes. Transitions between cruise and the specified initial and final conditions correspond to the inner solutions. The mass is constant and altitude and velocity vary. A solution is developed which is valid for cruise but which is not for the initial and final conditions. Transforming of the independent variable near the initial and final conditions result in solutions which are valid for the two inner solutions but not for cruise. The inner solutions can not be obtained without simplifying the state equations. The singular perturbation approach overcomes this difficulty. A quadratic approximation of the state equations is made. The resulting problem is solved analytically, and the two inner solutions are matched to the outer solution.

  14. Dissipation range turbulent cascades in plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, P. W.; Almagri, A. F.; Forest, C. B.; Nornberg, M. D.; Rahbarnia, K.; Sarff, J. S.; Fiksel, G.; Hatch, D. R.; Jenko, F.; Prager, S. C.; Ren, Y.

    2012-05-15

    Dissipation range cascades in plasma turbulence are described and spectra are formulated from the scaled attenuation in wavenumber space of the spectral energy transfer rate. This yields spectra characterized by the product of a power law and exponential fall-off, applicable to all scales. Spectral indices of the power law and exponential fall-off depend on the scaling of the dissipation, the strength of the nonlinearity, and nonlocal effects when dissipation rates of multiple fluctuation fields are different. The theory is used to derive spectra for MHD turbulence with magnetic Prandtl number greater than unity, extending previous work. The theory is also applied to generic plasma turbulence by considering the spectrum from damping with arbitrary wavenumber scaling. The latter is relevant to ion temperature gradient turbulence modeled by gyrokinetics. The spectrum in this case has an exponential component that becomes weaker at small scale, giving a power law asymptotically. Results from the theory are compared to three very different types of turbulence. These include the magnetic plasma turbulence of the Madison Symmetric Torus, the MHD turbulence of liquid metal in the Madison Dynamo Experiment, and gyrokinetic simulation of ion temperature gradient turbulence.

  15. Millimeter accuracy satellites for two color ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degnan, John J.

    1993-01-01

    The principal technical challenge in designing a millimeter accuracy satellite to support two color observations at high altitudes is to provide high optical cross-section simultaneously with minimal pulse spreading. In order to address this issue, we provide, a brief review of some fundamental properties of optical retroreflectors when used in spacecraft target arrays, develop a simple model for a spherical geodetic satellite, and use the model to determine some basic design criteria for a new generation of geodetic satellites capable of supporting millimeter accuracy two color laser ranging. We find that increasing the satellite diameter provides: a larger surface area for additional cube mounting thereby leading to higher cross-sections; and makes the satellite surface a better match for the incoming planar phasefront of the laser beam. Restricting the retroreflector field of view (e.g. by recessing it in its holder) limits the target response to the fraction of the satellite surface which best matches the optical phasefront thereby controlling the amount of pulse spreading. In surveying the arrays carried by existing satellites, we find that European STARLETTE and ERS-1 satellites appear to be the best candidates for supporting near term two color experiments in space.

  16. Biosonar behaviour of free-ranging porpoises

    PubMed Central

    Akamatsu, Tomonari; Wang, Ding; Wang, Kexiong; Naito, Yasuhiko

    2005-01-01

    Detecting objects in their paths is a fundamental perceptional function of moving organisms. Potential risks and rewards, such as prey, predators, conspecifics or non-biological obstacles, must be detected so that an animal can modify its behaviour accordingly. However, to date few studies have considered how animals in the wild focus their attention. Dolphins and porpoises are known to actively use sonar or echolocation. A newly developed miniature data logger attached to a porpoise allows for individual recording of acoustical search efforts and inspection distance based on echolocation. In this study, we analysed the biosonar behaviour of eight free-ranging finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) and demonstrated that these animals inspect the area ahead of them before swimming silently into it. The porpoises inspected distances up to 77 m, whereas their swimming distance without using sonar was less than 20 m. The inspection distance was long enough to ensure a wide safety margin before facing real risks or rewards. Once a potential prey item was detected, porpoises adjusted their inspection distance from the remote target throughout their approach. PMID:15888412

  17. Allocentric coding: spatial range and combination rules.

    PubMed

    Camors, D; Jouffrais, C; Cottereau, B R; Durand, J B

    2015-04-01

    When a visual target is presented with neighboring landmarks, its location can be determined both relative to the self (egocentric coding) and relative to these landmarks (allocentric coding). In the present study, we investigated (1) how allocentric coding depends on the distance between the targets and their surrounding landmarks (i.e. the spatial range) and (2) how allocentric and egocentric coding interact with each other across targets-landmarks distances (i.e. the combination rules). Subjects performed a memory-based pointing task toward previously gazed targets briefly superimposed (200ms) on background images of cluttered city landscapes. A variable portion of the images was occluded in order to control the distance between the targets and the closest potential landmarks within those images. The pointing responses were performed after large saccades and the reappearance of the images at their initial location. However, in some trials, the images' elements were slightly shifted (±3°) in order to introduce a subliminal conflict between the allocentric and egocentric reference frames. The influence of allocentric coding in the pointing responses was found to decrease with increasing target-landmarks distances, although it remained significant even at the largest distances (⩾10°). Interestingly, both the decreasing influence of allocentric coding and the concomitant increase in pointing responses variability were well captured by a Bayesian model in which the weighted combination of allocentric and egocentric cues is governed by a coupling prior. PMID:25749676

  18. Topological analysis of the electron delocalization range.

    PubMed

    Janesko, Benjamin G

    2016-08-01

    The electron delocalization range function EDR( r→;d) (Janesko et al., J. Chem. Phys. 2014, 141, 144104) quantifies the extent to which an electron at point r→ in a calculated wavefunction delocalizes over distance d. This work shows how topological analysis distills chemically useful information out of the EDR. Local maxima (attractors) in the EDR occur in regions such as atomic cores, covalent bonds, and lone pairs where the wavefunction is dominated by a single orbital lobe. The EDR characterizes each attractor in terms of a delocalization length D and a normalization N≤1, which are qualitatively consistent with the size of the orbital lobe and the number of lobes in the orbital. Attractors identify the progressively more delocalized atomic shells in heavy atoms, the interplay of delocalization and strong (nondynamical) correlation in stretched and dissociating covalent bonds, the locations of valence and weakly bound electrons in anionic water clusters, and the chemistry of different reactive sites on metal clusters. Application to ammonia dissociation over silicon illustrates how this density-matrix-based analysis can give insight into realistic systems. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27296767

  19. Air sampler performance at Ford's farm range

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Johnston, J.W.

    1984-07-01

    An air-sampling system for a large-caliber depleted uranium (DU) penetrator firing range was tested. The objectives of the test were: to determine the bias between the monitoring readings and DU concentrations; and to determine if the target bay real-time monitor (RTM) tracks the decaying dust concentration. The test procedure was to operate total and respirable airborne particle samplers adjacent to the target bay monitors. A series of air samples was also taken after the test firings adjacent to the target bay RTM. Exhaust particle samples were analyzed for gross alpha, gross beta and uranium content. The target bay RTM correlated well (0.977) with the sequential samples. Average concentration from the RTM did not correlate with either the long-term total or respirable sampler DU concentrations. The monitor used to confirm a low dust concentration when the door is open correlated well (0.810) with the RTM; the other bay monitor did not. In the ventilation discharge, the long-term average monitor readings did not correlate with DU concentrations, probably due to levels near lower detection limits. Smearable surface-contamination samples showed highest contamination on the equipment, gravel floor and exhaust intake. The location air-intake contamination increased over the first 3 rounds. Contamination was reduced by a low-pressure water spray washdown to about the same concentration as often the second round, then remained at about twice the level. 2 references, 18 figures, 16 tables. (MF)

  20. Survivial Strategies in Bacterial Range Expansions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Erwin

    2014-03-01

    Bacterial communities represent complex and dynamic ecological systems. Different environmental conditions as well as bacterial interactions determine the establishment and sustainability of bacterial diversity. In this talk we discuss the competition of three Escherichia coli strains during range expansions on agar plates. In this bacterial model system, a colicin E2 producing strain C competes with a colicin resistant strain R and with a colicin sensitive strain S for new territory. Genetic engineering allows us to tune the growth rates of the strains and to study distinct ecological scenarios. These scenarios may lead to either single-strain dominance, pairwise coexistence, or to the coexistence of all three strains. In order to elucidate the survival mechanisms of the individual strains, we also developed a stochastic agent-based model to capture the ecological scenarios in silico. In a combined theoretical and experimental approach we are able to show that the level of biodiversity depends crucially on the composition of the inoculum, on the relative growth rates of the three strains, and on the effective reach of colicin toxicity.

  1. A global range military transport: The ostrich

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aguiar, John; Booker, Cecilia; Hoffman, Eric; Kramar, James; Manahan, Orlando; Serranzana, Ray; Taylor, Mike

    1993-01-01

    Studies have shown that there is an increasing need for a global range transport capable of carrying large numbers of troops and equipment to potential trouble spots throughout the world. The Ostrich is a solution to this problem. The Ostrich is capable of carrying 800,000 pounds 6,500 n.m. and returning with 15 percent payload, without refueling. With a technology availability date in 2010 and an initial operating capability of 2015, the aircraft incorporates many advanced technologies including laminar flow control, composite primary structures, and a unique multibody design. By utilizing current technology, such as using McDonnell Douglas C-17 fuselage for the outer fuselages on the Ostrich, the cost for the aircraft was reduced. The cost of the Ostrich per aircraft is $1.2 billion with a direct operating cost of $56,000 per flight hour. The Ostrich will provide a valuable service as a logistical transport capable of rapidly projecting a significant military force or humanitarian aid anywhere in the world.

  2. Biosonar behaviour of free-ranging porpoises.

    PubMed

    Akamatsu, Tomonari; Wang, Ding; Wang, Kexiong; Naito, Yasuhiko

    2005-04-22

    Detecting objects in their paths is a fundamental perceptional function of moving organisms. Potential risks and rewards, such as prey, predators, conspecifics or non-biological obstacles, must be detected so that an animal can modify its behaviour accordingly. However, to date few studies have considered how animals in the wild focus their attention. Dolphins and porpoises are known to actively use sonar or echolocation. A newly developed miniature data logger attached to a porpoise allows for individual recording of acoustical search efforts and inspection distance based on echolocation. In this study, we analysed the biosonar behaviour of eight free-ranging finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) and demonstrated that these animals inspect the area ahead of them before swimming silently into it. The porpoises inspected distances up to 77 m, whereas their swimming distance without using sonar was less than 20 m. The inspection distance was long enough to ensure a wide safety margin before facing real risks or rewards. Once a potential prey item was detected, porpoises adjusted their inspection distance from the remote target throughout their approach. PMID:15888412

  3. Aerial radiation survey at a military range.

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, G. P.; Martino, L. E.; Wrobel, J.; Environmental Assessment; U.S. Army Aberdeen Proving Ground

    2001-04-01

    Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) is currently listed on the Superfund National Priorities List because of past waste handling practices at 13 'study areas.' Concern has been expressed that anthropogenic radioisotopes may have been released at some of the study areas, with the potential of posing health risks to human or ecological receptors. This concern was addressed by thoroughly searching archival records, sampling and analyzing environmental media, and performing an aerial radiation survey. The aerial radiation survey techniques employed have been used over all U.S. Department of Energy and commercial reactor sites. Use of the Aerial Measurement System (AMS) allowed investigators to safely survey areas where surveys using hand-held instruments would be difficult to perform. In addition, the AMS delivered a full spectrum of the measured gamma radiation, thereby providing a means of determining which radioisotopes were present at the surface. As a quality check on the aerial measurements, four ground truth measurements were made at selected locations and compared with the aerial data for the same locations. The results of the survey revealed no evidence of surface radioactive contamination. The measured background radiation, including the cosmic contribution, ranged from 4 to 11 {mu}R/h.

  4. A long-range laser velocimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinath, Michael S.

    1991-01-01

    A long-range laser velocimeter (LV) developed for remote operation from within the flow fields of large wind tunnels is described. Emphasis is placed on recent improvements in optical hardware as well as recent additions to data acquisition and processing techniques. The method used for data reduction of photon resolved signals is outlined in detail, and measurement accuracy is discussed. To study the performance of the LV and verify the measurement accuracy, laboratory measurements were made in the flow field of a 10-cm-diameter, 30-m/s axisymetric jet. The measured velocity and turbulence intensity surveys are compared with measurements made with a hot-wire anemometer. Additionally, the LV was used during the flow calibration of the 80-ft x 120-ft wind tunnel to measure the test-section boundary-layer thickness at the maximum wind tunnel speed of 51.5 m/s. The requirements and techniques used to seed the flow are discussed, and boundary-layer surveys of mean velocity and turbulence intensity of the streamwise component and the component normal to the surface are presented. The streamwise component of mean velocity is compared with data obtained with a total pressure rake.

  5. Long range position and orientation tracking system

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, G.A.; Jansen, J.F.; Burks, B.L.; Bernacki, B.E.; Nypaver, D.J.

    1995-12-31

    The long range position and orientation tracking system (LRPOTS) will consist of two measurement pods, a VME-based computer system, and a detector array. The system is used to measure the position and orientation of a target that may be attached to a robotic arm, teleoperated manipulator, or autonomous vehicle. The pods have been designed to be mounted in the man-ways of the domes of the Fernald K-65 waste silos. Each pod has two laser scanner subsystems as well as lights and camera systems. One of the laser scanners will be oriented to scan in the pan direction, the other in the tilt direction. As the lasers scan across the detector array, the angles of incidence with each detector are recorded. Combining measurements from each of the four lasers yields sufficient data for a closed-form solution of the transform describing the location and orientation of the Content Mobilization System (CMS). Redundant detectors will be placed on the CMS to accommodate occlusions, to provide improved measurement accuracy, and to determine the CMS orientation.

  6. A wide-range phosphor thermometry technique

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, S.W.; Beshears, D.L.; Cates, M.R.; Gillies, G.T.

    1998-03-01

    Fluorescing materials exhibit a temperature dependence, which may be exploited for thermometry purposes. Solid state materials such as phosphors, glasses and crystals are examples of such and have been used in commercial instruments and various one-of-a- kind research and development applications. This area has been the subject of previous ISA papers. It is generally the case that fluorescence decay time or lifetime is the parameter that is measured in order to determine temperature for applications that do not require imaging. There are several good reasons for this. The decay time is a very sensitive function of temperature. Time- and rate-dependent methods are independent of amplitude fluctuations and are therefore not as susceptible to optical noise. In some applications, however, other aspects of the temperature-dependent fluorescence can also be useful. What follows is a description that concerns intensity-based methods and the types of applications to which they apply. The emphasis of the present work is the advantage for situations demanding a wide range and rapidly varying temperatures.

  7. Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Ogtrop, F. F.; Vervoort, R. W.; Heller, G. Z.; Stasinopoulos, D. M.; Rigby, R. A.

    2011-01-01

    Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow in semi-arid Australia poses a number of major challenges. One of the challenges relates to modelling zero, skewed, non-stationary, and non-linear data. To address this, a probabilistic statistical model to forecast streamflow 12 months ahead is applied to five semi-arid catchments in South Western Queensland. The model uses logistic regression through Generalised Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) to determine the probability of flow occurring in any of the systems. We then use the same regression framework in combination with a right-skewed distribution, the Box-Cox t distribution, to model the intensity (depth) of the non-zero streamflows. Time, seasonality and climate indices, describing the Pacific and Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures, are tested as covariates in the GAMLSS model to make probabilistic 12-month forecasts of the occurrence and intensity of streamflow. The output reveals that in the study region the occurrence and variability of flow is driven by sea surface temperatures and therefore forecasts can be made with some skill.

  8. Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Ogtrop, F. F.; Vervoort, R. W.; Heller, G. Z.; Stasinopoulos, D. M.; Rigby, R. A.

    2011-11-01

    Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow in semi-arid Australia poses a number of major challenges. One of the challenges relates to modelling zero, skewed, non-stationary, and non-linear data. To address this, a statistical model to forecast streamflow up to 12 months ahead is applied to five semi-arid catchments in South Western Queensland. The model uses logistic regression through Generalised Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) to determine the probability of flow occurring in any of the systems. We then use the same regression framework in combination with a right-skewed distribution, the Box-Cox t distribution, to model the intensity (depth) of the non-zero streamflows. Time, seasonality and climate indices, describing the Pacific and Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures, are tested as covariates in the GAMLSS model to make probabilistic 6 and 12-month forecasts of the occurrence and intensity of streamflow. The output reveals that in the study region the occurrence and variability of flow is driven by sea surface temperatures and therefore forecasts can be made with some skill.

  9. Home Range and Ranging Behaviour of Bornean Elephant (Elephas maximus borneensis) Females

    PubMed Central

    Alfred, Raymond; Ahmad, Abd Hamid; Payne, Junaidi; Williams, Christy; Ambu, Laurentius Nayan; How, Phua Mui; Goossens, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    Background Home range is defined as the extent and location of the area covered annually by a wild animal in its natural habitat. Studies of African and Indian elephants in landscapes of largely open habitats have indicated that the sizes of the home range are determined not only by the food supplies and seasonal changes, but also by numerous other factors including availability of water sources, habitat loss and the existence of man-made barriers. The home range size for the Bornean elephant had never been investigated before. Methodology/Principal Findings The first satellite tracking program to investigate the movement of wild Bornean elephants in Sabah was initiated in 2005. Five adult female elephants were immobilized and neck collars were fitted with tracking devices. The sizes of their home range and movement patterns were determined using location data gathered from a satellite tracking system and analyzed by using the Minimum Convex Polygon and Harmonic Mean methods. Home range size was estimated to be 250 to 400 km2 in a non-fragmented forest and 600 km2 in a fragmented forest. The ranging behavior was influenced by the size of the natural forest habitat and the availability of permanent water sources. The movement pattern was influenced by human disturbance and the need to move from one feeding site to another. Conclusions/Significance Home range and movement rate were influenced by the degree of habitat fragmentation. Once habitat was cleared or converted, the availability of food plants and water sources were reduced, forcing the elephants to travel to adjacent forest areas. Therefore movement rate in fragmented forest was higher than in the non-fragmented forest. Finally, in fragmented habitat human and elephant conflict occurrences were likely to be higher, due to increased movement bringing elephants into contact more often with humans. PMID:22347469

  10. Range of acceptable stimulus intensities: an estimator of dynamic range for intensive perceptual continua.

    PubMed

    Teghtsoonian, R; Teghtsoonian, M

    1997-07-01

    The dynamic range (DR) of a sensory system is the span (usually given in log units) from the lowest to highest intensities over which a continuously graded response is evoked, and may be a distinctive feature of each such system. Teghtsoonian (1971) proposed that, although DR varies widely over sensory systems, its subjective size (SDR) is invariant. Assuming the psychophysical power law, the exponent for any continuum is given by the ratio of subjective span to DR, both quantities expressed logarithmically. Thus, exponents are inversely related to the DR and many be interpreted as indexes of it. Because DR can be difficult or even dangerous to measure directly, we sought to define a smaller range representing some fixed proportion of DR that could be used in its place to test the hypothesis of an invariant subjective range. Observations manipulated the intensities of five target continua to produce the broadest range they found acceptable and reasonably comfortable, a range of acceptable stimulus intensities (RASIN). Combined with an assumed constant SDR (derived from previous research), RASINs accurately predicted exponents obtained by magnitude production from the same observers on the five continua, as well as exponents reported in the literature. PMID:9259639

  11. Entropy-Based TOA Estimation and SVM-Based Ranging Error Mitigation in UWB Ranging Systems.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhendong; Cui, Kai; Wu, Zhilu; Yin, Liang

    2015-01-01

    The major challenges for Ultra-wide Band (UWB) indoor ranging systems are the dense multipath and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) problems of the indoor environment. To precisely estimate the time of arrival (TOA) of the first path (FP) in such a poor environment, a novel approach of entropy-based TOA estimation and support vector machine (SVM) regression-based ranging error mitigation is proposed in this paper. The proposed method can estimate the TOA precisely by measuring the randomness of the received signals and mitigate the ranging error without the recognition of the channel conditions. The entropy is used to measure the randomness of the received signals and the FP can be determined by the decision of the sample which is followed by a great entropy decrease. The SVM regression is employed to perform the ranging-error mitigation by the modeling of the regressor between the characteristics of received signals and the ranging error. The presented numerical simulation results show that the proposed approach achieves significant performance improvements in the CM1 to CM4 channels of the IEEE 802.15.4a standard, as compared to conventional approaches. PMID:26007726

  12. Entropy-Based TOA Estimation and SVM-Based Ranging Error Mitigation in UWB Ranging Systems

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Zhendong; Cui, Kai; Wu, Zhilu; Yin, Liang

    2015-01-01

    The major challenges for Ultra-wide Band (UWB) indoor ranging systems are the dense multipath and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) problems of the indoor environment. To precisely estimate the time of arrival (TOA) of the first path (FP) in such a poor environment, a novel approach of entropy-based TOA estimation and support vector machine (SVM) regression-based ranging error mitigation is proposed in this paper. The proposed method can estimate the TOA precisely by measuring the randomness of the received signals and mitigate the ranging error without the recognition of the channel conditions. The entropy is used to measure the randomness of the received signals and the FP can be determined by the decision of the sample which is followed by a great entropy decrease. The SVM regression is employed to perform the ranging-error mitigation by the modeling of the regressor between the characteristics of received signals and the ranging error. The presented numerical simulation results show that the proposed approach achieves significant performance improvements in the CM1 to CM4 channels of the IEEE 802.15.4a standard, as compared to conventional approaches. PMID:26007726

  13. Lightweight, Compact, Long Range Camera Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafer, Donald V.

    1983-08-01

    The model 700 camera is the latest in a 30-year series of LOROP cameras developed by McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company (MDAC) and their predecessor companies. The design achieves minimum size and weight and is optimized for low-contrast performance. The optical system includes a 66-inch focal length, f/5.6, apochromatic lens and three folding mirrors imaging on a 4.5-inch square format. A three-axis active stabilization system provides the capability for long exposure time and, hence, fine grain films can be used. The optical path forms a figure "4" behind the lens. In front of the lens is a 45° pointing mirror. This folded configuration contributed greatly to the lightweight and compact design. This sequential autocycle frame camera has three modes of operation with one, two, and three step positions to provide a choice of swath widths within the range of lateral coverage. The magazine/shutter assembly rotates in relationship with the pointing mirror and aircraft drift angle to maintain film format alignment with the flight path. The entire camera is angular rate stabilized in roll, pitch, and yaw. It also employs a lightweight, electro-magnetically damped, low-natural-frequency spring suspension for passive isolation from aircraft vibration inputs. The combined film transport and forward motion compensation (FMC) mechanism, which is operated by a single motor, is contained in a magazine that can, depending on accessibility which is installation dependent, be changed in flight. The design also stresses thermal control, focus control, structural stiffness, and maintainability. The camera is operated from a remote control panel. This paper describes the leading particulars and features of the camera as related to weight and configuration.

  14. Backreacted axion field ranges in string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baume, Florent; Palti, Eran

    2016-08-01

    String theory axions are interesting candidates for fields whose potential might be controllable over super-Planckian field ranges and therefore as possible candidates for inflatons in large field inflation. Axion monodromy scenarios are setups where the axion shift symmetry is broken by some effect such that the axion can traverse a large number of periods potentially leading to super-Planckian excursions. We study such scenarios in type IIA string theory where the axion shift symmetry is broken by background fluxes. In particular we calculate the backreaction of the energy density induced by the axion vacuum expectation value on its own field space metric. We find universal behaviour for all the compactifications studied where up to a certain critical axion value there is only a small backreaction effect. Beyond the critical value the backreaction is strong and implies that the proper field distance as measured by the backreacted metric increases at best logarithmically with the axion vev, thereby placing strong limitations on extending the field distance any further. The critical axion value can be made arbitrarily large by the choice of fluxes. However the backreaction of these fluxes on the axion field space metric ensures a precise cancellation such that the proper field distance up to the critical axion value is flux independent and remains sub-Planckian. We also study an axion alignment scenario for type IIA compactifications on a twisted torus with four fundamental axions mixing to leave an axion with an effective decay constant which is flux dependent. There is a choice of fluxes for which the alignment parameter controlling the effective decay constant is unconstrained by tadpoles and can in principle lead to an arbitrarily large effective decay constant. However we show that these fluxes backreact on the fundamental decay constants so as to precisely cancel any enhancement leaving a sub-Planckian effective decay constant.

  15. Long-range dismount activity classification: LODAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garagic, Denis; Peskoe, Jacob; Liu, Fang; Cuevas, Manuel; Freeman, Andrew M.; Rhodes, Bradley J.

    2014-06-01

    Continuous classification of dismount types (including gender, age, ethnicity) and their activities (such as walking, running) evolving over space and time is challenging. Limited sensor resolution (often exacerbated as a function of platform standoff distance) and clutter from shadows in dense target environments, unfavorable environmental conditions, and the normal properties of real data all contribute to the challenge. The unique and innovative aspect of our approach is a synthesis of multimodal signal processing with incremental non-parametric, hierarchical Bayesian machine learning methods to create a new kind of target classification architecture. This architecture is designed from the ground up to optimally exploit correlations among the multiple sensing modalities (multimodal data fusion) and rapidly and continuously learns (online self-tuning) patterns of distinct classes of dismounts given little a priori information. This increases classification performance in the presence of challenges posed by anti-access/area denial (A2/AD) sensing. To fuse multimodal features, Long-range Dismount Activity Classification (LODAC) develops a novel statistical information theoretic approach for multimodal data fusion that jointly models multimodal data (i.e., a probabilistic model for cross-modal signal generation) and discovers the critical cross-modal correlations by identifying components (features) with maximal mutual information (MI) which is efficiently estimated using non-parametric entropy models. LODAC develops a generic probabilistic pattern learning and classification framework based on a new class of hierarchical Bayesian learning algorithms for efficiently discovering recurring patterns (classes of dismounts) in multiple simultaneous time series (sensor modalities) at multiple levels of feature granularity.

  16. REDEX - The ranging equipment diagnostic expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luczak, Edward C.; Gopalakrishnan, K.; Zillig, David J.

    1989-01-01

    REDEX, an advanced prototype expert system that diagnoses hardware failures in the Ranging Equipment (RE) at NASA's Ground Network tracking stations is described. REDEX will help the RE technician identify faulty circuit cards or modules that must be replaced, and thereby reduce troubleshooting time. It features a highly graphical user interface that uses color block diagrams and layout diagrams to illustrate the location of a fault. A semantic network knowledge representation technique was used to model the design structure of the RE. A catalog of generic troubleshooting rules was compiled to represent heuristics that are applied in diagnosing electronic equipment. Specific troubleshooting rules were identified to represent additional diagnostic knowledge that is unique to the RE. Over 50 generic and 250 specific troubleshooting rules have been derived. REDEX is implemented in Prolog on an IBM PC AT-compatible workstation. Block diagram graphics displays are color-coded to identify signals that have been monitored or inferred to have nominal values, signals that are out of tolerance, and circuit cards and functions that are diagnosed as faulty. A hypertext-like scheme is used to allow the user to easily navigate through the space of diagrams and tables. Over 50 graphic and tabular displays have been implemented. REDEX is currently being evaluated in a stand-alone mode using simulated RE fault scenarios. It will soon be interfaced to the RE and tested in an online environment. When completed and fielded, REDEX will be a concrete example of the application of expert systems technology to the problem of improving performance and reducing the lifecycle costs of operating NASA's communications networks in the 1990s.

  17. Relativity Parameters Determined from Lunar Laser Ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. G.; Newhall, X. X.; Dickey, J. O.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of 24 years of lunar laser ranging data is used to test the principle of equivalence, geodetic precession, the PPN parameters beta and gamma, and G/G. Recent data can be fitted with a rms scatter of 3 cm. (a) Using the Nordtvedt effect to test the principle of equivalence, it is found that the Moon and Earth accelerate alike in the Sun's field. The relative accelerations match to within 5 x 10(exp -13) . This limit, combined with an independent determination of y from planetary time delay, gives beta. Including the uncertainty due to compositional differences, the parameter beta differs from unity by no more than 0.0014; and, if the weak equivalence principle is satisfied, the difference is no more than 0.0006. (b) Geodetic precession matches its expected 19.2 marc sec/yr rate within 0.7%. This corresponds to a 1% test of gamma. (c) Apart from the Nordtvedt effect, beta and gamma can be tested from their influence on the lunar orbit. It is argued theoretically that the linear combination 0.8(beta) + 1.4(gamma) can be tested at the 1% level of accuracy. For solutions using numerically derived partial derivatives, higher sensitivity is found. Both 6 and y match the values of general relativity to within 0.005, and the linear combination beta+ gamma matches to within 0,003, but caution is advised due to the lack of theoretical understanding of these sensitivities. (d) No evidence for a changing gravitational constant is found, with absolute value of G/G less than or equal to 8 x lO(exp -12)/yr. There is significant sensitivity to G/G through solar perturbations on the lunar orbit.

  18. Observation of ultralong range Rydberg molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaffer, James

    2009-05-01

    In 1934, Enrico Fermi described the scattering of a low energy electron from a neutral atom by using the ideas of scattering length and pseudopotential. Although the long range potential for an electron-atom interaction is always attractive, Fermi realized that the s-wave scattering length that characterizes the low energy collision can be either positive or negative. For a positive scattering length, the wavefunction of the electron is shifted away from the atom, the electron is repelled; whereas for a negative scattering length, the wavefunction of the electron is shifted to the atom, the electron is attracted. Based on Fermi's approach, Greene and co-workers predicted a novel molecular binding mechanism where a low energy Rydberg electron is scattered from a ground state atom in the case of negative scattering length. In this situation, the interaction between the electron and ground state atom is attractive and results in the formation of bound states of the ground state atom and the Rydberg atom. Molecules bound by electron scattering can have an internuclear separation of several thousand Bohr radii and are very different from molecules formed by 2 Rydberg atoms where the binding is the result of multipolar forces between the atoms alone. In this talk, we present experimental data on the observation of these exotic molecular states for Rb Rydberg atoms in S states for principal quantum numbers n between 34 and 40. The spectroscopic results for the vibrational ground and first excited state of the dimer Rb(5S)-Rb(nS) are presented and the s-wave scattering length for electron-Rb(5S) scattering in the low energy regime where the kinetic energy is less than 100 meV. Finally, we discuss and present data on the lifetimes and decay mechanisms of these molecules in a magnetic trap.

  19. REDEX: The ranging equipment diagnostic expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luczak, Edward C.; Gopalakrishnan, K.; Zillig, David J.

    1989-01-01

    REDEX, an advanced prototype expert system that diagnoses hardware failures in the Ranging Equipment (RE) at NASA's Ground Network tracking stations is described. REDEX will help the RE technician identify faulty circuit cards or modules that must be replaced, and thereby reduce troubleshooting time. It features a highly graphical user interface that uses color block diagrams and layout diagrams to illustrate the location of a fault. A semantic network knowledge representation technique was used to model the design structure of the RE. A catalog of generic troubleshooting rules was compiled to represent heuristics that are applied in diagnosing electronic equipment. Specific troubleshooting rules were identified to represent additional diagnostic knowledge that is unique to the RE. Over 50 generic and 250 specific troubleshooting rules have been derived. REDEX is implemented in Prolog on an IBM PC AT-compatible workstation. Block diagram graphics displays are color-coded to identify signals that have been monitored or inferred to have nominal values, signals that are out of tolerance, and circuit cards and functions that are diagnosed as faulty. A hypertext-like scheme is used to allow the user to easily navigate through the space of diagrams and tables. Over 50 graphic and tabular displays have been implemented. REDEX is currently being evaluated in a stand-alone mode using simulated RE fault scenarios. It will soon be interfaced to the RE and tested in an online environment. When completed and fielded, REDEX will be a concrete example of the application of expert systems technology to the problem of improving performance and reducing the lifecycle costs of operating NASA's communications networks in the 1990's.

  20. Relief Evolution in Tectonically Active Mountain Ranges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, Kelin X.

    2004-01-01

    The overall aims of this 3-yr project, as originally proposed were to: (1) investigate quantitatively the roles of fluvial and glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions, and (2) test rigorously the quality and accuracy of SRTM topographic data in areas of rugged relief - both the most challenging and of greatest interest to geomorphic, neotectonic, and hazards applications. Natural laboratories in both the western US and the Southern Alps of New Zealand were identified as most promising. The project has been both successful and productive, despite the fact that no SRTM data for our primary field sites in New Zealand were released on the time frame of the work effort. Given the delayed release of SRTM data, we pursued the scientific questions of the roles of fluvial and, especially, glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions using available digital elevation models (DEMs) for the Southern Alps of New Zealand (available at both 25m and 50m pixel sizes), and USGS 10m and 30m DEMs within the Western US. As emphasized in the original proposal, we chose the emphasis on the role of glacial modification of topographic relief because there has been little quantitative investigation of glacial erosion processes at landscape scale. This is particularly surprising considering the dramatic sculpting of most mid- and high-latitude mountain ranges, the prodigious quantities of glacially-derived sediment in terrestrial and marine basins, and the current cross-disciplinary interest in the role of denudational processes in orogenesis and the evolution of topography in general. Moreover, the evolution of glaciated landscapes is not only a fundamental problem in geomorphology in its own right, but also is at the heart of the debate over Late Cenozoic linkages between climate and tectonics.

  1. The Dissipation Range of Interstellar Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spangler, Steven R.; Buffo, J. J.

    2013-06-01

    Turbulence may play an important role in a number of interstellar processes. One of these is heating of the interstellar gas, as the turbulent energy is dissipated and changed into thermal energy of the gas, or at least other forms of energy. There have been very promising recent results on the mechanism for dissipation of turbulence in the Solar Wind (Howes et al, Phys. Plasm. 18, 102305, 2011). In the Solar Wind, the dissipation arises because small-scale irregularities develop properties of kinetic Alfven waves, and apparently damp like kinetic Alfven waves. A property of kinetic Alfven waves is that they become significantly compressive on size scales of order the ion Larmor radius. Much is known about the plasma properties of ionized components of interstellar medium such as HII regions and the Diffuse Ionized Gas (DIG) phase, including information on the turbulence in these media. The technique of radio wave scintillations can yield properties of HII region and DIG turbulence on scales of order the ion Larmor radius, which we refer to as the dissipation scale. In this paper, we collect results from a number of published radio scattering measurements of interstellar turbulence on the dissipation scale. These studies show evidence for a spectral break on the dissipation scale, but no evidence for enhanced compressibility of the fluctuations. The simplest explanation of our result is that turbulence in the ionized interstellar medium does not possess properties of kinetic Alfven waves. This could point to an important difference with Solar Wind turbulence. New observations, particularly with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) could yield much better measurements of the power spectrum of interstellar turbulence in the dissipation range. This research was supported at the University of Iowa by grants AST09-07911 and ATM09-56901 from the National Science Foundation.

  2. Paleogene depositional framework of western Transverse ranges

    SciTech Connect

    Dickinson, W.R.

    1988-03-01

    In the western Transverse Ranges, widespread Paleogene sequences (mid-Paleocene to mid-Oligocene) accumulated to thicknesses locally in excess of 5000 m. The Paleogene basin occupied a complex forearc setting located near the offshore Franciscan trench, but distant from the inland Laramide orogenic system, where magmatism was quiescent during the interval of most rapid sedimentation. The pre-Tertiary substratum, largely masked by its Paleogene cover, was probably disrupted by transpressional and/or transtensional tectonics associated with separate episodes of mid-Cretaceous sinistral and Late Cretaceous (to Paleocene.) dextral dislocation of the continental margin. Paleogene strata include diachronous facies of intertonguing deep-marine, shallow-marine, marginal-marine, and nonmarine clastic strata representing varied depositional systems. Turbidite assemblages include both progradational and retrogradational phases of canyon-fed submarine fans and delta-fed submarine ramps. Exposed shelf-break successions were deposited offshore from strandline complexes fringing delta margins and broad coastal plains. Sparse but diagnostic nonclastic facies include local algal carbonate edifices built on isolated submarine banks, and minor lagoonal beds of algal carbonates and gypsiferous evaporites associated with emergent delta platforms. The complex Paleogene forearc basin was flanked on the northeast by Salinian basement rocks and on the southwest by a tectonic ridge of subduction complex uplifted along the Paleogene trench-slope break. The present geographic distribution of Paleogene facies tracts is fully compatible with proposed Neogene tectonic rotations of panel-like basin segments, bounded by antithetic sinistral faults within the dextral San Andreas system, as detected by recent paleomagetic investigations.

  3. Secure distance ranging by electronic means

    DOEpatents

    Gritton, Dale G.

    1992-01-01

    A system for secure distance ranging between a reader 11 and a tag 12 wherein the distance between the two is determined by the time it takes to propagate a signal from the reader to the tag and for a responsive signal to return, and in which such time is random and unpredictable, except to the reader, even though the distance between the reader and tag remains the same. A random number (19) is sent from the reader and encrypted (26) by the tag into a number having 16 segments of 4 bits each (28). A first tag signal (31) is sent after such encryption. In response, a random width start pulse (13) is generated by the reader. When received in the tag, the width of the start pulse is measured (41) in the tag and a segment of the encrypted number is selected (42) in accordance with such width. A second tag pulse is generated at a time T after the start pulse arrives at the tag, the time T being dependent on the length of a variable time delay t.sub.v which is determined by the value of the bits in the selected segment of the encrypted number. At the reader, the total time from the beginning of the start pulse to the receipt of the second tag signal is measured (36, 37). The value of t.sub.v (21, 22, 23, 34) is known at the reader and the time T is subtracted (46) from the total time to find the actual propagation t.sub.p for signals to travel between the reader 11 and tag 12. The propagation time is then converted into distance (46).

  4. Long Range View of Melas Chasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of day and night infrared images of Melas Chasma taken by the camera system on NASA.s Mars Odyssey spacecraft. The daytime temperature images are shown in black and white, superimposed on the martian topography. A single nighttime temperature image is superimposed in color. The daytime temperatures range from approximately -35 degrees Celsius (-31 degrees Fahrenheit) in black to -5 degrees Celsius (23 degrees Fahrenheit) in white. Landslides flowed over 100 kilometers (62 miles) across the floor of Melas Chasma. They produced deposits with ridges and grooves of alternating warm and cold materials that can still be seen. The temperature differences in this image are due primarily to lighting effects, where sunlit slopes are warm (bright) and shadowed slopes are cool (dark). The nighttime temperature differences are due to differences in the abundance of rocky materials that retain their heat at night and stay relatively warm (red). Fine grained dust and sand (blue) cools off more rapidly at night. These images were acquired using the thermal infrared imaging system infrared B and 9, centered at 12.6 micrometers.

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science in Washington, D.C. Investigators at Arizona State University in Tempe, the University of Arizona in Tucson and NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, operate the science instruments. Additional science partners are located at the Russian Aviation and Space Agency and at Los Alamos National Laboratories, New Mexico. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL.

  5. Spectral anisotropy of solar wind turbulence in the inertial range and dissipation range

    SciTech Connect

    Podesta, J. J.

    2010-03-25

    Wavelet analysis is a tool that can simultaneously analyze spacecraft data in both time and frequency. This enables the magnetic energy spectrum (trace spectrum) to be measured for different angles between the local mean magnetic field B{sub 0} and the direction of the mean flow within a single data set. Examples obtained around solar minimum using Ulysses data at high latitudes and Stereo data for high-speed streams in the ecliptic plane show that the spectral exponent in the inertial range varies nearly monotonically from approximately 1.6 when B{sub 0} is perpendicular to the flow to 2.0 when B{sub 0} is parallel to the flow, roughly consistent with anisotropic theories of incompressible MHD turbulence. This and other new information about the 3D wavector spectrum of solar wind fluctuations in the inertial range and the dissipation range are briefly discussed.

  6. Predicting Long-Range Traversability from Short-Range Stereo-Derived Geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turmon, Michael; Tang, Benyang; Howard, Andrew; Brjaracharya, Max

    2010-01-01

    Based only on its appearance in imagery, this program uses close-range 3D terrain analysis to produce training data sufficient to estimate the traversability of terrain beyond 3D sensing range. This approach is called learning from stereo (LFS). In effect, the software transfers knowledge from middle distances, where 3D geometry provides training cues, into the far field where only appearance is available. This is a viable approach because the same obstacle classes, and sometimes the same obstacles, are typically present in the mid-field and the farfield. Learning thus extends the effective look-ahead distance of the sensors.

  7. Short-range interactions versus long-range correlations in bird flocks.

    PubMed

    Cavagna, Andrea; Del Castello, Lorenzo; Dey, Supravat; Giardina, Irene; Melillo, Stefania; Parisi, Leonardo; Viale, Massimiliano

    2015-07-01

    Bird flocks are a paradigmatic example of collective motion. One of the prominent traits of flocking is the presence of long range velocity correlations between individuals, which allow them to influence each other over the large scales, keeping a high level of group coordination. A crucial question is to understand what is the mutual interaction between birds generating such nontrivial correlations. Here we use the maximum entropy (ME) approach to infer from experimental data of natural flocks the effective interactions between individuals. Compared to previous studies, we make a significant step forward as we retrieve the full functional dependence of the interaction on distance, and find that it decays exponentially over a range of a few individuals. The fact that ME gives a short-range interaction even though its experimental input is the long-range correlation function, shows that the method is able to discriminate the relevant information encoded in such correlations and single out a minimal number of effective parameters. Finally, we show how the method can be used to capture the degree of anisotropy of mutual interactions. PMID:26274201

  8. Short-range interactions versus long-range correlations in bird flocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavagna, Andrea; Del Castello, Lorenzo; Dey, Supravat; Giardina, Irene; Melillo, Stefania; Parisi, Leonardo; Viale, Massimiliano

    2015-07-01

    Bird flocks are a paradigmatic example of collective motion. One of the prominent traits of flocking is the presence of long range velocity correlations between individuals, which allow them to influence each other over the large scales, keeping a high level of group coordination. A crucial question is to understand what is the mutual interaction between birds generating such nontrivial correlations. Here we use the maximum entropy (ME) approach to infer from experimental data of natural flocks the effective interactions between individuals. Compared to previous studies, we make a significant step forward as we retrieve the full functional dependence of the interaction on distance, and find that it decays exponentially over a range of a few individuals. The fact that ME gives a short-range interaction even though its experimental input is the long-range correlation function, shows that the method is able to discriminate the relevant information encoded in such correlations and single out a minimal number of effective parameters. Finally, we show how the method can be used to capture the degree of anisotropy of mutual interactions.

  9. Aggregation of heteropolyanions in aqueous solutions exhibiting short-range attractions and long-range repulsions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bera, Mrinal K.; Qiao, Baofu; Seifert, Soenke; Burton-Pye, Benjamin P.; Monica Olvera de la Cruz; Antonio, Mark R.

    2015-12-15

    Charged colloids and proteins in aqueous solutions interact via short-range attractions and long-range repulsions (SALR) and exhibit complex structural phases. These include homogeneously dispersed monomers, percolated monomers, clusters, and percolated clusters. We report the structural architectures of simple charged systems in the form of spherical, Keggin-type heteropolyanions (HPAs) by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Structure factors obtained from the SAXS measurements show that the HPAs interact via SALR. Concentration and temperature dependences of the structure factors for HPAs with –3e (e is the charge of an electron) charge are consistent with a mixture of nonassociated monomersmore » and associated randomly percolated monomers, whereas those for HPAs with –4e and –5e charges exhibit only nonassociated monomers in aqueous solutions. Our experiments show that the increase in magnitude of the charge of the HPAs increases their repulsive interactions and inhibits their aggregation in aqueous solutions. MD simulations were done to reveal the atomistic scale origins of SALR between HPAs. As a result, the short-range attractions result from water or proton-mediated hydrogen bonds between neighboring HPAs, whereas the long-range repulsions are due to the distributions of ions surrounding the HPAs.« less

  10. Aggregation of heteropolyanions in aqueous solutions exhibiting short-range attractions and long-range repulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Bera, Mrinal K.; Qiao, Baofu; Seifert, Soenke; Burton-Pye, Benjamin P.; Monica Olvera de la Cruz; Antonio, Mark R.

    2015-12-15

    Charged colloids and proteins in aqueous solutions interact via short-range attractions and long-range repulsions (SALR) and exhibit complex structural phases. These include homogeneously dispersed monomers, percolated monomers, clusters, and percolated clusters. We report the structural architectures of simple charged systems in the form of spherical, Keggin-type heteropolyanions (HPAs) by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Structure factors obtained from the SAXS measurements show that the HPAs interact via SALR. Concentration and temperature dependences of the structure factors for HPAs with –3e (e is the charge of an electron) charge are consistent with a mixture of nonassociated monomers and associated randomly percolated monomers, whereas those for HPAs with –4e and –5e charges exhibit only nonassociated monomers in aqueous solutions. Our experiments show that the increase in magnitude of the charge of the HPAs increases their repulsive interactions and inhibits their aggregation in aqueous solutions. MD simulations were done to reveal the atomistic scale origins of SALR between HPAs. As a result, the short-range attractions result from water or proton-mediated hydrogen bonds between neighboring HPAs, whereas the long-range repulsions are due to the distributions of ions surrounding the HPAs.

  11. New progress of ranging technology at Wuhan Satellite Laser Ranging Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xia, Zhiz-Hong; Ye, Wen-Wei; Cai, Qing-Fu

    1993-01-01

    A satellite laser ranging system with an accuracy of the level of centimeter has been successfully developed at the Institute of Seismology, State Seismological Bureau with the cooperation of the Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Science. With significant improvements on the base of the second generation SLR system developed in 1985, ranging accuracy of the new system has been upgraded from 15 cm to 3-4 cm. Measuring range has also been expanded, so that the ETALON satellite with an orbit height of 20,000 km launched by the former U.S.S.R. can now be tracked. Compared with the 2nd generation SLR system, the newly developed system has the following improvements. A Q modulated laser is replaced by a mode-locked YAG laser. The new device has a pulse width of 150 ps and a repetition rate of 1-4 pps. A quick response photomultiplier has been adopted as the receiver for echo; for example, the adoption of the MCP tube has obviously reduced the jitter error of the transit time and has improved the ranging accuracy. The whole system is controlled by an IBM PC/XT Computer to guide automatic tracking and measurement. It can carry out these functions for satellite orbit calculation, real-time tracking and adjusting, data acquisition and the preprocessed of observing data, etc. The automatization level and reliability of the observation have obviously improved.

  12. Long-ranged contributions to solvation free energies from theory and short-ranged models.

    PubMed

    Remsing, Richard C; Liu, Shule; Weeks, John D

    2016-03-15

    Long-standing problems associated with long-ranged electrostatic interactions have plagued theory and simulation alike. Traditional lattice sum (Ewald-like) treatments of Coulomb interactions add significant overhead to computer simulations and can produce artifacts from spurious interactions between simulation cell images. These subtle issues become particularly apparent when estimating thermodynamic quantities, such as free energies of solvation in charged and polar systems, to which long-ranged Coulomb interactions typically make a large contribution. In this paper, we develop a framework for determining very accurate solvation free energies of systems with long-ranged interactions from models that interact with purely short-ranged potentials. Our approach is generally applicable and can be combined with existing computational and theoretical techniques for estimating solvation thermodynamics. We demonstrate the utility of our approach by examining the hydration thermodynamics of hydrophobic and ionic solutes and the solvation of a large, highly charged colloid that exhibits overcharging, a complex nonlinear electrostatic phenomenon whereby counterions from the solvent effectively overscreen and locally invert the integrated charge of the solvated object. PMID:26929375

  13. Long-ranged contributions to solvation free energies from theory and short-ranged models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remsing, Richard C.; Liu, Shule; Weeks, John D.

    2016-03-01

    Long-standing problems associated with long-ranged electrostatic interactions have plagued theory and simulation alike. Traditional lattice sum (Ewald-like) treatments of Coulomb interactions add significant overhead to computer simulations and can produce artifacts from spurious interactions between simulation cell images. These subtle issues become particularly apparent when estimating thermodynamic quantities, such as free energies of solvation in charged and polar systems, to which long-ranged Coulomb interactions typically make a large contribution. In this paper, we develop a framework for determining very accurate solvation free energies of systems with long-ranged interactions from models that interact with purely short-ranged potentials. Our approach is generally applicable and can be combined with existing computational and theoretical techniques for estimating solvation thermodynamics. We demonstrate the utility of our approach by examining the hydration thermodynamics of hydrophobic and ionic solutes and the solvation of a large, highly charged colloid that exhibits overcharging, a complex nonlinear electrostatic phenomenon whereby counterions from the solvent effectively overscreen and locally invert the integrated charge of the solvated object.

  14. Scanning the Front Range Environment: A Statistical Snapshot of the Front Range Community College Service Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Front Range Community Coll., Westminster, CO.

    This environmental scanning report from Front Range Community College (FRCC) in Colorado examines trends in population, demographics, income, and education in the college's service area. The report begins with Kathleen Cain's essay, "Environmental Scanning," indicating that the four major objectives of environmental scanning are to detect…

  15. Spanish Peaks, Sangre de Cristo Range, Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Spanish Peaks, on the eastern flank of the Sangre de Cristo range, abruptly rise 7,000 feet above the western Great Plains. Settlers, treasure hunters, trappers, gold and silver miners have long sighted on these prominent landmarks along the Taos branch of the Santa Fe trail. Well before the westward migration, the mountains figured in the legends and history of the Ute, Apache, Comanche, and earlier tribes. 'Las Cumbres Espanolas' are also mentioned in chronicles of exploration by Spaniards including Ulibarri in 1706 and later by de Anza, who eventually founded San Francisco (California). This exceptional view (STS108-720-32), captured by the crew of Space Shuttle mission STS108, portrays the Spanish Peaks in the context of the southern Rocky Mountains. Uplift of the Sangre de Cristo began about 75 million years ago and produced the long north-trending ridges of faulted and folded rock to the west of the paired peaks. After uplift had ceased (26 to 22 million years ago), the large masses of igneous rock (granite, granodiorite, syenodiorite) that form the Peaks were emplaced (Penn, 1995-2001). East and West Spanish Peaks are 'stocks'-bodies of molten rock that intruded sedimentary layers, cooled and solidified, and were later exposed by erosion. East Peak (E), at 12,708 ft is almost circular and is about 5 1/2 miles long by 3 miles wide, while West Peak (W), at 13,623 ft is roughly 2 3/4 miles long by 1 3/4 miles wide. Great dikes-long stone walls-radiate outward from the mountains like spokes of a wheel, a prominent one forms a broad arc northeast of East Spanish Peak. As the molten rock rose, it forced its way into vertical cracks and joints in the sedimentary strata; the less resistant material was then eroded away, leaving walls of hard rock from 1 foot to 100 feet wide, up to 100 feet high, and as long as 14 miles. Dikes trending almost east-west are also common in the region. For more information visit: Sangres.com: The Spanish Peaks (accessed January 16

  16. The Boulder Creek Batholith, Front Range, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gable, Dolores J.

    1980-01-01

    The Boulder Creek batholith is the best known of several large Precambrian batholiths of similar rock composition that crop out across central Colorado. The rocks in the batholith belong to the calc-alkaline series and range in composition from granodiorite through quartz diorite (tonalite) to gneissic aplite. Two rock types dominate': the Boulder Creek Granodiorite, the major rock unit, and a more leucocratic and slightly younger unit herein named Twin Spruce Quartz Monzonite. Besides mafic inclusions, which occur mainly in hornblende-bearing phases of the Boulder Creek Granodiorite, there are cogenetic older and younger lenses, dikes, and small plutons of hornblende diorite, hornblendite, gabbro, and pyroxenite. Pyroxenite is not found in the batholith. The Boulder Creek Granodiorite in the batholith represents essentially two contemporaneous magmas, a northern body occurring in the Gold Hill and Boulder quadrangles and a larger southern body exposed in the Blackhawk and the greater parts of the Tungsten and Eldorado Springs quadrangles. The two bodies are chemically and mineralogically distinct. The northern body is richer in CaO and poorer in K2O, is more mafic, and has a larger percentage of plagioclase than the southern body. A crude sequence of rock types occurs from west to east in the batholith accompanied by a change in plagioclase composition from calcic plagioclase on the west to sodic on the east. Ore minerals tend to decrease, and the ratio potassium feldspar:plagioclase increases inward from the western contact of the batholith, indicating that the Boulder Creek batholith is similar to granodiorite batholiths the world over. Emplacement of the Boulder Creek batholith was contemporaneous with plastic deformation and high-grade regional metamorphism that folded the country rock and the batholith contact along west-northwest and north-northwest axes. Also, smaller satellitic granodiorite bodies tend to conform to the trends of foliation and fold axes in

  17. 50 CFR 30.1 - Surplus range animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Surplus range animals. 30.1 Section 30.1... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM RANGE AND FERAL ANIMAL MANAGEMENT Range Animals § 30.1 Surplus range animals. Range animals on fenced wildlife refuge areas, including buffalo and longhorn cattle,...

  18. 50 CFR 30.1 - Surplus range animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Surplus range animals. 30.1 Section 30.1... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM RANGE AND FERAL ANIMAL MANAGEMENT Range Animals § 30.1 Surplus range animals. Range animals on fenced wildlife refuge areas, including buffalo and longhorn cattle,...

  19. 50 CFR 30.1 - Surplus range animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Surplus range animals. 30.1 Section 30.1... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM RANGE AND FERAL ANIMAL MANAGEMENT Range Animals § 30.1 Surplus range animals. Range animals on fenced wildlife refuge areas, including buffalo and longhorn cattle,...

  20. 50 CFR 30.1 - Surplus range animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Surplus range animals. 30.1 Section 30.1... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM RANGE AND FERAL ANIMAL MANAGEMENT Range Animals § 30.1 Surplus range animals. Range animals on fenced wildlife refuge areas, including buffalo and longhorn cattle,...

  1. 50 CFR 30.1 - Surplus range animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Surplus range animals. 30.1 Section 30.1... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM RANGE AND FERAL ANIMAL MANAGEMENT Range Animals § 30.1 Surplus range animals. Range animals on fenced wildlife refuge areas, including buffalo and longhorn cattle,...

  2. Multi-spectral laser detection and ranging for range profiling and surface characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, A. M.; Buller, G. S.; Sung, R. C. W.; Harkins, R. D.; McCarthy, A.; Hernandez-Marin, S.; Gibson, G. J.; Lamb, R.

    2005-06-01

    We describe a new multi-spectral system for range profiling and surface characterization based on time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC). This system has six laser diode sources with discrete wavelengths in the range 630-972 nm arranged around the circumference of the aperture of a receiving Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope that focuses the multiple wavelength return onto an optical fibre. Single photon avalanche diodes are used to detect the six independent wavelength channels, separated by an optical routing module. We also describe two methods for detecting the numbers, positions, heights and shape parameters of signal returns in the spectra returned from several surfaces within the sensor field of view. The first method has two principal stages, non-parametric bump hunting and maximum likelihood estimation using Poisson statistics. Recently we have adopted a reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo approach that has the potential for better detecting hidden or closely overlapping returns.

  3. Remote sensing techniques for mapping range sites and estimating range yield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, L. A.; Frazee, C. J.; Waltz, F. A.; Reed, C.; Carey, R. L.; Gropper, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    Image interpretation procedures for determining range yield and for extrapolating range information were investigated for an area of the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in southwestern South Dakota. Soil and vegetative data collected in the field utilizing a grid sampling design and digital film data from color infrared film and black and white films were analyzed statistically using correlation and regression techniques. The pattern recognition techniques used were K-class, mode seeking, and thresholding. The herbage yield equation derived for the detailed test site was used to predict yield for an adjacent similar field. The herbage yield estimate for the adjacent field was 1744 lbs. of dry matter per acre and was favorably compared to the mean yield of 1830 lbs. of dry matter per acre based upon ground observations. Also an inverse relationship was observed between vegetative cover and the ratio of MSS 5 to MSS 7 of ERTS-1 imagery.

  4. Atomic short-range order and incipient long-range order in high-entropy alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Prashant; Smirnov, A. V.; Johnson, D. D.

    2015-06-01

    Within density-functional theory, we apply an electronic-structure-based thermodynamic theory to calculate short-ranged order (SRO) in homogeneously disordered substitutional N -component alloys, and its electronic origin. Using the geometric properties of an (N -1 ) simplex that describes the Gibbs (compositional) space, we derive the analytic transform of the SRO eigenvectors that provides a unique description of high-temperature SRO in N -component alloys and the incipient low-temperature long-range order. We apply the electronic-based thermodynamic theory and the new general analysis to ternaries (A 1 Cu-Ni-Zn and A 2 Nb-Al-Ti) for validation, and then to quinary Al-Co-Cr-Fe-Ni high-entropy alloys for predictive assessment.

  5. Long-ranged solvation forces in a fluid with short-ranged interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pertsin, Alexander J.; Grunze, Michael

    2003-05-01

    The grand canonical Monte Carlo technique is used to calculate the solvation force and interfacial tension in a simple Lennard-Jones fluid confined between two solid walls. Emphasis is placed on large wall-to-wall separations, where the oscillations of density and solvation force due to layering effects have decayed. Despite the short range of the fluid-fluid and fluid-wall interaction potentials used, the solvation force shows an unsuspectedly long-ranged behavior, remaining quite perceptible up to a separation of 100 molecular diameters. It is also found that the sign of the solvation force at large separations is not uniquely determined by the sign of the interfacial tension: The walls that are "philic" with respect to the constrained fluid may well exhibit both repulsive and attractive solvation forces.

  6. Current range of the eastern population of Painted Bunting (Passerina ciris). Part II: Winter range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sykes, P.W., Jr.; Holzman, S.; Iñigo-Elias, E.E.

    2007-01-01

    The importance of wintering areas for Neotropical migrants is well established. The wintering range of the eastern population of Painted Bunting (Passerina ciris) is described in detail and presented in maps. The paper also discusses extralimital records from islands in the Caribbean Basin as well as scattered wintering individuals outside the winter range. The possibility of eastern birds wintering on the Yucatan Peninsula and adjacent Central America is considered. An extensive treatment of the protected areas of Peninsular Florida, the northern Bahamas, and Cuba describes the importance of upland habitats within these protected areas for wintering buntings. This information should be useful to land management agencies, conservation organizations, and private landholders for the welfare of the bunting and biodiversity in general and may also be of interest to ornithologists, other biological disciplines, naturalists, and birders.

  7. American black duck summer range versus winter range: a dichotomy of riches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longcore, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    The status of the American black duck (Anas rubripes) population has more often been attributed to a single event than to multiple events over time and throughout space. The difference in the quality of the habitat, however defined, within breeding areas in the North and in the southerly wintering areas, especially Chesapeake Bay, also has been proposed as affecting black duck status. The obvious question is 'What variable cuts across all habitats, time, and space to affect black ducks?' This paper attempts to answer that question by examining the connectivity of seemingly unrelated variables and events associated with the black duck's summer range and its winter range relative to population change. Insights from examples of relations among these variables reveal how results may be confounded and even misleading. A perspective that may be required to ensure future black duck populations is discussed.

  8. Present-day deformation of northern Pakistan from Salt Ranges to Karakorum Ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouanne, F.; Awan, A.; Pêcher, A.; Kausar, A.; Mugnier, J. L.; Khan, I.; Khan, N. A.; Van Melle, J.

    2014-03-01

    Episodic GPS measurements are used to quantify the present-day velocity field in the northwestern Himalaya from the southern Pamir to the Himalayan foreland. We report large postseismic displacements following the 2005 Kashmir earthquake and several mm/yr thrusting of the central segment of the Salt Ranges and Potwar Plateau over the foreland, westward thrusting of Nanga Parbat above the Kohistan Plateau, and ~12 mm/yr SSE velocities of the Karakorum Ranges and of the Deosai and Kohistan Plateaus relative to the Indian Plate. Numerical simulations allow to determine a first approximation of slip along active faults: (1) substantial creep of ~87 mm/yr between 2006 and 2012 along the flat northeast of the Balakot-Bagh Thrust affected by the 2005 earthquake; (2) ~5 mm/yr slip of the central segment of the Salt Ranges and Potwar Plateau, whereas their western boundaries are clearly inactive over the time span covered by our measurements; (3) 13 mm/yr ductile slip along the Main Himalayan Thrust modeled by a dislocation dipping 7° northward, locked at a depth of 15 km; and (4) ~20 mm/yr slip along the shear zone forming the western boundary of Nanga Parbat, between depths of 1.6 and 6.5 km. Residuals velocities suggest the existence of left-lateral strike slip along the Jhelum Fault.

  9. Range-gated field disturbance sensor with range-sensitivity compensation

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    A field disturbance sensor operates with relatively low power, provides an adjustable operating range, is not hypersensitive at close range, allows co-location of multiple sensors, and is inexpensive to manufacture. The sensor includes a transmitter that transmits a sequence of transmitted bursts of electromagnetic energy. The transmitter frequency is modulated at an intermediate frequency. The sequence of bursts has a burst repetition rate, and each burst has a burst width and comprises a number of cycles at a transmitter frequency. The sensor includes a receiver which receives electromagnetic energy at the transmitter frequency, and includes a mixer which mixes a transmitted burst with reflections of the same transmitted burst to produce an intermediate frequency signal. Circuitry, responsive to the intermediate frequency signal indicates disturbances in the sensor field. Because the mixer mixes the transmitted burst with reflections of the transmitted burst, the burst width defines the sensor range. The burst repetition rate is randomly or pseudorandomly modulated so that bursts in the sequence of bursts have a phase which varies.

  10. Range-gated field disturbance sensor with range-sensitivity compensation

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-05-28

    A field disturbance sensor operates with relatively low power, provides an adjustable operating range, is not hypersensitive at close range, allows co-location of multiple sensors, and is inexpensive to manufacture. The sensor includes a transmitter that transmits a sequence of transmitted bursts of electromagnetic energy. The transmitter frequency is modulated at an intermediate frequency. The sequence of bursts has a burst repetition rate, and each burst has a burst width and comprises a number of cycles at a transmitter frequency. The sensor includes a receiver which receives electromagnetic energy at the transmitter frequency, and includes a mixer which mixes a transmitted burst with reflections of the same transmitted burst to produce an intermediate frequency signal. Circuitry, responsive to the intermediate frequency signal indicates disturbances in the sensor field. Because the mixer mixes the transmitted burst with reflections of the transmitted burst, the burst width defines the sensor range. The burst repetition rate is randomly or pseudorandomly modulated so that bursts in the sequence of bursts have a phase which varies. 8 figs.

  11. Precise long-range migration results from short-range stepwise migration during ring gland organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Higueras, Carlos; Hombría, James Castelli-Gair

    2016-06-01

    Many organs are specified far from the location they occupy when functional, having to migrate long distances through the heterogeneous and dynamic environment of the early embryo. We study the formation of the main Drosophila endocrine organ, the ring gland, as a new model to investigate in vivo the genetic regulation of collective cell migration. The ring gland results from the fusion of three independent gland primordia that migrate from the head towards the anterior aorta as the embryo is experiencing major morphogenetic movements. To complete their long-range migration, the glands extend filopodia moving sequentially towards a nearby intermediate target and from there to more distal ones. Thus, the apparent long-range migration is composed of several short-range migratory steps that facilitate reaching the final destination. We find that the target tissues react to the gland's proximity by sending filopodia towards it. Our finding of a succession of independent migration stages is consistent with the stepwise evolution of ring gland assembly and fits with the observed gland locations found in extant crustaceans, basal insects and flies. PMID:27063193

  12. Factors affecting ranging behaviour in young and adult laying hens.

    PubMed

    Gilani, A-M; Knowles, T G; Nicol, C J

    2014-01-01

    1. A study was conducted to investigate the effect of environment on ranging in 33 flocks reared with (16) or without (17) range access. Ranging was observed at 8, 16 and 35 weeks. Information on house layout, weather conditions and range characteristics was used to create models predicting the percentage of the flock out on the range and the percentage of ranging birds observed away from the house. 2. Three flocks had range access at 8 weeks. The percentage of birds ranging averaged 28%, with 22% of these ranging away from the house. For the 13 flocks with range access at 16 weeks, the percentage of pullets on the range was 12%, with 29% of these ranging away from the house. At 35 weeks, all flocks had range access and the average percentage of birds out on the range was 13%, with 42% of these ranging away from the house. 3. The percentage of birds seen using the range was higher with reduced flock size and stocking density, increased pop hole availability (cm/bird) and light intensity inside the house. More birds ranged on cooler days and on farms located in areas with fewer days of rain per year and lower average rainfall. The percentage of birds ranging varied with season and was lowest in May. More birds ranged away from the house when cover and more artificial structures were present on the range. The proportion of ranging birds located away from the house increased with lower outdoor humidity levels, higher air pressure, and on warmer days. Lastly, birds ranged away from the house more as they got older. PMID:24571397

  13. Short range smectic order driving long range nematic order: Example of cuprates

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Markiewicz, R. S.; Lorenzana, J.; Seibold, G.; Bansil, A.

    2016-01-27

    We present a model for describing the combined presence of nematic and ‘smectic’ or stripe-like orders seen in recent scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiments on cuprates. The smectic order is treated as an electronic charge density wave with an associated Peierls distortion or a ‘Pomeranchuk wave’. This primary order is restricted to nanoscale domains by disorder effects, while the secondary coupling to strain generates the nematic order with a considerably longer range. Lastly, a variety of experimental results are shown to be consistent with our theoretical predictions.

  14. [Range and ecology of Dermacentor reticulatus (Fabricius, 1794) in Mazuria focus. I. Defining current range].

    PubMed

    Bogdaszewska, Zofia

    2004-01-01

    During the vegetation periods of five subsequent years, ie. 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000 and 2001, a field study aimed at defining, the current range of Dermacentor reticulatus in the so-called Mazuria focus was conducted on an area of about 24.000 km2 . The total of 68 sites covered by the study were located between the Great Mazurian Lakes District in the east and the lower Vistula valley in the west. The presence of adult forms of Dermacentor reticulatus was confirmed in 23 sites. The westernmost sites were discovered in the vicinity of Brodnica and Elblag. Both sites are located at longitude 19 degrees 20' East. PMID:16862808

  15. Short range smectic order driving long range nematic order: example of cuprates

    PubMed Central

    Markiewicz, R. S.; Lorenzana, J.; Seibold, G.; Bansil, A.

    2016-01-01

    We present a model for describing the combined presence of nematic and ‘smectic’ or stripe-like orders seen in recent scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiments on cuprates. The smectic order is treated as an electronic charge density wave with an associated Peierls distortion or a ‘Pomeranchuk wave’. This primary order is restricted to nanoscale domains by disorder effects, while the secondary coupling to strain generates the nematic order with a considerably longer range. A variety of experimental results are shown to be consistent with our theoretical predictions. PMID:26813579

  16. 25 CFR 700.721 - Range management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Range management plans. 700.721 Section 700.721 Indians... Lands Grazing § 700.721 Range management plans. The Commissioner (or his designee) and the permittees of each range unit will meet as a group and develop a Range Management Plan for the common use of...

  17. 50 CFR 30.2 - Disposition of surplus range animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Disposition of surplus range animals. 30.2... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM RANGE AND FERAL ANIMAL MANAGEMENT Range Animals § 30.2 Disposition of surplus range animals. Disposition shall be made only during regularly scheduled...

  18. 50 CFR 30.2 - Disposition of surplus range animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Disposition of surplus range animals. 30.2... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM RANGE AND FERAL ANIMAL MANAGEMENT Range Animals § 30.2 Disposition of surplus range animals. Disposition shall be made only during regularly scheduled...

  19. 50 CFR 30.2 - Disposition of surplus range animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Disposition of surplus range animals. 30.2... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM RANGE AND FERAL ANIMAL MANAGEMENT Range Animals § 30.2 Disposition of surplus range animals. Disposition shall be made only during regularly scheduled...

  20. 50 CFR 30.2 - Disposition of surplus range animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Disposition of surplus range animals. 30.2... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM RANGE AND FERAL ANIMAL MANAGEMENT Range Animals § 30.2 Disposition of surplus range animals. Disposition shall be made only during regularly scheduled...