Science.gov

Sample records for range province relative

  1. Geologic and hydrologic characterization and evaluation of the Basin and Range Province relative to the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Part III. Geologic and hydrologic evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, K.A.; Brady, B.T.

    1985-12-31

    This report describes the first phase in evaluating the geology and hydrology of the Basin and Range Province for potential suitability of geohydrologic environments for isolation of high-level radioactive waste. The geologic and hydrologic factors considered in the Province evaluation include distribution of potential host rocks, tectonic conditions and data on ground-water hydrology. Potential host media considered include argillaceous rocks, tuff, basaltic rocks, granitic rocks, evaporites, and the unsaturated zone. The tectonic factors considered are Quaternary faults, late Cenozoic volcanics, seismic activity, heat flow, and late Cenozoic rates of vertical uplift. Hydrologic conditions considered include length of flow path from potential host rocks to discharge areas, interbasin and geothermal flow systems and thick unsaturated sections as potential host media. The Basin and Range Province was divided into 12 subprovinces; each subprovince is evaluated separately and prospective areas for further study are identified. About one-half of the Province appears to have combinations of potential host rocks, tectonic conditions, and ground-water hydrology that merit consideration for further study. The prospective areas for further study in each subprovince are summarized in a brief list of the potentially favorable factors and the issues of concern. Data compiled for the entire Province do not permit a complete evaluation of the favorability for high-level waste isolation. The evaluations here are intended to identify broad regions that contain potential geohydrologic environments containing multiple natural barriers to radionuclide migration. 13 refs., 14 figs.

  2. Geologic and hydrologic characterization and evaluation of the Basin and Range Province relative to the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Part I. Introduction and guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, K.A.; Reed, J.E.

    1984-12-31

    The US Geological Survey`s program for geologic and hydrologic evaluation of physiographic provinces to identify areas potentially suitable for locating repository sites for disposal of high-level nuclear wastes was announced to the Governors of the eight states in the Basin and Range Province on May 5, 1981. Representatives of Arizona, California, Idaho, New Mexico, Nevada, Oregon, Texas, and Utah, were invited to cooperate with the federal government in the evaluation process. Each governor was requested to nominate an earth scientist to represent the state in a province working group composed of state and US Geological Survey representatives. This report, Part I of a three-part report, provides the background, introduction and scope of the study. This part also includes a discussion of geologic and hydrologic guidelines that will be used in the evaluation process and illustrates geohydrologic environments and the effect of individual factors in providing multiple natural barriers to radionuclide migration. 27 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Geologic and hydrologic characterization and evaluation of the Basin and Range Province relative to the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Part III. Geologic and hydrolic evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, K.A.; Brady, B.T.

    1983-12-31

    The geologic and hydrologic factors considered in the Province evaluation include distribution of potential host rocks, tectonic conditions and data on ground-water hydrology. Potential host media considered include argillaceous rocks, tuff, basaltic rocks, granitic rocks, evaporites, and the unsaturated zone. The tectonic factors considered are Quaternary faults, late Cenozoic volcanics, seismic activity, heat flow, and late Cenozoic rates of vertical uplift. Hydrologic conditions considered include length of flow path from potential host rocks to discharge areas, interbasin and geothermal flow systems and thick unsaturated sections as potential host media. The Basin and Range Province was divided into 12 subprovinces; each subprovince is evaluated separately and prospective areas for further study are identified. About one-half of the Province appears to have combinations of potential host rocks, tectonic conditions, and ground-water hydrology that merit consideration for further study. The prospective areas for further study in each subprovince are summarized in a brief list of the potentially favorable factors and the issues of concern. Data compiled for the entire Province do not permit a complete evaluation of the favorability for high-level waste isolation. The evaluations here are intended to identify broad regions that contain potential geohydrologic environments containing multiple natural barriers to radionuclide migration. 13 refs., 14 figs.

  4. Geologic and hydrologic characterization and evaluation of the Basin and Range Province relative to the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Part II. Geologic and hydrologic characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Sargent, K.A.; Bedinger, M.S.

    1985-12-31

    The geology and hydrology of the Basin and Range Province of the western conterminous United States are characterized in a series of data sets depicted in maps compiled for evaluation of prospective areas for further study of geohydrologic environments for isolation of high-level radioactive waste. The data sets include: (1) average precipitation and evaporation; (2) surface distribution of selected rock types; (3) tectonic conditions; and (4) surface- and ground-water hydrology and Pleistocene lakes and marshes. Rocks mapped for consideration as potential host media for the isolation of high-level radioactive waste are widespread and include argillaceous rocks, granitic rocks, tuffaceous rocks, mafic extrusive rocks, evaporites, and laharic breccias. The unsaturated zone, where probably as thick as 150 meters (500 feet), was mapped for consideration as an environment for isolation of high-level waste. Unsaturated rocks of various lithologic types are widespread in the Province. Tectonic stability in the Quaternary Period is considered the key to assessing the probability of future tectonism with regard to high-level radioactive waste disposal. Tectonic conditions are characterized on the basis of the seismic record, heat-flow measurements, the occurrence of Quaternary faults, vertical crustal movement, and volcanic features. Tectonic activity, as indicated by seismicity, is greatest in areas bordering the western margin of the Province in Nevada and southern California, the eastern margin of the Province bordering the Wasatch Mountains in Utah and in parts of the Rio Grande valley. Late Cenozoic volcanic activity is widespread, being greatest bordering the Sierra Nevada in California and Oregon, and bordering the Wasatch Mountains in southern Utah and Idaho. 43 refs., 22 figs.

  5. Crustal extension and transform faulting in the southern Basin Range Province. [California, Arizona, and Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liggett, M. A. (Principal Investigator); Childs, J. F.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Field reconnaissance and study of geologic literature guided by analysis of ERTS-1 MSS imagery have led to a hypothesis of tectonic control of Miocene volcanism, plutonism, and related mineralization in part of the Basin Range Province of southern Nevada and northwestern Arizona. The easterly trending right-lateral Las Vegas Shear Zone separates two volcanic provinces believed to represent areas of major east-west crustal extension. One volcanic province is aligned along the Colorado River south of the eastern termination of the Las Vegas Shear Zone; the second province is located north of the western termination of the shear zone in southern Nye County, Nevada. Geochronologic, geophysical, and structural evidence suggests that the Las Vegas Shear Zone may have formed in response to crustal extension in the two volcanic provinces in a manner similar to the formation of a ridge-ridge transform fault, as recognized in ocean floor tectonics.

  6. Northeast Basin and Range province active tectonics: An alternative view

    SciTech Connect

    Westaway, R. )

    1989-09-01

    Slip rates and slip vector azimuths on major active oblique normal faults are used to investigate whether circulation associated with the Yellowstone upwelling plume is driving tectonic deformation in the northeast Basin and Range province. Observed deformation is consistent with this suggestion; the plume is sheared to the southwest by motion of the North American plate. Testable predictions are made for structure and evolution of the region.

  7. Modern Tectonic Deformation in the Active Basin-and-Range Province Northwest of Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, Suting; Wen, Xueze

    2013-04-01

    Our study region is the northwest of Beijing, northern north China. The most typical extensional active tectonic area of the China continent, called the active basin-and-range province northwest of Beijing, exist there. This active tectonic province is made up of several NE-trending Quaternary graben basins and horst ranges between basins. An about 1500-year-long written historical record has suggested that there have been no major earthquakes with magnitude 7 or greater occurred in most of the study region since AD 512. So, the characteristic of modern tectonic deformation of the study region and its implication for the future seismic potential of major earthquakes are important scientific issues. In this study, based on data of regional GPS station velocities and active tectonics, combining relocated earthquake distribution, we make a preliminary analysis on the characteristic of the modern tectonic deformation of the study region. We design three zones across deferent segments of the active basin-and-range province to analyze both the present tectonic deformation from the GPS velocity profiles and the major fault's downward-extents from the relocated hypocenters. Our analyses reveal that: (1) Significant NNW-ward and SSE-ward horizontal extension exists on different segments of the active basin-and-range province northwest of Beijing at rates of 2 to 3mm /yr, accompanied with right-lateral shear deformation at 1 to 2mm/yr. (2) On the western and middle segments of the active basin and range province, most of the total horizontal extension and shear deformation happen in the width from the Huangqihai basin to the Datong-Yanggao basin , suggesting that some major faults in this width could have had relatively-high strain build-up. (3) It is possible that one or more basement detachment belts exist under the active basins, and it or they possibly dip(s) southeastern-ward. (4) The modern tectonic extensional rate is up to 2 to 3mm /yr in the study region. However

  8. Databases related to Large Igneous Provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, Richard; Pisarevsky, Sergei

    2015-04-01

    Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) represent large volume (>0.1 Mkm3; often above >1 Mkm3), mainly mafic (-ultramafic) magmatic events of intraplate affinity in both continental and oceanic settings, and are typically of short duration (<5 m.y.) or consist of multiple short pulses over a maximum of a few 10s of m.y. Silicic, carbonatite and kimberlite magmatism may be associated. The young LIP record is dominated by continental flood basalts and oceanic plateaus, but Proterozoic LIPs have typically lost their flood basalt component during erosion, thus exposing the plumbing system of mafic (-ultramafic) dykes, sills and layered intrusions. LIPs occur at a rate of about 1 every 20-30 m.y. back through the Proterozoic, and Archean analogues are also recognized. The LIP record is growing as more events are recognized and the size of known LIPs (even those of those of Mesozoic age) is increasing through targeted U-Pb geochronology. We review databases related to this fast moving field. The LIPs Commission (www.largeigneousprovinces.org) of IAVCEI ongoingly highlights new insights and events through the "LIP of the Month" series. A global 1:5M scale global LIPs ArcGIS database is under construction through Industry and government funded projects (e.g. www.supercontinent.org) and will form a framework for additional thematic databases related to LIPs, including geochemistry, geochronology, and paleomagnetism (GPMDB, MAGIC). LIP databases provide useful constraints for global Precambrian paleogeographic reconstructions, a context for understanding some global and regional environmental changes, and a useful framework for resource exploration (mineral and hydrocarbon). One of the most important aspects of this global LIPs ArcGIS database is that it is integrating data on the volcanic component of LIPs (both flood basalts, and associated ultramafic and silicic volcanism) with data on the plumbing system component in order to develop an understanding of LIPs as an integrated

  9. Desertification of forest, range and desert in Tehran province, affected by climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskandari, Hadi; Borji, Moslem; Khosravi, Hassan; Mesbahzadeh, Tayebeh

    2016-06-01

    Climate change has been identified as a leading human and environmental crisis of the twenty-first century. Drylands throughout the world have always undergone periods of degradation due to naturally occurring fluctuation in climate. Persistence of widespread degradation in arid and semiarid regions of Iran necessitates monitoring and evaluation. This paper aims to monitor the desertification trend in three types of land use, including range, forest and desert, affected by climate change in Tehran province for the 2000s and 2030s. For assessing climate change at Mehrabad synoptic station, the data of two emission scenarios, including A2 and B2, were used, utilizing statistical downscaling techniques and data generated by the Statistical DownScaling Model (SDSM). The index of net primary production (NPP) resulting from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite images was employed as an indicator of destruction from 2001 to 2010. The results showed that temperature is the most significant driving force which alters the net primary production in rangeland, forest and desert land use in Tehran province. On the basis of monitoring findings under real conditions, in the 2000s, over 60 % of rangelands and 80 % of the forest were below the average production in the province. On the other hand, the long-term average changes of NPP in the rangeland and forests indicated the presence of relatively large areas of these land uses with a production rate lower than the desert. The results also showed that, assuming the existence of circumstances of each emission scenarios, the desertification status will not improve significantly in the rangelands and forests of Tehran province.

  10. Lithospheric Instabilities within the Northern Basin and Range Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, R. C.; Fouch, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    Flat slab subduction and the subsequent removal of the subducting Farallon slab beneath the western United States has had a profound impact on the state of the North American lithosphere. In order to provide new constraints on the structure and evolution of the region's crust and upper mantle, we use surface wave tomography and receiver functions to image the earth beneath the Northern Basin and Range (NBR) and surrounding regions. We combine these results with published geophysical and geochemical data to further characterize lithospheric and asthenospheric processes and relate these to geological observations at the surface. Our initial results show high-velocity upper mantle, interpreted as lithosphere, beneath the center of the NBR and thinner lithosphere along its western, southern, and eastern margins. The zone of thickest lithosphere corresponds to areas with relatively thick crust, high elevations, and an absence of historic seismicity greater than magnitude 5.0. This region of thicker lithosphere also underlies a zone of reduced volcanic rock exposure relative to surrounding regions. Further, within the region there are no volcanic rocks in the NAVDAT database younger than 10 Ma, with the exception of Lunar Craters located in the south-central NBR. The shallow lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary observed along the margins of the NBR suggests that significant lithospheric thinning has occurred in these areas. This thinning is likely related to either extensional shear stresses or to the removal of lithospheric material, perhaps leading to accentuated strain along the margins of the Basin and Range. We interpret these data in the context of gravitational instabilities resulting in the removal of lithospheric material. A lithospheric downwelling has previously been identified within the center of the NBR based on high-velocity upper-mantle material observed in body wave tomography, a zone of weak or absent horizontal anisotropic fabric observed in shear

  11. Seasonality of Groundwater Recharge in the Basin and Range Province, Western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, K. L.; Meixner, T.; Ajami, H.; De La Cruz, L.

    2015-12-01

    For water-scarce communities in the western U.S., it is critical to understand groundwater recharge regimes and how those regimes might shift in the face of climate change and impact groundwater resources. Watersheds in the Basin and Range Geological Province are characterized by a variable precipitation regime of wet winters and variable summer precipitation. The relative contributions to groundwater recharge by summer and winter precipitation vary throughout the province, with winter precipitation recharge dominant in the northern parts of the region, and recharge from summer monsoonal precipitation playing a more significant role in the south, where the North American Monsoon (NAM) extends its influence. Stable water isotope data of groundwater and seasonal precipitation from sites in Sonora, Mexico and the U.S. states of California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas were examined to estimate and compare groundwater recharge seasonality throughout the region. Contributions of winter precipitation to annual recharge vary from 69% ± 41% in the southernmost Río San Miguel Basin in Sonora, Mexico, to 100% ± 36% in the westernmost Mojave Desert of California. The Normalized Seasonal Wetness Index (NSWI), a simple water budget method for estimating recharge seasonality from climatic data, was shown to approximate recharge seasonality well in several winter precipitation-dominated systems, but less well in basins with significant summer precipitation.

  12. Neotectonics of the San Andreas Fault system, basin and range province juncture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.; Crowell, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    The development, active processes, and tectonic interplay of the southern San Andreas fault system and the basin and range province were studied. The study consist of data acquisition and evaluation, technique development, and image interpretation and mapping. Potentially significant geologic findings are discussed.

  13. Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the basin and range province in northwestern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colgan, J.P.; Dumitru, T.A.; Reiners, P.W.; Wooden, J.L.; Miller, E.L.

    2006-01-01

    A regional synthesis of new and existing geologic and thermochronologic data document late Cretaceous - early Cenozoic regional erosion, Oligocene - Miocene volcanism, and subsequent late Miocene extension of the Basin and Range Province in northwestern Nevada and northeastern California. Across an ???220-km-wide region between the Santa Rosa and Warner Ranges, conformable sequences of 35 to 15 Ma volcanic rocks are cut by only a single generation of high-angle normal faults that accommodated ???23 km of total east-west extension (???12%). Fission-track, (U-Th)/He, geologic, and structural data from the Pine Forest Range show that faulting there began at 11 to 12 Ma, progressed at a relatively constant rate until at least 3 Ma, and has continued until near the present time. Extension in the Santa Rosa Range to the east took place during the same interval, although the post-6 Ma part of this history is less well constrained. Less complete constraints from adjacent ranges permit a similar timing for faulting, and we infer that extensional faulting in northwestern Nevada began everywhere at 12 Ma and has continued up to the present. Faulting in the Warner Range in northeastern California can only be constrained to have begun between 14 and 3 Ma, but may represent westward migration of Basin and Range extension during the Pliocene. Compared to the many parts of the Basin and Range in central and southern Nevada, extension in northwestern Nevada began more recently, is of lesser total magnitude, and was accommodated entirely by high-angle normal faults. Fission-track data document Late Cretaceous unroofing of Cretaceous (115 - 100 Ma) granitic basement rocks in northwestern Nevada, followed by a long period of relative tectonic quiescence that persisted through Oligocene and Miocene volcanism until the onset of Basin and Range extension at ???12 Ma. The low magnitude of extension (12%) and early Tertiary stability suggest that the modern ???31 km thick crust in

  14. Seasonality of Groundwater Recharge in the Basin and Range Province, Western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, K.; Meixner, T.; De La Cruz, L.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater recharge is the primary source of aquifer replenishment, an important source of freshwater for human consumption and riparian area sustainability in semi-arid regions. It is critical to understand the current groundwater recharge regimes in groundwater basins throughout the Western U.S. and how those regimes might shift in the face of climate change, land use change and management manipulations that impact the availability and composition of groundwater resources. Watersheds in the Basin and Range Province are characterized by a variable precipitation regime of wet winters, and variable summer precipitation. The horst-graben structure of these basins lends itself to orographic and continental precipitation effects that make mountain block and mountain front recharge critical components of annual recharge. The current assumption is that the relative contributions to groundwater recharge by summer and winter precipitation vary throughout the province, with winter precipitation dominating in the northern parts of the region, and summer monsoonal precipitation playing a more significant role in the south, where the North American Monsoon extends its influence. To test this hypothesis, stable water isotope data of groundwater and precipitation from sites in Sonora, Mexico and the U.S. states of California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas were examined to characterize and compare groundwater recharge regimes throughout the region. Preliminary stable water isotope results from the southernmost Rio San Miguel Basin in Sonora, Mexico indicate that groundwater is composed of 64%±14% summer monsoon precipitation, in contrast to more northern basins where winter precipitation is the source of 79-90% of basin groundwater.

  15. Deformation in the Basin & Range Province and Rio Grande Rift using InSAR Time Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, H.; Pisaniello, M.; Pritchard, M. E.

    2012-12-01

    High heat flow in the Basin and Range Province and Rio Grande Rift has been attributed to partial melting in the crust and upper mantle as a result of ongoing extension (e.g. Lachenbruch 1978). We would then expect to observe surface deformation in areas with actively moving magmatic fluids. The distribution of these magmatic fluids has implications for the rheology of the crust and upper mantle. For this study, we use InSAR to locate deformation due to magmatic sources as well as localized hydrologic deformation. While our focus is magmatic deformation, hydrologic signals are important for correcting geodetic data used to monitor tectonic activity. InSAR is a suitable technique for a large study in the Basin and Range and Rio Grande Rift since SAR acquisitions are both numerous and temporally extensive in these regions. We use ERS-1, ERS-2, and ENVISAT SAR images from 1992-2010 to create time series' with interferograms up to 1800km long from both ascending and descending satellite tracks. Each time series has an average of 100 interferograms reducing the atmospheric noise that masks small deformation signals in single interferograms. The time series' results are validated using overlapping tracks and are further compared to signals identified in previous geophysical studies (e.g. Reilinger and Brown 1980, Massonnet et al 1997, Finnegan and Pritchard 2009). We present results for several areas of deformation in the Basin & Range Province and Rio Grande Rift. An agricultural area near Roswell, NM exhibits seasonal uplift and subsidence of ±3.5cm/yr between 1992 and 1999. Results indicate subsidence on the order of 1cm/yr and uplift of 2cm/yr at the Raft River power plant, ID that is likely related to the start of geothermal fluid production and injection. Just north of the Raft River plant, we detect what appears to be rapid agricultural subsidence in an area extending for 50km. We discuss subsidence of ~2cm/yr in Escalante Valley, UT that is comparable to

  16. Structural provinces of the northeastern Brooks Range, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, W.K.; Hanks, C.L. )

    1990-07-01

    The dominant Cenozoic structures of the northeastern Brooks Range are anticlinoria with cores of sub-Mississippian rocks, reflecting a regional north-vergent duplex with a floor thrust in the sub-Mississippian sequence and a roof thrust in the Mississippian Kayak Shale. The number of horses forming each anticlinorium and the structural style of the overlying Mississippian and younger cover sequence varies regionally, providing a basis for dividing the northeastern Brooks Range into structural provinces. In the western province, each anticlinorium contains a single horse, and shortening above the Kayak Shale was accommodated mainly by detachment folds. To the north in the Sadlerochit Mountains, the Kayak Shale is depositionally discontinuous and rocks elsewhere separated by this detachment deformed together. In the eastern province, each anticlinorium contains multiple horses, and shortening above the Kayak Shale was accommodated largely by thrust duplication of Mississippian through Triassic rocks. In the narrow central province, the Devonian Okpilak batholith was detached from its roots, internally shortened along shear zones and by penetrative strain, and transported northward. Because the Kayak Shale is locally absent, the Mississippian and younger cover sequence deformed in part penetratively along with the batholith. 13 figs.

  17. Barriers to faulting in the Basin-Range province: evidence from the Sou Hills transverse block

    SciTech Connect

    Fonseca, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    Transverse structural blocks may inhibit the propagation of fault ruptures in the Basin-Range province. The Sou Hills, between Dixie and Pleasant Valleys, is a block of uplifted Tertiary bedrock transverse to the NNE-SSW trend of the central Nevada seismic belt. Three lines of evidence indicate that offset due to normal faulting is much less in the Sou Hills compared to adjacent segments of the seismic belt. First, estimates of total late Cenozoic offsets of pre-extension basalts show that the total offset is less in the Sou Hills. Second, analyses of landforms that reflect rates of relative uplift show that Quaternary tectonic activity on range-bounding faults declines where faults join the Sou Hills. Third, measurements of late Quaternary fault scarps show that individual rupture segments in the Sou Hills are shorter in length and have smaller displacements compared to the nearly continuous ruptures of several meters offset found along the Tobin and Stillwater Ranges to the north and south. The Sou Hills rupture pattern is distinctive: ruptures are dispersed over a wide zone rather than being concentrated along well-defined range fronts. Normal faulting patterns produced by the 1915 Pleasant Valley, Nevada and the 1983 Borah Peak, Idaho earthquakes indicate that a discontinuous, spatially dispersed faulting style typifies ruptures which die out in transverse bedrock features. These historic analogues support a model for prehistoric faulting in which ruptures have repeatedly died out in the Sou Hills. Transverse blocks such as the Sou Hills appear to present barriers to propagating ruptures.

  18. Steady contemporary deformation of the central Basin and Range Province, western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, William C.; Blewitt, Geoffrey; Kreemer, Corné

    2014-06-01

    We use data from western U.S. GPS networks to estimate the rate, pattern, and style of tectonic deformation of the central Basin and Range Province (BRP). Previous geodetic investigations have found the crust of eastern Nevada and western Utah to act as a rigid microplate, with zero deformation rates to within measurement uncertainty. Observed transients in GPS time series have led others to propose a megadetachment model, predicting that the central BRP behaves as a microplate, but with time-varying translation. Here we reassess these hypotheses, benefiting from a significant increase in GPS stations and time span, and innovations in analysis techniques. Our results show that the BRP crust deforms everywhere and all the time. In a group of 24 stations between longitude -113.5° and -116.8°, we find strain rates of 1.9 ± 0.2 × 10-9 yr-1 extension directed N55°W and 2.2 ± 0.2 × 10-9 yr-1 contraction directed N35°E, inconsistent with microplate behavior. The linearity of time series of strain from GPS station triplets is inconsistent with episodic translation of quasi-rigid domains. One exception is station EGAN that exhibits nonlinear motion not found in adjacent stations. The dominant signal in Nevada is distributed shear consistent with Pacific/North America relative plate motion, suggesting that stresses are transmitted through the lithosphere at least 800 km from the plate boundary. The observed active extension is consistent with earthquake focal mechanisms and is in agreement with integrated rates estimated from earthquake geology. Our results do not support the proposed megadetachment in the BRP.

  19. Conceptual models in exploration geochemistry-The Basin and Range Province of the Western United States and Northern Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovering, T.G.; McCarthy, J.H., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    This summary of geochemical exploration in the Basin and Range Province is another in the series of reviews of geochemical-exploration applications covering a large region; this series began in 1975 with a summary for the Canadian Cordillera and Canadian Shield, and was followed in 1976 by a similar summary for Scandinavia (Norden). Rather than adhering strictly to the type of conceptual models applied in those papers, we have made use of generalized landscape geochemistry models related to the nature of concealment of ore deposits. This study is part of a continuing effort to examine and evaluate geochemical-exploration practices in different areas of the world. Twenty case histories of the application of geochemical exploration in both district and regional settings illustrate recent developments in techniques and approaches. Along with other published reports these case histories, exemplifying generalized models of concealed deposits, provide data used to evaluate geochemical-exploration programs and specific sample media. Because blind deposits are increasingly sought in the Basin and Range Province, the use of new sample media or anomaly-enhancement techniques is a necessity. Analysis of vapors or gases emanating from blind deposits is a promising new technique. Certain fractions of stream sediments show anomalies that are weak or not detected in conventional minus 80-mesh fractions. Multi-element analysis of mineralized bedrock may show zoning patterns that indicate depth or direction of ore. Examples of the application of these and other, more conventional methods are indicated in the case histories. The final section of this paper contains a brief evaluation of the applications of all types of sample media to geochemical exploration in the arid environment of the Basin and Range Province. ?? 1978.

  20. Seasonality of groundwater recharge in the Basin and Range Province, western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, Kirstin Lynn

    Alluvial groundwater systems are an important source of water for communities and biodiverse riparian corridors throughout the arid and semi-arid Basin and Range Geological Province of western North America. These aquifers and their attendant desert streams have been depleted to support a growing population, while projected climate change could lead to more extreme episodes of drought and precipitation in the future. The only source of replenishment to these aquifers is recharge. This dissertation builds upon previous work to characterize and quantify recharge in arid and semi-arid basins by characterizing the intra-annual seasonality of recharge across the Basin and Range Province, and considering how climate change might impact recharge seasonality and volume, as well as fragile riparian corridors that depend on these hydrologic processes. First, the seasonality of recharge in a basin in the sparsely-studied southern extent of the Basin and Range Province is determined using stable water isotopes of seasonal precipitation and groundwater, and geochemical signatures of groundwater and surface water. In northwestern Mexico in the southern reaches of the Basin and Range, recharge is dominated by winter precipitation (69% +/- 42%) and occurs primarily in the uplands. Second, isotopically-based estimates of seasonal recharge fractions in basins across the region are compared to identify patterns in recharge seasonality, and used to evaluate a simple water budget-based model for estimating recharge seasonality, the normalized seasonal wetness index (NSWI). Winter precipitation makes up the majority of annual recharge throughout the region, and North American Monsoon (NAM) precipitation has a disproportionately weak impact on recharge. The NSWI does well in estimating recharge seasonality for basins in the northern Basin and Range, but less so in basins that experience NAM precipitation. Third, the seasonal variation in riparian and non-riparian vegetation greenness

  1. Habitat interaction between two species of chipmunk in the Basin and Range Province of Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lowrey, Christopher; Longshore, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Interspecies interactions can affect how species are distributed, put constraints on habitat expansion, and reduce the fundamental niche of the affected species. Using logistic regression, we analyzed and compared 174 Tamias palmeri and 94 Tamias panamintinus within an isolated mountain range of the Basin and Range Province of southern Nevada. Tamias panamintinus was more likely to use pinyon/ponderosa/fir mixed forests than pinyon alone, compared to random sites. In the presence of T palmeri, however, interaction analyses indicated T. panamintinus was less likely to occupy the mixed forests and more likely near large rocks on southern aspects. This specie s-by-habitat interaction data suggest that T. palmeri excludes T panamintinus from areas of potentially suitable habitat. Climate change may adversely affect species of restricted distribution. Habitat isolation and species interactions in this region may thus increase survival risks as climate temperatures rise.

  2. Large dynamic range relative B1+ mapping

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Aaron T.; Aljabar, Paul; Malik, Shaihan J.; Jezzard, Peter; Robson, Matthew D.; Hajnal, Joseph V.; Koopmans, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Parallel transmission (PTx) requires knowledge of the B1+ produced by each element. However, B1+ mapping can be challenging when transmit fields exhibit large dynamic range. This study presents a method to produce high quality relative B1+ maps when this is the case. Theory and Methods The proposed technique involves the acquisition of spoiled gradient echo (SPGR) images at multiple radiofrequency drive levels for each transmitter. The images are combined using knowledge of the SPGR signal equation using maximum likelihood estimation, yielding an image for each channel whose signal is proportional to the B1+ field strength. Relative B1+ maps are then obtained by taking image ratios. The method was tested using numerical simulations, phantom imaging, and through in vivo experiments. Results The numerical simulations demonstrated that the proposed method can reconstruct relative transmit sensitivities over a wide range of B1+ amplitudes and at several SNR levels. The method was validated at 3 Tesla (T) by comparing it with an alternative B1+ mapping method, and demonstrated in vivo at 7T. Conclusion Relative B1+ mapping in the presence of large dynamic range has been demonstrated through numerical simulations, phantom imaging at 3T and experimentally at 7T. The method will enable PTx to be applied in challenging imaging scenarios at ultrahigh field. Magn Reson Med 76:490–499, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. PMID:26308375

  3. Heat flow in the Basin and Range province and thermal effects of tectonic extension

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lachenbruch, A.H.

    1978-01-01

    In regions of tectonic extension, vertical convective transport of heat in the lithosphere is inevitable. The resulting departure of lithosphere temperature and thickness from conduction-model estimates depends upon the mechanical mode of extension and upon how rapidly extension is (and has been) taking place. Present knowledge of these processes is insufficient to provide adequate constraints on thermal models. The high and variable regional heat flow and the intense local heat discharge at volcanic centers in the Basin and Range province of the United States could be accounted for by regional and local variations in extensional strain rate without invoking anomalous conductive heat flow from the asthenosphere. Anomalous surface heat flow typical of the province could be generated by distributed extension at average rates of about 1/2 to 1%/m.y., similar to rates estimated from structural evidence. To account for higher heat flow in subregions like the Battle mountain High, these rates would be increased by a factor of about 3, and locally at active bimodal volcanic centers, by an order of magnitude more. ?? 1978 Birkha??user Verlag.

  4. Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in Free-Range Chickens in Henan Province of China

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yongjie; Lu, Yaoyao; Wang, Yinghua; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Longxian; Yang, Yurong

    2016-01-01

    Background. Chickens serve as an intermediate host for Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum; infection of free-range (FR) chickens with these organisms is a useful indicator of soil and environmental contamination with oocysts. A total of 700 FR chicken serum samples and 300 heart samples were collected from Henan province from March to July 2015. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 18.86% (132/700) of the chickens by modified agglutination test (cut-off 1 : 25), while 23.14% (162/700) were positive for N. caninum by indirect fluorescent antibody test (cut-off 1 : 25). T. gondii DNA was detected in the myocardium digestion liquids of 4/25 (16%) FR chickens. The PCR results of N. caninum DNA from FR chicken myocardium digestion liquids (n = 25) were all negative. Attempts to isolate viable T. gondii were unsuccessful. The results showed that there were antibodies to T. gondii and N. caninum in FR chickens from Henan province. Accordingly, effective control of feces from cats and dogs and improved pets hygiene habits were needed. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report of the presence of N. caninum antibody in chickens from China. PMID:27274992

  5. Early 20th-century uplift of the northern Peninsular ranges province of southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, S.H.; Elliott, M.R.

    1979-01-01

    Repeated leveling in the northern Peninsular Ranges province identifies an early 20thcentury episode of crustal upwarping in southern California. The episodic vertical movement is broadly bracketed between 1897 and 1934, and the main deformation is bracketed within 1906-1914 and involved regional up-to-the-northeast tilting of the Santa Ana block of as much as 4 ?? 10-6 rad and elevation changes exceeding 0.4 m in the Perris block and parts of the San Jacinto block, Transverse Ranges, and the Mohave block. Primary tide station records containing occasional entries since 1853 at San Pedro and San Diego show no evidence of episodic crustal movement, suggesting that the uplifted area hinged along coastal fault zones forming the west boundary of the Santa Ana block. Physiographic features and recent studies of Quaternary marine terraces by others show that this episode of regional tilting and uplift is a part of the continuing tectonic process in southern California. A crude, questionable coincidence exists between the uplift episode and a period of increased seismicity (1890-1923) in the northern Peninsular Ranges characterized by a number of moderate-size (M > 6) earthquakes on NW-trending strike-slip faults. However, releveling data are too sparse to associate the uplift development clearly with any one event. ?? 1979.

  6. Equilibration of Melt at the Base of the Lithosphere in the Basin and Range Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsyth, D. W.; Plank, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    New measurements of the water concentration and new constraints on oxygen fugacity of Basin and Range basalts enable more accurate pressure (P) and temperature (T) estimates of the depth of equilibration of the mantle melts. We developed a revised thermobarometer that more precisely predicts the results of laboratory experiments on melts equilibrated with olivine and orthopyroxene. Applying these methods to basalts from recently active volcanic settings in the Basin and Range province, we find that most equilibrated near the dry solidus in P-T space and that the depths are in the vicinity of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) inferred from receiver function analysis and surface wave tomography. The basalts have enough water that they should have begun melting well below the dry solidus, so the depths of equilibration probably reflect pooling and stalling of upward migrated melts beneath a dry lithosphere rather than a mean depth of formation. The equilibration conditions then reflect the pre-existing thickness of the lithosphere, which may be eroded in spots by the thermal and chemical corrosion of melts infiltrating into the depleted layer. Assuming that there is a ~5% drop in shear velocity at the LAB associated with pooled melt, a two-parameter thermal model is sufficient to simultaneously satisfy both the seismological and petrological constraints in each of the study areas. In the model, depth to the dry solidus defines the bottom boundary of the conductive lid, while the potential temperature (Tp) controls the asthenosphere and LAB thermal structure. Combining the petrological and seismological constraints, the optimum estimates of Tp range from < 1300 to > 1500 °C, and depths to the LAB range from ~ 45 to 70 km. The highest Tp (> 1400°C) occurs just west of the Colorado Plateau. Upwelling of regionally hot and wet mantle creates widespread melting beneath the Basin and Range, which maintains the base of the lithosphere at its solidus.

  7. Relativity Parameters Determined from Lunar Laser Ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. G.; Newhall, X. X.; Dickey, J. O.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of 24 years of lunar laser ranging data is used to test the principle of equivalence, geodetic precession, the PPN parameters beta and gamma, and G/G. Recent data can be fitted with a rms scatter of 3 cm. (a) Using the Nordtvedt effect to test the principle of equivalence, it is found that the Moon and Earth accelerate alike in the Sun's field. The relative accelerations match to within 5 x 10(exp -13) . This limit, combined with an independent determination of y from planetary time delay, gives beta. Including the uncertainty due to compositional differences, the parameter beta differs from unity by no more than 0.0014; and, if the weak equivalence principle is satisfied, the difference is no more than 0.0006. (b) Geodetic precession matches its expected 19.2 marc sec/yr rate within 0.7%. This corresponds to a 1% test of gamma. (c) Apart from the Nordtvedt effect, beta and gamma can be tested from their influence on the lunar orbit. It is argued theoretically that the linear combination 0.8(beta) + 1.4(gamma) can be tested at the 1% level of accuracy. For solutions using numerically derived partial derivatives, higher sensitivity is found. Both 6 and y match the values of general relativity to within 0.005, and the linear combination beta+ gamma matches to within 0,003, but caution is advised due to the lack of theoretical understanding of these sensitivities. (d) No evidence for a changing gravitational constant is found, with absolute value of G/G less than or equal to 8 x lO(exp -12)/yr. There is significant sensitivity to G/G through solar perturbations on the lunar orbit.

  8. A systematic regional trend in helium isotopes across the northernbasin and range province, Western North America

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, B. Mack; van Soest, Matthijs C.

    2006-05-01

    An extensive study of helium isotopes in fluids collectedfrom surface springs, fumaroles and wells across the northern Basin andRange Province reveals a systematic trend of decreasing 3He/4He ratiosfrom west to east. The western margin of the Basin and Range ischaracterized by mantle-like ratios (6-8 Ra) associated with active orrecently active crustal magma systems (e.g., Coso, Long Valley,Steamboat, and the Cascade volcanic complex). Moving towards the east,the ratios decline systematically to a background value of ~;0.1 Ra. Theregional trend is consistent with extensive mantle melting concentratedalong the western margin and is coincident with an east-to-west increasein the magnitude of northwest strain. The increase in shear strainenhances crustal permeability resulting in high vertical fluid flow ratesthat preserve the high helium isotope ratios at the surface. Superimposedon the regional trend are "helium spikes," local anomalies in the heliumisotope composition. These "spikes" reflect either local zones of mantlemelting or locally enhanced crustal permeability. In the case of theDixie Valley hydrothermal system, it appears to be a combination ofboth.

  9. Structural development of high-temperature mylonites in the Archean Wyoming province, northwestern Madison Range, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellogg, Karl S.; Mogk, David W.

    2009-01-01

    The Crooked Creek mylonite, in the northwestern Madison Range, southwestern Montana, is defined by several curved lenses of high non-coaxial strain exposed over a 7-km-wide, northeast-trending strip. The country rocks, part of the Archean Wyoming province, are dominantly trondhjemitic to granitic orthogneiss with subordinate amphibolite, quartzite, aluminous gneiss, and sills of metabasite (mafic granulite). Data presented here support an interpretation that the mylonite formed during a period of rapid, heterogeneous strain at near-peak metamorphic conditions during an early deformational event (D1) caused by northwest–southeast-directed transpression. The mylonite has a well-developed L-S tectonite fabric and a fine-grained, recrystallized (granoblastic) texture. The strong linear fabric, interpreted as the stretching direction, is defined by elongate compositional “fish,” fold axes, aligned elongate minerals, and mullion axes. The margins of the mylonitic zones are concordant with and grade into regions of unmylonitized gneiss. A second deformational event (D2) has folded the mylonite surface to produce meter- to kilometer-scale, tight-to-isoclinal, gently plunging folds in both the mylonite and country rock, and represents a northwest–southeast shortening event. Planar or linear fabrics associated with D2 are remarkably absent. A third regional deformational event (D3) produced open, kilometer-scale folds generally with gently north-plunging fold axes. Thermobarometric measurements presented here indicate that metamorphic conditions during D1 were the same in both the mylonite and the country gneiss, reaching upper amphibolite- to lower granulite-facies conditions: 700 ± 50° C and 8.5 ± 0.5 kb. Previous geochronological studies of mylonitic and cross-cutting rocks in the Jerome Rock Lake area, east of the Crooked Creek mylonite, bracket the timing of this high-grade metamorphism and mylonitization between 2.78 and 2.56 Ga, nearly a billion years

  10. BARGEN continuous GPS data across the eastern Basin and Range province, and implications for fault system dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemi, Nathan A.; Wernicke, Brian P.; Friedrich, Anke M.; Simons, Mark; Bennett, Richard A.; Davis, James L.

    2004-12-01

    We collected data from a transect of continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) sites across the eastern Basin and Range province at latitude 39°N from 1997-2000. Intersite velocities define a region ~350 km wide of broadly distributed strain accumulation at ~10 nstr yr-1. On the western margin of the region, site EGAN, ~10 km north of Ely, Nevada, moved at a rate of 3.9 +/- 0.2 mm yr-1 to the west relative to site CAST, which is on the Colorado Plateau. Velocities of most sites to the west of Ely moved at an average rate of ~3 mm yr-1 relative to CAST, defining an area across central Nevada that does not appear to be extending significantly. The late Quaternary geological velocity field, derived using seismic reflection and neotectonic data, indicates a maximum velocity of EGAN with respect to the Colorado Plateau of ~4 mm yr-1, also distributed relatively evenly across the region. The geodetic and late Quaternary geological velocity fields, therefore, are consistent, but strain release on the Sevier Desert detachment and the Wasatch fault appears to have been anomalously high in the Holocene. Previous models suggesting horizontal displacement rates in the eastern Basin and Range near 3 mm yr-1, which focused mainly along the Wasatch zone and Intermountain seismic belt, may overestimate the Holocene Wasatch rate by at least 50 per cent and the Quaternary rate by nearly an order of magnitude, while ignoring potentially major seismogenic faults further to the west.

  11. Petroleum potential of the basin and range province, western United States

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, N.H.; Vincelette, R.R.

    1990-05-01

    All production to date in the Basin and Range province has been found in extensional fault-block traps. The top seal is the base of the Tertiary valley-fill sequence, under which various reservoir units subcrop. Side seals are either faults or impermeable units. Oil source rocks include the Tertiary Sheep Pass Formation, Mississippian Chainman Shale, the Ordovician Vinnini Formation, and possibly other Tertiary-Cretaceous freshwater deposits and other Paleozoic units west of the Roberts Mountains thrust. Reservoirs range in age from Tertiary to Paleozoic, have lithologies ranging from ignimbrites to dolomite, and most are highly fractured with some having matrix porosity. Shell Oil Company made the first discovery on the east side of Railroad Valley, Nevada in 1954 at Eagle Springs field. This field has produced 3921441 bbl through June 1989 from fractured Tertiary ignimbrites and fractured and porous freshwater carbonates. In 1976, Northwest Exploration found Trap Spring field, which has made 7906235 bbl through June 1989 from Tertiary fractured ignimbrites. Grant Canyon field discovered in 1983 by Northwest, also produces from a fault-block trap. The reservoir, however, is Devonian Guilmetter fractured dolomite with some matrix porosity, and has yielded 10881574 bbl through June 1989. The two wells in the field average over 6,000 bbl a day, and represent some of the best daily production in the US Kate Spring field in Railroad Valley was discovered by Evans in 1986 and has several wells producing from Paleozoic carbonates. Oil has also been found in similar traps in Pine Valley, Nevada, located about 100 mi northwest of Railroad Valley. Several fields have been discovered from fault-block traps, most notably the Blackburn field found by Amoco in 1982. Although the volcanics are tight at Blackburn, the sands within the Chainman and Devonian carbonates are good reservoirs.

  12. Comparison of Vibroseis and explosive source methods for deep crustal seismic reflection profiling in the Basin and Range province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brocher, T.M.; Hart, P.E.

    1991-01-01

    Direct comparison of low-fold, high-energy explosive and high-fold, lower-energy Vibroseis methods for acquiring deep crustal seismic reflection data in the Basin and Range Province suggests that the high-fold common midpoint (CMP) method there does not provide the best possible image of lower crustal structure. -from Authors

  13. Fission track evidence for widespread early to Middle miocene extension in the northern Basin and Range province

    SciTech Connect

    Dumitru, T.; Miller, E.; Savage, C. . Geological Dept.); Gans, P. . Geological Science Dept.); Brown, R. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-04-01

    The northern Basin and Range province has experienced multiple periods of extension but the precise timing and relative importance of the various periods is poorly known. Geologic data in many areas suggest inception of extension was closely tied with the southward sweep in earliest magmatism, which is Eocene in southern Idaho, Oligocene in east-central Nevada, and Miocene in southern Nevada. Ar/Ar ages suggest that extension continued into the Early Miocene in areas such as the Raft River, Albion, Ruby, and Snake Range metamorphic core complexes. Youthful topography and recent faulting have been taken as indicating that faulting leading to present physiography is commonly younger than [approximately]10 Ma. New apatite fission track cooling age and track length data, supplemented by other information, point to the Early to Middle Miocene as an additional time of very significant extension-induced uplift and range formation. Many ranges in a 700-km-long north-south corridor from the Utah-Nevada-Idaho border to southernmost Nevada experience extension and major exhumation in Early to Middle Miocene time. Whether extension of Early to Middle Miocene age is restricted to this corridor or is more widespread is unclear due to the paucity of similar data to the east and west. Reconnaissance apatite ages from the Toiyabe Range and environs (NV) are [approximately]15 Ma and geologic data indicate Early to Middle Miocene extension at Yerington NV (Proffet and Dillis, 1984). Thus, it appears from the available data that the Early to Middle Miocene was an important, and previously little recognized, period of major extension over broad areas of the northern Basin and Range.

  14. Secondary Magnetization of ZEBRA Dolomites in the Basin and Range Province of Eastern Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmore, R. D.; Dulin, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    Zebra dolomites within the Devonian Guilmette Formation of the southern Basin and Range Province, Nevada, are the focus of a paleomagnetic study to determine if a characteristic magnetization exists that will yield insight into the timing of zebra dolomite formation. Zebra dolomites consist of alternating bands of light and dark dolomite, and are found throughout Nevada, often associated with mineralized ore deposits. Although a variety of mechanisms have been suggested for formation, the zebra dolomite throughout Nevada is likely associated with hydrothermal fluid migration. The current study focuses on zebra dolomites that have formed in close stratigraphic proximity and within the Alamo Breccia in the Delamar Range in southeastern Nevada. The Alamo Breccia is an impact generated mega-breccia zone within the Devonian Guilmette Formation. The zebra dolomites, including those in the Alamo Breccia, and host Guilmette in the Delamar Range have a characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) with maximum laboratory unblocking temperatures of 480°C that is interpreted to reside in magnetite. The rocks were structurally rotated to remove Cenozoic extension, and the stratigraphic mean direction of the ChRM has a declination of 164.4°, with an inclination of -3°. The calculated pole is at 51.6°N, 90.7°E (dp = 2.2, dm = 4.3) which lies near the late Triassic portion of the apparent polar wander path (APWP) for North America. Based on low burial temperatures, this ChRM is interpreted as a chemical remanent magnetization (CRM) that was acquired due to the mobilization of brines possibly associated with the Triassic Sonoma orogeny. Geochemical data are consistent with alteration by externally derived fluids. The presence of a late Triassic magnetization indicates that the zebra dolomite can be no younger than Late Triassic. Preliminary results from zebra dolomites in other areas in southeastern Nevada indicate a more complex magnetization; some locations contain both

  15. Tectonomagmatic relationship between the Sierra Madre Occidental ignimbrite flare-up and the southern Basin and Range province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre-Diaz, G. J.; Labarthe-Hernandez, G.

    2004-12-01

    The Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) is a Mid-Tertiary, large-volume, ignimbrite province at least 1,200 km long and 200-500 km wide, extending continuously from the U.S.-Mexico border (31\\deg N) to its intersection with the Mexican Volcanic Belt (21\\deg N). Considering the average thickness of 1,000 m for the ignimbrite plateau, based on several measured sections along the province, and the average wide of the province of 300 km, a conservative estimate of the physical volume of the SMO ignimbrites is about 360,000 km3. The southern part of the Basin and Range province is in Mexico. This extensional province overlaps in space and time with the SMO ignimbrite flare-up and formed NW- to NE-trending normal faults that bound many large grabens, which are particularly long and deep in the southern SMO. Basin and Range faulting occurred between at least 32 Ma and 12 Ma with both limits probably extending until the Eocene and the Quaternary. Ignimbrite activity can be as old as 51 Ma and as young as 17-16 Ma, but most of the ignimbrite volume was erupted in the 38-23 Ma period. Thus, the ignimbrite flare-up can be defined as a period of intense explosive volcanic activity that produced enormous volumes of silicic ignimbrite sheets, which took place mainly between 38 and 23 Ma in Mexico. The ignimbrite flare-up coincided in time with peaks in Basin and Range faulting, and the ignimbrite activity apparently migrated from the east-northeast to the west-southwest, i.e., from central Chihuahua (38-27 Ma) to Durango-Tayoltita-Nazas (32-29 Ma) to Zacatecas-Tepic (24-23 Ma), finishing by 16 Ma at Jalisco-Nayarit, as deduced from the compilation of geologic works done in the SMO. It is unknown yet whether there was a west-southward migration of Basin and Range faulting and if the ignimbrite flare-up occurred episodically as peaks (38-27 Ma, 32-29 Ma, and 24-23 Ma) or was continuous. Nevertheless, by the time that the ignimbrite flare-up started, the Basin and Range extension was

  16. The Environmental Context of Gastropods on Western Laurentia (Basin and Range Province) During the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl, Robyn Mieko

    Gastropods are a major component of modern marine ecosystems and can be found in nearly every type of marine ecosystem. They experienced their first notable radiation during the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event (~470 Ma), during which their diversity tripled. This study examines the gastropod assemblage preserved in the Basin and Range Province of the Western United States to establish the environmental context for the Ordovician gastropod radiation. Gastropods are present within every facies examined, but their relative abundance and distribution varies. Gastropods are rare in normal marine settings and abundant in harsh (i.e., dysoxic, hypersaline) environments. Their environmental context is shown to impact survivorship through the end-Ordovician extinction event and throughout the Paleozoic and Mesozoic. Collecting accurate density data for fossil deposits can prove challenging, especially when beds are not exposed in plane view. In these cases, paleontologists are tasked with reconstructing shellbed density from cross section exposure. This study presents a mathematical model to calculate the density of fossil material within a bed from bedding cross section counts. The model is calibrated against an Ordovician biofacies comprised of oncoids, macluritid gastropods and receptaculitids exposed in the Arrow Canyon Range of Southern Nevada, where unique preservation provides both cross section exposures and plan view of fossil concentrations. University Earth Science Departments seeking to establish impactful geoscience outreach programs often pursue large-scale, grant funded programs. While this type of outreach is highly successful, it is also extremely costly, and grant funding can be difficult to secure. Here, we present the Geoscience Education Outreach Program (GEOP), a small-scale, very affordable model tested over five years in the Department of Earth Sciences at UCR. GEOP provides a variety of outreach events and allows UCR Earth Sciences to

  17. Crustal resistivity structure from magnetotelluric soundings in the Colorado Plateau-Basin and Range provinces, central and western Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klein, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    Resistivity structure to about 25 km depth is defined from two-dimensional modeling of 29 magnetotelluric (MT) soundings (0.002-5 Hz) that traverse 280 km of the southwestern Colorado Plateau, transition zone, and Basin and Range provinces in Arizona. From the surface to 5 km depth, the MT model suggests structural relationships between low-resistivity sedimentary and volcanic rocks (50-300 ohm m) and high-resistivity granitic and gneissic basement (500-9000 ohm m). -from Author

  18. Helium concentrations in soil gas of the Ely and Delta 1 degree x 2 degrees quadrangles. Basin and Range Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reimer, G.M.; Bowles, C.G.

    1983-01-01

    A reconnaissance soil-gas helium survey was made of the Ely, Nevada and Delta, Utah 1? x 2? quadrangles in the Basin and Range Province. Helium concentrations in 510 samples ranged from -147 to 441 ppb He with respect to ambient air. The median helium value for the study area was 36 ppb. Concentrations of more than 100 ppb He, and less than -20 ppb He, occur more commonly in the Ely Quadrangle and are especially numerous in the western one-half of this quadrangle. The data are presented both in figures and tables, and some of the geologic factors that may affect the helium distribution are discussed.

  19. The Chon Aike province of Patagonia and related rocks in West Antarctica: A silicic large igneous province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankhurst, R. J.; Leat, P. T.; Sruoga, P.; Rapela, C. W.; Márquez, M.; Storey, B. C.; Riley, T. R.

    1998-04-01

    The field occurrence, age, classification and geochemistry of the Mesozoic volcanic rocks of Patagonia and West Antarctica are reviewed, using published and new information. Dominated by rhyolitic ignimbrites, which form a bimodal association with minor mafic and intermediate lavas, these constitute one of the largest silicic igneous provinces known, equivalent in size to many mafic LIPs. Diachronism is recognized between the Early-Middle Jurassic volcanism of eastern Patagonia (Marifil and Chon Aike formations) and the Middle Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous volcanism of the Andean Cordillera (El Quemado, Ibañez and Tobı´fera formations). This is accompanied by a change in geochemical characteristics, from relatively high-Zr and -Nb types in the east to subalkaline arc-related rocks in the west, although the predominance of rhyolites remains a constant factor. All of the associated mafic rocks are well fractionated compared to direct mantle derivatives. Petrogenetic models favour partial melting of immature lower crust as a result of the intrusion of basaltic magmas, possibly with some hybridisation of the liquids and subsequent fractionation by crystal settling or solidification and remelting. The formation of large amounts of intracrustal silicic melt acted as a density barrier against the further rise of mafic magmas, which are thus rare in the province.

  20. A study of uranium favorability of Cenozoic sedimentary rocks, Basin and Range Province, Arizona: Part I, General geology and chronology of pre-late Miocene Cenozoic sedimentary rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scarborough, Robert Bryan; Wilt, Jan Carol

    1979-01-01

    This study focuses attention on Cenozoic sedimentary rocks in the Basin and Range Province of Arizona. The known occurrences of uranium and anomalous radioactivity in these rocks are associated with sediments that accumulated in a low energy environment characterized by fine-grained clastics, including important tuffaceous materials, and carbonate rocks. Most uranium occurrences, in these rocks appear to be stratabound. Emphasis was placed on those sedimentary materials that pre-date the late Cenozoic Basin and Range disturbance. They are deformed and crop out on pedimented range blocks and along the province interface with the Transition Zone. Three tentative age groups are recognized: Group I - Oligocene, pre-22 m.y., Group II - early Miocene - 22 m.y. - 16 m.y., and Group III - middle Miocene - 16 m.y. to 13--10 m.y. Regionally, these three groups contain both coarse to fine-grained red clastics and low energy lighter colored 'lacustrine' phases. Each of the three groups has been the object of uranium exploration. Group II, the early Miocene strata, embraces the Anderson Mine - Artillery region host rocks and also the New River - Cave Creek early Miocene beds-along the boundary with the Transition Zone. These three groups of rocks have been tectonically deformed to the extent that original basins of deposition cannot yet be reconstructed. However, they were considerably more extensive in size than the late Cenozoic basins the origin of which deformed the former. Group II rocks are judged to be of prime interest because of: (1) the development and preservation of organic matter in varying lithologies, (2) apparent contemporaneity with silicic volcanic centers, (3) influence of Precambrian crystalline rocks, and (4) relative outcrop continuity near the stable Transition Zone. The Transition Zone, especially along its boundary with the Basin and Range Province, needs additional geologic investigation, especially as regards the depositional continuity of Group II

  1. The distribution of uranium and thorium in granitic rocks of the basin and range province, Western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McNeal, J.M.; Lee, D.E.; Millard, H.T., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Some secondary uranium deposits are thought to have formed from uranium derived by the weathering of silicic igneous rocks such as granites, rhyolites, and tuffs. A regional geochemical survey was made to determine the distribution of uranium and thorium in granitic rocks of the Basin and Range province in order to evaluate the potential for secondary uranium occurrences in the area. The resulting geochemical maps of uranium, thorium, and the Th:U ratio may be useful in locating target areas for uranium exploration. The granites were sampled according to a five-level, nested, analysis-of-variance design, permitting estimates to be made of the variance due to differences between:(1) two-degree cells; (2) one-degree cells; (3) plutons; (4) samples; and (5) analyses. The cells are areas described in units of degrees of latitude and longitude. The results show that individual plutons tend to differ in uranium and thorium concentrations, but that each pluton tends to be relatively homogeneous. Only small amounts of variance occur at the two degree and the between-analyses levels. The three geochemical maps that were prepared are based on one-degree cell means. The reproducibility of the maps is U > Th ??? Th:U. These geochemical maps may be used in three methods of locating target areas for uranium exploration. The first method uses the concept that plutons containing the greatest amounts of uranium may supply the greatest amounts of uranium for the formation of secondary uranium occurrences. The second method is to examine areas with high thorium contents, because thorium and uranium are initially highly correlated but much uranium could be lost by weathering. The third method is to locate areas in which the plutons have particularly high Th:U ratios. Because uranium, but not thorium, is leached by chemical weathering, high Th:U ratios suggest a possible loss of uranium and possibly a greater potential for secondary uranium occurrences to be found in the area. ?? 1981.

  2. EFFECT OF COMPOSITION OF SELECTED GROUNDWATERS FROM THE BASIN AND RANGE PROVINCE ON PLUTONIUM, NEPTUNIUM, AND AMERICIUM SPECIATION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rees, Terry F.; Cleveland, Jess M.; Nash, Kenneth L.

    1984-01-01

    The speciation of plutonium, neptunium, and americium was determined in groundwaters from four sources in the Basin and Range Province: the lower carbonate aquifer, Nevada Test Site (NTS) (Crystal Pool); alluvial fill, Frenchman Flat, NTS (well 5C); Hualapai Valley, Arizona (Red Lake south well); and Tularosa Basin, New Mexico (Rentfrow well). The results were interpreted to indicate that plutonium and, to a lesser extent, neptunium are least soluble in reducing groundwaters containing a large concentration of sulfate ion and a small concentration of strongly complexing anions. The results further emphasize the desirability of including studies such as this among the other site-selection criteria for nuclear waste repositories.

  3. Geology and geochemistry of newly discovered Tertiary carbonatite occurrences near Villa Ahumada area, Basin and Range province, Chihuahua, northern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandigam, Ravi Chenchu

    This study targets some newly discovered carbonatite occurrences located in the eastern Mexican Basin and Range province, a few kilometers to the east of Villa Ahumada, Chihuahua. The region containing these occurrences experienced compression related to subduction of the Farallon plate until about 32 Ma that was followed by Basin and Range extension. Geological mapping (1:5,000 scale), petrography, study of drill hole cuttings and satellite images, and major and trace element chemical analyses were utilized to understand the intrusive style of the carbonatites, their mineralogy and petrogenesis. The carbonatites, named Yuca, Mariana and El Indio, collectively intrude limestones, granitic intrusives and subduction-related tuffs and lavas mainly as a stock, breccias and dikes. The Yuca carbonatite was emplaced as a 900-m diameter stock, 500 x 350 m breccia body, numerous dikes and networks of fracture fillings. Crosscutting field relationships at Yuca suggest at least two stages of carbonatite emplacement. At Mariana, carbonatite was emplaced as a 750 x 350 m breccia. Four out of nine reverse circulation drill holes penetrated and bottomed in the breccia at an average depth of about 300 m At El Indio, carbonatite was emplaced as a 20 m diameter breccia pipe and a 1m thick sill. Major minerals present are calcite, Fe-rich calcite and hematite. Sporadic presence of fluorite is common. At Mariana, two generations of grossular-rich garnets associated with limestones and granite porphyry respectively are recognized. It is inferred that garnets in granite porphyry represent metasomatic alteration due to the emplacement of carbonatite breccia. Parental magmas of Yuca carbonatites have undergone differentiation under low fO2 conditions during which they were progressively enriched in iron. The carbonatite compositional types recognized based on major element data, in the sequence of least to most highly differentiated, are (1) magnesio-, (2) calcio- and (3

  4. Ion microprobe analyses bearing on the composition of the upper mantle beneath the Basin and Range and Colorado Plateau provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roden, Michael F.; Shimizu, Nobumichi

    1993-08-01

    Results are presented of ion microbrobe analyses of light and heavy rare earth elements (LREE and HREE) of clinopyroxene from spinel-bearing peridotite xenolites from the Basin and Range Province (Black Canyon, Lunar Crater localities) and the Colorado Plateau (Buell Park, Green Knobs localities), two of the prominent units (based on elevation, geomorphology, and tectonics) of the continental crust of the American southwest. It is found that the clinopyroxenes from spinel facies peridotites from both provinces are highly variable (by 2-3 orders of magnitude) in LREE and HREE, Sr, Zr, and Ti contents. However, LREE-enriched clinopyroxenes or those with chondritic REE patterns predominate at the Basin and Range localities and LREE-depleted clinopyroxenes predominate at the Colorado Plateau localities. The bulk of the peridotites from the Colorado Plateau are interpreted to be residues from partial melting; the association of these peridotites with LREE-depleted websterites reinforces the link between modern oceanic lithosphere and the upper mantle beneath the Colorado Plateau. On the other hand, the predominance of LREE-enriched peridotites in the Basin and Range localities is consistent with the widespread Cenozoic volcanism of the area and is probably a consequence of that volcanism.

  5. Velocity model calibration as a tool to improve regional wave moment tensors: Application to the Basin and Range Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichinose, G. A.

    2006-12-01

    Many scientific issues for the Basin and Range Province (BRP) remain unsettled including structural evolution, strain rates, slip partitioning and earthquake source physics. A catalog of earthquake source parameters including locations and moment tensors is the basis for tectonic and geophysical study. New instrumentation from the Advance National Seismic System, EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory, Bigfoot and US-Array brings the opportunity for high quality research; therefore, a catalog is an underlying foundation for examining the BRP. We are continuing to generate a moment tensor catalog for the BRP (Mw<3.5) using long-period regional waves spanning back to 1990. Iterative waveform inversion method (e.g., Nolet et al., 1986, Randell, 1994) is used to calibrate the BRP velocity and density structure using two northern and southern BRP earthquakes. The calibrated models generate realistic synthetics for (f<0.5Hz) with ~50-80% variance reduction. We averaged all path specific models to construct a 1-D BRP community background model. The crust is relatively simple between 5-20km (~6.12km/s) and there is a strong velocity gradient in the upper 5- km. There are lower velocities in the upper crust but higher velocities in the mid-crust for the Sierra Nevada paths relative to BRP. There is also a lower crust high-velocity anomaly near Battle Mountain and Elko that is faster by ~5% and may indicate a wider area of under-plating by basaltic magmas. There are significant low velocity zones in the upper and mid crust mainly across the Walker Lane Belt that may indicate the presence of fluids. We are continuing to work on assessing the performance of these newly calibrated models in improving the estimation of moment tensors down to lower magnitudes and mapping out holes in the seismic network which can be filled to improve moment tensor catalog. We also are looking at how these models work at locating earthquakes and comparing synthetics with those computed from models

  6. Classification of hydrogeologic areas and hydrogeologic flow systems in the basin and range physiographic province, southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anning, David W.; Konieczki, Alice D.

    2005-01-01

    The hydrogeology of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province in parts of Arizona, California, New Mexico, Utah, and most of Nevada was classified at basin and larger scales to facilitate information transfer and to provide a synthesis of results from many previous hydrologic investigations. A conceptual model for the spatial hierarchy of the hydrogeology was developed for the Basin and Range Physiographic Province and consists, in order of increasing spatial scale, of hydrogeologic components, hydrogeologic areas, hydrogeologic flow systems, and hydrogeologic regions. This hierarchy formed a framework for hydrogeologic classification. Hydrogeologic areas consist of coincident ground-water and surface-water basins and were delineated on the basis of existing sets of basin boundaries that were used in past investigations by State and Federal government agencies. Within the study area, 344 hydrogeologic areas were identified and delineated. This set of basins not only provides a framework for the classification developed in this report, but also has value for regional and subregional purposes of inventory, study, analysis, and planning throughout the Basin and Range Physiographic Province. The fact that nearly all of the province is delineated by the hydrogeologic areas makes this set well suited to support regional-scale investigations. Hydrogeologic areas are conceptualized as a control volume consisting of three hydrogeologic components: the soils and streams, basin fill, and consolidated rocks. The soils and streams hydrogeologic component consists of all surface-water bodies and soils extending to the bottom of the plant root zone. The basin-fill hydrogeologic component consists of unconsolidated and semiconsolidated sediment deposited in the structural basin. The consolidated-rocks hydrogeologic component consists of the crystalline and sedimentary rocks that form the mountain blocks and basement rock of the structural basin. Hydrogeologic areas were

  7. 125,000 year vs. 10,000 year (Holocene) classification of active'' faults in the Basin and Range province

    SciTech Connect

    Depolo, C.M. . Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology and Geological Sciences Dept.); Slemmons, D.B. . Center for Neotectonic Studies)

    1993-04-01

    In the Basin and Range province (BRP), a Holocene criterion is commonly used to discriminate active'' faults. This time since the last event'' criterion is used to discern hazardous faults for considering setback distances and moderate risks similar to usage in California. Observations from the BRP, however, suggest that a longer time period is more appropriate, especially since most earthquake recurrence intervals are thousands to tens of thousands of years. The authors believe that the latest Pleistocene age criterion, specifically 125,000 years, should be used for active fault classification in the province. The 125,000 year activity criterion is appropriate for the BRP because: (1) it better encompasses typical recurrence intervals for faults in the BRP; (2) it helps account for temporal clustering of earthquake activity along a fault by allowing intercluster time periods to be captured; and (3) it is practical to use because it is linked with a climatic episode, Oxygen Isotope Stage 5, during which several prominent, identifiable geomorphic features and soils began forming (e.g., Sangamonian-aged soils). Another practical aspect of using a 125,000 year activity criterion is that it would allow most hazardous faults to have at least a few events and create discernible geomorphic expression, aiding in their identification and delineation. In Nevada, this latest Quaternary fault classification would include most significant faults that define the contemporary seismotectonic pattern.

  8. Regional Tectonic Control of Tertiary Mineralization and Recent Faulting in the Southern Basin-Range Province, an Application of ERTS-1 Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechtold, I. C.; Liggett, M. A.; Childs, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    Research based on ERTS-1 MSS imagery and field work in the southern Basin-Range Province of California, Nevada and Arizona has shown regional tectonic control of volcanism, plutonism, mineralization and faulting. This paper covers an area centered on the Colorado River between 34 15' N and 36 45' N. During the mid-Tertiary, the area was the site of plutonism and genetically related volcanism fed by fissure systems now exposed as dike swarms. Dikes, elongate plutons, and coeval normal faults trend generally northward and are believed to have resulted from east-west crustal extension. In the extensional province, gold silver mineralization is closely related to Tertiary igneous activity. Similarities in ore, structural setting, and rock types define a metallogenic district of high potential for exploration. The ERTS imagery also provides a basis for regional inventory of small faults which cut alluvium. This capability for efficient regional surveys of Recent faulting should be considered in land use planning, geologic hazards study, civil engineering and hydrology.

  9. Application of standard photogeologic techniques to LANDSAT imagery for mineral exploration in the basin and range province of Utah and Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lattman, L. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Standard photogeologic techniques were applied to LANDSAT imagery of the basin and range province of Utah and Nevada to relate linear, tonal, textural, drainage, and geomorphic features to known mineralized areas in an attempt to develop criteria for the location of mineral deposits. No consistent correlation was found between lineaments, mapped according to specified criteria, and locations of mines, mining districts, or intrusive outcrops. Tonal and textural patterns were more closely related to geologic outcrop patterns than to mineralization. A statistical study of drainage azimuths of various length classes as measured on LANDSAT showed significant correlation with mineralized districts in the length class of 3-6 km. Alignments of outcrops of basalt, a rock type highly visible on LANDSAT imagery, appear to be colinear with acidic and intermediate intrusive centers in some areas and may assist on the recognition of regional fracture systems for mineral exploration.

  10. Macroalgae in a spring stream in Shanxi Province: composition and relation to physical and chemical variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bianfang; Xie, Shulian

    2007-07-01

    Fourteen stream segments were investigated throughout the Xin’an Spring in Shanxi Province, China in 2004. The variation ranges in stream size, current velocity, discharge, dissolved oxygen, and specific conductance were large. Twenty-two macroalgae species were found in the stream. Major divisions in terms of species numbers were Chlorophyta (59.1%), Cyanophyta (22.8%), Xanthophyta (9.1%), Rhodophyta (4.5%) and Charophyta (4.5%). The most widespread species, Cladophora rivularis (50.0%), also Oedogonium sp. (42.9%) and Spirogyra sp. (42.9%) were well represented throughout the stream, whereas another 10 species were found in only one sampling site. Total percentage cover varied from <1% to 90%. Red algae Batrachospermum acuatum and the charophytes Chara vulgaris have the highest percentage cover. Among the parameters analyzed, the stream width, specific conductance and dissolved oxygen were the ones that more closely related to the species number and percentage cover of macroalgal communities. The species number of each site was negatively correlated with dissolved oxygen content. The total percentage cover of the macroalgae was negatively correlated with the stream width and the specific conductance.

  11. Neotectonics of the San Andreas fault system: Basin and range province juncture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.; Crowell, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    Several new details regarding the surficial patterns of neotectonic activity of the Eastern Transverse Ranges and vicinity were discovered. Additionally a number of data display and analysis techniques were developed. These findings will be useful both in the continued development of neotectonic models for southern California and for the future application of remote sensing methodologies elsewhere.

  12. Processing and Correcting Master Images to Analyze and map Metamorphic Core Complexes in the Southern Basin and Range Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, S. O.

    2004-12-01

    Metamorphic core complexes (MCCs) have been of great interest to geologists and geophysicists and our goal is to facilitate integrated studies of these intriguing features. Our specific targets are the exposed Whipple Mountains in Southeastern California and the spectrally similar Mohave Mountains in Western Arizona. These two ranges were selected for study using the MODIS/ASTER airborne sensor also known as MASTER, and NASA/JPL acquired the data for us. These two ranges were chosen because of their close proximity to each other in the imagery. This sensor was chosen because it has a good resolution (15m) and 50 different bands ranging from the visible to thermal infrared. However, because it is flown on a light aircraft its flight line patterns and photogrammetric distortions make it hard to georeference and mosaic with other images from adjacent flight lines. The distortions become misalignments of images during mosaicing. This project involved two efforts: 1) developing a method for correcting and processing MASTER multispectral images; and 2) using those images to analyze and map MCCs in the southern Basin and Range Province. Standard image processing techniques available within the ENVI software package were applied to this imagery to geometrically correct, mosaic, and spectrally process it in order to locate defining characteristics of MCCs that are mappable with the imagery. These techniques include the use of warping, histogram matching, mosaicing, classification, Principal Component Analysis, decorrelation stretching, Minimum Noise Fraction Transformation, Pixel Purity Index, and end member analysis.

  13. Sequential extraction techniques applied to a porphyry copper deposit in the basin and range province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Filipek, L.H.; Theobald, P.K., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Samples of minus-80-mesh (<180 ??m) stream sediment, rock containing exposed fracture coatings, and jarosite and chrysocolla were collected from an area surrounding the North Silver Bell porphyry Cu deposit near Tucson, Arizona. The samples were subjected to a series of extractions in a scheme originally designed for use on samples from humid or sub-humid environments, in which the following fractions can effectively be separated: (1) carbonates and exchangeable metals; (2) Mn oxides; (3) organic compounds and sulfides; (4) hydrous Fe oxides; and (5) residual crystalline minerals. Jarosite and chrysocolla, two major minerals of the North Silver Bell area, were found to dissolve over two or more steps of the extraction scheme. The results represent only a limited number of samples from one copper deposit. Nevertheless, they do suggest that in a semiarid to arid environment, where mechanical dispersion of such minerals predominates, uncritical assignment of unique phases, such as Mn oxides or organics to a given extraction would lead to false interpretations of weathering processes. However, the relative proportions of elements dissolved in each step of the jarosite and chrysocolla extractions could be used as a "fingerprint" for recognition of the presence of these two minerals in the stream-sediment and rock samples. The relative abundance of hydrous Fe oxide and jarosite and the alteration zoning could be mapped using data from jarosite and chrysocolla extractions. Manganese oxides were also found to have a greater influence on Zn than on Cu or Pb during supergene alteration. The rapid change in relative importance of the first (1M-acetic acid) extraction for Cu, Zn, and Pb near the mineralized zone suggested the occurrence of minor hydromorphic processes within the stream sediments. Thus, the acetic acid extraction proved the most effective for pinpointing mineralization in sediments. In contrast, the residual fraction had the longest dispersion train, suggesting

  14. Energy-range relations for hadrons in nuclear matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1985-01-01

    Range-energy relations for hadrons in nuclear matter exist similarly to the range-energy relations for charged particles in materials. When hadrons of GeV kinetic energies collide with atomic nuclei massive enough, events occur in which incident hadron is stopped completely inside the target nucleus without causing particle production - without pion production in particular. The stoppings are always accompanied by intensive emission of nucleons with kinetic energy from about 20 up to about 400 MeV. It was shown experimentally that the mean number of the emitted nucleons is a measure of the mean path in nuclear matter in nucleons on which the incident hadrons are stopped.

  15. A Systematic Regional Trend in Helium Isotopes Across the NorthernBasin and Range Province, Western North America

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, B. Mack; van Soest, Matthijs C.

    2005-03-22

    An extensive study of helium isotopes in fluids collectedfrom surface springs, fumaroles and wells across the northern Basin andRange Province reveals a systematic trend of decreasing 3He/4He ratiosfrom west to east. The western margin of the Basin and Range ischaracterized by mantle-like ratios (6-8 Ra) associated with active orrecently active crustal magma systems (e.g. Coso, Long Valley, Steamboat,and the Cascade volcanic complex). Moving towards the east, the ratiosdecline systematically to a background value of ~;0.1 Ra. The regionaltrend is consistent with extensive mantle melting concentrated along thewestern margin and is coincident with an east-to-west increase in themagnitude of northwest strain. The increase in shear strain enhancescrustal permeability resulting in high vertical fluid flow rates thatpreserve the high helium isotope ratios at the surface. Superimposed onthe regional trend are "helium spikes", local anomalies in the heliumisotope composition. These "spikes" reflect either local zones of mantlemelting or locally enhanced crustal permeability. In the case of theDixie Valley hydrothermal system, it appears to be a combination ofboth.

  16. The magnetic polarity stratigraphy and correlation of the upper Siwalik sediments from the Bhittani Range, North West Frontier Province, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javed Khan, M.; Opdyke, N. D.

    1981-02-01

    Two sections were sampled in the Bhittani Range, the first at Bain Pass consisting of 60 sites through 2200 m of section and the second along the North West Frontier Province Road north of Pezu consisting of 25 sites through 1000 m. Both sections are in rocks known to range in age from the late Pliocene and Pleistocene based on a vertebrate fauna of Pinjor age. After partial thermal demagnetization a series of magnetozones were established, ten at Bain Pass and six at Pezu, which can be correlated to each other and to the standard magnetic time scale. The sediments from the long section at Bain Pass span the time from the middle Gauss to the uppermost Brunhes Chron. The Jaramillo and Olduvai subchrons are present within the Matuyama Chron. A short normal magnetozone is present in the section preceding the Olduvai subchron which corresponds in age to the Réunion subchron. Based on the rate of sedimentation during lower Matuyama time which would be 0.95 m/1000 y for the Bain Pass section, the Réunion subchron would span at least 25 000 y. The section at Pezu Pass begins within the Olduvai and ends between the Jaramillo and the Brunhes/Matuyama boundary. The sedimentation rate determined at this section is 0.77 m/1000 y. The rate of sedimentation in this region was much higher than over comparable time spans previously determined from the eastern Salt Range. The folding of the Bhittani Range must have occurred less than 730 000 years ago, since Brunhes-age sediments have been deformed.

  17. Thermal structure and melting conditions in the mantle beneath the Basin and Range province from seismology and petrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plank, T.; Forsyth, D. W.

    2016-04-01

    To better constrain the temperature structure in the upper mantle, we jointly invert seismic surface wave velocities and basalt thermobarometry. New measurements of the water concentration (1.0-3.5 wt %) and oxygen fugacity (FMQ + 0.5 to + 1.5) of basalts from seven recently active volcanic fields in the Basin and Range province (Cima, Pisgah, Amboy, Big Pine, Black Rock, Snow Canyon, W. Grand Canyon) enable more accurate equilibration pressure (P) and temperature (T) estimates of the mantle melts. We developed a revised thermobarometer that more precisely predicts the results of laboratory experiments on melts equilibrated with olivine and orthopyroxene and accounts for the effects of water and CO2. Applying these methods to basalts from the Basin and Range we find that most equilibrated near the dry solidus in P-T space and at depths in the vicinity of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) inferred from receiver function analysis and Rayleigh surface wave tomography. The wet basalts should have begun melting well below the dry solidus, so the depths of equilibration probably reflect ponding of rising melts beneath the nominally dry lithosphere. A two-parameter thermal model is sufficient to simultaneously satisfy both the seismological and petrological constraints. In the model, the depth to the dry solidus defines the bottom boundary of the conductive lid, while the potential temperature (Tp) controls the asthenosphere and LAB thermal structure. The optimum estimates of Tp range from <1300 to >1500°C, and depths to the LAB range from ˜55 to 75 km, with uncertainties on the order of ±50°C and ±10 km. In contrast to standard tomographic images or basalt thermobarometry, the output of the joint inversion is a geotherm that can be tested quantitatively against other observations.

  18. Universal relations for range corrections to Efimov features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Chen; Braaten, Eric; Phillips, Daniel R.; Platter, Lucas

    2015-09-01

    In a three-body system of identical bosons interacting through a large S -wave scattering length a , there are several sets of features related to the Efimov effect that are characterized by discrete scale invariance. Effective field theory was recently used to derive universal relations between these Efimov features that include the first-order correction due to a nonzero effective range rs. We reveal a simple pattern in these range corrections that had not been previously identified. The pattern is explained by the renormalization group for the effective field theory, which implies that the Efimov three-body parameter runs logarithmically with the momentum scale at a rate proportional to rs/a . The running Efimov parameter also explains the empirical observation that range corrections can be largely taken into account by shifting the Efimov parameter by an adjustable parameter divided by a . The accuracy of universal relations that include first-order range corrections is verified by comparing them with various theoretical calculations using models with nonzero range.

  19. Emergency Skills Resources for Range-Related Driver Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council, Forrest M.; And Others

    The document presents a rationale for expanding the current emergency skills curriculum in North Carolina's 18 multi-vehicle range laboratories for driver education, and includes a review of past and current programs in other locations, a review of past North Carolina accident studies directly related to this area, and a recommended set of…

  20. Geographic Mapping of Crohn's Disease and Its Relation to Affluence in Jiangsu Province, an Eastern Coastal Province of China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Dong; Ren, Jianan; Wang, Gefei; Gu, Guosheng; Liu, Song; Wu, Xiuwen; Chen, Jun; Ren, Huajian; Hong, Zhiwu; Li, Jieshou

    2014-01-01

    Background. Geographical variation in the incidence of Crohn's disease (CD) has been reported in Europe and North American. However, there are no comparable data in mainland China. Methods. We retrospectively identified incident cases of CD patients registered in Jinling hospital during 2003 to 2012. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated for each area of Jiangsu province and a thematic map of CD was made according to the local SIR. The association between incidence and local economic status was revealed by correlation between SIR of CD and different local economic indicators. Results. A total of 653 CD patients (male-to-female ratio, 1.8 : 1) from Jiangsu province were included. A steady increase was observed in the number of CD patients over the period of observation. Disease map of SIR showed a pronounced geographic concentration of CD in the south part of Jiangsu province. Spearman correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between local SIR of CD and local economic indicators. Conclusions. There is a marked geographic variability in CD incidence across Jiangsu province. CD incidence in affluent areas seems to be higher than that in less affluent areas. Further multicenter population-based studies are needed to assess the real disease map of CD. PMID:24839438

  1. The Kimberlites and related rocks of the Kuruman Kimberlite Province, Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, Cara L.; Griffin, William L.; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.; Pearson, Norman J.; Shee, Simon R.

    2011-03-01

    The Kuruman Kimberlite Province is comprised of 16 small pipes and dikes and contains some of the oldest known kimberlites (>1.6 Ga). In this study, 12 intrusions are subdivided into three groups with distinct petrology, age, and geochemical and isotopic compositions: (1) kimberlites with groundmass perovskites defining a Pb-Pb isochron age of 1787 ± 69 Ma, (2) orangeite with a U-Pb perovskite age of 124 ± 16 Ma, and (3) ultramafic lamprophyres (aillikite and mela-aillikite) with a zircon U-Pb age of 1642 ± 46 Ma. The magma type varies across the Province, with kimberlites in the east, lamprophyres in the west and orangeite and ultramafic lamprophyres to the south. Differences in the age and petrogenesis of the X007 orangeite and Clarksdale and Aalwynkop aillikites suggest that these intrusions are probably unrelated to the Kuruman Province. Kimberlite and orangeite whole-rock major and trace element compositions are similar to other South African localities. Compositionally, the aillikites typically lie off kimberlite and orangeite trends. Groundmass mineral chemistry of the kimberlites has some features more typical of orangeites. Kimberlite whole-rock Sr and Nd isotopes show zoning across the Province. When the kimberlites erupted at ~1.8 Ga, they sampled a core volume (ca 50 km across) of relatively depleted SCLM that was partially surrounded by a rim of more metasomatized mantle. This zonation may have been related to the development of the adjacent Kheis Belt (oldest rocks ~2.0 Ga), as weaker zones surrounding the more resistant core section of SCLM were more extensively metasomatized.

  2. Hydrothermal speleogenesis in the Eastern Basin and Range Province - Implications for Petroleum and precious-metal exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.J.; Hulen, J.B. )

    1993-08-01

    Previous investigations based on geometric and textural and analysis have shown that most caverns in the eastern Basin and Range province were excavated not by cool, descending, meteoric waters at or above the water table, but by ascending, moderate-temperature hydrothermal fluids. This conclusion, borne out by fluid-inclusion studies, has important implications for both petroleum and precious-metal exploration in the region. Cavernous porosity has been reported in some of the area's carbonate-hosted oil reservoirs, such as the geothermally active Grant Canyon field in Railroad Valley, as well as in massive carbonates directly beneath some Carlin-type, sediment-hosted gold deposits. Moreover, at virtually all such deposits, hydrothermal carbonate-dissolution (Decalcifcation) is known to be an important porosity-inducing process. Rather than being accidental components of these oil and gold occurrences, the authors contend that such caverns may have formed in the same hydrothermal systems ultimately responsible for petroleum entrapment and precious-metal ultimately responsible for petroleum entrapment and precious-metal mineralization. The fluids that excavated the caverns must have been at least mildly acidic. Carbonic acid is the traditionally cited cavern solvent, but organic and sulfur-based acids thermally generated from regionally prevalent hydrocarbon source rocks, such as the Mississippian Chainman Shale, are equally likely as agents of dissolution. The authors suggest that thermal waters charged with these acids locally may have created or enhanced not only caverns, but migration pathways and depositional sites for gold and oil alike.

  3. Possible ancient giant basin and related water enrichment in the Arabia Terra province, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dohm, J.M.; Barlow, N.G.; Anderson, R.C.; Williams, J.-P.; Miyamoto, H.; Ferris, J.C.; Strom, R.G.; Taylor, G.J.; Fairen, A.G.; Baker, V.R.; Boynton, W.V.; Keller, J.M.; Kerry, K.; Janes, D.; Rodriguez, J.A.P.; Hare, T.M.

    2007-01-01

    A circular albedo feature in the Arabia Terra province was first hypothesized as an ancient impact basin using Viking-era information. To test this unpublished hypothesis, we have analyzed the Viking era-information together with layers of new data derived from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) and Mars Odyssey (MO) missions. Our analysis indicates that Arabia Terra is an ancient geologic province of Mars with many distinct characteristics, including predominantly Noachian materials, a unique part of the highland-lowland boundary, a prominent paleotectonic history, the largest region of fretted terrain on the planet, outflow channels with no obvious origins, extensive exposures of eroded layered sedimentary deposits, and notable structural, albedo, thermal inertia, gravity, magnetic, and elemental signatures. The province also is marked by special impact crater morphologies, which suggest a persistent volatile-rich substrate. No one characteristic provides definitive answers to the dominant event(s) that shaped this unique province. Collectively the characteristics reported here support the following hypothesized sequence of events in Arabia Terra: (1) an enormous basin, possibly of impact origin, formed early in martian history when the magnetic dynamo was active and the lithosphere was relatively thin, (2) sediments and other materials were deposited in the basin during high erosion rates while maintaining isostatic equilibrium, (3) sediments became water enriched during the Noachian Period, and (4) basin materials were uplifted in response to the growth of the Tharsis Bulge, resulting in differential erosion exposing ancient stratigraphic sequences. Parts of the ancient basin remain water-enriched to the present day. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Dynamic Relations between Incidence of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis and Climatic Factors in Golestan Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Shirzadi, Mohammad Reza; Mollalo, Abolfazl; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ZCL), an important public health problem in Iran, is sensitive to climate conditions. This study aimed to examine dynamic relations between the climate factors and incidence of ZCL in Golestan Province, northern Iran during 2010–2012. Methods: Data of monthly climatic factors, including temperature variables, relative humidity variables, evaporation, total rainfall, and number of freezing and rainy days together with monthly ZCL incidence were used. Spear-man rank correlation was carried out to explain associations between the monthly ZCL incidence rate and climate factors at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 months lagged periods. Pearson’s correlation analysis was conducted to examine the type and strength of relationships between the spatially averaged climate factors and ZCL incidence rate in district level. Stepwise multiple regression was used to find the best combination of independent climatic variables, which predict the ZCL incidence. Results: Spearman correlation analysis indicated that the highest correlations between climate factors and monthly ZCL incidence were established when the climate time-series lagged the ZCL incidence series, especially two month prior to disease incidence. Based on the results of the both Spearman rank correlation and Pearson correlation analyses, ZCL incidences in Golestan Province tend to be more prevalent in areas with higher temperature, lower relative humidity, lower total rainfall, higher evaporation and lower number of rainy days. The results of stepwise regression analysis indicated that minimum temperature, mean humidity, and rainfall had considerable effect on ZCL incidence. Conclusion: Climate factors are major determinants of ZCL incidence rate in Golestan Province and such climate conditions provide favourable conditions for propagation and transmission of ZCL in this endemic area. PMID:26623427

  5. Assessment of Undiscovered Natural Gas Resources of the Arkoma Basin Province and Geologically Related Areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houseknecht, David W.; Coleman, James L., Jr.; Milici, Robert C.; Garrity, Christopher P.; Rouse, William A.; Fulk, Bryant R.; Paxton, Stanley T.; Abbott, Marvin M.; Mars, John L.; Cook, Troy A.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 38 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of undiscovered natural gas, 159 million barrels of natural gas liquid (MMBNGL), and no oil in accumulations of 0.5 million barrels (MMBO) or larger in the Arkoma Basin Province and related areas. More than 97 percent of the undiscovered gas occurs in continuous accumulations-70 percent in shale gas formations, 18 percent in a basin-centered accumulation with tight sandstone reservoirs, and 9 percent in coal beds. Less than 3 percent of the natural gas occurs in conventional accumulations.

  6. Seismic hazards astride the boundary between the eastern Snake River Plain and northern Basin and Range Province Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, I.G.; Hemphill-Haley, M.A.; Sawyer, T.L. ); Coppersmith, K.J.; Youngs, R.R. ); Smith, R.P.; Jackson, S.M.; Hackett, W.R. ); Silva, W.J.; Stark, C.M. ); Knuepfer, P.L.K. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Bruhn, R.L.; Wu, D. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1993-04-01

    The occurrence of the damaging 1983 M[sub w] 6.8 Borah Peak, Idaho earthquake, which ruptured a central segment of the Lost River fault, has increased the awareness of seismic hazards in this portion of the Northern Basin and Range Province (NBR). As a result, comprehensive deterministic and probabilistic seismic hazard analyses were performed for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) which is located within the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) but adjacent to the NBR. In this region, the most significant seismic sources are three late-Quaternary NBR normal faults, the Lost River, Lemhi and Beaverhead faults, and ESRP volcanic zones. For each source, the maximum earthquake, source geometry, recurrence and their uncertainties were estimated and incorporated into the probabilistic analysis through the use of logic trees. Recent paleoseismic trenching of the Lost River and Lemhi faults and volcanic mapping in the ESRP provided much of the data necessary to characterize the most significant seismic sources. Issues such as fault segmentation, temporal clustering, the nature of fault termination, and the maximum magnitude and recurrence of volcanic zone earthquakes were evaluated in the hazard analyses. Deterministic and probabilistic ground motions were computed using both empirical and stochastic approaches. In the deterministic analysis, the southern segments of the Lemhi fault controlled the hazard at the INEL due to their proximity and potential to generate M[sub w] [approximately]7 earthquakes. In the estimation of deterministic ground motions, potential rupture scenarios were evaluated for a Lemhi earthquake. In the probabilistic analysis, the hazard is dominated by the ESRP random earthquake, and the Lemhi and Lost River faults. The difference in the results of the two analyses points out the uncertainties in assessing seismic hazards due to random earthquakes and in regions of large but infrequent earthquakes.

  7. Climate-induced range overlap among closely related species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krosby, Meade; Wilsey, Chad B.; McGuire, Jenny L.; Duggan, Jennifer M.; Nogeire, Theresa M.; Heinrichs, Julie A.; Tewksbury, Joshua J.; Lawler, Joshua J.

    2015-09-01

    Contemporary climate change is causing large shifts in biotic distributions, which has the potential to bring previously isolated, closely related species into contact. This has led to concern that hybridization and competition could threaten species persistence. Here, we use bioclimatic models to show that future range overlap by the end of the century is predicted for only 6.4% of isolated, congeneric species pairs of New World birds, mammals and amphibians. Projected rates of climate-induced overlap are higher for birds (11.6%) than for mammals (4.4%) or amphibians (3.6%). As many species will have difficulty tracking shifting climates, actual rates of future overlap are likely to be far lower, suggesting that hybridization and competition impacts may be relatively modest.

  8. Probing General Relativity and New Physics with Lunar Laser Ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dell'Agnello, S.; Maiello, M.; Currie, D. G.; Boni, A.; Berardi, S.; Cantone, C.; Delle Monache, G. O.; Intaglietta, N.; Lops, C.; Garattini, M.; Martini, M.; Patrizi, G.; Porcelli, L.; Tibuzzi, M.; Vittori, R.; Bianco, G.; Coradini, A.; Dionisio, C.; March, R.; Bellettini, G.; Tauraso, R.; Chandler, J.

    2012-11-01

    Over the past 40 years, Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR, developed by the Univ. of Maryland (PI) and INFN-LNF (Co-PI)) to the Apollo Cube Corner Retroreflector (CCR) arrays have supplied almost all the significant tests of General Relativity (Currie et al., 2009 [12]). LLR can evaluate the PPN (Post Newtonian Parameters), addressing this way both the possible changes in the gravitational constant and the self-energy properties of the gravitational field. In addition, the LLR has provided significant information on the composition and origin of the Moon. This is the only Apollo experiment that is still in operation. Initially the Apollo LLR arrays contributed a negligible fraction of the ranging error budget. Over the decades, the ranging capabilities of the ground stations have improved by more than two orders of magnitude. Now, because of the lunar librations, the existing Apollo retroreflector arrays contribute a significant fraction of the limiting errors in the range measurements. We built a new experimental apparatus (the ‘Satellite/Lunar Laser Ranging Characterization Facility', SCF) and created a new test procedure (the SCF-Test) to characterize and model the detailed thermal behavior and the optical performance of cube corner laser retroreflectors in space for industrial and scientific applications (Dell'Agnello et al., 2011 [13]). Our key experimental innovation is the concurrent measurement and modeling of the optical Far Field Diffraction Pattern (FFDP) and the temperature distribution of the SLR retroreflector payload under thermal conditions produced with a close-match solar simulator. The apparatus includes infrared cameras for non-invasive thermometry, thermal control and real-time movement of the payload to experimentally simulate satellite orientation on orbit with respect to both solar illumination and laser interrogation beams. These unique capabilities provide experimental validation of the space segment for SLR and Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR). The

  9. Relations between short-range and long-range Ising models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelini, Maria Chiara; Parisi, Giorgio; Ricci-Tersenghi, Federico

    2014-06-01

    We perform a numerical study of the long-range (LR) ferromagnetic Ising model with power law decaying interactions (J ∝r-d-σ) on both a one-dimensional chain (d =1) and a square lattice (d =2). We use advanced cluster algorithms to avoid the critical slowing down. We first check the validity of the relation connecting the critical behavior of the LR model with parameters (d,σ) to that of a short-range (SR) model in an equivalent dimension D. We then study the critical behavior of the d =2 LR model close to the lower critical σ, uncovering that the spatial correlation function decays with two different power laws: The effect of the subdominant power law is much stronger than finite-size effects and actually makes the estimate of critical exponents very subtle. By including this subdominant power law, the numerical data are consistent with the standard renormalization group (RG) prediction by Sak [Phys. Rev. B 8, 281 (1973), 10.1103/PhysRevB.8.281], thus making not necessary (and unlikely, according to Occam's razor) the recent proposal by Picco [arXiv:1207.1018] of having a new set of RG fixed points in addition to the mean-field one and the SR one.

  10. Relations between short-range and long-range Ising models.

    PubMed

    Angelini, Maria Chiara; Parisi, Giorgio; Ricci-Tersenghi, Federico

    2014-06-01

    We perform a numerical study of the long-range (LR) ferromagnetic Ising model with power law decaying interactions (J∝r{-d-σ}) on both a one-dimensional chain (d=1) and a square lattice (d=2). We use advanced cluster algorithms to avoid the critical slowing down. We first check the validity of the relation connecting the critical behavior of the LR model with parameters (d,σ) to that of a short-range (SR) model in an equivalent dimension D. We then study the critical behavior of the d=2 LR model close to the lower critical σ, uncovering that the spatial correlation function decays with two different power laws: The effect of the subdominant power law is much stronger than finite-size effects and actually makes the estimate of critical exponents very subtle. By including this subdominant power law, the numerical data are consistent with the standard renormalization group (RG) prediction by Sak [Phys. Rev. B 8, 281 (1973)], thus making not necessary (and unlikely, according to Occam's razor) the recent proposal by Picco [arXiv:1207.1018] of having a new set of RG fixed points in addition to the mean-field one and the SR one. PMID:25019738

  11. Cenozoic intra-plate magmatism in the Darfur volcanic province: mantle source, phonolite-trachyte genesis and relation to other volcanic provinces in NE Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucassen, Friedrich; Pudlo, Dieter; Franz, Gerhard; Romer, Rolf L.; Dulski, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Chemical and Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions of Late Cenozoic to Quaternary small-volume phonolite, trachyte and related mafic rocks from the Darfur volcanic province/NW-Sudan have been investigated. Isotope signatures indicate variable but minor crustal contributions. Some phonolitic and trachytic rocks show the same isotopic composition as their primitive mantle-derived parents, and no crustal contributions are visible in the trace element patterns of these samples. The magmatic evolution of the evolved rocks is dominated by crystal fractionation. The Si-undersaturated strongly alkaline phonolite and the Si-saturated mildly alkaline trachyte can be modelled by fractionation of basanite and basalt, respectively. The suite of basanite-basalt-phonolite-trachyte with characteristic isotope signatures from the Darfur volcanic province fits the compositional features of other Cenozoic intra-plate magmatism scattered in North and Central Africa (e.g., Tibesti, Maghreb, Cameroon line), which evolved on a lithosphere that was reworked or formed during the Neoproterozoic.

  12. Latest Pleistocene and Holocene tectonic deformation along the northwestern margin of the Basin and Range province, southeastern and south-central Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Hemphill-Haley, M.A. ); Simpson, G.A. ); Lindberg, D.N. ); Craven, G.F.; Carver, G.A.

    1993-04-01

    The northwestern margin of the Basin and Range seismotectonic province in southeastern and south-central Oregon has been characterized by historic low levels of widely dispersed seismicity, a pattern similar to the majority of the Basin and Range. Geologic mapping and limited paleoseismic investigations at locations throughout the region provide evidence for late Pleistocene and Holocene surface rupture events along several faults of two principal orientations, [approximately]N10--20[degree]E, and [approximately]N30[degree]W. Although the historical seismicity is similar to most other portions of the Basin and Range province, the pattern of late Pleistocene and Holocene faulting at the margin of the province suggests continued northward expansion of crustal extension into central Oregon. Estimated earthquake magnitudes for faults in the region, based on rupture segment length and estimated displacement are [approximately]M7. Based on Holocene recurrence estimates derived from paleoseismic sites along the Alvord segment of the Steens Mountain-Pueblo Mountain fault zone and evidence for latest Quaternary earthquakes on other faults in the region, the level of seismic hazard for the northwestern Basin and Range may be higher than was previously thought.

  13. Hantaan Virus Surveillance Targeting Small Mammals at Nightmare Range, a High Elevation Military Training Area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Terry A.; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Won-Keun; Nunn, Peter V.; Song, Jin-Won

    2015-01-01

    Rodent-borne disease surveillance was conducted at Nightmare Range (NM-R), near the demilitarized zone in northeast Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, to identify hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) risks for a mountainous high-elevation (500 m) military training site. Monthly surveys were conducted from January 2008-December 2009. A total of 1,720 small mammals were captured belonging to the Orders Rodentia [Families, Sciuridae (1 species) and Muridae (7 species)] and Soricomorpha [Family, Soricidae (1species)]. Apodemus agrarius, the primary reservoir for Hantaan virus (HTNV), accounted for 89.9% (1,546) of all small mammals captured, followed by Myodes regulus (4.0%), Crocidura lasiura (3.9%), Micromys minutus (1.4%), Mus musculus (0.3%), Microtus fortis (0.2%), Apodemus peninsulae (0.2%), Tamias sibiricus (0.1%), and Rattus norvegicus (<0.1%). Three species were antibody-positive (Ab+) for hantaviruses: A. agrarius (8.2%), M. minutus (4.2%), and C. lasiura (1.5%). HTNV specific RNA was detected in 93/127 Ab+ A. agrarius, while Imjin virus specific RNA was detected in 1/1 Ab+ C. lasiura. Overall, hantavirus Ab+ rates for A. agrarius increased with weight (age) and were significantly higher among males (10.9%) than females (5.1%) (P<0.0001). High A. agrarius gravid rates during the fall (August-September) were associated with peak numbers of HFRS cases in Korea that followed high gravid rates. From 79 RT-PCR positive A. agrarius, 12 HTNV RNA samples were sequenced and compared phylogenetically based on a 320 nt sequence from the GC glycoprotein-encoding M segment. These results demonstrate that the HTNV isolates from NM-R are distinctly separated from HTNV isolated from the People’s Republic of China. These studies provide for improved disease risk assessments that identify military activities, rodent HTNV rates, and other factors associated with the transmission of hantaviruses during field training exercises. PMID:25874643

  14. Evidence from carbonate clumped isotope (Δ47) thermometry for the Late Cretaceous `Nevadaplano' in the northern Basin and Range Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snell, K. E.; Koch, P. L.; Eiler, J.

    2010-12-01

    From the middle Mesozoic to the present, the topography of the Basin and Range province (BRP) of the western Cordillera of North America has evolved in response to diverse tectonic forces, though the details are unclear for most of this period over most of this area. Much of the research on this region has focused on the Cenozoic record of paleoelevation during extension in the BRP. Some geodynamic models of this episode require high elevation prior to extension, but few studies have quantified the elevation of the pre-existing topography that developed during the Mesozoic in response to sustained convergence along the western coast of North America. Some workers have argued that the region was a high elevation plateau, the ‘Nevadaplano,’ analogous to the South American Altiplano. We tested this hypothesis using carbonate clumped isotope (Δ47) temperature estimates from Late Cretaceous lacustrine and paleosol carbonates. These samples come from the Sheep Pass Formation in east-central Nevada (presumed from geologic indications to be atop the plateau), and the North Horn Formation in central Utah on the eastern edge of the Sevier fold and thrust belt (presumably lower elevation). The textural characteristics, stable isotope compositions and carbonate clumped isotope temperature estimates from secondary carbonates in these units suggest that, despite moderate burial, primary carbonate samples have undergone little diagenetic alteration. Average temperatures from these two sites (23°C for the NV suite and 38°C for the UT suite) suggest that during the late Cretaceous (~66.5 Ma for the NV suite and 72 Ma for the UT suite), the NV site was ~15°C cooler than the UT site. This thermal gradient implies an elevation difference between the two sites of ~2.5 km, given certain assumptions: 1) there was little global or regional climate change during the ~5 million years between formation of these samples, 2) precipitation of both the lacustrine and paleosol carbonates

  15. New insights into the petrogenesis of the Jameson Range layered intrusion and associated Fe-Ti-P-V-PGE-Au mineralisation, West Musgrave Province, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karykowski, Bartosz T.; Polito, Paul A.; Maier, Wolfgang D.; Gutzmer, Jens; Krause, Joachim

    2016-05-01

    The Mesoproterozoic Jameson Range intrusion forms part of the Giles Complex, Musgrave Province, Western Australia. It is predominantly mafic in composition comprising olivine-bearing gabbroic lithologies with variable amounts of magnetite and ilmenite. Lithologies containing more than 50 vol% magnetite and ilmenite are classified as magnetitites. The Jameson Range hosts several of these magnetitites forming laterally extensive layers, which can be traced for at least 19 km as continuous magnetic anomalies. Similar occurrences of magnetitites are known from the upper parts of other layered intrusions, such as the Bushveld Complex. In addition, the intrusion hosts several P-rich zones, one of which is at least 59 m in thickness containing 1.0 wt% P2O5. The P-rich zones are not directly associated with the magnetitites, but they mostly occur slightly above them. The mineral chemistry of the Jameson Range cumulates is relatively evolved with olivine compositions ranging from Fo44 to Fo60 and plagioclase compositions varying between An56 and An59. The Mg# (100 × Mg / (Mg + Fe)) of ortho- and clinopyroxene ranges from 60 to 61 and from 70 to 75, respectively. Magnetite compositions are characterised by low TiO2 concentrations varying from 0.39 to 3.04 wt% representing near end-member magnetite with up to 1.2 wt% Cr and 1.3 wt% V, respectively. The basal magnetite layer reaches up to 68.8 wt% Fe2O3(t) and 24.2 wt% TiO2, and it is also markedly enriched in Cu (up to 0.3 wt% Cu), V (up to 1.05 wt% V2O5) and platinum-group elements (PGE) (up to 2 ppm Pt + Pd). Sulphide minerals comprising bornite, chalcopyrite and minor pentlandite occur finely disseminated in the magnetitite and account for the elevated base metal and PGE concentrations. Modelling indicates that the PGE mineralisation was formed at very high R factors of up to 100,000, which is typical for PGE reefs in layered intrusions. Whole rock geochemical and mineralogical data of the magnetite layers and their host

  16. Scrub typhus caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi Kawasaki-related genotypes in Shandong Province, northern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Luyan; Bi, Zhenwang; Kou, Zengqiang; Yang, Huili; Zhang, Aihua; Zhang, Shoufeng; Meng, Xiangpeng; Zheng, Li; Zhang, Meng; Yang, Hui; Zhao, Zhongtang

    2015-03-01

    Orientia tsutsugamushi, the causative agent of scrub typhus, is an obligate intracellular bacterium and characterized by dramatic genetic diversity. To elucidate the genotypes of O. tsutsugamushi populating in patients in Shandong Province, a new epidemic zone in China, we sequenced partial of the 56-kDa type-specific antigen gene (TSA) and identified the genotypes of 43 O. tsutsugamushi samples from human patients confirmed with scrub typhus from 2010 to 2013. All of the 43 sequences are in the same clade, 39 of them are in one branch and the other four sequences, nominated as SH1002, SH1306, SH1309, and SH1307 are in four separate branches. To clarify the clinical characterizations caused by Kawasaki-related genotypes, we studied the clinical profiles of these 43 scrub typhus patients. Most patients (88.1%) were farmers lived in rural areas. They presented with fever (100.0%), headache (79.1%), dizziness (32.6%), generalized myalgia (48.8%), fatigue (53.5%), anorexia (53.5%), facial flushing (23.3%), conjunctival congestion (11.6%), skin rashes (58.1%) and lymphadenopathy (23.3%). Eschar (97.7%) was quite common in patients, which provided doctors with a luminous clue for diagnosis of scrub typhus. Thrombocytopenia was seen in 23.1% of patients, and three patients (7.0%) had bronchopneumonia. There was no death report in Shandong Province during the study period. The present study provides beneficial data for clinical, serological, and molecular diagnosis of scrub typhus infections, and also provides foundations for subsequent studies. PMID:25575441

  17. A province-scale block model of Walker Lane and western Basin and Range crustal deformation constrained by GPS observations (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, W. C.; Bormann, J.; Blewitt, G.; Kreemer, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Walker Lane in the western Great Basin of the western United States is an 800 km long and 100 km wide zone of active intracontinental transtension that absorbs ~10 mm/yr, about 20% of the Pacific/North America plate boundary relative motion. Lying west of the Sierra Nevada/Great Valley microplate (SNGV) and adjoining the Basin and Range Province to the east, deformation is predominantly shear strain overprinted with a minor component of extension. The Walker Lane responds with faulting, block rotations, structural step-overs, and has distinct and varying partitioned domains of shear and extension. Resolving these complex deformation patterns requires a long term observation strategy with a dense network of GPS stations (spacing ~20 km). The University of Nevada, Reno operates the 373 station Mobile Array of GPS for Nevada transtension (MAGNET) semi-continuous network that supplements coverage by other networks such as EarthScope's Plate Boundary Observatory, which alone has insufficient density to resolve the deformation patterns. Uniform processing of data from these GPS mega-networks provides a synoptic view and new insights into the kinematics and mechanics of Walker Lane tectonics. We present velocities for thousands of stations with time series between 3 to 17 years in duration aligned to our new GPS-based North America fixed reference frame NA12. The velocity field shows a rate budget across the southern Walker Lane of ~10 mm/yr, decreasing northward to ~7 mm/yr at the latitude of the Mohawk Valley and Pyramid Lake. We model the data with a new block model that estimates rotations and slip rates of known active faults between the Mojave Desert and northern Nevada and northeast California. The density of active faults in the region requires including a relatively large number of blocks in the model to accurately estimate deformation patterns. With 49 blocks, our the model captures structural detail not represented in previous province-scale models, and

  18. Fire-related debris flows in the Iberian Range, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Ruiz, José M.; Arnáez, José; Gómez-Villar, Amelia; Ortigosa, Luis; Lana-Renault, Noemí

    2013-08-01

    Debris flows occurred three weeks after a wildfire in August 1986 in the Najerilla River valley in the Iberian Range, northern Spain. The flows were triggered by a brief, intense rainstorm (approximately 25 mm h- 1 over 15 min) in a small area with steep slopes covered by a thick colluvium of quartzite clasts. This storm resulted in the development of several unconfined hillslope debris flows and the formation of an alluvial fan at the mouth of the Pítare stream, which partially blocked the Najerilla River. We analysed the conditions that led to the development of the debris flows, and estimated the rainfall threshold for the debris flows to occur as well as the total volume of mobilised sediment. Four factors contributed to the debris flows: (i) the occurrence of a rainstorm three weeks after a wildfire, which had removed the plant cover from the soil; (ii) the steep slopes in the area (> 30°), which were the most affected by debris flows; (iii) the presence of quartzite scarps on the hillslopes, which favoured the development of a 'firehose effect' involving channelised surface runoff; and (iv) the low plasticity index values of the fine material of the colluvium (indices of 7 to 8), which enabled rapid liquefaction. Estimates of rainfall intensity derived from the estimated peak flow in the Pítare stream suggests that around 80 mm of rainfall fell in approximately 15 min, although this is clearly an overestimated value given the high proportion of sediment load transported during the peak flow. Various equations estimated a rainfall-threshold of approximately 25 mm h- 1 considering a concentration time of 15 min. The total sediment transported by the debris flows was 10,500 m3 (15,750 Mg, 6800 Mg km- 2), and the Pítare stream alone transported a minimum of 4000 m3 (6000 Mg, 2500 Mg km- 2). These results suggest that the rainfall threshold for initiating debris flows decreases following a wildfire, such that an ordinary rainstorm is able to trigger a severe

  19. Paleogeography of western Transverse Range province, California: new evidence from upper Oligocene-lower Miocene Vaqueros Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Rigsby, C.A.

    1989-03-01

    Vaqueros Formation outcrops in the westernmost Transverse Ranges and Vaqueros reservoir strata in the adjacent Santa Barbara Channel reveal previously undescribed dual sediment sources and a complex late Oligocene-early Miocene shoreline geometry. This paleogeography strongly affected the distribution of Vaqueros reservoirs. Shelf deposits in the central Santa Ynez Range separate a gently sloping, west- and southwest-facing mainland shoreline to the east (eastern Santa Ynez Range and Santa Monica Mountains) from a steep, east- and south-facing shoreline to the west (westernmost Santa Ynez Range). The western and central regions are dominated by lithic-rich arenites and by Franciscan-clast conglomerates (lithofacies 1) derived locally from an emergent portion of the early Tertiary trench-slope break. The eastern region is dominated by lithic-poor quartzofeldspathic sandstones (lithofacies 2) derived from older sandstones on the mainland to the east. The two lithofacies interfinger in the central region, and lithofacies 2 overlies lithofacies 1 in the west. Sediment was shed onto the Vaquerous shelf from both the mainland to the east and the partially emergent trench-slope break to the west. Subsequently, transgression proceeded across the region, drowning the westernmost shoreline, filling incised valleys, and producing backstepping inner-shelf and shoreline sequences to the east. These strata record deposition in an obliquely convergent forearc basin prior to and during a relative rise in sea level. They suggest that the Pacific-North American plate boundary maintained a forearc basin geometry throughout the Oligocene and that Vaqueros Formation reservoirs are actually several discreet, chronostratigraphic units.

  20. The amphibians and reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VIII: the herpetofauna of Cagayan and Isabela Provinces, northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rafe M; Siler, Cameron D; Oliveros, Carl H; Welton, Luke J; Rock, Ashley; Swab, John; Weerd, Merlijn Van; van Beijnen, Jonah; Jose, Edgar; Rodriguez, Dominic; Jose, Edmund; Diesmos, Arvin C

    2013-01-01

    We provide the first report on the herpetological biodiversity (amphibians and reptiles) of the northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range (Cagayan and Isabela provinces), northeast Luzon Island, Philippines. New data from extensive previously unpublished surveys in the Municipalities of Gonzaga, Gattaran, Lasam, Santa Ana, and Baggao (Cagayan Province), as well as fieldwork in the Municipalities of Cabagan, San Mariano, and Palanan (Isabela Province), combined with all available historical museum records, suggest this region is quite diverse. Our new data indicate that at least 101 species are present (29 amphibians, 30 lizards, 35 snakes, two freshwater turtles, three marine turtles, and two crocodilians) and now represented with well-documented records and/or voucher specimens, confirmed in institutional biodiversity repositories. A high percentage of Philippine endemic species constitute the local fauna (approximately 70%). The results of this and other recent studies signify that the herpetological diversity of the northern Philippines is far more diverse than previously imagined. Thirty-eight percent of our recorded species are associated with unresolved taxonomic issues (suspected new species or species complexes in need of taxonomic partitioning). This suggests that despite past and present efforts to comprehensively characterize the fauna, the herpetological biodiversity of the northern Philippines is still substantially underestimated and warranting of further study. PMID:23653519

  1. The amphibians and reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VIII: the herpetofauna of Cagayan and Isabela Provinces, northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Rafe M.; Siler, Cameron D.; Oliveros, Carl. H; Welton, Luke J.; Rock, Ashley; Swab, John; Weerd, Merlijn Van; van Beijnen, Jonah; Jose, Edgar; Rodriguez, Dominic; Jose, Edmund; Diesmos, Arvin C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We provide the first report on the herpetological biodiversity (amphibians and reptiles) of the northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range (Cagayan and Isabela provinces), northeast Luzon Island, Philippines. New data from extensive previously unpublished surveys in the Municipalities of Gonzaga, Gattaran, Lasam, Santa Ana, and Baggao (Cagayan Province), as well as fieldwork in the Municipalities of Cabagan, San Mariano, and Palanan (Isabela Province), combined with all available historical museum records, suggest this region is quite diverse. Our new data indicate that at least 101 species are present (29 amphibians, 30 lizards, 35 snakes, two freshwater turtles, three marine turtles, and two crocodilians) and now represented with well-documented records and/or voucher specimens, confirmed in institutional biodiversity repositories. A high percentage of Philippine endemic species constitute the local fauna (approximately 70%). The results of this and other recent studies signify that the herpetological diversity of the northern Philippines is far more diverse than previously imagined. Thirty-eight percent of our recorded species are associated with unresolved taxonomic issues (suspected new species or species complexes in need of taxonomic partitioning). This suggests that despite past and present efforts to comprehensively characterize the fauna, the herpetological biodiversity of the northern Philippines is still substantially underestimated and warranting of further study. PMID:23653519

  2. Factors Related to the Motivation of Extension Agents in Kenya's Rift Valley Province. Summary of Research 76.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwangi, John G.; McCaslin, N. L.

    Job satisfaction factors related to motivation of a random sample of 325 agents in Kenya's extension service in the Rift Valley Province were identified. Data were collected using a group-administered, closed-ended, forced-choice questionnaire with 105 job satisfaction, 10 motivational, and 10 personal characteristics items between January and…

  3. A study of tectonic activity in the Basin-Range Province and on the San Andreas Fault. No. 1: Kinematics of Basin-Range intraplate extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eddington, P. K.; Smith, R. B.; Renggli, C.

    1986-01-01

    Strain rates assessed from brittle fracture and total brittle-ductile deformation measured from geodetic data were compared to estimates of paleo-strain from Quaternary geology for the intraplate Great Basin part of the Basin-Range, western United States. These data provide an assessment of the kinematics and mode of lithospheric extension that the western U.S. Cordillera has experienced from the past few million years to the present. Strain and deformation rates were determined by the seismic moment tensor method using historic seismicity and fault plane solutions for sub-regions of homogeneous strain. Contemporary deformation in the Great Basin occurs principally along the active seismic zones. The integrated opening rate across the entire Great Basin is accommodated by E-E extension at 8 to 10 mm/a in the north that diminishes to NW-SE extension of 3.5 mm/a in the south. Zones of maximum lithospheric extension correspond to belts of thin crust, high heat flow, and Quaternary basaltic volcanism, suggesting that these parameters are related through mechanism of extension such as a stress relaxation, allowing bouyant uplift and ascension of magmas.

  4. More than one way to stretch: A tectonic model for extension along the plume track of the Yellowstone hotspot and adjacent Basin and Range Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, T.; Thompson, G.A.; Smith, R.P.

    1998-01-01

    The eastern Snake River Plain of southern Idaho poses a paradoxical problem because it is nearly aseismic and unfaulted although it appears to be actively extending in a SW-NE direction continuously with the adjacent block-faulted Basin and Range Province. The plain represents the 100-km-wide track of the Yellowstone hotspot during the last ???16-17 m.y., and its crust has been heavily intruded by mafic magma, some of which has erupted to the surface as extensive basalt flows. Outside the plain's distinct topographic boundaries is a transition zone 30-100 km wide that has variable expression of normal faulting and magmatic activity as compared with the surrounding Basin and Range Province. Many models for the evolution of the Snake River Plain have as an integral component the suggestion that the crust of the plain became strong enough through basaltic intrusion to resist extensional deformation. However, both the boundaries of the plain and its transition zone lack any evidence of zones of strike slip or other accommodation that would allow the plain to remain intact while the Basin and Range Province extended around it; instead, the plain is coupled to its surroundings and extending with them. We estimate strain rates for the northern Basin and Range Province from various lines of evidence and show that these strains would far exceed the elastic limit of any rocks coupled to the Basin and Range; thus, if the plain is extending along with its surroundings, as the geologic evidence indicates, it must be doing so by a nearly aseismic process. Evidence of the process is provided by volcanic rift zones, indicators of subsurface dikes, which trend across the plain perpendicular to its axis. We suggest that variable magmatic strain accommodation, by emplacement and inflation of dikes perpendicular to the least principal stress in the elastic crust, allows the crust of the plain to extend nearly aseismically. Dike injection releases accumulated elastic strain but

  5. Coyote visits at scent stations in relation to home range

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, C.E.; Knowlton, F.F.

    1986-01-01

    Response of free-franging coyotes (Canis latrans) to scent stations was studied in southeastern Idaho and southern Texas to examine relationships between the scent-station survey technique and coyote home range. Coyotes with radio transmitters were intensively monitored to determine movement and spatial use patterns for comparison with coyote visitations to artificial scent stations. Coyotes more frequently visited scent stations on the periphery or outside their home ranges than within them, probably because resident coyotes avoided scent stations (novel stimuli) in the very familiar core areas of their home ranges and were more likely to investigate them when encountered on the periphery or outside of them. Hence, scent stations may receive more visits from transient or dispersing individuals than from residents. 55 refs., 4 tabs.

  6. Identifying Flood-Related Infectious Diseases in Anhui Province, China: A Spatial and Temporal Analysis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lu; Zhang, Ying; Ding, Guoyong; Liu, Qiyong; Jiang, Baofa

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore infectious diseases related to the 2007 Huai River flood in Anhui Province, China. The study was based on the notified incidences of infectious diseases between June 29 and July 25 from 2004 to 2011. Daily incidences of notified diseases in 2007 were compared with the corresponding daily incidences during the same period in the other years (from 2004 to 2011, except 2007) by Poisson regression analysis. Spatial autocorrelation analysis was used to test the distribution pattern of the diseases. Spatial regression models were then performed to examine the association between the incidence of each disease and flood, considering lag effects and other confounders. After controlling the other meteorological and socioeconomic factors, malaria (odds ratio [OR] = 3.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.77-7.61), diarrhea (OR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.24-3.78), and hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection (OR = 6.11, 95% CI = 1.04-35.84) were significantly related to the 2007 Huai River flood both from the spatial and temporal analyses. Special attention should be given to develop public health preparation and interventions with a focus on malaria, diarrhea, and HAV infection, in the study region. PMID:26903612

  7. Flavonoid intake and the risk of age-related cataract in China's Heilongjiang Province

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yingna; Gao, Weiqi; Wu, Kun; Bao, Yongping

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives Epidemiological evidence suggests that diets rich in flavonoids may reduce the risk of developing age-related cataract (ARC). Flavonoids are widely distributed in foods of plant origin, and the objective of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the association between the intakes of the five flavonoid subclasses and the risk of ARC. Subjects/methods A population-based case-control study (249 cases and 66 controls) was carried out in Heilongjiang province, which is located in the northeast of China, and where intakes and availability of fresh vegetables and fruits can be limited. Dietary data gathered by food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) were used to calculate flavonoid intake. Adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated by logistic regression. Results No linear associations between risk of developing ARC and intakes of total dietary flavonoids, anthocyanidins, flavon-3-ol, flavanone, total flavones or total flavonols were found, but quercetin and isorhamnetin intake was inversely associated with ARC risk (OR 11.78, 95% CI: 1.62–85.84, p<0.05, and OR 6.99, 95% CI: 1.12–43.44, p<0.05, quartile 4 vs. quartile 1, respectively). Conclusion As quercetin is contained in many plant foods and isorhamnetin in very few foods, we concluded that higher quercetin intake may be an important dietary factor in the reduction of the risk of ARC. PMID:26652740

  8. Prevalence of Obesity and Related Factors among Bouyei and Han Peoples in Guizhou Province, Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ke; Wang, Dingming; Pan, Li; Yu, Yangwen; Dong, Fen; Li, Ling; Wang, Li; Liu, Tao; Zeng, Xianjia; Sun, Liangxian; Zhu, Guangjin; Feng, Kui; Jonasson, Junmei Miao; Wu, Zhenglai; Xu, Ke; Pang, Xinglong; Chen, Ting; Pan, Hui; Ma, Jin; Zhong, Yong; Ping, Bo; Shan, Guangliang

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity and associated factors in Bouyei and Han peoples. Design A cross-sectional study was carried out in Guizhou province, southwest China in 2012, with multi-stage sampling to enroll 4551 participants aged 20 to 80 years. General and abdominal obesity were defined by World Health Organization (WHO) for Chinese. A design-based analysis was performed to evaluate prevalence of obesity and its related factors. Results Bouyei people had a significantly lower prevalence of general obesity (4.8% vs. 10.9%, p < 0.05) and abdominal obesity (13.6% vs. 26.8%, p < 0.05) than that in Han people. Prevalence of obesity increased with age until middle-age period and declined thereafter. Men aged 40–49 years group and women aged 50–59 years group have the highest prevalence of general obesity. Prevalence of abdominal obesity was higher than that of general obesity. Middle-age, Higher income, Han people were significantly associated with an increased risk of General/abdominal obesity. Conclusions Bouyei people had a lower prevalence of general and abdominal obesity than the Han people. Etiological studies should be conducted to determine underlying genetic factors and dietary factors. PMID:26075708

  9. 40Ar/ 39Ar dating of the Jurassic volcanic province of Patagonia: migrating magmatism related to Gondwana break-up and subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Féraud, G.; Alric, V.; Fornari, M.; Bertrand, H.; Haller, M.

    1999-10-01

    The Mesozoic large igneous province (LIP) of Patagonia (southern South America), which is one of the largest silicic provinces on Earth has been investigated by the 40Ar/ 39Ar method. Twenty-seven ages considered as valid, including twenty plateau ages, show that the volcanic activity, ranging from 187 to 144 Ma, occurred between and contemporaneously with the initial break-up of Gondwana (starting with the Karoo-Antarctic-Tasmanian (KAT) flood basalt province) in the east, and a subduction in the west. The data display a regular decreasing of ages from the ENE (187 Ma) to the WSW (144 Ma) along about 650 km, apparently related to the tectonic structure in half-grabens oriented NNW-SSE. The good fitting of this trend with the opening of the Rocas Verdes-Sarmiento marginal basin favors a space time evolution of this continental volcanism culminating towards the SSW in a continental disruption behind the magmatic arc. The observed age progression of volcanism may be the result of the variations of the physical characteristics of the subduction. The spreading and thermal effect of the KAT plume may have an additional effect and also could account for the unusually large volume of magma.

  10. Relation of arsenic exposure to lung cancer among tin miners in Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, P R; Qiao, Y L; Schatzkin, A; Yao, S X; Lubin, J; Mao, B L; Rao, J Y; McAdams, M; Xuan, X Z; Li, J Y

    1989-01-01

    The relation of mining and smelting exposure to arsenic and lung cancer was studied among tin miners in Yunnan Province in the People's Republic of China. Interviews were conducted in 1985 with 107 living tin miners who had lung cancer and an equal number of age matched controls from among tin miners without lung cancer to obtain information on risk factors for lung cancer including detailed history of employment and tobacco use. Occupational history was combined with industrial hygiene data to estimate cumulative arsenic exposure. Similar methods were also used to estimate radon exposure for simultaneous evaluation in this analysis. The results indicate that subjects in the highest quarter of cumulative arsenic exposure have a relative risk of 22.6 compared with subjects without exposure after adjusting for tobacco and radon exposure, and a positive dose response relation was observed. Simultaneous evaluation of arsenic and tobacco exposure indicates a greater risk for arsenic, whereas simultaneous assessment of arsenic and radon exposure suggests radon to be the greater risk. There is no evidence of synergism between arsenic and tobacco exposure. Among arsenic exposed individuals, cases of lung cancer have longer duration but lower average intensity of arsenic exposure than controls, indicating that duration of exposure to arsenic may be more important than intensity in the aetiology of lung cancer. Finally, risk of lung cancer among workers exposed to arsenic only in mining is only slightly less than for miners whose exposure to arsenic was limited to smelting, although risks are highest when workers were exposed to both mining and smelting. PMID:2611163

  11. Potential capabilities of lunar laser ranging for geodesy and relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, Jurgen; Williams, James G.; Turshev, Slava G.; Shelus, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    Here, we review the LLR technique focusing on its impact on Geodesy and Relativity. We discuss the modem observational accuracy and the level of existing LLR modeling. We present the near-term objectives and emphasize improvements needed to fully utilize the scientific potential of LLR.

  12. Environmental impacts of Tl related to mined Dajiangping pyrite deposit in west Guangdong Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Wang, J.; Chen, Y. H.; Qi, J. Y.; Wang, C. L.

    2009-04-01

    This study focuses on the accumulation of Tl in Dajiangping pyrite deposit area in west Guangdong province, China, as a case study for environmental impacts of Tl due to natural processes and human activities. The pyrite deposit is one of the largest in Asia and has been mined on large scale since 1970s. Results show that Tl and other trace elements in local ecosystems, such as rocks/ores, soils, surface and ground waters, water sediments, plants and crops in Dajiangping near the pyrite ore deposit are enriched, characterized by high concentrations. The range of Tl concentrations is from 13.7 to 43.0 mg/kg in chunk concentrated ore, from 31.0 to 56.4 mg/kg in powdery concentrated ore and 49.7 to 51.6 mg/kg in pyrite tailing. Tl concentrations range from 15.0 to 21.0 mg/kg in soils of mineralized area, from 7.4 to 30.5 mg/kg in alluvial deposits and from 1.2 to 2.0 mg/kg in undisturbed background soil. Elevated concentrations of Tl have been observed in surface water from upstream( 2.2 µg/L) to downstream(102.6 µg/L) sections. Tl concentrations are comparatively high in the groundwater in mineralized area ( 7.8 µg/L). Tl concentrations in the edible parts of plants and crops range from 0.02 to 22.03 mg/kg (dry weight). Tl uptake shows characteristics of species-dependent, more in vegetables (around 90 mg/kg) than crops (0.3-8.1 mg/kg). For each individual plant, Tl concentrated more in roots than leaves and stems. The enrichment of Tl in the local ecosystem might come from the weathering, leaching and dissolving of Tl pyrite minerals. All this work adds new knowledge to understand Tl behaviour in mined Tl-pyrite deposits, and also benefits to the study on local environmental protection and mineral resources exploitation in the future.

  13. Applying and comparing empirical and full Bayesian models in study of evaluating relative risk of suicide among counties of Ilam province

    PubMed Central

    Mahaki, Behzad; Mehrabi, Yadollah; Kavousi, Amir; Mohammadian, Youkhabeh; Kargar, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Disease mapping includes a set of statistical techniques that provides maps based on estimates of diseases rates. Bayesian ones are the most important models in this field. They consider prior information on changes in the disease rates in overall map and spatial pattern of the disease. These include a broad range of models with their own formulation, characteristics, strengths, and weaknesses. In the present study, we explain and compare three important and widely-used Bayesian models in the study of evaluating relative risk of suicide in Ilam province. Materials and Methods: In this applied-ecological research, suicide incidence in Ilam province in 2008 and 2009 was analyzed by use of Gamma-Poisson, Log-normal, and BYM Bayesian models. Models were fitted to data using WinBUGS software. Results: Fitting the three models showed that Darehshahr and Shirvan-Chrdavol had the highest and the lowest relative risk of suicide, respectively (relative risks based on Gamma-Poisson, Log-normal, and BYM models were 2.243, 2.275, and 2.279 for Dareshahr and 0.321, 0.321, and 0.319 for Shirvan-Chrdavol, respectively). Conclusion: Despite some differences in estimates, the ranks of relative risks in counties in all three models are the same. The counties based on the relative risks of suicide from the most to the least are: Darehshahr, Ilam, Dehloran, Eyvan, Abdanan, Mehran, Malekshahi, and Shirvan-Chrdavol. PMID:26430677

  14. Constraints from GPS on Block Kinematics of the Transition between the Southern Walker Lane and the Basin and Range Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, S.; Hammond, W. C.; Kreemer, C.; Blewitt, G.

    2008-12-01

    The southern Walker Lane (SWL) is a part of the Eastern California Shear Zone that lies north of the Mojave region, bounded by the Garlock Fault to the south, the Sierra Nevada to the west, the Basin and Range to the east and by Mono Lake to the north. The region includes many northwest striking right-lateral strike slip and sub-parallel normal faults (e.g. Death Valley/Furnace Creek, Fish Lake Valley, Owens Valley), which together accommodate ~25% of the Pacific/North American relative motion. For many of these faults, and the system as a whole, there appears to be a discrepancy between geodetically and geologically inferred fault slip rates. Since the installation of the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), and the Nevada Earthquake Response Network (NEARNET) of the University of Nevada, Reno, many recently obtained high- precision GPS data are now available to place improved constraints on the pattern and rates of crustal deformation of this region. In this study we use a block modeling methodology to estimate block motions and fault slip rates from GPS velocities of PBO, NEARNET and BARGEN continuous sites. Time series were obtained from raw RINEX data that we processed using the GIPSY-OASIS II software from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory together with the Ambizap software for ambiguity resolution. We have additionally included earlier published campaign-style velocities, in those areas where we do not have better coverage from other continuous/semi-continuous networks. Geologic slip rates have been obtained from the published literature. We solve for the motion of blocks using the GPS velocities that have been adjusted based on the viscoelastic modeling to estimate long term motion. To evaluate the consistency between the geologic and geodetic data, we compare long-term fault slip to slip rates inferred from geodetic results obtained over <10 years. We account for transient earthquake cycle effects by modeling the viscoelastic postseismic relaxation

  15. Regional soil-gas helium distribution of the Ely and Delta 1° x 2° quadrangles, Basin and Range Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reimer, G.M.; Bowles, C.G.

    1990-01-01

    A reconnaissance soil-gas helium survey was made in the Ely, Nevada and Delta, Utah 1° × 2° quadrangles in the Basin and Range Province. Helium concentrations in 510 samples ranged from −147 to 441 ppb He with respect to ambient air. The median helium value for the study area was 36 ppb. Concentrations of more than 100 ppb He and less than −20 ppb He occur more commonly in the Ely quadrangle and are especially numerous in the western one-half of this quadrangle. Interpretation of the data reveals that the helium concentrations reflect the rock type, particularly the silicic volcanic occurrences, and the geological structure of the area created by crustal extension. The regional soil-gas helium distribution is important information to consider when interpreting anomalies from detailed surveys.

  16. Three-dimensional model of an ultramafic feeder system to the Nikolai Greenstone mafic large igneous province, central Alaska Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glen, J.M.G.; Schmidt, J.M.; Connard, G.G.

    2011-01-01

    The Amphitheater Mountains and southern central Alaska Range expose a thick sequence of Triassic Nikolai basalts that is underlain by several mafic-ultramafic complexes, the largest and best exposed being the Fish Lake and Tangle (FL-T) mafic-ultramafic sills that flank the Amphitheater Mountains synform. Three-dimensional (3-D) modeling of gravity and magnetic data reveals details of the structure of the Amphitheater Mountains, such as the orientation and thickness of Nikolai basalts, and the geometry of the FL-T intrusions. The 3-D model (50 ?? 70 km) includes the full geographic extent of the FL-T complexes and consists of 11 layers. Layer surfaces and properties (density and magnetic susceptibility) were modified by forward and inverse methods to reduce differences between the observed and calculated gravity and magnetic grids. The model suggests that the outcropping FL-T sills are apparently connected and traceable at depth and reveals variations in thickness, shape, and orientation of the ultramafic bodies that may identify paths of magma flow. The model shows that a significant volume (2000 km3) of ultramafic material occurs in the subsurface, gradually thickening and plunging westward to depths exceeding 4 km. This deep ultramafic material is interpreted as the top of a keel or root system that supplied magma to the Nikolai lavas and controlled emplacement of related magmatic intrusions. The presence of this deep, keel-like structure, and asymmetry of the synform, supports a sag basin model for development of the Amphitheater Mountains structure and reveals that the feeders to the Nikolai are much more extensive than previously known. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Prevalence of ectoparasites in free-range backyard chickens, domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) and turkeys of Kermanshah province, west of Iran.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Farid; Hashemnia, Mohammad; Chalechale, Abdolali; Seidi, Shahin; Gholizadeh, Maryam

    2016-06-01

    This study was carried out on free-range backyard chickens, domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) and turkeys from May 2012 to April 2013 to determine the prevalence and identify the species of ectoparasites in Kermanshah province, west of Iran. Of the total of 600 free-range backyard chickens (185 ♂ and 415 ♀), 700 domestic pigeons (278 ♂ and 422 ♀) and 150 turkeys (53 ♂ and 97 ♀), 389 (64.83 %), 608 (86.85 %) and 54 (36 %) were infected with one or more parasites respectively. Eleven ectoparasites species including five of lice (50.16 % Menacanthus stramineus, 13.66 % Menopon gallinae, 4.83 % Cuclotogaster heterographus, 5.16 % Goniocotes gallinae, 2.33 % Goniodes gigas), three of mites (26.33 % Dermanyssus gallinae, 8.5 % Ornithonyssus bursa, 7 % Cnemidocoptes mutans), one of tick (78.66 % Argas persicus) and two of flea (12.33 % Echidnophaga gallinacea, 2 % Pulex irritans) were found in the backyard chickens. The domestic pigeons were infected with six species of parasites including: Columbicola columbae (61.7 %), M. gallinae (10.43 %), M. stramineus (9 %), D. gallinae (8.28 %), Argas reflexus (74.14 %) and Pseudolynchia canariensis (27.7 %). The ectoparasites species recorded in turkeys were M. gallinae (14 %), M. stramineus (8 %), D. gallinae (12.66 %), C. mutans (6 %), A. persicus (24.66 %) and E. gallinacean (6 %). This is the first survey to determine the prevalence and identify the species of ectoparasites among free-range backyard chicken, domestic pigeons and turkeys in Kermanshah province. The high prevalence rate of ectoparasites in free-range backyard chickens and domestic pigeons indicates that parasitic infection is a common problem in this area. PMID:27413319

  18. Growth faults and salt tectonics in Houston diapir province: relative timing and exploration significance

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, T.E.

    1983-09-01

    Oil and gas accumulation in Gulf Coast Tertiary strata is contolled mainly by regional growth faults and by salt-related structures. Salt forms the most prominent set of structures in the Houston diapir province of southeast Texas. Recent work in three study areas shows that the Tertiary growth-fault trends, so well displayed along strike to the south-west, continue through this salt basin as well, but they have been deformed by later salt movement. In the Katy area, seismic data disclose early (pre-Wilcox) salt pillows downdip of the Cretaceous reef trend. Salt stocks were injected upward from the pillows during Clayborne deposition, and were flanked by deep withdrawal basins and turtle structures. In Brazoria County, a major lower Frio growth-fault trend affecting the Houston delta system, was deformed by later salt domes, by a salt-withdrawal basin, and by a possible turtle structure at Chocolate Bayou. A productive geopressured aquifer exists in the salt-withdrawal basin bounded by the previously formed growth faults. In Jefferson County, in contrast, salt-tectonic activity and growth faulting appear to have been coeval. Early salt-cored ridges continued to rise throughout Frio deposition; growth faults occur both updip and downdip. Hydrocarbons accumulated over the salt domes in growth-fault anticlines and in stratigraphic traps. Recognition that shelf-margin growth faulting preceded the development of the present pattern of domes and basins has important implications for hydrocarbon exploration. Growth faults may be migration paths for hydrocarbons; furthermore, early formed traps, distorted by salt movement, may still be found to contain hydrocarbons.

  19. Apatite fission track evidence for Miocene extensional faulting east-central Nevada, northern Basin and Range province

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, E.L.; Dumitru, T.A. . Geology Dept.); Gans, P.B. . Geological Sciences Dept.); Brown, R.W. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-04-01

    Apatite fission track ages indicates that a large component of motion along many of the present range-bounding faults occurred in the Early to Middle Miocene, tilting and uplifting rocks through the apatite annealing zone (120--60 C) between 18--13 Ma (n = 20, Deep Creeks), 18--15 Ma (northern Snake Range, n = 20), 25--17 Ma (n = 7, southern Snake Range), 24--15 Ma (Egan Range, n = 6), 23--18 Ma (Kern Mts., n = 2) and 28--16 ma (Schell Creek Range, n = 2). Long track length distributions indicate rapid cooling through the 120--60 C interval followed by residence at low, near surface temperatures. The data set also indicates that the combined Deep Creek-Kern Mountains-northern and southern Snake Range constitutes a single coherent footwall crustal block beneath a > 150 km-long system of east-dipping Miocene faults which includes at least the eastern portions of faults that have been mapped as the Snake Range decollement (NSRD). Conglomerates deposited in hanging wall basins along this fault system contain metamorphic and granitic boulders whose FT ages are coeval with footwall unroofing. The deposits themselves are now known to be younger than previously reported (Oligocene) as ages from boulders are Miocene. The thick (> 2 km) sequences of synorogenic conglomerate indicates rapid unroofing; large slide blocks attest to generation of steep, fault-controlled topography. Faults that cut this sequence are now known to be younger than 15 Ma. Thus, protracted extensional faulting affected the region, beginning in the Early Oligocene and continuing to the Recent, but a significant part of this extension, including a large component of the slip on the NSRD, was accomplished in the Early to Middle Miocene. Data from this region is compatible with a growing base of apatite fission track data from elsewhere in the northern Basin and Range, which, together with geologic relationships, suggest an important episode of Miocene extension and Basin and Range development.

  20. Potential tight gas resources in a frontier province - Jurassic through Tertiary strata beneath the Brooks Range foothills, Arctic Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Philip H.; Bird, Kenneth J.; Houseknecht, David W.; Potter, Christopher J.; Moore, Thomas E.

    2006-01-01

    Beneath the foothills of the Brooks Range, rocks of the Lower Cretaceous-Tertiary Brookian and Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Beaufortian megasequences have been deeply buried and exhumed, and now exhibit characteristics of 'tight gas sandstones'. The data recovered from drilling, well tests, and cores exhibit the potential for substantial gas reserves over a large area. These data include recovery of gas from drillstem tests, indications of overpressure from well tests and mud weights, low porosity and permeability in sandstones, and vitrinite reflectance values ranging from 1.0 to 2.0 percent throughout substantial depth intervals.

  1. The role of active and ancient geothermal processes in the generation, migration, and entrapment of oil in the basin and Range Province, western USA. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Hulen, J.B.; Collister, J.W.; Curtiss, D.K.

    1997-06-01

    The Basin and Range (B&R) physiographic province of the western USA is famous not only for its geothermal and precious-metal wealth, but also for its thirteen oil fields, small but in some cases highly productive. The Grant Canyon field in Railroad Valley, for example, for years boasted production of more than 6000 barrels of oil (BO) per day from just two wells; aggregate current production from the Blackburn field in Pine Valley commonly exceeds 1000 BO per day. These two and several other Nevada oil fields are unusually hot at reservoir depth--up to 130{degrees}C at depths as shallow as 1.1 km, up to three times the value expected from the prevailing regional geothermal gradient.

  2. Hydrothermal alteration maps of the central and southern Basin and Range province of the United States compiled from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mars, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operator algorithms were used to map hydrothermally altered rocks in the central and southern parts of the Basin and Range province of the United States. The hydrothermally altered rocks mapped in this study include (1) hydrothermal silica-rich rocks (hydrous quartz, chalcedony, opal, and amorphous silica), (2) propylitic rocks (calcite-dolomite and epidote-chlorite mapped as separate mineral groups), (3) argillic rocks (alunite-pyrophyllite-kaolinite), and (4) phyllic rocks (sericite-muscovite). A series of hydrothermal alteration maps, which identify the potential locations of hydrothermal silica-rich, propylitic, argillic, and phyllic rocks on Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) band 7 orthorectified images, and geographic information systems shape files of hydrothermal alteration units are provided in this study.

  3. Baltazor KGRA and vicinity, Nevada: geothermal reservoir assessment case study, northern Basin and Range province. Final report, 1 October 1978-31 January 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, T.C.

    1983-01-01

    The Baltazor KGRA and McGee/Painted Hills geothermal prospects are located in northern Humboldt County, Nevada along the northwestern margin of the Basin and Range province. Exploration work other than drilling has included groundwater sampling, a microearthquake study, a geologic literature search and photogeologic mapping, compilation of aeromagnetic and gravity mapping, soil mercury surveying, electrical resistivity and self-potential surveys and detailed hydrothermal alteration mapping. Exploration drilling included 27 shallow temperature gradient holes, four intermediate-depth gradient wells and one 3703-foot deep test, Baltazor 45-14. The deep test penetrated Miocene rhyolite, andesite, basalt and andesitic basalt flows before excessive hold deviation forced an end to drilling and completion as a deep temperature observation well. A temperature survey two weeks after completion obtained a 119.7/sup 0/C (247.4/sup 0/F) reading at survey total depth, 1110 m (3640 feet).

  4. Slip rate variations on faults in the Basin-and-Range Province caused by regression of Late Pleistocene Lake Bonneville and Lake Lahontan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karow, Tobias; Hampel, Andrea

    2010-12-01

    Late Pleistocene regression of two large pluvial lakes—Lake Bonneville and Lake Lahontan—caused considerable lithospheric rebound in the Basin-and-Range Province, USA. Here, we use finite-element models to show how lake growth and regression affect the temporal and spatial slip evolution on faults near the former lakes. Our results show that fluctuations in the volume of Lake Bonneville caused along-strike slip variations on the Wasatch normal fault, with a pronounced slip rate increase on its northern and central parts during lake regression. The response of normal and strike-slip faults near the ring-shaped Lake Lahontan depends on their location within the rebound area. Faults located in the centre of rebound show a slip rate increase during lake regression, whereas strike-slip faults at the periphery decelerate. All slip rate variations are caused by differential stress changes owing to changing lake levels, regardless of the individual fault response.

  5. Situation of Diabetes and Related Disease Surveillance in Rural Areas of Jilin Province, Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Zhang, Peng; Lv, Xin; Jiang, Lingling; Gao, Chunshi; Song, Yuanyuan; Yu, Yaqin; Li, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Several studies have investigated the prevalence and awareness of diabetes mellitus (DM) in China, but little is known about the situation of DM in the northeastern rural areas. Our present study investigated the prevalence, awareness and associated characteristics of DM in rural areas of Jilin Province, aiming to suggest more efforts for the prevention and control of DM. Methods: A multistage stratified random cluster sampling design was used in this cross-sectional study which took place in 2012. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews and physical examinations. Rao-Scott Chi-square test, t test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used. Results: The estimated prevalence of DM in rural areas of Jilin province was 7.2%. DM was positively associated with age, Body mass index (BMI), hypotension, dyslipidemia and was high in participants with a family history of diabetes and those who exercise frequently, but low for high education level and married participants. 69.0% participants with DM were aware of their diabetes status, 88.2% of whom received treatment and 34.4% of whom had received treatment controlled their DM status. Conclusions: We observed a high prevalence and low awareness status of DM among the rural residents in Jilin Province, but the rate of effective control in those who have received treatment was considerable. The low rate of disease surveillance should draw health authority’s attention. PMID:27240391

  6. Molecular Characterization of β-Thalassemia in Nineveh Province Illustrates the Relative Heterogeneity of Mutation Distributions in Northern Iraq.

    PubMed

    Eissa, Adil A; Kashmoola, Muna A; Atroshi, Sulav D; Al-Allawi, Nasir A S

    2015-06-01

    Beta thalassemia is an important health problem in Nineveh province, a large province in Northwestern Iraq. No previous study of significance had focused on the spectrum of β-thalassemia mutations in this part of the country. A total of 94 unrelated β-thalassemia minor subjects from the latter province were recruited. Their carrier status was confirmed by full blood count, Hb A2 and F estimation. Thereafter their DNA was subjected to multiplex polymerase chain reaction and reverse hybridization to detect 20 β-thalassemia mutations. A total of eleven different β-thalassemia mutations were documented. The most frequent mutation was IVS-I-110 (G>A) documented in 34 %, followed by IVS-I-6 (T>C) in 9.6 %, IVS-I-5(G>C) in 8.5 %, codon 39 (C>T) and codon 44 (-C) in 7.4 % each, while IVS-I-1(G>A) and IVS-II-1(G>A) were encountered in 6.4 % each. Other mutations were less frequent including codon 8 (-AA), IVS-I-130 (G>C), codon 5 (-CT) and IVS-II-745(C>G). The current study revealed notable differences in the relative frequencies of several β-thalassemia mutations in Nineveh province as compared to other parts of Northern Iraq. Such an observation may be reflective of different ethnic backgrounds and varying historical population interactions. It is believed that these findings complement those of earlier studies on β-thalassemia mutations from the country, and are quite essential in the setting of a proposed national preventive program. PMID:25825560

  7. Two distinct episodes of Cenozoic extension in the northern Basin and Range Province, as indicated by magmatic and structural characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.M. )

    1993-04-01

    Although some workers in the central and southern Great Basin, Nevada and Utah, hold that Cenozoic crustal extension took place as a single, protracted episode that continues today, many studies indicate that two episodes took place. The distinction between episodes is especially clear in the northeastern Great Basin, where initial extension took place about 40--36 Ma, and extension was renewed from about 18 Ma to present. It appears that the early episode of extension was characterized by WSW hyperextension in north-trending linear zones, now about 130 km apart. Extension took place at the time of voluminous calc-alkaline intermediate to felsic magmatism, but magmatism was regional and not limited to the zones of extension. The first episode began later to the south, paralleling the southward progression of Great Basin magmatism as well as arc magmatism near the west coast. Later extension (Basin and Range sensu stricto) was WNW-directed and was initiated between 17 and 13 Ma region wide; it was accompanied by fundamentally basaltic magmatism throughout the region. Striking differences between the two extensional episodes indicates fundamentally different causes. Extensional zones of the early event were not localized by formerly thickened lithosphere, but rather appear to represent a periodic instability with characteristic wavelength of 80--100 km. The Basin and Range event was initiated during reorganization of the former subduction zone at the North American margin into lengthy transform margin, and coincided with the start of the eastern Snake River and Rio Grande rifts. Magmatism involved the crust less than in the early event.

  8. Morphostructural characterization of the Charco basin and its surrounding areas in the Chihuahua segment of north Mexican Basin and Range Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troiani, Francesco; Menichetti, Marco

    2014-05-01

    The Chihuahua Basin and Range (CBR) is the eastern branch of the northern Mexican Basin and Range Province that, from a morphostructural point of view, presently is one amongst the lesser-known zones of the southern portion of the North America Basin and Range Province. The study area covers an approximately 800 km2-wide portion of the CBR and encompasses the fault-bounded Charco basin and its surrounding areas. The bedrock of the area pertains to the large siliceous-igneous province of the Sierra Madre Occidental and consists of volcanoclastic rocks including Oligocene dacite, rhyolite, rhyolitic tuffs, and polimitic conglomerates. The region is characterized by a series of NW-SE oriented valleys delimited by tilted monoclinal blocks bounded by high angle, SW-dipping, normal faults. Abrupt changes in elevation, alternating between narrow faulted mountain chains and flat arid valleys or basins are the main morphological elements of the area. The valleys correspond to structural grabens filled with Plio-Pleistocene continental sediments. These grabens are about 10 km wide, while the extensional fault system extend over a distance of more than 15 km. The mountain ranges are in most cases continuous over distances that range from 10 to 70 km including different branches of the extensional and transfer faults. The morphogenesis is mainly erosive in character: erosional landforms (such as rocky scarps, ridges, strath-terraces, erosional pediment, reverse slopes, landslide scar zones, litho-structural flat surfaces) dominate the landscape. In contrast, Quaternary depositional landforms are mainly concentrated within the flat valleys or basins. The Quaternary deposits consist of wide alluvial fans extending to the foot of the main ridges, fluvial and debris-slope deposits. The morphostructural characterization of the area integrated different methodologies, including: i) geomorphological and structural field analyses; ii) remote sensing and geo-morphometric investigations

  9. The Role of Heat in the Development of Energy and Mineral Resources in the Northern Basin and Range Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Richard L.

    It is now just over a decade since OPEC escalated the price of oil and triggered a flurry of alternate energy research and changing energy consumption practices. One scientific impact of that historical economic turning point was the launching of geothermal exploration programs of unprecedented intensity that focused on Cenozoic volcanic rocks and active, as well as fossil, geothermal systems. The good science that was already being done on such rocks and systems was both accelerated and diluted by government-funded research and energy industry exploration efforts. After the initial flood of detailed reports, gray literature, and documents interred in company files, we are observing the appearance of syntheses of just what happened and what progress was achieved during the geothermal boom (which has now wilted to the quiet development of a few most promising sites). Recent examples of geothermal synthesis literature include the book Geothermal Systems by L. Rybach and L.J. Muffler (John Wiley, New York, 1981), publications like Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries Paper 15 by G.R. Priest et al. (1983) entitled “Geology and geothermal resources of central Oregon Cascade range,” and informative maps like the U.S. Geological Survey series summarizing late Cenozoic volcanic rock distribution and age (R.G. Luedke and R.L. Smith, maps 1-1091 A to D, 1979 to 1982), and state and regional geothermal resources maps (NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, 1977-1982). The book under review here is part of this second literature wave, a useful primary reference, collection of syntheses, and literature guide but certainly not unique.

  10. Lithology and evolution of the crust-mantle boundary region in the southwestern Basin and Range province

    SciTech Connect

    Wilshire, H.G. )

    1990-01-10

    Seismic transects in this area show a strongly reflective Moho of generally low relief, which, in the area of modern transects, consists of a thin zone (< 2 km thick) of short reflectors. The upper mantle is transparent and has a P{sub n} of 7.8-8.0 km/s similar to much of the western US. A lower crustal zone, 2-13 km thick, has variable internal reflectivity and a relatively low velocity of 6.6-6.8 km/s. Upper mantle peridotite xenoliths show both ductile and brittle deformational features and have structures and composition affected by magmatic intrusion; intrusions form complex dike systems and extensive zones of grain boundary infiltration in peridotite xenoliths. Whereas melt infiltration preceded and followed ductile deformation, brittle deformation, represented by closely spaced joint systems and faults, followed ductile deformation and is related to the youngest magmatic episodes. Lower crustal xenoliths are dominantly igneous-textured pyroxenites and mafic to intermediate gabbros identical to the dikes in peridotite xenoliths. The crustal xenoliths also commonly are jointed, and in addition many show partial melting and have abundant cavities that probably were filled with CO{sub 2}-rich fluids. These rocks are interpreted as products of underplated magmas that were fed through the mantle dike systems and may represent the lowest crustal unit identified in the seismic records. The mafic compositions and high densities of the crustal xenoliths indicate that the low velocity of the lower crust mat be caused in part by fracture systems, partial melts, and high temperatures. The preferred model for the evolution of the lower lithosphere is one in which extension affects the upper mantle as well as the crust and is overlapped in time by multiple magmatic episodes. The earliest magmatic events preceded extension, and later events accompanied and followed extension.

  11. Crustal structure of the northwestern Basin and Range Province from the 1986 Program for Array Seismic Studies of the Continental Lithosphere Seismic Experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benz, H.M.; Smith, R.B.; Mooney, W.D.

    1990-01-01

    A portion of northwestern Nevada was imaged to determine the crustal structure and to assess reported differences between refraction versus reflection determinations of Moho depth and how the crustal composition and structure has been influenced by volcanic and extension mechanisms. Interpretation of the refraction/wide-angle reflection data suggests that the crust is fairly uniform in thickness and varies by less than 5 km over the 280 km east-west profile and 3 km over its 220 km north-south length. The velocity structure is characterized by five layers: 1) an uppermost crust, composed of sedimentary rocks and basement that has an average velocity of 5.7 km s-1; 2) a middle crust that extends to a depth of 18-22 with an average velocity of 6.1 km s-1; 3) a 10-12 km thick lower crust with an average velocity of 6.6 km s-1; 4) a 2-5 km thick transitional crust-mantle boundary defined by a 7.6 km s-1 velocity; and 5) an upper mantle with an average Pn velocity of 7.9-8.0 km s-1. A uniform upper mantle composition across the Basin and Range is suggested and the homogeneity of the velocity structure beneath the western Basin and Range argues for a youthful Moho and crust that has been reworked by province-wide late Cenozoic extension, episodic magmatism, and underplating. -from Authors

  12. Uplift, rifting and related geomorphological evolution of the Ethiopian volcanic province: what do we really know ? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pik, R.; Ayalew, D.; Yirgu, G.

    2010-12-01

    The East African Rift System (EARS) is particularly famous because sediments trapped in some of the rift depressions have recorded a major piece of the late Cenozoic mammalian and hominin evolution, as well as associated proxies of climate and environmental changes. The present day landscape along the EARS is spectacular and characterized by axial rift valleys surrounded by variously extended volcanic highlands often culminating at altitude > 3000 m. The morphological development of this unique tectonic and magmatic environment has been increasingly debated these last years and attributed either to (1) the direct and indirect consequences of mantle plume impingement, or to (2) the tectonic and flexural consequences of extensional motion. More than a simple difference in the processes implicated in the genesis of the geomorpholigical characteristics, these two models are opposed by the timing of the topography creation: i.e. early - during the Oligo-Miocene - or late - concomitant with Mio-Pliocene transition and climatic evolution ? In the EARS, the Northern Ethiopian plateau and the associated Afar margin represent an ideal case study to investigate the interplay between uplift and rifting. This margin developed in the heart of the Afar mantle plume related volcanic province and is presently separating the Afar depression from the Ethiopian Highlands with an impressive altitudinal gradient (more than 3000 m in less than 50 km). We review published and present new structural and quantitative data in order to constrain the morpho-tectonic evolution of this system. Based on the following observations we argue that this topographical passive margin started to develop during Miocene times from the top of an already uplifted dome : (1) uplift of the main plateau is broadly distributed with a convex shape, and its maximum does not correspond to the margins location, (2) this "off-rift" maximum is to the contrary located on top of a mantle anomaly revealed by tomography

  13. Fault-related fluid flow, Beech Mountain thrust sheet, Blue Ridge Province, Tennessee-North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Waggoner, W.K.; Mora, C.I. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The latest proterozoic Beech Granite is contained within the Beech Mountain thrust sheet (BMTS), part of a middle-late Paleozoic thrust complex located between Mountain City and Grandfather Mountain windows in the western Blue Ridge of TN-NC. At the base of the BMTS, Beech Granite is juxtaposed against lower Paleozoic carbonate and elastics of the Rome Fm. along the Stone Mountain thrust on the southeaster margin of the Mountain City window. At the top of the BMTS, Beech Granite occurs adjacent to Precambrian mafic rocks of the Pumpkin Patch thrust sheet (PPTS). The Beech Granite is foliated throughout the BMTS with mylonitization and localized cataclasis occurring within thrust zones along the upper and lower margins of the BMTS. Although the degree of mylonitization and cataclasis increases towards the thrusts, blocks of relatively undeformed granite also occur within these fault zones. Mylonites and thrusts are recognized as conduits for fluid movement, but the origin of the fluids and magnitude and effects of fluid migration are not well constrained. This study was undertaken to characterize fluid-rock interaction within the Beech Granite and BMTS. Extensive mobility of some elements/compounds within the thrust zones, and the isotopic and mineralogical differences between the thrust zones and interior of the BMTS indicate that fluid flow was focused within the thrust zones. The wide range of elevated temperatures (400--710 C) indicated by qz-fsp fractionations suggest isotopic disequilibrium. Using a more likely temperature range of 300--400 C for Alleghanian deformation, calculated fluid compositions indicate interactions with a mixture of meteoric-hydrothermal and metamorphic water with delta O-18 = 2.6--7.5[per thousand] for the upper thrust zone and 1.3 to 6.2[per thousand] for the lower thrust zone. These ranges are similar to isotopic data reported for other Blue Ridge thrusts and may represent later periods of meteoric water influx.

  14. Relation of MAGSAT Anomalies to the Main Tectonic Provinces of South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lidiak, E. G.; Keller, G. R. (Principal Investigator); Yuan, D. W.; Longacre, M. B.

    1984-01-01

    Comparison of MAGSAT scalar magnetic anomaly data to the main tectonic provinces and boundaries of South America reveals a number of geologic correlations. South America is divisible into a broad platform of Precambrian shields and cratons separated by Phanerozoic basins, grabens and aulacogens to the east, the Phanerozoic Patagonian Platform to the south, and the Mesozoic to Cenozoic Andean Fold Belt and Caribbean Mountain System to the west and north. The continental shields are mainly more magnetic then continental basins and orogenic belts. Cratons, mainly covered by younger sedimentary rocks, are generally associated with magnetic gradients. Most of the anomalies associated with the Patagonian Platform are positive and have higher amplitudes eastward away from the Andean Fold Belt. The northern Andes are coincident with positive magnetic anomalies, whereas the central and southern Andes are associated mainly with negative anomalies.

  15. Women's nutrient intakes and food-related knowledge in rural Kandal province, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Lauren J; Summerlee, Alastair J S; Dewey, Cate E; Hak, Chantharith; Hall, Ann; Charles, Christopher V

    2014-01-01

    In Cambodia, both anaemia and vitamin A deficiency are serious health problems. Despite this, few comprehensive nutritional surveys have been completed to date. This study evaluates the adequacy of iron and vitamin A intakes, as well as women's nutritional knowledge in rural Kandal province. Twenty-four hour recalls, pile sort activities, socioeconomic surveys, focus groups, and market surveys were carried out with 67 women from 5 villages in rural Kandal Province. Ninety seven percent of women did not meet their daily-recommended intake of iron, while 70% did not meet their daily-recommended intake of vitamin A. Although many women consume vitamin A-rich and iron rich-foods daily, they do not consume large enough quantities of these foods. Results suggest that both the cost of foods as well as the extent of health knowledge is linked to nutritional practice. Most animal-source iron and vitamin A-rich foods are considered expensive; however, small fish, and several plant-source vitamin A-rich foods are inexpensive and easy to access. Despite health education, food restrictions lead some healthy foods to be considered to be harmful to women. Ultimately, this study demonstrates the importance of developing comprehensive nutritional interventions in Cambodia. Health programming must provide women with not only suggestions to include low-cost nutrient-rich foods, but also advise them about the quantities that are likely to have an impact on nutritional status. Programs should take a community-based, inter-sectoral approach that simultaneously combines culturally informed health education with initiatives that combat poverty and increase access to nutrient rich foods. PMID:24901096

  16. Evaluation of geothermal potential of Rio Grande rift and Basin and Range province, New Mexico. Final technical report, January 1, 1977-May 31, 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Callender, J.F.

    1985-04-01

    A study was made of the geological, geochemical and geophysical characteristics of potential geothermal areas in the Rio Grande rift and Basin and Range province of New Mexico. Both regional and site-specific information is presented. Data was collected by: (1) reconnaissance and detailed geologic mapping, emphasizing Neogene stratigraphy and structure; (2) petrologic studies of Neogene igneous rocks; (3) radiometric age-dating; (4) geochemical surveying, including regional and site-specific water chemistry, stable isotopic analyses of thermal waters, whole-rock and mineral isotopic studies, and whole-rock chemical analyses; and (5) detailed geophysical surveys, using electrical, gravity and magnetic techniques, with electrical resistivity playing a major role. Regional geochemical water studies were conducted for the whole state. Integrated site-specific studies included the Animas Valley, Las Cruces area (Radium Springs and Las Alturas Estates), Truth or Consequences region, the Albuquerque basin, the San Ysidro area, and the Abiquiu-Ojo Caliente region. The Animas Valley and Las Cruces areas have the most significant geothermal potential of the areas studied. The Truth or Consequences and Albuquerque areas need further study. The San Ysidro and Abiquiu-Ojo Caliente regions have less significant geothermal potential. 78 figs., 16 tabs.

  17. A Fold Province in the Hinterland of the Sevier Orogenic Belt in Eastern Nevada: A Valley and Ridge in the Basin and Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, S. P.

    2014-12-01

    The overprinting effects of Cenozoic extensional tectonism hinder analysis of the style, geometry, and timing of Cordilleran contractional deformation in the hinterland of the Sevier fold-thrust belt in Nevada. To address this problem, a 1:250,000-scale paleogeologic map of eastern Nevada, showing spatial distributions of Paleozoic-Mesozoic rocks exposed beneath a Paleogene unconformity, divided out at the formation scale, is integrated with maps of dip magnitude for Paleozoic-Mesozoic and Tertiary rocks, published sedimentary thickness records, and a published reconstruction of Basin and Range extension, in order to define and regionally-correlate thrust faults and folds, and estimate the pre-extensional amplitude, wavelength, and limb dips of folds. A new structural province, the Eastern Nevada fold belt (ENFB) is defined, and consists of a 100-150 km-wide region containing as many as five 1st-order, N-trending folds that can be traced for map distances between 100-250 km, have amplitudes between 2-4 km, wavelengths between 20-40 km, pre-extensional limb dips typically between 10-30˚, and deform rocks as young as Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. No regional-scale thrust faults or decollemont horizons breach modern exposure levels in the ENFB. ENFB folds are interpreted to have formed above a deep (≥10 km below the Paleogene unconformity), blind decollemont or shear zone, perhaps the westward projection of the master decollemont of the Sevier fold-thrust belt. Two additional structural provinces of the Sevier hinterland, the Central Nevada thrust belt (CNTB) and Western Utah thrust belt (WUTB), represent zones of N-striking, E-vergent thrust faults and folds that each accommodated ca. 10 km of shortening. Both thrust belts branch northward off of the Sevier thrust belt, and are interpreted to represent contemporary, interior components of the Sevier thrust system. The CNTB, WUTB, and the intervening ENFB collectively record low-magnitude (a few 10's of km) upper

  18. Integration of the Gila River drainage system through the Basin and Range province of southern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, William R.

    2015-05-01

    The Gila River and its tributaries in southern Arizona and adjoining states incorporate several dozen individual extensional basins of the central Basin and Range province into a single integrated drainage network. Forty basins in the Gila domain contain more than 1000 m (maximum ~ 3500 m) of post-12 Ma basin fill. Subsurface evaporites in many basins document internal drainages terminating in isolated playa lakes during early phases of basin history. The nature of intrabasinal and interbasinal divides and of eroded or sedimented stream passages through mountain ranges intervening between the basins reveal the geomorphic mechanisms that achieved drainage integration over late Miocene to early Pleistocene time. Drainage integration accompanied by headward erosion eastward toward Gila headwaters was a response to Miocene opening of the Gulf of California, into which the Gila River debouched directly before the Pliocene (< 5 Ma) lower course of the Colorado River was established. Residual basins of internal drainage where headward erosion has not yet penetrated into basin fill are most common in the easternmost Gila domain but also persist locally farther west. Most basin fill was dissected during drainage integration within the upstream Gila domain but continued accumulation of undissected basin fill by sediment aggradation is dominant in the downstream Gila domain. Basin dissection was initiated by Pliocene time in the central Gila domain but was delayed until Pleistocene time farther east. In the westernmost Gila domain, interaction with erosional and depositional episodes along the Colorado River influenced the development of Quaternary landscapes along the tributary Gila River. The sedimentary history of the Gila drainage network illustrates the means by which trunk rivers can establish courses across corrugated topography produced by the extensional rupture of continental blocks.

  19. Contemporary tectonic deformation of the Basin and Range province, western United States: 10 years of observation with the Global Positioning System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammond, W.C.; Thatcher, W.

    2004-01-01

    We have estimated patterns and rates of crustal movement across 800 km of the Basin and Range at ???39?? north latitude with Global Positioning System surveys in 1992, 1996, 1998, and 2002. The total rate of motion tangent to the small circle around the Pacific-North America pole of rotation is 10.4 ?? 1.0 mm/yr, and motion normal to this small circle is 3.9 ?? 0.9 mm/yr compared to the east end of our network. On the Colorado Plateau the east end of our network moves by ???1-2 mm/yr westerly with respect to North America. Transitions in strain rates delimit six major tectonic domains within the province. These deformation zones coincide with areas of modern seismicity and are, from east to west, (1) east-west extension in the Wasatch Fault zone, (2) low rate east-west extension centered near the Nevada-Utah border, (3) low rate east-west contraction between 114.7??W and 117.9??W, (4) extension normal to and strike-slip motion across the N10??E striking Central Nevada Seismic Zone, (5) right lateral simple shear oriented N13??W inside the Walker Lane Belt, and (6) shear plus extension near the Sierra Nevada frontal faults. Concentration of shear and dilatational deformation across the three westernmost zones suggests that the Walker Lane Belt lithosphere is rheologically weak. However, we show that linear gradients in viscosity and gravitational potential energy can also effectively concentrate deformation. In the Basin and Range, gradients in gravitational potential are spatially anticorrelated with dilatational strain rates, consistent with the presence of horizontal variations in viscosity of the lithosphere.

  20. HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and behaviors among rural married migrant women in Shandong Province, China: a comparison study.

    PubMed

    Song, Yapei; Kang, Dianmin; Wang, Guoyong; Wei, Chongyi; Tao, Xiaorun; Huang, Tao; Qian, Yuesheng; Zhu, Tiwen; Yang, Shan; Yu, Shaoqi; Wang, Hong; Ma, Wei

    2015-02-01

    Migrant women in China are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. This study described HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and behaviors among married migrant women in Shandong province in comparison to non-migrant local women and identified factors associated with HIV testing history and extramarital sex among married migrant women. A probability-based sample of 1,076 migrant and 1,195 local women were included in the analyses. Compared to local women, married migrant women had lower levels of HIV/AIDS knowledge and were more likely to have had premarital sex, extramarital sex, history of sexually transmitted diseases, and drug use. Less than a quarter of migrant women used condoms consistently in extramarital sex. Only 31.0 % of married migrant women had ever tested for HIV, and the rate of premarital HIV testing was very low. Multivariable analysis showed that married migrant women with a history of extramarital sex were more likely to be from Yunnan province, be living in Yantai city, be in their first marriage, have lower family income, have poor relationship with spouses, use drug, have a history of sexually transmitted diseases, and have lower social support. Our findings provide further evidence that married migrant women are at higher risk for HIV infection and that targeted interventions need to be developed for this population. PMID:25323941

  1. Relative inequalities in geographic distribution of health care resources in Kermanshah province, Islamic Republic of Iran.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, S; Karyani, A K; Fallah, R; Matin, B K

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate inequalities in the geographical distribution of human and physical resources in the health sector of Kermanshah province, Islamic Republic of Iran. In a retrospective, cross-sectional study, data from the Statistical Centre of Iran were used to calculate inequality measures (Gini coefficient and index of dissimilarity) over the years 2005-11. The highest Gini coefficient for human resources was observed for pharmacists in 2005 (0.75) and the lowest for paramedics in 2010 and 2011 (0.10). The highest indices of dissimilarity were also for pharmacists in 2005 (29%) and paramedics in 2011 (3%). For physical resources, the highest and lowest Gini coefficients were for rehabilitation centres in 2010 (0.59) and health houses in 2011 (0.12) respectively. Generally, inequalities in the distribution of health care resources were lower at the end of the study period, although there was potential for more equitable distribution of pharmacists, specialists, health houses and beds. PMID:27117646

  2. Molecular evidence of cryptic speciation in planktonic foraminifers and their relation to oceanic provinces.

    PubMed

    de Vargas, C; Norris, R; Zaninetti, L; Gibb, S W; Pawlowski, J

    1999-03-16

    The fossil record of planktonic foraminifers is a key source of data on the biodiversity and evolution of marine plankton. One of the most distinctive foraminiferal taxa, Orbulina universa, widely used as a stratigraphic and paleoclimatic index, has always been regarded as a single species. Here we present a phylogenetic analysis of Orbulina small subunit rDNA sequences from 25 pelagic stations covering 100 degrees latitude in the Atlantic Ocean. The genetic data reveal the presence of three cryptic species, whose distribution is clearly correlated to hydrographic provinces, and particularly to sea-surface total chlorophyll a concentration. Our results, together with previous studies, suggest that a considerable part of the diversity among planktonic foraminifers has been overlooked in morphological taxonomies. Our data also support the idea that planktonic foraminifers, even if adapted to particular hydrographic conditions, are high-dispersal organisms whose speciation may be similar to that of other high-dispersal taxa in which reproductive mechanisms and behavior, rather than just geographic barriers to dispersal, play key roles in species formation and maintenance. PMID:10077602

  3. The Pleistocene glaciations as evidences of the rejuvenation of the Altai Mountains Province in direction opposite to the propagation of the deformation related to India-Eurasia collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agatova, A.; Nepop, R.

    2009-04-01

    of relative vertical displacement of tectonic blocks in scale of mountain ranges and intermontane depressions. This investigation revealed the varied tectonic movements within Altai Mountains Province. Obtained results are evidenced of consecutive increasing of mountain range altitudes from south-eastern part of Russian Altai to Gobi Altai where due to later uplift glaciation appeared just only in the late Pleistocene in spite of arid climate. These data according with the simplification of neotectonic structure of the Altai uplift and rejuvenation of sediment fillings of intermontane depressions in south-eastern direction argue for the rejuvenation of orogenic movements within Altai Mountains in the direction which is opposite to the propagation of the deformation related to India-Eurasia collision. This phenomenon can be explained on the basis of tectonic wave concept as the reflection of tectonic deformation wave from Western Siberia plate which cause following consecutive uplifting of southern mobile areas clamped between Djungar and Tuva-Mongolian microplates. This research was supported by RFBR (grant # 09-05-00932).

  4. Mantle volatiles in spring gases in the Basin and Range Province on the west of Beijing, China: Constraints from helium and carbon isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weibin; Du, Jianguo; Zhou, Xiaocheng; Wang, Fei

    2016-01-01

    The mantle degassing observed at the Earth surface demonstrates both a provenance of fluids in the mantle and a pathway to the surface. Quantities of this process are discovered on the plate boundaries, where there are plenty of active volcanoes and active faults, releasing plenty of mantle volatiles. However, in intraplate tectonic settings without obvious mantle plume, the work for mantle degassing observed in spring gasses seems comparatively limited. We selected the Basin and Range Province on the west of Beijing, an area in the inner part of North China Craton, to discuss the mantle degassing based on the helium and carbon isotopes of spring gasses, and the previous works on seismic tomography and fault slip rate. The spring gas helium and carbon (CO2) isotopes indicate the mixture of crustal and mantle materials. The helium ratios (reported as RC/RA, air-corrected 3He/4He ratio, RA = 1.4 × 10- 6; RA is the air ratio) vary in the range of 0.33-2.08. The calculated mantle helium contributes 4% ~ 26% of helium in spring gasses, and the remaining is generated in the crust by radiogenic decay of U-Th series with tiny air mixture. CO2 acquires analytical δ13CV-PDB values in the range from - 20.3‰ to - 10.2‰, affected by carbonate precipitation. The unaffected values are calculated to be - 8.5 ~ 5.1 ‰ by temperature-dependent isotope fractionation, indicating the mixture of mantle and crustal (limestone) materials. The mantle volatiles are possibly generated in the upwelling asthenosphere, in that, the 3He/4He ratio corresponds well with the negative anomaly of P-wave velocity at the depth of 70 km imaged by seismic tomography. The 3He/4He ratio also correlates with time-averaged fault slip rate, suggesting higher slip rate renders more permeable mantle vent. These consequences help to construct a conceptual model for intraplate mantle degassing, that the mantle volatiles generate in the upwelling asthenosphere and uprise through faults and fractures whose

  5. Prospective study of asbestos-related diseases incidence cases in primary health care in an area of Barcelona province

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Asbestos related diseases include a number of conditions due to inhalation of asbestos fibres at work, at home or in the environment, such as pleural mesothelioma, asbestosis and calcified pleural plaques. Few epidemiological studies have established the incidence of asbestos related diseases in our area. The present proposal is based on a retrospective study externally funded in 2005 that is currently taking place in the same area and largely carried out by the same research team. The aim of the study is to achieve a comprehensive and coordinated detection of all new cases of Asbestos Related Diseases presenting to primary care practitioners. Methods/design This is a multicentre, multidisciplinary and pluri-institutional prospective study. Setting 12 municipalities in the Barcelona province within the catchment area of the health facilities that participate in the study. Sample This is a population based study, of all patients presenting with diseases caused by asbestos in the study area. Measurements A clinical and epidemiological questionnaire will be filled in by the trained researchers after interviewing the patients and examining their clinical reports. Discussion Data on the incidence of the different Asbestos Related Diseases in this area will be obtained and the most plausible exposure source and space-time-patient profile will be described. The study will also improve the standardization of patient management, the coordination between health care institutions and the development of preventive activities related with asbestos exposure and disease. PMID:20412567

  6. Analysis of long-wavelength signals in InSAR to resolve large-scale deformation: Application to the Western Basin and Range Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelung, F.; Greene, F.; Wdowinski, S.

    2012-12-01

    We present the contemporary velocity field in the western Basin and Range province observed by satellite radar imagery. We use 18 years of ERS 1,2 and Envisat data to study 5 descending swaths nearly 600 to 700 km long. We followed the Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) algorithm to generate time series of ground displacements and average velocities. We only exploit pixels of the interferograms, which remain coherent through time in the SAR dataset. Our time-series mean velocity maps show a broad area of uplift located in Central Nevada Seismic Belt (CNSB) with velocities as high as 2 to 3 mm/yr. Previous studies based on 9 years of SAR data explained this uplift as postseismic mantle relaxation after a sequence of four earthquakes (M ~ 7) that occurred in the first half of the 20th century. After increasing the spatial and temporal coverage of SAR imagery, results indicate that the velocity is slowing down during the decade covered by Envisat and post-2000 ERS 2 acquisitions. Unfortunately, long-wavelength noise is introduced to InSAR data from uncertainties in the satellite orbits, and an improper estimation and removal of these artifacts can lead to significant error in the estimated displacements. To understand how these errors affect our results we produce time-series in non-deforming areas and analyze long-wavelength residuals in terms of vertical and horizontal baseline errors, however ERS SAR imagery in non-deforming areas is limited in temporal and spatial coverage. We thus extend our analysis of ERS data using InSAR time-series near the Nevada-Utah border, were we expect to observe low rates of deformation. Finally we perform an analysis of short and long-wavelength signals for all the overlapping areas of the adjacent tracks localized between CNSB and the Nevada-Utah border. The error distribution in areas with low rates or no deformation is valuable for the assessment of the apparent deformation signal observed at CNSB.

  7. Sleep-Related Factors and Work-Related Injuries among Farmers in Heilongjiang Province, People’s Republic of China

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Huiping; Han, Yunfeng; Sun, Yaowu; Xie, Zhiping; Qian, Xueyan; Stallones, Lorann; Xiang, Huiyun; Wang, Limin

    2014-01-01

    The association between sleep and work-related injuries among Chinese farmers has not been well studied. This study examined the impact of lack of sleep on agricultural work-related injuries among farmers in China. Data were from a cross-sectional survey of farm-workers in northeastern China. Information was obtained on injuries that occurred in 12 months prior to the survey, on eight sleep-related variables, and on socio-demographic variables. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to test the hypothesis that lack of sleep significantly increased the risk of work-related injuries after controlling for other injury-related risk- factors. Farmers who slept less than six hours per night were 59% more likely to be injured than those who slept more than eight hours per night (OR = 1.59; 95% CI = 1.04, 2.41). The odds of a work-related injury was 2.46 (1.56–3.89) for farmers who reported going to sleep after midnight at least once a week compared with farmers who reported going to sleep after midnight once a month. Farmers who reported having difficulty falling asleep or waking frequently during the night, who often having nightmares, or who experienced daytime sleepiness were at higher injury risk compared with the reference group after controlling for age, gender and alcohol consumption. Reduced sleep hours and poor sleep quality significantly increased the risk of work-related injuries in Chinese farmers. Sleep hours and sleep quality should be considered when assessing occupational safety among farmers. PMID:25216255

  8. Sleep-related factors and work-related injuries among farmers in Heilongjiang Province, People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huiping; Han, Yunfeng; Sun, Yaowu; Xie, Zhiping; Qian, Xueyan; Stallones, Lorann; Xiang, Huiyun; Wang, Limin

    2014-09-01

    The association between sleep and work-related injuries among Chinese farmers has not been well studied. This study examined the impact of lack of sleep on agricultural work-related injuries among farmers in China. Data were from a cross-sectional survey of farm-workers in northeastern China. Information was obtained on injuries that occurred in 12 months prior to the survey, on eight sleep-related variables, and on socio-demographic variables. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to test the hypothesis that lack of sleep significantly increased the risk of work-related injuries after controlling for other injury-related risk- factors. Farmers who slept less than six hours per night were 59% more likely to be injured than those who slept more than eight hours per night (OR = 1.59; 95% CI = 1.04, 2.41). The odds of a work-related injury was 2.46 (1.56-3.89) for farmers who reported going to sleep after midnight at least once a week compared with farmers who reported going to sleep after midnight once a month. Farmers who reported having difficulty falling asleep or waking frequently during the night, who often having nightmares, or who experienced daytime sleepiness were at higher injury risk compared with the reference group after controlling for age, gender and alcohol consumption. Reduced sleep hours and poor sleep quality significantly increased the risk of work-related injuries in Chinese farmers. Sleep hours and sleep quality should be considered when assessing occupational safety among farmers. PMID:25216255

  9. HIV/AIDS - Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Sexual Practices among Migrant Wives in Rural Anhui Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Huachun; Dai, Xin; Meng, Xiaojun; Wang, Huadong; Jiang, Chao; Wang, Yanchun; Zhang, Lin; Gao, Yongqing; Tang, Song; Xu, Tan; Sun, Wenjie; Wen, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    Background Migrant wives have been increasing in some poor rural regions of China and they may bridge HIV transmission across regions. This study aimed to assess HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and sexual practices among this population in rural Anhui Province, China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted with questionnaire of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and sexual practices between June 2011 and May 2012. A total of 730 migrant wives and 207 local women were enrolled in this study. Unpaired T-test, Chi-square was utilized to compare the difference of HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and sexual practices between migrant wives and local women. Results Around 80% of the migrant wives were from Yunnan, Guizhou, or Sichuan Provinces. The main sources of HIV/AIDS information were TV/radio, posters, and newspapers/periodicals. HIV/AIDS knowledge level among migrant wives was significantly lower than that among local women (e.g. 47.1% vs 57.0% (p<0.001) answered “Yes” for the question “Can an apparently healthy person be HIV-infected?”), and stigma and prejudice towards HIV/AIDS among migrant wives were more common than those among local women (e.g. 73.2% vs 65.7% (p=0.006) answered “No” for the question “If a shopkeeper or food seller had the HIV, would you buy food from them?”). Compared to local women, migrant wives were more likely to have ever had sex during menstruation (6.8% vs 3.4%, p=0.065) and extramarital sex (17.5% vs 10.1%, p=0.01), and were less likely to consistently use condoms with their husbands (45.8% vs 57.5%, p<0.001) or extramarital sex partners (48.8% vs 58.95, p<0.001). Conclusions Migrant wives in rural China had a low HIV/AIDS knowledge level and high prevalence of stigma and prejudice and risky sexual behaviors. Local HIV/AIDS prevention programs should target this neglected population. PMID:25844269

  10. Problems Related to Alcohol Consumption among Youth in Jujuy Province, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Alderete, Ethel; Kaplan, Celia P; Nah, Gregory; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine drinking patterns and alcohol-related problems among youth in Jujuy, Argentina. Material and Methods A survey was conducted in 2005 with a representative sample of 9th grade youth (12 to 17 years old) including sociodemographic and consumption data, and the AUDIT-C test. Results Nine percent of girls and 11% of boys reported hazardous drinking; 12% of girls and 19% of boys reported dependence symptoms. The odds ratio for dependence symptoms (adjusted OR 0.7; 95%CI: 0.6-0.8) and for hazardous drinking (adjusted OR 0.7; 95%CI: 0.6-0.8) was significantly lower for girls compared with boys. Older age, working, and attending night school were risk factors for hazardous drinking, dependence symptoms, and harmful drinking. Conclusions A significant proportion of youth reported problematic patterns of alcohol drinking, highlighting the need to implement prevention and treatment interventions tailored to the adolescent population. PMID:18670721

  11. The nonlinear variation of drought and its relation to atmospheric circulation in Shandong Province, East China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhongsheng; Yuan, Xingzhong

    2015-01-01

    Considerable attention has recently been devoted to the linear trend of drought at the decadal to inter-decadal time scale; however, the nonlinear variation of drought at multi-decadal scales and its relation to atmospheric circulation need to be further studied. The linear and nonlinear variations of the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) in Shandong from 1900 to 2012 and its relations to the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO), El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Siberian high (SH) and Southern Oscillation (SO) phase changes from multi-scale are detected using linear regression, the Mann–Kendall test, ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and the Pearson correlation analysis method. The results indicate that the PDSI shows no statistically significant linear change trend from 1900 to 2012; however, before (after) the late 1950s, PDSI shows a significant upward (downward) trend (P < 0.01) with a linear rate of 0.28/decade (−0.48/decade). From 1900 to 2012, the PDSI also exhibits a nonlinear variation trend at the inter-annual scale (quasi-3 and quasi-7-year), inter-decadal scale (quasi-14-year) and multi-decadal scale (quasi-46 and quasi-65-year). The variance contribution rate of components from the inter-annual scale is the largest, reaching 38.7%, and that from the inter-decadal scale and multi-decadal scale are 18.9% and 19.0%, respectively, indicating that the inter-annual change exerts a huge influence on the overall PDSI change. The results also imply that the effect of the four atmospheric circulations (PDO, ENSO, SH, SO) on PDSI at the multi-decadal variability scale are more important than that at the other scales. Consequently, we state that PDSI variation at the inter-annual scale has more instability, while that at the inter-decadal and multi-decadal scale is more strongly influenced by natural factors. PMID:26528402

  12. The nonlinear variation of drought and its relation to atmospheric circulation in Shandong Province, East China.

    PubMed

    Li, Baofu; Chen, Zhongsheng; Yuan, Xingzhong

    2015-01-01

    Considerable attention has recently been devoted to the linear trend of drought at the decadal to inter-decadal time scale; however, the nonlinear variation of drought at multi-decadal scales and its relation to atmospheric circulation need to be further studied. The linear and nonlinear variations of the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) in Shandong from 1900 to 2012 and its relations to the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO), El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Siberian high (SH) and Southern Oscillation (SO) phase changes from multi-scale are detected using linear regression, the Mann-Kendall test, ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and the Pearson correlation analysis method. The results indicate that the PDSI shows no statistically significant linear change trend from 1900 to 2012; however, before (after) the late 1950s, PDSI shows a significant upward (downward) trend (P < 0.01) with a linear rate of 0.28/decade (-0.48/decade). From 1900 to 2012, the PDSI also exhibits a nonlinear variation trend at the inter-annual scale (quasi-3 and quasi-7-year), inter-decadal scale (quasi-14-year) and multi-decadal scale (quasi-46 and quasi-65-year). The variance contribution rate of components from the inter-annual scale is the largest, reaching 38.7%, and that from the inter-decadal scale and multi-decadal scale are 18.9% and 19.0%, respectively, indicating that the inter-annual change exerts a huge influence on the overall PDSI change. The results also imply that the effect of the four atmospheric circulations (PDO, ENSO, SH, SO) on PDSI at the multi-decadal variability scale are more important than that at the other scales. Consequently, we state that PDSI variation at the inter-annual scale has more instability, while that at the inter-decadal and multi-decadal scale is more strongly influenced by natural factors. PMID:26528402

  13. Traffic-related heavy metals uptake by wild plants grow along two main highways in Hunan Province, China: effects of soil factors, accumulation ability, and biological indication potential.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yunbo; Dai, Qingyun; Jiang, Kang; Zhu, Yun; Xu, Bibo; Peng, Chuan; Wang, Tengfei; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-07-01

    This study was performed to investigate pollution of traffic-related heavy metals (HMs-Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, and Cd) in roadside soils and their uptake by wild plants growing along highways in Hunan Province, China. For this, we analyzed the concentration and chemical fractionation of HMs in soils and plants. Soil samples were collected with different depths in the profile and different distances from highway edge. And leaves and barks of six high-frequency plants were collected. Results of the modified European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) showed that the mobile fraction of these HMs was in the order of Cd > Pb > Zn > Cu > Cr. A high percentage of the mobile fraction indicates Cd, Pb, and Zn were labile and available for uptake by wild plants. The total concentration and values of risk assessment code (RAC) showed that Cd was the main risk factor, which were in the range high to very high risk. The accumulation ability of HMs in plants was evaluated by the biological accumulation factor (BAF) and the metal accumulation index (MAI), and the results showed that all those plant species have good phyto-extraction ability, while accumulation capacity for most HMs plants tissues was bark > leaf. The highest MAI value (5.99) in Cinnamomum camphora (L) Presl indicates the potential for bio-monitoring and a good choice for planting along highways where there is contamination with HMs. PMID:27026539

  14. Structure Of Conduits Of The Acidic Volcanism And Related Deposits In The Paraná-Etendeka Magmatic Province, São Marcos Region, South Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimarães, L. F.; De Campos, C. P.; Lima, E. F. D.; Janasi, V. A.

    2015-12-01

    Voluminous acidic volcanics from the Paraná-Etendeka Magmatic Province crop out in the southern part of Brazil. The conduits responsible for the feeding of this intermediate/acid volcanism are preserved and well exposed in the São Marcos region (Lima et al. 2012; Geologia USP 12:49-64). Conduits are aligned along a NW-SE trend and have thicknesses up to 1 km. These structures are often characterized by mixing between dacitic and rhyodacitic magmas, with intercalation between two major zones: 1) reddish or grayish vitrophiricdacite/rhyodacite, sub-divided in massive or vesiculated; 2) reddish or grayish vitrophiric fragmented dacite/rhyodacite composed of bubble-rich angular to rounded blocks. Such fragments commonly deform coeval to the flow. A third zone dominated by filaments depicts a chaotic stretching-and-folding process from the mixture of the acid magmas. We used classical field measurements of flow structures and recognized main flow directions in these feeder-dikes. They follow two preferential directions: NW, ranging from N272° to N 355°, and NE, varying from N20° to N85°. These directions are indicative of a transtensive fissural system, which seems to be related to conjugated fractures. Evidence of an important fragmentation process in the conduits point towards the presence of related products in this region, thus rheomorphic deposits such as those observed elsewhere (e.g. Uruguay and Namibia) are expected to occur. Possible vestiges of these deposits could be represented by restricted outcrops of lens-shaped and banded hipohyaline, occasionally bubble-rich, dacites. The presence of continuous pseudotachylitic levels, tightly folded bands with horizontal axial planes together with local deformed bubble-rich pumice-like lens could be indicative of remelting and rheomorphism of previous vulcanoclastic material. Coulees and compound (lobed) dacitic lava flows, reaching up to 5-8 meters length, occur as the uppermost deposits and correspond to the

  15. Passive relative ranging applied to sensor-to-sensor data association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grantham, James L., II; Brahm, Steven J.; Zounes, Randolph S.; Whitt, Ellis

    2002-08-01

    Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) effectiveness depends on a system's capability to acquire, track, identify, and engage threat missiles. The probability of a successful engagement can be improved by performing multiple-sensor data fusion, especially if the participating sensor systems are based on both radar frequency (RF) and infrared (IR) phenomenology. In this paper, we apply this observation to the Target Object Map (TOM) correlation problem for the standard configuration of a kill vehicle (with a single or multicolor IR seeker) receiving uplinks from a ground based radar. Specifically, we examine the application of a relative ranging technique that augments the angles-only track information of a passive IR sensor with non-parametric range-ranking of the threat complex. Since data association performance is significantly better for three-dimensional (3-D) matching that for two-dimensional (2-D) matching, the idea is to take advantage of relative range-ranking information of the threat complex to potentially improve performance. Numerous techniques that attempt to extract absolute range estimates from a passive IR sensor have been investigated by researchers in the BMD community and it is understood that range information allows for improved threat tracking, radiant intensity estimates, and data association performance. However, extracting absolute target range estimates from irradiance measurements is extremely difficult because of the presence of data uncertainties/ambiguities, environment and sensor noises, and small angular rates of tracked objects. Passive Relative Ranging (PRR) is distinct in that it focuses on the relative range-ranking of objects; knowledge that one object is closer than a second object, while not relevant for improving track or intensity estimation performance, can possibly improve the performance of sensor-to-sensor object assignment. The proposed PRR technique is based on the physical range-squared relationship between intensity and

  16. Diversity of Anopheles mosquitoes in Binh Phuoc and Dak Nong Provinces of Vietnam and their relation to disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Human malaria is still a burden in Dak Nong and Binh Phuoc Provinces in south-central Vietnam that border Cambodia. Several Anopheles species that transmit human malarial Plasmodium may also transmit Wuchereria bancrofti, the nematode that causes Bancroftian lymphatic filariasis. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of Anopheles species in the transmission of these two pathogens in the two highly malaria endemic provinces of Vietnam. Methods Anopheles mosquitoes were collected in Dak Nong and Binh Phuoc Provinces in November and December of 2010 and 2011. Human landing catches, paired collections on human and buffalo, and resting captures were made with mouth aspirators. Collections were also made with light traps. Morphological and PCR-based methods were used to identify the species. Real-time PCR was used to detect Plasmodium species and W. bancrofti in individual mosquitoes. Results Twenty-four Anopheles species were identified among 797 captured mosquitoes. Anopheles dirus was found in both provinces and was the predominant species in Binh Phuoc Province; An. maculatus was the most prevalent species in Dak Nong Province. Anopheles minimus was collected only in Binh Phuoc Province. Some specimens of An. minimus and An. pampanai were misidentified based on morphology. Four specimens of An. scanloni were identified, and this is the first report of this species of the Dirus Complex in Vietnam. Two females, one An. dirus and one An. pampanai, collected in Binh Phuoc Province were infected with P. vivax, for an overall infection rate of 0.41% (2/486): 0.28% for An. dirus (1/361) and 20% for An. pampanai (1/5). No mosquitoes were found to be infected with P. falciparum, P. knowlesi or W. bancrofti in either province. Conclusion A diversity of Anopheles species occurs in Dak Nong and Binh Phuoc Provinces of Vietnam, several of which are considered to be actual and potential vectors of malarial protozoa and microfilariae. It is highly

  17. The relations between natural gas hydrate distribution and structure on Muli basin Qinghai province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, C.; Li, Y.; Lu, Z.; Luo, S.; Qu, C.; Tan, S.; Zhang, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Muli area is located in a depression area which between middle Qilian and south Qilian tectonic elements. The natural gas hydrate stratum belongs the Jurassic series coal formation stratum, the main lithological character clamps the purple mudstone, the siltstone, the fine grain sandstone and the black charcoal mudstone for the green gray. The plutonic metamorphism is primarily deterioration function of the Muli area coal, is advantageous in forming the coal-bed gas. Cretaceous system, the Paleogene System and Neogene System mainly include the fine grain red clastic rock and clay stone. The distribution of Quaternary is widespread. The ice water - proluvial and glacier deposit are primarily depositional mode. The Qilian Montanan Muli permafrost area has the good gas source condition (Youhai Zhu 2006) and rich water resources. It is advantage to forming the natural gas hydrate. The natural gas hydrate is one kind of new latent energy, widely distributes in the mainland marginal sea bottom settlings and land permanent tundra. Through researching the area the structure ,the deposition carries on the analysis and responds the characteristic analysis simulation in the rock physics analysis and the seismic in the foundation, and then the reflected seismic data carried by tectonic analysis processing and the AVO characteristic analysis processing reveal that the research area existence natural gas hydrate (already by drilling confirmation) and the natural gas hydrate distribution and the structure relations is extremely close. In the structure development area, the fault and the crevasse crack growing, the natural gas hydrate distribution characteristic is obvious (this is also confirmed the storing space of natural gas hydrate in this area is mainly crevasse crack). This conclusion also agree with the actual drilling result. The research prove that the distribution of natural gas hydrate in this area is mainly controlled by structure control. The possibility of fault

  18. Relative orbit determination for satellite formation flying based on quantum ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yanghe; Xu, Luping; Zhang, Hua; Chen, Shanshan; Song, Shibin

    2015-08-01

    Relative orbit determination is widely used in the field of autonomously controlled satellite formation flying (SFF). Currently, some traditional techniques cannot meet the strict requirement of the accuracy of relative orbit determination for certain space missions. Thus, the primary purpose of this study is to design some special type of sensor to increase the accuracy of the distance measurement, which can eventually lead to an improvement in the accuracy of relative orbit determination for SFF. Two types of quantum sensors are proposed, based on the double-points quantum ranging (DPQR) and the triangle quantum ranging (TQR) schemes that utilize the second-order correlation between the entangled photons. Simulation result shows that the ranging accuracy of the TQR-type sensor is more precise than that of the DPQR-type one. Additionally, the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is used to estimate the relative state of the SFF, which uses the TQR-type sensor as the measurement model compared with a traditional sensor. The simulation results show that the quantum sensor is superior to the traditional one and their estimation errors of the position and velocity remain within 1 cm and 1 mm/s, respectively, at a relative distance of 1 km between the chief and deputy satellites.

  19. Relation of radon exposure and tobacco use to lung cancer among tin miners in Yunnan Province, China

    SciTech Connect

    Qiao, Y.L.; Taylor, P.R.; Yao, S.X.; Schatzkin, A.; Mao, B.L.; Lubin, J.; Rao, J.Y.; McAdams, M.; Xuan, X.Z.; Li, J.Y. )

    1989-01-01

    We studied the relation of radon exposure and tobacco use to lung cancer among tin miners in Yunnan Province in the People's Republic of China. Interviews were conducted in 1985 with 107 living tin miners with lung cancer and an equal number of age-matched controls from among tin miners without lung cancer to obtain information on lung cancer risk factors including a detailed history of employment and tobacco use. Occupational history was combined with extensive industrial hygiene data to estimate cumulative working level months (WLM) of radon daughter exposure. Similar data were also used to estimate arsenic exposure for control in the analysis. Results indicate an increased risk of lung cancer for water pipe smoking, a traditional form of tobacco use practiced in 91% of cases and 85% of controls. The use of water pipes was associated with a twofold elevation in risk when compared with tobacco abstainers, and a dose-response relation was observed with increasing categories of pipe-year (dose times duration) usage. Estimated WLM of radon exposure varied from 0 to 1,761 among subjects but averaged 515 in cases versus only 244 in controls. Analyses indicated that the persons in the highest quarter of the radon exposure distribution had an odds ratio (OR) = 9.5 (95% confidence interval = 2.7-33.1) compared to persons without radon exposure after controlling for arsenic exposure and other potential confounders. Examination of duration and rate of radon exposure indicated higher risk associated with long duration as opposed to high rate of exposure. Cross-categorizations of radon exposure and tobacco use suggest greater risk associated with radon exposure than tobacco in these workers.

  20. Relative lateration across the Los Angeles basin using a satellite laser ranging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverberg, E. C.; Cahill, T.; Dorman, J.

    1982-01-01

    In January of 1981 the Transportable Laser Ranging System (TLRS) developed for NASA by the University of Texas was used to conduct a four-day test of the relative lateration technique. The test evolved making repeated measurements of six lines over the Los Angeles basin varying in distance from 26 to 84 kilometers. Although the raw times-of-flight to the various targets changed typically by 5 parts in 10 to the 6th, their line ratios varied nearly an order of magnitude less. The test suggests that the TLRS or other pulsed laser ranging systems might be able to economically combine Lageos ranging and long baseline horizontal work to survey large areas for accumulating crustal strain.

  1. Magmatic and related mineral deposits of the Pan-African Saldania belt in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozendaal, A.; Scheepers, R.

    1995-07-01

    Mineral deposits and prospects of the Pan-African Saldania orogenic belt in the Western Cape Province, South Africa, are reviewed. The polyphase, deformed, low-grade metamorphosed, volcano-sedimentary Malmesbury Group constitutes a complex, poorly understood supracrustal sequence that has been loosely subdivided into the Tygerberg, Swartland and Boland tectono-stratigraphic terranes on the basis of NW-trending fault zones. Syn- and post-tectonic granitoids of the Cape Granite Suite selectively intruded these terranes. Early S-types preferred the Tygerberg terrane, whereas the later I-types dominate the remaining areas. Anorogenic A-type granites, however, occur in all three terranes. Despite the absence of operating base or precious metal mines in the area, this study has established at least four metal associations directly or indirectly related to the intrusions: i) Cassiterite-wolframite (±Au, Cu, Mo, Zn, As, Fe-sulphides) in quartz and quartz/aplite veins hosted by tour-malinized and locally greissenized S-type granite. Similar exo-granitic veins occur in proximal metamorphites; ii) Juxtaposed, disseminated, stockwork breccia and vein style CuMoFe(Au)-sulphide mineralization hosted by mafic- to intermediate-intrusions of high-K calc-alkaline, I-type affinity; iii) CuMoAu-sulphides hosted by hydraulic breccia pipes, stocks and veins occurring in anorogenic A-type alkali feldspar granites and amphibole quartz syenites; iv) Scheelite with minor CuMoAu-sulphides associated with endo- and exo-skams spatially related to I-type monzogranite, granite and alkali feldspar granite. The first three associations occur along the Yzerfontein-Helderberg-zone, a 180 km lineament in the Tygerberg terrane, exploited by syn-, late- and post-tectonic intrusions and their related mineralization. The fourth association is typical of the Boland terrane. The spatial and temporal relationships among the various metal associations are interpreted as the result of

  2. Raw Fish Consuming Behavior Related to Liver Fluke Infection among Populations at Risk of Cholangiocarcinoma in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chavengkun, Wasugree; Kompor, Pontip; Norkaew, Jun; Kujapun, Jirawoot; Pothipim, Mali; Ponphimai, Sukanya; Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Padchasuwan, Natnapa; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2016-01-01

    Opisthorchiasis is a health problem in rural communities of Thailand, particularly in the northeast and north regions. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate raw fish consuming behavior related to liver fluke infection among the population at risk for opisthorchiasis and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in Meuang Yang district, Nakhon Ratchasima province, northeast Thailand, between June and October 2015. Participants were screened for CCA, and samples who had a high score of CCA risk were purposively selected. A predesigned questionnaire was utilized to collect the data from all participants. X2-test was used for analysis of associations between demographic data and raw fish consumption. The results revealed that participants had past histories of stool examination (33.0%), liver fluke infection (21.0%), praziquantel use (24.0%), raw fish consumption (78.0%), relatives family consuming raw fish (73.0%), and relatives family with CCA (3.0%). Participants consumed several dished related to liver fluke infection, mainly raw fermented fish (13.0%), under smoked catfish (5.00%), raw pickled fish (4.00%), and raw spicy minced fish salad (3.00%). The most common types of cyprinoid fish were Barbodes gonionotus (39%), Hampala dispar (38%), Puntius brevis (37%), Cyclocheilichthys armatus (33%), Puntioplites proctozysron (32%), and Luciosoma bleekeri (30%), respectively. Participants had a low level of knowledge (mean=3.79, SD=0.74), moderate attitude (mean=7.31, SD=7.31) and practice (mean=38.64, SD=6.95) regarding liver fluke prevention and control. Demographic variables like age (>36 years old; X2-test=17.794, p-value=0.001), education (primary school; X2-test=18.952, p-value=0.001), marital status (married; X2-test=12.399, p-value=0.002), and income (<5,000 baht; X2-test=27.757, p-value=0.015) were significantly associated with raw fish consumption. This result indicates that the population had risk consumption for liver

  3. Overconsolidated, Early-Pleistocene Clays in Relation to Foundation Design and Construction of HSLSouth, Province of Brabant, The Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schokking, Floris

    The High Speed Line connecting Amsterdam to Brussels (HSLSouth) requires a link to the existing railway system at the City of Breda, Province of Brabant. Shuttle connections to the North (Rotterdam) and to the South (Antwerp) will join and exit the HSLSouth near Breda. Accommodation of existing and new railway tracks necessitate the construction of several fly-overs and underpasses in the area between Breda and the tributary of the River Meuse, the Hollandsch Diep, further to the North. Throughout the area occur Early-Pleistocene fluviatile clay layers at a depth of approximately 19 to 23 m - GS, below a cover of sandy deposits and towards the North also below an additional 2 to 8 meters thick cover of Holocene clays, sand and peat. The deep clay layers show overconsolidation ratios of OCR = 1.1 to 2.1. Geotechnical properties of the clays are up till present badly documented and the cause of overconsolidation is still poorly understood. In the design of the structures for the shuttle connection to the HSLSouth the clays come into play in various ways: as an aquiclude forming the bottom of a sheet piled construction pit and as a settlement prone layer below slab or pile foundations, and in some cases additionally loaded by adjacent earth embankments. The character and cause of the overconsolidation is discussed in relation to the geological history. The role of the overconsolidated clays in foundation design and construction is elucidated using case studies of two underpasses near Breda and a fly-over near Den Hoek, between Breda and Hollandsch Diep.

  4. Lithofacies analysis of colluvial sediments - an aid in interpreting the recent history of Quaternary normal faults in the Basin and Range Province, western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, A.R.

    1992-01-01

    Inferring the frequency and magnitude of past earthquakes from the stratigraphy in exposures of normal-faulted sediments is difficult because colluvial lithofacies assemblages adjacent to faults are complex. A lithofacies code scheme, similar to those used in the analysis of fluvial and glacial lithofacies sequences, provides a concise way of illustrating lithofacies relations in fault exposures. The architecture of lithofacies assemblages near fault scarps in semiarid areas is explained by a model of colluvial sedimentation in response to a single surface faulting event. Analysis of lithofacies assemblages exposed in three trenches across normal faults in the eastern Basin and Range shows how the model can be used to interpret fault histories. -from Author

  5. Measures of functional ability (disability) in arthritis in relation to impairment of range of joint movement.

    PubMed Central

    Badley, E M; Wagstaff, S; Wood, P H

    1984-01-01

    In the World Health Organisation's supplementary classification of the consequences of disease a distinction is made between impairments, such as are related to the site and nature of joint involvement, and any disabilities in everyday activities to which these may give rise. This paper considers the application of these ideas to people with arthritis by examining the extent of graded relationship between individual impairments, reflected by limitations in the range of joint movement, and the number or type of disabilities. Ninety-five people with three different types of arthritis were studied. A 41-item disability questionnaire was completed. Most of the variation was described by only 24 of the latter items. These fell into five broad functional groups--predominantly concerned with mobility, bending down, manual dexterity, bending the arm, and reaching above the head. The constituent activities could be scaled in order of difficulty of accomplishment. Aggregated scores for each of the functional groups were correlated with observed ranges of motion in relevant joints, and the ordering of difficulty was related to decreasing ranges of movement. These findings shed light on the genesis of disability and have implications for the development of more sensitive, specific, and simple methods of assessment in rheumatology. Appreciation of how disability relates to the localisation of disease manifestations provides a means for evaluating current methods of functional assessment and exposes potential biases in such appraisals. PMID:6236760

  6. Single-plane versus three-plane methods for relative range error evaluation of medium-range 3D imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKinnon, David K.; Cournoyer, Luc; Beraldin, J.-Angelo

    2015-05-01

    Within the context of the ASTM E57 working group WK12373, we compare the two methods that had been initially proposed for calculating the relative range error of medium-range (2 m to 150 m) optical non-contact 3D imaging systems: the first is based on a single plane (single-plane assembly) and the second on an assembly of three mutually non-orthogonal planes (three-plane assembly). Both methods are evaluated for their utility in generating a metric to quantify the relative range error of medium-range optical non-contact 3D imaging systems. We conclude that the three-plane assembly is comparable to the single-plane assembly with regard to quantification of relative range error while eliminating the requirement to isolate the edges of the target plate face.

  7. An approximate analytical method for short-range impulsive orbit rendezvous using relative Lambert solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Gang; Zhou, Di; Mortari, Daniele

    2012-12-01

    A new approximate analytical method for the two-body impulsive orbit rendezvous problem with short range is presented. The classical analytical approach derives the initial relative velocity from the state transition matrix of linear relative motion equations. This paper proposes a different analytical approach based on the relative Lambert solutions. An approximate expression for the transfer time is obtained as a function of chaser's and target's semi-major axes difference. This results in first and second order estimates of the chaser's semi-major axis. Singularity points of rendezvous time for the classical and proposed new methods are both analyzed. As compared with the classical method, the new solution is simpler, more accurate, and has fewer singularity points. Moreover, the proposed method can be easily expanded to higher order solutions. A numerical example quantifies the accuracy gain for multiple-revolution cases.

  8. Observation of harmonically related solar radio zebra patterns in the 1-4 GHz frequency range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawant, H. S.; Karlický, M.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Cecatto, J. R.

    2002-12-01

    A unique case of two zebra patterns related harmonically with ratio of ~ 1:2 was observed by distant radio telescopes at São José dos Campos and Ondřejov Observatories. Accompanied zebras show that the ratio of frequencies of the neighboring zebra lines is in the range of 1.009-1.037. There is a tendency of a decrease of this ratio with decreasing frequency within the specific zebra pattern. Both facts speak in favour of plasma emission models for the zebra pattern fine structure in radio burst continua.

  9. Perception, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change: A survey among CDC health professionals in Shanxi province, China

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Junni; Hansen, Alana; Zhang, Ying; Li, Hong; Liu, Qiyong; Sun, Yehuan; Bi, Peng

    2014-10-15

    Background: A better understanding of public perceptions, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change will provide an important foundation for government's policy-making, service provider's guideline development and the engagement of local communities. The purpose of this study was to assess the perception towards climate change, behavior change, mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the central government among the health professionals in the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in China. Methods: In 2013, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey was undertaken among 314 CDC health professionals in various levels of CDC in Shanxi Province, China. Descriptive analyses were performed. Results: More than two thirds of the respondents believed that climate change has happened at both global and local levels, and climate change would lead to adverse impacts to human beings. Most respondents (74.8%) indicated the emission of greenhouse gases was the cause of climate change, however there was a lack of knowledge about greenhouse gases and their sources. Media was the main source from which respondents obtained the information about climate change. A majority of respondents showed that they were willing to change behavior, but their actions were limited. In terms of mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the Chinese Government, respondents' perception showed inconsistency between strategies and relevant actions. Moreover, although the majority of respondents believed some strategies and measures were extremely important to address climate change, they were still concerned about economic development, energy security, and local environmental protection. Conclusion: There are gaps between perceptions and actions towards climate change among these health professionals. Further efforts need to be made to raise the awareness of climate change among health professionals, and to promote relevant actions to address climate change in the context of

  10. The Moon as a Laser-ranged Test Body for General Relativity and New Gravitational Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dell'Agnello, Simone; Currie, Douglas

    Since the 1970s Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) to the Apollo/Lunokhod Cube Corner Retroreflector (CCR) Arrays supplied some of the best tests of General Relativity (GR): possible changes in the gravitational constant, gravitational self-energy (PPN parameter beta), weak equivalence principle, geodetic precession, inverse-square force-law. Secondly, LLR has provided significant information on the composition of the deep interior of the Moon. LLR physics analysis also allows to set constraints on extensions of GR (like spacetime torsion) and, possibly, on new gravitational physics which may explain the gravitational universe without Dark Matter and Dark Energy (like, for example, Non-Minimally Coupled gravity, NMC). LLR is the only Apollo/Lunokhod experiment still in operation, since 45 years. In the 1970s Apollo/Lunokohd LLR Arrays contributed a negligible fraction of the ranging error budget. Since the ranging capabilities of ground stations improved by more than two orders of magnitude, now, because of the lunar librations, Apollo/Lunokhod CCR arrays dominate the error budget. With the US/Italy project "LLRRA21/MoonLIGHT (Lunar Laser Ranging Retroreflector Array for the 21st century / Moon Laser Instrumentation for General relativity High accuracy Tests)", University of Maryland and INFN-LNF developed and tested a next-generation LLR payload made by a single, large CCR (100 mm diameter), unaffected by the effect of librations. In fact, we will show that MoonLIGHT reflectors will improve the LLR accuracy by a factor of ten to one hundred in a few years. INFN-LNF also developed a laser retroreflector micropayload to be deployed on the lunar surface to be laser-ranged by lunar orbiters. The latter micropayload will further extend the physics reach of Apollo, Lunokhod and MoonLIGHT CCRs to improve all precision tests of GR and new gravitational physics using LLR data. As an added value for the LRR and SLR (Satellite Laser ranging) disciplines INFN-LNF built and is

  11. Strainrange partitioning - A total strain range version. [for creep fatigue life prediction by summing inelastic and elastic strain-range-life relations for two Ni base superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halford, G. R.; Saltsman, J. F.

    1983-01-01

    Procedures are presented for expressing the Strainrange Partitioning (SRP) method for creep fatigue life prediction in terms of total strain range. Inelastic and elastic strain-range - life relations are summed to give total strain-range - life relations. The life components due to inelastic strains are dealt with using conventional SRP procedures while the life components due to elastic strains are expressed as families of time-dependent terms for each type of SRP cycle. Cyclic constitutive material behavior plays an important role in establishing the elastic strain-range life relations as well as the partitioning of the inelastic strains. To apply the approach, however, it is not necessary to have to determine the magnitude of the inelastic strain range. The total strain SRP approach is evaluated and verified using two nickel base superalloys, AF2-1DA and Rene 95. Excellent agreement is demonstrated between observed and predicted cyclic lifetimes with 70 to 80 percent of the predicted lives falling within factors of two of the observed lives. The total strain-range SRP approach should be of considerable practical value to designers who are faced with creep-fatigue problems for which the inelastic strains cannot be calculated with sufficient accuracy to make reliable life predictions by the conventional inelastic strain range SRP approach.

  12. Direct Medical Cost of Influenza-Related Hospitalizations among Severe Acute Respiratory Infections Cases in Three Provinces in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaoping; Gao, Lidong; Li, Zhong; Feng, Ao; Jin, Hui; Wang, Shiyuan; Su, Qiru; Xu, Zhen; Feng, Zijian

    2013-01-01

    Background Influenza-related hospitalizations impose a considerable economic and social burden. This study aimed to better understand the economic burden of influenza-related hospitalizations among patients in China in different age and risk categories. Methods Laboratory-confirmed influenza-related hospitalizations between December 2009 and June 2011 from three hospitals participating in the Chinese Severe Acute Respiratory Infections (SARI) sentinel surveillance system were included in this study. Hospital billing data were collected from each hospital’s Hospital Information System (HIS) and divided into five cost categories. Demographic and clinical information was collected from medical records. Mean (range) and median (interquartile range [IQR]) costs were calculated and compared among children (≤15 years), adults (16–64 years) and elderly (≥65 years) groups. Factors influencing cost were analyzed. Results A total of 106 laboratory-confirmed influenza-related hospitalizations were identified, 60% of which were children. The mean (range) direct medical cost was $1,797 ($80–$27,545) for all hospitalizations, and the median (IQR) direct medical cost was $231 ($164), $854 ($890), and $2,263 ($7,803) for children, adults, and elderly, respectively. Therapeutics and diagnostics were the two largest components of direct medical cost, comprising 57% and 23%, respectively. Cost of physician services was the lowest at less than 1%. Conclusion Direct medical cost of influenza-related hospitalizations imposes a heavy burden on patients and their families in China. Further study is needed to provide more comprehensive evidence on the economic burden of influenza. Our study highlights the need to increase vaccination rate and develop targeted national preventive strategies. PMID:23717485

  13. Secreted effectors in Toxoplasma gondii and related species: determinants of host range and pathogenesis?

    PubMed Central

    English, E D; Adomako-Ankomah, Y; Boyle, J P

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed the discovery of a number of secreted proteins in Toxoplasma gondii that play important roles in host–pathogen interactions and parasite virulence, particularly in the mouse model. However, the role that these proteins play in driving the unique features of T. gondii compared to some of its nearest apicomplexan relatives (Hammondia hammondi and Neospora caninum) is unknown. These unique features include distinct dissemination characteristics in vivo and a vast host range. In this review we comprehensively survey what is known about disease outcome, the host response and host range for T. gondii, H. hammondi, and N. caninum. We then review what is presently known about recently identified secreted virulence effectors in these three genetically related, but phenotypically distinct, species. Finally we exploit the existence of genome sequences for these three organisms and discuss what is known about the presence, and functionality, of key T. gondii effectors in these three species. PMID:25655311

  14. Integrating laser-range finding, electronic compass measurements and GPS to rapidly map vertical changes in volcanic stratigraphy and constrain unit thicknesses and volumes: two examples from the northern Cordilleran volcanic province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogier, M.; Edwards, B. R.; Wetherell, K.

    2005-12-01

    We present preliminary results of laser-range finding-GPS surveys from two separate locations in northern British Columbia, in the south-central northern Cordilleran volcanic province: Hoodoo Mountain volcano and Craven Lake cone. This technique, described in detail below, is appropriate for rapidly measuring changes in vertical thicknesses of units that either would be difficult or impossible to measure by most other techniques. The ability to accurately measure thicknesses of geologic units in otherwise difficult-to-access locations will aide in generating better quantitative estimates of deposit geometries and eruption volumes. Such data is particularly important for constraining quantitative models of magma production and eruption dynamics. The deposits of interest in this study comprised at least partly inaccessible, largely pyroclastic units, although the technique could be used to map any vertical surfaces. The first field location was the northern side of Hoodoo Mountain volcano (56deg47'23.72'N/131deg17'36.97'W/1208m-asl), where a sequence of welded to unwelded, trachytic-phonolitic tephra was deposited in a paleovalley. This deposit is informally referred to as the Pointer Ridge deposit, and it comprises at least 7 distinct subunits. The horizontal limit of the exposures is approximately 1.5km, and the vertical limit is approximately 250m. Three different GPS base stations were used to map the lateral and vertical variations in the deposit. The second field location is north of Craven Lake (56deg54'44.55'N/129deg21'42.17'W/1453m-asl), along Craven Creek, where a sequence of basaltic tephra is overlain by pillow lava and glacial diamicton. This exposure is 200m long and approximately 30m high, much smaller than the area mapped at Hoodoo Mountain. The basaltic tephra appears to comprise 4 distinct sequences (measured thicknesses vary from 3-4m) not including the overlying pillow lava (measured thickness varies from 2 to 10m), and measurements of the

  15. Database for the Geologic Map of Upper Eocene to Holocene Volcanic and Related Rocks of the Cascade Range, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nimz, Kathryn; Ramsey, David W.; Sherrod, David R.; Smith, James G.

    2008-01-01

    Since 1979, Earth scientists of the Geothermal Research Program of the U.S. Geological Survey have carried out multidisciplinary research in the Cascade Range. The goal of this research is to understand the geology, tectonics, and hydrology of the Cascades in order to characterize and quantify geothermal resource potential. A major goal of the program is compilation of a comprehensive geologic map of the entire Cascade Range that incorporates modern field studies and that has a unified and internally consistent explanation. This map is one of three in a series that shows Cascade Range geology by fitting published and unpublished mapping into a province-wide scheme of rock units distinguished by composition and age; map sheets of the Cascade Range in Washington (Smith, 1993) and California will complete the series. The complete series forms a guide to exploration and evaluation of the geothermal resources of the Cascade Range and will be useful for studies of volcano hazards, volcanology, and tectonics. This digital release contains all the information used to produce the geologic map published as U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Investigations Series I-2569 (Sherrod and Smith, 2000). The main component of this digital release is a geologic map database prepared using ArcInfo GIS. This release also contains files to view or print the geologic map and accompanying descriptive pamphlet from I-2569.

  16. Crustal strain accumulation on Southern Basin and Range Province faults modulated by distant plate boundary earthquakes? Evidence from geodesy, seismic imaging, and paleoseismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, R. A.; Shirzaei, M.; Broermann, J.; Spinler, J. C.; Holland, A. A.; Pearthree, P.

    2014-12-01

    GPS in Arizona reveals a change in the pattern of crustal strain accumulation in 2010 and based on viscoelastic modeling appears to be associated with the distant M7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah (EMC) earthquake in Baja California, Mexico. GPS data collected between 1999 and 2009 near the Santa Rita normal fault in SE Arizona reveal a narrow zone of crustal deformation coincident with the fault trace, delineated by W-NW facing Pleistocene fault scarps of heights 1 to 7 m. The apparent deformation zone is also seen in a preliminary InSAR interferogram. Total motion across the zone inferred using an elastic block model constrained by the pre-2010 GPS measurements is ~1 mm/yr in a sense consistent with normal fault motion. However, continuous GPS measurements throughout Arizona reveal pronounced changes in crustal velocity following the EMC earthquake, such that the relative motion across the Santa Rita fault post-2010 is negligible. Paleoseismic evidence indicates that mapped Santa Rita fault scarps were formed by two or more large magnitude (M6.7 to M7.6) surface rupturing normal-faulting earthquakes 60 to 100 kyrs ago. Seismic refraction and reflection data constrained by deep (~800 m) well log data provide evidence of progressive, possibly intermittent, displacement on the fault through time. The rate of strain accumulation observed geodetically prior to 2010, if constant over the past 60 to 100 kyrs, would imply an untenable minimum slip rate deficit of 60 to 100 m since the most recent earthquake. One explanation for the available geodetic, seismic, and paleoseismic evidence is that strain accumulation is modulated by viscoelastic relaxation associated with frequent large magnitude earthquakes in the Salton Trough region, episodically inhibiting the accumulation of elastic strain required to generate large earthquakes on the Santa Rita and possibly other faults in the Southern Basin and Range. An important question is thus for how long the postseismic velocity changes

  17. A simple method for estimating basin-scale groundwater discharge by vegetation in the basin and range province of Arizona using remote sensing information and geographic information systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillman, F.D.; Callegary, J.B.; Nagler, P.L.; Glenn, E.P.

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater is a vital water resource in the arid to semi-arid southwestern United States. Accurate accounting of inflows to and outflows from the groundwater system is necessary to effectively manage this shared resource, including the important outflow component of groundwater discharge by vegetation. A simple method for estimating basin-scale groundwater discharge by vegetation is presented that uses remote sensing data from satellites, geographic information systems (GIS) land cover and stream location information, and a regression equation developed within the Southern Arizona study area relating the Enhanced Vegetation Index from the MODIS sensors on the Terra satellite to measured evapotranspiration. Results computed for 16-day composited satellite passes over the study area during the 2000 through 2007 time period demonstrate a sinusoidal pattern of annual groundwater discharge by vegetation with median values ranging from around 0.3 mm per day in the cooler winter months to around 1.5 mm per day during summer. Maximum estimated annual volume of groundwater discharge by vegetation was between 1.4 and 1.9 billion m3 per year with an annual average of 1.6 billion m3. A simplified accounting of the contribution of precipitation to vegetation greenness was developed whereby monthly precipitation data were subtracted from computed vegetation discharge values, resulting in estimates of minimum groundwater discharge by vegetation. Basin-scale estimates of minimum and maximum groundwater discharge by vegetation produced by this simple method are useful bounding values for groundwater budgets and groundwater flow models, and the method may be applicable to other areas with similar vegetation types.

  18. Investigating relativity using lunar laser ranging - Geodetic precession and the Nordtvedt effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickey, J. O.; Newhall, X. X.; Williams, J. G.

    1989-01-01

    The emplacement of retroreflectors on the moon by Apollo astronauts and the Russian Lunakhod spacecraft marked the inception of lunar laser ranging (LLR) and provided a natural laboratory for the study of general relativity. Continuing acquisition of increasingly accurate LLR data has provided enhanced sensitivity to general relativity parameters. Two relativistic effects are investigated in this paper: (1) the Nordtvedt effect, yielding a test of the strong equivalence principle, would appear as a distortion of the geocentric lunar orbit in the direction of the sun. The inclusion of recent LLR data limits the size of any such effect to 3 + or - 4 cm. The sensitivities to the various PPN quantities are also highlighted. (2) the geodetic precession of the lunar perigee is predicted by general relativity as a consequence of the motion of the earth-moon system about the sun; its theoretical magnitude is 19.2 mas/yr. Analysis presented here confirms this value and determines this quality to a 2 percent level.

  19. Breakfast Consumption and Its Associations with Health-Related Behaviors among School-Aged Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study in Zhejiang Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Zhong, Jie-Ming; Wang, Hao; Zhao, Ming; Gong, Wei-Wei; Pan, Jin; Fei, Fang-Rong; Wu, Hai-Bin; Yu, Min

    2016-01-01

    Evidence indicates that breakfast consumption is associated with a cluster of health-related behaviors, yet studies in mainland China are scarce. This study is conducted to describe the frequency of breakfast consumption among Chinese adolescents and examine its associations with other dietary, physical activity, sedentary, sleep, cigarette-smoking, and alcohol-drinking behaviors. Breakfast consumption and other health-related behaviors data was collected via a self-administered questionnaire in a cross-sectional study in Zhejiang Province, China. A total of 19,542 school-aged adolescents were recruited in this survey. The associations between breakfast consumption and other health-related behaviors were examined using logistic regression models. A significantly higher prevalence of daily breakfast consumption was found among students who were younger (p for trend <0.001), from urban schools (p < 0.001), and academic high schools (p < 0.001). More frequent vegetable and milk consumption, greater physical activity, and longer sleep duration were positively associated with daily breakfast consumption, while soft drinks and fast food consumption, computer use, cigarette-smoking and alcohol-drinking behaviors were inversely associated. The prevalence of irregular breakfast consumption was relatively high among Chinese adolescents in Zhejiang Province. Daily breakfast consumption was associated with a constellation of health-related behaviors. PMID:27472357

  20. Breakfast Consumption and Its Associations with Health-Related Behaviors among School-Aged Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study in Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Zhong, Jie-Ming; Wang, Hao; Zhao, Ming; Gong, Wei-Wei; Pan, Jin; Fei, Fang-Rong; Wu, Hai-Bin; Yu, Min

    2016-01-01

    Evidence indicates that breakfast consumption is associated with a cluster of health-related behaviors, yet studies in mainland China are scarce. This study is conducted to describe the frequency of breakfast consumption among Chinese adolescents and examine its associations with other dietary, physical activity, sedentary, sleep, cigarette-smoking, and alcohol-drinking behaviors. Breakfast consumption and other health-related behaviors data was collected via a self-administered questionnaire in a cross-sectional study in Zhejiang Province, China. A total of 19,542 school-aged adolescents were recruited in this survey. The associations between breakfast consumption and other health-related behaviors were examined using logistic regression models. A significantly higher prevalence of daily breakfast consumption was found among students who were younger (p for trend <0.001), from urban schools (p < 0.001), and academic high schools (p < 0.001). More frequent vegetable and milk consumption, greater physical activity, and longer sleep duration were positively associated with daily breakfast consumption, while soft drinks and fast food consumption, computer use, cigarette-smoking and alcohol-drinking behaviors were inversely associated. The prevalence of irregular breakfast consumption was relatively high among Chinese adolescents in Zhejiang Province. Daily breakfast consumption was associated with a constellation of health-related behaviors. PMID:27472357

  1. Geomorphometric reconstruction of post-eruptive surfaces of the Virunga Volcanic Province (East African Rift), constraint of erosion ratio and relative chronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahitte, Pierre; Poppe, Sam; Kervyn, Matthieu

    2016-04-01

    Quaternary volcanic landforms result from a complex evolution, involving volcanic constructional events and destructive ones by collapses and long-term erosion. Quantification, by morphometric approaches, of the evolution through time of the volcano shape allows the estimation of relative ages between volcanoes sharing the same climate and eruptive conditions. We apply such method to six volcanoes of the Virunga Volcanic Province in the western branch of the East African Rift Valley that still has rare geochronological constraints. As they have comparable sizes, volcanic history and erupted products, these edifices may have undergone comparable conditions of erosion which justify the deduction of relative chronology from their erosion pattern. Our GIS-based geomorphometric approach, the SHAPEVOLC algorithm, quantifies erupted or dismantled volumes by numerically modeling topographies resulting from the eruptive construction of each volcano. Constraining points are selected by analyses of morphometric properties of each cell of the current DEM, as the loci where the altitude is still representative of the un-eroded volcanic surfaces. A primary elevation surface is firstly adjusted to these constraining points by modeling a first-order pseudo-radial surface defined by: 1. the curve best fitting the concave-upwards volcano profile; 2. the location and elevation of the volcano summit; and 3. the possible eccentricity and azimuth parameters that allow to stretch and contract contours to adjust the shape of the model to the elliptically-shaped surface of the volcano. A second-order surface is next computed by local adjustment of the first-order surface to the constraining points to obtain the definitive primary elevation surface of the considered volcanic construct. Amount of erosion is obtained by summing the difference in elevation between reconstructed surfaces and current ones that allows to establish relative ages of volcanoes. For the 6 studied Virunga volcanoes

  2. Quality, range, and legibility in web sites related to orofacial functions.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Camila de Castro; Ferrari, Deborah Viviane; Berretin-Felix, Giédre

    2013-10-01

    Introduction Plenty of information about health is available on the Internet; however, quality and legibility are not always evaluated. Knowledge regarding orofacial functions can be considered important for the population because it allows proper stimulus, early diagnosis, and prevention of the oral myofunctional alterations during early infancy. Objective The aim was evaluate the quality, legibility, and range of Web sites available in Brazilian Portuguese regarding the orofacial functions. Methods Selected Web sites with information directed to parents/caregivers of babies regarding breast-feeding, feeding after 6 months, deleterious oral habits, and breathing and speech were studied. The Web sites were evaluated through the application of Flesch Reading Ease Test and aspects of the Health on the Net (HON) modified code (HONCode); the range of the subjects addressed was compared with other aspects of infant development. Results From the access of 350 pages of the Internet, 35 Web sites were selected and 315 excluded because they did not meet the inclusion criteria. In relation to legibility, Web sites scored an average of 61.23% in the Flesch Test, and the application of the modified HONCode showed an average of 6.43 points; an average of 2.49 subjects were found per Web site evaluated, with information on breast-feeding being more frequent and subjects such as breathing and speech less frequent. Conclusions Web sites that deal with orofacial functions presented standard legibility classification. Only half of the ethical principles were considered by the modified HONCode in their majority, and most addressed subjects after "breast-feeding" were presented with restricted range. PMID:25992036

  3. Quality, Range, and Legibility in Web Sites Related to Orofacial Functions

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa, Camila de Castro; Ferrari, Deborah Viviane; Berretin-Felix, Giédre

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Plenty of information about health is available on the Internet; however, quality and legibility are not always evaluated. Knowledge regarding orofacial functions can be considered important for the population because it allows proper stimulus, early diagnosis, and prevention of the oral myofunctional alterations during early infancy. Objective The aim was evaluate the quality, legibility, and range of Web sites available in Brazilian Portuguese regarding the orofacial functions. Methods Selected Web sites with information directed to parents/caregivers of babies regarding breast-feeding, feeding after 6 months, deleterious oral habits, and breathing and speech were studied. The Web sites were evaluated through the application of Flesch Reading Ease Test and aspects of the Health on the Net (HON) modified code (HONCode); the range of the subjects addressed was compared with other aspects of infant development. Results From the access of 350 pages of the Internet, 35 Web sites were selected and 315 excluded because they did not meet the inclusion criteria. In relation to legibility, Web sites scored an average of 61.23% in the Flesch Test, and the application of the modified HONCode showed an average of 6.43 points; an average of 2.49 subjects were found per Web site evaluated, with information on breast-feeding being more frequent and subjects such as breathing and speech less frequent. Conclusions Web sites that deal with orofacial functions presented standard legibility classification. Only half of the ethical principles were considered by the modified HONCode in their majority, and most addressed subjects after “breast-feeding” were presented with restricted range. PMID:25992036

  4. Discovery of parvovirus-related sequences in an unexpected broad range of animals

    PubMed Central

    François, S.; Filloux, D.; Roumagnac, P.; Bigot, D.; Gayral, P.; Martin, D. P.; Froissart, R.; Ogliastro, M.

    2016-01-01

    Our knowledge of the genetic diversity and host ranges of viruses is fragmentary. This is particularly true for the Parvoviridae family. Genetic diversity studies of single stranded DNA viruses within this family have been largely focused on arthropod- and vertebrate-infecting species that cause diseases of humans and our domesticated animals: a focus that has biased our perception of parvovirus diversity. While metagenomics approaches could help rectify this bias, so too could transcriptomics studies. Large amounts of transcriptomic data are available for a diverse array of animal species and whenever this data has inadvertently been gathered from virus-infected individuals, it could contain detectable viral transcripts. We therefore performed a systematic search for parvovirus-related sequences (PRSs) within publicly available transcript, genome and protein databases and eleven new transcriptome datasets. This revealed 463 PRSs in the transcript databases of 118 animals. At least 41 of these PRSs are likely integrated within animal genomes in that they were also found within genomic sequence databases. Besides illuminating the ubiquity of parvoviruses, the number of parvoviral sequences discovered within public databases revealed numerous previously unknown parvovirus-host combinations; particularly in invertebrates. Our findings suggest that the host-ranges of extant parvoviruses might span the entire animal kingdom. PMID:27600734

  5. Discovery of parvovirus-related sequences in an unexpected broad range of animals.

    PubMed

    François, S; Filloux, D; Roumagnac, P; Bigot, D; Gayral, P; Martin, D P; Froissart, R; Ogliastro, M

    2016-01-01

    Our knowledge of the genetic diversity and host ranges of viruses is fragmentary. This is particularly true for the Parvoviridae family. Genetic diversity studies of single stranded DNA viruses within this family have been largely focused on arthropod- and vertebrate-infecting species that cause diseases of humans and our domesticated animals: a focus that has biased our perception of parvovirus diversity. While metagenomics approaches could help rectify this bias, so too could transcriptomics studies. Large amounts of transcriptomic data are available for a diverse array of animal species and whenever this data has inadvertently been gathered from virus-infected individuals, it could contain detectable viral transcripts. We therefore performed a systematic search for parvovirus-related sequences (PRSs) within publicly available transcript, genome and protein databases and eleven new transcriptome datasets. This revealed 463 PRSs in the transcript databases of 118 animals. At least 41 of these PRSs are likely integrated within animal genomes in that they were also found within genomic sequence databases. Besides illuminating the ubiquity of parvoviruses, the number of parvoviral sequences discovered within public databases revealed numerous previously unknown parvovirus-host combinations; particularly in invertebrates. Our findings suggest that the host-ranges of extant parvoviruses might span the entire animal kingdom. PMID:27600734

  6. Parental accommodation of child anxiety and related symptoms: range, impact, and correlates.

    PubMed

    Thompson-Hollands, Johanna; Kerns, Caroline E; Pincus, Donna B; Comer, Jonathan S

    2014-12-01

    Parental accommodation--i.e., changes in parents' behavior in attempts to prevent or reduce child distress--has been most studied in relation to OCD. Although recent work suggests parents of children with non-OCD anxiety diagnoses also engage in accommodation, little is known about the specific forms, correlates, and associated interference of such accommodation. The present study examined the range and associated interference of parental accommodation behaviors using the newly developed Family Accommodation Checklist and Interference Scale (FACLIS) in a sample of the parents of 71 clinic-referred children with anxiety disorders (NMothers-68; NFathers-51). The FACLIS demonstrated good reliability and validity. Ninety-seven percent of mothers and 88% of fathers reported engaging in at least one type of accommodation in the previous two weeks, with parents reporting an average of roughly 4 interfering parental accommodation behaviors. Greater parental accommodation and associated interference were associated with higher maternal distress. Among the anxiety disorders, accommodation was most strongly associated with generalized and separation anxiety disorder, as well as specific phobias. Findings (a) offer psychometric support for the FACLIS as a reliable and valid tool for the assessment of accommodation range and impact, and (b) help clarify the considerable scope and interference associated with parental accommodation of childhood anxiety. PMID:25261837

  7. Parental accommodation of child anxiety and related symptoms: Range, impact, and correlates

    PubMed Central

    Thompson-Hollands, Johanna; Kerns, Caroline E.; Pincus, Donna B.; Comer, Jonathan S.

    2014-01-01

    Parental accommodation—i.e., changes in parents’ behavior in attempts to prevent or reduce child distress—has been most studied in relation to OCD. Although recent work suggests parents of children with non-OCD anxiety diagnoses also engage in accommodation, little is known about the specific forms, correlates, and associated interference of such accommodation. The present study examined the range and associated interference of parental accommodation behaviors using the newly developed Family Accommodation Checklist and Interference Scale (FACLIS) in a sample of the parents of 71 clinic-referred children with anxiety disorders (NMothers = 68; NFathers= 51). The FACLIS demonstrated good reliability and validity. Ninety-seven percent of mothers and 88% of fathers reported engaging in at least one type of accommodation in the previous two weeks, with parents reporting an average of roughly 4 interfering parental accommodation behaviors. Greater parental accommodation and associated interference were associated with higher maternal distress. Among the anxiety disorders, accommodation was most strongly associated with generalized and separation anxiety disorder, as well as specific phobias. Findings (a) offer psychometric support for the FACLIS as a reliable and valid tool for the assessment of accommodation range and impact, and (b) help clarify the considerable scope and interference associated with parental accommodation of childhood anxiety. PMID:25261837

  8. BEST1-related autosomal dominant vitreoretinochoroidopathy: a degenerative disease with a range of developmental ocular anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, A; McAlister, C; VandenHoven, C; Héon, E

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To describe the spectrum of phenotypic characteristics of BEST1-related autosomal dominant vitreoretinochoroidopathy (ADVIRC) in a family with p.V86M mutation. Methods A retrospective review of the clinical, psychophysical, and electrophysiological phenotypes of six subjects with ADVIRC. Five family members were sequenced for mutations in the BEST1gene. Results A heterozygous change, p.V86M (c.256G>A), was identified in the BEST1gene in the three affected subjects tested, and was shown to segregate with the disease phenotype. The distance visual acuity ranged from ⩾20/25 to absent perception of light. Clinical features observed included angle closure glaucoma (n=2), microcornea with shallow anterior chamber (n=1), iris dysgenesis (n=2), cataracts (n=4), classical peripheral concentric band of retinal hyperpigmentation (n=5), and optic nerve dysplasia (n=1). Full-field electroretinogram response amplitudes ranged from low normal (two cases; 27 and 32 years) to non-recordable (two cases; 42 and 63 years). Goldmann fields were normal in two (27 and 28 years) but were abnormal in two older subjects. Optical coherence tomography showed macular thinning in the proband, whereas his affected daughter had normal macular thickness. Electro-oculography showed borderline Arden's ratio (1.50) in the lone case tested (27 years). Conclusion ADVIRC is a slowly progressive vitreoretinal degeneration that demonstrates marked intra-familial phenotypic variability. Optic nerve dysplasia and iris dysgenesis are novel observations that extend the ocular phenotype of ADVIRC. PMID:21072067

  9. Magnetic subdomains of the High Arctic Magnetic High - Speculations and implications for understanding of the High Arctic Large Igneous Province and related tectonics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saltus, R. W.; Oakey, G. N.

    2015-12-01

    The crustal magnetic anomaly pattern for the high Arctic is dominated by a 1.3 x 106 km2 roughly oval domain of magnetic high, the High Arctic Magnetic High (HAMH) that includes numerous linear and curvi-linear shorter wavelength magnetic highs and lows with no single overall trend. Previous workers (including us) have associated this magnetic domain with the intrusive and extrusive mafic rocks of the High Arctic Large Igneous Province (HALIP). The HAMH shows the HALIP to be roughly the same size as other more well-known LIPs such as the Deccan Traps. The broad crustal magnetic character of LIPs is similar (and distinctive from non-LIP regions) worldwide. We identify 5 general subdomains and further distinguish 2 or 3 sections within each subdomain. We examine matched filter magnetic anomaly depth slices and the bathymetric and gravimetric expression of each sub-domain. Subdomains I and II associated respectively with the Mendeleev and Alpha Ridges have the deepest crustal roots. Subdomain III spans most of the central HAMH between I and II and has a distinctly less magnetic core. Subdomain IV on the Canadian margin side appears transitional to the relatively non-magnetic deep Canada Basin. Subdomain V is a zone of parallel magnetic highs at 90 degrees to the trend of the adjacent Lomonosov Ridge. Subdomains I and II may represent the deep cores of two smaller mantle plume heads that contributed to the overall HALIP. The presence of two plumes might serve to explain the two separate clusters of age dates (80 - 90 Ma and 120 - 130 Ma) found on igneous rocks surrounding and dredged from the HALIP region, and two stratigraphic sequence boundaries and extinction events associated with those time ranges. The boundaries between the magnetic subdomains might coincide with tectonic zones related to the post-LIP complex tectonic history of the Amerasian basin. A linear, through-going boundary that bisects the HAMH and runs perpendicular to the trend of the Lomonosov ridge

  10. Long-Range Temporal Correlations, Multifractality, and the Causal Relation between Neural Inputs and Movements

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jing; Zheng, Yi; Gao, Jianbo

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the causal relation between neural inputs and movements is very important for the success of brain-machine interfaces (BMIs). In this study, we analyze 104 neurons’ firings using statistical, information theoretic, and fractal analysis. The latter include Fano factor analysis, multifractal adaptive fractal analysis (MF-AFA), and wavelet multifractal analysis. We find neuronal firings are highly non-stationary, and Fano factor analysis always indicates long-range correlations in neuronal firings, irrespective of whether those firings are correlated with movement trajectory or not, and thus does not reveal any actual correlations between neural inputs and movements. On the other hand, MF-AFA and wavelet multifractal analysis clearly indicate that when neuronal firings are not well correlated with movement trajectory, they do not have or only have weak temporal correlations. When neuronal firings are well correlated with movements, they are characterized by very strong temporal correlations, up to a time scale comparable to the average time between two successive reaching tasks. This suggests that neurons well correlated with hand trajectory experienced a “re-setting” effect at the start of each reaching task, in the sense that within the movement correlated neurons the spike trains’ long-range dependences persisted about the length of time the monkey used to switch between task executions. A new task execution re-sets their activity, making them only weakly correlated with their prior activities on longer time scales. We further discuss the significance of the coalition of those important neurons in executing cortical control of prostheses. PMID:24130549

  11. Long-Range Temporal Correlations, Multifractality, and the Causal Relation between Neural Inputs and Movements.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jing; Zheng, Yi; Gao, Jianbo

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the causal relation between neural inputs and movements is very important for the success of brain-machine interfaces (BMIs). In this study, we analyze 104 neurons' firings using statistical, information theoretic, and fractal analysis. The latter include Fano factor analysis, multifractal adaptive fractal analysis (MF-AFA), and wavelet multifractal analysis. We find neuronal firings are highly non-stationary, and Fano factor analysis always indicates long-range correlations in neuronal firings, irrespective of whether those firings are correlated with movement trajectory or not, and thus does not reveal any actual correlations between neural inputs and movements. On the other hand, MF-AFA and wavelet multifractal analysis clearly indicate that when neuronal firings are not well correlated with movement trajectory, they do not have or only have weak temporal correlations. When neuronal firings are well correlated with movements, they are characterized by very strong temporal correlations, up to a time scale comparable to the average time between two successive reaching tasks. This suggests that neurons well correlated with hand trajectory experienced a "re-setting" effect at the start of each reaching task, in the sense that within the movement correlated neurons the spike trains' long-range dependences persisted about the length of time the monkey used to switch between task executions. A new task execution re-sets their activity, making them only weakly correlated with their prior activities on longer time scales. We further discuss the significance of the coalition of those important neurons in executing cortical control of prostheses. PMID:24130549

  12. Accurate Measurements of Aerosol Hygroscopic Growth over a Wide Range in Relative Humidity.

    PubMed

    Rovelli, Grazia; Miles, Rachael E H; Reid, Jonathan P; Clegg, Simon L

    2016-06-30

    Using a comparative evaporation kinetics approach, we describe a new and accurate method for determining the equilibrium hygroscopic growth of aerosol droplets. The time-evolving size of an aqueous droplet, as it evaporates to a steady size and composition that is in equilibrium with the gas phase relative humidity, is used to determine the time-dependent mass flux of water, yielding information on the vapor pressure of water above the droplet surface at every instant in time. Accurate characterization of the gas phase relative humidity is provided from a control measurement of the evaporation profile of a droplet of know equilibrium properties, either a pure water droplet or a sodium chloride droplet. In combination, and by comparison with simulations that account for both the heat and mass transport governing the droplet evaporation kinetics, these measurements allow accurate retrieval of the equilibrium properties of the solution droplet (i.e., the variations with water activity in the mass fraction of solute, diameter growth factor, osmotic coefficient or number of water molecules per solute molecule). Hygroscopicity measurements can be made over a wide range in water activity (from >0.99 to, in principle, <0.05) on time scales of <10 s for droplets containing involatile or volatile solutes. The approach is benchmarked for binary and ternary inorganic solution aerosols with typical uncertainties in water activity of <±0.2% at water activities >0.9 and ∼±1% below 80% RH, and maximum uncertainties in diameter growth factor of ±0.7%. For all of the inorganic systems examined, the time-dependent data are consistent with large values of the mass accommodation (or evaporation) coefficient (>0.1). PMID:27285052

  13. Point Cloud Based Relative Pose Estimation of a Satellite in Close Range

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lujiang; Zhao, Gaopeng; Bo, Yuming

    2016-01-01

    Determination of the relative pose of satellites is essential in space rendezvous operations and on-orbit servicing missions. The key problems are the adoption of suitable sensor on board of a chaser and efficient techniques for pose estimation. This paper aims to estimate the pose of a target satellite in close range on the basis of its known model by using point cloud data generated by a flash LIDAR sensor. A novel model based pose estimation method is proposed; it includes a fast and reliable pose initial acquisition method based on global optimal searching by processing the dense point cloud data directly, and a pose tracking method based on Iterative Closest Point algorithm. Also, a simulation system is presented in this paper in order to evaluate the performance of the sensor and generate simulated sensor point cloud data. It also provides truth pose of the test target so that the pose estimation error can be quantified. To investigate the effectiveness of the proposed approach and achievable pose accuracy, numerical simulation experiments are performed; results demonstrate algorithm capability of operating with point cloud directly and large pose variations. Also, a field testing experiment is conducted and results show that the proposed method is effective. PMID:27271633

  14. Point Cloud Based Relative Pose Estimation of a Satellite in Close Range.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lujiang; Zhao, Gaopeng; Bo, Yuming

    2016-01-01

    Determination of the relative pose of satellites is essential in space rendezvous operations and on-orbit servicing missions. The key problems are the adoption of suitable sensor on board of a chaser and efficient techniques for pose estimation. This paper aims to estimate the pose of a target satellite in close range on the basis of its known model by using point cloud data generated by a flash LIDAR sensor. A novel model based pose estimation method is proposed; it includes a fast and reliable pose initial acquisition method based on global optimal searching by processing the dense point cloud data directly, and a pose tracking method based on Iterative Closest Point algorithm. Also, a simulation system is presented in this paper in order to evaluate the performance of the sensor and generate simulated sensor point cloud data. It also provides truth pose of the test target so that the pose estimation error can be quantified. To investigate the effectiveness of the proposed approach and achievable pose accuracy, numerical simulation experiments are performed; results demonstrate algorithm capability of operating with point cloud directly and large pose variations. Also, a field testing experiment is conducted and results show that the proposed method is effective. PMID:27271633

  15. The relation of signal transduction to the sensitivity and dynamic range of bacterial chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Namba, Toshinori; Nishikawa, Masatoshi; Shibata, Tatsuo

    2012-09-19

    Complex networks of interacting molecular components of living cells are responsible for many important processes, such as signal processing and transduction. An important challenge is to understand how the individual properties of these molecular interactions and biochemical transformations determine the system-level properties of biological functions. Here, we address the issue of the accuracy of signal transduction performed by a bacterial chemotaxis system. The chemotaxis sensitivity of bacteria to a chemoattractant gradient has been measured experimentally from bacterial aggregation in a chemoattractant-containing capillary. The observed precision of the chemotaxis depended on environmental conditions such as the concentration and molecular makeup of the chemoattractant. In a quantitative model, we derived the chemotactic response function, which is essential to describing the signal transduction process involved in bacterial chemotaxis. In the presence of a gradient, an analytical solution is derived that reveals connections between the chemotaxis sensitivity and the characteristics of the signaling system, such as reaction rates. These biochemical parameters are integrated into two system-level parameters: one characterizes the efficiency of gradient sensing, and the other is related to the dynamic range of chemotaxis. Thus, our approach explains how a particular signal transduction property affects the system-level performance of bacterial chemotaxis. We further show that the two parameters can be derived from published experimental data from a capillary assay, which successfully characterizes the performance of bacterial chemotaxis. PMID:22995512

  16. The scaling relations of early-type dwarf galaxies across a range of environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penny, Samantha J.; Janz, Joachim; Forbes, Duncan A.; Benson, Andrew J.; Mould, Jeremy

    2015-11-01

    We present the results of a Keck-ESI study of dwarf galaxies across a range of environment: the Perseus Cluster, the Virgo Cluster, the NGC 1407 group, and the NGC 1023 group. 18 dwarf ellipticals (dEs) are targeted for spectroscopy, three for the first time. We confirm cluster membership for one Virgo dE, and group membership for one dE in the NGC 1023 group, and one dE in the NGC 1407 group for the first time. Regardless of environment, the dEs follow the same size-magnitude and σ-luminosity relation. Two of the Virgo dwarfs, VCC 1199 and VCC 1627, have among the highest central velocity dispersions (σ0 = 58.4 and 49.2 km s-1) measured for dwarfs of their luminosity (MR ≈ -17). Given their small sizes (Re < 300 pc) and large central velocity dispersions, we classify these two dwarfs as compact ellipticals (cEs) rather than dEs. Group dEs typically have higher mean dynamical-to-stellar mass ratios than the cluster dEs, with Mdyn/M⋆ = 5.1 ± 0.6 for the group dwarfs, versus Mdyn/M⋆ = 2.2 ± 0.5 for the cluster sample, which includes two cEs. We also search for trends in Mdyn/M⋆ versus distance from M87 for the Virgo Cluster population, and find no preference for dwarfs with high values of Mdyn/M⋆ to reside in the cluster outskirts dyn centre.

  17. Comment on 'Zero-range potentials for Dirac particles: Scattering and related continuum problems'

    SciTech Connect

    Coutinho, F. A. B.; Nogami, Y.

    2006-02-15

    In a recent paper, Szmytkowski proposed zero-range potentials for Dirac particles in three space dimensions. On the other hand, there is a theorem, proved by Svendsen a long time ago, which implies that zero-range potentials cannot be defined for the Dirac equation in two and three space dimensions. We discuss a difficulty that underlies Szmytkowski's approach.

  18. Dynamical orbital effects of general relativity on the satellite-to-satellite range and range-rate in the GRACE mission: A sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iorio, Lorenzo

    2012-08-01

    We numerically investigate the impact of the General Theory of Relativity (GTR) on the orbital part of the satellite-to-satellite range ρ and range-rate ρ˙ of the twin GRACE A/B spacecrafts through their post-Newtonian (PN) dynamical equations of motion integrated in an Earth-centered frame over a time span ΔP=1d. The present-day accuracies in measuring the GRACE biased range and range-rate are σρ˜1-10μm,σ˜0.1-1μms-1. The GTR range and range-rate effects turn out to be Δρ=80μm and Δρ˙=0.012μms-1 (1PN gravitomagnetic), and Δρ=6000μm and Δρ˙=10μms-1 (1PN gravitoelectric). It turns out that the range shifts Δρ corresponding to the GTR-induced time delays Δt on the propagation of the electromagnetic waves linking the GRACE spacecrafts are either negligible (1PN gravitomagnetic) or smaller (1PN gravitoelectric) than the orbital effects by about 1 order of magnitude over ΔP=1d. We also compute the dynamical range and range-rate perturbations caused by the first six zonal harmonic coefficients Jℓ,ℓ=2,3,4,5,6,7 of the classical multipolar expansion of the geopotential to evaluate their aliasing impact on the relativistic effects. Conversely, we quantitatively, and preliminarily, assess the possible a-priori "imprinting" of GTR itself, not solved-for in all the GRACE-based Earth's gravity models produced so far, on the low degree zonals of the geopotential. The present sensitivity analysis can also be extended, in principle, to different orbital configurations in order to design a suitable dedicated mission able to accurately measure GTR. Moreover, it may be the starting point for more refined numerical investigations concerning the actual measurability of the relativistic effects involving, e.g., a simulation of full GRACE data, including GTR itself, and the consequent parameters' estimation. Finally, also other non-classical dynamical features of motion, caused by, e.g., modified models of gravity, may be considered in further studies.

  19. Shallow subsurface temperature surveys in the basin and range province-II. Ground temperatures in the upsal hogback geothermal area, West-Central Nevada, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olmsted, F.H.; Ingebritsen, S.E.

    1986-01-01

    Numerous temperature surveys at a depth of 1 m were made in 1973-1985 in the Upsal Hogback and Soda Lakes geothermal areas in west-central Nevada. Whereas the surveys effectively delineated temperature at depth and heat flow within the relatively intense Soda Lakes thermal anomaly, they were not effective at the diffuse Upsal Hogback anomaly, where several perturbing factors that affect shallow subsurface temperatures are exceedingly variable. Albedo is the most important factor in the Upsal Hogback area, even at a depth of 30 m. All possible perturbing factors should be considered when designing a shallow temperature-based prospecting scheme. ?? 1986.

  20. The North Atlantic Igneous Province reconstructed and its relation to the Plume Generation Zone: the Antrim Lava Group revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganerød, M.; Smethurst, M. A.; Torsvik, T. H.; Prestvik, T.; Rousse, S.; McKenna, C.; van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.; Hendriks, B. W. H.

    2010-07-01

    Large igneous provinces (LIPs) have recently been suggested to originate at the edges of low-velocity zones on the core mantle boundary (Plume Generation Zones). If true, LIPs can potentially be used to constrain paleolongitude in plate tectonic reconstructions. To validate the hypothesis, it is essential to study LIPs of which the paleolongitude can be constrained by other methods, such as hotspot reference frames. An ideal candidate to this end is the early Cenozoic North Atlantic Igneous Province (NAIP). Despite being the largest volcanic unit of the British Tertiary Igneous Province (BTIP, part of the NAIP), the age and paleoposition of the Antrim Lava Group (ALG) in Northern Ireland, which is key to the NAIP as a whole, was hitherto poorly constrained. In this paper, we therefore present an integrated high-resolution paleomagnetic and geochronological study. The ALG is divided into three formations: the Lower Basalt Formation (LBF), Interbasaltic Formation (IBF) and the Upper Basalt Formation (UBF). The IBF is mostly lateritic and encloses the Tardree rhyolite. We offer new age constraints from all three formations using the 40Ar/39Ar method and propose that 62.6 +/- 0.3, 61.3 +/- 0.3 and 59.6 +/- 0.3 Ma (1σ, internal uncertainties) are sound estimates of the age of emplacement of the LBF, Tardree rhyolite (IBF) and UBF, respectively. This constrains the nominal duration of emplacement of the ALG to 3 +/- 0.6 Ma (1σ). This reevaluation of the magnetic signature in the ALG revealed reverse polarity remanence in all three formations and an overall paleomagnetic north pole at latitude 78.9°N, longitude 167°E (A95 = 6.3; age ~61 Ma) in the European reference system. This appears consistent with paleomagnetic poles from the rest of the NAIP; both in Europe and Greenland, as well as predictions from modern apparent polar wander paths. The new radiometric ages span magnetochron C26r, C27n and C27r. The normal polarity chron C27n most probably occurred during the

  1. Prevalence of helminth parasites in free-range chickens from selected rural communities in KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mukaratirwa, S; Khumalo, M P

    2010-06-01

    A total of 79 chickens were randomly collected from 4 rural localities and processed to detect the presence of helminth parasites and their prevalences. Sixteen helminth species comprising 12 nematode and 4 cestode species were recorded from the 4 localities. Syngamus trachea and Cyathostoma spp. were the only helminth species recovered from the respiratory tract and the rest of the helminth species were from the gastrointestinal tract. The most prevalent nematode species across the 4 localities were Heterakis gallinarum (prevalence range 80-94.4%), Gongylonema ingluvicola (43.3-867%), Tetrameres american (53.3-66.7%) and Ascaridia galli (22.2-43.8%) and for cestode species, Raillietina tetragona (16.7-40%) and Skrijabinia cesticillus (3.3-13.3%) were the most prevalent in that order. Heterakis gallinarum and T americana had the highest intensity of infection in chickens across all the rural areas compared with other helminth species. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) observed in the sex distribution for As. galli, Baruscapillaria obsignata (syn. Capillaria obsignata), Eucoleus annulatus (syn. Capillaria annulata), Eucoleus contortus (syn. Capillaria contorta) and Subulura suctoria among the 4 rural areas. However, a significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed in the intensity of infection of both males and females for H. gallinarum and T americana across the 4 localities studied. Tetrameres americana, A. galli, C. obsignata and C. annulata had prevalence and number of females higher than that of males, while H. gallinarum showed the opposite. Prevalence of H. gallinarum and T. americana as determined by faecal egg count were much lower compared with the prevalence as determined by post mortem examination, confirming the limitation of using faecal samples in determining the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth parasites in chickens. PMID:21247015

  2. Relative Burden of Large CNVs on a Range of Neurodevelopmental Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Girirajan, Santhosh; Brkanac, Zoran; Coe, Bradley P.; Baker, Carl; Vives, Laura; Vu, Tiffany H.; Shafer, Neil; Bernier, Raphael; Ferrero, Giovanni B.; Silengo, Margherita; Warren, Stephen T.; Moreno, Carlos S.; Fichera, Marco; Romano, Corrado; Raskind, Wendy H.; Eichler, Evan E.

    2011-01-01

    While numerous studies have implicated copy number variants (CNVs) in a range of neurological phenotypes, the impact relative to disease severity has been difficult to ascertain due to small sample sizes, lack of phenotypic details, and heterogeneity in platforms used for discovery. Using a customized microarray enriched for genomic hotspots, we assayed for large CNVs among 1,227 individuals with various neurological deficits including dyslexia (376), sporadic autism (350), and intellectual disability (ID) (501), as well as 337 controls. We show that the frequency of large CNVs (>1 Mbp) is significantly greater for ID–associated phenotypes compared to autism (p = 9.58×10−11, odds ratio = 4.59), dyslexia (p = 3.81×10−18, odds ratio = 14.45), or controls (p = 2.75×10−17, odds ratio = 13.71). There is a striking difference in the frequency of rare CNVs (>50 kbp) in autism (10%, p = 2.4×10−6, odds ratio = 6) or ID (16%, p = 3.55×10−12, odds ratio = 10) compared to dyslexia (2%) with essentially no difference in large CNV burden among dyslexia patients compared to controls. Rare CNVs were more likely to arise de novo (64%) in ID when compared to autism (40%) or dyslexia (0%). We observed a significantly increased large CNV burden in individuals with ID and multiple congenital anomalies (MCA) compared to ID alone (p = 0.001, odds ratio = 2.54). Our data suggest that large CNV burden positively correlates with the severity of childhood disability: ID with MCA being most severely affected and dyslexics being indistinguishable from controls. When autism without ID was considered separately, the increase in CNV burden was modest compared to controls (p = 0.07, odds ratio = 2.33). PMID:22102821

  3. The Relation of Power of Statistical Tests to Range of Talent: A Correction and Amplification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Lloyd G.

    1991-01-01

    The difference in effect on power of restriction of range between treatments under experimental control and categories formed from examinee (individual differences) variables is discussed. Conditions under which there is loss or increase of power are explained. (SLD)

  4. Range modulation in proton therapy planning: a simple method for mitigating effects of increased relative biological effectiveness at the end-of-range of clinical proton beams

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The increase in relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of proton beams at the distal edge of the spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) is a well-known phenomenon that is difficult to quantify accurately in vivo. For purposes of treatment planning, disallowing the distal SOBP to fall within vulnerable tissues hampers sparing to the extent possible with proton beam therapy (PBT). We propose the distal RBE uncertainty may be straightforwardly mitigated with a technique we call “range modulation”. With range modulation, the distal falloff is smeared, reducing both the dose and average RBE over the terminal few millimeters of the SOBP. Methods One patient plan was selected to serve as an example for direct comparison of image-guided radiotherapy plans using non-range modulation PBT (NRMPBT), and range-modulation PBT (RMPBT). An additional plan using RMPBT was created to represent a re-treatment scenario (RMPBTrt) using a vertex beam. Planning statistics regarding dose, volume of the planning targets, and color images of the plans are shown. Results The three plans generated for this patient reveal that in all cases dosimetric and device manufacturing advantages are able to be achieved using RMPBT. Organ at risk (OAR) doses to critical structures such as the cochleae, optic apparatus, hypothalamus, and temporal lobes can be selectively spared using this method. Concerns about the location of the RBE that did significantly impact beam selection and treatment planning no longer have the same impact on the process, allowing these structures to be spared dose and subsequent associated issues. Conclusions This present study has illustrated that RMPBT can improve OAR sparing while giving equivalent coverage to target volumes relative to traditional PBT methods while avoiding the increased RBE at the end of the beam. It has proven easy to design and implement and robust in our planning process. The method underscores the need to optimize treatment plans in PBT for both

  5. Home Range Size Variation in Female Arctic Grizzly Bears Relative to Reproductive Status and Resource Availability

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Mark A.; Derocher, Andrew E.; Nagy, John A.

    2013-01-01

    The area traversed in pursuit of resources defines the size of an animal’s home range. For females, the home range is presumed to be a function of forage availability. However, the presence of offspring may also influence home range size due to reduced mobility, increased nutritional need, and behavioral adaptations of mothers to increase offspring survival. Here, we examine the relationship between resource use and variation in home range size for female barren-ground grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) of the Mackenzie Delta region in Arctic Canada. We develop methods to test hypotheses of home range size that address selection of cover where cover heterogeneity is low, using generalized linear mixed-effects models and an information-theoretic approach. We found that the reproductive status of female grizzlies affected home range size but individually-based spatial availability of highly selected cover in spring and early summer was a stronger correlate. If these preferred covers in spring and early summer, a period of low resource availability for grizzly bears following den-emergence, were patchy and highly dispersed, females travelled farther regardless of the presence or absence of offspring. Increased movement to preferred covers, however, may result in greater risk to the individual or family. PMID:23844162

  6. Home range size variation in female arctic grizzly bears relative to reproductive status and resource availability.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Mark A; Derocher, Andrew E; Nagy, John A

    2013-01-01

    The area traversed in pursuit of resources defines the size of an animal's home range. For females, the home range is presumed to be a function of forage availability. However, the presence of offspring may also influence home range size due to reduced mobility, increased nutritional need, and behavioral adaptations of mothers to increase offspring survival. Here, we examine the relationship between resource use and variation in home range size for female barren-ground grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) of the Mackenzie Delta region in Arctic Canada. We develop methods to test hypotheses of home range size that address selection of cover where cover heterogeneity is low, using generalized linear mixed-effects models and an information-theoretic approach. We found that the reproductive status of female grizzlies affected home range size but individually-based spatial availability of highly selected cover in spring and early summer was a stronger correlate. If these preferred covers in spring and early summer, a period of low resource availability for grizzly bears following den-emergence, were patchy and highly dispersed, females travelled farther regardless of the presence or absence of offspring. Increased movement to preferred covers, however, may result in greater risk to the individual or family. PMID:23844162

  7. Geothermal Reservoir Assessment Case Study: Northern Basin and Range Province, Leach Hot Springs Area, Pershing County, Nevada. Final report, April 1979-December 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    A Geothermal Reservoir Assessment Case Study was conducted in the Leach Hot Springs Known Geothermal Resource Area of Pershing County, Nevada. The case study included the drilling of twenty-three temperature gradient wells, a magnetotelluric survey, seismic data acquisition and processing, and the drilling of one exploratory well. Existing data from prior investigations, which included water geochemistry, gravity, photogeologic reports and a hydrothermal alteration study, was also provided. The exploratory well was drilled to total depth of 8565' with no significant mud losses or other drilling problems. A maximum temperature of 260/sup 0/F was recorded at total depth. The relatively low temperature and the lack of permeability (as shown by absence of mud loss) indicated that a current, economic geothermal resource had not been located, and the well was subsequently plugged and abandoned. However, the type and extent of rock alteration found implied that an extensive hot water system had existed in this area at an earlier time. This report is a synopsis of the case study activities and the data obtained from these activities.

  8. Hydrochemistry of the hot springs in western Sichuan province related to the Wenchuan MS 8.0 earthquake.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi; Du, Jianguo; Zhou, Xiaocheng; Yi, Li; Liu, Lei; Xie, Chao; Cui, Yueju; Li, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogeochemistry of 32 hot springs in the western Sichuan Province after the Wenchuan MS 8.0 earthquake was investigated by analyzing the concentrations of cation and anion and the isotopic compositions of hydrogen and oxygen. The water samples of the hot springs were collected four times from June 2008 to April 2010. Hydrogeochemical data indicated the water samples can be classified into 9 chemical types. Values of δ D and δ(18)O indicated that the spring waters were mainly derived from meteoric precipitation and affected by water-rock interaction and mixture of deep fluids. Concentrations of K(+)and SO4(-) of the samples from the Kangding district exhibited evident increases before the Wenchuan earthquake, indicating more supplement of deep fluids under the increase of tectonic stress. The chemical and isotopic variations of the water samples from the area closer to the epicenter area can be attributed to variation of regional stress field when the aftershock activities became weak. PMID:24892106

  9. Hydrochemistry of the Hot Springs in Western Sichuan Province Related to the Wenchuan MS 8.0 Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhi; Zhou, Xiaocheng; Yi, Li; Liu, Lei; Xie, Chao; Cui, Yueju; Li, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogeochemistry of 32 hot springs in the western Sichuan Province after the Wenchuan MS 8.0 earthquake was investigated by analyzing the concentrations of cation and anion and the isotopic compositions of hydrogen and oxygen. The water samples of the hot springs were collected four times from June 2008 to April 2010. Hydrogeochemical data indicated the water samples can be classified into 9 chemical types. Values of δD and δ18O indicated that the spring waters were mainly derived from meteoric precipitation and affected by water-rock interaction and mixture of deep fluids. Concentrations of K+and SO4− of the samples from the Kangding district exhibited evident increases before the Wenchuan earthquake, indicating more supplement of deep fluids under the increase of tectonic stress. The chemical and isotopic variations of the water samples from the area closer to the epicenter area can be attributed to variation of regional stress field when the aftershock activities became weak. PMID:24892106

  10. Geologic history of Siletzia, a large igneous province in the Oregon and Washington Coast Range: correlation to the geomagnetic polarity time scale and implications for a long-lived Yellowstone hotspot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, Ray; Bukry, David; Friedman, Richard; Pyle, Douglas; Duncan, Robert; Haeussler, Peter; Wooden, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Siletzia is a basaltic Paleocene and Eocene large igneous province in coastal Oregon, Washington, and southern Vancouver Island that was accreted to North America in the early Eocene. New U-Pb magmatic, detrital zircon, and 40Ar/39Ar ages constrained by detailed field mapping, global nannoplankton zones, and magnetic polarities allow correlation of the volcanics with the 2012 geologic time scale. The data show that Siletzia was rapidly erupted 56–49 Ma, during the Chron 25–22 plate reorganization in the northeast Pacific basin. Accretion was completed between 51 and 49 Ma in Oregon, based on CP11 (CP—Coccolith Paleogene zone) coccoliths in strata overlying onlapping continental sediments. Magmatism continued in the northern Oregon Coast Range until ca. 46 Ma with the emplacement of a regional sill complex during or shortly after accretion. Isotopic signatures similar to early Columbia River basalts, the great crustal thickness of Siletzia in Oregon, rapid eruption, and timing of accretion are consistent with offshore formation as an oceanic plateau. Approximately 8 m.y. after accretion, margin parallel extension of the forearc, emplacement of regional dike swarms, and renewed magmatism of the Tillamook episode peaked at 41.6 Ma (CP zone 14a; Chron 19r). We examine the origin of Siletzia and consider the possible role of a long-lived Yellowstone hotspot using the reconstruction in GPlates, an open source plate model. In most hotspot reference frames, the Yellowstone hotspot (YHS) is on or near an inferred northeast-striking Kula-Farallon and/or Resurrection-Farallon ridge between 60 and 50 Ma. In this configuration, the YHS could have provided a 56–49 Ma source on the Farallon plate for Siletzia, which accreted to North America by 50 Ma. A sister plateau, the Eocene basalt basement of the Yakutat terrane, now in Alaska, formed contemporaneously on the adjacent Kula (or Resurrection) plate and accreted to coastal British Columbia at about the same time

  11. A relation among geology, tectonics, and velocity structure, western to central Nevada Basin and Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Catchings, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    In the northwestern to central Nevada Basin and Range, there are correlations between velocity and specific geologic structures of the crust. Mapped range-bounding faults at the surface can be traced to appreciable (10km) depths based on velocity variations and are consistent with subsurface projections of the faults based on seismic reflection images. Correlations between velocity and the surface geology show that in the upper crust the pre-Cenozoic rocks are underlain by high-velocity rocks, whereas the Tertiary ranges are underlain by lower-velocity rocks to depths as great as 10 km. The regional seismicity pattern is consistent with this interpretation, as earthquakes are largely confined within or near the base of the low-velocity rocks. These low-velocity, highly fractured rocks are laterally distributed in discrete zones, suggesting that extension is not uniformly distributed but occurs in discrete, highly extended zones. -from Author

  12. Timing of ore-related magmatism in the western Alaska Range, southwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Ryan D.; Graham, Garth E.; Anderson, Eric D.; Selby, David

    2014-01-01

    This report presents isotopic age data from mineralized granitic plutons in an area of the Alaska Range located approximately 200 kilometers to the west-northwest of Anchorage in southwestern Alaska. Uranium-lead isotopic data and trace element concentrations of zircons were determined for 12 samples encompassing eight plutonic bodies ranging in age from approximately 76 to 57.4 millions of years ago (Ma). Additionally, a rhenium-osmium age of molybdenite from the Miss Molly molybdenum occurrence is reported (approx. 59 Ma). All of the granitic plutons in this study host gold-, copper-, and (or) molybdenum-rich prospects. These new ages modify previous interpretations regarding the age of magmatic activity and mineralization within the study area. The new ages show that the majority of the gold-quartz vein-hosting plutons examined in this study formed in the Late Cretaceous. Further work is necessary to establish the ages of ore-mineral deposition in these deposits.

  13. Assessing the role of ancient and active geothermal systems in oil-reservoir evolution in the eastern Basin and Range province, western USA. Annual progress report, June 1, 1992--May 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hulen, J.B.

    1993-07-01

    Results of our research on the oil fields of the Basin and Range province of the western USA continue to support the following concept: Convecting, moderate-temperature geothermal systems in this region have fostered and in some cases critically influenced the generation, migration, and entrapment of oil. At one Basin-Range field (Grant Canyon), oil-bearing and aqueous fluid inclusions in late-stage hydrothermal quartz were entrapped at temperatures comparable to those now prevailing at reservoir depths (120--130{degrees}C); apparent salinities of the aqueous varieties match closely the actual salinity of the modern, dilute oil-field waters. The inclusion-bearing quartz has the oxygen-isotopic signature for precipitation of the mineral at contemporary temperatures from modern reservoir waters. Measured and fluid-inclusion temperatures define near-coincident isothermal profiles through the oil-reservoir interval, a phenomenon suggesting ongoing heat and mass transfer. These findings are consistent with a model whereby a still-active, convectively circulating, meteoric-hydrothermal system: (1) enhanced porosity in the reservoir rock through dissolution of carbonate; (2) hydrothermally sealed reservoir margins; (3) transported oil to the reservoirs from a deep source of unknown size and configuration; and (4) possibly accelerated source-rock maturation through an increase in the local thermal budget. Grant Canyon and other Basin-Range oil fields are similar to the oil-bearing, Carlin-type, sediment-hosted, disseminated gold deposits of the nearby Alligator Ridge district. The oil fields could represent either weakly mineralized analogues of these deposits, or perhaps an incipient phase in their evolution.

  14. Relative Navigation Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) Sensor Development Test Objective (DTO) Performance Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) received a request from the NASA Associate Administrator (AA) for Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD), to quantitatively evaluate the individual performance of three light detection and ranging (LIDAR) rendezvous sensors flown as orbiter's development test objective on Space Transportation System (STS)-127, STS-133, STS-134, and STS-135. This document contains the outcome of the NESC assessment.

  15. Comparison of impact forces, accelerations and ankle range of motion in surfing-related landing tasks.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Lina E; Tran, Tai T; Nimphius, Sophia; Raymond, Ellen; Secomb, Josh L; Farley, Oliver R L; Newton, Robert U; Sheppard, Jeremy M

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the impact forces, accelerations and ankle range of motion in five different landing tasks that are used in training and testing for competitive surfing athletes, to assist coaches in the prescription of landing task progression and monitoring training load. Eleven competitive surfing athletes aged 24 ± 7 years participated, and inertial motion sensors were fixed to the anterior aspect of the feet, mid-tibial shafts, sacrum and eighth thoracic vertebrae on these athletes. Three tasks were performed landing on force plates and two tasks in a modified gymnastics set-up used for land-based aerial training. Peak landing force, resultant peak acceleration and front and rear side ankle dorsiflexion ranges of motion during landing were determined. The peak acceleration was approximately 50% higher when performing aerial training using a mini-trampoline and landing on a soft-density foam board, compared to a similar landing off a 50 cm box. Furthermore, the ankle ranges of motion during the gymnastic type landings were significantly lower than the other landing types (P ≤ 0.05 and P ≤ 0.001), for front and rear sides, respectively. Conclusively, increased task complexity and specificity of the sport increased the tibial peak acceleration, indicating greater training load. PMID:26383823

  16. The evaluation of the dust-related occupational respiratory disorders of dental laboratory technicians working in Denizli Province

    PubMed Central

    Yurdasal, Belkıs; Bozkurt, Nurgül; Bozkurt, Ali İhsan; Yilmaz, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Dental laboratory technicians (DLTs) get exposed to fibrinogen dusts that are very risky dusts in terms of health. In this study, respiration complaints, pneumoconiosis frequencies and working conditions of the dental technicians in Denizli were investigated. METHODS: All of the registered DLTs working in Denizli were included in the study. A 30-item questionnaire was used to gather data about the participants and their working environments. Then, pulmonary function tests (PFTs) were carried out and standard chest X-rays were taken in order to detect how much the respiratory systems of the workers were affected. Standard chest X-rays were evaluated according to International Labour Organizations classification. Depending on the screening results, technicians who were found to have had pathologies and suspected cases were examined. “High-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT)” was taken from those who were found to have pathology in their chest X-rays and they were evaluated according to the classification of Hering et al. RESULTS: There are a total of 166 DLTs working in Denizli Province participated in the study. One hundred and forty-three (86.1%) of the participants were male, and 23 of them were female. The mean age of the participants is 33.5 ± 8.1. Average working time of the workers is 16 years. Total exposure time was calculated 36,177 h. Approximately, 56% of workers were smokers. When the working conditions were considered, it was found that 98.8% of laboratories had a ventilation system. Technicians’ use of personal protective equipment is low. Participants’ often or continuous use of masks, gloves, goggles, and vacuum device was found 69%, 36%, 47%, and 63% respectively while working. About 21.2% of the technicians have respiratory symptoms while 15.2% of them have eye complaints. At the analysis of PFT results, 27.7% restrictive type pulmonary disorder was determined. At the analysis of chest X-rays; 1/0 profusion sub

  17. Social support received by multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients and related factors: a cross-sectional study in Zhejiang Province, People’s Republic of China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bin; Peng, Yin; Zhou, Lin; Chai, Chengliang; Yeh, Hui-Chi; Chen, Songhua; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Mingwu; He, Tieniu; Wang, Xiaomeng

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study is to assess the social support received by patients diagnosed with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in Zhejiang Province, People’s Republic of China and the factors that may have influenced it. Methods A total of 220 MDR-TB patients participated in the questionnaire-based survey, and the data from 212 valid questionnaires were analyzed. The respondents reported their sociodemographic status, disease features, and attitudes toward the disease. The social support rating scale was used to measure the patients’ social support scores. An Independent Samples t-test, one-way analysis of variance, and a multiple linear regression model were used to analyze the related factors for the social support scores. Result The average social support score of each MDR-TB patient was 32.56±7.86. Participants who were single, widowed or divorced, retired, and had fewer family members and lower family income were found to have lower social support scores. Participants unwilling to disclose their disease tended to have less social support (31.59<34.23, P=0.010). Participants who perceived great help from health care workers reported higher social support rating scale scores than those who perceived no help (35.36.29.89, P=0.014). Conclusion MDR-TB patients in Zhejiang Province were shown to have a low level of social support. Patients who were not married, had smaller families, and lower family income received less social support, suggesting that family harmony could be an important source of social support. Patients’ self-isolation may contribute to a decrease in the amount of support they receive from their surroundings. Health care organizations need to offer more social support to MDR-TB patients. PMID:27358557

  18. Foraging ranges of insectivorous bats shift relative to changes in mosquito abundance.

    PubMed

    Gonsalves, Leroy; Law, Brad; Webb, Cameron; Monamy, Vaughan

    2013-01-01

    The need to develop effective management strategies for insectivorous bat populations requires an understanding of factors influencing habitat use. Availability of pest prey, such as mosquitoes is likely to be one such factor. To assess whether this is the case, we radio-tracked Vespadelus vulturnus Thomas (little forest bat), a predator of Aedes vigilax Skuse (saltmarsh mosquito), in saltmarsh and adjacent coastal swamp forest during periods of high and low Ae. vigilax abundance. When mosquito abundance in structurally-open saltmarsh was similar to the more cluttered coastal swamp forest, use of saltmarsh by V. vulturnus was disproportionately greater than its availability, with saltmarsh selected preferentially for foraging. However, at times of low Ae. vigilax abundance in saltmarsh, use of saltmarsh by V. vulturnus was reduced and all habitats were used in proportion to availability in the study area. This is the first radio-tracking study to demonstrate a shift in foraging range by an insectivorous bat species correlated with fluctuations in the distribution and abundance of a particular prey resource. The shift in foraging range by V. vulturnus, corresponding with a spatio-temporal variation in abundance of Ae. vigilax highlights the importance of mosquitoes as a dietary item. Broadscale pest control of Ae. vigilax may have ecological implications for the diet and habitat use of V. vulturnus. An adaptive management approach is proposed, whereby careful monitoring of insectivorous bat populations is recommended before and after any application of broadscale mosquito control measures. We also suggest a precautionary approach is taken such that broadscale control of mosquitoes avoids the lactation period of bats, a time when their energetic demands are greatest and when there is reduced risk of contracting mosquito-borne diseases transmitted by Ae. vigilax. PMID:23667699

  19. Wet Deposition of Radon Decay Products and its Relation with Long-Range Transported Radon

    SciTech Connect

    Yamazawa, H.; Matsuda, M.; Moriizumi, J.; Iida, T.

    2008-08-07

    It was shown by a series of observations of wet deposition of radon decay products at Nagoya, Japan that extremely high deposition rate events were associated with convective precipitation under presence of continental air mass aloft. Atmospheric transport simulations showed that the high deposition rate events were caused by continental radon transported within a relatively thin layer from 1 to 3 km above sea level.

  20. Selfing ability and dispersal are positively related, but not affected by range position: a multispecies study on southern African Asteraceae.

    PubMed

    de Waal, C; Rodger, J G; Anderson, B; Ellis, A G

    2014-05-01

    Dispersal and breeding system traits are thought to affect colonization success. As species have attained their present distribution ranges through colonization, these traits may vary geographically. Although several theories predict associations between dispersal ability, selfing ability and the relative position of a population within its geographic range, there is little theoretical or empirical consensus on exactly how these three variables are related. We investigated relationships between dispersal ability, selfing ability and range position across 28 populations of 13 annual, wind-dispersed Asteraceae species from the Namaqualand region of South Africa. Controlling for phylogeny, relative dispersal ability--assessed from vertical fall time of fruits--was positively related to an index of autofertility--determined from hand-pollination experiments. These findings support the existence of two discrete syndromes: high selfing ability associated with good dispersal and obligate outcrossing associated with lower dispersal ability. This is consistent with the hypothesis that selection for colonization success drives the evolution of an association between these traits. However, no general effect of range position on dispersal or breeding system traits was evident. This suggests selection on both breeding system and dispersal traits acts consistently across distribution ranges. PMID:24735437

  1. Hominin geographical range dynamics and relative brain size: Do non-human primates provide a good analogy?

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Katharine; Smaers, Jeroen B; Steele, James

    2015-10-01

    We use climatic and satellite remote sensing data to characterize environmental seasonality in the geographical ranges of extant non-human primates in order to assess the effect of relative brain size on tolerance of more seasonal habitats. Demonstration of such an effect in living non-human primates could provide a comparative framework for modeling hominin dispersals and geographical range dynamics in the Pliocene and Pleistocene. Our analyses found no such effect: there are neither positive nor negative correlations between relative brain size and either geographical range size or the average and range of values for environmental seasonality, whether analysed at the level of all primates, or within parvorders (strepsirrhine, catarrhine, platyrrhine). Independent analyses by other researchers comparing feeding behaviour and ecology at individual primate study sites demonstrate that in seasonal environments, the year-round metabolic costs of maintaining a relatively large brain are met by adaptive behavioural/dietary strategies. However, consistent with our own results, those comparative studies found that there was no overall association, whether positive or negative, between 'raw' environmental seasonality and primate relative brain size. We must therefore look elsewhere for a comparative model of hominin geographical range dynamics in the Pleistocene. PMID:26077889

  2. Theoretical aspects of energy range relations, stopping power and energy straggling of protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulmer, W.

    2007-07-01

    The Bragg-Kleeman rule RCSDA=AE0p provides a connection between the initial energy E0 of a proton and the range RCSDA in a medium, if the continuous-slowing-down approximation (CSDA) is assumed. The rule results from a generalized (nonrelativistic) Langevin equation; its integration also yields information on the residual energy E(z) or dE(z)/dz of a proton at position z. A relativistic extension of the generalized Langevin equation leads to the formula RCSDA=A(E0+E02/2Mc2)p. Since the initial energy E0 of therapeutic protons satisfies E0≪2Mc2, relativistic contributions can be treated as correction terms. Besides this phenomenological aspect, a complete integration of Bethe-Bloch equation (BBE) is presented, which provides the determination of RCSDA, E(z), dE(z)/dz and works without any empirical parameters. The results of these different methods are compared with Monte Carlo calculations (GEANT4). Since the energy transfer from proton to the environmental atomic electrons regarded in the CSDA-framework has to account for local fluctuations, an analysis of the Gaussian convolution and the Landau-Vavilov distribution function is performed on the basis of quantum-statistical mechanics. The Landau tail can be described as a Hermite polynomial correction of a Gaussian convolution.

  3. (U-Th)/He Apatite Age Data From the Inyo Mountains, California: Implications for the Timing of Extension and Dextral Slip Rates Along the Western Boundary of the Basin Range Province/Eastern California Shear Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Stockli, D.

    2006-12-01

    With topographic relief of ~2.7 km, the Inyo Mountains, California is one of the largest mountains within the western part of the Basin Range Province (BRP) and Eastern California Shear Zone (ECSZ). This rugged range is underlain by Paleozoic sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks, Mesozoic plutons, and Quaternary alluvial deposits. An active, east-dipping normal fault, the eastern Inyo fault zone (EIFZ), defines the eastern flank of the range; the Saline Valley pull-apart basin is exposed in its hanging wall. To the south, the dextral Hunter Mountain fault (HMF) connects the EIFZ to the Panamint Valley fault. We completed the first (U-Th)/He apatite thermochronometric study on 24 samples collected from the Pat Keyes pluton across the range that bear on the timing of normal slip along the EIFZ and provide insight into the distribution of dextral shear across the ECSZ. Samples from the west-side of the range yield an elevation invariant (U-Th)/He age of 50.9±0.9 Ma. In contrast, samples from the east side of the range define two exhumed Partial Retention Zones (PRZ) and inflection points. From the top of the range ages systematically decrease from ~50 Ma at the top of the range to ~15 Ma. Below this upper inflection point, samples yield invariant (U-Th)/He ages of 15.0±0.3 Ma over a vertical distance of 0.8 km. (U-Th)/He ages then decrease again from ~15 Ma to ~3 Ma defining a Miocene-Pliocene PRZ. At the range front, below this lower inflection point, samples yield an invariant age of 2.8±0.1 Ma. We interpret these age patterns as indicating: (a) slow cooling (0.03- 0.06 mm/yr) through an older PRZ at high structural levels between >50 and 15.0 Ma; (b) rapid cooling, exhumation, and normal slip along the EIFZ at 15.0 Ma accommodated by westward tilting; (c) slow cooling (0.03-0.06 mm/yr) between 15.0 and 2.8 Ma through a younger PRZ; and (d) rapid cooling, exhumation, and renewed normal slip along the EIFZ at 2.8 Ma. The two episodes of exhumation along the EIFZ

  4. Absorption coefficients of selected explosives and related compounds in the range of 0.1-2.8 THz.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Chen, Yunqing; Zhao, Hongwei; Bastiaans, Glenn J; Zhang, X-C

    2007-09-17

    We have investigated the absorption spectra of seventeen explosives and related compounds (ERCs) by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy in the 0.1-2.8 THz region. Most of these substances show characteristic absorption features in this frequency range. The measured absorption coefficients of these ERCs form a database, which is of great importance for biochemical, defense and security related applications. PMID:19547570

  5. Relative diffusion of a pair of inertial particles in the inertial sub-range of turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enohata, Kei; Morishita, Koji; Ishihara, Takashi

    2015-11-01

    Turbulent diffusion of a pair of inertial particles in 3-dimensional homogeneous and isotropic turbulence was studied using direct numerical simulation (DNS) with 20483 grid points; the Taylor micro-scale Reynolds number in the DNS is approximately 425. For each set of the inertial particles with different values of the Stokes number (St = 0 , 0 . 1 , 0 . 2 , 0 . 5 , 1 , 2 , 5 , 10), 2563 particles are tracked using cubic spline interpolation for the velocity data in the DNS. Here St = 0 corresponds to fluid particles. The DNS showed that for each value of St , the mean square of the distance δx between the two inertial particles grows with time t as < δx2 > ~ Cɛt3 in the inertial subrange, which is in agreement with Richardson (1926) and Obukhov (1941). Here ɛ is the mean energy dissipation rate per unit mass, and C is a constant of O(1) depending on the value of St and the initial distance between the inertial particles. The DNS shows also that large clusters of strong vortices enhance relative diffusion of inertial particles of St > 1 .

  6. Assessing the Variability of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Liquid-Solid Two-Phase and Related Environmental Risks in the Weihe River of Shaanxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    Song, Jinxi; Yang, Xiaogang; Zhang, Junlong; Long, Yongqing; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Taifan

    2015-07-01

    Accurate estimation of the variability of heavy metals in river water and the hyporheic zone is crucial for pollution control and environmental management. The biotoxicities and potential ecological risks of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd) in a solid-liquid two-phase system were estimated using the Geo-accumulation Index, Potential Ecological Risk Assessment and Quality Standard Index methods in the Weihe River of Shaanxi Province, China. Water and sediment samples were collected from five study sites during spring, summer and winter, 2013. The dominant species in the streambed sediments were chironomids and flutter earthworm, whose bioturbation mainly ranged from 0 to 20 cm. The concentrations of heavy metals in surface water and pore water varied obviously in spring and summer. The degrees of concentration of Cu and Cd in spring and summer were higher than the U.S. water quality Criteria Maximum Concentrations. Furthermore, the biotoxicities of Pb and Zn demonstrated season-spatial variations. The concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd in spring and winter were significantly higher than those in summer, and the pollution levels also varied obviously in different layers of the sediments. Moreover, the pollution level of Cd was the most serious, as estimated by all three assessment methods. PMID:26193293

  7. Assessing the Variability of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Liquid-Solid Two-Phase and Related Environmental Risks in the Weihe River of Shaanxi Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jinxi; Yang, Xiaogang; Zhang, Junlong; Long, Yongqing; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Taifan

    2015-01-01

    Accurate estimation of the variability of heavy metals in river water and the hyporheic zone is crucial for pollution control and environmental management. The biotoxicities and potential ecological risks of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd) in a solid-liquid two-phase system were estimated using the Geo-accumulation Index, Potential Ecological Risk Assessment and Quality Standard Index methods in the Weihe River of Shaanxi Province, China. Water and sediment samples were collected from five study sites during spring, summer and winter, 2013. The dominant species in the streambed sediments were chironomids and flutter earthworm, whose bioturbation mainly ranged from 0 to 20 cm. The concentrations of heavy metals in surface water and pore water varied obviously in spring and summer. The degrees of concentration of Cu and Cd in spring and summer were higher than the U.S. water quality Criteria Maximum Concentrations. Furthermore, the biotoxicities of Pb and Zn demonstrated season-spatial variations. The concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd in spring and winter were significantly higher than those in summer, and the pollution levels also varied obviously in different layers of the sediments. Moreover, the pollution level of Cd was the most serious, as estimated by all three assessment methods. PMID:26193293

  8. Trauma-Related Impairment in Children--A Survey in Sri Lankan Provinces Affected by Armed Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbert, Thomas; Schauer, Maggie; Schauer, Elisabeth; Huschka, Bianca; Hirth, Michael; Neuner, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The present study examined traumatic experiences, PTSD, and co-morbid symptoms in relation to neuropsychological and school performance in school children affected by two decades of civil war and unrest. Method: The epidemiological survey of children's mental health included a representative sample of 420 school children. Local…

  9. Present Trends in Power Relations Between Government and Higher Education (The Province of Ontario as a Case in Point).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venton, J. Peter

    Power relations between government and higher education in Ontario, Canada, with specific reference to financing and to graduate program development, are addressed. The types of postsecondary institutions and the roles of the Ontario Council on University Affiars (OCUA) and the Council of Ontario Universities (COU) are identified. It is suggested…

  10. Phenotypic traits of Phragmites australis clones are not related to ploidy level and distribution range

    PubMed Central

    Achenbach, Luciana; Lambertini, Carla; Brix, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Phragmites australis is a wetland grass with high genetic variability, augmented by its cosmopolitan distribution, clonal growth form and large variation in chromosome numbers. Different ploidy levels and ecotypes differ in morphology and ecophysiological traits, and may possess different levels of phenotypic variation. The aim of this study was to quantify the natural variation in ecophysiological characteristics of P. australis, and to explore whether differences in ecophysiological traits can be related to ploidy levels or to the geographic origin of the clones. Methodology Fifteen clones of P. australis from Europe and Asia/Australia, representing five ploidy levels (4x, 6x, 8x, 10x and 12x), were grown in a common garden design for 119 days. Plant growth and light-saturated rate of photosynthesis (Pmax), stomatal conductance (gs), water use efficiency (WUE) and concentrations of photosynthetic pigments and mineral ions in the leaves were measured. Principal results The growth of the plants and most ecophysiological parameters differed significantly between clones. The mean maximum shoot height varied from 0.9 to 1.86 m, Pmax from 9.7 to 27 µmol m−2 s−1, gs from 0.22 to 1.41 mol m−2 s−1 and WUE from 13 to 47 µmol mol−1. The concentrations of chlorophylls did not vary significantly between clones, but the chlorophyll a/b ratio and the concentrations of total carotenoids did. The observed differences were not explained either by the ploidy level per se or by the geographic origin or phylogenetic relationships of the clones. Conclusions Phylogeographic relationships in P. australis on a global scale do not mirror the environment where the adaptations have evolved, and high phenotypic variation among and within clones complicates comparative studies. Future studies aimed at explaining differences in plant behaviour between P. australis populations should be careful in the selection of target genotypes and/or populations, and should

  11. Ethnobotanical Study of Plants Used in the Management of HIV/AIDS-Related Diseases in Livingstone, Southern Province, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Chinsembu, Kazhila C.

    2016-01-01

    Faced with critical shortages of staff, long queues, and stigma at public health facilities in Livingstone, Zambia, persons who suffer from HIV/AIDS-related diseases use medicinal plants to manage skin infections, diarrhoea, sexually transmitted infections, tuberculosis, cough, malaria, and oral infections. In all, 94 medicinal plant species were used to manage HIV/AIDS-related diseases. Most remedies are prepared from plants of various families such as Combretaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, and Lamiaceae. More than two-thirds of the plants (mostly leaves and roots) are utilized to treat two or more diseases related to HIV infection. Eighteen plants, namely, Achyranthes aspera L., Lannea discolor (Sond.) Engl., Hyphaene petersiana Klotzsch ex Mart., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Capparis tomentosa Lam., Cleome hirta Oliv., Garcinia livingstonei T. Anderson, Euclea divinorum Hiern, Bridelia cathartica G. Bertol., Acacia nilotica Delile, Piliostigma thonningii (Schumach.) Milne-Redh., Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wight and Arn., Abrus precatorius L., Hoslundia opposita Vahl., Clerodendrum capitatum (Willd.) Schumach., Ficus sycomorus L., Ximenia americana L., and Ziziphus mucronata Willd., were used to treat four or more disease conditions. About 31% of the plants in this study were administered as monotherapies. Multiuse medicinal plants may contain broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. However, since widely used plants easily succumb to the threats of overharvesting, they need special protocols and guidelines for their genetic conservation. There is still need to confirm the antimicrobial efficacies, pharmacological parameters, cytotoxicity, and active chemical ingredients of the discovered plants. PMID:27069489

  12. Ethnobotanical Study of Plants Used in the Management of HIV/AIDS-Related Diseases in Livingstone, Southern Province, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Chinsembu, Kazhila C

    2016-01-01

    Faced with critical shortages of staff, long queues, and stigma at public health facilities in Livingstone, Zambia, persons who suffer from HIV/AIDS-related diseases use medicinal plants to manage skin infections, diarrhoea, sexually transmitted infections, tuberculosis, cough, malaria, and oral infections. In all, 94 medicinal plant species were used to manage HIV/AIDS-related diseases. Most remedies are prepared from plants of various families such as Combretaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, and Lamiaceae. More than two-thirds of the plants (mostly leaves and roots) are utilized to treat two or more diseases related to HIV infection. Eighteen plants, namely, Achyranthes aspera L., Lannea discolor (Sond.) Engl., Hyphaene petersiana Klotzsch ex Mart., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Capparis tomentosa Lam., Cleome hirta Oliv., Garcinia livingstonei T. Anderson, Euclea divinorum Hiern, Bridelia cathartica G. Bertol., Acacia nilotica Delile, Piliostigma thonningii (Schumach.) Milne-Redh., Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wight and Arn., Abrus precatorius L., Hoslundia opposita Vahl., Clerodendrum capitatum (Willd.) Schumach., Ficus sycomorus L., Ximenia americana L., and Ziziphus mucronata Willd., were used to treat four or more disease conditions. About 31% of the plants in this study were administered as monotherapies. Multiuse medicinal plants may contain broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. However, since widely used plants easily succumb to the threats of overharvesting, they need special protocols and guidelines for their genetic conservation. There is still need to confirm the antimicrobial efficacies, pharmacological parameters, cytotoxicity, and active chemical ingredients of the discovered plants. PMID:27069489

  13. Associations of Individual-Related and Job-Related Risk Factors with Nonfatal Occupational Injury in the Coal Workers of Shanxi Province: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Nan; Wang, Cong; Wang, Tong; Huang, Jian-Jun; Sun, Chen-Ming; Liang, Jie; Liu, Xiao-Meng

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the relationships between the risk factors and the incidence of nonfatal occupational injury of coal mine workers of Shanxi Province. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from July 2013 to December 2013, and 4319 workers were recruited from more than 200,000 coal mine employees who are exposed to continuous potential risk of occupational injuries by using a two-stage stratified cluster sampling method. Trained interviewers having necessary medical knowledge conducted face-to-face interviews with the participants. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (CI). Results A total number of 3618 effective respondents were got from 4319 participants (83.77%) and the mean age of the participants was 41.5 years with the standard deviation of 8.65. Significant crude odds ratios were observed for all factors considered except for marital status, education, work duration, BMI, EPQ-RSC(P) scale and EPQ-RSC(L) scale. Results from multivariable logistic regression model showed significant adjusted odds ratios for risk factors including gender (female vs male 0.275, 0.094–0.800), age (≥55 vs ≤25yr 0.169, 0.032–0.900), work type (light physical labor vs heavy physical labor 0.504, 0.328–0.774), workplace (underground auxiliary vs underground front-line 0.595, 0.385–0.919), length of shiftwork experience (0~5yr vs no shift 2.075, 1.287–3.344 and ≥15yr vs no shift 2.076, 1.230–3.504) and EPQ-RSC(E) score (extraversion vs introversion 0.538, 0.334–0.867). Conclusions Several risk factors of nonfatal occupational injury were identified including male, age, heavy physical labor, underground front-line, length of shiftwork experience and introversion. The coal mining enterprises should pay attention to controlling the hazards associated with frontline physical work. Workers’ behaviors, life styles and personality traits should also be considered, so

  14. Comparison of ranging behaviour in a multi-species complex of free-ranging hosts of bovine tuberculosis in relation to their use as disease sentinels.

    PubMed

    Yockney, I J; Nugent, G; Latham, M C; Perry, M; Cross, M L; Byrom, A E

    2013-07-01

    Sentinel species are increasingly used by disease managers to detect and monitor the prevalence of zoonotic diseases in wildlife populations. Characterizing home-range movements of sentinel hosts is thus important for developing improved disease surveillance methods, especially in systems where multiple host species co-exist. We studied ranging activity of major hosts of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in an upland habitat of New Zealand: we compared home-range coverage by ferrets (Mustela furo), wild deer (Cervus elaphus), feral pigs (Sus scrofa), brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) and free-ranging farmed cattle (Bos taurus). We also report in detail the proportional utilization of a seasonal (4-monthly) range area for the latter four species. Possums covered the smallest home range (<30 ha), ferrets covered ~100 ha, pigs ~4 km(2), deer and cattle both >30 km2. For any given weekly period, cattle, deer and pigs were shown to utilize 37–45% of their estimated 4-month range, while possums utilized 62% during any weekly period and 85% during any monthly period of their estimated 4-month range. We suggest that present means for estimating TB detection kernels, based on long-term range size estimates for possums and sentinel species, probably overstate the true local surveillance coverage per individual. PMID:23433406

  15. Stress Status and Related Characteristics among Urban Residents: A Six-Province Capital Cities Study in China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tingzhong; Rockett, Ian R. H.; Lv, Qiaohong; Cottrell, Randall R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To estimate current prevalence levels of stress, and to identify related characteristics among urban residents in China. Design A cross-sectional, multilevel study. Selected through multi-stage quota-sampling, survey participants were 4,735 urban residents aged 15 years and older who resided in one of six selected Chinese capital cities. Data were collected on stress levels and sociodemographic characteristics. Stress was assessed using the Perceived Stress Scale, Chinese version (CPSS). A multilevel variance component model was employed to analyze associations between sociodemographic variables and stress. Results The mean stress score for urban residents was 22.34 (SD: 3.22), and 36.8% of those surveyed (95% CI: 33.5–40.2%) were severely stressed (>25). Multilevel regression analysis indicated that residents aged 55 years and older were less stressed than residents under age 25. The most educated and higher income earners had lower stress levels than the least educated and poorest. High levels of stress were apparent among all other occupational groups, relative to managers and clerks, except retirees and operational workers. Residents in the north of China exhibited higher stress levels than counterparts in the south. Conclusions This study suggests that higher stress levels are positively associated with social class in China. Our findings could inform health policy, guide prevention strategies, and justify the design and implementation of targeted interventions. PMID:22276209

  16. Bacterial community composition of an urban river in the North West Province, South Africa, in relation to physico-chemical water quality.

    PubMed

    Jordaan, K; Bezuidenhout, C C

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impacts of anthropogenic disturbances on bacterial community composition in an urban river (Mooi River). Physico-chemical analysis, bacterial enumeration and 454-pyrosequencing were conducted on the Mooi River system upstream and downstream of an urban settlement in the North West Province, South Africa. Pyrosequencing and multivariate analysis showed that nutrient inputs and faecal pollution strongly impacted the physico-chemical and microbiological quality at the downstream sites. Also, bacterial communities showed higher richness and evenness at the downstream sites. Multivariate analysis suggested that the abundances of Betaproteobacteria, Epsilonproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobia are related to temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), sulphate and chlorophyll-a levels. These results suggest that urbanisation caused the overall water quality of this river to deteriorate, which in turn affected the bacterial community composition. In addition, our work identified potential indicator groups that may be used to track faecal and organic pollution in freshwater systems. PMID:26593724

  17. Spatial variability of streambed vertical hydraulic conductivity and its relation to distinctive stream morphologies in the Beiluo River, Shaanxi Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Weiwei; Song, Jinxi; Zhang, Junlong; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Nan; Zhang, Xinhua; Long, Yongqing; Li, Jiaxuan; Yang, Xiaogang

    2015-11-01

    Streambed vertical hydraulic conductivity ( K v) is a key parameter in the analysis of interactions between streams and aquifers, and of stream ecosystems. However, knowledge of the streambed hydraulic conductivity associated with different stream morphologies is relatively scarce. An in-situ standpipe permeameter test method was used to determine the spatial variability in streambed K v measured along 18.5 km of stream reach in the Beiluo River, Shaanxi Province, China. The 59 total measurements were conducted at four test sites in three different stream morphologies: straight channel, anabranching channels and a nearby meander bend. There was great spatial variability in K v among the four test sites and three K v distribution patterns can be determined: (1) higher K v values appear on the erosional bank in contrast to lower K v values on the depositional bank at the two sites near meander bends; (2) the K v distribution in straight channels shows that the higher K v values occur in the center of the channel; (3) the K v values are generally highest on the branch with more alluvial forms in the anabranching channels. Moreover, grain-size analysis results illustrate that the average grain-size distributions of streambed sediments are significantly different on each side of the channel. The erosional and depositional forms are one of the driving dynamics for the distribution of streambed grain size that trigger the differences in the distribution of the K v.

  18. Relation of MAGSAT and Gravity Anomalies to the Main Tectonic Provinces of South America. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, D. W.

    1984-01-01

    Magnetic anomalies of the South American continent are generally more positive and variable than the oceanic anomalies. There is better correlation between the magnetic anomalies and the major tectonic elements of the continents than between the anomalies and the main tectonic elements of the adjacent oceanic areas. Oceanic areas generally show no direct correlation to the magnetic anomalies. Precambrian continental shields are mainly more magnetic than continental basins and orogenic belts. Shields differ markedly from major aulacogens which are generally characterized by negative magnetic anomalies and positive gravity anomalies. The Andean orogenic belt shows rather poor correlation with the magnetic anomalies. The magnetic data exhibit instead prominent east-west trends, which although consistent with some tectonic features, may be related to processing noise derived from data reduction procedures to correct for external magnetic field effects. The pattern over the Andes is sufficiently distinct from the generally north trending magnetic anomalies occurring in the adjacent Pacific Ocean to separate effectively the leading edge of the South American Plate from the Nazea Plate. Eastern South America is characterized by magnetic anomalies which commonly extend across the continental margin into the Atlantic Ocean.

  19. Relation between extensional geometry of the northern Grant Range and oil occurrences in railroad valley, East-Central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, K.; Perry, W.J. Jr. ); Beard, L.S. )

    1993-06-01

    In the northern Grant Range, heterogeneous Neogene extension was dominated by synchronous arching and attenuation. Attenuation was accomplished along a stacked set of attenuation faults that formed at low angles to bedding as the Paleozoic carbonate and Paleogene rocks arched about a north-northwest axis. The style and amount of attenuation was controlled by lithologic character and structural depth of rock units and by geometry of the arch. On the steeper west side of the Grant Range arch, the curviplanar low-angle attenuation faults converge into a single shallowly west-dipping fault zone along which the stratigraphic juxtaposition of Mississippian units over Middle Cambrian units and Late Cretaceous granite marks the zone of maximum attenuation. Arching and heterogeneous extension resulted from uplift of the Grant Range relative to the structural basin of Railroad Valley to the west. This structural differentiation is a complex zone of subparallel-to-bedding, shallow-dipping attenuation faults rather than as a simple high-angle range-front fault. Seismic and drill-hole data indicate that low-angle attenuation faults in the range extend into Railroad Valley and control the structure buried in the valley. Mississippian and Paleocene to Eocene petroleum source rocks and Devonian to Oligocene reservoir rocks in Railroad Valley oil fields are in extensively fractured rocks of the upper plate to the major extensional fault system. Thus, relatively cold upper-plate rocks, immature with respect to hydrocarbon generation, were brought relatively down into contact with hotter lower-plate rocks by Neogene attenuation faulting. Oil in Railroad Valley, which is sourced from rocks as young as Eocene, was probably generated by this juxtaposition during Neogene crustal attenuation, and subsequently migrated into upper-plate fractured reservoirs. 101 refs., 10 figs.

  20. Depression, Anxiety and Disease-Related Variables and Quality of Life Among Individuals With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Living in Kermanshah Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Shakeri, Hania; Arman, Farid; Hossieni, Monir; Omrani, Hamid Reza; Vahdani, Ali; Shakeri, Jalal

    2015-01-01

    Background Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is affected by numerous variables including depression and anxiety. However, these associations have not yet been described among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and the impact of SLE-related clinical variables remains unknown. Objectives In this cross-sectional study, the prevalence of depression and anxiety among Iranian patients with SLE living in Kermanshah province, Iran, has been estimated and the determinants of HRQoL in comparison with healthy subjects have been identified. Patients and Methods Sampling was performed based on recruitment of subjects according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Systemic lupus erythematosus-related variables including cutaneous manifestations, pericarditis, arthritis, history of seizure and psychosis were recorded. Blood samples were taken to measure antinuclear antibodies (ANA), anti-double stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA), Anti-Smith (Anti-SM), anticardiolipin antibody. Matched healthy subjects in demographic characteristics were selected from general population of Kermanshah province, Iran. Depression and anxiety and HRQoL were assessed using the Beck depression inventory-II, Beck anxiety inventory and short-form 36 health survey, respectively. Results A total of 310 individuals (160 patients with SLE and 150 healthy subjects) participated in this study. The prevalence of depression and anxiety was about 20% among people with SLE, which was noticeably high but not significantly different from healthy individuals. More severe depression was associated with lower scores in domains of physical functioning (PF), role limitation due to physical problems (RP) and subsequently physical component summary (PCS) in the SLE group (P < 0.0001 for all). A higher anxiety level was negatively correlated with PF, RP, social functioning (SF), general health (GH) and PCS in the SLE group (P = 0.01, < 0.0001, 0.004, 0.02 and 0.005, respectively). Scores of PF and PCS were

  1. Effects of various runway lighting parameters upon the relation between runway visual range and visual range of centerline and edge lights in fog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, R. F.

    1973-01-01

    Thirty six students and 54 commercial airline pilots were tested in the fog chamber to determine the effect of runway edge and centerline light intensity and spacing, fog density, ambient luminance level, and lateral and vertical offset distance of the subject from the runway's centerline upon horizontal visual range. These data were obtained to evaluate the adequacy of a balanced lighting system to provide maximum visual range in fog viewing both centerline and runway edge lights. The daytime system was compared against two other candidate lighting systems; the nighttime system was compared against other candidate lighting systems. The second objective was to determine if visual range is affected by lights between the subject and the farthestmost light visible through the fog. The third objective was to determine if college student subjects differ from commercial airline pilots in their horizontal visual range through fog. Two studies were conducted.

  2. Direct measurements of the current-phase relation in long-range spin-triplet SFS Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, David; van Harlingen, Dale; Wang, Yixing; Birge, Norman

    2015-03-01

    We present direct measurements of the current-phase relation (CPR) of Josephson junctions which use multiple ferromagnetic layers to generate long-range spin-triplet pair correlations. Using a phase-sensitive Josephson interferometry technique, we obtain the phase and temperature dependence of this spin-triplet supercurrent. We also demonstrate the use of an inductive shunt to enhance this technique at higher critical currents. Our data suggest that the current-phase relation of these junctions is harmonic in character. Further measurements are planned in order to determine the ground state phase shift of these junctions.

  3. Color patterns of closely related bird species are more divergent at intermediate levels of breeding-range sympatry.

    PubMed

    Martin, Paul R; Montgomerie, Robert; Lougheed, Stephen C

    2015-04-01

    Closely related species of birds often differ markedly in their color patterns. Here we examine the influence of breeding-range overlap (breeding sympatry) on the evolution of color pattern differences in a sample of closely related bird species. We used a sister-lineage method to analyze 73 phylogenetically independent comparisons among 246 species and 39 families of birds worldwide. We found that divergence of color patterns among closely related species was greater between sympatric than between allopatric lineages, but only at intermediate levels of sympatry (50%-80% breeding-range overlap). This pattern suggests that closely related species incur costs at intermediate levels of sympatry if they exhibit similar color patterns-costs that could include hybridization, interspecific aggression, competition for signaling space, or ecological interactions that secondarily influence color patterns. The decline in color pattern divergence with further increase in sympatry suggests either the relaxation of divergent selection, increased impediment of gene flow, or an increased role for counteracting selection at higher levels of sympatry. We also found that the differences in color pattern between sympatric and allopatric sister species were greatest at lower latitudes. The global scale and broad taxonomic coverage in our study suggest that the divergence of color patterns between sympatrically breeding closely related species is widespread in birds. PMID:25811081

  4. A generalized watershed disturbance-invertebrate relation applicable in a range of environmental settings across the continental United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steuer, Jeffrey J.

    2010-01-01

    It is widely recognized that urbanization can affect ecological conditions in aquatic systems; numerous studies have identified impervious surface cover as an indicator of urban intensity and as an index of development at the watershed, regional, and national scale. Watershed percent imperviousness, a commonly understood urban metric was used as the basis for a generalized watershed disturbance metric that, when applied in conjunction with weighted percent agriculture and percent grassland, predicted stream biotic conditions based on Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) richness across a wide range of environmental settings. Data were collected in streams that encompassed a wide range of watershed area (4.4-1,714 km), precipitation (38-204 cm/yr), and elevation (31-2,024 m) conditions. Nevertheless the simple 3-landcover disturbance metric accounted for 58% of the variability in EPT richness based on the 261 nationwide sites. On the metropolitan area scale, relationship r ranged from 0.04 to 0.74. At disturbance values 15. Future work may incorporate watershed management practices within the disturbance metric, further increasing the management applicability of the relation. Such relations developed on a regional or metropolitan area scale are likely to be stronger than geographically generalized models; as found in these EPT richness relations. However, broad spatial models are able to provide much needed understanding in unmonitored areas and provide initial guidance for stream potential.

  5. Field relation, geochemistry and origin of the Xinglonggou volcanic rocks in Beipiao area, Liaoning Province (China): Reappraisal on the foundering of lower continental crust of North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang; Cheng, Su-Hua

    2012-03-01

    Our large scale geological mapping in the Beipiao area, western Liaoning Province, the North China Craton, shows that the exposed "Xinglonggou Formation" is not a monoclinal stratum, but a suit of strongly deformed volcanic rocks intruded by some small plugs. Consequently, two rock groups are categorized for the "Xinglonggou Formation" in the Beipiao area, according to their field relation, petrography, and geochemical characteristics. The group 1 rocks are blackish and fresh, and cut across the deformed group 2 volcanic rocks. Meanwhile, the group 1 rocks exhibit characteristics of higher magnesium number (Mg# ⩾ 60), calcium content (CaO > 5 wt.%), and Sr/Y ratio (>60), but lower potassium (K2O < 2 wt.%) and Rb contents (<40 ppm). Among these rocks, most of them have higher Cs but lower Li content. Geochemically, the group 1 rocks belong to high-SiO2 adakite (HSA). On the contrary, the group 2 is composed of intermediate and acid volcanic rocks, which are brownish or greenish and strongly folded. Compared with the group 1 rocks, they have higher potassium (K2O > 2 wt.%) and Rb contents, but lower Mg# (<60) and calcium content (most samples CaO < 5 wt.%); meanwhile, they have lower Sr/Y ratios (in general <60), and lower Cs but higher Li contents. According to their near zero ɛNd(t) value and radiogenic Pb isotopic compositions, as well as the enrichment of U and Th relative to LREE, neither the group 1 or the group 2 rocks result from the partial melting of the lower crust of North China Craton. The group 1 HSAs are generated by melting of the subducted oceanic crust of the Paleo-Pacific plate; otherwise, the group 2 rocks are derivatives of the magma originated from a slab-derived melt metasomatised mantle.

  6. Topographic form of the Coast Ranges of the Cascadia Margin in relation ot coastal uplift rates and plate subduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelsey, Harvey M.; Engebretson, David C.; Mitchell, Clifton E.; Ticknor, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    The Coast Ranges of the Cascadia margin are overriding the subducted Juan de Fuca/Gorda plate. We investigate the extent to which the latitudinal change in attributes related to the subduction process. These attributes include the varibale age of the subducted slab that underlies the Coast Ranges and average vertical crustal velocities of the western margin of the Coast Rnages for two markedly different time periods, the last 45 years and the last 100 kyr. These vertical crustal velocities are computed from the resurveying of highway bech marks and from the present elevation of shore platforms that have been uplifted in the late Quaternary, respectively. Topogarphy of the Coast Ranges is in part a function of the age and bouyancy of the underlying subducted plate. This is evident in the fact that the two highest topographic elements of the Coast Rnages, the Klamath Mountains and the Olympic Mountains, are underlain by youngest subducted oceanic crust. The subducted Blanco Fracture Zone in southernmost Oregon is responsible for an age discontinuity of subducted crust under the Klamath Mountains. The norhtern terminus of hte topographically higher Klamaths is offset to the north relative to the position of the underlying Blanco Fracture Zone, teh offset being in the direction of migration of the farcture zone, as dictated by relative plate motions. Vertical crustal velocities at the coast, derived from becnh mark surveys, are as much as an order of magnitude greater than vertical crustal velocities derived from uplifted shore platforms. This uplift rate discrepancy indicates that strain is accumulating on the plate margin, to be released during the next interplate earthquake. In a latitudinal sense, average Coast Rnage topography is relatively high where bench mark-derived, short-term vertical crustal velocities are highest. Becuase the shore platform vertical crustal velocities reflect longer-term, premanent uplift, we infer that a small percentage of the

  7. Topographic form of the Coast Ranges of the Cascadia Margin in relation ot coastal uplift rates and plate subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelsey, Harvey M.; Engebretson, David C.; Mitchell, Clifton E.; Ticknor, Robert L.

    1994-06-01

    The Coast Ranges of the Cascadia margin are overriding the subducted Juan de Fuca/Gorda plate. We investigate the extent to which the latitudinal change in attributes related to the subduction process. These attributes include the varibale age of the subducted slab that underlies the Coast Ranges and average vertical crustal velocities of the western margin of the Coast Rnages for two markedly different time periods, the last 45 years and the last 100 kyr. These vertical crustal velocities are computed from the resurveying of highway bech marks and from the present elevation of shore platforms that have been uplifted in the late Quaternary, respectively. Topogarphy of the Coast Ranges is in part a function of the age and bouyancy of the underlying subducted plate. This is evident in the fact that the two highest topographic elements of the Coast Rnages, the Klamath Mountains and the Olympic Mountains, are underlain by youngest subducted oceanic crust. The subducted Blanco Fracture Zone in southernmost Oregon is responsible for an age discontinuity of subducted crust under the Klamath Mountains. The norhtern terminus of hte topographically higher Klamaths is offset to the north relative to the position of the underlying Blanco Fracture Zone, teh offset being in the direction of migration of the farcture zone, as dictated by relative plate motions. Vertical crustal velocities at the coast, derived from becnh mark surveys, are as much as an order of magnitude greater than vertical crustal velocities derived from uplifted shore platforms. This uplift rate discrepancy indicates that strain is accumulating on the plate margin, to be released during the next interplate earthquake. In a latitudinal sense, average Coast Rnage topography is relatively high where bench mark-derived, short-term vertical crustal velocities are highest. Becuase the shore platform vertical crustal velocities reflect longer-term, premanent uplift, we infer that a small percentage of the

  8. Long-term cycles in Large Igneous Province (LIP) eruptions and fossil diversity may be related to periodic mantle plume activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampino, M. R.; Prokoph, A.

    2013-12-01

    Wavelet analysis shows evidence for an approximately 62 Myr cycle in the eruptions of Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) over the last 540 Myr. This agrees with a cycle of 62×3 Myr seen in fossil biodiversity over the same interval. A similar cycle (about 56-62 Myr) has been reported in data related to continental-scale fluctuations of sedimentation, most likely resulting from changes in climate, sea level and tectonics. A longer about 140 Myr cycle is also detected in the LIP eruption data, matching a similar cycle seen in fossil diversity and in global climate. Both the LIP and fossil diversity data sets show a shorter approximately 28-35 Myr period, especially during the last 135 Myr. Cross-spectral wavelet analysis of the LIP occurrences against the marine diversity record shows that almost all cross-variability in the two data sets is concentrated in the 28 to 35 Myr, 62 to 65 Myr and around 140 Myr wavelength bands, showing a sharp change from dominant 62 Myr to 32 Myr cyclicity since the Early Cretaceous. The phase differences for the cycles indicate an inverse LIP-diversity relationship at these wavebands. The LIP eruptions commonly mark the initiation of hotspots, presumably created by upwelling mantle plumes. The agreement among these periodicities suggests that long-term global cycles of biodiversity, sea level, climate and sedimentation are partly driven by periodic or quasi-periodic fluctuations in mantle plume activity. This conclusion is bolstered by the close temporal correlation of several LIPs with times of mass extinction and climatic crises indicated by ocean anoxic events.

  9. Knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) and risk factors analysis related to cystic echinococcosis among residents in Tibetan communities, Xiahe County, Gansu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Gao, Qi; Liu, Jian; Feng, Yu; Ning, Wenhua; Dong, Yanqing; Tao, Lixin; Li, Jingyi; Tian, Xiujun; Gu, Junchao; Xin, Deli

    2015-07-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a global parasitic zoonosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus. The disease is highly endemic in western China, especially in Tibetan areas, because of poor economic development and hygiene conditions, limited community knowledge of CE, a large scale of dogs, and home slaughtering of livestock. Although many researchers have analyzed risk factors of CE transmission in Tibetan Plateau, there are rare reports of knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of residents about CE in Tibetan communities. In our current study, community based cross-sectional study was conducted in three townships in Xiahe County, Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefectures of Gansu Province from May to September 2013. A total of 972 participants originating from Tibetan communities of 31 villages in the 3 townships were registered and data were collected using structured questionnaires. From the total of 972 study participants (457 males and 515 females), 65.9% heard of the disease CE. Most of them (96.1%) would like to accept CE inspection. About half of the peoples feed their dogs often and major of them do not play with the dogs. Risk factors included resident, knowing dog could be infected, knowing eating could be route of infection, oldest dog's age, usually feed your dog by self, feed dogs with internal organs. In general our findings showed that most of residents had positive attitude toward treatments of the disease, but their practice about disease prevention and control was low. Therefore, our study called for continued and strengthened education of changing the life style, especially the behaviors related to dogs. PMID:25757370

  10. The geology and 40Ar/ 39Ar geochronology of magmatic activity and related mineralization in the Nevados del Famatina mining district, La Rioja province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losada-Calderón, A. J.; McBride, S. L.; Bloom, M. S.

    1994-01-01

    The Nevados del Famatina mining district (NFMD) is located in La Rioja province, Argentina. This district contains porphyry-style mineralization (Nevados del Famatina) and high sulfidation veins (La Mejicana). The stratigraphic column in the NFMD begins with Cambrian siltstones which were metamorphosed during the Late Ordovician - Early Silurian and intruded by Late Ordovician-Silurian granitic rocks. These units were covered by Upper Paleozoic and Tertiary continental sedimentary rocks which are intercalated with and overlain by dacitic-rhyodacitic porphyritic rocks (Mogote Formation) emplaced during the Pliocene. All these units are covered by Pleistocene sediments and Quaternary alluvial and colluvial deposits. Magmatic activity and related mineralization in the NFMD have been dated by the 40Ar/ 39Ar technique. Step heating studies of orthoclase and biotite phenocrysts from the Mogote Formation in the NFMD suggest that the igneous rocks were emplaced around 5.0±0.3 Ma ago. However, plateau ages of biotite from the outer carapace of the subjacent granodioritic magma chamber and of muscovite from quartz-sericite alteration at both Nevados del Famatina and La Mejicana are around 3.8±0.2 Ma. Emplacement of the shallow stocks is separated from cooling of the outer carapace of the subjacent granodioritic magma chamber to temperatures below 350° C by a time span of approximately 1 Ma. During this interval, a convective hydrothermal system was established proximal to the granodioritic magma chamber, which resulted in porphyry molybdenumcoppergold mineralization adjacent to the igneous rocks and more distal high sulfidation veins located in fault zones.

  11. Knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) and risk factors analysis related to cystic echinococcosis among residents in Tibetan communities, Xiahe County, Gansu Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dan; Gao, Qi; Liu, Jian; Feng, Yu; Ning, Wenhua; Dong, Yanqing; Tao, Lixin; Li, Jingyi; Tian, Xiujun; Gu, Junchao; Xin, Deli

    2015-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a global parasitic zoonosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus. The disease is highly endemic in western China, especially in Tibetan areas, because of poor economic development and hygiene conditions, limited community knowledge of CE, a large scale of dogs, and home slaughtering of livestock. Although many researchers have analyzed risk factors of CE transmission in Tibetan Plateau, there are rare reports of knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of residents about CE in Tibetan communities. In our current study, community based cross-sectional study was conducted in three townships in Xiahe County, Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefectures of Gansu Province from May to September 2013. A total of 972 participants originating from Tibetan communities of 31 villages in the 3 townships were registered and data were collected using structured questionnaires. From the total of 972 study participants (457 males and 515 females), 65.9% heard of the disease CE. Most of them (96.1%) would like to accept CE inspection. About half of the peoples feed their dogs often and major of them do not play with the dogs. Risk factors included resident, knowing dog could be infected, knowing eating could be route of infection, oldest dog's age, usually feed your dog by self, feed dogs with internal organs. In general our findings showed that most of residents had positive attitude toward treatments of the disease, but their practice about disease prevention and control was low. Therefore, our study called for continued and strengthened education of changing the life style, especially the behaviors related to dogs. PMID:25757370

  12. Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotope systematics of an Archean anorthosite and related rocks from the Superior Province of the Canadian Shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashwal, L. D.; Wooden, J. L.; Phinney, W. C.; Morrison, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotopic data for the Bad Vermilion Lake anorthosite in the Rainy Lake area of the Superior Province of northwesten Ontario show that direct ages of Archean anorthosites can be obtained with these isotopic systems despite the effects of low-grade metamorphism. There is sufficient spread in Sm/Nd between plagioclase megacrysts and coexisting mafic groundmass to allow the determination of reasonably precise internal Sm-Nd isochrons. Initial isotopic ratios of Nd and Sr add to the growing body of data indicating the Superior Province is underlain by depleted mantle.

  13. Muscle shear elastic modulus is linearly related to muscle torque over the entire range of isometric contraction intensity.

    PubMed

    Ateş, Filiz; Hug, François; Bouillard, Killian; Jubeau, Marc; Frappart, Thomas; Couade, Mathieu; Bercoff, Jeremy; Nordez, Antoine

    2015-08-01

    Muscle shear elastic modulus is linearly related to muscle torque during low-level contractions (<60% of Maximal Voluntary Contraction, MVC). This measurement can therefore be used to estimate changes in individual muscle force. However, it is not known if this relationship remains valid for higher intensities. The aim of this study was to determine: (i) the relationship between muscle shear elastic modulus and muscle torque over the entire range of isometric contraction and (ii) the influence of the size of the region of interest (ROI) used to average the shear modulus value. Ten healthy males performed two incremental isometric little finger abductions. The joint torque produced by Abductor Digiti Minimi was considered as an index of muscle torque and elastic modulus. A high coefficient of determination (R(2)) (range: 0.86-0.98) indicated that the relationship between elastic modulus and torque can be accurately modeled by a linear regression over the entire range (0% to 100% of MVC). The changes in shear elastic modulus as a function of torque were highly repeatable. Lower R(2) values (0.89±0.13 for 1/16 of ROI) and significantly increased absolute errors were observed when the shear elastic modulus was averaged over smaller ROI, half, 1/4 and 1/16 of the full ROI) than the full ROI (mean size: 1.18±0.24cm(2)). It suggests that the ROI should be as large as possible for accurate measurement of muscle shear modulus. PMID:25956546

  14. Effect of an Educational Intervention Related to Health and Nutrition on Pregnant Women in the Villages of Central Java Province, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wijaya-Erhardt, Maria; Muslimatun, Siti; Erhardt, Juergen G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of a health and nutrition educational intervention on maternal knowledge, attitudes and practices. Design: Pre- and post-test design using structured interviews of pregnant women. Setting: Thirty-nine villages in Central Java Province, Indonesia. Method: Pregnant women (N = 252) at 12-20 weeks of gestation were…

  15. Isolation and characterization of a T4-like phage with a relatively wide host range within Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Xu, Juntian; Chen, Mianmian; He, Lingchen; Zhang, Shuqing; Ding, Tianyun; Yao, Huochun; Lu, Chengping; Zhang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) causes colibacillosis in poultry, resulting in severe economic losses worldwide. Coliphages represent alternative antibacterial substitutes based on high lytic efficiency and few side-effects. However, the complete genome sequences information of APEC phages are limited, and knowledge of undesired genes and the narrow host range restrict their applications. In this study, we isolated a virulent phage QL01, with a relatively broad lytic spectrum (41 of 78 APEC strains). Transmission electron micrography showed it belonged to the family Myoviridae with an elongated head and a contractile tail. Whole genome sequencing revealed a linear double-stranded DNA (170,527 kb; GC content, 39.6%) with 275 possible ORFs. Comparative genome analysis revealed high homology between QL01 and other T4-like phages. However, it also showed some unique features, for example, ORF142 and ORF143, which encode IP9 and IP8, respectively, and may counteract host resistance only exist in a few T4-like phages such as IME08 and vB_EcoM_VR5. Furthermore, phage therapy in artificially infected ducks showed a 26.67% decrease in mortality compared with the untreated group. Our study indicates the potential antibacterial function of phage QL01 against APEC infections and highlights unique molecular features underlying the relatively broad host range. PMID:26697952

  16. Database for the geologic map of upper Eocene to Holocene volcanic and related rocks in the Cascade Range, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barron, Andrew D.; Ramsey, David W.; Smith, James G.

    2014-01-01

    This digital database contains information used to produce the geologic map published as Sheet 1 in U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-2005. (Sheet 2 of Map I-2005 shows sources of geologic data used in the compilation and is available separately). Sheet 1 of Map I-2005 shows the distribution and relations of volcanic and related rock units in the Cascade Range of Washington at a scale of 1:500,000. This digital release is produced from stable materials originally compiled at 1:250,000 scale that were used to publish Sheet 1. The database therefore contains more detailed geologic information than is portrayed on Sheet 1. This is most noticeable in the database as expanded polygons of surficial units and the presence of additional strands of concealed faults. No stable compilation materials exist for Sheet 1 at 1:500,000 scale. The main component of this digital release is a spatial database prepared using geographic information systems (GIS) applications. This release also contains links to files to view or print the map sheet, main report text, and accompanying mapping reference sheet from Map I-2005. For more information on volcanoes in the Cascade Range in Washington, Oregon, or California, please refer to the U.S. Geological Survey Volcano Hazards Program website.

  17. The passive, human calf muscles in relation to standing: the non-linear decrease from short range to long range stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Loram, Ian D; Maganaris, Constantinos N; Lakie, Martin

    2007-01-01

    During human standing, tonic ankle extensor torque is required to support the centre of mass (CoM) forward of the ankles, and dynamic torque modulation is required to maintain unstable balance. Passive mechanisms contribute to both but the extent is controversial. Some groups have revealed a substantial intrinsic stiffness (65–90%) normalized to load stiffness, ‘mgh’. Others regard their methodology as unsuitable for the low-frequency conditions of quiet standing and believe the passive contribution to be small (10–15%). Here we applied low-frequency ankle rotations to upright subjects who were supported at the waist allowing the leg muscles to be passive and we report normalized stiffness. The passive calf muscles provided: (i) an extensor torque capable of sustaining unstable balance without tonic activity at a mean CoM–ankle angle of 1.6 deg, (ii) a long range stiffness of 13 ± 2% and (iii) a short range (< 0.2 deg) stiffness of 67 ± 8%. Chordal ankle stiffness, derived from the torque versus angle relationship for 7 deg rotations, shows a non-linear decrease (stiffness α rotation−0.33±0.04) from 101 ± 9% to 19 ± 5% for rotations of 0.03–7 deg, respectively. Thus, passive stiffness is well adapted for the continuum of postural and movement activity and has a substantial postural role eliminating the need for continuous muscle activity and increasing the unstable time constant of the human inverted pendulum. Ignoring the non-linear dependence of passive stiffness on sway size could lead to serious misinterpretation of experiments using perturbations and sensory manipulations such as eye closure, sway referencing and altered support surfaces. PMID:17823209

  18. Central Appalachian Valley and Ridge Province Cenozoic igneous activity and its relation in space and time with the Late Jurassic rift-to-drift-related alkalic dikes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, R.; Schultz, L.; Hendriks, B. W.; Harbor, D. J.; Connors, C. D.

    2011-12-01

    A Swarm of Late Jurassic alkalic intrusions, geographically limited mainly to the Augusta County in western Virginia has been studied geochemically. These dykes were emplaced along a northwest-southeast cross-strike basement fracture zone during Mesozoic extension. However, not all igneous rocks in Virginia are Jurassic; published K-Ar ages already suggested an Eocene age activity around Monterey, VA. We systematically sampled and studied these rocks geochemically and used the Ar-Ar dating technique to define a more precise age for this youngest volcanic activity East of the Mississippi. The younger igneous bodies have traditionally been interpreted as intrusive bodies representing old plumbing systems of eroded volcanic centers. This hypothesis is based on studies of aphanitic to porphyritic and occasionally vesicular hard rocks from quarries and road cuts. Pyroclastic deposits have mainly been neglected during theses earlier studies. However additional petrographic studies of volcanic sediments are able to shed light not only on the volcanic nature of these pyroclastic rocks but also on eruption mechanisms and magma crust interactions. Our petrographic studies indicate that these volcanic sediments contain different clasts of igneous and sedimentary country rocks (sandstones and limestones of different formations), fresh glass shards and crystals of predominantly pyroxene, hornblende and micas. A previously unmapped, massive, m-thick andesitic pyroclastic deposit has been studied in detail to shed light on the formation of theses volcanic sediments. Field relations and observations (e.g. denser rock fragments are enriched in the lower part of the sequence and bedding is largely parallel to the present topography) are consistent with a massive welded ignimbrite. As a result, surface erosion after the eruption must be less significant than previously believed and some rocks are clearly volcanic in nature. Petrogenetically the Jurassic magmas are much more alkalic

  19. Central Appalachian Valley and Ridge Province Cenozoic igneous activity and their relation in space and time with the Late Jurassic rift to drift related alkalic dikes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, R.; Schultz, L.; Hendriks, B. W. H.; Harbor, D.; van Wijk, J.; Connors, C.

    2012-04-01

    A Swarm of Late Jurassic alkalic intrusions and geographically limited mainly to the Augusta County in western Virginia has been studied geochemically. These dykes were emplaced along a northwest-southeast cross-strike basement fracture zone during Mesozoic extension. However, not all igneous rocks in Virginia are Jurassic; published K-Ar ages already suggested an Eocene age activity around Monterey, VA (e.g. Fullagar & Bottino 1969). We first systematically sampled and studied these rocks geochemically and used the Ar-Ar dating technique to define a more precise age (around 48Ma) for this youngest volcanic activity East of the Mississippi. The younger igneous bodies have traditionally been interpreted as intrusive bodies representing old plumbing systems of eroded volcanic centers. This hypothesis is based on studies of aphanitic to porphyritic and occasionally vesicular hard rocks from quarries and road cuts. Pyroclastic deposits have mainly been neglected during theses earlier studies. However additional petrographic studies of volcanic sediments are able to shed light not only on the volcanic nature of these pyroclastic rocks but also on eruption mechanisms and magma crust interactions. Our petrographic studies defined that these volcanic sediments contain different clasts of igneous and sedimentary country rocks (sandstones and limestones of different formations), fresh glass shards and crystals of predominantly pyroxene, hornblende and micas. A previously unmapped, massive, m-thick andesitic pyroclastic deposit has been studied in detail to shed light on the formation of theses volcanic sediments. Field relations and observations (e.g.denser rock fragments are enriched in the lower part of the sequence and bedding is largely parallel to the present topography) are consistent with a massive welded ignimbrite. As a result, surface erosion after the eruption must be less significant than previously believed and some rocks are clearly volcanic in nature

  20. Alteration of Thyroid-Related Hormones within Normal Ranges and Early Functional Outcomes in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiao-yan; Li, Wen-yu; Hu, Xing-yue

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the prognostic value of thyroid-related hormones within normal ranges after acute ischemic stroke. This was a retrospective study and we reviewed 1072 ischemic stroke patients consecutively admitted within 72 h after symptom onset. Total triiodothyronine (T3), total thyroxine (T4), free T3, free T4, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were assessed to determine their values for predicting functional outcome at the first follow-up clinic visits, which usually occurred 2 to 4 weeks after discharge from the hospital. 722 patients were finally included. On univariate analysis, poor functional outcome was associated with presence of atrial fibrillation as the index event. Furthermore, score of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), total T4, free T4, and C-reactive protein at admission were significantly higher in patients with poor functional outcome, whereas free T3 and total T3 were significantly lower. On multiple logistic regression analysis, lower total T3 concentrations remained independently associated with poor functional outcome [odds ratio (OR), 0.10; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.01–0.84; P = 0.035]. The only other variables independently associated with poor functional outcome were NIHSS scores. In sum, lower total T3 concentrations that were within the normal ranges were independently associated with poor short-term outcomes. PMID:27375741

  1. Alteration of Thyroid-Related Hormones within Normal Ranges and Early Functional Outcomes in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-Yan; Li, Wen-Yu; Hu, Xing-Yue

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the prognostic value of thyroid-related hormones within normal ranges after acute ischemic stroke. This was a retrospective study and we reviewed 1072 ischemic stroke patients consecutively admitted within 72 h after symptom onset. Total triiodothyronine (T3), total thyroxine (T4), free T3, free T4, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were assessed to determine their values for predicting functional outcome at the first follow-up clinic visits, which usually occurred 2 to 4 weeks after discharge from the hospital. 722 patients were finally included. On univariate analysis, poor functional outcome was associated with presence of atrial fibrillation as the index event. Furthermore, score of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), total T4, free T4, and C-reactive protein at admission were significantly higher in patients with poor functional outcome, whereas free T3 and total T3 were significantly lower. On multiple logistic regression analysis, lower total T3 concentrations remained independently associated with poor functional outcome [odds ratio (OR), 0.10; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.01-0.84; P = 0.035]. The only other variables independently associated with poor functional outcome were NIHSS scores. In sum, lower total T3 concentrations that were within the normal ranges were independently associated with poor short-term outcomes. PMID:27375741

  2. Longer wings for faster springs - wing length relates to spring phenology in a long-distance migrant across its range.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Steffen; Korner-Nievergelt, Fränzi; Emmenegger, Tamara; Amrhein, Valentin; Csörgő, Tibor; Gursoy, Arzu; Ilieva, Mihaela; Kverek, Pavel; Pérez-Tris, Javier; Pirrello, Simone; Zehtindjiev, Pavel; Salewski, Volker

    2016-01-01

    In migratory birds, morphological adaptations for efficient migratory flight often oppose morphological adaptations for efficient behavior during resident periods. This includes adaptations in wing shape for either flying long distances or foraging in the vegetation and in climate-driven variation of body size. In addition, the timing of migratory flights and particularly the timely arrival at local breeding sites is crucial because fitness prospects depend on site-specific phenology. Thus, adaptations for efficient long-distance flights might be also related to conditions at destination areas. For an obligatory long-distance migrant, the common nightingale, we verified that wing length as the aerodynamically important trait, but not structural body size increased from the western to the eastern parts of the species range. In contrast with expectation from aerodynamic theory, however, wing length did not increase with increasing migration distances. Instead, wing length was associated with the phenology at breeding destinations, namely the speed of local spring green-up. We argue that longer wings are beneficial for adjusting migration speed to local conditions for birds breeding in habitats with fast spring green-up and thus short optimal arrival periods. We suggest that the speed of spring green-up at breeding sites is a fundamental variable determining the timing of migration that fine tune phenotypes in migrants across their range. PMID:26811775

  3. Comparative ecophysiology of cold-tolerance-related traits: assessing range expansion potential for an invasive insect at high latitude.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Philipp; Kaunisto, Sirpa; Koštál, Vladimir; Margus, Aigi; Zahradníčková, Helena; Lindström, Leena

    2015-01-01

    Survival at high latitude requires the capability to cope with seasonally imposed stress, such as low winter temperatures or large temperature fluctuations. The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, is an invasive pest of potato that has rapidly spread from low latitudes to higher latitudes. During the last 30 years, a decrease in range expansion speed is apparent in Europe. We use a comparative approach to assess whether this could be due to an inability of L. decemlineata to cope with the harsher winters encountered at high latitude, when compared to two native northern chrysomelid beetles with similar overwintering ecology. We investigated several cold-tolerance-related physiological traits at different time points during winter. Cold tolerance followed a latitudinal pattern; the northern species were more tolerant to short-term subzero temperatures than the invasive L. decemlineata. The other northern species, the knotgrass leaf beetle, Chrysolina polita, was found to tolerate internal freezing. Interestingly, the pattern for overwinter survival at 5°C was the opposite and higher in L. decemlineata than the northern species and could be related to behavioral differences between species in overwintering location selection and a potential physiological trade-off between tolerance to cold shock and to chronic cold exposure. Furthermore, while the northern species accumulated large amounts of different sugars and polyols with probable cryoprotectant functions, none were detected in L. decemlineata at high concentrations. This lack of cryoprotectant accumulation could explain the difference in cold tolerance between the species and also suggests that a lack of physiological capacity to tolerate low temperatures could slow further latitudinal range expansion of L. decemlineata. PMID:25860825

  4. Stable Isotope Evidence for a Complex Fluid Evolution of the Northwestern British Columbia Coast Ranges Related to Terrane Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moertle, J.; Holk, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    Stable isotope geochemistry reveals a complex fluid evolution for the Western Metamorphic Belt (WMB), Coast Ranges Batholith (CRB), Central Gneiss Complex (CGC) and Coast Ranges Megalineament (CRM). These fluids are a product of a complex tectonic history related to terrane accretion that includes oblique convergence, metamorphism, magmatism, and orogenic collapse. From W-to-E, these fluid systems are as follows. High-pressure greenschist-to-amphibolite facies metasedimentary rocks of the WMB record variable mineral δD (-61 to -104‰) and δ18O (e.g., quartz +9.6 to +13.4‰) values with multiple minerals in apparent isotopic equilibrium (T ~ 450-550°C) suggest a low W/R system dominated by metamorphic fluids. Variable and non-equilibrium δD (-53 to -143‰) and δ18O (e.g., biotite +2.3 to +5.3‰) values from diorites of the Quottoon pluton affected by the ductile CRM suggest a complex evolution that involved both metamorphic and meteoric-hydrothermal fluids in this dextral shear zone; these results differ from those 300 km along strike to the north that documented only metamorphic fluids in the CRM (Goldfarb et al., 1988). Our data and those of Magaritz and Taylor (1976) from granulite facies metasediments of the CGC and plutons of the western CRB reveal homogeneous δD values (-62 to -78‰) and a restricted range of δ18O values (e.g., quartz +8.5 to +11.5‰) with all minerals in equilibrium at T > 570°C indicate a system dominated by magmatic fluids. Calculated whole-rock δ18O values (~ +7‰) for the Quottoon pluton and CRB intrusive rocks suggest a mantle origin for these magmas. Reinterpretation of very low δD (< -150‰) and quartz-feldspar δ18O pairs that display extreme disequilibrium (feldspar δ18O values as low as -5‰) from the Ponder pluton, eastern CRB, and Hazelton Group point reveals that the major meteoric-hydrothermal system that affected these rocks was related to Eocene detachment faulting along the Shames Lake fault system, a

  5. Long-run relative importance of temperature as the main driver to malaria transmission in Limpopo Province, South Africa: a simple econometric approach.

    PubMed

    Komen, Kibii; Olwoch, Jane; Rautenbach, Hannes; Botai, Joel; Adebayo, Adetunji

    2015-03-01

    Malaria in Limpopo Province of South Africa is shifting and now observed in originally non-malaria districts, and it is unclear whether climate change drives this shift. This study examines the distribution of malaria at district level in the province, determines direction and strength of the linear relationship and causality between malaria with the meteorological variables (rainfall and temperature) and ascertains their short- and long-run variations. Spatio-temporal method, Correlation analysis and econometric methods are applied. Time series monthly meteorological data (1998-2007) were obtained from South Africa Weather Services, while clinical malaria data came from Malaria Control Centre in Tzaneen (Limpopo Province) and South African Department of Health. We find that malaria changes and pressures vary in different districts with a strong positive correlation between temperature with malaria, r = 0.5212, and a weak positive relationship for rainfall, r = 0.2810. Strong unidirectional causality runs from rainfall and temperature to malaria cases (and not vice versa): F (1, 117) = 3.89, ρ = 0.0232 and F (1, 117) = 20.08, P < 0.001 and between rainfall and temperature, a bi-directional causality exists: F (1, 117) = 19.80; F (1,117) = 17.14, P < 0.001, respectively, meaning that rainfall affects temperature and vice versa. Results show evidence of strong existence of a long-run relationship between climate variables and malaria, with temperature maintaining very high level of significance than rainfall. Temperature, therefore, is more important in influencing malaria transmission in Limpopo Province. PMID:25515074

  6. Tectonic history of the Syria Planum province of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, K.L.; Davis, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    We attribute most of the development of extensive fractures in the Tharsis region to discrete tectonic provinces within the region, rather than to Tharsis as a single entity. One of these provinces is in Syria Planum. Faults and collapse structures in the Syria Planum tectonic province on Mars are grouped into 13 sets based on relative age, areal distribution, and morphology. According to superposition and fault crosscutting relations and crater counts we designate six distinct episodes of tectonic activity. Photoclinometric topographic profiles across 132 grabens and fault scarps show that Syria Planum grabens have widths (average of 2.5 km, and most range from 1 to 6 km) similar to lunar grabens, but the Martian grabens have slightly higher side walls (average abour 132 m) and gentler wall slopes (average of 9?? and range of 2??-25??) than lunar grabens (93 m high and 18?? slopes). Estimates of the amount of extension for individual grabens range from 20 to 350 m; most estimates of the thickness of the faulted layer range from 0.5 to 4.5 km (average is 1.5 km). This thickness range corresponds closely to the 0.8- to 3.6-km range in depth for pits, troughs, and canyons in Noctis Labyrinthus and along the walls of Valles Marineris. We propose that the predominant 1- to 1.5-km values obtained for both the thickness of the faulted layer and the depths of the pits, troughs, and theater heads of the canyons reflect the initial depth to the water table in this region, as governed by the depth to the base of ground ice. Maximum depths for these features may indicate lowered groundwater table depths and the base of ejecta material. -from Authors

  7. Plasma glucocorticoid concentrations in free-ranging platypuses (Ornithorhynchus anatinus): response to capture and patterns in relation to reproduction.

    PubMed

    Handasyde, K A; McDonald, I R; Evans, B K

    2003-12-01

    Energy demands in the platypus are likely to increase in the breeding season, which occurs from winter to early spring. Glucocorticoids, which play a major role in energy mobilisation, were measured in consecutive blood samples from free-ranging adults at approximately monthly intervals throughout the year. Glucose and free fatty acids were also measured in some samples. Plasma concentrations of glucocorticoids rose significantly during the first 30 min after capture, accompanied by a rise in free fatty acids, but no corresponding increase in glucose concentrations. We observed a strong pattern in plasma glucocorticoids in samples collected within 15 min of capture (indicative of pre-disturbance concentrations) in different phases of the annual reproductive cycle, with significantly higher levels in both males and females in the breeding season compared to the non-breeding season. These data, and the decline in tail fat stores that occur towards the end of the mating period (around October), suggest that platypus experience high-energy demands during this phase of reproduction. Plasma glucocorticoid concentrations in females sampled during the lactation period (October-February) were relatively low, and similar to those in females sampled in the non-breeding, non-lactation period (March-June). The latter requires further investigation as results may have been influenced by sampling limitations. PMID:14667852

  8. Free-Ranging Male Koalas Use Size-Related Variation in Formant Frequencies to Assess Rival Males

    PubMed Central

    Charlton, Benjamin D.; Whisson, Desley A.; Reby, David

    2013-01-01

    Although the use of formant frequencies in nonhuman animal vocal communication systems has received considerable recent interest, only a few studies have examined the importance of these acoustic cues to body size during intra-sexual competition between males. Here we used playback experiments to present free-ranging male koalas with re-synthesised bellow vocalisations in which the formants were shifted to simulate either a large or a small adult male. We found that male looking responses did not differ according to the size variant condition played back. In contrast, male koalas produced longer bellows and spent more time bellowing when they were presented with playbacks simulating larger rivals. In addition, males were significantly slower to respond to this class of playback stimuli than they were to bellows simulating small males. Our results indicate that male koalas invest more effort into their vocal responses when they are presented with bellows that have lower formants indicative of larger rivals, but also show that males are slower to engage in vocal exchanges with larger males that represent more dangerous rivals. By demonstrating that male koalas use formants to assess rivals during the breeding season we have provided evidence that male-male competition constitutes an important selection pressure for broadcasting and attending to size-related formant information in this species. Further empirical studies should investigate the extent to which the use of formants during intra-sexual competition is widespread throughout mammals. PMID:23922967

  9. Giant iron-ore deposits of the Hamersley province related to the breakup of Paleoproterozoic Australia: New insights from in situ SHRIMP dating of baddeleyite from mafic intrusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Stefan G.; Krapež, Bryan; Barley, Mark E.; Fletcher, Ian R.

    2005-07-01

    Banded iron formations of the ca. 2770 2405 Ma Hamersley province of Western Australia were locally upgraded to high-grade hematite ores during the Early Paleoproterozoic by a combination of hypogene and supergene processes after the initial rise of atmospheric oxygen. Ore genesis was associated with the stratigraphic break between the Lower and Upper Wyloo Groups of the Ashburton province, and has been variously linked to the Ophthalmian orogeny, late-orogenic extensional collapse, and anorogenic continental extension. Small-spot in situ Pb/Pb dating of baddeleyite by sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) has resolved the ages of two key suites of mafic intrusions, constraining for the first time the tectonic evolution of the Ashburton province and the age and setting of iron-ore formation. Mafic sills dated as ca. 2208 Ma were folded during the Ophthalmian orogeny and then cut by the unconformity at the base of the Lower Wyloo Group. A mafic dike swarm that intrudes the Lower Wyloo Group and has a close genetic relationship to iron ore is ca. 2008 Ma, slightly younger than a new syneruptive 2031 ± 6 Ma zircon age for the Lower Wyloo Group. These new ages constrain the Ophthalmian orogeny to the period between ca. 2208 and 2031 Ma, before Lower Wyloo Group extension, sedimentation, and flood-basalt volcanism. The ca. 2008 Ma dikes pre s ent a new maximum age for iron-ore genesis and deposition of the Upper Wyloo Group, thereby linking ore genesis to a ca. 2050 2000 Ma period of continental extension similarly recorded by Paleoproterozoic terrains worldwide well after the initial oxidation of the atmosphere by ca. 2320 Ma.

  10. Study of Seismogenic Crust In The Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia And Its Relation To The Seismicity of The Ghawar Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogren, S. M.; Mukhopadhyay, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Rayn Anticlines (RA) developed in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia are truncated by the Abu-Jifan Fault (AJF) to their southeast and by the Wadi-Batin Fault (WBF) to the northwest. This set of anticlines is comprised of six sub-parallel super-giant anticlines, including the Ghawar Anticline (GA). Here we firstly present a revised seismicity map for the Eastern Province on the basis of ';Reviewed ISC Earthquake Catalogue' for the period 1970-2010 that shows the Eastern Province crust is seismogenic down to about 45 km depth while its surface width is 220 km (what is seven times wider than the width of GA). The Saudi Geological Survey (SGS) Earthquake Network Catalogue for Eastern Province shows that characteristic magnitude completeness (Mc), based on the assumption of self-similarity, have detected all local earthquakes above the cut-off magnitude ≥ 2.7. SGS catalogue events demonstrate that the GA is seismically intensely active where 826 events have originated during the period of 2005-10, of maximum magnitude ML 4.24. These events came almost in equal proportions from the Uthmaniyah-Hawaiyah and Haradh production divisions belonging to the central and southern Ghawar oil/gas Fields, where, the seismic zones orient in NE and NW directions respectively. Focal-depth distribution of events along the strike direction of seismic zones follows the ';En Nala axis' in GA and broadly defines an inverted triangular zone extending to crustal depths. Seismic activity below both the production divisions is supposedly triggered by hydrocarbon fluid-extraction activity; although, their root cause is probably due to regional compressive stress operative across RA. Triggered seismicity locally shows better correlation to mutually opposite reverse faults oriented NW and NE transgressing the Haradh and Uthmaniyah-Hawaiyah production divisions under the influence of regional compressive stress oriented N40°E. Some support to this inference comes from mapped surface faults

  11. Supervolcanoes within an ancient volcanic province in Arabia Terra, Mars.

    PubMed

    Michalski, Joseph R; Bleacher, Jacob E

    2013-10-01

    Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars, represent a new type of highland volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized Martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae possess a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism and explosive eruptions. Extruded lavas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulphur and erupted fine-grained pyroclastics from these calderas probably fed the formation of altered, layered sedimentary rocks and fretted terrain found throughout the equatorial region. The discovery of a new type of volcanic construct in the Arabia volcanic province fundamentally changes the picture of ancient volcanism and climate evolution on Mars. Other eroded topographic basins in the ancient Martian highlands that have been dismissed as degraded impact craters should be reconsidered as possible volcanic constructs formed in an early phase of widespread, disseminated magmatism on Mars. PMID:24091975

  12. Supervolcanoes Within an Ancient Volcanic Province in Arabia Terra, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michalski, Joseph. R.; Bleacher, Jacob E.

    2014-01-01

    Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars represent a new type of highland volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae display a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism, and explosive eruptions. Extruded lavas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulfur and erupted fine-grained pyroclastics from these calderas likely fed the formation of altered, layered sedimentary rocks and fretted terrain found throughout the equatorial region. Discovery of a new type of volcanic construct in the Arabia volcanic province fundamentally changes the picture of ancient volcanism and climate evolution on Mars. Other eroded topographic basins in the ancient Martian highlands that have been dismissed as degraded impact craters should be reconsidered as possible volcanic constructs formed in an early phase of widespread, disseminated magmatism on Mars.

  13. Ground-water quality and its relation to hydrogeology, land use, and surface-water quality in the Red Clay Creek basin, Piedmont Physiographic Province, Pennsylvania and Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.

    1996-01-01

    The Red Clay Creek Basin in the Piedmont Physiographic Province of Pennsylvania and Delaware is a 54-square-mile area underlain by a structurally complex assemblage of fractured metamorphosed sedimentary and igneous rocks that form a water-table aquifer. Ground-water-flow systems generally are local, and ground water discharges to streams. Both ground water and surface water in the basin are used for drinking-water supply. Ground-water quality and the relation between ground-water quality and hydrogeologic and land-use factors were assessed in 1993 in bedrock aquifers of the basin. A total of 82 wells were sampled from July to November 1993 using a stratified random sampling scheme that included 8 hydrogeologic and 4 land-use categories to distribute the samples evenly over the area of the basin. The eight hydrogeologic units were determined by formation or lithology. The land-use categories were (1) forested, open, and undeveloped; (2) agricultural; (3) residential; and (4) industrial and commercial. Well-water samples were analyzed for major and minor ions, nutrients, volatile organic compounds (VOC's), pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl compounds (PCB's), and radon-222. Concentrations of some constituents exceeded maximum contaminant levels (MCL) or secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCL) established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water. Concentrations of nitrate were greater than the MCL of 10 mg/L (milligrams per liter) as nitrogen (N) in water from 11 (13 percent) of 82 wells sampled; the maximum concentration was 38 mg/L as N. Water from only 1 of 82 wells sampled contained VOC's or pesticides that exceeded a MCL; water from that well contained 3 mg/L chlordane and 1 mg/L of PCB's. Constituents or properties of well-water samples that exceeded SMCL's included iron, manganese, dissolved solids, pH, and corrosivity. Water from 70 (85 percent) of the 82 wells sampled contained radon-222 activities greater than the proposed MCL of

  14. Quantifying Species' Range Shifts in Relation to Climate Change: A Case Study of Abies spp. in China

    PubMed Central

    Kou, Xiaojun; Li, Qin; Liu, Shirong

    2011-01-01

    Predicting species range shifts in response to climatic change is a central aspect of global change studies. An ever growing number of species have been modeled using a variety of species distribution models (SDMs). However, quantitative studies of the characteristics of range shifts are rare, predictions of range changes are hard to interpret, analyze and summarize, and comparisons between the various models are difficult to make when the number of species modeled is large. Maxent was used to model the distribution of 12 Abies spp. in China under current and possible future climate conditions. Two fuzzy set defined indices, range increment index (I) and range overlapping index (O), were used to quantify range shifts of the chosen species. Correlation analyses were used to test the relationships between these indices and species distribution characteristics. Our results show that Abies spp. range increments (I) were highly correlated with longitude, latitude, and mean roughness of their current distributions. Species overlapping (O) was moderately, or not, correlated with these parameters. Neither range increments nor overlapping showed any correlation with species prevalence. These fuzzy sets defined indices provide ideal measures of species range shifts because they are stable and threshold-free. They are reliable indices that allow large numbers of species to be described, modeled, and compared on a variety of taxonomic levels. PMID:21887231

  15. Petrogenesis of anomalous Queen Alexandra Range enstatite meteorites and their relation to enstatite chondrites, primitive enstatite achondrites, and aubrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niekerk, Deon; Keil, Klaus; Humayun, Munir

    2014-03-01

    Queen Alexandra Range (QUE) meteorite 94204 is an anomalous enstatite meteorite whose petrogenesis has been ascribed to either partial melting or impact melting. We studied the meteorite pairs QUE 94204, 97289/97348, 99059/99122/99157/99158/99387, and Yamato (Y)-793225; these were previously suggested to represent a new grouplet. We present new data for mineral abundances, mineral chemistries, and siderophile trace element compositions (of Fe,Ni metal) in these meteorites. We find that the texture and composition of Y-793225 are related to EL6, and that this meteorite is unrelated to the QUEs. The mineralogy and siderophile element compositions of the QUEs are consistent with petrogenesis from an enstatite chondrite precursor. We caution that potential re-equilibration during melting and recrystallization of enstatite chondrite melt-rocks make it unreliable to use mineral chemistries to assign a specific parent body affinity (i.e., EH or EL). The QUEs have similar mineral chemistries among themselves, while slight variations in texture and modal abundances exist between them. They are dominated by inclusion-bearing millimeter-sized enstatite (average En99.1-99.5) with interstitial spaces filled predominantly by oligoclase feldspar (sometimes zoned), kamacite (Si approximately 2.4 wt%), troilite (≤2.4 wt% Ti), and cristobalite. Siderophile elements that partition compatibly between solid metal and liquid metal are not enriched like in partial melt residues Itqiy and Northwest Africa (NWA) 2526. We find that the modal compositions of the QUEs are broadly unfractionated with respect to enstatite chondrites. We conclude that a petrogenesis by impact melting, not partial melting, is most consistent with our observations.

  16. High heterogeneity of HIV-related sexual risk among transgender people in Ontario, Canada: a province-wide respondent-driven sampling survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies of HIV-related risk in trans (transgender, transsexual, or transitioned) people have most often involved urban convenience samples of those on the male-to-female (MTF) spectrum. Studies have detected high prevalences of HIV-related risk behaviours, self-reported HIV, and HIV seropositivity. Methods The Trans PULSE Project conducted a multi-mode survey using respondent-driven sampling to recruit 433 trans people in Ontario, Canada. Weighted estimates were calculated for HIV-related risk behaviours, HIV testing and self-reported HIV, including subgroup estimates for gender spectrum and ethno-racial groups. Results Trans people in Ontario report a wide range of sexual behaviours with a full range of partner types. High proportions – 25% of female-to-male (FTM) and 51% of MTF individuals – had not had a sex partner within the past year. Of MTFs, 19% had a past-year high-risk sexual experience, versus 7% of FTMs. The largest behavioural contributors to HIV risk were sexual behaviours some may assume trans people do not engage in: unprotected receptive genital sex for FTMs and insertive genital sex for MTFs. Overall, 46% had never been tested for HIV; lifetime testing was highest in Aboriginal trans people and lowest among non-Aboriginal racialized people. Approximately 15% of both FTM and MTF participants had engaged in sex work or exchange sex and about 2% currently work in the sex trade. Self-report of HIV prevalence was 10 times the estimated baseline prevalence for Ontario. However, given wide confidence intervals and the high proportion of trans people who had never been tested for HIV, estimating the actual prevalence was not possible. Conclusions Results suggest potentially higher than baseline levels of HIV; however low testing rates were observed and self-reported prevalences likely underestimate seroprevalence. Explicit inclusion of trans people in epidemiological surveillance statistics would provide much-needed information on incidence

  17. Recueil des legislations linguistiques dans le monde. Tome I: Le Canada federal et les provinces canadiennes (Record of World Language-Related Legislation. Volume I: Federal Canada and the Canadian Provinces).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leclerc, Jacques, Ed.

    The volume is one of a series of six listing language-related legislation around the world. It contains the texts of federal and provincial/territorial laws of Canada, in French when both French and English versions were available, and in English when an English version was the only one available. The laws are presented in this order: federal;…

  18. Monitoring of selected priority and emerging contaminants in the Guadalquivir River and other related surface waters in the province of Jaén, South East Spain.

    PubMed

    Robles-Molina, José; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    The province of Jaén counts with four natural parks, numerous rivers, reservoirs and wetlands; moreover, it is probably the region with higher olive oil production in the world, which makes this zone a proper target to be studied based on the European Water Framework Directive 2000/60/CE. The aim of this survey is to monitor a total number of 373 compounds belonging to different families (pesticides, PAHs, nitrosamines, drugs of abuse, pharmaceuticals and life-style compounds) in surface waters located at different points of the province of Jaén. Among these compounds some priority organic substances (regulated by the EU Directive 2008/105/EC) and pollutants of emerging concern (not regulated yet) can be found. A liquid chromatography electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOFMS) method covering 340 compounds was developed and applied, together with a gas chromatography triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) method which enabled the analysis of 63 organic contaminants (30 of these compounds are analyzed by LC-TOFMS as well). From April 2009 to November 2010 a total of 83 surface water samples were collected (rivers, reservoirs and wetlands). In this period numerous organic contaminants were detected, most of them at the ng L(-1) level. The most frequently priority substances found were chlorpyrifos ethyl, diuron and hexachlorobenzene. Within the other groups, the most frequently detected compounds were: terbuthylazine, oxyfluorfen, desethyl terbuthylazine, diphenylamine (pesticide family); fluorene, phenanthrene, pyrene (PAHs group), codeine, paracetamol (pharmaceuticals compounds) and caffeine, nicotine (life-style compounds). As is could be expected, the total concentration of emerging contaminants is distinctly larger than that of priority pollutants, highlighting the importance of continuing with the study of their presence, fate and effects in aquatic environments. However, concentration levels (at the ng per liter level) are low in

  19. Comprehensive analysis of proton range uncertainties related to patient stopping-power-ratio estimation using the stoichiometric calibration

    PubMed Central

    Yang, M; Zhu, X R; Park, PC; Titt, Uwe; Mohan, R; Virshup, G; Clayton, J; Dong, L

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze factors affecting proton stopping-power-ratio (SPR) estimations and range uncertainties in proton therapy planning using the standard stoichiometric calibration. The SPR uncertainties were grouped into five categories according to their origins and then estimated based on previously published reports or measurements. For the first time, the impact of tissue composition variations on SPR estimation was assessed and the uncertainty estimates of each category were determined for low-density (lung), soft, and high-density (bone) tissues. A composite, 95th percentile water-equivalent-thickness uncertainty was calculated from multiple beam directions in 15 patients with various types of cancer undergoing proton therapy. The SPR uncertainties (1σ) were quite different (ranging from 1.6% to 5.0%) in different tissue groups, although the final combined uncertainty (95th percentile) for different treatment sites was fairly consistent at 3.0–3.4%, primarily because soft tissue is the dominant tissue type in human body. The dominant contributing factor for uncertainties in soft tissues was the degeneracy of Hounsfield Numbers in the presence of tissue composition variations. To reduce the overall uncertainties in SPR estimation, the use of dual-energy computed tomography is suggested. The values recommended in this study based on typical treatment sites and a small group of patients roughly agree with the commonly referenced value (3.5%) used for margin design. By using tissue-specific range uncertainties, one could estimate the beam-specific range margin by accounting for different types and amounts of tissues along a beam, which may allow for customization of range uncertainty for each beam direction. PMID:22678123

  20. Comprehensive analysis of proton range uncertainties related to patient stopping-power-ratio estimation using the stoichiometric calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ming; Zhu, X. Ronald; Park, Peter C.; Titt, Uwe; Mohan, Radhe; Virshup, Gary; Clayton, James E.; Dong, Lei

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze factors affecting proton stopping-power-ratio (SPR) estimations and range uncertainties in proton therapy planning using the standard stoichiometric calibration. The SPR uncertainties were grouped into five categories according to their origins and then estimated based on previously published reports or measurements. For the first time, the impact of tissue composition variations on SPR estimation was assessed and the uncertainty estimates of each category were determined for low-density (lung), soft, and high-density (bone) tissues. A composite, 95th percentile water-equivalent-thickness uncertainty was calculated from multiple beam directions in 15 patients with various types of cancer undergoing proton therapy. The SPR uncertainties (1σ) were quite different (ranging from 1.6% to 5.0%) in different tissue groups, although the final combined uncertainty (95th percentile) for different treatment sites was fairly consistent at 3.0-3.4%, primarily because soft tissue is the dominant tissue type in the human body. The dominant contributing factor for uncertainties in soft tissues was the degeneracy of Hounsfield numbers in the presence of tissue composition variations. To reduce the overall uncertainties in SPR estimation, the use of dual-energy computed tomography is suggested. The values recommended in this study based on typical treatment sites and a small group of patients roughly agree with the commonly referenced value (3.5%) used for margin design. By using tissue-specific range uncertainties, one could estimate the beam-specific range margin by accounting for different types and amounts of tissues along a beam, which may allow for customization of range uncertainty for each beam direction.

  1. The role of long-range van der Waals forces in the relative stability of SiO2-zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Román-Román, Erick I.; Zicovich-Wilson, Claudio M.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of long-range dispersion forces in the stability of silica zeolites is explored by considering periodic hybrid-DFT calculations. It is shown that a widely used functional such as B3LYP is unable to reproduce the experimental stability trend of a large set of SiO2 open frameworks when considering high-level basis sets. Correcting the method to account for dispersion with a straightforward London-like energy correction term allows recovering the experimental trend, being the agreement particularly noticeable for PBE0-D. These results provide a strong indication of the relevance of long-range dispersion forces in the stability trend of porous materials.

  2. Mating-related behaviour of grizzly bears inhabiting marginal habitat at the periphery of their North American range.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Mark A; Derocher, Andrew E

    2015-02-01

    In comparison to core populations, peripheral populations have low density and recruitment, and are subject to different selective pressures, such as environmental conditions, food type and availability, predation, disease, etc., which may result in behavioural modifications to mating. We test the roam-to-mate hypothesis for a peripheral population of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) at the northern extent of their North American range, in Canada's Arctic. If bears are roaming-to-mate, we predicted greater range size and daily displacement, and more linear movements for receptive animals during the mating period compared to post-mating. In contrast to our predictions, we found that in general range size and displacement increased from mating to post-mating regardless of reproductive status. When considered across both periods, females with cubs-of-the-year had smaller range use metrics than other reproductive groups, which we attribute to a counter-strategy against sexually selected infanticide and the reduced mobility of cubs. Linearity of movements remained near zero during both periods across all groups, suggesting tortuous movements more characteristic of foraging than of mate-searching. We suggest that for this population, finding quality habitat takes precedence over mate-searching in this marginal Arctic landscape. Alternatively, a more monogamous mating system and sequestering behaviour may have obscured movement differences between the two periods. The behavioural differences in mating that we observed from what is typical of core populations may reflect local adaptation to marginal conditions and could benefit the species in the face of ongoing environmental change. PMID:25498148

  3. Heavy metal contaminations in soil-rice system: source identification in relation to a sulfur-rich coal burning power plant in Northern Guangdong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiangqin; Zeng, Xiaoduo; Chuanping, Liu; Li, Fangbai; Xu, Xianghua; Lv, Yahui

    2016-08-01

    Heavy metal contents (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in 99 pairs of soil-rice plant samples were evaluated from the downwind directions of a large thermal power plant in Shaoguan City, Guangdong Province, China. Results indicate that there is a substantial buildup of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in the predominant wind direction of the power plant. The significant correlations between S and heavy metals in paddy soil suggest that the power plant represents a source of topsoil heavy metals in Shaoguan City due to sulfur-rich coal burning emissions. Elevated Cd concentrations were also found in rice plant tissues. Average Cd (0.69 mg kg(-1)) and Pb (0.39 mg kg(-1)) contents in rice grain had exceeded their maximum permissible limits (both were 0.2 mg kg(-1)) in foods of China (GB2762-2005). The enrichment of Cd and Pb in rice grain might pose a potential health risk to the local residents. PMID:27395361

  4. Stroke frequency, but not swimming speed, is related to body size in free-ranging seabirds, pinnipeds and cetaceans

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Katsufumi; Watanuki, Yutaka; Takahashi, Akinori; Miller, Patrick J.O; Tanaka, Hideji; Kawabe, Ryo; Ponganis, Paul J; Handrich, Yves; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Watanabe, Yuuki; Mitani, Yoko; Costa, Daniel P; Bost, Charles-André; Aoki, Kagari; Amano, Masao; Trathan, Phil; Shapiro, Ari; Naito, Yasuhiko

    2006-01-01

    It is obvious, at least qualitatively, that small animals move their locomotory apparatus faster than large animals: small insects move their wings invisibly fast, while large birds flap their wings slowly. However, quantitative observations have been difficult to obtain from free-ranging swimming animals. We surveyed the swimming behaviour of animals ranging from 0.5 kg seabirds to 30 000 kg sperm whales using animal-borne accelerometers. Dominant stroke cycle frequencies of swimming specialist seabirds and marine mammals were proportional to mass−0.29 (R2=0.99, n=17 groups), while propulsive swimming speeds of 1–2 m s−1 were independent of body size. This scaling relationship, obtained from breath-hold divers expected to swim optimally to conserve oxygen, does not agree with recent theoretical predictions for optimal swimming. Seabirds that use their wings for both swimming and flying stroked at a lower frequency than other swimming specialists of the same size, suggesting a morphological trade-off with wing size and stroke frequency representing a compromise. In contrast, foot-propelled diving birds such as shags had similar stroke frequencies as other swimming specialists. These results suggest that muscle characteristics may constrain swimming during cruising travel, with convergence among diving specialists in the proportions and contraction rates of propulsive muscles. PMID:17476766

  5. Ground-water geology of Kordofan Province, Sudan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodis, Harry G.; Hassan, Abdulla; Wahadan, Lutfi

    1968-01-01

    , water from Nubian aquifers is satisfactory for most uses and is of better quality than that obtained from Umm Ruwaba aquifers. The relatively high mineralization of water from the Umm Ruwaba, especially in the eastern part of the Province, makes the water unsuitable for many municipal ad industrial uses. The water is generally usable, however, for domestic and livestock purposes. Some 175 drilled wells located at 75 water yards yield an average, of about 1,000 imperial gallons .per hour per well from Nubian or Umm Ruwaba. aquifers. Generally the water yards provide sufficient water for minimum domestic and livestock requirements throughout the year. Commonly, however, the water yards are widely separated and, hence, not always properly spaced for good range management or for serving the needs of the dispersed rural population. In 1962, withdrawals from Nubian and Umm Ruwaba aquifers in the Province were approximately 600 million gallons annually. This rate of draft: could probably be continued almost indefinitely without significant depletion of the water supply. Nubian and Umm Ruwaba aquifers in the southwestern part of Kordofan offer excellent potential for future development. Nubian aquifers in northern Kordofan need extensive exploration by test drilling before their economic potential can be properly evaluated.

  6. Modern Tectonic Deformation in the Active Basin-And Province Northwest of Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, S.; Wen, X.

    2012-12-01

    Our study region is the northwest of Beijing, northern north China. The most typical extensional active tectonic area of the China continent, called the active basin-and-range province northwest of Beijing, exist there. This active tectonic province is made up of several NE-trending Quaternary graben basins and horst ranges between basins. An about 1500-year-long written historical record has suggested that there have been no major earthquakes with magnitude 7 or greater occurred in most of the study region since AD 512. So, the characteristic of modern tectonic deformation of the study region and its implication for the future seismic potential of major earthquakes are important scientific issues. In this study, based on data of regional GPS station velocities and active tectonics, combining relocated earthquake distribution, we make a preliminary analysis on the characteristic of the modern tectonic deformation of the study region. We design three zones across deferent segments of the active basin-and-range province to analyze both the present tectonic deformation from the GPS velocity profiles and the major fault's downward-extents from the relocated hypocenters. Our analyses reveal that: (1) Significant NNW-ward and SSE-ward horizontal extension exists on different segments of the active basin-and-range province northwest of Beijing at rates of 2 to 3mm /yr, accompanied with right-lateral shear deformation at 1 to 2mm/yr. (2) On the present tectonic deformation, the southeastern margin of the Datong-Yangyuan basin, the biggest graben basin of the active tectonic province, shows as a turning belt of the extensional rates, suggesting that relatively high tensile strain accumulation could exist there. (3)On the northeastern segment of the studied active basin-and-range province, both the Zhangjiakou-Yanhui graben basin and the Beijing graben basin have also been being in significant extensional and shear deformation. (4) The relocated hypocenter distribution have

  7. Age- and sex-related reference ranges for eight plasma constituents derived from randomly selected adults in a Scottish new town.

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, M D; Scott, R

    1980-01-01

    The results of analysis of blood specimens from randomly selected adults aged 19-88 years in the new town of Cumbernauld were used to establish age- and sex-related reference ranges by the centile method (central 95%) for plasma calcium, phosphate, total protein, albumin, globulins, urea, creatinine, and urate. The possible existence of a subpopulation with a higher reference range for urea is mooted. PMID:7400337

  8. Shallow marine event sedimentation in a volcanic arc-related setting: The Ordovician Suri Formation, Famatina range, northwest Argentina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mangano, M.G.; Buatois, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Loma del Kilome??tro Member of the Lower Ordovician Suri Formation records arc-related shelf sedimentation in the Famatina Basin of northwest Argentina. Nine facies, grouped into three facies assemblages, are recognized. Facies assemblage 1 [massive and parallel-laminated mudstones (facies A) locally punctuated by normally graded or parallel-laminated silty sandstones (facies B] records deposition from suspension fall-out and episodic storm-induced turbidity currents in an outer shelf setting. Facies assemblage 2 [massive and parallel-laminated mudstones (facies A) interbedded with rippled-top very fine-grained sandstones (facies D)] is interpreted as the product of background sedimentation alternating with distal storm events in a middle shelf environment. Facies assemblage 3 [normally graded coarse to fine-grained sandstones (facies C); parallel-laminated to low angle cross-stratified sandstones (facies E); hummocky cross-stratified sandstones and siltstones (facies F); interstratified fine-grained sandstones and mudstones (facies G); massive muddy siltstones and sandstones (facies H); tuffaceous sandstones (facies I); and interbedded thin units of massive and parallel-laminated mudstones (facies A)] is thought to represent volcaniclastic mass flow and storm deposition coupled with subordinated suspension fall-out in an inner-shelf to lower-shoreface setting. The Loma del Kilo??metro Member records regressive-transgressive sedimentation in a storm- and mass flow-dominated high-gradient shelf. Volcano-tectonic activity was the important control on shelf morphology, while relative sea-level change influenced sedimentation. The lower part of the succession is attributed to mud blanketing during high stand and volcanic quiescence. Progradation of the inner shelf to lower shoreface facies assemblage in the middle part represents an abrupt basinward shoreline migration. An erosive-based, non-volcaniclastic, turbidite unit at the base of this package suggests a sea

  9. A study of tectonic activity in the Basin-Range Province and on the San Andreas Fault. No. 2: Lithospheric structure, seismicity, and contemporary deformation of the United States Cordillera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. B.

    1986-01-01

    The structural evolution of the U.S. Cordillera has been influenced by a variety of tectonic mechanisms including passive margin rifting and sedimentation; arc volcanism; accretion of exotic terranes; intraplate magmatism; and folding and faulting associated with compression and extension processes that have profoundly influenced the lithospheric structure. As a result the Cordilleran crust is laterally inhomogeneous across its 2000 km east-west breadth. It is thin along the West Coast where it has close oceanic affinities. The crust thickens eastward beneath the Sierra Nevada, then thins beneath the Basin-Range. Crustal thickening continues eastward beneath the Colorado Plateau, the Rocky Mountains, and the Great Plains. The total lithospheric thickness attains 65 km in the Basin-Range and increases eastward beneath the Colorado Plateau. The upper-crust, including the crystalline basement of the Cordillera, has P sub G velocities of 6 km/s in the Basin-Range and Rio Grande Rift. Lower P sub G velocities of 5.4 to 5.7 km/s are associated with the youthful Yellowstone, Valles and Long Valley calderas and the Franciscan assemblage of the western coastal margin. Averaged crustal velocity reflects integrated tectonic evolution of the crust-thick silicic bodies, velocity reversals, and a thin crust produce low averaged velocities that are characteristic of a highly attenuated and thermally deformed crust.

  10. Deep seismic refraction experiment in northeast Brazil: New constraints for Borborema province evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Marcus Vinicius A. G. de; Berrocal, Jesus; Soares, José E. P.; Fuck, Reinhardt A.

    2015-03-01

    The Borborema Province of northeastern Brazil is a major Proterozoic crustal province that, until now, has never been explored using deep crustal seismic methods. Here are reported the first results obtained from a high-quality seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profile that has defined the internal seismic velocity structure and thickness of the crust in this region. Almost 400 recording stations were deployed in the Deep Seismic Refraction (DSR) experiment through an NW-SE ca. 900 km linear array and 19 shots were exploded at every 50 km along the line. Data from the 10 southeastern most shots of the seismic profile were processed in this work. The main features and geological structures crossed by the studied portion of the profile belong to the so-called Central Sub-province of the Borborema tectonic province. The crustal model obtained is compatible with a typical structure of extended crust. The model was essentially divided into three layers: upper crust, lower crust, and a half-space represented by the shallower portion of the mantle. The Moho is an irregular interface with depth ranging between 31.7 and 34.5 km, and beneath the Central Sub-province it varies from 31.5 to 33 km depth, where its limits are related to major crustal discontinuities. The distribution of velocities within the crust is heterogeneous, varying vertically from 5.7 to 6.3 km/s in the upper crust and from 6.45 to 6.9 km/s in the lower crust. From the average crustal velocity distribution it is evident that the Central Sub-province has seismic characteristics different from neighboring domains. The crust is relatively thin and crustal thickness variations in the profile are subtle due to stretching that occurred in the Cretaceous, during the fragmentation of Pangaea, opening of the South Atlantic Ocean and separation of South America from Africa.

  11. Stereomotion speed perception: contributions from both changing disparity and interocular velocity difference over a range of relative disparities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Kevin R.; Stone, Leland S.

    2004-01-01

    The role of two binocular cues to motion in depth-changing disparity (CD) and interocular velocity difference (IOVD)- was investigated by measuring stereomotion speed discrimination and static disparity discrimination performance (stereoacuity). Speed discrimination thresholds were assessed both for random dot stereograms (RDS), and for their temporally uncorrelated equivalents, dynamic random dot stereograms (DRDS), at relative disparity pedestals of -19, 0, and +19 arcmin. While RDS stimuli contain both CD and IOVD cues, DRDS stimuli carry only CD information. On average, thresholds were a factor of 1.7 higher for DRDS than for RDS stimuli with no clear effect of relative disparity pedestal. Results were similar for approaching and receding targets. Variations in stimulus duration had no significant effect on thresholds, and there was no observed correlation between stimulus displacement and perceived speed, confirming that subjects responded to stimulus speed in each condition. Stereoacuity was equally good for our RDS and DRDS stimuli, showing that the difference in stereomotion speed discrimination performance for these stimuli was not due to any difference in the precision of the disparity cue. In addition, when we altered stereomotion stimulus trajectory by independently manipulating the speeds and directions of its monocular half-images, perceived stereomotion speed remained accurate. This finding is inconsistent with response strategies based on properties of either monocular half-image motion, or any ad hoc combination of the monocular speeds. We conclude that although subjects are able to discriminate stereomotion speed reliably on the basis of CD information alone, IOVD provides a precise additional cue to stereomotion speed perception.

  12. Influence of the absorption behavior of sunscreens in the short-wavelength UV range (UVB) and the long-wavelength UV range (UVA) on the relation of the UVB absorption to sun protection factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigmann, Hans-Juergen; Schanzer, Sabine; Antoniou, Christina; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Juergen

    2010-09-01

    The absorption of filter substances in sunscreens, reducing the incident ultraviolet (UV) radiation, is the basis for the protecting ability of such formulations. The erythema-correlated sun protection factor (SPF), depending mainly on the intensity of the UVB radiation, is the common value to quantify the efficacy of the formulations avoiding sunburn. An ex vivo method combining tape stripping and optical spectroscopy is applied to measure the absorption of sunscreens in the entire UV spectral range. The obtained relations between the short-wavelength UV (UVB) absorption and the SPF confirm a clear influence of the long-wavelength UV (UVA) absorption on the SPF values. The data reflect the historical development of the relation of the concentration of UVB and UVA filters in sunscreens and points to the influence of additional ingredients, e.g., antioxidants and cell-protecting agents on the efficacy of the products.

  13. Late Quaternary paleomagnetic secular variation, relative paleointensity, and environmental magnetism from Cascade Lake, Brooks Range, Arctic Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steen, D. P.; Kaufman, D. S.; Stoner, J. S.; Reilly, B. T.

    2015-12-01

    Two sediment cores from Cascade Lake (68.38°N, 154.60°W), Arctic Alaska were selected for paleomagnetic analysis to compare 14C age control with paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) and relative paleointensity (RPI) age control derived from field models and other local sedimentary records. Rock magnetic experiments were performed to quantify variability in magnetic properties and to infer sediment sourcing during the late Quaternary. U-channels were studied through AF demagnetization of the natural remanent magnetization, and laboratory-induced magnetizations including anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) acquisition, ARM demagnetization, and isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM). Maximum angular deviation values average <2°, indicating a strong, well-defined characteristic remanent magnetization dominated by a low-coercivity component that increases up core. Average inclinations are within 4° of the expected geocentric axial dipole, and major inclination features can be correlated across the two cores. Correlation of inclination changes with the Burial Lake record, 200 km to the west (Dorfman, 2013, unpub. thesis), indicates that the Cascade Lake sedimentary sequence overlying the basal diamicton likely spans at least 16 ka. Cascade Lake sediments may be suitable for RPI estimation using the ARM or IRM as a normalizer, following a more detailed examination of magnetic properties. A systematic offset between the Cascade Lake 14C chronology and PSV and RPI chronologies wiggle-matched to field models suggests a hard-water effect of ~1000 yr, although we cannot rule out the possibility that at least some of the age offset represents a post-depositional remanent magnetization lock-in effect at Cascade Lake. S-ratios (IRM0.3T/SIRM) and ARM-ratios (ARM/SIRM) show a sharp decrease in low-coercivity material across the transition from clastic sediments to organic-rich sediments, followed by an increase in the concentration of fine-grained magnetic material and

  14. Effects of logging disturbance on soil organic carbon and related variables in the Coastal Range of British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grand, S.; Lavkulich, L. M.

    2012-04-01

    Forest soils of the coastal mountains of British Columbia have been shown to store comparatively large amounts of soil organic carbon (SOC). This study aims to determine short to medium term effects of clear-cut logging on SOC and related soil variables in coastal Podzols. For this purpose, we examined a disturbance chronosequence comprising sites logged 0 to 15 years prior to sampling. Twenty-seven soil profiles were sampled to a depth of 1 m and analyzed for loss on ignition, SOC, total nitrogen, pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC) and texture. Special attention was also paid to poorly crystalline minerals, which were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and selective dissolution analysis including pyrophosphate, oxalate and dithionite extractions. We found that 60% of SOC was stored below the 20 cm depth. This deep carbon pool played a key role in the response of overall SOC storage after logging, suggesting that it contains both stable and fast-cycling organic compounds. It is therefore important that subsoil horizons be sampled systematically in disturbance studies. Soil organic carbon increased by approximately a third in cleared plots (logged 1-5 years prior to sampling) and returned to levels similar to control sites in regenerating plots (logged 8-15 years prior to sampling). The increase in SOC after clearing was attributable to the gradual downward translocation of decaying logging slash. This SOC increase was limited to the sand and silt fraction, suggesting that new organic inputs did not form complexes with soil clays and were not subsequently stabilized. Logging affected organic matter quality. The average C:N ratio and carbon concentration of organic matter decreased after logging, suggesting increased organic matter oxidation and maturation. The CEC:C ratio increased in regenerating plots. The CEC:C ratio is a useful indicator of the environmental performance of organic matter at these sites and

  15. Olivine and chromian spinel in primitive calc-alkaline and tholeiitic lavas from the southernmost cascade range, California: A reflection of relative fertility of the source

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clynne, M.A.; Borg, L.E.

    1997-01-01

    Chromian spinel and coexisting olivine phenocrysts from a geochemically diverse suite of primitive tholeiitic and calc-alkaline basalts and magnesian andesites from the Lassen region, in the southernmost Cascade Range, in California, show that the sub-arc mantle is zoned. Depleted calc-alkaline basalts and magnesian andesites erupt in the forearc region, and calc-alkaline basalts contain increasing abundances of incompatible elements toward the backarc. High-alumina olivine tholeiites erupt from the arc and backarc areas. Olivine from all these lavas displays a limited compositional range, from Fo86 to Fo91, and crystallized at high temperature, generally 1225-1275??C. Chromian spinel trapped in the olivine phenocrysts displays a large range of composition: Cr# values span the range 9-76. Excess Al in the spinel relative to that in 1-atm spinel suggests that it crystallized at elevated pressure. The phenocrysts in these lavas are in equilibrium with their host liquids. The full range of Cr# of the spinel compositions cannot be explained by differentiation or variable pressure, variations in f(O2), subsolidus equilibration or variations in degree of partial melting of a single peridotitic source. Rather, the systematic compositional differences among phenocrysts in these primitive lavas result from bulk chemical variability in their mantle sources. Correlations between spinel and host-rock compositions support the assertion that the geochemical diversity of Lassen basalts reflects the relative fertility of their mantle sources.

  16. Molecular Epidemiology of Reemergent Rabies in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai-Lin; Zhang, Yu-Zhen; Yang, Wei-Hong; Tao, Xiao-Yan; Li, Hao; Ding, Ji-Chao; Feng, Yun; Yang, Du-Juan; Zhang, Juan; He, Jiang; Shen, Xin-Xin; Wang, Li-Hua; Zhang, Yun-Zhi; Song, Miao

    2014-01-01

    Yunnan Province in China borders 3 countries (Vietnam, Laos, and Myanmar) in Southeast Asia. In the 1980s, a large-scale rabies epidemic occurred in this province, which subsided by the late 1990s. However, 3 human cases of rabies in 2000 indicated reemergence of the disease in 1 county. In 2012, rabies was detected in 77 counties; 663 persons died of rabies during this new epidemic. Fifty two rabies virus strains obtained during 2008–2012 were identified and analyzed phylogenetically by sequencing the nucleoprotein gene. Of the 4 clades identified, clades YN-A and YN-C were closely related to strains from neighboring provinces, and clade YN-B was closely related to strains from Southeast Asia, but formed a distinct branch. Rabies virus diversity might be attributed to dog movements among counties, provinces, and neighboring countries. These findings suggest that Yunnan Province is a focal point for spread of rabies between Southeast Asia and China. PMID:25144604

  17. Geology and mineralization of the Wyoming Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hausel, W.D.; Edwards, B.R.; Graff, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Wyoming Province is an Archean craton which underlies portions of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Utah, and much of Wyoming. The cratonic block consists of Archean age granite-gneiss with interspersed greenstone belts and related supracrustal terranes exposed in the cores of several Laramide uplifts. Resources found in the Province and in the adjacent accreted Proterozoic terrane include banded iron formation, Au, Pt, Pd, W, Sn, Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, and diamonds. The Province shows many similarities to the mineral-rich cratons of the Canadian shield, the Rhodesian and Transvaal cratons of southern Africa, and the Pilbara and Yilgarn blocks of Western Australia, where much of the world's precious and strategic metal and gemstone resources are located.

  18. Empirical Research on Decoupling Relationship between Energy-Related Carbon Emission and Economic Growth in Guangdong Province Based on Extended Kaya Identity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenxiu; Huang, Ningsheng; Zhao, Daiqing

    2014-01-01

    The decoupling elasticity decomposition quantitative model of energy-related carbon emission in Guangdong is established based on the extended Kaya identity and Tapio decoupling model for the first time, to explore the decoupling relationship and its internal mechanism between energy-related carbon emission and economic growth in Guangdong. Main results are as follows. (1) Total production energy-related carbon emissions in Guangdong increase from 4128 × 104 tC in 1995 to 14396 × 104 tC in 2011. Decoupling elasticity values of energy-related carbon emission and economic growth increase from 0.53 in 1996 to 0.85 in 2011, and its decoupling state turns from weak decoupling in 1996–2004 to expansive coupling in 2005–2011. (2) Land economic output and energy intensity are the first inhibiting factor and the first promoting factor to energy-related carbon emission decoupling from economic growth, respectively. The development speeds of land urbanization and population urbanization, especially land urbanization, play decisive roles in the change of total decoupling elasticity values. (3) Guangdong can realize decoupling of energy-related carbon emission from economic growth effectively by adjusting the energy mix and industrial structure, coordinating the development speed of land urbanization and population urbanization effectively, and strengthening the construction of carbon sink. PMID:24782666

  19. Pleistocene terrace deposition related to tectonically controlled surface uplift: An example of the Kyrenia Range lineament in the northern part of Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palamakumbura, Romesh N.; Robertson, Alastair H. F.

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we consider how surface uplift of a narrow mountain range has interacted with glacial-related sea-level cyclicity and climatic change to produce a series of marine and non-marine terrace systems. The terrace deposits of the Kyrenia Range record rapid surface uplift of a long-lived tectonic lineament during the early Pleistocene, followed by continued surface uplift at a reduced rate during mid-late Pleistocene. Six terrace depositional systems are distinguished and correlated along the northern and southern flanks of the range, termed K0 to K5. The oldest and highest (K0 terrace system) is present only within the central part of the range. The K2-K5 terrace systems formed later, at sequentially lower levels away from the range. The earliest stage of surface uplift (K0 terrace system) comprises lacustrine carbonates interbedded with mass-flow facies (early Pleistocene?). The subsequent terrace system (K1) is made up of colluvial conglomerate and aeolian dune facies on both flanks of the range. The later terrace systems (K2 to K5) each begin with a basal marine deposit, interpreted as a marine transgression. Deltaic conglomerates prograded during inferred global interglacial stages. Overlying aeolian dune facies represent marine regressions, probably related to global glacial stages. Each terrace depositional system was uplifted and preserved, followed by subsequent deposits at progressively lower topographic levels. Climatic variation during interglacial-glacial cycles and autocyclic processes also exerted an influence on deposition, particularly on short-period fluvial and aeolian deposition.

  20. Boron Nitride Nanotube Mat as a Low- k Dielectric Material with Relative Dielectric Constant Ranging from 1.0 to 1.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Xinghua; Wang, Daojun; Chung, D. D. L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports that a boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) mat containing air and 1.4 vol.% BNNTs is a low- k dielectric material for microelectronic packaging, exhibiting relative dielectric constant of 1.0 to 1.1 (50 Hz to 2 MHz) and elastic modulus of 10 MPa. The mat is prepared by compacting BNNTs at 5.8 kPa. This paper also presents measurements of the dielectric properties of BNNTs (mostly multiwalled). The relative dielectric constant of the BNNT solid in the mat decreases with increasing frequency, with attractively low values ranging from 3.0 to 6.2; the alternating-current (AC) electrical conductivity increases with increasing frequency, with attractively low values ranging from 10-10 S/m to 10-6 S/m and an approximately linear relationship between log conductivity and log frequency. The specific contact capacitance of the interface between BNNTs and the electrical contact decreases with increasing frequency, with attractively high values ranging from 1.6 μF/m2 to 2.3 μF/m2. The AC electrical resistivity of the BNNT-contact interface decreases with increasing frequency, with high values ranging from 0.14 MΩ cm2 to 440 MΩ cm2.

  1. A survey of commercially available broilers marketed as organic, free-range, and conventional broilers for cooked meat yields, meat composition, and relative value.

    PubMed

    Husak, R L; Sebranek, J G; Bregendahl, K

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this survey was to investigate qualitative and quantitative properties of meat from organic, free-range, and conventional broilers as currently provided to consumers. Fifteen broilers from 4 suppliers of each type were evaluated for raw meat yield, cooked meat yield, proximate composition, pH, color, lipid oxidation, fatty acid composition, and sensory attributes. Organic broilers yielded more dark (thigh) meat (P < 0.05) than free-range or conventional, when compared on a raw-meat basis, but conventional and free-range broilers yielded more (P < 0.05) cooked light (breast) meat than organic. Protein content of organic breast and thigh meat was greater (P < 0.05) than conventional in the raw and the cooked meat comparisons. The pH of breast meat from organic broilers was higher (P < 0.05) than free-range or conventional. Organic breast and thigh meat was less yellow (P < 0.05) than free-range or conventional. Fatty acid analysis showed that organic breasts and thighs were lower (P < 0.05) in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids and higher (P < 0.05) in polyunsaturated fatty acids than free-range and conventional broilers. Shear force measurements were less (P < 0.05) for both breast and thigh meat from conventional broilers relative to free-range and organic broilers. Sensory panel results indicated that thighs from conventional broilers were more tender (P < 0.05) and less chewy (P < 0.05) than thighs from free-range and organic broilers, whereas other sensory properties did not differ. At the time of the study, March through May of 2006, the average retail prices for US broilers were USD 3.19, USD 2.78, and USD 1.29 per pound (USD 7.03, USD 6.13, and USD 2.84/kg) for organic, free-range, and conventional, respectively. Whereas a difference in the fatty acid composition was the largest difference observed between retail broilers in this survey, it is important to note that diets and production environments within the study were not controlled

  2. Prevalence, risk factors and molecular characterization of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in five provinces of Northern China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chao; Ma, Xusheng; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Zhao, Jia-Ping; Ba, Heng-Xing; Rui-Du; Xing, Xiu Mei; Wang, Quan-Kai; Zhao, Quan

    2016-09-01

    The disease microsporidiosis is found worldwide and is mainly caused by Enterocytozoon bieneusi. E. bieneusi can infect a wide range of hosts; however, information regarding the prevalence and genotyping of E. bieneusi infection in raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is limited. Therefore, in 2015, we examined 305 faecel samples from 80 farmed raccoon dogs in Jilin Province, from 54 in Hebei Province, from 72 in Liaoning Province, from 29 in Shandong Province, and from 40 in Heilongjiang Province. The overall prevalence of E. bieneusi infection in farmed raccoon dogs was 22.30%. Logistic regression analysis suggests that age, gender and region of raccoon dogs were highly related to the prevalence of E. bieneusi infection. Moreover, six E. bieneusi internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequences, including four known genotypes, namely D, CHN-DC1, NCF2, and CHN-F1, and two novel genotypes (NCR1 and NCR2), were identified in the present study. The present study firstly indicated the existence of E. bieneusi genotypes NCF2, NCR1, NCR2and CHN-F1 in infected raccoon dogs in Northern China. Integrated control strategies should be implemented to limit E. bieneusi infection in farmed raccoon dogs, and to prevent transmission of this disease to other animals and humans. PMID:27260667

  3. Identification of landslide spatial distribution and susceptibility assessment in relation to topography in the Xi'an Region, Shaanxi Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Jianqi; Peng, Jianbing; Iqbal, Javed; Liu, Tieming; Liu, Na; Li, Yazhe; Ma, Penghui

    2015-09-01

    Landslides are among the most serious of geohazards in the Xi'an Region, Shaanxi, China, and are responsible for extensive human and property loss. In order to understand the distribution of landslides and assess their associated hazards in this region, we used a combination of frequency analysis, logistic analysis, and Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis, with consideration of the spatial distribution of landslides. Using the GIS approach, the five key factors of surface topography, including slope gradient, topographic wetness index (TWI), height difference, profile curvature and slope aspect, were considered. First, the distribution and frequency of landslides were considered in relation to all of the five factors in each of three sub-regions susceptible to landslides (Qin Mountain, Li Mountain, and Loess Tableland). Secondly, each factor's influence was determined by a logistic regression method, and the relative importance of each of these independent variables was evaluated. Finally, a landslide susceptibility map was generated using GIS tools. Locations that had recorded landslides were used to validate the results of the landslide susceptibility map and the accuracy obtained was above 84%. The validation proved that there is sufficient agreement between the susceptibility map and existing records of landslide occurrences. The logistic regression model produced acceptable results (the areas under the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve were 0.865, 0.841, and 0.924 in the Qin Mountain, Li Mountain and Loess Tableland). We are confident that the results of this study can be useful in preliminary planning for land use, particularly for construction work in high-risk areas.

  4. HCMM: Soil moisture in relation to geologic structure and lithology, northern California. [Northern Coast Range, Sacramento Valley, and the Modoc Plateau

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rich, E. I. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Heat capacity mapping mission images of about 80,000 sq km in northern California were qualitatively evaluated for usefulness in regional geologic investigations of structure and lithology. The thermal characteristics recorded vary among the several geomorphic provinces and depend chiefly on the topographic expression and vegetation cover. Identification of rock types, or groups of rock types, was most successfully carried out within the semiarid parts of the region; however, extensive features, such as faults, folds and volcanic fields could be delineated. Comparisons of seasonally obtained HCMM images are of limited value except in semiarid regions.

  5. National Interlaboratory Comparison in Scope of Relative Humidity in the Range from 11 %rh to 95 %rh at 23° C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aytekin, S. Oğuz; Kalemci, M.

    2015-12-01

    The goal of interlaboratory comparisons is to verify the competence of accredited or non-accredited laboratories, including verification of the reported measurement uncertainties, whenever possible. An interlaboratory comparison consists of measurement results of a laboratory and a reference laboratory which is competent to run the comparison and provides traceability at the required uncertainty level. In Turkey, the demand for an interlaboratory comparison in the humidity field increased drastically in parallel to an increasing number of accredited laboratories in this field. Therefore, a national interlaboratory comparison in the scope of relative humidity in the range between 11 %rh and 95 %rh at 23° C was initiated by TUBITAK UME in 2011. Two hygrometers were calibrated at TUBITAK UME in the above-mentioned range and characterized in terms of long-term stability, temperature dependence, and hysteresis. One of the hygrometers is used throughout this comparison. The second one was kept aside as a backup device in case of a malfunction of the first device. Organization and evaluation of the interlaboratory comparison in the scope of relative humidity were performed according to the EN ISO/IEC 17043:2010 "Conformity assessment—general requirements for proficiency testing" among thirteen national laboratories. Evaluation of comparison results are performed by normalized error analysis. It was found that among the 95 realized points of comparison, 85 (89 %) had En ≤ 1 and only 10 (11 %) had E >1.

  6. An ultra-wide bandwidth-based range/GPS tight integration approach for relative positioning in vehicular ad hoc networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Feng; Wayn Cheong, Joon; Dempster, Andrew G.

    2015-04-01

    Relative position awareness is a vital premise for the implementation of emerging intelligent transportation systems, such as collision warning. However, commercial global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) receivers do not satisfy the requirements of these applications. Fortunately, cooperative positioning (CP) techniques, through sharing the GNSS measurements between vehicles, can improve the performance of relative positioning in a vehicular ad hoc network (VANET). In this paper, while assuming there are no obstacles between vehicles, a new enhanced tightly coupled CP technique is presented by adding ultra-wide bandwidth (UWB)-based inter-vehicular range measurements. In the proposed CP method, each vehicle fuses the GPS measurements and the inter-vehicular range measurements. Based on analytical and experimental results, in the full GPS coverage environment, the new tight integration CP method outperforms the INS-aided tight CP method, tight CP method, and DGPS by 11%, 15%, and 24%, respectively; in the GPS outage scenario, the performance improvement achieves 60%, 65%, and 73%, respectively.

  7. Closely related species of birds differ more in body size when their ranges overlap--in warm, but not cool, climates.

    PubMed

    Bothwell, Emma; Montgomerie, Robert; Lougheed, Stephen C; Martin, Paul R

    2015-07-01

    Differences in body size are widely thought to allow closely related species to coexist in sympatry, but body size also varies as an adaptive response to climate. Here, we use a sister lineage approach to test the prediction that body size differences between closely related species of birds worldwide are greater for species whose ranges are sympatric rather than allopatric. We further test if body size differences among sympatric versus allopatric species vary with geography, evolutionary distance, and environmental temperatures. We find greater differences in size among sympatric compared with allopatric lineages, but only in closely related species that live where mean annual temperatures are above 25°C. These size differences in warm environments declined with the evolutionary distance between sister lineages. In species living in cooler regions, closely related allopatric and sympatric species did not differ significantly in size, suggesting either that colder temperatures constrain the evolutionary divergence of size in sympatry, or that the biotic selective pressures favoring size differences in sympatry are weaker in colder environments. Our results are consistent with suggestions by Wallace, Darwin, and Dobzhansky that climatic selective pressures are more important in cooler environments (e.g., high elevations and latitudes) whereas biotic selective pressures dominate in warm environments (e.g., lowland tropics). PMID:26085317

  8. River Valley pluton, Ontario - A late-Archean/early-Proterozoic anorthositic intrusion in the Grenville Province

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashwal, Lewis D.; Wooden, Joseph L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents Nd, Sr, and Pb isotopic data indicating a late-Archean/early-Proterozoic age for the River Valley anorthositic pluton of the southwestern Grenville Province of Sudbury, Ontario. Pb-Pb isotopic data on 10 whole-rock samples ranging in composition from anorthosite to gabbro yield an age of 2560 + or - 155 Ma. The River Valley pluton is thus the oldest anorthositic intrusive yet recognized within the Grenville Province. The Sm-Nd isotopic system records an age of 2377 + or - 68 Ma. High Pb-208/Pb-204 of deformed samples relative to igneous-textured rocks implies Th introduction and/or U loss during metamorphism in the River Valley area. Rb-Sr data from igneous-textured and deformed samples and from mineral separates give an age of 2185 + or - 105 Ma, indicating substantial disturbance of the Rb-Sr isotopic system.

  9. Distribution of late Cenozoic volcanic vents in the Cascade Range: volcanic arc segmentation and regional tectonic considerations ( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guffanti, M.; Weaver, C.S.

    1988-01-01

    Spatial, temporal, and compositional distributions of c4000 volcanic vents formed since 16 Ma in Washington, Oregon, N California, and NW Nevada illustrate the evolution of volcanism related to subduction of the Juan de Fuca plate system and extension of the Basin and Range province. Vent data were obtained from published map compilations and include monogenetic and small polygenetic volcanoes in addition to major composite centers. On the basis of the distribution of 2821 vents formed since 5 Ma, the Cascade Range is divided into 5 segments, with vents of the High Lava Plains along the northern margin of the Basin and Range province in Oregon forming a sixth segment. Some aspects of the Cascade Range segmentation can be related to gross structural features of the subducting Juan de Fuca plate.-from Authors

  10. Large igneous provinces and mass extinctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wignall, P. B.

    2001-03-01

    Comparing the timing of mass extinctions with the formation age of large igneous provinces reveals a close correspondence in five cases, but previous claims that all such provinces coincide with extinction events are unduly optimistic. The best correlation occurs for four consecutive mid-Phanerozoic examples, namely the end-Guadalupian extinction/Emeishan flood basalts, the end-Permian extinction/Siberian Traps, the end-Triassic extinction/central Atlantic volcanism and the early Toarcian extinction/Karoo Traps. Curiously, the onset of eruptions slightly post-dates the main phase of extinctions in these examples. Of the seven post-Karoo provinces, only the Deccan Traps coincide with a mass extinction, but in this case, the nature of the biotic crisis is best reconciled with the effects of a major bolide impact. Intraoceanic volcanism may also be implicated in a relatively minor end-Cenomanian extinction crisis, although once again the main phase of volcanism occurs after the crisis. The link between large igneous province formation and extinctions remains enigmatic; volume of extrusives and extinction intensity are unrelated and neither is there any apparent relationship with the rapidity of province formation. Violence of eruptions (proportions of pyroclastics) also appears unimportant. Six out of 11 provinces coincide with episodes of global warming and marine anoxia/dysoxia, a relationship that suggests that volcanic CO 2 emissions may have an important effect on global climate. Conversely, there is little, if any, geological evidence for cooling associated with continental flood basalt eruptions suggesting little long-term impact of SO 2 emissions. Large carbon isotope excursions are associated with some extinction events and intervals of flood basalt eruption but these are too great to be accounted for by the release of volcanic CO 2 alone. Thus, voluminous volcanism may in some circumstances trigger calamitous global environmental changes (runaway greenhouses

  11. Style and age of late Oligocene-early Miocene deformation in the southern Stillwater Range, west central Nevada: Paleomagnetism, geochronology, and field relations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, Mark R.; John, David A.; Conrad, James E.; McKee, Edwin H.

    2000-01-01

    Paleomagnetic and geochronologic data combined with geologic mapping tightly restrict the timing and character of a late Oligocene to early Miocene episode of large magnitude extension in the southern Stillwater Range and adjacent regions of west central Nevada. The southern Stillwater Range was the site of an Oligocene to early Miocene volcanic center comprising (1) 28.3 to 24.3 Ma intracaldera ash flow tuffs, lava flows, and subjacent plutons associated with three calderas, (2) 24.8 to 20.7 Ma postcaldera silicic dikes and domes, and (3) unconformably overlying 15.3 to 13.0 Ma dacite to basalt lava flows, plugs, and dikes. The caldera-related tuffs, lava flows, and plutons were tilted 60°-70° either west or east during the initial period of Cenozoic deformation that accommodated over 100% extension. Directions of remanent magnetization obtained from these extrusive and intrusive, caldera-related rocks are strongly deflected from an expected Miocene direction in senses appropriate for their tilt. A mean direction for these rocks after tilt correction, however, suggests that they were also affected by a moderate (33.4° ± 11.8°) component of counterclockwise vertical axis rotation. Paleomagnetic data indicate that the episode of large tilting occurred during emplacement of 24.8 to 20.7 Ma postcaldera dikes and domes. In detail, an apparent decrease in rotation with decreasing age of individual, isotopically dated bodies of the postcaldera group indicates that most tilting occurred between 24.4 and 24.2 Ma. The onset of tilting immediately following after the final caldera eruptions suggests that the magmatism and deformation were linked. Deformation was not driven by magma buoyancy, however, because tilting equally affected the caldera systems of different ages, including their plutonic roots. It is more likely that regional extension was focused in the southern Stillwater Range due to magmatic warming and reduction of tensile strength of the brittle crust

  12. Assessment of undiscovered petroleum resources of the Arctic Alaska Petroleum Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houseknecht, David W.; Bird, Kenneth J.; Garrity, Christopher P.

    2012-01-01

    The Arctic Alaska Petroleum Province encompasses all lands and adjacent continental shelf areas north of the Brooks Range-Herald arch tectonic belts and south of the northern (outboard) margin of the Alaska rift shoulder. Even though only a small part is thoroughly explored, it is one of the most prolific petroleum provinces in North America, with total known resources (cumulative production plus proved reserves) of about 28 billion barrels of oil equivalent. For assessment purposes, the province is divided into a platform assessment unit, comprising the Alaska rift shoulder and its relatively undeformed flanks, and a fold-and-thrust belt assessment unit, comprising the deformed area north of the Brooks Range and Herald arch tectonic belts. Mean estimates of undiscovered, technically recoverable resources include nearly 28 billion barrels of oil and 122 trillion cubic feet of nonassociated gas in the platform assessment unit and 2 billion barrels of oil and 59 trillion cubic feet of nonassociated gas in the fold-and-thrust belt assessment unit.

  13. Highlights from Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Although the extraction of mineral wealth has been the major influence in the history of Johannesburg and the surrounding Witwatersrand regions (with about 45% of all gold ever mined coming from there), the discovery of now-famous hominid fossils at the Sterkfontein Caves, and the convening of the world's largest-ever conference on environment and development, are setting a new stage for the future. The United Nations began the second Development and Environment Conference in Johannesburg on August 26, 2002. This meeting addresses the implementation of international goals to fight poverty and protect the global environment that were established at the first such conference held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. The Johannesburg summit involves about forty thousand participants, and perhaps 100 world leaders. One of several official opening ceremonies for the conference was held at the Sterkfontein Caves to recognize the outstanding universal value of the paleo-anthropological fossils found there.

    These views from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) highlight a number of the land use, vegetation, and geological features found within Gauteng Province (including the urban center of Johannesburg and the capital city Pretoria) and parts of the North West and Free State Provinces. The image on the right displays vegetation in red hues and is a false-color view utilizing data from MISR's near-infrared, red and blue bands. Both the natural-color view (left) and the false-color version were acquired by MISR's nadir camera on June 16, 2002. The urban areas appear as gray-colored pixels in the natural-color view, and exhibit colors corresponding with the relative abundance of vegetation found in the urban parts of this arid region.

    The mountains trending east-west near the center of the images extend from Pretoria in the east to Rustenberg in the west. These ranges, the Magaliesberg and Witwatersberg, separate the low-lying, hotter bushveld to the north from

  14. Determination of Germination Response to Temperature and Water Potential for a Wide Range of Cover Crop Species and Related Functional Groups.

    PubMed

    Tribouillois, Hélène; Dürr, Carolyne; Demilly, Didier; Wagner, Marie-Hélène; Justes, Eric

    2016-01-01

    A wide range of species can be sown as cover crops during fallow periods to provide various ecosystem services. Plant establishment is a key stage, especially when sowing occurs in summer with high soil temperatures and low water availability. The aim of this study was to determine the response of germination to temperature and water potential for diverse cover crop species. Based on these characteristics, we developed contrasting functional groups that group species with the same germination ability, which may be useful to adapt species choice to climatic sowing conditions. Germination of 36 different species from six botanical families was measured in the laboratory at eight temperatures ranging from 4.5-43°C and at four water potentials. Final germination percentages, germination rate, cardinal temperatures, base temperature and base water potential were calculated for each species. Optimal temperatures varied from 21.3-37.2°C, maximum temperatures at which the species could germinate varied from 27.7-43.0°C and base water potentials varied from -0.1 to -2.6 MPa. Most cover crops were adapted to summer sowing with a relatively high mean optimal temperature for germination, but some Fabaceae species were more sensitive to high temperatures. Species mainly from Poaceae and Brassicaceae were the most resistant to water deficit and germinated under a low base water potential. Species were classified, independent of family, according to their ability to germinate under a range of temperatures and according to their base water potential in order to group species by functional germination groups. These groups may help in choosing the most adapted cover crop species to sow based on climatic conditions in order to favor plant establishment and the services provided by cover crops during fallow periods. Our data can also be useful as germination parameters in crop models to simulate the emergence of cover crops under different pedoclimatic conditions and crop

  15. The relative roles of the parasol-like tail and burrow shuttling in thermoregulation of free-ranging Cape ground squirrels, Xerus inauris.

    PubMed

    Fick, Linda G; Kucio, Tomasz A; Fuller, Andrea; Matthee, André; Mitchell, Duncan

    2009-03-01

    As small arid-zone mammals, Cape ground squirrels (Xerus inauris) are unusual in being diurnally active. It is postulated that they remain active during the day by using their parasol-like tails to shade their bodies whilst foraging. However, no studies have continuously measured body temperature to determine the effect of using the tail as a parasol, relative to other thermoregulatory behaviours, such as burrow retreat. We caught four free-ranging Cape ground squirrels (673+/-36 g) and surgically implanted miniature temperature-sensitive data loggers into their abdomens, to record body temperature every 5 min to an accuracy of 0.04 degrees C, before they were released back into their home range and observed for two weeks. Mean daily peak black globe temperature was 41 degrees C, and daily peak body temperature reached 40 degrees C. Ground squirrels raised their tails significantly more often at globe temperatures above 30 degrees C, but raising the tail did not decrease body temperature, nor prevent body temperature rising. Ground squirrels retreated to burrows, at 18 degrees C, significantly more often at high body temperatures and body temperature dropped 1-2 degrees C before re-emergence. We believe that the tail was raised to provide thermal comfort during high solar radiation exposure, and that burrow retreat was employed to dissipate a heat load and remain active diurnally. PMID:19041951

  16. Relative contributions of local sources vs. long-range transport to the atmospheric speciated mercury concentrations at a remote island off the coast of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Y. J.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, total gaseous mercury (TGM), gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM), and particulate bound mercury (PBM) were measured on Yongheung Island off the coast of Korea between mainland Korea and Eastern China. Yongheung Island is a small island located about 15~20 km west from the mainland Korea. Because of the geographical location of the sampling site, the effect of long-range transport of Hg emitted from China could be observed with the westerly winds, and the effect of Korean domestic sources including inland industrial/metropolitan areas and coal-fired power plants could be also evaluated with the easterly and southerly winds, respectively. Average concentrations of TGM, GOM, and PBM were 2.8 ± 1.1 ng m-3, 9.8 ± 9.9 pg m-3,and 10.6 ± 12.0 pg m-3 at the sampling site, respectively. CPF plot shows that the top 25% of TGM concentrations were associated with the winds from NNW and ENE, pointing out the significance of Northeast Chinese emissions and inland Korean emissions; however, when the criterion was used as the top 10% TGM concentration the regional transport from China became less important and the sources located in southern and eastern areas were magnified as important source areas. For GOM, the highest concentration was observed with the wind direction from mainland Korean sources. On the other hand, it was presumed that long-range transport from North Korea and China significantly enhanced PBM concentrations. PSCF also identified Chinese sources for TGM and PBM while mainland Korean sources including coal power plants located in southern part of the sampling site were determined for possible source areas of GOM. Also, we found that the ratio of GOM/PBM was reduced with the increasing contribution of long-range transport and enhanced with the significant impact of local sources, suggesting that the ratio of GOM/PBM can be used as an indicator to determine the relative importance of long-range transport vs. local sources.

  17. Chapter 32: Geology and petroleum potential of the Arctic Alaska petroleum province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bird, K.J.; Houseknecht, D.W.

    2011-01-01

    The Arctic Alaska petroleum province encompasses all lands and adjacent continental shelf areas north of the Brooks Range-Herald Arch orogenic belt and south of the northern (outboard) margin of the Beaufort Rift shoulder. Even though only a small part is thoroughly explored, it is one of the most prolific petroleum provinces in North America with total known resources (cumulative production plus proved reserves) of c. 28 BBOE. The province constitutes a significant part of a displaced continental fragment, the Arctic Alaska microplate, that was probably rifted from the Canadian Arctic margin during formation of the Canada Basin. Petroleum prospective rocks in the province, mostly Mississippian and younger, record a sequential geological evolution through passive margin, rift and foreland basin tectonic stages. Significant petroleum source and reservoir rocks were formed during each tectonic stage but it was the foreland basin stage that provided the necessary burial heating to generate petroleum from the source rocks. The lion's share of known petroleum resources in the province occur in combination structural-stratigraphic traps formed as a consequence of rifting and located along the rift shoulder. Since the discovery of the super-giant Prudhoe Bay accumulation in one of these traps in the late 1960s, exploration activity preferentially focused on these types of traps. More recent activity, however, has emphasized the potential for stratigraphic traps and the prospect of a natural gas pipeline in this region has spurred renewed interest in structural traps. For assessment purposes, the province is divided into a Platform assessment unit (AU), comprising the Beaufort Rift shoulder and its relatively undeformed flanks, and a Fold-and-Thrust Belt AU, comprising the deformed area north of the Brooks Range and Herald Arch tectonic belt. Mean estimates of undiscovered, technically recoverable resources include nearly 28 billion barrels of oil (BBO) and 122 trillion

  18. Range Ecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    After more than two hundred years, grazing remains California’s most extensive land use. The ‘Range Ecosystems’ chapter in the ‘Ecosystems of California’ sourcebook provides an integrated picture of the biophysical, social, and economic aspects of lands grazed by livestock in the state. Grazing mana...

  19. Hydraulic traits are associated with the distribution range of two closely related Mediterranean firs, Abies alba Mill. and Abies pinsapo Boiss.

    PubMed

    Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Cochard, Hervé; Barredo, Gonzalo; Villarroya, Dido; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2011-10-01

    Abies alba and Abies pinsapo are two closely related fir species that occur in the Iberian Peninsula under very different environmental conditions. Abies alba proliferates in the humid European mountains, including the Spanish Pyrenees. In contrast, A. pinsapo is a relict species that occurs in some restricted areas of the Mediterranean mountain ranges in Spain and Morocco, which experience intense summer drought periods. To cope with the high atmospheric evaporative demand during summer, A. pinsapo may either have a high resistance to xylem cavitation or develop a very efficient conducting system to reduce the soil-to-leaf water potential gradient. To investigate such hypotheses, we measured (i) the xylem vulnerability to cavitation for different populations, and (ii) several anatomical and hydraulic parameters indicating xylem sufficiency for -supplying water to the shoot in two contrasting populations of both species. Our results show that the resistance to cavitation was not different between species or populations. However, hydraulic conductivity (K(h)), specific hydraulic conductivity (K(s)), leaf-specific conductivity (LSC) and whole-shoot hydraulic conductance (K(shoot)) were higher in A. pinsapo, indicating a higher efficiency of water transport, which should contribute to maintaining its xylem tension below the threshold for rapidly increasing cavitation. The higher K(s) in A. pinsapo was largely a result of its wider tracheids, suggesting that this species may be much more vulnerable to freeze-thaw-induced cavitation than A. alba. This is consistent with the absence of A. pinsapo in northern mountain ranges with cooler winters. These physiological differences could partly explain the niche segregation and the geographical separation of these two firs. PMID:21937669

  20. A range-free method to determine antoine vapor-pressure heat transfer-related equation coefficients using the Boubaker polynomial expansion scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koçak, H.; Dahong, Z.; Yildirim, A.

    2011-05-01

    In this study, a range-free method is proposed in order to determine the Antoine constants for a given material (salicylic acid). The advantage of this method is mainly yielding analytical expressions which fit different temperature ranges.

  1. Long non-coding RNA LINC00628 functions as a gastric cancer suppressor via long-range modulating the expression of cell cycle related genes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zi-Zhen; Zhao, Gang; Zhuang, Chun; Shen, Yan-Ying; Zhao, Wen-Yi; Xu, Jia; Wang, Ming; Wang, Chao-Jie; Tu, Lin; Cao, Hui; Zhang, Zhi-Gang

    2016-01-01

    To discover new biomarkers for gastric cancer (GC) diagnose and treatment, we screened the lncRNAs in GC tissues from 5 patients. We found 6 lncRNAs had altered expression, and in the same time, the levels of their neighboring genes (located near 300 kb upstream or downstream of lncRNA locus) were significantly changed. After confirming the results of microarray by qRT-PCR in 82 GC patients, the biological function of LINC00628 was examined through cell proliferation and apoptosis, cell migration and invasion, colony formation assay and cell cycle detection. We confirmed that LINC00628 functions as a GC suppressor through suppressing proliferation, migration and colony formation of cancer cells. Furthermore, LINC00628 can also suppress the tumor size in mouse xenograft models. Although LINC00628 can modulate LRRN2 expression, the GC suppressor function of LINC00628 is not LRRN2 dependent. The result of mRNA microarray indicated that LINC00628 perform GC inhibitor function through long-range modulating cell cycle related genes. Importantly, we confirmed that LINC00628 mainly located in the nucleus and interacted with EZH2, and modulated genes expression by regulating H3K27me3 level. This research shed light on the role of dysregulated LINC00628 during GC process and may serve as a potential target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:27272474

  2. Long non-coding RNA LINC00628 functions as a gastric cancer suppressor via long-range modulating the expression of cell cycle related genes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zi-Zhen; Zhao, Gang; Zhuang, Chun; Shen, Yan-Ying; Zhao, Wen-Yi; Xu, Jia; Wang, Ming; Wang, Chao-Jie; Tu, Lin; Cao, Hui; Zhang, Zhi-Gang

    2016-01-01

    To discover new biomarkers for gastric cancer (GC) diagnose and treatment, we screened the lncRNAs in GC tissues from 5 patients. We found 6 lncRNAs had altered expression, and in the same time, the levels of their neighboring genes (located near 300 kb upstream or downstream of lncRNA locus) were significantly changed. After confirming the results of microarray by qRT-PCR in 82 GC patients, the biological function of LINC00628 was examined through cell proliferation and apoptosis, cell migration and invasion, colony formation assay and cell cycle detection. We confirmed that LINC00628 functions as a GC suppressor through suppressing proliferation, migration and colony formation of cancer cells. Furthermore, LINC00628 can also suppress the tumor size in mouse xenograft models. Although LINC00628 can modulate LRRN2 expression, the GC suppressor function of LINC00628 is not LRRN2 dependent. The result of mRNA microarray indicated that LINC00628 perform GC inhibitor function through long-range modulating cell cycle related genes. Importantly, we confirmed that LINC00628 mainly located in the nucleus and interacted with EZH2, and modulated genes expression by regulating H3K27me3 level. This research shed light on the role of dysregulated LINC00628 during GC process and may serve as a potential target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:27272474

  3. A Case Study On the Relative Influence of Free Tropospheric Subsidence, Long Range Transport and Local Production in Modulating Ozone Concentrations over Qatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayoub, Mohammed; Ackermann, Luis; Fountoukis, Christos; Gladich, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    The Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute (QEERI) operates a network of air quality monitoring stations (AQMS) around the Doha metropolitan area and an ozonesonde station with regular weekly launches and occasional higher frequency launch experiments (HFLE). Six ozonesondes were launched at 0700 LT/0400 UTC and 1300 LT/1000 UTC over a three day period between 10-12 September, 2013. We present the analysis of the ozonesonde data coupled with regional chemical transport modeling over the same time period using WRF-Chem validated against both the ozonesonde and surface AQMS measurements. The HFLE and modeling show evidence of both subsidence and transboundary transport of ozone during the study period, coupled with a strong sea breeze circulation on the 11th of September resulting in elevated ozone concentrations throughout the boundary layer. The development of the sea breeze during the course of the day and influence of the early morning residual layer versus daytime production is quantified. The almost complete titration of ozone in the morning hours of 11 September, 2013 is attributed to local vehicular emissions of NOx and stable atmospheric conditions prevailing over the Doha area. The relative contribution of long range transport of ozone along the Arabian Gulf coast and local urban emissions are discussed.

  4. Chronic Neck Pain and Cervico-Craniofacial Pain Patients Express Similar Levels of Neck Pain-Related Disability, Pain Catastrophizing, and Cervical Range of Motion

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-García, Daniel; Gil-Martínez, Alfonso; López-López, Almudena; Lopez-de-Uralde-Villanueva, Ibai; La Touche, Roy; Fernández-Carnero, Josué

    2016-01-01

    Background. Neck pain (NP) is strongly associated with cervico-craniofacial pain (CCFP). The primary aim of the present study was to compare the neck pain-related disability, pain catastrophizing, and cervical and mandibular ROM between patients with chronic mechanical NP and patients with CCFP, as well as asymptomatic subjects. Methods. A total of 64 participants formed three groups. All participants underwent a clinical examination evaluating the cervical range of motion and maximum mouth opening, neck disability index (NDI), and psychological factor of Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS). Results. There were no statistically significant differences between patients with NP and CCFP for NDI and PCS (P > 0.05). One- way ANOVA revealed significant differences for all ROM measurements. The post hoc analysis showed no statistically significant differences in cervical extension and rotation between the two patient groups (P > 0.05). The Pearson correlation analysis shows a moderate positive association between NDI and the PCS for the group of patients with NP and CCFP. Conclusion. The CCFP and NP patient groups have similar neck disability levels and limitation in cervical ROM in extension and rotation. Both groups had positively correlated the NDI with the PCS. PMID:27119020

  5. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    PubMed

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate. PMID:12287775

  6. Interior provinces in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Kirschner, C.E.; Fisher, M.A.; Bruns, T.R.; Stanley, R.G.

    1985-04-01

    Three types of interior provinces have been tested by exploratory drilling for their petroleum potential: three Tertiary nonmarine basins, two Jurassic and Cretaceous flysch and fold belts, and a Paleozoic thrust belt. Although the presence of hydrocarbons has not yet been demonstrated, the present data base is too limited to make a definitive assessment of hydrocarbon potential. During the 1983-84 field seasons, the authors acquired new gravity data and collected rock samples in and adjacent to the Yukon flats and the Nenana basins. These basins contain upper Tertiary, primarily nonmarine, sedimentary rock in extensional graben and half-graben complexes that are superimposed across preexisting terrane boundaries. The location and development of the basins result from strike-slip motion along the Tintina and Denali fault systems. Adjacent to the basins and within the fault systems are thick sections of nonmarine lower Tertiary coal-bearing rocks in deformed basin remnants. If these lower Tertiary rocks are present beneath the upper Tertiary fill, their greater depth and advanced maturation could enhance the hydrocarbon generative potential. Gravity modelling suggests the Tertiary fill is at least 3 km thick in the deeper parts of the basins and may be significantly thicker.

  7. Hydrocarbon provinces and productive trends in Libya and adjacent areas

    SciTech Connect

    Missallati, A.A. Ltd., Tripoli )

    1988-08-01

    According to the age of major reservoirs, hydrocarbon occurrences in Libya and adjacent areas can be grouped into six major systems which, according to their geographic locations, can be classified into two major hydrocarbon provinces: (1) Sirte-Pelagian basins province, with major reservoirs ranging from middle-late Mesozoic to early Tertiary, and (2) Murzog-Ghadames basins province, with major reservoirs ranging from early Paleozoic to early Mesozoic. In the Sirte-Pelagian basins province, hydrocarbons have been trapped in structural highs or in stratigraphic wedge-out against structural highs and in carbonate buildups. Here, hydrocarbon generation is characterized by the combined effect of abundant structural relief and reservoir development in the same hydrocarbon systems of the same age, providing an excellent example of hydrocarbon traps in sedimentary basins that have undergone extensive tensional fracturing in a shallow marine environment. In the Murzog-Ghadames basins province, hydrocarbons have been trapped mainly in structural highs controlled by paleostructural trends as basement arches which acted as focal points for oil migration and accumulation.

  8. Ground-water provinces of Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, Robert

    1962-01-01

    As part of a study of the status of investigations and development of ground water in Brazil, made under the auspices of the United States International Cooperation Administration and with the cooperation of the Government of Brazil, the country was divided into seven ground-water provinces. The identification and delineation of the provinces were based on the regional distribution of the dominant geologic units which are known or inferred to have distinctive water-bearing characteristics. Three of the provinces, covering most of the country, are underlain by Precambrian crystalline rocks. Three others coincide in part with four extensive sedimentary basins--the Parnaiba or Maranhfio basin and the contiguous Sao Francisco basin in the northeast and east, the Amazon basin in the north and northwest, and the Paranfi basin in the south and southwest. In addition, the narrow, discontinuous coastal plain is considered as a province. the occurrence of ground water is discussed briefly, and pertinent data are given on the more important aquifers, together with information on some existing wells. Because of the widespread distribution of crystalline rocks of low permeability, it is difficult in many areas to develop large or even adequate ground-water supplies. In general, satisfactory supplies of water are available in most of the rest of the country. Some problems include the relative deficiency of rainfall in the northeast together with the occurrence, in parts of this region, of mineralized water in the crystalline rocks. Also, there is a potential problem of excessive lowering of water levels and interference among wells in the intensively developed area of the city of Sao Paulo.

  9. Monitoring land cover changes in Isfahan Province, Iran using Landsat satellite data.

    PubMed

    Soffianian, Alireza; Madanian, Maliheh

    2015-08-01

    Changes in land cover and land use reveal the effects of natural and human processes on the Earth's surface. These changes are predicted to exert the greatest environmental impacts in the upcoming decades. The purpose of the present study was to monitor land cover changes using Multispectral Scanner Sensor (MSS) and multitemporal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data from the counties of Isfahan Province, Iran, during 1975, 1990, and 2010. The maximum likelihood supervised classification method was applied to map land cover. Postclassification change detection technique was also used to produce change images through cross-tabulation. Classification results were improved using ancillary data, visual interpretation, and local knowledge about the area. The overall accuracy of land cover change maps ranged from 88 to 90.6%. Kappa coefficients associated with the classification were 0.81 for 1975, 0.84 for 1990, and 0.85 for 2010 images. This study monitored changes related to conversion of agricultural land to impervious surfaces, undeveloped land to agricultural land, agricultural land to impervious surfaces, and undeveloped land to impervious surfaces. The analyses of land cover changes during the study period revealed the significant development of impervious surfaces in counties of Isfahan Province as a result of population growth, traffic conditions, and industrialization. The image classification indicated that agricultural lands increased from 2520.96 km(2) in 1975 to 4103.85 km(2) in 2010. These land cover changes were evaluated in different counties of Isfahan Province. PMID:26228619

  10. Characterization of the Q-switched MOBLAS Laser Transmitter and Its Ranging Performance Relative to a PTM Q-switched System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degnan, J. J., III; Zagwodski, T. W.

    1979-01-01

    A prototype Q-switched Nd:YAG laser transmitter intended for use in the NASA mobile laser ranging system was subjected to various tests of temporal pulse shape and stability, output energy and stability, beam divergence, and range bias errors. Peak to peak variations in the mean range were as large as 30 cm and drift rates of system bias with time as large as 6 mm per minute of operation were observed. The incorporation of a fast electro-optic cavity dump into the oscillator gave significantly improved results. Reevaluation of the ranging performance after modification showed a reduction in the peak to peak variation in the mean range to the 2 or 3 cm level and a drift rate of system time biases of less than 1 mm per minute of operation. A qualitative physical explanation for the superior performance of cavity dumped lasers is given.

  11. Range and range rate system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Olin L. (Inventor); Russell, Jim K. (Inventor); Epperly, Walter L. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A video controlled solid state range finding system which requires no radar, high power laser, or sophisticated laser target is disclosed. The effective range of the system is from 1 to about 200 ft. The system includes an opto-electric camera such as a lens CCD array device. A helium neon laser produces a source beam of coherent light which is applied to a beam splitter. The beam splitter applies a reference beam to the camera and produces an outgoing beam applied to a first angularly variable reflector which directs the outgoing beam to the distant object. An incoming beam is reflected from the object to a second angularly variable reflector which reflects the incoming beam to the opto-electric camera via the beam splitter. The first reflector and the second reflector are configured so that the distance travelled by the outgoing beam from the beam splitter and the first reflector is the same as the distance travelled by the incoming beam from the second reflector to the beam splitter. The reference beam produces a reference signal in the geometric center of the camera. The incoming beam produces an object signal at the camera.

  12. Fish faunal provinces of the conterminous United States of America reflect historical geography and familial composition.

    PubMed

    Matamoros, Wilfredo A; Hoagstrom, Christopher W; Schaefer, Jacob F; Kreiser, Brian R

    2016-08-01

    Although the conterminous USA has a long history of ichthyological exploration, the description of biogeographical provinces has been ad hoc. In this study we quantitatively determined fish faunal provinces and interpreted them in the context of the geological history of North America. We also evaluated influences of major river basin occupancy and contemporary environmental factors on provincial patterns. Our data set comprised 794 native fishes, which we used to generate a presence and absence matrix for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) four-digit hydrologic units. Three nested data sets were analysed separately: primary freshwater families, continental freshwater families (including primary and secondary families) and all freshwater families (including primary, secondary and peripheral families). We used clustering analysis to delimit faunal breaks and one-way analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) to determine significance among clusters (i.e. provinces). We used an indicator-species analysis to identify species that contributed most to province delineations and a similarity-percentage (SIMPER) analysis to describe the relative influence of representatives from each category (i.e. primary, secondary, peripheral) on provincial boundaries. Lastly, we used a parsimony redundancy analysis to determine the roles of historical (i.e. major river basin) and contemporary environmental factors in shaping provinces. Analysis of the nested data sets revealed lessening provincial structure with inclusion of more families. There were 10 primary freshwater provinces, 9 continental freshwater provinces and 7 all freshwater provinces. Major basin occupancy, but not contemporary environmental factors, explained substantial variance in faunal similarities among provinces. However, provincial boundaries did not conform strictly to modern river basins, but reflected river-drainage connections of the Quaternary. Provinces represent broad-scale patterns of endemism and provide a starting point

  13. Geologic Map of the Pahranagat Range 30' x 60' Quadrangle, Lincoln and Nye Counties, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jayko, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The Pahranagat Range 30' x 60' quadrangle lies within an arid, sparsely populated part of Lincoln and Nye Counties, southeastern Nevada. Much of the area is public land that includes the Desert National Wildlife Range, the Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, and the Nellis Air Force Base. The topography, typical of much of the Basin and Range Province, consists of north-south-trending ranges and intervening broad alluvial valleys. Elevations range from about 1,000 to 2,900 m. At the regional scale, the Pahranagat Range quadrangle lies within the Mesozoic and early Tertiary Sevier Fold-and-Thrust Belt and the Cenozoic Basin and Range Province. The quadrangle is underlain by a Proterozoic to Permian miogeoclinal section, a nonmarine clastic and volcanic section of middle Oligocene or older to late Miocene age, and alluvial deposits of late Cenozoic age. The structural features that are exposed reflect relatively shallow crustal deformation. Mesozoic deformation is dominated by thrust faults and asymmetric or open folds. Cenozoic deformation is dominated by faults that dip more than 45i and dominostyle tilted blocks. At least three major tectonic events have affected the area: Mesozoic (Sevier) folding and thrust faulting, pre-middle Oligocene extensional deformation, and late Cenozoic (mainly late Miocene to Holocene) extensional deformation. Continued tectonic activity is expressed in the Pahranagat Range area by seismicity and faults having scarps that cut alluvial deposits.

  14. Killing Range

    PubMed Central

    Asal, Victor; Rethemeyer, R. Karl; Horgan, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the Provisional Irish Republican Army's (PIRA) brigade level behavior during the Northern Ireland Conflict (1970-1998) and identifies the organizational factors that impact a brigade's lethality as measured via terrorist attacks. Key independent variables include levels of technical expertise, cadre age, counter-terrorism policies experienced, brigade size, and IED components and delivery methods. We find that technical expertise within a brigade allows for careful IED usage, which significantly minimizes civilian casualties (a specific strategic goal of PIRA) while increasing the ability to kill more high value targets with IEDs. Lethal counter-terrorism events also significantly affect a brigade's likelihood of killing both civilians and high-value targets but in different ways. Killing PIRA members significantly decreases IED fatalities but also significantly decreases the possibility of zero civilian IED-related deaths in a given year. Killing innocent Catholics in a Brigade's county significantly increases total and civilian IED fatalities. Together the results suggest the necessity to analyze dynamic situational variables that impact terrorist group behavior at the sub-unit level. PMID:25838603

  15. Paleomagnetism and Thermochronometry of the Grenville Province, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlop, D. J.

    2009-05-01

    The Grenville Province, a marginal orogen of the Canadian Precambrian Shield, extends through southern Ontario, Québec and Labrador, with equivalents in Fennoscandia. Before the Iapetus Ocean opened, the Canadian and Fennoscandian orogens were contiguous. Age-equivalent rocks in small exposures in the Appalachians, Texas and Mexico suggest that the subsurface extent of Grenvillia is comparable to that of the Superior Province, the Archean core of the Canadian Shield. It was therefore a substantial continent in its own right at the time it collided with the Superior, Southern and Nain Provinces. However, most of our paleomagnetic knowledge comes from a narrow zone on the (present-day) northern margin of Grenvillia, comprising the Grenville Front Tectonic Zone of reactivated rocks as old as Archean, the Central Gneiss Belt (CGB) with deeply buried and exhumed Proterozoic rocks, and the Central Medisedimentary Belt (CMB), containing a core of less deeply buried rocks where some pre-collisional paleomagnetic information has survived. 40Ar/39Ar thermochronometry has been vital in determining the age relationships of paleomagnetic overprints (often two, occasionally even three, in individual formations) and establishing the Grenville Track of the Laurentian APWP. Most 40Ar/39Ar mineral ages are in the 850 to 1000 Ma range but there is enough separation between key tiepoint poles to permit clockwise and counterclockwise alternatives for the Grenville "Loop". Of great interest are the short track segments defined by mean poles for different domains of the CGB and terranes of the CMB because these may record the sequence of assemblage and/or burial and uplift. Unfortunately the profound contrast between uplift ages of different CMB terranes, as indicated by their hornblende, mica and feldspar 40Ar/39Ar data, is not borne out by the relatively minor differences in mean poles for the same terranes. The "Grenville problem" is therefore still not laid to rest, and furthermore

  16. Mu-2 ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, W. L.; Zygielbaum, A. I.

    1977-01-01

    The Mu-II Dual-Channel Sequential Ranging System designed as a model for future Deep Space Network ranging equipment is described. A list of design objectives is followed by a theoretical explanation of the digital demodulation techniques first employed in this machine. Hardware and software implementation are discussed, together with the details relating to the construction of the device. Two appendixes are included relating to the programming and operation of this equipment to yield the maximum scientific data.

  17. Is the optimal pH for membrane fusion in host cells by avian influenza viruses related to host range and pathogenicity?

    PubMed

    Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Motohashi, Yurie; Hiono, Takahiro; Tamura, Tomokazu; Nagaya, Kazuki; Matsuno, Keita; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Kida, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Influenza viruses isolated from wild ducks do not replicate in chickens. This fact is not explained solely by the receptor specificity of the hemagglutinin (HA) from such viruses for target host cells. To investigate this restriction in host range, the fusion activities of HA molecules from duck and chicken influenza viruses were examined. Influenza viruses A/duck/Mongolia/54/2001 (H5N2) (Dk/MNG) and A/chicken/Ibaraki/1/2005 (H5N2) (Ck/IBR), which replicate only in their primary hosts, were used. The optimal pH for membrane fusion of Ck/IBR was 5.9, higher than that of Dk/MNG at 4.9. To assess the relationship between the optimal pH for fusion and the host range of avian influenza viruses, the optimal pH for fusion of 55 influenza virus strains isolated from ducks and chickens was examined. No correlation was found between the host range and optimal pH for membrane fusion by the viruses, and this finding applied also to the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. The optimal pH for membrane fusion for avian influenza viruses was shown to not necessarily be correlated with their host range or pathogenicity in ducks and chickens. PMID:27231009

  18. Hydrocarbon charge modeling, Balingian Province, Sarawak, Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Swinburn, P. ); Burgisser, H. ); Yassin, J. )

    1994-07-01

    Generation, expulsion, and migration of oil and gas from Tertiary coal beds was modeled for a 2700 km[sup 2] area offshore Sarawak with Shell's integrated basin modeling software. The modeling was undertaken in response to the difficulty of predicting gas:oil, particularly in recent exploration wells. In the Balingian Province, oil and gas are produced from Miocene coastal plain clastics. Although all the hydrocarbons are thought to be sourced from the same type of land plant source rock, the gas:oil ratio varies considerably among the three producing fields and several undeveloped discoveries. Geochemical analyses of source-rock samples and oils strongly indicate that oils in the Balingian Province are sourced by coals and coaly shales found in the Oligocene and early Miocene coastal plain sequences. For these source rocks the main phase of oil generation is in the maturity range 0.8-1.1% VR equivalent. The burial history is well constrained by mapping regionally dated horizons and erosional surfaces. The temperature history suggests that from the late Oligocene to present, the heat flow was basically constant and fairly high due to sustained wrenching.

  19. Environmental factors of urinary stones mineralogy, Khouzestan Province, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarasvandi, Alireza; Carranza, E. J. M.; Heidari, Majid; Mousapour, Esmaeil

    2014-09-01

    Urinary stone diseases in the Khouzestan province (southwest Iran) are growing in number and it required extensive studies on various factors of the urinary stones formation in this province. In this research, in addition to distribution of urinary stones in different areas of province, the role of bioenvironmental (race), climate (temperature) and geology (water hardness) factors in urinary stones diversity has been studied. Mineralogical studied using X-ray diffraction showed that uricite and whewellite are the most frequency mineral phases. Struvite, Cystine, hydroxyapatite, weddellite, and Niahite can be observed as urinary stones, too. These data show that the urinary stone in the Khouzestan province can divide into 7 groups: calcium oxalate, phosphate, calcium oxalate/ phosphate, Urate, Urate/calcium, Urate/calcium oxalate/phosphate, Cystine/calcium oxalate. Also the results which attained from temperature effect investigation on the mineralogy of urinary stones, confirms that from Mediterranean sub-humid climates (northeastern area) to warm and dry climates (south and southwest area), calcium oxalate stones and urate stones concentration decreases and increases respectively. Comparison of data related to the drinking water hardness and mineralogy of urinary stones in different areas of Khouzestan province show that the combination of drinking water (especially water hardness) affects mineralogy of urinary stones in some areas (such az Ramhormoz and Hendijan). Finally, the data suggest that frequency of calcium oxalate in women is more than that of men. Moreover, there is direct relationship between the age (>45 years) and the increase in frequency of Urate minerals.

  20. Bulk crustal properties of the Borborema Province, NE Brazil, from P-wave receiver functions: Implications for models of intraplate Cenozoic uplift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luz, R. M. N.; Julià, J.; do Nascimento, A. F.

    2015-03-01

    We investigate variations in crustal thickness and bulk VP/VS ratio across the Borborema Province of NE Brazil by analyzing teleseismic P-to-S conversions recorded at 52 seismic stations in the Province. The Borborema Province represents the western portion of a larger Neoproterozoic mobile belt that resulted from the assembly of Gondwanaland, and that split from the African continent during Mesozoic times. The evolution of the Province after continental breakup was marked by episodes of diffuse intraplate magmatism, perhaps leading to uplift of the Borborema Plateau in the Cenozoic. A number of geodynamic models have been proposed to explain coeval Cenozoic magmatism and uplift in the Province, which invoke either thermal anomalies under the Plateau and related mantle upwellings, channeling along lithospheric thin spots from a distant mantle plume, and small-scale convection at the continental edge. Alternatively, plateau uplift might have resulted from thickening of the crust after depth-dependent stretching of the continental lithosphere in the Mesozoic. Most of the models imply mafic underplating of the Plateau's crust in order to fully explain its elevated topography, but the volume of such mafic underplate varies among them. Our results show that: (i) the crust is 32-40 km thick under the Borborema Plateau, (ii) the crust is generally thinner - about 30-33 km - under the lower topographies surrounding the Plateau, and (iii) VP/VS ratios are in the 1.68-1.80 range for both regions of higher and lower topography. No apparent correlation is observed between VP/VS ratio and crustal thickness. Our results suggest that compositional differences between thick and thin crust across the Borborema Province are minimal, and that models of plateau uplift involving a small volume of mafic underplate provide a more plausible explanation for the observed topography of the Borborema Plateau.

  1. Geographical clustering of lung cancer in the province of Lecce, Italy: 1992–2001

    PubMed Central

    Bilancia, Massimo; Fedespina, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    -specific p-values (denoted by ρi); in addition, it was seen that high risk areas were not randomly distributed within the province, but showed a sharp clustering. The most perceptible cluster involved a collection of municipalities around the Maglie area (Istat code: 75039), while the association among the municipalities of Otranto, Poggiardo and Santa Cesarea Terme (Istat codes: 75057, 75061, 75072) was more ambiguous. For females, it was noteworthy the significant risk excess in the city of Lecce (Istat code: 75035), where an SMR of 1.83 and ρi < 0.01 have been registered. BYM model for the province of Lecce: For males, Bayes estimates of relative risks varied around an overall mean of 1.04 with standard deviation of 0.1, with a minimum of 0.77 and a maximum of 1.25. The posterior relative risks for females, although smoothed, showed more variation than for males, ranging form 0.74 to 1.65, around a mean of 0.90 with standard deviation 0.12. For males, 95% posterior credible intervals of relative risks included unity in every area, whereas significantly elevated risk of mortality was confirmed in the Lecce area for females (95% posterior CI: 1.33 – 2.00). BYM model for the whole Apulia: For males, internally standardized maps showed several high risk areas bordering the province of Lecce, belonging to the province of Brindisi, and the presence of a large high risk region, including the southern part of the province of Brindisi and the eastern and southern part of the Salento peninsula, in which an increasing trend in the north-south direction was found. Ecological correlation study with deprivation (Cadum Index): For males, posterior mean of the ecological regression coefficient β resulted to be 0.04 with 95% posterior credible interval equal to (-0.01, 0.08); similarly, β was estimated as equal to -0.03 for females (95% posterior credible interval: -0.16, 0.10). Moreover, there was some indication of nonlinearly increasing relative risk with increasing deprivation

  2. Estimated range of black carbon dry deposition and the related snow albedo reduction over Himalayan glaciers during dry pre-monsoon periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasunari, Teppei J.; Tan, Qian; Lau, K.-M.; Bonasoni, Paolo; Marinoni, Angela; Laj, Paolo; Ménégoz, Martin; Takemura, Toshihiko; Chin, Mian

    2013-10-01

    One of the major factors attributed to the accelerated melting of Himalayan glaciers is the snow darkening effect of atmospheric black carbon (BC). The BC is the result of incomplete fossil fuel combustion from sources such as open biomass burning and wood burning cooking stoves. One of the key challenges in determining the darkening effect is the estimation uncertainty of BC deposition (BCD) rate on surface snow cover. Here we analyze the variation of BC dry deposition in seven different estimates based on different dry deposition methods which include different atmospheric forcings (observations and global model outputs) and different spatial resolutions. The seven simulations are used to estimate the uncertainty range of BC dry deposition over the southern Himalayas during pre-monsoon period (March-May) in 2006. Our results show BC dry deposition rates in a wide range of 270-4700 μg m-2 during the period. Two global models generate higher BC dry deposition rates due to modeled stronger surface wind and simplification of complicated sub-grid surface conditions in this region. Using ice surface roughness and observation-based meteorological data, we estimate a better range of BC dry deposition rate of 900-1300 μg m-2. Under dry and highly polluted conditions, aged snow and sulfate-coated BC are expected to possibly reduce visible albedo by 4.2-5.1%. Our results suggest that for estimating aerosol-induced snow darkening effects of Himalaya snowpacks using global and regional models, realistic physical representation of ice or snow surface roughness and surface wind speed are critical in reducing uncertainties on the estimate of BC deposition over snow surface.

  3. Comparison of plasma vitamin A and E, copper and zinc levels in free-ranging and captive greater flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus) and their relation to pododermatitis.

    PubMed

    Wyss, F; Wolf, P; Wenker, C; Hoby, S; Schumacher, V; Béchet, A; Robert, N; Liesegang, A

    2014-12-01

    Pododermatitis is a worldwide problem in captive flamingos. Studies in domestic poultry showed that nutrition is a possible influencing factor for pododermatitis. Vitamin A and E, copper and zinc levels were analysed in two different diets (diet 1 = in-house mix and diet 2 = commercial diet) and in plasma of captive greater flamingos fed these diets and compared to those of free-ranging greater flamingos. Results were analysed with respect to type and severity of foot lesions of the individuals from the different groups. Juvenile and subadult/adult captive flamingos on diet 1 showed various types and severities of foot lesions, whereas no foot lesions were found at the time of blood sampling in juvenile captive flamingos on diet 2. Juvenile captive flamingos on diet 1 had significantly lower plasma zinc levels than juvenile captive flamingos on diet 2 and juvenile free-ranging flamingos; data were also lower than reference ranges for flamingos, poultry and cranes. There were no significant differences in plasma vitamin A, vitamin E, copper or zinc levels between animals with different types of foot lesions or with different severity scores. Shortly after the change to diet 2 (fed to juvenile captive flamingos that did not show any foot lesion), the flooring of the outdoor water pools was covered with fine granular sand. Because both factors (nutrition and flooring) were changed during the same evaluation period, it cannot be concluded which factor contributed in what extent to the reduction of foot lesions. While it is assumed that low plasma zinc levels identified in the group of juvenile captive flamingos on diet 1 were not directly responsible for foot lesions observed in these animals, they may have played a role in altering the skin integrity of the feet and predisposing them to pododermatitis. PMID:24661548

  4. Concerted genetic, morphological and ecological diversification in Nacella limpets in the Magellanic Province.

    PubMed

    González-Wevar, C A; Nakano, T; Cañete, J I; Poulin, E

    2011-05-01

    Common inhabitants of Antarctic and Subantarctic rocky shores, the limpet genus Nacella, includes 15 nominal species distributed in different provinces of the Southern Ocean. The Magellanic Province represents the area with the highest diversity of the genus. Phylogenetic reconstructions showed an absence of reciprocal monophyly and high levels of genetic identity among nominal species in this Province and therefore imply a recent diversification in southern South America. Because most of these taxa coexist along their distribution range with clear differences in their habitat preferences, Nacella is a suitable model to explore diversification mechanisms in an area highly affected by recurrent Pleistocene continental ice cap advances and retreats. Here, we present genetic and morphological comparisons among sympatric Magellanic nominal species of Nacella. We amplified a fragment of the COI gene for 208 individuals belonging to seven sympatric nominal species and performed geometric morphometric analyses of their shells. We detected a complete congruence between genetic and morphological results, leading us to suggest four groups of Nacella among seven analysed nominal species. Congruently, each of these groups was related to different habitat preferences such as bathymetric range and substrate type. A plausible explanation for these results includes an ecologically based allopatric speciation process in Nacella. Major climatic changes during the Plio-Pleistocene glacial cycles may have enhanced differentiation processes. Finally, our results indicate that the systematics of the group requires a deep revision to re-evaluate the taxonomy of Nacella and to further understand the Pleistocene legacy of the glacial cycles in the southern tip of South America. PMID:21418364

  5. Sphene and zircon in the Highland Range volcanic sequence (Miocene, southern Nevada, USA): Elemental partitioning, phase relations, and influence on evolution of silicic magma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colombini, L.L.; Miller, C.F.; Gualda, G.A.R.; Wooden, J.L.; Miller, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    Sphene is prominent in Miocene plutonic rocks ranging from diorite to granite in southern Nevada, USA, but it is restricted to rhyolites in coeval volcanic sequences. In the Highland Range volcanic sequence, sphene appears as a phenocryst only in the most evolved rocks (72-77 mass% SiO2; matrix glass 77-78 mass% SiO2). Zr-in-sphene temperatures of crystallization are mostly restricted to 715 and 755??C, in contrast to zircon (710-920??C, Ti-in-zircon thermometry). Sphene rim/glass Kds for rare earth elements are extremely high (La 120, Sm 1200, Gd 1300, Lu 240). Rare earth elements, especially the middle REE (MREE), decrease from centers to rims of sphene phenocrysts along with Zr, demonstrating the effect of progressive sphene fractionation. Whole rocks and glasses have MREE-depleted, U-shaped REE patterns as a consequence of sphene fractionation. Within the co-genetic, sphene-rich Searchlight pluton, only evolved leucogranites show comparable MREE depletion. These results indicate that sphene saturation in intruded and extruded magmas occurred only in highly evolved melts: abundant sphene in less silicic plutonic rocks represents a late-stage 'bloom' in fractionated interstitial melt. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  6. Heavily-hydrated lithic clasts in CH chondrites and the related, metal-rich chondrites Queen Alexandra Range 94411 and Hammadah al Hamra 237

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greshake, A.; Krot, A. N.; Meibom, A.; Weisberg, M. K.; Zolensky, M. E.; Keil, K.

    2002-02-01

    Fine-grained, heavily-hydrated lithic clasts in the metal-rich (CB) chondrites Queen Alexandra Range (QUE) 94411 and Hammadah al Hamra 237 and CH chondrites, such as Patuxent Range (PAT) 91546 and Allan Hills (ALH) 85085, are mineralogically similar suggesting genetic relationship between these meteorites. These clasts contain no anhydrous silicates and consist of framboidal and platelet magnetite, prismatic sulfides (pentlandite and pyrrhotite), and Fe-Mn-Mg-bearing Ca-carbonates set in a phyllosilicate-rich matrix. Two types of phyllosilicates were identified: serpentine, with basal spacing of ?0.73 nm, and saponite, with basal spacings of about 1.1-1.2 nm. Chondrules and FeNi-metal grains in CB and CH chondrites are believed to have formed at high temperature (>1300 K) by condensation in a solar nebula region that experienced complete vaporization. The absence of aqueous alteration of chondrules and metal grains in CB and CH chondrites indicates that the clasts experienced hydration in an asteroidal setting prior to incorporation into the CH and CB parent bodies. The hydrated clasts were either incorporated during regolith gardening or accreted together with chondrules and FeNi-metal grains after these high-temperature components had been transported from their hot formation region to a much colder region of the solar nebula.

  7. An acoustical assessment of pitch-matching accuracy in relation to speech frequency, speech frequency range, age and gender in preschool children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trollinger, Valerie L.

    This study investigated the relationship between acoustical measurement of singing accuracy in relationship to speech fundamental frequency, speech fundamental frequency range, age and gender in preschool-aged children. Seventy subjects from Southeastern Pennsylvania; the San Francisco Bay Area, California; and Terre Haute, Indiana, participated in the study. Speech frequency was measured by having the subjects participate in spontaneous and guided speech activities with the researcher, with 18 diverse samples extracted from each subject's recording for acoustical analysis for fundamental frequency in Hz with the CSpeech computer program. The fundamental frequencies were averaged together to derive a mean speech frequency score for each subject. Speech range was calculated by subtracting the lowest fundamental frequency produced from the highest fundamental frequency produced, resulting in a speech range measured in increments of Hz. Singing accuracy was measured by having the subjects each echo-sing six randomized patterns using the pitches Middle C, D, E, F♯, G and A (440), using the solfege syllables of Do and Re, which were recorded by a 5-year-old female model. For each subject, 18 samples of singing were recorded. All samples were analyzed by the CSpeech for fundamental frequency. For each subject, deviation scores in Hz were derived by calculating the difference between what the model sang in Hz and what the subject sang in response in Hz. Individual scores for each child consisted of an overall mean total deviation frequency, mean frequency deviations for each pattern, and mean frequency deviation for each pitch. Pearson correlations, MANOVA and ANOVA analyses, Multiple Regressions and Discriminant Analysis revealed the following findings: (1) moderate but significant (p < .001) relationships emerged between mean speech frequency and the ability to sing the pitches E, F♯, G and A in the study; (2) mean speech frequency also emerged as the strongest

  8. A measurement of the energy spectra and relative abundance of the cosmic-ray H and He isotopes over a broad energy range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webber, W. R.; Yushak, S. M.

    1983-01-01

    The measurements reported of these isotopes were made using two sets of detectors during the same minimum modulation period in 1977. One measurement was made with a balloon-borne telescope, the other with telescopes on the Voyager spacecraft. It is noted that together they provide the widest energy range yet available for studying these isotopes: 14-150 MeV per nucleon for H2 and 10-290 MeV per nucleon for He-3. The simultaneous helium isotope observations are used to give a mutually consistent picture of galactic propagation and solar modulation. The data define the form of the interstellar H-1 and He-4 spectra, an interstellar matter path length for both H-1 and He-4, and a total residual modulation for He-4. The H-2 observations suggest a picture that is very similar for the galactic propagation of H-1 and He-4.

  9. Environmental geochemical study of Red Mountain--an undisturbed volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit in the Bonnifield District, Alaska range, east-central Alaska: Chapter I in Recent U.S. Geological Survey studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada--results of a 5-year project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eppinger, Robert G.; Briggs, Paul H.; Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Giles, Stuart A.; Gough, Larry P.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Hubbard, Bernard E.

    2007-01-01

    Water samples with the lowest pH values, highest specific conductances, and highest major- and trace-element concentrations are from springs and streams within the quartz-sericite-pyrite alteration zone. Aluminum, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Y, and particularly Zn and the REEs are all found in high concentrations, ranging across four orders of magnitude. Waters collected upstream from the alteration zone have near-neutral pH values, lower specific conductances, lower metal concentrations, and measurable alkalinities. Water samples collected downstream of the alteration zone have pH values and metal concentrations intermediate between these two extremes. Stream sediments are anomalous in Zn, Pb, S, Fe, Cu, As, Co, Sb, and Cd relative to local and regional background abundances. Red Mountain Creek and its tributaries do not support, and probably never have supported, significant megascopic faunal aquatic life.

  10. Assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas of the Senegal province, Mauritania, Senegal, the Gambia, and Guinea-Bissau, northwest Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.

    2003-01-01

    Undiscovered, conventional oil and gas resources were assessed in the Senegal Province as part of the U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000 (U.S. Geological Survey World Energy Assessment Team, 2000). Although several total petroleum systems may exist in the province, only one composite total petroleum system, the Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System, was defined with one assessment unit, the Coastal Plain and Offshore Assessment Unit, having sufficient data to allow quantitative assessment. The primary source rocks for the Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System are the Cenomanian-Turonian marine shales. The Turonian shales can be as much as 150 meters thick and contain Type II organic carbon ranging from 3 to 10 weight percent. In the Senegal Province, source rocks are mature even when situated at depths relatively shallow for continental passive margin basins. Reservoir rocks consist of Upper Cretaceous sandstones and lower Tertiary clastic and carbonate rocks. The Lower Cretaceous platform carbonate rocks (sealed by Cenomanian shales) have porosities ranging from 10 to 23 percent. Oligocene carbonate rock reservoirs exist, such as the Dome Flore field, which contains as much as 1 billion barrels of heavy oil (10? API, 1.6 percent sulfur) in place. The traps are a combination of structural closures and stratigraphic pinch-outs. Hydrocarbon production in the Senegal Province to date has been limited to several small oil and gas fields around Cape Verde (also known as the Dakar Peninsula) from Upper Cretaceous sandstone reservoirs bounded by normal faults, of which three fields (two gas and one oil) exceed the minimum size assessed in this study (1 MMBO; 6 BCFG). Discovered known oil resources in the Senegal Province are 10 MMBO, with known gas resources of 49 BCFG (Petroconsultants, 1996). This study estimates that 10 percent of the total number of potential oil and gas fields (both discovered and undiscovered) of at

  11. Cancer survival in Khon Kaen Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sriamporn, S; Black, R J; Sankaranarayanan, R; Kamsa-ad, S; Parkin, D M; Vatanasapt, V

    1995-05-01

    Thailand is one of the few developing countries for which population-based cancer survival data are available. Using clinical follow-up information and reply-paid postal enquiries, 10,333 residents of Khon Kaen province registered with cancer in the period 1985-1992 were followed-up to the end of 1993. The sites of the most common cancers in the province were liver (5-year relative survival rate 9.2%), cervix (60.1%), lung (15.4%), breast (48.1%) and large bowel (41.9%). Results for Khon Kaen were compared with age-standardized survival data for the US and Scotland. Survival was consistently higher for US whites compared to Khon Kaen residents for those cancers whose prognosis is associated with early diagnosis (breast, cervix and large bowel) or the availability of intensive therapy (leukaemia and lymphoma). The main implication of these results for cancer control in Thailand is that the interventions of greatest potential benefit are those designed to promote early detection. More than one-third of all cancers in Thailand are liver tumours: primary prevention through control of hepatitis-B infection and liver fluke infestation is the only effective strategy for their control. PMID:7729937

  12. Accretion of the Archean Slave province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusky, T. M.

    1989-01-01

    Continental rift models have long been applied to the Archean Slave province of northwestern Canada. A reassessment of these models shows them to be incompatible with observed geological relations and suggests that contractional tectonic models may be more appropriate than extensional ones. Regions composed of different rock suites (e.g., orthogneisses vs. mafic volcanics) are separated by high-strain zones recording large displacements. It is proposed that the high-strain zones separate four distinct terranes that have been juxtaposed during collisional orogenesis. From west to east, these include the Anton terrane, interpreted as an Archean microcontinent; the Sleepy Dragon terrane, possibly an exhumed more eastern part of the Anton terrane; the Contwoyto terrane, a westward-verging fold and thrust belt containing tectonic slivers of greenstone volcanics; and the Hackett River volcanic terrane, interpreted as an Archean island arc. The Contwoyto and Hackett River terranes represent a paired accretionary prism and island-arc system that formed above an east-dipping subduction zone. These collided with the Anton microcontinent, producing a basement nappe, expressed as the Sleepy Dragon terrane, during the main accretion event within the Slave province. The whole tectonic assemblage was intruded by late-kinematic to postkinematic granitoids.

  13. Rail versus truck fuel efficiency: The relative fuel efficiency of truck-competitive rail freight and truck operations compared in a range of corridors. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    The report summarizes the findings of a study to evaluate the fuel efficiency of rail freight operations relative to competing truckload service. The objective of the study was to identify the circumstances in which rail freight service offers a fuel efficiency advantage over alternative truckload options, and to estimate the fuel savings associated with using rail service. The findings are based on computer simulations of rail and truck freight movements between the same origins and destinations. The simulation input assumptions and data are based on actual rail and truck operations. Input data was provided by U.S. regional and Class I railroads and by large truck fleet operators.

  14. Disentangling Peronospora on Papaver: Phylogenetics, Taxonomy, Nomenclature and Host Range of Downy Mildew of Opium Poppy (Papaver somniferum) and Related Species

    PubMed Central

    Voglmayr, Hermann; Montes-Borrego, Miguel; Landa, Blanca B.

    2014-01-01

    Based on sequence data from ITS rDNA, cox1 and cox2, six Peronospora species are recognised as phylogenetically distinct on various Papaver species. The host ranges of the four already described species P. arborescens, P. argemones, P. cristata and P. meconopsidis are clarified. Based on sequence data and morphology, two new species, P. apula and P. somniferi, are described from Papaver apulum and P. somniferum, respectively. The second Peronospora species parasitizing Papaver somniferum, that was only recently recorded as Peronospora cristata from Tasmania, is shown to represent a distinct taxon, P. meconopsidis, originally described from Meconopsis cambrica. It is shown that P. meconopsidis on Papaver somniferum is also present and widespread in Europe and Asia, but has been overlooked due to confusion with P. somniferi and due to less prominent, localized disease symptoms. Oospores are reported for the first time for P. meconopsidis from Asian collections on Papaver somniferum. Morphological descriptions, illustrations and a key are provided for all described Peronospora species on Papaver. cox1 and cox2 sequence data are confirmed as equally good barcoding loci for reliable Peronospora species identification, whereas ITS rDNA does sometimes not resolve species boundaries. Molecular phylogenetic data reveal high host specificity of Peronospora on Papaver, which has the important phytopathological implication that wild Papaver spp. cannot play any role as primary inoculum source for downy mildew epidemics in cultivated opium poppy crops. PMID:24806292

  15. Home range and travels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.

    1968-01-01

    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  16. Prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini-Like Fluke Infection in Ducks in Binh Dinh Province, Central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Dao, Thanh Thi Ha; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Nguyen, Thanh Thi Giang; Tran, Ha Thi Lam; Gabriël, Sarah; Smit, Suzanne; Le, Phap Ngoc; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    Following the first report of Opisthorchis viverrini infection in a domestic duck in Phu My District of Binh Dinh Province, Central Vietnam, many other cases were observed in the province. We determined the infection rate and intensity of O. viverrini infection in ducks in 4 districts of the province. A total of 178 ducks were randomly selected from 34 farms for examination of flukes in the liver and gall bladder. An infection rate of 34.3% (range 20.7-40.4% among districts) was found; the intensity of infection was 13.8 worms per infected duck (range 1-100). These findings show the role of ducks as a host for O. viverrini, duck genotype, which is sympatric with the human O. viverrini genotype in this province. It also stresses the need for investigations on the zoonotic potential and the life cycle of this parasite. PMID:27417094

  17. Prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini-Like Fluke Infection in Ducks in Binh Dinh Province, Central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Dao, Thanh Thi Ha; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Nguyen, Thanh Thi Giang; Tran, Ha Thi Lam; Gabriël, Sarah; Smit, Suzanne; Le, Phap Ngoc; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Following the first report of Opisthorchis viverrini infection in a domestic duck in Phu My District of Binh Dinh Province, Central Vietnam, many other cases were observed in the province. We determined the infection rate and intensity of O. viverrini infection in ducks in 4 districts of the province. A total of 178 ducks were randomly selected from 34 farms for examination of flukes in the liver and gall bladder. An infection rate of 34.3% (range 20.7-40.4% among districts) was found; the intensity of infection was 13.8 worms per infected duck (range 1-100). These findings show the role of ducks as a host for O. viverrini, duck genotype, which is sympatric with the human O. viverrini genotype in this province. It also stresses the need for investigations on the zoonotic potential and the life cycle of this parasite. PMID:27417094

  18. Establishing Age-Adjusted Reference Ranges for Iris-Related Parameters in Open Angle Eyes with Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Jeffrey R.; Blieden, Lauren S.; Chuang, Alice Z.; Baker, Laura A.; Rigi, Mohammed; Feldman, Robert M.; Bell, Nicholas P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Define criteria for iris-related parameters in an adult open angle population as measured with swept source Fourier domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT). Methods Ninety-eight eyes of 98 participants with open angles were included and stratified into 5 age groups (18–35, 36–45, 46–55, 56–65, and 66–79 years). ASOCT scans with 3D mode angle analysis were taken with the CASIA SS-1000 (Tomey Corporation, Nagoya, Japan) and analyzed using the Anterior Chamber Analysis and Interpretation software. Anterior iris surface length (AISL), length of scleral spur landmark (SSL) to pupillary margin (SSL-to-PM), iris contour ratio (ICR = AISL/SSL-to-PM), pupil radius, radius of iris centroid (RICe), and iris volume were measured. Outcome variables were summarized for all eyes and age groups, and mean values among age groups were compared using one-way analysis of variance. Stepwise regression analysis was used to investigate demographic and ocular characteristic factors that affected each iris-related parameter. Results Mean (±SD) values were 2.24 mm (±0.46), 4.06 mm (±0.27), 3.65 mm (±0.48), 4.16 mm (±0.47), 1.14 (±0.04), 1.51 mm2 (±0.23), and 38.42 μL (±4.91) for pupillary radius, RICe, SSL-to-PM, AISL, ICR, iris cross-sectional area, and iris volume, respectively. Both pupillary radius (P = 0.002) and RICe (P = 0.027) decreased with age, while SSL-to-PM (P = 0.002) and AISL increased with age (P = 0.001). ICR (P = 0.54) and iris volume (P = 0.49) were not affected by age. Conclusion This study establishes reference values for iris-related parameters in an adult open angle population, which will be useful for future studies examining the role of iris changes in pathologic states. PMID:26815917

  19. Knee Extension Range of Motion at 4 Weeks Is Related to Knee Extension Loss at 12 Weeks After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Noll, Sarah; Garrison, J. Craig; Bothwell, James; Conway, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is commonly torn, and surgical reconstruction is often required to allow a patient to return to their prior level of activity. Avoiding range of motion (ROM) loss is a common goal, but little research has been done to identify when ROM loss becomes detrimental to a patient’s future function. Purpose: To determine whether there is a relationship between early knee side-to-side extension difference after ACL reconstruction and knee side-to-side extension difference at 12 weeks. The hypothesis was that early (within the first 8 weeks) knee side-to-side extension difference will be predictive of knee side-to-side extension difference seen at 12 weeks. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Knee side-to-side extension difference measures were taken on 74 patients undergoing ACL reconstruction rehabilitation at the initial visit and 4, 8, and 12 weeks postoperatively. Visual analog scores (VAS) and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scores were also recorded at these time frames. Results: There was a strong relationship between knee extension ROM at 4 and 12 weeks (r = 0.639, P < .001) and 8 and 12 weeks (r = 0.742, P < .001). When the variables of knee extension ROM at initial visit and 4 and 8 weeks were entered into a regression analysis, the predictor variable explained 61% (R2 = 0.611) of variance for knee extension ROM at 12 weeks, with 4 weeks (R2 = 0.259) explaining the majority of this variance. Conclusion: This study found that a patient’s knee extension at 4 weeks was strongly correlated with knee extension at 12 weeks. Clinical Relevance: This information may be useful for clinicians treating athletic patients who are anxious for return to sport by providing them an initial goal to work toward in hopes of ensuring successful rehabilitation of their knee. PMID:26675061

  20. Movement-related changes in local and long-range synchronization in Parkinson’s disease revealed by simultaneous magnetoencephalography and intracranial recordings

    PubMed Central

    Litvak, Vladimir; Eusebio, Alexandre; Jha, Ashwani; Oostenveld, Robert; Barnes, Gareth; Foltynie, Tom; Limousin, Patricia; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Hariz, Marwan I.; Friston, Karl; Brown, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Functional neurosurgery has afforded the opportunity to assess interactions between populations of neurons in the human cerebral cortex and basal ganglia in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Interactions occur over a wide range of frequencies, and the functional significance of those above 30 Hz is particularly unclear. Do they improve movement and, if so, in what way? We acquired simultaneously magnetoencephalography (MEG) and direct recordings from the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in 17 PD patients. We examined the effect of synchronous and sequential finger movements and of the dopamine prodrug levodopa on induced power in the contralateral primary motor cortex (M1) and STN and on the coherence between the two structures. We observed discrete peaks in M1 and STN power over 60-90 Hz and 300-400 Hz. All these power peaks increased with movement and levodopa treatment. Only STN activity over 60-90 Hz was coherent with activity in M1. Directionality analysis showed that STN gamma activity at 60-90 Hz tended to drive gamma activity in M1. The effects of levodopa on both local and distant synchronisation over 60-90 Hz correlated with the degree of improvement in bradykinesia-rigidity, as did local STN activity at 300-400 Hz. Despite this, there were no effects of movement type, nor interactions between movement type and levodopa in the STN, nor in the coherence between STN and M1. We conclude that synchronisation over 60-90 Hz in the basal ganglia cortical network is prokinetic, but likely through a modulatory effect rather than any involvement in explicit motor processing. PMID:22855804

  1. [Epidemiology of caprine and ovine brucellosis in Formosa province, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Russo, Ana M; Mancebo, Orlando A; Monzón, Carlos M; Gait, Juan J; Casco, Rubén D; Torioni de Echaide, Susana M

    2016-01-01

    An epidemiological study of brucellosis was carried out in 516 goats and mixed flocks (goat/sheep) from the three agro-ecological regions of Formosa province, Argentina. Serum samples from a total of 25401 goats and 2453 sheeps were analyzed using buffered plate agglutination test (BPAT) and complement fixation test (CFT). Bacteriological and PCR analyses on milk samples from goats in three flocks with a history of brucellosis and recent abortions were also performed. Brucellosis was detected in four of the nine departments of the province with an overall prevalence of 2% and an intra-flock prevalence ranging between 1% and 40%. The proportion of infected flocks was 3.6%, 12% and 36% for the eastern, central and western regions, respectively. Brucella melitensis bv. 1 was isolated efrom goats for the first time in the province. The expected fragments of 827bp from the omp2ab gene (Brucella spp.) and 731bp from the insert IS711 (B. melitensis) were amplified by PCR. Detection of antibodies by BPAT and FCT in sheep cohabiting with goats suggests that infections could have been caused by B. melitensis, posing an additional risk to public health. Control and eradication programs for brucellosis should consider mixed flocks as a single epidemiological unit. The results indicate that brucellosis by B. melitensis bv1 is highly endemic in the central and western regions of Formosa province. PMID:26969324

  2. Vacancy-related defects in n-type Si implanted with a rarefied microbeam of accelerated heavy ions in the MeV range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capan, I.; Pastuović, Ž.; Siegele, R.; Jaćimović, R.

    2016-04-01

    Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) has been used to study vacancy-related defects formed in bulk n-type Czochralski-grown silicon after implantation of accelerated heavy ions: 6.5 MeV O, 10.5 MeV Si, 10.5 MeV Ge, and 11 MeV Er in the single ion regime with fluences from 109 cm-2 to 1010 cm-2 and a direct comparison made with defects formed in the same material irradiated with 0.7 MeV fast neutron fluences up to 1012 cm-2. A scanning ion microprobe was used as the ion implantation tool of n-Cz:Si samples prepared as Schottky diodes, while the ion beam induced current (IBIC) technique was utilized for direct ion counting. The single acceptor state of the divacancy V2(-/0) is the most prominent defect state observed in DLTS spectra of n-CZ:Si samples implanted by selected ions and the sample irradiated by neutrons. The complete suppression of the DLTS signal related to the double acceptor state of divacancy, V2(=/-) has been observed in all samples irradiated by ions and neutrons. Moreover, the DLTS peak associated with formation of the vacancy-oxygen complex VO in the neutron irradiated sample was also completely suppressed in DLTS spectra of samples implanted with the raster scanned ion microbeam. The reason for such behaviour is twofold, (i) the local depletion of the carrier concentration in the highly disordered regions, and (ii) the effect of the microprobe-assisted single ion implantation. The activation energy for electron emission for states assigned to the V2(-/0) defect formed in samples implanted by single ions follows the Meyer-Neldel rule. An increase of the activation energy is strongly correlated with increasing ion mass.

  3. Proliferation of MISS-related microbial mats following the end-Permian mass extinction in terrestrial ecosystems: Evidence from the Lower Triassic of the Yiyang area, Henan Province, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Chenyi; Chen, Zhong-Qiang; Retallack, Gregory J.; Huang, Yuangeng; Fang, Yuheng

    2016-03-01

    Microbially induced sedimentary structures (MISSs) are commonly present in siliciclastic shallow marine settings following the end-Permian mass extinction, but have been rarely reported in the post-extinction terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we present six types of well-preserved MISSs from the upper Sunjiagou Formation and lower Liujiagou Formation of Induan (Early Triassic) age in the Yiyang area, Henan Province, North China. These MISSs include: polygonal sand cracks, worm-like structures, wrinkle structures, sponge pore fabrics, gas domes, and leveled ripple marks. Microanalysis shows that these MISSs are characterized by thin clayey laminae and filamentous mica grains arranged parallel to bedding plane as well as oriented matrix supported quartz grains, which are indicative of biogenic origin. Facies analysis suggests that the MISS-hosting sediments were deposited in a fluvial sedimentary system during the Early Triassic, including lake delta, riverbeds/point bars, and flood plain paleoenvironments. Abundant MISSs from Yiyang indicate that microbes also proliferated in terrestrial ecosystems in the aftermath of the Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) biocrisis, like they behaved in marine ecosystems. Microbial blooms, together with dramatic loss of metazoans, may reflect environmental stress and degradation of terrestrial ecosystems or arid climate immediately after the severe Permian-Triassic ecologic crisis.

  4. Long-distance lava correlation in the Paraná volcanic province along the Serra Geral cuesta, southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, L. A.; Arena, K. R.; Duarte, S. K.; Pertille, J.

    2013-09-01

    The capability of determining the flow-by-flow stratigraphy and the long-distance correlation of lava flows in large continental volcanic provinces leads to a considerable advance in the understanding of processes related to generation and evolution of the lavas. The Paraná volcanic province is exposed along the Serra Geral cuesta of southern Brazil in a steeply inclined, 1,000-m-high section starting 40-m above sea level. Each of the 10-20 pahoehoe flows and rhyodacite flow units has a unique chemical composition. Integrated with field stratigraphy and gamma-spectrometric measurements, this leads to the establishment of the correct stratigraphic sequence in each of three different vertical sections. The number of flows integrating the three serras is 26 ("serra" is a mountain range in Portuguese). Each serra has basaltic andesites at the base, whereas rhyodacites are intercalated with basaltic andesites at the top. Three basaltic andesite flows and one rhyodacite flow unit are correlated between Serra Umbu and Serra Boa Vista (10 km). In the Serra Faxinal, a thick (170 m) sill at the base correlates with flow 13F, whereas a dike-sill in the Graxaim quarry (24 km distance) correlates with flow 3F. One basaltic andesite and two rhyodacite flow units correlate between Serra Faxinal and Serra Umbu (50 km). The results are most significant for the understanding of large tracts of continental volcanic provinces with use of common geochemical and gamma-spectrometric techniques.

  5. Maternal mortality in Yazd Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Karimi-Zarchi, Mojgan; Ghane-Ezabadi, Marzie; Vafaienasab, Mohammadreza; Dehghan, Ali; Ghasemi, Fateme; Zaidabadi, Mahbube; Zanbagh, Leila; Yazdian-Anari, Pouria; Teimoori, Soraya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Five hundred thousand maternal deaths occur each year worldwide, many of which are in developing countries. The maternal mortality rate is a measure that demonstrates the degree of adequacy of prenatal care and of economic and social conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and causes of pregnancy-related mortality rates in Yazd Province. Methods This cross-sectional study examined the maternal deaths related to pregnancy that were recorded in Yazd Province, Iran, from 2002 to 2011. All maternal deaths that occurred during pregnancy, during delivery, and 42 days after birth were analyzed in this study. The data were collected through a questionnaire, and both direct and indirect causes of maternal deaths were determined. Results Forty pregnancy-related deaths occurred in this period, and the maternal mortality rate was 20.8 deaths per 100,000 live births. The mean age of death in the mothers in this study was 29.17. Fifty-five percent of women of the women who died delivered their babies by cesarean section, and only 20% of them delivered their babies vaginally. Bleeding was the most common cause of maternal mortality (30%), and it was associated directly with maternal mortality. Furthermore 20% of the mothers died due to heart disease and cardiac complications, which were associated indirectly with maternal mortality. Conclusion Cesarean section and its complications were the main cause of death in many cases. Thus, providing a strategic plan to reduce the use of this procedure, educate mothers, and ensure adequate access to pre-maternal care and to care during pregnancy are the most important measures that can be taken to decrease the maternal mortality rate. PMID:27054003

  6. Supernova progenitor stars in the initial range of 23 to 33 solar masses and their relation with the SNR Cassiopeia A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Rendón, B.; García-Segura, G.; Langer, N.

    2009-11-01

    Context: Multi wavelength observations of Cassiopeia A (Cas A) have provided us with strong evidence of circumstellar material surrounding the progenitor star. It has been suggested that its progenitor was a massive star with strong mass loss. But, despite the large amount of observational data from optical, IR, radio, and x-ray observations, the identity of Cas A progenitor is still elusive. Aims: In this work, we computed stellar and circumstellar numerical models to look for the progenitor of Cas A. The models are compared with the observational constraints that come from chemical observed abundances and dynamical information. Methods: We first computed stellar evolution models to get time-dependent wind parameters and surface abundances using the code STERN. To explore the range of masses proposed by several previous works, we chose a set of probable progenitor stars with initial masses of 23, 28, 29, 30, and 33 M⊙, with initial solar composition (Y=0.28, Z=0.02) and mass loss. The derived mass loss rates and wind terminal velocities are used as inner boundary conditions in the explicit, hydrodynamical code ZEUS-3D to simulate the evolution of the circumstellar medium. We simplified the calculations by using one-dimensional grids in the main sequence and red super-giant (RSG) stages, and two-dimensional grids for the post-RSG evolution and supernova (SN) blast wave. Results: Our stellar set gives distinct SN progenitors: RSG, luminous blue super giants (LBSGs), and Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars. We named these type of stars “luminous blue super giant” (LBSGs) to distinguish them from normal blue super giants (BSGs) of much lower initial masses. The 23 M⊙ star explodes as an RSG in a ρ ˜ r-2 dense, free-streaming wind surrounded by a thin, compressed, RSG shell. The 28 M⊙ star explodes as an LBSG, and the SN blast wave interacts with a low density, free streaming wind surrounded by an unstable and massive “RSG+LBSG” shell. Finally, the 30 and 33 M

  7. Molecular identification and seasonal infections of species of Fasciola in ruminants from two provinces in China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, W; Liu, J-M; Lu, K; Li, H; Duan, M-M; Feng, J-T; Hong, Y; Liu, Y-P; Zhou, Y; Tong, L-B; Lu, J; Zhu, C-G; Jin, Y-M; Cheng, G-F; Lin, J-J

    2016-05-01

    We determined the prevalence and seasonality of infections by Fasciola of goats and bovine species (cattle and water buffalo) in Hubei and Anhui provinces of China. Faecal samples were collected at 2- to 3-month intervals from 200 goats in Hubei province and from 152 bovine species in Anhui province. All faecal samples were examined for the presence of parasites. We determined the nucleotide sequences of the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of 39 Fasciola worms from Anhui province. The prevalence of Fasciola infection in goats ranged between 3.5 and 37.0%, with mean eggs per gram (EPG) ranging between 29.0 and 166.0. Prevalence and EPG exhibited downward trends over time with significant differences. The prevalence of Fasciola infection in cattle ranged between 13.3 and 46.2% (mean EPG, 36.4-100.0), and that of water buffalo ranged between 10.3 and 35.4% (mean EPG, 25.0-89.6), with a higher prevalence of infection and EPG from June to October compared with December to March. Analysis of ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequences revealed that F. hepatica and F. gigantica were present in all bovine species of Anhui province and that F. gigantica mainly infected water buffalo. This is the first demonstration of Fasciola infection in Hubei province and detection of F. hepatica and F. gigantica in Anhui province. The present study of Hubei province shows that mass treatment of livestock with closantel sodium injections in April and August/September controlled Fasciola infection effectively. PMID:26123576

  8. Step length after discrete perturbation predicts accidental falls and fall-related injury in elderly people with a range of peripheral neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Allet, L; Kim, H; Ashton-Miller, JA; De Mott, T; Richardson, JK

    2013-01-01

    Aims Distal symmetric polyneuropathy increases fall risk due to inability to cope with perturbations. We aimed to 1) identify the frontal plane lower limb sensorimotor functions which are necessary for robustness to a discrete, underfoot perturbation during gait; and 2) determine whether changes in the post-perturbed step parameters could distinguish between fallers and non fallers. Methods Forty-two subjects (16 healthy old and 26 with diabetic PN) participated. Frontal plane lower limb sensorimotor functions were determined using established laboratory-based techniques. The subjects' most extreme alterations in step width or step length in response to a perturbation were measured. In addition, falls and fall-related injuries were prospectively recorded. Results Ankle proprioceptive threshold (APrT; p=.025) and hip abduction rate of torque generation (RTG; p=.041) independently predicted extreme step length after medial perturbation, with precise APrT and greater hip RTG allowing maintenance of step length. Fallers demonstrated greater extreme step length changes after medial perturbation than non fallers (percent change = 16.41±8.42 vs 11.0±4.95; p=.06) Conclusions The ability to rapidly generate frontal plane hip strength and/or precisely perceive motion at the ankle is needed to maintain a normal step length after perturbation, a parameter, which distinguishes between fallers and non fallers. PMID:24183899

  9. Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephani, Hans

    2004-02-01

    Preface; Notation; Part I. Special Relativity: 1. Introduction: inertial systems and Galilei invariance of classical mechanics; 2. Light propagation in moving coordinate systems and Lorentz transformations; 3. Our world as a Minkowski space; 4. Mechanics of special relativity; 5. Optics of plane waves; 6. Four-dimensional vectors and tensors; 7. Electrodynamics in vacuo; 8. Transformation properties of electromagnetic fields: examples; 9. Null vectors and the algebraic properties of electromagnetic field tensors; 10. Charged point particles and their field; 11. Pole-dipole particles and their field; 12. Electrodynamics in media; 13. Perfect fluids and other physical theories; Part II. Riemannian Geometry: 14. Introduction: the force-free motion of particles in Newtonian mechanics; 15. Why Riemannian geometry?; 16. Riemannian space; 17. Tensor algebra; 18. The covariant derivative and parallel transport; 19. The curvature tensor; 20. Differential operators, integrals and integral laws; 21. Fundamental laws of physics in Riemannian spaces; Part III. Foundations of Einstein's Theory of Gravitation: 22. The fundamental equations of Einstein's theory of gravitation; 23. The Schwarzschild solution; 24. Experiments to verify the Schwarzschild metric; 25. Gravitational lenses; 26. The interior Schwarzschild solution; Part IV. Linearized Theory of Gravitation, Far Fields and Gravitational Waves: 27. The linearized Einstein theory of gravity; 28. Far fields due to arbitrary matter distributions and balance equations for momentum and angular momentum; 29. Gravitational waves; 30. The Cauchy problem for the Einstein field equations; Part V. Invariant Characterization of Exact Solutions: 31. Preferred vector fields and their properties; 32. The Petrov classification; 33. Killing vectors and groups of motion; 34. A survey of some selected classes of exact solutions; Part VI. Gravitational Collapse and Black Holes: 35. The Schwarzschild singularity; 36. Gravitational collapse

  10. Similarities and contrasts in tectonic and volcanic style and history along the Colorado plateaus-to-basin and range transition zone in Western Arizona: Geologic framework for tertiary extensional tectonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. A.; Mckee, E. H.; Hartman, J. H.; Simmons, A. M.

    1985-01-01

    The overall temporal and spatial relations between middle Tertiary volcanism and tectonism from the Basin and Range province onto the edge of the Colorado Plateaus province suggest that a single magnetic-tectonic episode affected the entire region more or less simultaneously during this period. The episode followed a post-Laramide (late Eocene through Oligocene) period of 25 million years of relative stability. Middle Tertiary volcanism did not migrate gradually eastward in a simple fashion onto the Colorado Plateau. In fact, late Oligocene volcanism appears to be more voluminous near the Aquarius Mountains than throughout the adjacent Basin and Range province westward to the Colorado River. Any model proposed to explain the cause of extension and detachment faulting in the eastern part of the Basin and Range province must consider that the onset of volcanism appears to have been approximately synchronous from the Colorado River region of the Basin and Range across the transition zone and onto the edge of the Colorado Plateaus.

  11. The Kalkarindji Large Igneous Province and the Early-Middle Cambrian Extinction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jourdan, Fred; Evins, Lena

    2010-05-01

    Despite being one of the largest large igneous provinces (LIP) on Earth, the recently discovered Kalkarindji LIP, Australia, has received only very little attention (e.g., Glass & Philips, 2005; Evins et al., 2009). This province is located across the Northern Territories and Western Australia and covers a currently known area of ≥ 2.1x106 km² (Evins et al., 2009) with hints that it stretches as far as the southernmost part of South Australia (equivalent to a total area of ≥ 3x106 km²). The province includes flows, intrusions and volcanic tuffs. The age of the province is currently based only on three robust 40Ar/39Ar apparent ages ranging from 504.6 ± 2.5 to 507.5 ± 1.6 Ma (Glass & Philips, 2005; Evins et al., 2009). This province is of particular interest as it seems to coincide with a global anoxic event (Hough et al., 2006) and more importantly, the Early-Middle Cambrian (EMC) extinction where 50% of the genera (e.g. Archeocyaths, Trilobites) went extinct. The age of the EMC extinction has been estimated at ~510 Ma according to the revised timescale of 2009 but so far, attempts to date the extinction level have not yielded any precise date. Considering the now well-established 40K decay constant bias (Min et al., 2000), the 40Ar/39Ar ages obtained so far suggest an emplacement age of the Kalkarindji province between ~509 and ~512 Ma, thus apparently synchronous with the EMC extinction. However, due to the paucity of available ages, it is still not clear if the Kalkarindji LIP was emplaced during only few hundred ka, or rather was more sluggish over few Ma. The Kalkarindji basalts are overlapping thick sulfate-rich evaporite layers and carbonate rocks of the Precambrian central Australia basins. Evaporite and carbonate metamorphism might have been responsible for a significant source of CO2, SO2 and halocarbons as demonstrated for the Siberian traps (Svensen et al., 2009). In addition, the occurrence of pyroclastics eruptions as indicated by the presence

  12. The Sirte Basin province of Libya; Sirte-Zelten total petroleum system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ahlbrandt, Thomas S.

    2001-01-01

    The Sirte (Sirt) Basin province ranks 13th among the world?s petroleum provinces, having known reserves of 43.1 bil-lion barrels of oil equivalent (36.7 billion barrels of oil, 37.7 tril-lion cubic feet of gas, 0.1 billion barrels of natural gas liquids). It includes an area about the size of the Williston Basin of the north-ern United States and southern Canada (?490,000 square kilome-ters). The province contains one dominant total petroleum system, the Sirte-Zelten, based on geochemical data. The Upper Cretaceous Sirte Shale is the primary hydrocarbon source bed. Reservoirs range in rock type and age from fractured Precam-brian basement, clastic reservoirs in the Cambrian-Ordovician Gargaf sandstones, and Lower Cretaceous Nubian (Sarir) Sand-stone to Paleocene Zelten Formation and Eocene carbonates commonly in the form of bioherms. More than 23 large oil fields (>100 million barrels of oil equivalent) and 16 giant oil fields (>500 million barrels of oil equivalent) occur in the province. Abstract 1 Production from both clastic and carbonate onshore reservoirs is associated with well-defined horst blocks related to a triple junc-tion with three arms?an eastern Sarir arm, a northern Sirte arm, and a southwestern Tibesti arm. Stratigraphic traps in combina-tion with these horsts in the Sarir arm are shown as giant fields (for example, Messla and Sarir fields in the southeastern portion of the province). Significant potential is identified in areas marginal to the horsts, in the deeper grabens and in the offshore area. Four assessment units are defined in the Sirte Basin prov-ince, two reflecting established clastic and carbonate reservoir areas and two defined as hypothetical units. Of the latter, one is offshore in water depths greater than 200 meters, and the other is onshore where clastic units, mainly of Mesozoic age, may be res-ervoirs for laterally migrating hydrocarbons that were generated in the deep-graben areas. The Sirte Basin reflects significant rifting

  13. The basaltic volcanism of the Dumisseau Formation in the Sierra de Bahoruco, SW Dominican Republic: A record of the mantle plume-related magmatism of the Caribbean Large Igneous Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escuder-Viruete, Javier; Joubert, Marc; Abad, Manuel; Pérez-Valera, Fernando; Gabites, Janet

    2016-06-01

    The basaltic volcanism of the Dumisseau Fm in the Sierra de Bahoruco, SW Dominican Republic, offers the opportunity to study, on land, the volcanism of the Caribbean Large Igneous Province (CLIP). It consists of an at least 1.5 km-thick sequence of submarine basaltic flows and pyroclastic deposits, intruded by doleritic dykes and sills. Three geochemical groups have been identified: low-Ti tholeiites (group I); high-Ti transitional basalts (group II); and high-Ti and LREE-enriched alkaline basalts (group III). These geochemical signatures indicate a plume source for all groups of basalts, which are compositionally similar to the volcanic rocks that make up various CLIP fragments in the northern region of the Caribbean Plate. Trace element modelling indicates that group I magmas are products of 8-20% melting of spinel lherzolite, group II magmas result 4-10% melting of a mixture of spinel and garnet lherzolite, and group III basalts are derived by low degrees (0.05-4%) of melting of garnet lherzolite. Dynamic melting models suggest that basalts represent aggregate melts produced by progressive decompression melting in a mantle plume. There is no compositional evidence for the involvement of a Caribbean supra-subduction zone mantle or crust in the generation of the basalts. Two 40Ar/39Ar whole-rock ages reflect the crystallisation of group II magmas at least in the late Campanian (~ 74 Ma) and the lower Eocene (~ 53 Ma). All data suggest that the Dumisseau Fm is an emerged fragment of the CLIP, which continues southward through the Beata Ridge

  14. Extension of continental lithosphere - A model for two scales of basin and range deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuber, M. T.; Parmentier, E. M.; Fletcher, R. C.

    1986-04-01

    The development of a model for deformation in an extending continental lithosphere that is stratified in density and strength is described. The lithosphere model demonstrates that the necking instabilities at two wavelengths originate due to a strong upper crust, a mantle layer, and a weak lower crust. It is observed that the dominant wavelengths of necking are controlled by layer thickness and the strength of the layers control the amplitude of the instabilities. The model is applied to the Basin and Range Province of the western U.S. where deformations in ranges and tile domains are detected. The relation between the Bouguer gravity anomaly and the deformations is studied. The data reveal that the horizontal scale of short wavelength necking correlates with the spacings of individual basins and ranges, and the longer wavelength corresponds to the width of tilt domains. The control of the Basin and Range deformation by two scales of extensional instability is proposed.

  15. Cryptosporidium suis infection in post-weaned and adult pigs in Shaanxi province, northwestern China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qing; Wang, Xing-Ye; Chen, Jian-Wen; Ding, Ling; Zhao, Guang-Hui

    2015-02-01

    Cryptosporidium spp., ubiquitous enteric parasitic protozoa of vertebrates, recently emerged as an important cause of economic loss and zoonosis. The present study aimed to determine the distribution and species of Cryptosporidium in post-weaned and adult pigs in Shaanxi province, northwestern China. A total of 1,337 fresh fecal samples of post-weaned and adult pigs were collected by sterile disposable gloves from 8 areas of Shaanxi province. The samples were examined by Sheather's sugar flotation technique and microscopy at × 400 magnification for Cryptosporidium infection, and the species in positive samples was further identified by PCR amplification of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene. A total of 44 fecal samples were successfully amplified by the nested PCR of the partial SSU rRNA, with overall prevalence of 3.3%. The average prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in each pig farms ranged from 0 to 14.4%. Species identification by sequencing of SSU rRNA gene revealed that 42 (3.1%) samples were Cryptosporidium suis and 2 (0.15%) were Cryptosporidium scrofarum. C. suis had the highest prevalence (7.5%) in growers and the lowest in breeding pigs (0.97%). C. suis was the predominant species in pre-weaned and adult pigs, while C. scrofarum infected pigs older than 3 months only. A season-related difference of C. suis was observed in this study, with the highest prevalence in autumn (5.5%) and the lowest (1.7%) in winter. The present study provided basic information for control of Cryptosporidium infection in pigs and assessment of zoonotic transmission of pigs in Shaanxi province, China. PMID:25748718

  16. Cryptosporidium suis Infection in Post-Weaned and Adult Pigs in Shaanxi Province, Northwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Qing; Wang, Xing-Ye; Chen, Jian-Wen; Ding, Ling; Zhao, Guang-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium spp., ubiquitous enteric parasitic protozoa of vertebrates, recently emerged as an important cause of economic loss and zoonosis. The present study aimed to determine the distribution and species of Cryptosporidium in post-weaned and adult pigs in Shaanxi province, northwestern China. A total of 1,337 fresh fecal samples of post-weaned and adult pigs were collected by sterile disposable gloves from 8 areas of Shaanxi province. The samples were examined by Sheather’s sugar flotation technique and microscopy at×400 magnification for Cryptosporidium infection, and the species in positive samples was further identified by PCR amplification of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene. A total of 44 fecal samples were successfully amplified by the nested PCR of the partial SSU rRNA, with overall prevalence of 3.3%. The average prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in each pig farms ranged from 0 to 14.4%. Species identification by sequencing of SSU rRNA gene revealed that 42 (3.1%) samples were Cryptosporidium suis and 2 (0.15%) were Cryptosporidium scrofarum. C. suis had the highest prevalence (7.5%) in growers and the lowest in breeding pigs (0.97%). C. suis was the predominant species in pre-weaned and adult pigs, while C. scrofarum infected pigs older than 3 months only. A season-related difference of C. suis was observed in this study, with the highest prevalence in autumn (5.5%) and the lowest (1.7%) in winter. The present study provided basic information for control of Cryptosporidium infection in pigs and assessment of zoonotic transmission of pigs in Shaanxi province, China. PMID:25748718

  17. Two-phase westward encroachment of Basin and Range extension into thenorthern Sierra Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surpless, Benjamin E.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Dumitru, TrevorA.; Miller, Elizabeth L.

    2002-01-01

    Structural, geophysical, and thermochronologicaldata from the transition zone between the Sierra Nevada and the Basin andRange province at latitude ~39°N suggest ~100 km westward encroachmentof Basin and Range extensional deformation since the middle Miocene. Extension,accommodated primarily by east dipping normal faults that bound west tilted,range-forming fault blocks, varies in magnitude from <2% in the interiorof the Sierra Nevada crustal block to >150% in the Wassuk and Singatse Rangesto the east. Geological and apatite fission track data from exhumed uppercrustal sections in the Wassuk and Singatse Ranges point to rapid footwallcooling related to large magnitude extension starting at ~14-15Ma. Farther to the west, geological and thermochronological data indicatea younger period of extension in the previously unextended Pine Nut Mountains,the Carson Range, and the Tahoe-Truckee depression initiated between 10 Maand 3 Ma, and incipient post-0.5 Ma faulting to the west of the Tahoe-Truckeearea. These data imply the presence of an extensional breakaway zone betweenthe Singatse Range and the Pine Nut Mountains at ~14-15 Ma, formingthe boundary between the Sierra Nevada and Basin and Range at that time. Inaddition, fission track data imply a Miocene preextensional geothermal gradientof 27 +/- 5°C km-1 in the central Wassuk Rangeand 20 +/- 5°C km-1 in the Singatse Range,much higher than the estimated early Tertiary gradient of 10 +/- 5°Ckm-1 for the Sierra Nevada batholith. This might pointto a significant increase in geothermal gradients coupled with a likely decreasein crustal strength enabling the initiation of extensional faulting. Apatitefission track, geophysical, and geological constraints across the Sierra Nevada-Basinand Range transition zone indicate a two-stage, coupled structural and thermalwestward encroachment of the Basin and Range province into the Sierra Nevadasince the middle Miocene.

  18. Client satisfaction of maternity care in Lorestan province Iran

    PubMed Central

    Changee, Farahnaz; Irajpour, Alireza; Simbar, Masoumeh; Akbari, Soheila

    2015-01-01

    Background: Client satisfaction is an important indicator for assessment of the quality of care provided. Detecting patients dissatisfaction and trying to find the most effective and costly services is the basic way for improvement of service quality. The purpose of this study was to determine the satisfaction level of women in the maternity care centers (hospitals) of Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, the satisfaction level of 200 patients who received care during childbirth in province hospitals was assessed using a researcher-made questionnaire. Women in maternity care units completed the questionnaires. Results: The mean maternity care satisfaction score was 66.6 ± 3.5. The lowest satisfaction level was related to getting to know the delivery room (64%) and vaginal examination (66%). The highest satisfaction score was related to confidentiality of the information (86%) and trusting the midwife (84%). Regarding the environmental factors, the lowest satisfaction was related to respecting silence in the pain room (69.5%) and the highest was related to cleanliness and hygiene of the delivery room (84%). Conclusions: Our results suggest the relative satisfaction of women receiving care in the health centers of Lorestan province; but this level of satisfaction does not mean that the delivery of care in this province is perfect. By reviewing the policies and the existing care programs regarding promoting the quality of services, managers can increase clients’ satisfaction. PMID:26120342

  19. Satellite Laser Ranging operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, Michael R.

    1994-01-01

    Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) is currently providing precision orbit determination for measurements of: 1) Ocean surface topography from satellite borne radar altimetry, 2) Spatial and temporal variations of the gravity field, 3) Earth and ocean tides, 4) Plate tectonic and regional deformation, 5) Post-glacial uplift and subsidence, 6) Variations in the Earth's center-of-mass, and 7) Variations in Earth rotation. SLR also supports specialized programs in time transfer and classical geodetic positioning, and will soon provide precision ranging to support experiments in relativity.

  20. Mafic volcaniclastic deposits in flood basalt provinces: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, P.-S.; Ukstins Peate, I.; McClintock, M. K.; Xu, Y. G.; Skilling, I. P.; White, J. D. L.; Houghton, B. F.

    2005-07-01

    basaltic clasts of variable vesicularity (dominantly non- to poorly-vesicular) mixed with abundant country rock debris. The accidental lithic components often include loose quartz particles derived from poorly consolidated sandstones in underlying sedimentary basins (East Greenland, Ferrar, Karoo). These underlying sediments or sedimentary rocks were not only a source for debris but also aquifers that supplied water to fuel phreatomagmatic activity. In the Paraná-Etendeka, by contrast, the climate was apparently very dry when the lavas were emplaced (aeolian sand dunes) and no MVDs are reported. Volcanic vents filled with mafic volcaniclastic material, a few tens of metres to about 5 km across, are documented in several provinces (Deccan, North Atlantic, Ferrar, Karoo); they are thought to have been excavated in relatively soft country rocks (rarely in flood lavas) by phreatomagmatic activity in a manner analogous to diatreme formation.

  1. The biogeochemistry and occurrence of unusual plant species inhabiting acidic, metal-rich water, Red Mountain, Bonnifield district, Alaska Range: Chapter J in Recent U.S. Geological Survey studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada--results of a 5-year project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gough, Larry P.; Eppinger, Robert G.; Briggs, Paul H.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents results on the occurrence and biogeochemistry of unusual plant species, and of their supporting sediment, in an undisturbed volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit in the Tintina Gold Province (see fig. 1 of Editors’ Preface and Overview). The extraordinary plant assemblage found growing in the acidic metal-rich waters that drain the area is composed predominantly of bryophytes (liverworts and mosses). Ferricrete-cemented silty alluvial sediments within seeps and streams are covered with the liverwort Gymnocolea inflata, whereas the mosses Polytrichum commune and P. juniperinum inhabit the area adjacent to the water and within the splash zone. Both the liverwort-encrusted sediment and Polytrichum thalli have high concentrations of major- and trace-metal cations (for example, Al, As, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mn, Pb, and Zn). Soils in the area do not reflect the geochemical signature of the mineral deposit, and we suspect that they are most influenced by the chemistry of airborne dust (aeolian material) derived from outside the area.

  2. Study of infectious conjunctivitis among children in rural areas of Qinghai province.

    PubMed

    Liang, Qingfeng; Lu, Xinxin; Wang, Mei; Tian, Lei; Labbé, Antoine; Hu, Ailian

    2016-06-01

    Infectious conjunctivitis is no longer a common eye disease in cities and developed areas, but in remote mountainous regions of China where living conditions are relatively under-developed, the occurrence of infectious conjunctivitis remains a public health issue. Here, we evaluate the ratio of infectious conjunctivitis among primary school students in the rural areas of Xunhua, Huangyuan, and Huzhu Counties in the Qinghai province of China, and report the microorganisms involved in causing infection. Of the 765 eligible primary school students, 694 participated to this study (a response rateof 90.7%), 381 boys and 313 girls, with a mean age of 7.52 years (range 7-9 years). A clinical diagnosis of infectious conjunctivitis was returned for 238 of the 694 children examined. The ratio of infectious conjunctivitis in Xunhua County (46.64%) was higher compared to that in Huangyuan (26.67%; P=0.03) and Huzhu Counties (23.61%; P=0.02). The leading cause of conjunctivitis was bacterial, followed by chlamydial and viral. Our results show that there is a high ratio of infectious conjunctivitis among rural primary school students in Qinghai province. PMID:27225258

  3. Virome analysis for identification of novel mammalian viruses in bat species from Chinese provinces.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhiqiang; Ren, Xianwen; Yang, Li; Hu, Yongfeng; Yang, Jian; He, Guimei; Zhang, Junpeng; Dong, Jie; Sun, Lilian; Du, Jiang; Liu, Liguo; Xue, Ying; Wang, Jianmin; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Shuyi; Jin, Qi

    2012-10-01

    Bats are natural hosts for a large variety of zoonotic viruses. This study aimed to describe the range of bat viromes, including viruses from mammals, insects, fungi, plants, and phages, in 11 insectivorous bat species (216 bats in total) common in six provinces of China. To analyze viromes, we used sequence-independent PCR amplification and next-generation sequencing technology (Solexa Genome Analyzer II; Illumina). The viromes were identified by sequence similarity comparisons to known viruses. The mammalian viruses included those of the Adenoviridae, Herpesviridae, Papillomaviridae, Retroviridae, Circoviridae, Rhabdoviridae, Astroviridae, Flaviridae, Coronaviridae, Picornaviridae, and Parvovirinae; insect viruses included those of the Baculoviridae, Iflaviridae, Dicistroviridae, Tetraviridae, and Densovirinae; fungal viruses included those of the Chrysoviridae, Hypoviridae, Partitiviridae, and Totiviridae; and phages included those of the Caudovirales, Inoviridae, and Microviridae and unclassified phages. In addition to the viruses and phages associated with the insects, plants, and bacterial flora related to the diet and habitation of bats, we identified the complete or partial genome sequences of 13 novel mammalian viruses. These included herpesviruses, papillomaviruses, a circovirus, a bocavirus, picornaviruses, a pestivirus, and a foamy virus. Pairwise alignments and phylogenetic analyses indicated that these novel viruses showed little genetic similarity with previously reported viruses. This study also revealed a high prevalence and diversity of bat astroviruses and coronaviruses in some provinces. These findings have expanded our understanding of the viromes of bats in China and hinted at the presence of a large variety of unknown mammalian viruses in many common bat species of mainland China. PMID:22855479

  4. Extensive Genetic Diversity among Clinical Isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Central Province of Iran.

    PubMed

    Soleimanpour, Saman; Hamedi Asl, Daryoush; Tadayon, Keyvan; Farazi, Ali Asghar; Keshavarz, Rouhollah; Soleymani, Kioomars; Seddighinia, Fereshteh Sadat; Mosavari, Nader

    2014-01-01

    Human tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) remains a significant disease in many countries. According to Iran's borders with Afghanistan and Pakistan, which are among the 22 high burden countries around the world, this study was conducted to analyze the current molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis and survey genetic diversity of Mtb strains in Markazi Province in center of Iran. In this experimental study, 75 sputum specimens and one gastric lavage from all smear-positive TB patients admitted to the public hospitals across the Markazi Province were cultured on specific mycobacterial culture media. Genomic DNA was digested by PvuII and transferred to positively charged nylon membrane by southern blotting method and hybridization by PGRS and DR probes. Genotyping of the isolates by PGRS-RFLP and DR-RFLP displayed a wide range of genetic diversity as 25 and 26 genotypes were identified, respectively. Generally speaking, despite the relatively limited number of isolates in the study, high age of patients and also large heterogeneity found in the setting are both in opposition to active circulation of Mtb strains between patients under study either Iranian or Afghan nationals. Thus, it seems that reactivation of latent infection has had the main role in the spread of tuberculosis. PMID:25505987

  5. Virome Analysis for Identification of Novel Mammalian Viruses in Bat Species from Chinese Provinces

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhiqiang; Ren, Xianwen; Yang, Li; Hu, Yongfeng; Yang, Jian; He, Guimei; Zhang, Junpeng; Dong, Jie; Sun, Lilian; Du, Jiang; Liu, Liguo; Xue, Ying; Wang, Jianmin; Yang, Fan

    2012-01-01

    Bats are natural hosts for a large variety of zoonotic viruses. This study aimed to describe the range of bat viromes, including viruses from mammals, insects, fungi, plants, and phages, in 11 insectivorous bat species (216 bats in total) common in six provinces of China. To analyze viromes, we used sequence-independent PCR amplification and next-generation sequencing technology (Solexa Genome Analyzer II; Illumina). The viromes were identified by sequence similarity comparisons to known viruses. The mammalian viruses included those of the Adenoviridae, Herpesviridae, Papillomaviridae, Retroviridae, Circoviridae, Rhabdoviridae, Astroviridae, Flaviridae, Coronaviridae, Picornaviridae, and Parvovirinae; insect viruses included those of the Baculoviridae, Iflaviridae, Dicistroviridae, Tetraviridae, and Densovirinae; fungal viruses included those of the Chrysoviridae, Hypoviridae, Partitiviridae, and Totiviridae; and phages included those of the Caudovirales, Inoviridae, and Microviridae and unclassified phages. In addition to the viruses and phages associated with the insects, plants, and bacterial flora related to the diet and habitation of bats, we identified the complete or partial genome sequences of 13 novel mammalian viruses. These included herpesviruses, papillomaviruses, a circovirus, a bocavirus, picornaviruses, a pestivirus, and a foamy virus. Pairwise alignments and phylogenetic analyses indicated that these novel viruses showed little genetic similarity with previously reported viruses. This study also revealed a high prevalence and diversity of bat astroviruses and coronaviruses in some provinces. These findings have expanded our understanding of the viromes of bats in China and hinted at the presence of a large variety of unknown mammalian viruses in many common bat species of mainland China. PMID:22855479

  6. Extensive Genetic Diversity among Clinical Isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Central Province of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Soleimanpour, Saman; Hamedi Asl, Daryoush; Tadayon, Keyvan; Farazi, Ali Asghar; Keshavarz, Rouhollah; Soleymani, Kioomars; Seddighinia, Fereshteh Sadat; Mosavari, Nader

    2014-01-01

    Human tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) remains a significant disease in many countries. According to Iran's borders with Afghanistan and Pakistan, which are among the 22 high burden countries around the world, this study was conducted to analyze the current molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis and survey genetic diversity of Mtb strains in Markazi Province in center of Iran. In this experimental study, 75 sputum specimens and one gastric lavage from all smear-positive TB patients admitted to the public hospitals across the Markazi Province were cultured on specific mycobacterial culture media. Genomic DNA was digested by PvuII and transferred to positively charged nylon membrane by southern blotting method and hybridization by PGRS and DR probes. Genotyping of the isolates by PGRS-RFLP and DR-RFLP displayed a wide range of genetic diversity as 25 and 26 genotypes were identified, respectively. Generally speaking, despite the relatively limited number of isolates in the study, high age of patients and also large heterogeneity found in the setting are both in opposition to active circulation of Mtb strains between patients under study either Iranian or Afghan nationals. Thus, it seems that reactivation of latent infection has had the main role in the spread of tuberculosis. PMID:25505987

  7. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Elimination in Hainan Province, 2002-2012.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ding-Wei; Du, Jian-Wei; Wang, Guang-Ze; Li, Yu-Chun; He, Chang-Hua; Xue, Rui-De; Wang, Shan-Qing; Hu, Xi-Min

    2015-12-01

    In Hainan Province, China, great achievements in elimination of falciparum malaria have been made since 2010. There have been no locally acquired falciparum malaria cases since that time. The cost-effectiveness of elimination of falciparum malaria has been analyzed in Hainan Province. There were 4,422 falciparum malaria cases reported from 2002 to 2012, more cases occurred in males than in females. From 2002 to 2012, a total of 98.5 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) were reported because of falciparum malaria. Populations in the age ranges of 15-25 and 30-44 years had higher incidences and DALYs than other age groups. From 2002 to 2012, malaria-related costs for salaries of staff, funds from the provincial government, national government, and the GFATM were US$3.02, US$2.24, US$1.44, and US$5.08 million, respectively. An estimated 9,504 falciparum malaria cases were averted during the period 2003-2012. The estimated cost per falciparum malaria case averted was US$116.5. The falciparum malaria elimination program in Hainan was highly effective and successful. However, funding for maintenance is still needed because of imported cases. PMID:26438030

  8. The Caucasian oil and gas province

    SciTech Connect

    Adamia, S.H.; Akhvlediani, K.; Chabukiant, A. ); Kilasonia, V. )

    1991-08-01

    The Caucasus lies between the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov on the west and the Caspian Sea on the east. The main morphological elements of the Caucasus are the mountain ranges of Greater and Lesser Caucasus, which are divided by the Rioni (Colchis) and Kura intermontane troughs and the pre-Caucasian plain and Araks Depression. The tectonic features of the region result from its position between the Eurasian and Africa-Arabian plates. Two tectonic units of the highest order are distinguished within its limits, the young Scythian platform in the north and the Alpine fold belt in the south. Oil and gas deposits have been found only in the lowlands of the Caucasus, in the pre-Caucasian foreland, and within the Transcaucasian intermontane depressions. The North Caucasian province is made up of the Scythian platform and the marginal troughs of the Alpine Greater Caucasus. Oil and gas accumulations occur at all levels within the sedimentary cover from Triassic the Neogene. In the South Caspian oil and gas subprovince, oil and gas occurs within reservoirs range in age from Late Cretaceous to the Apsheronian stage of the Neogene. The Black Sea subprovince comprises the northwestern part of the sea and the western part of Georgia. The bulk of the explored oil reserves lies within the Neogene and Upper Cretaceous units. The potential in this region is associated with Jurassic terrigenous, Upper Cretaceous carbonate, and Paleogene terrigenous sediments.

  9. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sows in Hunan province, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Li, Run-Cheng; Liu, Guo-Hua; Cong, Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Yu, Xing-Long; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infections are prevalent in animals and humans worldwide. Although the prevalence of T. gondii has been reported in many animals in China, little is known of T. gondii infection in sows. Antibodies to T. gondii in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China, were examined using indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT). Overall, 31.3% (373/1191) of the examined sows were seropositive for T. gondii. Among 11 representative regions of Hunan province, the seroprevalence ranged from 14.8% to 45.1%. In addition, the T. gondii seroprevalence was higher in summer (37.4%) and autumn (34.9%) than in spring (24.6%) and winter (23.9%). Regarding different antibody titers, the seroprevalence ranged from 1.8% (titer ≥ 1: 1024) to 17.4% (titer = 1:64). The findings of the present investigation revealed the high seroprevalence of T. gondii in sows in Hunan province, China, which poses a potential risk for T. gondii infection in humans and animals in this province. Therefore, effective measures should be taken to prevent and control toxoplasmosis of pigs in this province. This is the first report of the comprehensive survey of T. gondii seroprevalence in sows in Hunan Province, subtropical China. PMID:24683331

  10. Near-infrared spectroscopy and pattern-recognition processing for classifying wines of two Italian provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignani, A. G.; Ciaccheri, L.; Gordillo, B.; Mencaglia, Andrea A.; González-Miret, M. L.; Heredia, F. J.; Cichelli, A.

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents an experiment making use of the near-infrared spectrum for distinguishing the wines produced in two close provinces of Abruzzo region of Italy. A collection of 32 wines was considered, 18 of which were produced in the province of Chieti, while the other 14 were from the province of Teramo. A conventional dual-beam spectrophotometer was used for absorption measurements in the 1300-1900 nm spectroscopic range. Principal Component Analysis was used for explorative analysis. Score maps in the PC1-PC2 or PC2-PC3 spaces were obtained, which successfully grouped the wine samples in two distinct clusters, corresponding to Chieti and Teramo provinces, respectively. A modelling of dual-band spectroscopy was also proposed, making use of two LEDs for illumination and a PIN detector instead of the spectrometer. These data were processed using Linear Discriminant Analysis which demonstrated satisfactory classification results.

  11. [Study of infestation of dogs with Echinococcus granulosus in the province of La Rioja, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Amaya, Juan C; Moreno, Nancy; Salmaso, Nancy; Bazan, Eduardo; Ricoy, Gerardo; Córdoba, Patricia; Santillan, Graciela I

    2016-01-01

    This work was conducted in the province of La Rioja, located in northwestern Argentina. The aim of this study was to estimate the percentage of dog feces showing the presence of antigens of Echinococcus sp. in different regions of the province. A total of 269 samples of dried canine stool were taken, which were analyzed by the copro-ELISA technique. The most affected area was zone IV, which had 30.5% of positive samples. Zone I corresponding to the Capital Department of the province had 12% of positivity. In other areas, the percentages ranged between 11.4% and 14.8%. This is the first study in the province of La Rioja on the existence of this disease in dogs. The lack of control strategies has allowed the spread of echinococcosis. PMID:26774705

  12. Geochemical evidence concerning the nature of the source region to the Middle Proterozoic Granite-Rhyolite Province

    SciTech Connect

    Shuster, R.D. . Dept. Geography Mueller, P.A.; Heatherington, A.L. . Dept. Geology)

    1992-01-01

    The mostly buried 1.5--1.3 Ga old Granite-Rhyolite Province of the midcontinent of North America, is characterized by extensive, undeformed silicic volcanic rocks and related epizonal granitic plutons. Thirty-three previously dated samples from a wide geographic range (Michigan to Colorado) have been analyzed to determine their chemical and Nd and Pb isotopic compositions in order to constrain source regions and processes involved in the formation of these rocks. Major and trace element analyses of these rocks indicate their anorogenic nature, with relatively high Ce/Nb and Y/Nb ratios, as well as relatively high Ga/Al ratios. Geochemically, these rocks are similar to the A2 granites of Eby (1992), which are thought to be generated from the melting of crust which has experienced at least one cycle of subduction-related magmatism. Rare earth element and Pb isotopic data suggest melting at middle to shallow depths. The isotopic data (Nd and Pb) indicate little to no contribution of Archean crust to the source of these rocks. Initial Pb isotopic ratios (208Pb/204Pb) suggest a low Th/U ratio in the source, which contrasts strongly with high Th/U ratios of the Wyoming Province. The Pb isotopic ratios for these rocks are variable, but cluster about the orogene plumbotectonics curve. The variability in the data suggest sources which are variable in their U/Pb ratios and/or ages. The isotopic data are consistent with the existence of a proposed lithospheric boundary which trend NE-SW through the Granite-Rhyolite Province and separates 1.65 Ga old lithosphere (to the NW) from 1.5 Ga old lithosphere (to the SE). Samples analyzed from either side of this boundary have different isotopic signatures. Many of the samples appear to be derived from sources which are only slightly older than the crystallization ages of the granites themselves.

  13. Benthic foraminifera of the Panamanian Province: distribution and origins.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crouch, R.W.; Poag, C.W.

    1987-01-01

    Two hundred twenty-nine species of benthic foraminifera have been identified from 96 stations representing 33 localities on the eastern Pacific inner continental shelf, ranging from southern Peru to northern Baja California. Their distributions mark nearshore provincial boundaries that are nearly identical with those previously documented from the distribution of ostracodes and molluscs. Thirteen species are characteristic of the Panamanian Province, one is characteristic of the Chilean-Peruvian Province, and one is characteristic of the newly proposed Sonoran Subprovince. Seventeen species (7%) appear to be endemic to the eastern Pacific. Fifty-eight (25%) of the species recognized are disjunct from population centers in the western Pacific, 134 species (59%) are disjunct from modern assemblages of the Atlanto-Carribean region, and 40 species (17%) are disjunct from both the western Pacific and the Atlanto-Caribbean. The distribution of the remaining 57 species (25%) is poorly documented; we classify them as of unknown origin. -Authors

  14. Crustal Structure of Yunnan Province, People's Republic of China, from Seismic Refraction Profiles.

    PubMed

    Kan, R J; Hu, H X; Zeng, R S; Mooney, W D; McEvilly, T V

    1986-10-24

    Seismic refraction, profiles in Yunnan Province, southwestern China, define the crustal structure in an area of active tectonics on the southern end of the Himalaya-Burma arc. The crustal thickness ranges from 38 to 46 kilometers, and the relatively low mean crustal velocity indicates a crustal composition compatible with normal continental crust and consisting mainly of meta-sedimentary and silicic intrusive rocks, with little mafic or ultramafic component. This composition suggests a crustal evolution involving sedimentary processes on the flank of the Yangtze platform rather than the accretion of oceanic island arcs, as has been proposed. An anomalously low upper-mantle velocity observed on one profile but not on another at right angles to it may indicate active tectonic processes in the mantle or seismic anisotropy. PMID:17792016

  15. Crustal structure of Yunnan province, People's Republic of China, from seismic refraction profiles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kan, R.-J.; Hu, H.-X.; Zeng, R.-S.; Mooney, W.D.; McEvilly, T.V.

    1986-01-01

    Seismic refraction, profiles in Yunnan Province, southwestern China, define the crustal structure in an area of active tectonics, on the southern end of the Himalaya-Burma arc. The crustal thickness ranges from 38 to 46 kilometers, and the relatively low mean crustal velocity indicates a crustal composition compatible with normal continental crust and consisting mainly of meta-sedimentary and silicic intrusive rocks, with little mafic or ultramafic component. This composition suggests a crustal evolution involving sedimentary processes on the flank of the Yangtze platform rather than the accretion of oceanic island arcs, as has been proposed. An anomalously low upper-mantle velocity observed on one profile, but not on another at right angles to it may indicate active tectonic processes in the mantle or seismic anisotropy.

  16. Constructing the volcanic architecture of Kalkarindji, an ancient flood basalt province, using a multidisciplinary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, P.; Widdowson, M.; Kelley, S. P.; Mac Niocaill, C.; Murphy, D. T.

    2014-12-01

    The Kalkarindji Continental Flood Basalt Province (CFBP) is the oldest igneous province in the Phanerozoic. Erupted in the mid-Cambrian (505-510 Ma) [1], it is estimated volumes of lava up to 1.5 x 105 km3could have been erupted, making this similar in size to the better known Columbia River Basalts, USA. Relatively little is known about the province, due in part to its remote location, though large swathes remain well preserved (c. 50,000 km2). This study, based on rigorous field investigations, utilises 4 different analytical techniques to construct a volcanic architecture for the Kalkarindji basalts, drawing together these complimentary datasets to generate a series of detailed stratigraphies from around the province. Mineralogy and petrography form the basis while geochemical data aides in defining lava flow stratigraphies and distinguishing individual flow packages in disparate locations around the province. 40Ar/39Ar dating of key stratigraphic marker horizons support stratigraphical correlation across the province whilst the use of palaeomagnetism and magnetostratigraphy has allowed for correlation on a broader scale. Indications from this study point towards an unusual eruption among CFBPs in the Phanerozoic; a lack of tumescence, immediate subsidence of the lava pile following cessation of eruption; and, in the main sub-province, we map a simple volcanic structure thinning to the east from a single source. 1. L. M. Glass, D. Phillips, (2006). Geology. 34, 461-464.

  17. The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province: Age Comparison Between the South Carolina Dykes and Morocco Lava Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youbi, N.; Nomade, S.; Breutel, E.; Knight, K.

    2003-12-01

    Geochronology Center using a defocus CO2 laser. Plateau ages obtained in both areas are undistinguishable at 2 sigma level ranging from 201 to 198 Ma (relative to FCs at 28.02 Ma). This is coherent with previous ages in Brazil and NE-US and reinforced the instantaneous emplacement at the geological time scale of this enormous volcanic province with ramifications for tectonic and climatic processes.

  18. Range expansion of Dermacentor variabilis and Dermacentor andersoni (Acari: Ixodidae) near their northern distributional limits.

    PubMed

    Dergousoff, Shaun J; Galloway, Terry D; Lindsay, L Robbin; Curry, Philip S; Chilton, Neil B

    2013-05-01

    Distributional ranges of the ticks Dermacentor andersoni Stiles and Dermacentor variabilis (Say) in the Canadian Prairies were determined by passive surveillance and active collection. These findings were compared with historical records of both species, particularly in the province of Saskatchewan, where the northern distributional limits of both tick species occur. Before the 1960s, D. variabilis and D. andersoni were allopatric in Saskatchewan; however, since then, the distribution of D. variabilis has expanded westward and northward. Although the range of D. andersoni has remained relatively stable, range expansion of D. variabilis has resulted in a zone of sympatry at least 200 km wide. Twenty-nine species of mammals and three species of birds were identified as hosts for different life stages of these ticks. PMID:23802445

  19. Paleozoic crudes of Tomsk province

    SciTech Connect

    Smol'yaninova, N.M.; Mashukova, Z.I.; Nemirovskaya, G.V.

    1983-01-01

    The Paleozoic crudes typically have low densities at 20/sup 0/C, low contents of resins, high viscosities at 20/sup 0/C, rather high solid points, and high contents of solid paraffins. The Paleozoic crudes are in no way inferior in quality to the Mesozoic crudes of Tomsk province, and are even better in some respects (yields of high-V.I. and medium-V.I. oils). They can be processed with either a fuel/lube or petrochemical refining scheme. Finds that the crudes from the Ostaninsk and SeveroOstaninsk fields, in terms of their paraffin and sulfur contents and other indexes, are similar to the Jurassic crudes of the Zhetybai field on the Mangyshlak peninsula. These 2 crudes and the Chkalovsk crude, even though the high wax contents offer problems in production and transportation, can serve as good raw materials for fuel and oil production, and also for the manufacture of liquid and solid paraffins.

  20. Range extension of Lepidocephalichthys alkaia (Teleostei: Cobitidae) and notes on its sexual dimorphism

    PubMed Central

    ENDRUWEIT, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The natural distributional range of the cobitid loach Lepidocephalichthys alkaia is extended into Yunnan Province,China. The modified sexually dimorphic pectoral fin in males of L. alkaia is described. PMID:27265657

  1. Using Facilities And Potential Of Geothermal Resources In The Canakkale Province - NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deniz, Ozan; Acar Deniz, Zahide

    2016-04-01

    Turkey, due to its geological location, has a rich potential in point of geothermal resources. Çanakkale province is located northwestern (NW) part of Turkey and it has important geothermal fields in terms of geothermal energy potential. Geothermal resources reach to the surface both effects of past volcanic activity and extensions of fault zones associated with complex tectonic systems in the region. The aim of this study is to summarize hydrogeochemical characteristics, using facilities and potential of hot springs and spas located in the Çanakkale province. There are 13 geothermal fields in the region and the surface temperatures of hot springs are ranging between 28 centigrade degree and 175 centigrade degree. Hydrogeochemical compositions of thermal water display variable chemical compositions. Na, Ca, SO4, HCO3 and Cl are the dominant ions in these waters. Thermal waters of Tuzla and Kestanbol geothermal fields which is located the near coastal area can be noted NaCl type. Because these two geothermal waters have high TDS values, scaling problems are seen around the hot springs and pipelines. Geothermal waters in the province are meteoric origin according to oxygen-18, deuterium and tritium isotopes data. Long underground residence times of these waters and its temperatures have caused both more water - rock interaction and low tritium values. Geothermal energy is utilized in many areas in Turkey today. It is generally used for space heating, balneotherapy and electricity generation. Explorations of geothermal resources and investments in geothermal energy sector have risen rapidly in the recent years particularly in western Turkey. High-temperature geothermal fields are generally located in this region related to the Aegean Graben System and the North Anotalian Fault Zone. All geothermal power plants in Turkey are located in this region. Considering the Çanakkale province, most geothermal fields are suitable for multipurpose usage but many of them have

  2. Midwifery workforce profile in Limpopo Province referral hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Ogunbanjo, Gboyega A.

    2014-01-01

    Background In sub-Saharan Africa including South Africa, maternal mortality rates remain unacceptably high due to a shortage of registered nurses with advanced midwifery diplomas. Objective To determine the profile of registered nurses (RNs) involved in maternity care in public referral hospitals of the Limpopo Province, South Africa. Method A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in all maternity units of Limpopo's public referral hospitals. The study population comprised of 210 registered nurses, who became the study sample. Data on their educational profile and work experience in midwifery was analysed using STATA version 9.0. Results The mean age of the 210 registered nurses was 44.5 ± 9.1 years (range 21 to 62). The majority (152/210; 70%) were 40 years and older, 56% (117/210) had been working for more than 10 years, and 63/210 (30%) were due to retire within 10 years. Only 22% (46/210) had advanced midwifery diplomas, i.e. after their basic undergraduate training. Only six (2.9%) of the RNs providing maternity care in these referral hospitals were studying for advanced midwifery diplomas at the time of the study. Conclusion This study demonstrated a shortage of registered nurses with advanced midwifery training/diplomas in referral hospitals of the Limpopo Province. This has a potentially negative effect in reducing the high maternal mortality rate in the province. PMID:26245396

  3. The southeastern Dronning Maud Land province in East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mieth, Matthias; Jokat, Wilfried; Jacobs, Joachim; Ruppel, Antonia; Damaske, Detlef; Läufer, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Systematic airborne geophysical surveys conducted by the Alfred-Wegener-Institute over the last decades have investigated a significant part of Dronning Maud Land in East Antarctica and have revealed, amongst other findings, an aerogeophysical prominent province in southeastern Dronning Maud Land. Both its magnetic and gravity signature differs from those of the western and southwestern Dronning Maud Land, and we assume that it represents a distinct tectonic terrane. This province is characterized by a subdued magnetic anomaly field with elongated parallel positive anomalies, which are truncated by the Forster magnetic anomaly in the northwest, are flanked by the complex magnetic anomaly pattern of the Sør Rondane Mountains in the northeast, and continue presumably farther eastwards. Pronounced negative values of Bouguer gravity indicate thick continental crust of up to 50 km for this region in contrast to significantly higher values of Bouguer gravity in western and southwestern Dronning Maud Land. A few nunataks crop out within the northern portion of this province between the Wohlthat-Massiv and the Sør Rondane Mountains. In 2011 and 2012 collected rock samples from these nunataks and nearby moraines show a predominance of metasedimentary rocks of yet unknown age. Furthermore, undeformed late- to post-tectonic granitoids have been discovered within the southeastern DML province. The conclusions of these findings revise the speculation of a continuous suture zone connecting the Shackleton Range south of Coats Land in the west and the Lützow Holm Bay region in the east and supplement the hypotheses that East-Antarctica is rather a mosaic of different crustal fragments composed of Archaean nucleoids and of Proterozoic to Palaeozoic mobile belts, than to be primarily one stable craton.

  4. LiF:Mg,Ti TLD response as a function of photon energy for moderately filtered x-ray spectra in the range of 20-250 kVp relative to {sup 60}Co

    SciTech Connect

    Nunn, A. A.; Davis, S. D.; Micka, J. A.; DeWerd, L. A.

    2008-05-15

    The response of LiF:Mg,Ti thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) as a function of photon energy was determined using irradiations with moderately filtered x-ray beams in the energy range of 20-250 kVp relative to the response to irradiations with {sup 60}Co photons. To determine if the relative light output from LiF:Mg,Ti TLDs per unit air kerma as a function of photon energy can be predicted using calculations such as Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, measurements from the x-ray beam irradiations were compared with MC calculated results, similar to the methodology used by Davis et al. [Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 106, 33-43 (2003)]. TLDs were irradiated in photon beams with well-known air kerma rates using the National Institute of Standards and Technology traceable M-series x-ray beams in the range of 20-250 kVp. For each x-ray beam, several sets of TLDs were irradiated for times corresponding to different air kerma levels to take into account any dose nonlinearity. TLD light output was then compared to that from several sets of TLDs irradiated at similar corresponding air kerma levels using a {sup 60}Co irradiator. The MC code MCNP5 was used to account for photon scatter and attenuation in the holder and TLDs and was used to calculate the predicted relative TLD light output per unit air kerma for irradiations with each of the experimentally used photon beams. The measured relative TLD response as a function of photon energy differed by up to 13% from the MC calculations. We conclude that MC calculations do not accurately predict the relative response of TLDs as a function of photon energy, consistent with the conclusions of Davis et al. [Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 106, 33-43 (2003)]. This is likely due to complications in the solid state physics of the thermoluminescence process that are not incorporated into the simulation.

  5. Geology and total petroleum systems of the Gulf of Guinea province of West Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.

    2006-01-01

    The Gulf of Guinea Province as defined by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) consists of the coastal and offshore areas of Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Togo, and Benin, and the western part of the coast of Nigeria, from the Liberian border east to the west edge of the Niger Delta. The province includes the Ivory Coast, Tano, Central, Saltpond, Keta, and Benin Basins and the Dahomey Embayment. The area has had relatively little hydrocarbon exploration since 1968, with only 33 small to moderate-sized oil and gas fields having been discovered prior to the USGS assessment. Most discoveries to 1995 have been located in water depths less than 500 m. Since 1995, only eight new offshore discoveries have been made, with four of the discoveries in the deep-water area of the province. Although as many as five total petroleum systems exist in the Gulf of Guinea Province, only one, the Cretaceous Composite Total Petroleum System, and its assessment unit, the Coastal Plain and Offshore Assessment Unit, had sufficient data to allow assessment. The province shows two important differences compared to the passive-margin basins south of the Niger Delta: (1) the influence of transform tectonics, and (2) the absence of evaporites and salt deformation. The province also lacks long-lived, large deltaic systems that typically result in rapid source rock burial and abundant high-quality hydrocarbon reservoirs. The USGS assessed the potential for undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in the Gulf of Guinea Province as part of its World Petroleum Assessment 2000, estimating a mean of 1,004 million barrels of conventional undiscovered oil, 10,071 billion cubic feet of gas, and 282 million barrels of natural gas liquids. Most of the hydrocarbon potential is postulated to be in the offshore, deeper waters of the province. Gas resources may be large, as well as accessible, in areas where the zone of hydrocarbon generation is relatively shallow.

  6. New Aerogeophysical exploration of the Gamburtsev Province (East Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraccioli, F.; Bell, R. E.; Studinger, M.; Damaske, D.; Jordan, T. A.; Corr, H.; Braaten, D. A.; Gogineni, P. S.; Fahnestock, M. A.; Finn, C.; Rose, K.

    2009-12-01

    The enigmatic Gamburstev Subglacial Mountains (GSM) in the interior of East Antarctica, have remained the least understood mountain range on earth, since their discovery some 50 years ago. An improved knowledge of the GSM region is however essential to underpin reconstructions of the Antarctic cryosphere and climate evolution. The GSM are a key nucleation site for the inception of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet approximately 34 Ma ago, and the adjacent Lambert Glacier played a pivotal role for ice sheet dynamics throughout the Neogene (23-0 Ma). The GSM province may also provide tectonic controls for major subglacial lakes flanking the range. In addition, the ice encasing the GSM province has been inferred to contain the oldest detailed climate record of the planet, a prime target for future deep ice core drilling. With the overarching aim of accomplishing the first systematic study of the cryosphere and lithosphere of the GSM province we launched a new geophysical exploration effort- AGAP (Antarctica’s Gamburtsev Province)-, a flagship programme of the International Polar Year. The aerogeophysical and seismology components of AGAP were accomplished by pooling resources from 7 nations. We deployed 2 Twin Otters, equipped with state-of-the art geophysical instrumentation and operating from two remote field camps on either side of Dome A. Over 120,000 line-km of new airborne radar, laser, aerogravity and aeromagnetic data survey were collected during the 2008/09 field campaign. Our grids of ice surface, ice thickness, subglacial topography, and gravity and magnetic anomalies provide a new geophysical foundation to analyse the GSM province, from the surface of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet down to mantle depths beneath the Precambrian shield. The anomalously high-elevation, alpine-type landscape of the GSM is now mapped with unprecedented detail. Two distinct branches of a subglacial rift system are imaged along the north-western and north-eastern margins of the

  7. Customary Homicides in Diyarbakir Province.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Eyyup; Canturk, Nergis; Erkol, Zerrin; Kumral, Bahadir; Okumus, Ali M

    2015-09-01

    This study presents an analysis of the causes of so-called honor killings in the context of "customary homicide" and a discussion of preventive measures. Finalized case files of customary homicide between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 were retrospectively examined in Diyarbakir Province, Turkey. Of a total of 28 case victims, 17 (60.7%) were females and 11 (39.3%) were males. All perpetrators were male. There was a significant difference between male and female victims in terms of economic independence (p=0.000). A direct blood relationship or relationship by marriage (such as brother-in-law) was found to have a significant association with the gender of the victim (p<0.001). Multilevel educational activities targeting a transformation of the perception of women by society, replacement of patriarchal models with more modern attitudes, and encouragement of individuality may represent effective strategies that may help reduce the number of customary homicide, which represents a multifaceted problem. PMID:25921219

  8. Women's rising status. Shandong province.

    PubMed

    Wang, X

    1994-03-01

    Improvements in the status of women are credited with the recent success of family planning promotion efforts in China's Xiji Village (Shanting District, Shandong Province). This small mountain village had a per capita annual income (US$27) below the national average ad a birth rate of 33/1000 population in 1984. When the District Family Planning Association targeted the village for programmatic intervention in 188, there was strong resistance to family planning. On the assumption that villagers would not accept family planning until they were convinced of its economic advantages, the Association combined poverty alleviation activities with contraceptives promotion. Small enterprises and workshops were set up, including processing mills to make noodles from beans and potato starch, and two-thirds of the village's unemployed women got jobs that paid an average of US$26/month at these mills. Income generating activities such as raising poultry or growing produce in backyard gardens were designed for women with too many children to work outside the home. In addition, the Women's Association at Feicheng City has selected more than 3500 economically active, family planning acceptors who serve as models to 15-16 women of childbearing age. As women experience the social, economic, and psychological advantages of income generation, they tend to voluntarily adopt family planning and to abandon their previous preference for sons. PMID:12287768

  9. On the Prepuna biogeographic province: A nomenclatural clarification.

    PubMed

    Morrone, Juan J; Ezcurra, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    The nomenclatural status of the Prepuna province sensu Cabrera (1951) and sensu Morrone (1999) is clarified. The Prepuna province sensu Cabrera (1951) is demoted to a district of the Monte province, stat. nov. The valid name of the Prepuna province sensu Morrone (1999) is Cuyan High Andean province Cabrera, 1971, stat. nov. Diagnoses of these areas are provided and their endemic taxa are listed. PMID:27395671

  10. An ethnobotanical survey on hormozgan province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Safa, Omid; Soltanipoor, Mohammad Amin; Rastegar, Soheil; Kazemi, Mahnaz; Nourbakhsh Dehkordi, Khadijeh; Ghannadi, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study is based on an ethnobotanical research project conducted in Hormozgan province that is located in south of Iran, bordering waters of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. This survey was carried out in order to recover the ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal knowledge of the residents of this province. They are using medicinal and functional plants for treating or preventing several diseases. Materials and Methods: Ethnobotanical data sheets were run with the native inhabitants and people of the province by arranging frequent field trips to different parts of the province and direct interviews with them especially those who were more familiar with the plants and their usage. Results: A total of 150 plant species belonging to 53 families were recorded for their ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal uses among the people of province. The records were developed by scientific names, family names, local names, medicinal parts used, different ways of their application, and traditional uses of the plants. There was high compliance in the use of plants in painful disorders, gastrointestinal, and dermatological diseases. Conclusion: This study revealed that the people of Hormozgan province have a rich knowledge of natural resources. The use and consumption of medicinal plants are still important parts of their life. Rational use of native medicinal plants may benefit and improve their living standards and quality of life. The results of this study can be used as a basis for selecting herbs for further pharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacognostical studies. PMID:25050260

  11. Tectonic provinces of the Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushcharovsky, Yu. M.

    2009-05-01

    The tectonic structure of the floor of the Atlantic Ocean beyond the continental margins is insufficiently studied. This is also true of its tectonic demarcation. The segmentation of the floor into regional-scale tectonic provinces of several orders proposed in this paper is primarily based on structural and historical geological features. It is shown that deep oceanic basins and fault tectonics are of particular importance in this respect. Tectonic provinces of two orders are distinguished by a set of attributes. The first-order provinces are the North, Central, South, and Antarctic domains of the Atlantic Ocean. They are separated by wide demarcation fracture zones into Transatlantic (transverse) second-order tectonic provinces. Ten such provinces are recognized (from the north southward): Greenland-Lofoten, Greenland-Scandinavia, Greenland-Ireland, Newfoundland-European, North American-African, Antilles-African, Angola-Brazil, Cape-Argentine, North Antarctic, and South Antarctic. This subdivision demonstrates significant differentiation in the geodynamic state of the oceanic lithosphere that determines nonuniform ocean formation and the tectonic features of the ocean floor. The latitudinal orientation of the second-order provinces inherits the past tectonic pattern, though newly formed structural units cannot be ruled out. The Earth rotation exerts a crucial effect on the crust and the mantle.

  12. Ocean anoxia and large igneous provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhl, Micha; Bjerrum, Christian J.; Canfield, Donald E.; Korte, Christoph; Stemmerik, Lars; Frei, Robert

    2013-04-01

    Earth's history is marked by multiple events of ocean anoxia developing along continental margins and potentially into the open ocean realm. These events often coincide with the emplacement of large igneous provinces (LIPs) on continents, major perturbations of global geochemical cycles and marine (mass) extinction. The geographic and temporal extend and the intensity (ferruginous vs. euxinic) of anoxic conditions is often, however, poorly constraint. This complicates understanding of close coupling between Earth's physical, chemical and biological processes. We studied ocean redox change over two major mass extinction events in Earth history, the Permian-Triassic (at ~252 Ma) and Triassic-Jurassic (at ~201.3 Ma) mass extinctions. Both extinction events are marked by a major perturbation of the global exogenic carbon cycle (and associated major negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE)), likely initiated by carbon outgassing of the Siberian Traps and the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), respectively. We compare Permian-Triassic and Triassic-Jurassic ocean redox change along continental margins in different geographic regions (Permian-Triassic: Greenland, Svalbard, Iran; Triassic-Jurassic: UK, Austria) and discuss its role in marine mass extinction. We show strongly enhanced sedimentary redox-sensitive trace element concentrations (e.g. Mo) during both events. However, increased Permian-Triassic values are in all localities distinctly delayed relative to the associated negative CIE. Triassic-Jurassic values are only delayed in the oceanographically restricted western Germanic basin (UK) while increased Mo-values in the north-western Tethys Ocean (Austria) directly match the onset of the associated negative CIE. Speciation of iron [giving (Fe-HR/ Fe-T) and (Fe(Py)/ Fe-HR)] in the Triassic-Jurassic western Germanic basin (UK) however shows close coupling between the onset of the global carbon cycle perturbation and a shift to anoxic and even euxinic conditions

  13. Incidence of Childhood Cancers in Golestan Province of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Abdolvahab; Semnani, Shahryar; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Mirbehbehani, Narges; Keshtkar, Abbasali; Aarabi, Mohsen; Moghaddami, Abbas; Cheraghali, Fatemeh

    2010-01-01

    Objective This paper presents the incidence rates of childhood cancers using the data obtained from Golestan population based cancer registry (GPCR) between 2004 and 2006. Methods GPCR registers only primary cancers based on standard protocols of the international association of cancer registries (IACR). We collect data on newly diagnosed (incident) cancer cases from all public and private diagnostic and therapeutic centers of the whole province. CanReg-4 software was used for data entry and analysis. Findings Totally 5076 cancer cases (all ages) were diagnosed in GPCR between 2004 and 2006. Of these, 139 (2.74 %) were children (aged 0–14 years) with mean (±SD) age of 8.06 (±4.48) years. The age standardized incidence rates for childhood cancer were 119.8 and 78.3 per 1000000 person-years in male and female children, respectively. Leukemia was the most common childhood cancer in Golestan province of Iran. Lymphomas and central nervous system tumors were the second and third ones, respectively. Conclusion The incidence rates of childhood cancers were relatively high in Golestan province of Iran. So, controlling of childhood cancers should be mentioned as an important issue in health policy making in this area. PMID:23056726

  14. The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province: Insights From Fragments of Pangea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hames, W.; McHone, J. G.; Renne, P.; Ruppel, C.

    A singular event in Earth's history occurred roughly 200 million years ago, as rifting of the largest and most recent supercontinent was joined by basaltic volcanism that formed the most extensive large igneous province (LIP) known. A profound and widespread mass extinction of terrestrial and marine genera occurred at about the same time, suggesting a causal link between the biological transitions of the Triassic-Jurassic boundary and massive volcanism. A series of stratigraphic, geochronologic, petrologic, tectonic, and geophysical studies have led to the identification of the dispersed remnants of this Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) on the rifted margins of four continents. Current discoveries are generally interpreted to indicate that CAMP magmatism occurred in a relative and absolute interval of geologic time that was brief, and point to mechanisms of origin and global environmental effects. Because many of these discoveries have occurred within the past several years, in this monograph we summarize new observations and provide an up-to-date review of the province

  15. Mantle xenoliths from Marosticano area (Northern Italy): a comparison with Veneto Volcanic Province lithospheric mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brombin, Valentina; Bonadiman, Costanza; Coltorti, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    The Tertiary Magmatic Province of Veneto, known as Veneto Volcanic Province (VVP), in the North-East of Italy, represents the most important volcanic distric of Adria Plate. It is composed by five volcanic bodies: Val d'Adige, Marosticano, Mts. Lessini, Berici Hills and Euganean Hills. Most of the volcanic products are relatively undifferentiated lavas and range in composition from nephelinites to tholeiites. Often VVP nephelinites and basanites carry mantle xenoliths (mainly harzburgites and lherzolite). This study reports petrological comparison between Marosticano xenoliths (new outcrop) and xenoliths from the Lessinean and Val d'Adige areas already studied by many Authors (Siena & Coltorti 1989; Beccaluva et al., 2001, Gasperini et al., 2006). Mineral major elements analyses show that the Marosticano lherzolites and harzburgites reflect "more restitic" composition than the mantle domain beneath the other VVP districts (Lessini Mts. and Val d'Adige). In fact, olivine and pyroxene of Marosticano xenoliths have the highest mg# values of the entire district (Marosticano→90-93; literature→86-92). At comparable mg# (45-85 wt%) Marosticano spinels tend to be higher in Cr2O3 (23-44 wt%) contents with respect to the other VVP sp (7-25 wt%). It is worth noting that, Ni contents of Marosticano olivines in both harzburgites and lherzolites are higher (2650-3620 ppm) than those of the Lessinean xenoliths (1500- 3450 ppm), and similar to that of Val d'Adige lherzolites (3000-3500 ppm), approaching the contents of Archean cratonic mantle (Kelemen, 1998). In turn, Lessinean olivines properly fall in the Ni-mg# Phanerozoic field. At fixed pressure of 15 kbar, the equilibration temperature of Marosticano xenoliths are similar (Brey & Köhler: 920-1120°C) to those of Lessini (O'Neill & Wall: 990-1110°C; Beccaluva et al., 2007), but higher than those of Val d'Adige (Wells: 909-956°C; Gasperini et al., 2006). Finally, Marosticano mantle fragment show similar relatively high

  16. HIV Infection--Guangdong Province, China, 1997-2007.

    PubMed

    2009-04-24

    In 2007, an estimated 700,000 persons in China were living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. An estimated 50,000 new HIV infections and 20,000 deaths related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) occurred in 2007, and an estimated 71% of persons with HIV infection were unaware of their HIV status. In 2007, 40.6% of those living with HIV had been infected through heterosexual transmission and 38.1% through injection-drug use. Guangdong Province in southeastern China is the country's most populous province, with an estimated 75.6 million permanent residents and 16.5 million migrants; the province has undergone rapid economic development. Since 1986, a case-based surveillance system (CBSS) in China has collected data on persons infected with HIV, including demographic characteristics and transmission categories. To assess recent trends in HIV infection in the province, the Guangdong Center for Disease Control, with technical assistance from CDC, analyzed CBSS data for the period 1997--2007. The results of that analysis indicated that the number of HIV cases increased from 102 in 1997 to 4,593 in 2007, although this increase resulted, in part, from expanded testing and surveillance. Among males classified by HIV transmission category, 82.1% of newly diagnosed infections were attributed to injection-drug use. Among females classified by HIV transmission category, 53.7% engaged in high-risk heterosexual conduct. Despite substantial methodologic limitations, these results can be useful to Guangdong public health agencies in targeting and evaluating HIV prevention, care, and treatment programs. PMID:19390507

  17. Application of the empirical orthogonal function to study the rainfall pattern in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adi-Kusumo, Fajar; Gunardi, Utami, Herni; Nurjani, Emilya; Sopaheluwakan, Ardhasena; Aluicius, Irwan Endrayanto; Christiawan, Titus

    2016-02-01

    We consider the Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) to study the rainfall pattern in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (DIY) Province, Indonesia. The EOF is one of the important methods to study the dominant pattern of the data using dimension reduction technique. EOF makes possible to reduce the huge dimension of observed data into a smaller one without losing its significant information in order to figures the whole data. The methods is also known as Principal Components Analysis (PCA) which is conducted to find the pattern of the data. DIY Province is one of the province in Indonesia which has special characteristics related to the rainfall pattern. This province has an active volcano, karst, highlands, and also some lower area including beach. This province is bounded by the Indonesian ocean which is one of the important factor to provide the rainfall. We use at least ten years rainfall monthly data of all stations in this area and study the rainfall characteristics based on the four regencies of the province. EOF analysis is conducted to analyze data in order to decide the station groups which have similar characters.

  18. Study of an evaluation index system of well-off water conservancy in Yunnan Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C.; Wen, Z.; Shu, L.; Lu, C.; Gu, S.; Su, J.; He, M.; Xing, K.

    2015-05-01

    To achieve good water conservancy under the well-off society before 2020, the future water conservancy planning is undergoing in Yunnan Province. In this study, by analysing the research results of domestic relevant water evaluation index systems and combining this with the water conservancy construction key of Yunnan Province, an unique evaluation index system was proposed to evaluate the well-off water conservancy level of Yunnan Province. It is composed of three levels which are the target layer, criterion layer and index layer. And the criterion layer includes six systems, namely flood control and drought relief mitigation, reasonable allocation of water resources, highly effective water utilization, water source protection and river health security, water management and securing of water development. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was used to determine the weight of each index. According to the present situation of water development and the related water conservancy planning in Yunnan Province, the target value of each index and evaluation standards are put forward for Yunnan Province in 2020. The results show that the evaluation results are consistent with the actual condition of water development in Yunnan Province and can be used to examine the effects of well-off water conservancy planning.

  19. Geographical, spatial, and temporal distributions of multiple indoor air pollutants in four Chinese provinces

    SciTech Connect

    Yinlong Jin; Zheng Zhou; Gongli He

    2005-12-15

    Exposure to indoor air pollution from household energy use depends on fuel, stove, housing characteristics, and stove use behavior. Three important indoor air pollutants - respirable particles (RPM), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) were monitored for a total of 457 household-days in four poor provinces in China (Gansu, 129 household-days; Guizhou, 127 household-days; Inner Mongolia, 65 household-days; and Shaanxi, 136 household-days), in two time intervals during the heating season to investigate spatial and temporal patterns of pollution. The two provinces where biomass is the primary fuel (Inner Mongolia and Gansu) had the highest RPM concentrations (719 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in the single cooking/living/bedroom in Inner Mongolia in December and 351-661 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in different rooms and months in Gansu); lower RPM concentration were observed in the primarily coal-burning provinces of Guizhou and Shaanxi (202-352 {mu}g/m{sup 3} and 187-361 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in different rooms and months in Guizhou and Shaanxi, respectively). Inner Mongolia and Gansu also had higher CO concentrations. Among the two primarily coal-burning provinces, Guizhou had lower concentrations of CO than Shaanxi. In the two coal-burning provinces, SO{sub 2} concentrations were substantially higher in Shaanxi than in Guizhou. Relative concentrations in different rooms and provinces indicate that in the northern provinces heating is an important source of exposure to indoor pollutants from energy use. Day-to-day variability of concentrations within individual households, although substantial, was smaller than variation across households. The implications of the findings for designing environmental health interventions in each province are discussed. 21 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Transverse ranges and neotectonics of southern California

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    The Transverse Ranges and the east-trending folds and reverse faults that elevate them began forming in mid-Pleistocene time by regional north-south crustal shortening. The adjacent Mojave Desert and Basin and Range provinces continue to respond to this regional strain by east-west crustal extension. Before {approximately}5 Ma the regional structure was characterized by conjugate northwest-trending right-slip faults (San Andreas set) and northeast-trending left-slip faults (Garlock set). Thereafter, the San Andreas set of faults became simple shears separating the North American and Pacific plates. With the mid-Pleistocene inception of the Transverse Ranges, the San Andreas fault deviated from its N40{degree} - 45{degree}W trend in short N75{degree}W-trending segments on the north and south sides of these mountains in response to the new, and local, strain system of upward crustal extension.

  1. Amazonian volcanic activity at the Syrtis volcanic province, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platz, Thomas; Jodlowski, Piotr; Fawdon, Peter; Michael, Greg; Tanaka, Kenneth

    2014-05-01

    The Syrtis Major volcanic province, including the entire Syrtis Major Planum, is located near the Martian highland/lowland transitional zone west of Isidis Planitia. It covers ≡7.4×105 km2 and contains two low-shield volcanic edifices with N-S elongated calderas named Nili and Meroe Paterae. The estimated thickness of erupted material in the province ranges from approximately 0.5 km to 1.0 km with a total volume of about 1.6-3.2×105 km3 [1]. The timing of volcanic activity in the Syrtis Major volcanic province has been suggested to be restricted to the Hesperian Period [1-4]. In the geological map of Greeley and Guest [2], volcanic material of Syrtis Major was assigned an Hesperian age based on the density of observed craters larger than 5 km in diameter. Using the same crater density range, recent studies of Hiesinger et al. [1] and Tanaka et al. [3] and Tanaka et al. [4] assigned an Early Hesperian and Early to Late Hesperian age, respectively, for the entire province. In this study we mapped lava flows, lava channels, and major lava-flow margins and report model ages for lava-flow formation and caldera segments of Nili and Meroe Paterae. The objective of this ongoing survey is to better understand the eruption frequency of this volcanic province. In total, we mapped 67 lava flows, caldera segments, and intra-crater fillings of which 55 were dated. Crater size-frequency distributions (CSFD) were mapped on HRSC and CTX imagery using CraterTools [5]. CSFDs were analyzed and model ages determined in Craterstats [6] using the production and chronology functions of Ivanov [7] and Hartmann and Neukum [8], respectively. A detailed description of the utilization of the crater-counting technique and its limitations with respect to small-scale mapping is given in Platz et al. [9]. Model ages range between 838 Ma (Middle Amazonian) to 3.6 Ga (Late Hesperian). In our survey, a broad age peak occurs between 2 to 2.6 Ga, continuously declining thereafter. We note that

  2. Modeling inorganic nitrogen deposition in Guangdong province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhijiong; Wang, Shuisheng; Zheng, Junyu; Yuan, Zibing; Ye, Siqi; Kang, Daiwen

    2015-05-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen deposition is an essential component of acid deposition and serves as one of main sources of nitrogen of the ecosystem. Along with rapidly developed economy, it is expected that the nitrogen deposition in Guangdong province is considerably large, due to substantial anthropogenic reactive nitrogen lost to the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, one of the most developed region in China. However, characterization of chemical compositions of inorganic nitrogen (IN) deposition and quantification of nitrogen deposition fluxes in time and space in Guangdong province were seldom conducted, especially using a numerical modeling approach. In this study, we established a WRF/SMOKE-PRD/CMAQ model system and expanded 2006-based PRD regional emission inventories to Guangdong provincial ones, including SO2, NOx, VOC, PM10, PM2.5, and NH3 emissions for modeling nitrogen deposition in Guangdong province. Observations, including meteorological observed data, rainfall data, ground-level criteria pollutant measurements, satellite-derived data, and nitrogen deposition fluxes from field measurements were employed in the evaluation of model performance. Results showed that annual nitrogen deposition fluxes in the PRD region and Guangdong province were 31.01 kg N hm-1 a-1 and 26.03 kg N hm-1 a-1, dominated by NHx (including NH3 and NH,SUB>4,/SUB>+), with a percentage of 63% and 71% of the total deposition flux of IN, respectively. The ratio of dry deposition to wet deposition was approximately 2:1 in the PRD region and about 3:2 in the whole Guangdong province. IN deposition was mainly distributed in the PRD region, Chaozhou, and Maoming, which was similar to the spatial distributions of NOx and NH3 emissions. The spatial distributions of chemical compositions of IN deposition implied that NH3-N and NOx-N tended to deposit in places close to emission sources, while spatial distributions of aerosol NH4+ -N and NO3- -N usually exhibited broader deposition areas, along with

  3. Sulphur isotopes in carbonatites and associated silicate rocks from the Superior Province, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Sean; Bell, Keith; Clark, Ian

    2010-03-01

    Thirty-five S isotope analyses obtained from six carbonatite complexes from the Superior Province, Canadian Shield, ranging in age from 1,897 Ma to 1,093 Ma, have δ34SCDT values of between -4.5‰ and +3.4‰. Pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite and pyrite mineral separates were used. Each complex possesses its own distinct range and mean S isotope composition. The range for Schryburt Lake is: -4.5‰ to -3.4‰ ( mean = -3.9‰), for Big Beaver House: -3.6‰ to -1.5‰ (mean = -2.2‰), for Cargill: -1.5‰-+0.5‰ (mean = -0.7‰), for Spanish River: -0.1‰-+0.1‰ (mean = 0.0‰), and for Firesand River: +1.3‰-+3.4‰ (mean = +1.7‰). A single sample from Carb Lake yielded a δ34SCDT value of +2.8‰. Differences in isotope compositions can be related to isotope effects brought about during melt generation and emplacment, such as variations in fo2 and temperature. The different S and C isotope data for most complexes, however, suggest that the parental melts could have been generated from a heterogeneous mantle source, although process-driven changes cannot be completely ruled out.

  4. Origin of the granites and related Sn and Pb-Zn polymetallic ore deposits in the Pengshan district, Jiangxi Province, South China: constraints from geochronology, geochemistry, mineral chemistry, and Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb-S isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bin; Jiang, Shao-Yong; Luo, Lan; Zhao, Kui-Dong; Ma, Liang

    2016-05-01

    The Pengshan Sn and Pb-Zn polymetallic deposits are located in the south margin of the Jiujiang-Ruichang (Jiurui) district of the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Metallogenic Belt in South China. Four large deposits include Huangjinwa, Zengjialong, Jianfengpo, and Zhangshiba, the former three are Sn-dominant deposits which occur as stratiform orebodies in the contact zones of the Pengshan granites and within the country rock strata, whereas Zhangshiba consists of stratiform Pb-Zn orebodies within the Precambrian metasedimentary strata. In this study, we present results on zircon U-Pb ages, major and trace elements, and mineral chemistry as well as Sr-Nd-Hf isotope data of the granites, Pb and S isotopes of both the Sn-dominant and Pb-Zn dominant deposits, and U-Pb dating of cassiterite from the Pengshan district. SHRIMP and LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating shows that the Pengshan granites were emplaced in the Early Cretaceous (129-128 Ma), which is in good agreement with the U-Pb dating (130-128 Ma) of cassiterite from the Jianfengpo Sn deposit. The Pengshan granites consist mainly of weakly peraluminous highly fractionated I-type affinity granitic rocks. Detailed elemental and isotopic data suggest that the granites formed by partial melting of Mesoproterozoic metamorphic basement materials with minor input of mantle-derived melts. The mineral chemistry of biotite demonstrates that the Pengshan granitic magma had a low oxygen fugacity, thereby precluding the tin dominantly partitioning into the rock-forming silicate minerals and favoring accumulation in the exsolved residual liquid during magma crystallization stages. Sulfur isotopes show a relatively heavy sulfur isotopic composition from 5.8 to 17.6 ‰, and no difference for sulfur isotopes between the Sn deposits (5.8-13.4 ‰, Huangjinwa, Zengjialong, Jianfengpo) and the Pb-Zn deposit (mostly 7.1-13.0 ‰, except for one 17.6 ‰, Zhangshiba). The sulfur isotope data of pyrite from the host sedimentary rocks show

  5. Multiple explosive rhyolite/trachyte eruptions of alkaline-peralkaline Nemrut and dacite/rhyolite eruptions of neighboring subduction zone-related Süphan volcano over 600 000 years: the East Anatolian tephra province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmincke, H.-U.; Sumita, M.; Paleovan scientific Team

    2012-04-01

    The active Nemrut stratovolcano (2918 m asl) (Eastern Anatolia) is topped by a spectacular caldera and dominates the area west of huge Lake Van that covers its lower flanks. The stratovolcano has been active explosively for at least ca. 600 ka based on drilling evidence (ICDP Paleovan project). We have identified, correlated and compositionally characterized some 40 fallout sheets on land - none previously known - the largest ones probably with magma volumes exceeding 30 km3(DRE). The alkaline to peralkaline tephras are dominated by anorthoclase, Fe-rich clinopyroxene and fayalite with quartz and aenigmatite in some. Large-volume comenditic to pantelleritic rhyolite eruptions occurred in intervals of 20 000 - 40 000 years with smaller volume trachytic tephra deposits in between reflecting overall fairly constant magma transfer rates periodically fractionating to highly evolved rhyolite in larger magma reservoirs. Many of the ca. 10 widespread ignimbrite sheets, nearly all newly recognized, commonly followed on the heels of rhyolitic fallout sheets. They are more mafic than the underlying fallout deposits, magma mixing being common. Widespread spectacular agglutinates represent a late phase of the youngest large-volume fallout/ignimbrite eruption at ca. 30 ka. Active Süphan stratovolcano (4158 m asl), some 50 km NE of Nemrut and bordering Lake Van to the north, is dominated in contrast by subduction-related chemistry and mineralogy, smaller-volume eruptions and more advanced crystallization of magmas prior to eruption. Chief phenocrysts comprise complex disequilibrium assemblages of clinopyroxene, hypersthene, olivine, strongly zoned plagioclase, biotite and/or amphibole and common clots of fractionating phases. Many of the highly viscous and crystal-laden Süphan magmas were emplaced as domes and debris avalanches next to fallout sheets and ignimbrites. The dominant NE direction of fan axes of partial isopach maps of ca. 15 major fallout deposits reflecting

  6. Tectonic motion and deformation from satellite laser ranging to Lageos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David E.; Kolenkiewicz, Ronald; Dunn, Peter J.; Robbins, John W.; Torrence, Mark H.; Klosko, Steve M.; Williamson, Ronald G.; Pavlis, Erricos C.; Douglas, Nancy B.

    1990-01-01

    Data on satellite laser ranging (SLR) to Lageos aquired during the period 1978-1988 are analyzed on the basis of the precise modeling of the orbit dynamics of Lageos, producing estimates of tectonic motion for 22 sites located on seven major plates. It was estimated that intraplate motion within northern Europe is below the 2 mm/yr level in absolute rate, in agreement with conclusions of Zoback et al. (1989) regarding the stress across the region. A comparison of SLR geodesic rates with those from NUVEL-1 and AMO-2 models showed high correlations between tracking sites that are well within plate interiors, but displayed small but significant departures from unity in slope which are attributed to the possibility of recent changes in relative velocities or geologic time scale uncertainties. For lines crossing the Nnorth Atlantic, the San Andreas fault, and within the Basin and Range province, the geodesic rates determined by SLR are in good agreement with those determined by VLBI.

  7. Range imaging laser radar

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Marion W.

    1990-01-01

    A laser source is operated continuously and modulated periodically (typicy sinusoidally). A receiver imposes another periodic modulation on the received optical signal, the modulated signal being detected by an array of detectors of the integrating type. Range to the target determined by measuring the phase shift of the intensity modulation on the received optical beam relative to a reference. The receiver comprises a photoemitter for converting the reflected, periodically modulated, return beam to an accordingly modulated electron stream. The electron stream is modulated by a local demodulation signal source and subsequently converted back to a photon stream by a detector. A charge coupled device (CCD) array then averages and samples the photon stream to provide an electrical signal in accordance with the photon stream.

  8. Range imaging laser radar

    DOEpatents

    Scott, M.W.

    1990-06-19

    A laser source is operated continuously and modulated periodically (typically sinusoidally). A receiver imposes another periodic modulation on the received optical signal, the modulated signal being detected by an array of detectors of the integrating type. Range to the target determined by measuring the phase shift of the intensity modulation on the received optical beam relative to a reference. The receiver comprises a photoemitter for converting the reflected, periodically modulated, return beam to an accordingly modulated electron stream. The electron stream is modulated by a local demodulation signal source and subsequently converted back to a photon stream by a detector. A charge coupled device (CCD) array then averages and samples the photon stream to provide an electrical signal in accordance with the photon stream. 2 figs.

  9. [Emergy evaluation and dynamic measurement analysis of agro-ecosystems in Sichuan Province of Southwest China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Cong; Du, Shou-Hu

    2012-03-01

    Agro-ecosystem is the most basic system for human beings survival, while the analysis of the structure and function of the system is the key to solve the problems of agro-ecological environment. In this paper, emergy theory and related economic measurement methods including data envelopment analysis, cointegration test, and error correction model were applied to quantitatively analyze the operation dynamics, environmental loading, operation efficiency, and input-output relation of the agro-ecosystems in Sichuan Province and its 21 cities in 1997-2009. In the study period, Sichuan Province was in the transition period from traditional agriculture to modern agriculture. The agricultural mechanization level of the Province improved constantly, resources utilization efficiency enhanced continually, overall structural dominant degree was better, but the over-reliance on economic emergy input caused the sustainability of the system weakened gradually. The development status of the agro-ecosystems in the Province varied among regions. Chengdu Plain and Western Sichuan Highland were either in overexploited or in underutilized, while the hilly areas were full of vitality and development potential, tended to be the important areas for the future development of Sichuan agriculture. Generally, the operation efficiency of the agro-ecosystems in the Province was relatively low, with the situation differed in different regions due to the lower technical efficiency or improper scale. There was a long-term equilibrium between the economic emergy indices and output emergy, but the short-term emergy input didn't reach the ideal output. PMID:22720632

  10. The lunar laser ranging experiment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, P. L.; Currie, D. G.; Poultney, S. K.; Dicke, R. H.; Eckhardt, D. H.; Kaula, W. M.; Mulholland, J. D.; Plotkin, H. H.; Silverberg, E. C.; Faller, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    The scientific objectives achievable through high-accuracy range measurements to lunar retroreflectors are considered. A specific study of design questions related to the operation of retroreflectors on the lunar surface indicated that a reflector panel containing a number of solid fused silica corner reflectors would be capable of maintaining essentially diffraction limited performance under direct solar illumination. Initial Apollo 11 observations are discussed together with the installation of additional lunar retroreflectors in connection with the Luna 17, Apollo 14, Apollo 15, and Luna 21 missions. Range measurements at the McDonald Observatory are considered along with new results from lunar range data, and prospects regarding future lunar ranging stations.

  11. Two mantle sources, two plumbing systems: Tholeiitic and alkaline magmatism of the Maymecha River basin, Siberian flood volcanic province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arndt, N.; Chauvel, C.; Czamanske, G.; Fedorenko, V.

    1998-01-01

    Rocks of two distinctly different magma series are found in a ???4000-m-thick sequence of lavas and tuffs in the Maymecha River basin which is part of the Siberian flood-volcanic province. The tholeiites are typical low-Ti continental flood basalts with remarkably restricted, petrologically evolved compositions. They have basaltic MgO contents, moderate concentrations of incompatible trace elements, moderate fractionation of incompatible from compatible elements, distinct negative Ta(Nb) anomalies, and ??Nd values of 0 to + 2. The primary magmas were derived from a relatively shallow mantle source, and evolved in large crustal magma chambers where they acquired their relatively uniform compositions and became contaminated with continental crust. An alkaline series, in contrast, contains a wide range of rock types, from meymechite and picrite to trachytes, with a wide range of compositions (MgO from 0.7 to 38 wt%, SiO2 from 40 to 69 wt%, Ce from 14 to 320 ppm), high concentrations of incompatible elements and extreme fractionation of incompatible from compatible elements (Al2O3/TiO2 ??? 1; Sm/Yb up to 11). These rocks lack Ta(Nb) anomalies and have a broad range of ??Nd values, from -2 to +5. The parental magmas are believed to have formed by low-degree melting at extreme mantle depths (>200 km). They bypassed the large crustal magma chambers and ascended rapidly to the surface, a consequence, perhaps, of high volatile contents in the primary magmas. The tholeiitic series dominates the lower part of the sequence and the alkaline series the upper part; at the interface, the two types are interlayered. The succession thus provides evidence of a radical change in the site of mantle melting, and the simultaneous operation of two very different crustal plumbing systems, during the evolution of this flood-volcanic province. ?? Springer-Verlag 1998.

  12. Geochemistry of Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) sills from deep boreholes in the Amazonas and Solimões basins, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatlen Heimdal, Thea; Svensen, Henrik H.; Pereira, Egberto; Planke, Sverre

    2016-04-01

    The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) is one of the most extensive Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs), and is associated with the breakup of Pangea and the subsequent opening of the central Atlantic Ocean. A large part of the province, including > 1 M km2 basins containing sill intrusions, is located in Brazil but has received limited attention due to the lack of outcrops. We have studied CAMP sills from seven deep boreholes (up to 3100 m deep) in the Amazonas and Solimões basins, northern Brazil. The boreholes contain up to ~ 482 m of sills (18 % of the stratigraphy), with a maximum individual sill thickness of 140 m. The sills were partly emplaced into thick Carboniferous evaporites. The main mineral phases of the sills include plagioclase and pyroxene, with accessory apatite, biotite, ilmenite and quartz. The majority of the sills are low-Ti dolerites (TiO2 < 2 wt.%), with the exception of four samples (with 2.2 - 3.3 wt.% TiO2). The low-Ti rocks range from basalt to basaltic andesite and plot in the tholeiitic field defined within the total alkali versus silica (TAS) classification. C1 chondrite normalized Rare Earth Element (REE) patterns for both Ti-groups show increasing LREE compared to HREE (La/Lu = 2.2 - 4.1) with no major anomalies, and attest to a relatively evolved nature (La = 17-65 ppm). Primitive mantle normalized patterns for low-Ti rocks show negative anomalies for Nb, Ta, P and Ti and positive for K, whereas the high-Ti rocks show generally opposite anomalies. Late stage patches in the dolerites contain apatite, quartz and Cl-bearing biotite, suggesting the presence of halogens that may partly derive from the host sedimentary rocks.

  13. Tectonic setting and metallogenesis of volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits in the Bonnifield Mining District, Northern Alaska Range: Chapter B in Recent U.S. Geological Survey studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada--results of a 5-year project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Aleinikoff, John N.; Premo, Wayne R.; Paradis, Suzanne; Lohr-Schmidt, Ilana

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of field and laboratory investigations, including whole-rock geochemistry and radiogenic isotopes, of outcrop and drill core samples from volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits and associated metaigneous rocks in the Wood River area of the Bonnifield mining district, northern Alaska Range (see fig. 1 of Editors’ Preface and Overview). U-Pb zircon igneous crystallization ages from felsic rocks indicate a prolonged period of Late Devonian to Early Mississippian (373±3 to 357±4 million years before present, or Ma) magmatism. This magmatism occurred in a basinal setting along the ancient Pacific margin of North America. The siliceous and carbonaceous compositions of metasedimentary rocks, Precambrian model ages based on U-Pb dating of zircon and neodymium ages, and for some units, radiogenic neodymium isotopic compositions and whole-rock trace-element ratios similar to those of continental crust are evidence for this setting. Red Mountain (also known as Dry Creek) and WTF, two of the largest VMS deposits, are hosted in peralkaline metarhyolite of the Mystic Creek Member of the Totatlanika Schist. The Mystic Creek Member is distinctive in having high concentrations of high-field-strength elements (HFSE) and rare-earth elements (REE), indicative of formation in a within-plate (extensional) setting. Mystic Creek metarhyolite is associated with alkalic, within-plate basalt of the Chute Creek Member; neodymium isotopic data indicate an enriched mantle component for both members of this bimodal (rhyolite-basalt) suite. Anderson Mountain, the other significant VMS deposit, is hosted by the Wood River assemblage. Metaigneous rocks in the Wood River assemblage span a wide compositional range, including andesitic rocks, which are characteristic of arc volcanism. Our data suggest that the Mystic Creek Member likely formed in an extensional, back-arc basin that was associated with an outboard continental-margin volcanic arc that included

  14. Shaded Relief of South Africa, Northern Cape Province

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Located north of the Swartberg Mountains in South Africa's Northern Cape Province, this topographic image shows a portion of the Great Karoo region. Karoo is an indigenous word for 'dry thirst land.' The semi-arid area is known for its unique variety of flora and fauna. The topography of the area, with a total relief of 200 meters (650 feet), reveals much about the geologic history of the area. The linear features seen in the image are near-vertical walls of once-molten rock, or dikes, that have intruded the bedrock. The dikes are more resistant to weathering and, therefore, form the linear wall-like features seen in the image. In relatively flat arid areas such as this, small changes in the topography can have large impacts on the water resources and the local ecosystem. These data can be used by biologists to study the distribution and range of the different plants and animals. Geologists can also use the data to study the geologic history of this area in more detail.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data

  15. Early Proterozoic crustal provinces in the southwestern U. S. : What they represent and implications about continental reconstructions

    SciTech Connect

    Wooden, J.L.; Miller, D.M.; Howard, K. ); Dewitt, E. ); Karlstrom, K.E. . Dept. of Geology); Nutman, A. )

    1993-02-01

    The Early Proterozoic basement of the southwestern US can be divided into at least 3 major crustal provinces on the basis of Pb isotopic and geochemical signatures. These are: (1) the Mojave of SE CA, southern NV, and western AZ; (2) the Yavapai of central and northern AZ, northern NM and southern CO; and (3) the Mazatzal of southern AZ., and central and southern NM. The boundary between the Yavapai and Mazatzal provinces is close to the age province boundary proposed by Silver. Crustal provinces defined by chronologic, structural, lithologic, or metamorphic criteria usually don't distinguish regions unique in crustal formation character because these criteria often represent events that affected the crust (well) after the time of its original formation or represent non-unique information (e.g., magmatism can occur at the same time in entirely different crustal provinces). In comparison, isotopic and certain geochemical data often provide unique criteria because they are related to distinct mantle sources, specific processes, or the specific time of crustal formation. New U-Pb zircon ages determined by the SHRIMP ion microprobe indicate that the Mojave province probably has a latest Archean/earliest Proterozoic basement on which sedimentary rocks containing 2.7--2.5 Ga and 2.0--1.8 Ga detrital zircon populations were deposited. The timing of plutonic events in the Mojave and Yavapai provinces is indistinguishable from 1.76--1.70 Ga. Plutonic rocks with Yavapai isotopic and geochemical signatures intruded the eastern edge ( ) of the Mojave province as early as 1.74 Ga. This suggests that the two provinces were in close proximity from 1.76 Ga and that the older Mojave province was a buttress against which juvenile Yavapai crust formed.

  16. A study of tectonic activity in the Basin-Range Province and on the San Andreas Fault. No. 3: Kinematics of Great Basin intraplate extension from earthquake, geodetic and geologic information. Final Technical Report, 15 Apr. 1981 - 31 Jan. 1986 M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eddington, P. K.

    1986-01-01

    Strain rates assessed from brittle fracture, associated with earthquakes, and total brittle-ductile deformation measured from geodetic data were compared to paleostrain from Quaternary geology for the intraplate Great Basin of the western United States. These data provide an assessment of the kinematics and mode of lithospheric extension that the western U.S. Cordillera has experienced in the last 5 to 10 million years. Strain and deformation rates were determined by the seismic moment tensor method using historic seismicity and fault plane solutions. Contemporary deformation of the Great Basin occurs principally along the active seismic zones. The earthquake related strain shows that the Great Basin is characterized by regional E-W extension at 8.4 mm/a in the north that diminishes to NW-SE extension of 3.5 mm/a in the south. Zones of maximum extension correspond to belts of shallow crust, high heat flow, and Quaternary basaltic volcanism, suggesting that these parameters are related through an effect such as a stress relaxation allowing bouyant uplift and ascension of magmas.

  17. Distinct brief major events in the Karoo large igneous province clarified by new 40Ar/ 39Ar ages on the Lesotho basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jourdan, F.; Féraud, G.; Bertrand, H.; Watkeys, M. K.; Renne, P. R.

    2007-10-01

    Recent mineral separate ages obtained on the Karoo large igneous province (southern Africa) suggest that the province was built by several distinct magmatic pulses over a rather long period on the order of 5-6 Ma concerning the main erupted volume [Jourdan, F., Féraud, G., Bertrand, H., Kampunzu, A.B., Tshoso, G., Watkeys, M.K., Le Gall., B., 2005. The Karoo large igneous province: Brevity, origin, and relation with mass extinction questioned by new 40Ar/ 39Ar age data, Geology 33, 745-748]. Although this apparently atypical province is dated in more detail compared to many other large igneous provinces, volumetrically important areas still lack sufficient high-quality data. The timing of the Karoo province is crucial as this event is correlated with the breakup activity of the Gondwana supercontinent. The Lesotho basalts represent a major lava sequence of the province, but have not yet been precisely dated by systematic analysis of mineral separates. We analyzed plagioclase separates from five lava flows encompassing the complete 1.4-km-thick Lesotho sequence from top to bottom using the 40Ar/ 39Ar method. We obtained five plateau and mini-plateau ages statistically indistinguishable and ranging from 182.3 ± 1.6 to 181.0 ± 2.0 Ma (2 σ). We derived an apparent maximum duration for this event of ˜ 0.8 Ma by neglecting correlated errors embedded in the age uncertainties. A critical review of previous ages obtained on the Lesotho sequence [Duncan R.A., Hooper, P.R., Rehacek, J., Marsh, J.S., Duncan, A.R., 1997. The timing and duration of the Karoo igneous event, southern Gondwana. Journal of Geophysical Research 102, 18127-18138] shows that groundmass analyses are unreliable for high-resolution geochronology, due to alteration and 39Ar recoil effects. Discrepancy between our ages and a previous plagioclase age at ˜ 184 Ma obtained by the later workers is tentatively attributed to the heterogeneity of the monitor used and/or cryptic excess 40Ar *. The current age

  18. The Rhyolite Flare-up of the Columbia River Basalt Province and its Bearing on Plume vs. Non-plume Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streck, M. J.; Ferns, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    The decades-long controversy as to whether the Columbia River Basalt province results from arrival of a deep mantle plume is far from over, as new non-plume models are proposed. Age-progressive rhyolites of the Snake River Plain are a centerpiece to a migrating plume model that ties mid-Miocene flood basalt magmatism to the present location of the Yellowstone hotspot. However voluminous mid-Miocene rhyolites coeval with the flood basalts of the Columbia River Basalt province have received little attention. These long-known but relatively underappreciated rhyolite occurrences in eastern Oregon and neighboring areas erupted across the province over a narrow time window making the Columbia River province a strongly bimodal (basalt-rhyolite) Large Igneous Province. The entire rhyolite distribution area has roughly a circular area of about a diameter of 300 km and stretches from rhyolite centers near the towns of Baker City and John Day, Oregon in the north to rhyolite centers of the High Rock Desert, Nevada in the SW and the Jarbidge Rhyolite, Idaho in the SE. Oldest rhyolites are ~16.5 Ma in age and occur both along the southern E-W tangent (including McDermitt) and, in lesser volumes, in the central to northern sector. The considerable data that have been generated over the last few years on rhyolites of the southern sector is now being supplemented by new data that we have begun collecting on rhyolites further north. Province-wide rhyolite volcanism was strongest between ~16.4 and 15.4 Ma coincident with eruptions of the most voluminous member of the CRBG - the Grande Ronde Basalt. This widespread rhyolite volcanism indicates that CRBG crustal inputs were focused during this narrow time window over a large area. Magmas in the upper Grande Ronde Basalt that compositionally correlate with glassy mafic inclusions in the rhyolitic Dinner Creek Tuff effectively place one CRBG crustal storage site below a major silicic center. Youngest rhyolites range from ~14.5 to 12

  19. Volcanoes and volcanic provinces - Martian western hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    The recognition of some Martian landforms as volcanoes is based on their morphology and geologic setting. Other structures, however, may exhibit classic identifying features to a varying or a less degree; these may be only considered provisionally as having a volcanic origin. Regional geologic mapping of the western hemisphere of Mars from Viking images has revealed many more probable volcanoes and volcanotectonic features than were recognized on Mariner 9 pictures. These abundant volcanoes have been assigned to several distinct provinces on the basis of their areal distribution. Although the Olympus-Tharsis region remains as the principle center of volcanism on Mars, four other important provinces are now also recognized: the lowland plains, Tempe Terra plateau, southern highlands (in the Phaethontis and Thaumasia quadrangles), and a probable ignimbrite province, situated along the highland-lowland boundary in Amazonis Planitia. Volcanoes in any one province vary in morphlogy, size, and age, but volcanoes in each province tend to have common characteristics that distinguish that particular group.

  20. Synoptic analysis of frost days in Zanjan Province of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alijani, B.; Tagiloo, M.

    2010-09-01

    As a general rule it is accepted that every change in the environment is controlled by the changes in the pressure patterns or varying synoptic systems. We are witnessing intensive floods, damaging cold waves, or highly polluted air every year, all of which are related to some extent to the pressure patterns such as intensive cyclones or subsiding anticyclones. The frost days are one of these environmental conditions that are caused by these pressure patterns especially in the case of synoptic frosts. The Zanjan province of Iran with mountainous nature and higher elevations is one of the frost prone regions in the country. Most of the years this region suffers from intensive and damaging frosts such as the one occurred in December 2006 and January 2007. In order to advise planners and users, and lower the damages of such frosts, this study tried to analyze the synoptic origin of the December 2006 frost. To achieve the objective of the study the frost days of the province during months December 2006 and January 2007 were selected. During these months all of the four stations of the Province ( Zanjan, Khorramdarreh, Khodabandeh, and Mahneshan) had experienced sub-zero temperatures. The daily zero GMT surface and 500 hPa. maps of the region were extracted from the National Center of Environmental Protection (NCEP) site for the selected days. The pressure patterns of both levels were analyzed and assigned into different groups. The results showed that the main synoptic patterns responsible for the frosts of the region are the Caspian trough, Siberian high pressure, moving western anticyclones, upper level blockings, and cut off lows. When the Caspian Sea trough deepens it brings the westerly anticyclones to the area. Under its eastward displacement, the Siberian High develops and sends its ridges towards the study region. Some times the upper level blocking of the Siberian area brings the cold air masses to the study region. In general, the development and displacement

  1. Serological study of small ruminant lentiviruses in sheep population of Khorasan-e-Razavi province in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Norouzi, Behnaz; Taghavi Razavizadeh, Alireza; Azizzadeh, Mohammad; Mayameei, Ashraf; Najar Nezhad Mashhadi, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Maedi-Visna (MV) virus and caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAE) virus known as small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) cause chronic diseases in susceptible animals. The main reservoirs of these viral agents are sheep and goat. In sheep, MV virus causes a disease as the same name of the virus. This is the first seroprevalence survey of SRLVs in sheep population of Khorasan-e-Razavi province in Iran. Two hundred and twenty sheep from 30 flocks in 12 regions of the province were selected by random cluster sampling method. Serum samples were analyzed for the presence of antibodies against MV/CAE viruses. The seroprevalence in sheep was 34.5% (95.0% CI: 28.3 to 40.7%). Totally, the seroprevalence was in the range of 6.7 to 72.2 %. In 26 flocks of sheep (89.6%; 95.0%CI: 74.4 to 98.8%), at least one seropositive case was detected. The relationship between seropositivity and age, sex, flock size and breeds of sheep were statistically analyzed. In logistic regression model, only age was correlated with SRLV seroprevalence (p < 0.05). This study showed relatively high seroprevalence against SRLVs in sheep population in this area of the country. Due to difficulty in clinical diagnosis, chronic course of the disease, the absence of effective vaccine and treatment and huge economic loss, more epidemiological studies with regards to prevention and control of the disease are necessary. PMID:26893816

  2. Prevalence and correlates of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among female sex workers in a city in Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Li; Reilly, Kathleen H; Xu, Jun-Jie; Wang, Gui-Xiang; Ding, Guo-Wei; Wang, Ning; Wang, Hai-Bo

    2016-05-01

    Sexual transmission is the fastest growing route of HIV transmission in China, andTrichomonas vaginalis(TV) can facilitate HIV transmission and acquisition. Our goal was to determine the prevalence and correlates of TV infection among female sex workers (FSWs). This cross-sectional study was conducted in a city of Yunnan Province in southern China, with confidential face-to-face interviews and laboratory tests for TV (wet mount) and other sexually transmitted infections. A total of 734 FSWs participated in the study. The prevalence of TV was 9.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 7.02-11.30). In multivariate analyses, adjusted odds ratios of TV infection were 3.0 (95% CI 1.47-6.01) for herpes simplex virus type 2 seropositive, 2.4 (95% CI 1.37-4.14) forChlamydia trachomatisinfection, 2.6 (95% CI 1.30-5.31) for genital ulcer, 1.9 (95% CI 1.11-3.30) for starting age in commercial sex <20 years, and 0.5 (95% CI 0.27-0.87) for vaginal douching. We found a relatively high prevalence of TV infection among FSWs in Yunnan Province. A range of control strategies that include TV screening are recommended among FSWs, which could contribute significantly to the disruption of transmission by the provision of immediate treatment. PMID:25957327

  3. Impact of Climate Change on Children’s Health in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Adeboyejo Aina; Matamale, Lirvhuwani; Kharidza, Shonisani Danisa

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of climate change on children’s health, in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. Twenty one years climatic data were collected to analyse climatic conditions in the province. The study also employs 12 years hospital records of clinically diagnosed climate-related ailments among children under 13 years to examine the incidence, spatio-temporal, age and sex variations of the diseases. Regression analysis was employed to examine the relationships between climatic parameters and incidence of diseases and also to predict distribution of disease by 2050. The results show that the most prevalent diseases were diarrhea (42.4%), followed by respiratory infection (31.3%), asthma (6.6%) and malaria (6.5%). The incidence varied within city, with the high density areas recording the highest proportion (76.7%), followed by the medium (9.4%) and low (2.5%) density residential areas. The most tropical location, Mussina, had the highest incidence of the most prevalent disease, diarrhea, with 59.4%. Mortality rate was higher for males (54.2%). Analysis of 21 years of climatic data show that maximum temperature is positively correlated with years in four cities with r coefficients of 0.50; 0.56, 0.48 and 0.02, thereby indicating local warming. Similarly rainfall decreased over time in all the cities, with r ranging from −0.02 for Bela Bela to r = 0.18 for Makhado. Results of the regression analysis show that 37.9% of disease incidence is accounted for by the combined influence of temperature and rainfall. PMID:22690167

  4. Indicators for Environment Health Risk Assessment in the Jiangsu Province of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shujie; Wei, Zhengzheng; Liu, Wenliang; Yao, Ling; Suo, Wenyu; Xing, Jingjing; Huang, Bingzhao; Jin, Di; Wang, Jiansheng

    2015-09-01

    According to the framework of "Pressure-State-Response", this study established an indicator system which can reflect comprehensive risk of environment and health for an area at large scale. This indicator system includes 17 specific indicators covering social and economic development, pollution emission intensity, air pollution exposure, population vulnerability, living standards, medical and public health, culture and education. A corresponding weight was given to each indicator through Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Comprehensive risk assessment of the environment and health of 58 counties was conducted in the Jiangsu province, China, and the assessment result was divided into four types according to risk level. Higher-risk counties are all located in the economically developed southern region of Jiangsu province and relatively high-risk counties are located along the Yangtze River and Xuzhou County and its surrounding areas. The spatial distribution of relatively low-risk counties is dispersive, and lower-risk counties mainly located in the middle region where the economy is somewhat weaker in the province. The assessment results provide reasonable and scientific basis for Jiangsu province Government in formulating environment and health policy. Moreover, it also provides a method reference for the comprehensive risk assessment of environment and health within a large area (provinces, regions and countries). PMID:26371016

  5. Indicators for Environment Health Risk Assessment in the Jiangsu Province of China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shujie; Wei, Zhengzheng; Liu, Wenliang; Yao, Ling; Suo, Wenyu; Xing, Jingjing; Huang, Bingzhao; Jin, Di; Wang, Jiansheng

    2015-01-01

    According to the framework of “Pressure-State-Response”, this study established an indicator system which can reflect comprehensive risk of environment and health for an area at large scale. This indicator system includes 17 specific indicators covering social and economic development, pollution emission intensity, air pollution exposure, population vulnerability, living standards, medical and public health, culture and education. A corresponding weight was given to each indicator through Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Comprehensive risk assessment of the environment and health of 58 counties was conducted in the Jiangsu province, China, and the assessment result was divided into four types according to risk level. Higher-risk counties are all located in the economically developed southern region of Jiangsu province and relatively high-risk counties are located along the Yangtze River and Xuzhou County and its surrounding areas. The spatial distribution of relatively low-risk counties is dispersive, and lower-risk counties mainly located in the middle region where the economy is somewhat weaker in the province. The assessment results provide reasonable and scientific basis for Jiangsu province Government in formulating environment and health policy. Moreover, it also provides a method reference for the comprehensive risk assessment of environment and health within a large area (provinces, regions and countries). PMID:26371016

  6. Regional correlation of deposition sequences in the southern Mesozoic marine province, northwestern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Satterfield, J.I.; Oldow, J.S. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1993-04-01

    Strata of the Mesozoic marine province of a northwestern Nevada, deposited in subaerial to deep marine environment in a backarc basin, underwent severe deformation during the late Mesozoic. Restoration of stratigraphic relations among constituent volcanic, volcanogenic, carbonate, and continentally-derived siliciclastic rocks has been hampered by sparse biostratigraphic age control. Regional correlation of coeval facies is made possible by coupling depositional sequences with biostratigraphic control in the southwestern Gabbs Valley Range, the southern Shoshone Mountains, and the southern Clan Alpine Mountains, which serve as reference sections for Late Triassic and Early Jurassic ammonite zonation of western North America. Differentiation between regionally significant sequence boundaries and those of limited areal extent is possible only by linking the biostratigraphy and physical stratigraphic relations, such as abrupt vertical transitions in lithology corresponding to large facies changes. Physical stratigraphic relations alone are not adequate for correlation ad indicated by the diachronous initiation of Early to Middle( ) Jurassic deposition in half-graben basins (Dunlap Formation) which locally cloaks eustatically( ) controlled depositional sequences. Within these limitations, three regionally extensive sequences are recognized in the reference sections and have lower boundaries at the base of Upper Triassic shallow marine to deltaic carbonate-clastic rocks (Luning Formation) and at the base and within subtidal to offshore-marine carbonate and clastic rocks (Triassic and Jurassic Volcano Peak Group).

  7. The geography and ecology of plant speciation: range overlap and niche divergence in sister species

    PubMed Central

    Anacker, Brian L.; Strauss, Sharon Y.

    2014-01-01

    A goal of evolutionary biology is to understand the roles of geography and ecology in speciation. The recent shared ancestry of sister species can leave a major imprint on their geographical and ecological attributes, possibly revealing processes involved in speciation. We examined how ecological similarity, range overlap and range asymmetry are related to time since divergence of 71 sister species pairs in the California Floristic Province (CFP). We found that plants exhibit strikingly different age-range correlation patterns from those found for animals; the latter broadly support allopatric speciation as the primary mode of speciation. By contrast, plant sisters in the CFP were sympatric in 80% of cases and range sizes of sisters differed by a mean of 10-fold. Range overlap and range asymmetry were greatest in younger sisters. These results suggest that speciation mechanisms broadly grouped under ‘budding’ speciation, in which a larger ranged progenitor gives rise to a smaller ranged derivative species, are probably common. The ecological and reproductive similarity of sisters was significantly greater than that of sister–non-sister congeners for every trait assessed. However, shifts in at least one trait were present in 93% of the sister pairs; habitat and soil shifts were especially common. Ecological divergence did not increase with range overlap contrary to expectations under character displacement in sympatry. Our results suggest that vicariant speciation is more ubiquitous in animals than plants, perhaps owing to the sensitivity of plants to fine-scale environmental heterogeneity. Despite high levels of range overlap, ecological shifts in the process of budding speciation may result in low rates of fine-scale spatial co-occurrence. These results have implications for ecological studies of trait evolution and community assembly; despite high levels of sympatry, sister taxa and potentially other close relatives, may be missing from local communities

  8. Mantle Redox Conditions in the North Atlantic Igneous Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heister, L. E.; Gras, M. A.; Lesher, C. E.

    2004-12-01

    The North Atlantic igneous province (NAIP) has long been viewed as a region of anomalous mantle upwelling related to plume activity, continental rifting, and a heterogeneous mantle source. Prior to continental rifting in the Tertiary, the northern portion of the region was the site of closure of the Iapetus ocean basin. This tectonic event may have contributed to heterogeneities within the upper mantle and altered its oxidation state relative to the ambient mantle. Vanadium has been shown to be a useful indicator of redox conditions due to its multiple valence states (e.g. [1-2]). In mantle minerals, vanadium becomes increasingly incompatible under more oxidizing conditions [3]. Because both scandium and vanadium are moderately incompatible during melting, the Sc/V ratio of primitive basalts can be used to investigate the oxidation state of the mantle [1-3]. We have examined the Sc/V ratios of primitive lavas from the mid-Atlantic ridge (MAR), Iceland, and the East Greenland margin to determine if there are spatial or temporal variations in the oxidation state of the NAIP mantle. The Sc/V ratios for MAR basalts are 0.13-0.20 (GEOROC chemical database); while Icelandic basalts range from 0.10-0.25 with an average of 0.16 (1 σ =0.05). The entire range of Sc/V ratios of the Paleogene East Greenland basalts is 0.07-0.17 with an average of 0.10 (1 σ = 0.05). The Sc/V ratios of Icelandic basalts are similar to MAR basalts, but the East Greenland lavas are distinctly lower than both the MAR and Iceland. The Sc/V ratio also can vary as a function of mean pressure of melting (i.e. spinel versus garnet lherzolite). To test the relative importance of melting systematics, source composition, and oxygen fugacity on the Sc/V systematics for NAIP basalts, we incorporated the oxygen-fugacity-dependent V mineral-melt partitioning data of [3] into the polybaric decompression melting model REEBOX [4]. The best-fit model parameters for the majority of the Iceland and MAR basalts

  9. Hair arsenic levels and prevalence of arsenicosis in three Cambodian provinces.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Radzi, Rozhan Syariff Mohamed; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Nur, Amrizal Muhammad; Ismail, Aniza; Baguma, David; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Phan, Kongkea; Wong, Ming Hung; Sao, Vibol; Yasin, Mohamed Salleh Mohamed

    2013-10-01

    Natural, inorganic arsenic contamination of groundwater threatens the health of more than 100 million people worldwide, including residents of the densely populated river deltas of South and Southeast Asia. Contaminated groundwater from tube wells in Cambodia was discovered in 2001 leading to the detection of the first cases of arsenicosis in 2006. The most affected area was the Kandal Province. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of arsenicosis in Cambodia based on acceptable criteria, and to investigate the use of hair arsenic as a biomarker not only for arsenicosis-related signs but also for associated symptoms. A cross-sectional epidemiological study of 616 respondents from 3 purposely selected provinces within the Mekong River basin of Cambodia was conducted. The Kandal Province was chosen as a high arsenic-contaminated area, while the Kratie Province and Kampong Cham Province were chosen as moderate and low arsenic-contaminated areas, respectively. The most prevalent sign of arsenicosis was hypomelanosis with a prevalence of 14.5% among all respondents and 32.4% among respondents with a hair arsenic level of ≥1 μg/g. This was followed by hyperkeratosis, hyperpigmentation and mee's lines. Results also suggest a 1.0 μg/g hair arsenic level to be a practical cut off point for an indication of an arsenic contaminated individual. This hair arsenic level, together with the presence of one or more of the classical signs of arsenicosis, seems to be a practical criteria for a confirmed diagnosis. Based on these criteria, the overall prevalence of arsenicosis for all provinces was found to be 16.1%, with Kandal Province recording the highest prevalence of 35.5%. This prevalence is comparatively high when compared to that of other affected countries. The association between arsenicosis and the use of Chinese traditional medicine also needs further investigation. PMID:23759330

  10. Telemetry Ranging: Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamkins, J.; Kinman, P.; Xie, H.; Vilnrotter, V.; Dolinar, S.

    2015-11-01

    Telemetry ranging is a proposed alternative to conventional two-way ranging for determining the two-way time delay between a Deep Space Station (DSS) and a spacecraft. The advantage of telemetry ranging is that the ranging signal on the uplink is not echoed to the downlink, so that telemetry alone modulates the downlink carrier. The timing information needed on the downlink, in order to determine the two-way time delay, is obtained from telemetry frames. This article describes the phase and timing estimates required for telemetry ranging, and how two-way range is calculated from these estimates. It explains why the telemetry ranging architecture does not require the spacecraft transponder to have a high-frequency or high-quality oscillator, and it describes how a telemetry ranging system can be infused in the Deep Space Network.

  11. Limited range of motion

    MedlinePlus

    Limited range of motion is a term meaning that a joint or body part cannot move through its normal range of motion. ... Motion may be limited because of a problem within the joint, swelling of tissue around the joint, ...

  12. Molecular Assay on Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Ticks (Ixodidae) Collected from Kermanshah Province, Western Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadian, Maria; Chinikar, Sadegh; Telmadarraiy, Zakkyeh; Vatandoost, Hassan; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi; Noroozi, Mehdi; Faghihi, Faezeh; Jalali, Tahmineh; Khakifirouz, Sahar; Shahhosseini, Nariman; Farhadpour, Firoozeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a feverous and hemorrhagic disease endemic in some parts of Iran and caused by an arbovirus related to Bunyaviridae family and Nairovirusgenus. The main virus reservoir in the nature is ticks, however small vertebrates and a wide range of domestic and wild animals are regarded as reservoir hosts. This study was conducted to determine the infection rate of CCHF virus in hard ticks of Sarpole-Zahab County, Kermanshah province, west of Iran. Methods: From total number of 851 collected ticks from 8 villages, 131 ticks were selected randomlyand investigated for detection of CCHF virus using RT-PCR. Results: The virus was found in 3.8% of the tested ticks. Hyalommaanatolicum, H. asiaticum and Rhipicephalus sanguineus species were found to have viral infection, with the highest infection rate (11.11%) in Rh. sanguineus. Conclusion: These findings provide epidemiological evidence for planning control strategies of the disease in the study area. PMID:27308296

  13. SAR ambiguous range suppression.

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2006-09-01

    Pulsed Radar systems suffer range ambiguities, that is, echoes from pulses transmitted at different times arrive at the receiver simultaneously. Conventional mitigation techniques are not always adequate. However, pulse modulation schemes exist that allow separation of ambiguous ranges in Doppler space, allowing easy filtering of problematic ambiguous ranges.

  14. RADIO RANGING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Nieset, R.T.

    1961-05-16

    A radio ranging device is described. It utilizes a super regenerative detector-oscillator in which echoes of transmitted pulses are received in proper phase to reduce noise energy at a selected range and also at multiples of the selected range.

  15. Long Range Technology Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambron, Sueann, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    This summary of a meeting of the Apple Education Advisory Council, on long range technology plans at the state, county, district, and school levels, includes highlights from group discussions on future planning, staff development, and curriculum. Three long range technology plans at the state level are provided: Long Range Educational Technology…

  16. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Chielo, Leonard Ikenna; Pike, Tom; Cooper, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources). These were: apron (0-10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments); enriched belt (10-50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided); and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture). Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND) of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower temperatures and increasing relative humidity, though use of apron and enriched belt was not affected by variation in these measures. These data support previous findings that outer range areas tend to be

  17. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Barriers to Care in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Topper, Kegan; van Rooyen, Kempie; Grobler, Christoffel; van Rooyen, Dalena; Andersson, Lena M C

    2015-08-01

    A range of barriers to seeking mental health care in low- and middle-income countries has been investigated. Little, however, is known of the barriers to care and help-seeking behavior among people with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in low- and middle-income countries. This was a population-based study including 977 people aged 18-40 years from the Eastern Cape Province in South Africa. Current PTSD was assessed by using a diagnostic questionnaire (Mini International Psychiatric Interview). An additional questionnaire captured socioeconomic and health-related data. The prevalence of current PTSD was 10.8%. Only 48.1% of people with current PTSD accessed health care services. Younger people aged 18 to 29 years were less likely to seek health care, OR = 0.36, 95% CI [0.15, 0.85]. People earning a salary or wage, OR = 2.91, 95% CI [1.26, 6.71]; and those with tuberculosis, OR = 11.63, 95% CI [1.42, 95.56], were more likely to seek health care. A range of barriers to seeking care were identified, the most striking being stigma and a lack of knowledge regarding the nature and treatment of mental illness. People with current PTSD may seek help for other health concerns and brief screening means those affected may be readily identified. PMID:26271019

  18. Estimating health damage cost from secondary sulfate particles--a case study of Hunan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Hao, Ji-Ming; Li, Ji; Ye, Xue-Mei; Zhu, Tian-Le

    2003-09-01

    China's coal-dominated energy pattern has resulted in large amount of SO2 emissions. Estimate of the sulfur-related health damage cost is necessary to help perform systematic cost-benefit analysis and set national energy and emissions control priorities. Current researches were confined to gaseous SO2 in urban areas; however, secondary sulfate (SO4(2-)) particles can exert serious impact in a wider region. Based on the concept of "intake fraction", CALPUFF long-range dispersion model and 180 sample emission sources, multiple regression equation was obtained with good correlation( r = 0.85), which illustrates that populations were key parameters to determine intake fraction but source characteristics were insignificant. Based on the formula and the population distribution data, county-level intake fractions were mapped for Hunan Province(range: 1.1 x 10(-6) - 3.2 x 10(-6)) of China. A combination of county-level SO2 emissions with the intake fractions yields a total 1.98 tons of sulfate(SO4(2-)) inhalation, and resulting total health damage cost to be 0.76(willingness to pay approach, WTP) or 0.16 (human capital approach, HC) billion USD in 1997, about 2.1% or 0.45% of GDP in Hunan in 1997. Average health damage cost per ton of SO2 emission is 930(WTP) or 200 USD(HC). The results demonstrated that more stringent regulation should be forced. PMID:14562920

  19. The nature of the crust in the Yukon-Koyukuk province as inferred from the chemical and isotopic composition of five Late Cretaceous to Early Tertiary volcanic fields in western Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moll-Stalcup, E.; Arth, Joseph G.

    1989-01-01

    Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary volcanic and plutonic rocks in western Alaska comprise a vast magmatic province extending from the Alaska Range north to the Arctic Circle, south to Bristol Bay, and west to the Bering Sea Shelf. The chemical and isotopic composition of five of these Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary volcanic fields in the north central part of this province were studied to determine if Paleozoic or older continental crust underlies the Yukon-Koyukuk province. -from Authors

  20. Teleseismic P-wave Delay Time Tomography of the southern Superior Province and Midcontinent Rift System (MRS) Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollmann, T. A.; van der Lee, S.; Frederiksen, A. W.; Wolin, E.; Aleqabi, G. I.; Revenaugh, J.; Wiens, D. A.; Darbyshire, F. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Superior Province Rifting Earthscope Experiment (SPREE) and the northern midwest footprint of USArray's Transportable Array recorded continuous ground motion for a period of 2.5 years. From around 400 M>5.5 teleseismic earthquakes recorded at 337 stations, we measured body wave delay times for 255 of these earthquakes. The P wave delays are accumulated over more than 45 thousand wave paths with turning points in the lower mantle. We combine these delay times with a similar number delay times used in previous tomographic studies of the study region. The latter delay times stem from fewer stations, including Polaris and CNSN stations, and nearly a thousand earthquakes. We combine these two sets of delay times to image the three-dimensional distribution of seismic velocity variations beneath the southern Superior Province and surrounding provinces. This combined data coverage is illustrated in the accompanying figure for a total number of 447 stations . The coverage and the combined delays form the best configuration yet to image the three-dimensional distribution of seismic P and S-wave velocity variations beneath the southern Superior and surrounding provinces. Closely spaced stations (~12 km) along and across the MRS provide higher resolving power for lithospheric structure beneath the rift system. Conforming to expectations that the entire region is underlain by thick, cool lithosphere, a mean delay of -.55 +/- .54 s. This is very similar to the mean delays -.6s +/- .37s measured for this region before 2012. Event corrections range from -.2 +/-.54 s and correlate with tectonics for 80% of the earthquakes. An inversion of these nearly one hundred thousand P and around thirty thousand S-wave delay times for high-resolution P and S-wave velocity structure, respectively, does not show structures that are obviously related to the crustal signature of the MRS. None of structures imaged, align with or have a similar shape to the high Mid-continent Gravity Anomaly

  1. Telemetry Ranging: Signal Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamkins, J.; Kinman, P.; Xie, H.; Vilnrotter, V.; Dolinar, S.

    2016-02-01

    This article describes the details of the signal processing used in a telemetry ranging system in which timing information is extracted from the downlink telemetry signal in order to compute spacecraft range. A previous article describes telemetry ranging concepts and architecture, which are a slight variation of a scheme published earlier. As in that earlier work, the telemetry ranging concept eliminates the need for a dedicated downlink ranging signal to communicate the necessary timing information. The present article describes the operation and performance of the major receiver functions on the spacecraft and the ground --- many of which are standard tracking loops already in use in JPL's flight and ground radios --- and how they can be used to provide the relevant information for making a range measurement. It also describes the implementation of these functions in software, and performance of an end-to-end software simulation of the telemetry ranging system.

  2. Telemetry-Based Ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamkins, Jon; Vilnrotter, Victor A.; Andrews, Kenneth S.; Shambayati, Shervin

    2011-01-01

    A telemetry-based ranging scheme was developed in which the downlink ranging signal is eliminated, and the range is computed directly from the downlink telemetry signal. This is the first Deep Space Network (DSN) ranging technology that does not require the spacecraft to transmit a separate ranging signal. By contrast, the evolutionary ranging techniques used over the years by NASA missions, including sequential ranging (transmission of a sequence of sinusoids) and PN-ranging (transmission of a pseudo-noise sequence) whether regenerative (spacecraft acquires, then regenerates and retransmits a noise-free ranging signal) or transparent (spacecraft feeds the noisy demodulated uplink ranging signal into the downlink phase modulator) relied on spacecraft power and bandwidth to transmit an explicit ranging signal. The state of the art in ranging is described in an emerging CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) standard, in which a pseudo-noise (PN) sequence is transmitted from the ground to the spacecraft, acquired onboard, and the PN sequence is coherently retransmitted back to the ground, where a delay measurement is made between the uplink and downlink signals. In this work, the telemetry signal is aligned with the uplink PN code epoch. The ground station computes the delay between the uplink signal transmission and the received downlink telemetry. Such a computation is feasible because symbol synchronizability is already an integral part of the telemetry design. Under existing technology, the telemetry signal cannot be used for ranging because its arrival-time information is not coherent with any Earth reference signal. By introducing this coherence, and performing joint telemetry detection and arrival-time estimation on the ground, a high-rate telemetry signal can provide all the precision necessary for spacecraft ranging.

  3. Response to Intervention (RTI) in the Province of Saskatchewan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp-Koo, Debra; Claypool, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Response to Intervention (RTI) is at a beginning stage in the Saskatchewan province as well as in other parts of Canada. One needs only to enter RTI and the names of any of the Canadian provinces into any widely used search engine to see the marked difference in the availability of information about RTI when the Canadian provinces and individual…

  4. Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infection, Guangdong Province, China, 20121

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xi; Huang, Qiong; Dun, Zhongjun; Huang, Wei; Wu, Shuyu; Liang, Junhua; Deng, Xiaoling

    2016-01-01

    We used active and passive surveillance to estimate nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infection during 2012 in Guangdong Province, China. Under passive surveillance, for every reported NTS infection, an estimated 414.8 cases occurred annually. Under active surveillance, an estimated 35.8 cases occurred. Active surveillance provides remarkable advantages in incidence estimate. PMID:26982074

  5. Livestock rabies outbreaks in Shanxi province, China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ye; Shi, Yanyan; Yu, Mingyang; Xu, Weidi; Gong, Wenjie; Tu, Zhongzhong; Ding, Laixi; He, Biao; Guo, Huancheng; Tu, Changchun

    2016-10-01

    Dogs play an important role in rabies transmission throughout the world. In addition to the severe human rabies situation in China, spillover of rabies virus from dogs in recent years has caused rabies outbreaks in sheep, cattle and pigs, showing that there is an increasing threat to other domestic animals. Two livestock rabies outbreaks were caused by dogs in Shanxi province, China from April to October in 2015, resulting in the deaths of 60 sheep, 10 cattle and one donkey. Brain samples from one infected bovine and the donkey were determined to be rabies virus (RABV) positive by fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The complete RABV N genes of the two field strains, together with those of two previously confirmed Shanxi dog strains, were amplified, sequenced and compared phylogenetically with published sequences of the N gene of RABV strains from Shanxi and surrounding provinces. All of the strains from Shanxi province grouped closely, sharing 99.6 %-100 % sequence identity, indicating the wide distribution and transmission of dog-mediated rabies in these areas. This is the first description of donkey rabies symptoms with phylogenetic analysis of RABVs in Shanxi province and surrounding regions. The result emphasizes the need for mandatory dog rabies vaccination and improved public education to eradicate dog rabies transmission. PMID:27422397

  6. Recurrence of great earthquakes and tsunamis, Aceh Province, Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, C. M.; Horton, B.; Sieh, K.; Pilarczyk, J.; Hawkes, A. D.; Daly, P.; Kelsey, H. M.; McKinnon, E.; Ismail, N.; Daryono, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    The timing and characterization of ancient earthquakes and tsunamis inferred from a variety of geologic studies in Aceh Province, Sumatra, are helping to understand predecessors of the 2004 event in the Indian Ocean region. We report results from three different depositional environments along the western and northern coast of Aceh Province, Sumatra, that illuminate the history of tsunamis through the past several millennia. Within a coastal cave along the western coast is an extraordinary sedimentary deposit that contains a 7,000-year long sequence of tsunami sands separated by bat guano. In two sea cliff exposures along the northern coast of Aceh is evidence for two closely timed predecessors of the giant 2004 tsunami that destroyed communities along the coast about 500 years ago. In addition, coastal wetlands along the western coast document land-level changes and tsunamis associated with the earthquake cycle in the early- to mid-Holocene. Together these records show a marked variability in recurrence of large tsunamis along the Acehnese coast. Time between inundations averages close to 500 years but range from a few centuries to a millennium.

  7. The Rungwe Volcanic Province, Tanzania - A volcanological review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontijn, Karen; Williamson, David; Mbede, Evelyne; Ernst, Gerald G. J.

    2012-02-01

    The Rungwe Volcanic Province in SW Tanzania is a densely populated area that is considered volcanically active. As part of the East African Rift System, a significant control of tectonic activity seems to exist on the location and also potential destabilization of volcanic edifices. Three large volcanoes, Ngozi, Rungwe, and Kyejo, dominate the landscape and all show contrasting eruptive behaviour in the recent geological past. Kyejo volcano is a flow-dominated volcano that had a historic lava flow eruption. Lake sediment cores, drilled in Lakes Malawi, Masoko, Rukwa, and Tanganyika, provide a record of frequent explosive eruptions in the last few tens of thousands of years. In combination with on-land stratigraphic observations, they constrain the minimum eruptive frequency of especially Rungwe and Ngozi volcanoes. Both volcanoes had Plinian-style eruptions in the Holocene. The most striking documented Rungwe eruption, the ca. 4 ka Rungwe Pumice, is a rare case of a Plinian eruption in near-wind-free conditions. Furthermore, the Rungwe Pumice, just like any other Rungwe tephra deposit, does not show any evidence of pyroclastic density current deposits. Apart from explosive eruptions at a range of scales happening every few hundred years at Rungwe, the volcano also experienced at least two sector collapse events generating debris avalanches. All existing evidence shows that the Rungwe Volcanic Province is prone to future significant explosive eruptions. To further assess, quantify and mitigate volcanic hazard risks, extensive and systematic multidisciplinary geological research, and both volcanic and tectonic monitoring are needed.

  8. Self-Burns in Fars Province, Southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Ali Akbar; Tohidinik, Hamid Reza; Zardosht, Mitra; Seyed Jafari, Seyed Morteza

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The alarming incidence of self- burning provoked to set up a multidisciplinary preventive program to decrease the incidence and complications of this harmful issue. This study investigated the incidence and the preventive measures in self-burn in Fars Province, southern Iran. METHODS This study was a longitudinal prospective design on trend of self-inflicted burn injuries in Fars province after setting up a regional multidisciplinary preventive plan (2009-2012). RESULTS From 18862 admitted patients, 388 (2%) committed self-burning. While the incidence showed a constant decrease in proportion of suicidal cases among all admitted patients (2.5% to 1.6%). The mean age of self-burning victims ranged from 28.3±10.8 to 30.3±11.7 years. The female victims comprised 67.4% of all suicidal burn patients (Female to male ratio: 2.18). The leading causes of suicide commitment were familial conflicts (75.6%) and psychological problems (16.7%) CONCLUSION It is crucial to continue the regional preventive programs and pave the way to set up national, and even international collaborations to alleviate relevant financial, social, cultural and infrastructural difficulties in order to have lower incidence for this dramatic issue. PMID:27308238

  9. Gall production on hawthorns caused by Gymnosporangium spp.in Hatay province, Turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three hawthorn and related rust diseases caused by Gymnosporangium confusum on Crataegus monogyna, G. clavariiforme on C. orientalis, and G. sabinae on Pyrus communis were detected in Hatay province, Turkey. Gymnosporangium confusum was also found causing telial galls on Juniperus communis. Gymnospo...

  10. Perceptions of and Attitudes towards Regional Varieties of Polish: Views from Two Polish Provinces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milobog, Magdalena; Garrett, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a study of perceptions and attitudes relating to regional varieties of Polish. The methodology followed folk linguistic approaches to attitudes research. Respondents in two Polish provinces were asked to draw on a map of Poland where they thought the main regional varieties of Polish were spoken, and then to name and…

  11. Neotectonics of the San Andreas Fault system: Basin and range province juncture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.; Crowell, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    A thorough evaluation of all LANDSAT coverage of the study area (considering atmospheric clarity, seasonal aspects, specific swath location, and digital quality) resulted in the selection of two consecutive (continuously recorded) scenes for detailed analyses. The acquisition of HCMM and SEASAT imagery as well as high altitude U-2 uniform coverage is being considered. A bibliography of previous geological studies and methodological examples is estimated to be 70% complete.

  12. Basaltic Volcanism of the Snake River Volcanic Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shervais, J. W.; Hanan, B. B.; Vetter, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Yellowstone-Snake River Plain (YSRP) volcanic province is the world's best modern example of a time-transgressive hotspot track beneath continental crust. Tomographic images document a thermal anomaly which pierces the Farallon plate at depth and appears to extend to depths of over 1000 km. Many investigators attribute this anomaly to a deep mantle plume, while others recognize the sheet-like aspect of the velocity anomaly and attribute it to lower mantle flow around a fragmented remnant of the Farallon plate. Tholeiitic basalts of the SRP have major element compositions similar to ocean island basalts (OIB), with higher FeO, TiO2, P2O5 and K2O than mid-ocean ridge basalts over a similar range in MgO. Their trace element concentrations also mimic OIB tholeiites, with moderately enriched LREE/HREE ratios, OIB-like HFSE ratios and Nb-Y-Zr systematics. Most SRP basalts show little evidence of crustal assimilation: oxygen isotope compositions are mantle-like, K2O is low and does not increase relative to other incompatible elements during fractionation (e.g., P2O5), and silica contents are consistently low. In contrast, evidence suggests that these basalts evolve primarily through fractional crystallization in relatively shallow magma chambers with episodic magma recharge. Trace element concentration patterns are nearly identical to OIB tholeiites, with somewhat lower slopes on multi-element variations diagrams, consistent with 7-12% partial melting of spinel-facies peridotite (9-18 kb, 40-65 km) with a composition similar to the source of OIB or EMORB. Models show that depleted MORB asthenosphere or primitive mantle peridotite composition sources cannot yield SRP tholeiites, even with residual garnet in the source region to raise LREE/HREE ratios in the melt. There is no indication of residual garnet in the source - which requires that either the lithosphere was relatively thin during formation of the SRP, or that the melts originated within the lithosphere itself

  13. Improved ranging systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry E.

    1989-01-01

    Spacecraft range measurements have provided the most accurate tests, to date, of some relativistic gravitational parameters, even though the measurements were made with ranging systems having error budgets of about 10 meters. Technology is now available to allow an improvement of two orders of magnitude in the accuracy of spacecraft ranging. The largest gains in accuracy result from the replacement of unstable analog components with high speed digital circuits having precisely known delays and phase shifts.

  14. Composition and source of salinity of ore-bearing fluids in Cu-Au systems of the Carajás Mineral Province, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xavier, Roberto; Rusk, Brian; Emsbo, Poul; Monteiro, Lena

    2009-01-01

    The composition and Cl/Br – NaCl ratios of highly saline aqueous inclusions from large tonnage (> 100 t) IOCG deposits (Sossego, Alvo 118, and Igarapé Bahia) and a Paleoproterozoic intrusion-related Cu-Au-(Mo-W-Bi-Sn) deposit (Breves; < 50 Mt)) in the Carajás Mineral Province have been analysed by LA-ICP-MS and ion chromatography. In both Cu-Au systems, brine inclusions are Ca-dominated (5 to 10 times more than in porphyry Cu-Au fluids), and contain percent level concentrations of Na and K. IOCG inclusion fluids, however, contain higher Sr, Ba, Pb, and Zn concentrations, but significantly less Bi, than the intrusion-related Breves inclusion fluids. Cu is consistently below detection limits in brine inclusions from the IOCG and intrusion-related systems and Fe was not detected in the latter. Cl/Br and Na/Cl ratios of the IOCG inclusion fluids range from entirely evaporative brines (bittern fluids; e.g. Igarapé Bahia and Alvo 118) to values that indicate mixing with magma-derived brines. Cl/Br and Na/Cl ratios of the Breves inclusion fluids strongly suggest the involvement of magmatic brines, but that possibly also incorporated bittern fluids. Collectively, these data demonstrate that residual evaporative and magmatic brines were important components of the fluid regime involved in the formation of Cu-Au systems in the Carajás Mineral Province.

  15. Automatic range selector

    DOEpatents

    McNeilly, Clyde E.

    1977-01-04

    A device is provided for automatically selecting from a plurality of ranges of a scale of values to which a meter may be made responsive, that range which encompasses the value of an unknown parameter. A meter relay indicates whether the unknown is of greater or lesser value than the range to which the meter is then responsive. The rotatable part of a stepping relay is rotated in one direction or the other in response to the indication from the meter relay. Various positions of the rotatable part are associated with particular scales. Switching means are sensitive to the position of the rotatable part to couple the associated range to the meter.

  16. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Chielo, Leonard Ikenna; Pike, Tom; Cooper, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Commercial free-range production has become a significant sector of the fresh egg market due to legislation banning conventional cages and consumer preference for products perceived as welfare friendly, as access to outdoor range can lead to welfare benefits such as greater freedom of movement and enhanced behavioural opportunities. This study investigated dispersal patterns, feather condition and activity of laying hens in three distinct zones of the range area; the apron area near shed; enriched zone 10–50 m from shed; and outer range beyond 50 m, in six flocks of laying hens under commercial free-range conditions varying in size between 4000 and 24,000 hens. Each flock was visited for four days to record number of hens in each zone, their behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distances (NND), as well as record temperature and relative humidity during the visit. Temperature and relative humidity varied across the study period in line with seasonal variations and influenced the use of range with fewer hens out of shed as temperature fell or relative humidity rose. On average, 12.5% of the hens were observed on the range and most of these hens were recorded in the apron zone as hen density decreased rapidly with increasing distance from the shed. Larger flocks appeared to have a lower proportion of hens on range. The hens used the range more in the early morning followed by a progressive decrease through to early afternoon. The NND was greatest in the outer range and decreased towards the shed. Feather condition was generally good and hens observed in the outer range had the best overall feather condition. Standing, pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded behaviours and of these, standing occurred most in the apron whereas walking and foraging behaviours were recorded most in the outer range. This study supported the f