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Sample records for rapamycin regulates vascular

  1. Platelet-derived growth factor regulates vascular smooth muscle phenotype via mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, Jung Min; Yun, Sung Ji; Kim, Young Whan; Jin, Seo Yeon; Lee, Hye Sun; Song, Sang Heon; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Bae, Sun Sik

    2015-08-14

    Mammalian target of rapamycin complex (mTORC) regulates various cellular processes including proliferation, growth, migration and differentiation. In this study, we showed that mTORC1 regulates platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced phenotypic conversion of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Stimulation of contractile VSMCs with PDGF significantly reduced the expression of contractile marker proteins in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In addition, angiotensin II (AngII)-induced contraction of VSMCs was completely blocked by the stimulation of VSMCs with PDGF. PDGF-dependent suppression of VSMC marker gene expression was significantly blocked by inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and mTOR whereas inhibition of p38 MAPK had no effect. In particular, inhibition of mTORC1 by rapamycin or by silencing of Raptor significantly blocked the PDGF-dependent phenotypic change of VSMCs whereas silencing of Rictor had no effect. In addition, loss of AngII-dependent contraction by PDGF was significantly retained by silencing of Raptor. Inhibition of mTORC1 by rapamycin or by silencing of Raptor significantly blocked PDGF-induced proliferation of VSMCs. Taken together, we suggest that mTORC1 plays an essential role in PDGF-dependent phenotypic changes of VSMCs. - Graphical abstract: Regulation of VSMC phenotype by PDGF-dependent activation of mTORC1. - Highlights: • The expression of contractile marker proteins was reduced by PDGF stimulation. • PDGF-dependent phenotypic conversion of VSMCs was blocked by inhibition of mTOR. • PDGF-induced proliferation of VSMCs was attenuated by inhibition of mTORC1. • mTORC1 plays a critical role in PDGF-dependent phenotypic conversion of VSMCs.

  2. Vascular tumors have increased p70 S6-kinase activation and are inhibited by topical rapamycin.

    PubMed

    Du, Wa; Gerald, Damien; Perruzzi, Carole A; Rodriguez-Waitkus, Paul; Enayati, Ladan; Krishnan, Bhuvaneswari; Edmonds, Joseph; Hochman, Marcelo L; Lev, Dina C; Phung, Thuy L

    2013-10-01

    Vascular tumors are endothelial cell neoplasms whose cellular and molecular mechanisms, leading to tumor formation, are poorly understood, and current therapies have limited efficacy with significant side effects. We have investigated mechanistic (mammalian) target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in benign and malignant vascular tumors, and the effects of mTOR kinase inhibitor as a potential therapy for these lesions. Human vascular tumors (infantile hemangioma and angiosarcoma) were analyzed by immunohistochemical stains and western blot for the phosphorylation of p70 S6-kinase (S6K) and S6 ribosomal protein (S6), which are activated downstream of mTOR complex-1 (mTORC1). To assess the function of S6K, tumor cells with genetic knockdown of S6K were analyzed for cell proliferation and migration. The effects of topical rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor, on mTORC1 and mTOR complex-2 (mTORC2) activities, as well as on tumor growth and migration, were determined. Vascular tumors showed increased activation of S6K and S6. Genetic knockdown of S6K resulted in reduced tumor cell proliferation and migration. Rapamycin fully inhibited mTORC1 and partially inhibited mTORC2 activities, including the phosphorylation of Akt (serine 473) and PKCα, in vascular tumor cells. Rapamycin significantly reduced vascular tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. As a potential localized therapy for cutaneous vascular tumors, topically applied rapamycin effectively reduced tumor growth with limited systemic drug absorption. These findings reveal the importance of mTOR signaling pathways in benign and malignant vascular tumors. The mTOR pathway is an important therapeutic target in vascular tumors, and topical mTOR inhibitors may provide an alternative and well-tolerated therapy for the treatment of cutaneous vascular lesions. PMID:23938603

  3. Mammalian target of rapamycin signaling inhibition ameliorates vascular calcification via Klotho upregulation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Zhao, Ming-Ming; Cai, Yan; Zheng, Ming-Fei; Sun, Wei-Liang; Zhang, Song-Yang; Kong, Wei; Gu, Jun; Wang, Xian; Xu, Ming-Jiang

    2015-10-01

    Vascular calcification (VC) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular mortality in chronic renal failure (CRF) patients, but the pathogenesis remains partially unknown and effective therapeutic targets should be urgently explored. Here we pursued the therapeutic role of rapamycin in CRF-related VC. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signal was activated in the aortic wall of CRF rats. As expected, oral rapamycin administration significantly reduced VC by inhibiting mTOR in rats with CRF. Further in vitro results showed that activation of mTOR by both pharmacological agent and genetic method promoted, while inhibition of mTOR reduced, inorganic phosphate-induced vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification and chondrogenic/osteogenic gene expression, which were independent of autophagy and apoptosis. Interestingly, the expression of Klotho, an antiaging gene that suppresses VC, was reduced in calcified vasculature, whereas rapamycin reversed membrane and secreted Klotho decline through mTOR inhibition. When mTOR signaling was enhanced by either mTOR overexpression or deletion of tuberous sclerosis 1, Klotho mRNA was further decreased in phosphate-treated VSMCs, suggesting a vital association between mTOR signaling and Klotho expression. More importantly, rapamycin failed to reduce VC in the absence of Klotho by using either siRNA knockdown of Klotho or Klotho knockout mice. Thus, Klotho has a critical role in mediating the observed decrease in calcification by rapamycin in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26061549

  4. Rapamycin (Sirolimus) alters mechanistic target of rapamycin pathway regulation and microRNA expression in mouse meiotic spermatocytes.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, A; Koli, S; Reddy, K V R

    2015-09-01

    Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a signal transduction pathway that modulates translation initiation in several animals including mammals. Rapamaycin, an allosteric inhibitor of mTOR pathway, is often used as an immunosuppressive drug following kidney transplantation and causes gonadal dysfunction and defects in spermatogenesis. The molecular mechanism behind rapamycin-mediated testicular dysfunction is not known. We have therefore explored the contribution of rapamycin in mTOR regulation and microRNA (miRNA) expression in mouse spermatocytes, the intermediate stage of spermatogenesis, where meiosis takes place. In the present study, we optimized the isolation of highly pure and viable spermatocytes by flow sorting, treated them with rapamycin, and investigated the expression of mTOR and downstream effector molecules. Western blot and immunocytochemical analysis confirm that rapamycin treatment suppresses mTOR and phopsphorylated P70S6 kinase activities in spermatocytes, but not that of phosphorylated 4E-binding protein 1. Also, rapamycin treatment modulates the expression of several spermatocyte-specific miRNAs. To complement these finding an in vivo study was also performed. In silico prediction of target genes of these miRNAs and their functional pathway analysis revealed that, several of them are involved in crucial biological process, cellular process and catalytic activities. miRNA-transcription factor (TF) network analysis enlisted different TFs propelling the transcription machineries of these miRNAs. In silico prediction followed by quatitative real-time PCR revealed two of these TFs namely, PU.1 and CCCTC binding factor (CTCF) are down and upregulated, respectively, which may be the reason of the altered expression of miRNAs following rapamycin treatment. In conclusion, for the first time, the present study provides insight into how rapamycin regulates mTOR pathway and spermatocyte-specific miRNA expression which in turn, regulate expression of

  5. Efficacy and Safety of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Inhibitors in Vascular Anomalies: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Nadal, Marion; Giraudeau, Bruno; Tavernier, Elsa; Jonville-Bera, Annie-Pierre; Lorette, Gerárd; Maruani, Annabel

    2016-05-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors are a promising new treatment in vascular anomalies, but no published randomized controlled trials are available. The aim of this systematic review of all reported cases was to assess the efficacy and safety of mTOR inhibitors in all vascular anomalies, except cancers, in children and adults. In November 2014 MEDLINE, CENTRAL, LILACS and EMBASE were searched for studies of mTOR inhibitors in any vascular condition, except for malignant lesions, in humans. Fourteen publications and 9 posters, with data on 25 and 59 patients, respectively, all < 18 years old were included. Of these patients, 35.7% (n = 30) had vascular tumours, and 64.3% (n = 54) had malformations. Sirolimus was the most frequent mTOR inhibitor used (98.8%, n = 83). It was efficient in all cases, at a median time of 2 weeks (95% confidence interval 1-10 weeks). Sirolimus was well tolerated, the main side-effect being mouth sores, which led to treatment withdrawal in one case. The dosage of sirolimus was heterogeneous, the most common being 1.6 mg/m2/day. PMID:26607948

  6. Chronic rapamycin restores brain vascular integrity and function through NO synthase activation and improves memory in symptomatic mice modeling Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ai-Ling; Zheng, Wei; Halloran, Jonathan J; Burbank, Raquel R; Hussong, Stacy A; Hart, Matthew J; Javors, Martin; Shih, Yen-Yu Ian; Muir, Eric; Solano Fonseca, Rene; Strong, Randy; Richardson, Arlan G; Lechleiter, James D; Fox, Peter T; Galvan, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    Vascular pathology is a major feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias. We recently showed that chronic administration of the target-of-rapamycin (TOR) inhibitor rapamycin, which extends lifespan and delays aging, halts the progression of AD-like disease in transgenic human (h)APP mice modeling AD when administered before disease onset. Here we demonstrate that chronic reduction of TOR activity by rapamycin treatment started after disease onset restored cerebral blood flow (CBF) and brain vascular density, reduced cerebral amyloid angiopathy and microhemorrhages, decreased amyloid burden, and improved cognitive function in symptomatic hAPP (AD) mice. Like acetylcholine (ACh), a potent vasodilator, acute rapamycin treatment induced the phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) and NO release in brain endothelium. Administration of the NOS inhibitor L-NG-Nitroarginine methyl ester reversed vasodilation as well as the protective effects of rapamycin on CBF and vasculature integrity, indicating that rapamycin preserves vascular density and CBF in AD mouse brains through NOS activation. Taken together, our data suggest that chronic reduction of TOR activity by rapamycin blocked the progression of AD-like cognitive and histopathological deficits by preserving brain vascular integrity and function. Drugs that inhibit the TOR pathway may have promise as a therapy for AD and possibly for vascular dementias. PMID:23801246

  7. Rapamycin down-regulates LDL-receptor expression independently of SREBP-2

    SciTech Connect

    Sharpe, Laura J.; Brown, Andrew J.

    2008-09-05

    As a key regulator of cholesterol homeostasis, sterol-regulatory element binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) up-regulates expression of genes involved in cholesterol synthesis (e.g., 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) Reductase) and uptake (the low density lipoprotein (LDL)-receptor). Previously, we showed that Akt, a critical kinase in cell growth and proliferation, contributes to SREBP-2 activation. However, the specific Akt target involved is unknown. A potential candidate is the mammalian target of rapamycin, mTOR. Rapamycin can cause hyperlipidaemia clinically, and we hypothesised that this may be mediated via an effect of mTOR on SREBP-2. Herein, we found that SREBP-2 activation and HMG-CoA Reductase gene expression were unaffected by rapamycin treatment. However, LDL-receptor gene expression was decreased by rapamycin, suggesting that this may contribute to the hyperlipidaemia observed in rapamycin-treated patients. Rapamycin did not affect mRNA stability, so the decrease in LDL-receptor gene expression is likely to be occurring at the transcriptional level, although independently of SREBP-2.

  8. 17ß-Estradiol Regulates mTORC2 Sensitivity to Rapamycin in Adaptive Cardiac Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Kusch, Angelika; Schmidt, Maria; Gürgen, Dennis; Postpieszala, Daniel; Catar, Rusan; Hegner, Björn; Davidson, Merci M.; Mahmoodzadeh, Shokoufeh; Dragun, Duska

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive cardiac remodeling is characterized by enhanced signaling of mTORC2 downstream kinase Akt. In females, 17ß-estradiol (E2), as well as Akt contribute essentially to sex-related premenopausal cardioprotection. Pharmacologic mTOR targeting with rapamycin is increasingly used for various clinical indications, yet burdened with clinical heterogeneity in therapy responses. The drug inhibits mTORC1 and less-so mTORC2. In male rodents, rapamycin decreases maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy whereas it leads to detrimental dilative cardiomyopathy in females. We hypothesized that mTOR inhibition could interfere with 17β-estradiol (E2)-mediated sexual dimorphism and adaptive cell growth and tested responses in murine female hearts and cultured female cardiomyocytes. Under physiological in vivo conditions, rapamycin compromised mTORC2 function only in female, but not in male murine hearts. In cultured female cardiomyocytes, rapamycin impaired simultaneously IGF-1 induced activation of both mTOR signaling branches, mTORC1 and mTORC2 only in presence of E2. Use of specific estrogen receptor (ER)α- and ERβ-agonists indicated involvement of both estrogen receptors (ER) in rapamycin effects on mTORC1 and mTORC2. Classical feedback mechanisms common in tumour cells with upregulation of PI3K signaling were not involved. E2 effect on Akt-pS473 downregulation by rapamycin was independent of ERK as shown by sequential mTOR and MEK-inhibition. Furthermore, regulatory mTORC2 complex defining component rictor phosphorylation at Ser1235, known to interfere with Akt-substrate binding to mTORC2, was not altered. Functionally, rapamycin significantly reduced trophic effect of E2 on cell size. In addition, cardiomyocytes with reduced Akt-pS473 under rapamycin treatment displayed decreased SERCA2A mRNA and protein expression suggesting negative functional consequences on cardiomyocyte contractility. Rictor silencing confirmed regulation of SERCA2A expression by mTORC2 in E2-cultured

  9. TOR (target of rapamycin) is a key regulator of triacylglycerol accumulation in microalgae

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Sousuke; Kawase, Yasuko; Kobayashi, Ikki; Shimojima, Mie; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Kan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Most microalgae abundantly accumulate lipid droplets (LDs) containing triacylglycerols (TAGs) under several stress conditions, but the underlying molecular mechanism of this accumulation remains unclear. In a recent study, we found that inhibition of TOR (target of rapamycin), a highly conserved protein kinase of eukaryotes, by rapamycin resulted in TAG accumulation in microalgae, indicating that TOR negatively regulates TAG accumulation. Here, we show that formation of intracellular LDs and TAG accumulation were also induced in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii after exposure to Torin1 or AZD8055, which are novel TOR inhibitors that inhibit TOR activity in a manner different from rapamycin. These results supported quite well our previous conclusion that TOR is a central regulator of TAG accumulation in microalgae. PMID:26855321

  10. Transcriptome profiling of CTLs regulated by rapamycin using RNA-Seq.

    PubMed

    Mattson, Elliot; Xu, Lingyang; Li, Lei; Liu, George E; Xiao, Zhengguo

    2014-11-01

    Memory programming of cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) by inflammatory cytokines can be regulated by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). We have shown that inhibition of mTOR during CTL activation leads to the enhancement of memory, but the molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Using high-throughput RNA-Seq, we identified genes and functions in mouse CTLs affected by mTOR inhibition through rapamycin. Of the 43,221 identified transcripts, 184 transcripts were differentially expressed after rapamycin treatment, corresponding to 128 annotated genes. Of these genes, 114 were downregulated and only 14 were upregulated. Most importantly, 50 of them are directly related to cell death and survival. In addition, several genes such as CD62L are related to migration. Furthermore, we predicted downregulation of transcriptional regulators based on the total differentially expressed genes, as well as the subset of apoptosis-related genes. Quantitative PCR confirmed the differential expressions detected in RNA-Seq. We conclude that the regulatory function of rapamycin may work through inhibition of multiple genes related to apoptosis and migration, which enhance CTL survival into memory. PMID:25113844

  11. Cyclin B synthesis and rapamycin-sensitive regulation of protein synthesis during starfish oocyte meiotic divisions.

    PubMed

    Lapasset, Laure; Pradet-Balade, Bérengère; Vergé, Valérie; Lozano, Jean-Claude; Oulhen, Nathalie; Cormier, Patrick; Peaucellier, Gérard

    2008-11-01

    Translation of cyclin mRNAs represents an important event for proper meiotic maturation and post-fertilization mitoses in many species. Translational control of cyclin B mRNA has been described to be achieved through two separate but related mechanisms: translational repression and polyadenylation. In this paper, we evaluated the contribution of global translational regulation by the cap-dependent translation repressor 4E-BP (eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein) on the cyclin B protein synthesis during meiotic maturation of the starfish oocytes. We used the immunosupressant drug rapamycin, a strong inhibitor of cap-dependent translation, to check for the involvement of this protein synthesis during this physiological process. Rapamycin was found to prevent dissociation of 4E-BP from the initiation factor eIF4E and to suppress correlatively a burst of global protein synthesis occurring at the G2/M transition. The drug had no effect on first meiotic division but defects in meiotic spindle formation prevented second polar body emission, demonstrating that a rapamycin-sensitive pathway is involved in this mechanism. While rapamycin affected the global protein synthesis, the drug altered neither the specific translation of cyclin B mRNA nor the expression of the Mos protein. The expression of these two proteins was correlated with the phosphorylation and the dissociation of the cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding protein from eIF4E. PMID:18361417

  12. p21WAF1/CIP1 Expression is Differentially Regulated by Metformin and Rapamycin

    PubMed Central

    Molnar, Zoltan; Millward, Ann B.; Tse, Wai; Demaine, Andrew G.

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway plays an important role in the development of diabetic nephropathy and other age-related diseases. One of the features of DN is the elevated expression of p21WAF1/CIP1. However, the importance of the mTOR signalling pathway in p21 regulation is poorly understood. Here we investigated the effect of metformin and rapamycin on mTOR-related phenotypes in cell lines of epithelial origin. This study reports that metformin inhibits high glucose-induced p21 expression. High glucose opposed metformin in regulating cell size, proliferation, and protein synthesis. These effects were associated with reduced AMPK activation, affecting downstream mTOR signalling. However, the inhibition of the mTOR pathway by rapamycin did not have a negative effect on p21 expression, suggesting that metformin regulates p21 upstream of mTOR. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that AMPK activation may regulate p21 expression, which may have implications for diabetic nephropathy and other age-related pathologies. PMID:26464852

  13. Familial cortical dysplasia caused by mutation in the mammalian target of rapamycin regulator NPRL3.

    PubMed

    Sim, Joe C; Scerri, Thomas; Fanjul-Fernández, Miriam; Riseley, Jessica R; Gillies, Greta; Pope, Kate; van Roozendaal, Hanna; Heng, Julian I; Mandelstam, Simone A; McGillivray, George; MacGregor, Duncan; Kannan, Lakshminarayanan; Maixner, Wirginia; Harvey, A Simon; Amor, David J; Delatycki, Martin B; Crino, Peter B; Bahlo, Melanie; Lockhart, Paul J; Leventer, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    We describe first cousin sibling pairs with focal epilepsy, one of each pair having focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) IIa. Linkage analysis and whole-exome sequencing identified a heterozygous germline frameshift mutation in the gene encoding nitrogen permease regulator-like 3 (NPRL3). NPRL3 is a component of GAP Activity Towards Rags 1, a negative regulator of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 signaling pathway. Immunostaining of resected brain tissue demonstrated mammalian target of rapamycin activation. Screening of 52 unrelated individuals with FCD identified 2 additional patients with FCDIIa and germline NPRL3 mutations. Similar to DEPDC5, NPRL3 mutations may be considered as causal variants in patients with FCD or magnetic resonance imaging-negative focal epilepsy. PMID:26285051

  14. Redox regulation of vascular remodeling.

    PubMed

    Karimi Galougahi, Keyvan; Ashley, Euan A; Ali, Ziad A

    2016-01-01

    Vascular remodeling is a dynamic process of structural and functional changes in response to biochemical and biomechanical signals in a complex in vivo milieu. While inherently adaptive, dysregulation leads to maladaptive remodeling. Reactive oxygen species participate in homeostatic cell signaling in tightly regulated- and compartmentalized cellular circuits. It is well established that perturbations in oxidation-reduction (redox) homeostasis can lead to a state of oxidative-, and more recently, reductive stress. We provide an overview of the redox signaling in the vasculature and review the role of oxidative- and reductive stress in maladaptive vascular remodeling. Particular emphasis has been placed on essential processes that determine phenotype modulation, migration and fate of the main cell types in the vessel wall. Recent advances in systems biology and the translational opportunities they may provide to specifically target the redox pathways driving pathological vascular remodeling are discussed. PMID:26483132

  15. Transcriptome Profiling of CTLs Regulated by Rapamycin Using RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    Mattson, Elliot; Xu, Lingyang; Li, Lei; Liu, George E.; Xiao, Zhengguo

    2014-01-01

    Memory programming of CTLs by inflammatory cytokines can be regulated by mTOR. We have shown that inhibition of mTOR during CTL activation leads to the enhancement of memory, but the molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Using high-throughput RNA-Seq, we identified genes and functions in mouse CTLs affected by mTOR inhibition through rapamycin. Of the 43,221 identified transcripts, 184 transcripts were differentially expressed after rapamycin treatment, corresponding to 128 annotated genes. Of these genes, 114 were downregulated and only 14 were upregulated. Most importantly, 50 of them are directly related to cell death and survival. In addition, several genes such as CD62L are related to migration. Furthermore, we predicted downregulation of transcriptional regulators based on the total differentially expressed genes, as well as the subset of apoptosis related genes. Quantitative PCR confirmed the differential expressions detected in RNA-Seq. We conclude that the regulatory function of rapamycin may work through inhibition of multiple genes related to apoptosis and migration, which enhance CTL survival into memory. PMID:25113844

  16. Tbx1 regulates brain vascularization.

    PubMed

    Cioffi, Sara; Martucciello, Stefania; Fulcoli, Filomena Gabriella; Bilio, Marchesa; Ferrentino, Rosa; Nusco, Edoardo; Illingworth, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factor TBX1 is the major gene involved in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS). Using mouse models of these diseases, we have previously shown that TBX1 activates VEGFR3 in endothelial cells (EC), and that this interaction is critical for the development of the lymphatic vasculature. In this study, we show that TBX1 regulates brain angiogenesis. Using loss-of-function genetics and molecular approaches, we show that TBX1 regulates the VEGFR3 and DLL4 genes in brain ECs. In mice, loss of TBX1 causes global brain vascular defects, comprising brain vessel hyperplasia, enhanced angiogenic sprouting and vessel network disorganization. This phenotype is recapitulated in EC-specific Tbx1 conditional mutants and in an EC-only 3-dimensional cell culture system (matrigel), indicating that the brain vascular phenotype is cell autonomous. Furthermore, EC-specific conditional Tbx1 mutants have poorly perfused brain vessels and brain hypoxia, indicating that the expanded vascular network is functionally impaired. In EC-matrigel cultures, a Notch1 agonist is able to partially rescue microtubule hyperbranching induced by TBX1 knockdown. Thus, we have identified a novel transcriptional regulator of angiogenesis that exerts its effect in brain by negatively regulating angiogenesis through the DLL4/Notch1-VEGFR3 regulatory axis. Given the similarity of the phenotypic consequences of TBX1 mutation in humans and mice, this unexpected role of TBX1 in murine brain vascularization should stimulate clinicians to search for brain microvascular anomalies in 22q11.2DS patients and to evaluate whether some of the anatomical and functional brain anomalies in patients may have a microvascular origin. PMID:23945394

  17. Metformin and Rapamycin Reduce Pancreatic Cancer Growth in Obese Prediabetic Mice by Distinct MicroRNA-Regulated Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Cifarelli, Vincenza; Lashinger, Laura M; Devlin, Kaylyn L; Dunlap, Sarah M; Huang, Jennifer; Kaaks, Rudolf; Pollak, Michael N; Hursting, Stephen D

    2015-05-01

    Metformin treatment is associated with a decreased risk and better prognosis of pancreatic cancer (PC) in patients with type 2 diabetes, but the mechanism of metformin's PC growth inhibition in the context of a prediabetic state is unknown. We used a Panc02 pancreatic tumor cell transplant model in diet-induced obese (DIO) C57BL/6 mice to compare the effects of metformin and the direct mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor rapamycin on PC growth, glucose regulation, mTOR pathway signaling, and candidate microRNA (miR) expression. In DIO/prediabetic mice, metformin and rapamycin significantly reduced pancreatic tumor growth and mTOR-related signaling. The rapamycin effects centered on decreased mTOR-regulated growth and survival signaling, including increased expression of let-7b and cell cycle-regulating miRs. Metformin (but not rapamycin) reduced glucose and insulin levels and expression of miR-34a and its direct targets Notch, Slug, and Snail. Metformin also reduced the number and size of Panc02 tumor spheres in vitro and inhibited the expression of Notch in spheroids. Our results suggest that metformin and rapamycin can both inhibit pancreatic tumor growth in obese, prediabetic mice through shared and distinct mechanisms. Metformin and direct mTOR inhibitors, alone or possibly in combination, represent promising intervention strategies for breaking the diabetes-PC link. PMID:25576058

  18. SOX9-regulated cell plasticity in colorectal metastasis is attenuated by rapamycin.

    PubMed

    Carrasco-Garcia, Estefania; Lopez, Lidia; Aldaz, Paula; Arevalo, Sara; Aldaregia, Juncal; Egaña, Larraitz; Bujanda, Luis; Cheung, Martin; Sampron, Nicolas; Garcia, Idoia; Matheu, Ander

    2016-01-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis proposes a hierarchical organization of tumors, in which stem-like cells sustain tumors and drive metastasis. The molecular mechanisms underlying the acquisition of CSCs and metastatic traits are not well understood. SOX9 is a transcription factor linked to stem cell maintenance and commonly overexpressed in solid cancers including colorectal cancer. In this study, we show that SOX9 levels are higher in metastatic (SW620) than in primary colorectal cancer cells (SW480) derived from the same patient. This elevated expression correlated with enhanced self-renewal activity. By gain and loss-of-function studies in SW480 and SW620 cells respectively, we reveal that SOX9 levels modulate tumorsphere formation and self-renewal ability in vitro and tumor initiation in vivo. Moreover, SOX9 regulates migration and invasion and triggers the transition between epithelial and mesenchymal states. These activities are partially dependent on SOX9 post-transcriptional modifications. Importantly, treatment with rapamycin inhibits self-renewal and tumor growth in a SOX9-dependent manner. These results identify a functional role for SOX9 in regulating colorectal cancer cell plasticity and metastasis, and provide a strong rationale for a rapamycin-based therapeutic strategy. PMID:27571710

  19. SOX9-regulated cell plasticity in colorectal metastasis is attenuated by rapamycin

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco-Garcia, Estefania; Lopez, Lidia; Aldaz, Paula; Arevalo, Sara; Aldaregia, Juncal; Egaña, Larraitz; Bujanda, Luis; Cheung, Martin; Sampron, Nicolas; Garcia, Idoia; Matheu, Ander

    2016-01-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis proposes a hierarchical organization of tumors, in which stem-like cells sustain tumors and drive metastasis. The molecular mechanisms underlying the acquisition of CSCs and metastatic traits are not well understood. SOX9 is a transcription factor linked to stem cell maintenance and commonly overexpressed in solid cancers including colorectal cancer. In this study, we show that SOX9 levels are higher in metastatic (SW620) than in primary colorectal cancer cells (SW480) derived from the same patient. This elevated expression correlated with enhanced self-renewal activity. By gain and loss-of-function studies in SW480 and SW620 cells respectively, we reveal that SOX9 levels modulate tumorsphere formation and self-renewal ability in vitro and tumor initiation in vivo. Moreover, SOX9 regulates migration and invasion and triggers the transition between epithelial and mesenchymal states. These activities are partially dependent on SOX9 post-transcriptional modifications. Importantly, treatment with rapamycin inhibits self-renewal and tumor growth in a SOX9-dependent manner. These results identify a functional role for SOX9 in regulating colorectal cancer cell plasticity and metastasis, and provide a strong rationale for a rapamycin-based therapeutic strategy. PMID:27571710

  20. Profiling the role of mammalian target of rapamycin in the vascular smooth muscle metabolome in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kudryashova, Tatiana V.; Goncharov, Dmitry A.; Pena, Andressa; Ihida-Stansbury, Kaori; DeLisser, Horace; Kawut, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Increased proliferation and resistance to apoptosis of pulmonary arterial vascular smooth muscle cells (PAVSMCs), coupled with metabolic reprogramming, are key components of pulmonary vascular remodeling, a major and currently irreversible pathophysiological feature of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We recently reported that activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) plays a key role in increased energy generation and maintenance of the proliferative, apoptosis-resistant PAVSMC phenotype in human PAH, but the downstream effects of mTOR activation on PAH PAVSMC metabolism are not clear. Using liquid and gas chromatography–based mass spectrometry, we performed pilot metabolomic profiling of human microvascular PAVSMCs from idiopathic-PAH subjects before and after treatment with the selective adenosine triphosphate–competitive mTOR inhibitor PP242 and from nondiseased lungs. We have shown that PAH PAVSMCs have a distinct metabolomic signature of altered metabolites—components of fatty acid synthesis, deficiency of sugars, amino sugars, and nucleotide sugars—intermediates of protein and lipid glycosylation, and downregulation of key biochemicals involved in glutathione and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) metabolism. We also report that mTOR inhibition attenuated or reversed the majority of the PAH-specific abnormalities in lipogenesis, glycosylation, glutathione, and NAD metabolism without affecting altered polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism. Collectively, our data demonstrate a critical role of mTOR in major PAH PAVSMC metabolic abnormalities and suggest the existence of de novo lipid synthesis in PAVSMCs in human PAH that may represent a new, important component of disease pathogenesis worthy of future investigation. PMID:26697174

  1. Rapamycin ameliorates CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in mice through reciprocal regulation of the Th17/Treg cell balance

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Lei; Deng, Wen-Sheng; Sun, Xiao-Fei; Zhou, Hong; Xu, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Previous investigations have suggested that the activation of Th17 cells and/or deficiency of regulatory T cells (Tregs) are involved in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of rapamycin on immune responses in a carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced murine liver fibrosis model. Liver fibrosis was induced by intraperitoneal administration with CCl4. Following injection of CCl4, the mice were treated intraperitoneally with rapamycin (1.25 mg/kg/day) for 8 weeks. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and Masson's trichrome staining were used for histological examination. The protein levels of forkhead/winged helix transcription factor P3, retinoic-acid-related orphan receptor (ROR)-γt in liver tissue were determined by western blotting, the frequency of Th17 and Treg cells in the liver was evaluated by flow cytometry, and a suppression assay was measured by incorporating [3H]-thymidine. In addition, to explore the effect of Tregs expanded with rapamycin on hepatic stellate cells (HSC), HSCs were co-cultured with Tregs from rapamycin or phosphate-buffered saline-treated mice. It was found that rapamycin treatment led to a significant reduction in the number of Th17 cells and in the expression levels of ROR-γt in the liver tissues. Simultaneously, the results of the present study showed a significant increase in the frequency of Tregs and a marked enhancement in the expression of forkhead/winged helix transcription factor P3 in the rapamycin-treated mice. Furthermore, the Tregs in rapamycin-treated mice had significantly higher suppressive effects, compared with the cells from mice treated with phospphate-buffered saline. Consequently, rapamycin treatment prevented the development of CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis, which was shown by its histological appearances. These results suggested that the immunosuppressive effect of rapamycin on liver fibrosis was associated with the suppression of hepatic fibrogenesis and

  2. Lipin-1 regulates cancer cell phenotype and is a potential target to potentiate rapamycin treatment

    PubMed Central

    Brohée, Laura; Demine, Stéphane; Willems, Jérome; Arnould, Thierry; Colige, Alain C.; Deroanne, Christophe F.

    2015-01-01

    Lipogenesis inhibition was reported to induce apoptosis and repress proliferation of cancer cells while barely affecting normal cells. Lipins exhibit dual function as enzymes catalyzing the dephosphorylation of phosphatidic acid to diacylglycerol and as co-transcriptional regulators. Thus, they are able to regulate lipid homeostasis at several nodal points. Here, we show that lipin-1 is up-regulated in several cancer cell lines and overexpressed in 50 % of high grade prostate cancers. The proliferation of prostate and breast cancer cells, but not of non-tumorigenic cells, was repressed upon lipin-1 knock-down. Lipin-1 depletion also decreased cancer cell migration through RhoA activation. Lipin-1 silencing did not significantly affect global lipid synthesis but enhanced the cellular concentration of phosphatidic acid. In parallel, autophagy was induced while AKT and ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation were repressed. We also observed a compensatory regulation between lipin-1 and lipin-2 and demonstrated that their co-silencing aggravates the phenotype induced by lipin-1 silencing alone. Most interestingly, lipin-1 depletion or lipins inhibition with propranolol sensitized cancer cells to rapamycin. These data indicate that lipin-1 controls main cellular processes involved in cancer progression and that its targeting, alone or in combination with other treatments, could open new avenues in anticancer therapy. PMID:25834103

  3. Transcriptional regulation of gene expression during osmotic stress responses by the mammalian target of rapamycin.

    PubMed

    Ortells, M Carmen; Morancho, Beatriz; Drews-Elger, Katherine; Viollet, Benoit; Laderoute, Keith R; López-Rodríguez, Cristina; Aramburu, Jose

    2012-05-01

    Although stress can suppress growth and proliferation, cells can induce adaptive responses that allow them to maintain these functions under stress. While numerous studies have focused on the inhibitory effects of stress on cell growth, less is known on how growth-promoting pathways influence stress responses. We have approached this question by analyzing the effect of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a central growth controller, on the osmotic stress response. Our results showed that mammalian cells exposed to moderate hypertonicity maintained active mTOR, which was required to sustain their cell size and proliferative capacity. Moreover, mTOR regulated the induction of diverse osmostress response genes, including targets of the tonicity-responsive transcription factor NFAT5 as well as NFAT5-independent genes. Genes sensitive to mTOR-included regulators of stress responses, growth and proliferation. Among them, we identified REDD1 and REDD2, which had been previously characterized as mTOR inhibitors in other stress contexts. We observed that mTOR facilitated transcription-permissive conditions for several osmoresponsive genes by enhancing histone H4 acetylation and the recruitment of RNA polymerase II. Altogether, these results reveal a previously unappreciated role of mTOR in regulating transcriptional mechanisms that control gene expression during cellular stress responses. PMID:22287635

  4. MIR181A regulates starvation- and rapamycin-induced autophagy through targeting of ATG5

    PubMed Central

    Tekirdag, Kumsal Ayse; Korkmaz, Gozde; Ozturk, Deniz Gulfem; Agami, Reuven; Gozuacik, Devrim

    2013-01-01

    Macroautophagy (autophagy herein) is a cellular catabolic mechanism activated in response to stress conditions including starvation, hypoxia and misfolded protein accumulation. Abnormalities in autophagy were associated with pathologies including cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Hence, elucidation of the signaling pathways controlling autophagy is of utmost importance. Recently we and others described microRNAs (miRNAs) as novel and potent modulators of the autophagic activity. Here, we describe MIR181A (hsa-miR-181a-1) as a new autophagy-regulating miRNA. We showed that overexpression of MIR181A resulted in the attenuation of starvation- and rapamycin-induced autophagy in MCF-7, Huh-7 and K562 cells. Moreover, antagomir-mediated inactivation of endogenous miRNA activity stimulated autophagy. We identified ATG5 as an MIR181A target. Indeed, ATG5 cellular levels were decreased in cells upon MIR181A overexpression and increased following the introduction of antagomirs. More importantly, overexpression of ATG5 from a miRNA-insensitive cDNA construct rescued autophagic activity in the presence of MIR181A. We also showed that the ATG5 3′ UTR contained functional MIR181A responsive sequences sensitive to point mutations. Therefore, MIR181A is a novel and important regulator of autophagy and ATG5 is a rate-limiting miRNA target in this effect. PMID:23322078

  5. Phophatidylinositol-3 kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin/p70S6K regulates contractile protein accumulation in airway myocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Halayko, Andrew J; Kartha, Sreedharan; Stelmack, Gerald L; McConville, John; Tam, John; Camoretti-Mercado, Blanca; Forsythe, Sean M; Hershenson, Marc B; Solway, Julian

    2004-09-01

    Increased airway smooth muscle in airway remodeling results from myocyte proliferation and hypertrophy. Skeletal and vascular smooth muscle hypertrophy is induced by phosphatidylinositide-3 kinase (PI(3) kinase) via mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and p70S6 kinase (p70S6K). We tested the hypothesis that this pathway regulates contractile protein accumulation in cultured canine airway myocytes acquiring an elongated contractile phenotype in serum-free culture. In vitro assays revealed a sustained activation of PI(3) kinase and p70S6K during serum deprivation up to 12 d, with concomitant accumulation of SM22 and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (smMHC) proteins. Immunocytochemistry revealed that activation of PI3K/mTOR/p70S6K occurred almost exclusively in myocytes that acquire the contractile phenotype. Inhibition of PI(3) kinase or mTOR with LY294002 or rapamycin blocked p70S6K activation, prevented formation of large elongated contractile phenotype myocytes, and blocked accumulation of SM22 and smMHC. Inhibition of MEK had no effect. Steady-state mRNA abundance for SM22 and smMHC was unaffected by blocking p70S6K activation. These studies provide primary evidence that PI(3) kinase and mTOR activate p70S6K in airway myocytes leading to the accumulation of contractile apparatus proteins, differentiation, and growth of large, elongated contractile phenotype airway smooth muscle cells. PMID:15105162

  6. Rapamycin Regulates Bleomycin-Induced Lung Damage in SP-C-Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Madala, Satish K; Maxfield, Melissa D; Davidson, Cynthia R; Schmidt, Stephanie M; Garry, Daniel; Ikegami, Machiko; Hardie, William D; Glasser, Stephan W

    2011-01-01

    Injury to the distal respiratory epithelium has been implicated as an underlying cause of idiopathic lung diseases. Mutations that result in SP-C deficiencies are linked to a small subset of spontaneous and familial cases of interstitial lung disease (ILD) and interstitial pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Gene-targeted mice that lack SP-C (Sftpc(-/-)) develop an irregular ILD-like disease with age and are a model of the human SP-C related disease. In the current study, we investigated whether rapamycin could ameliorate bleomycin-induced fibrosis in the lungs of Sftpc(-/-) mice. Sftpc(+/+) and -/- mice were exposed to bleomycin with either preventative administration of rapamycin or therapeutic administration beginning eight days after the bleomycin injury. Rapamycin-treatment increased weight loss and decreased survival of bleomycin-treated Sftpc(+/+) and Sftpc(-/-) mice. Rapamycin did not reduce the fibrotic disease in the prophylactic or rescue experiments of either genotype of mice. Further, rapamycin treatment augmented airway resistance and reduced lung compliance of bleomycin-treated Sftpc(-/-) mice. Rapamycin treatment was associated with an increased expression of profibrotic Th2 cytokines and reduced expression of INF-γ. These findings indicate that novel therapeutics will be required to treat individuals with SP-C deficient ILD/IPF. PMID:21660239

  7. Rapamycin-insensitive up-regulation of adipocyte phospholipase A2 in tuberous sclerosis and lymphangioleiomyomatosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Chenggang; Zhang, Erik; Sun, Yang; Lee, Po-Shun; Zhan, Yongzhong; Guo, Yanan; Osorio, Juan C; Rosas, Ivan O; Xu, Kai-Feng; Kwiatkowski, David J; Yu, Jane J

    2014-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis syndrome (TSC) is an autosomal dominant tumor suppressor gene syndrome affecting multiple organs, including renal angiomyolipomas and pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM). LAM is a female-predominant interstitial lung disease characterized by the progressive cyst formation and respiratory failure, which is also seen in sporadic patients without TSC. Mutations in TSC1 or TSC2 cause TSC, result in hyperactivation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and are also seen in LAM cells in sporadic LAM. We recently reported that prostaglandin biosynthesis and cyclooxygenase-2 were deregulated in TSC and LAM. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is the rate-limiting enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of plasma membrane phospholipids into prostaglandins. In this study, we identified upregulation of adipocyte AdPLA2 (PLA2G16) in LAM nodule cells using publicly available expression data. We showed that the levels of AdPLA2 transcript and protein were higher in LAM lungs compared with control lungs. We then showed that TSC2 negatively regulates the expression of AdPLA2, and loss of TSC2 is associated with elevated production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and prostacyclin (PGI2) in cell culture models. Mouse model studies also showed increased expression of AdPLA2 in xenograft tumors, estrogen-induced lung metastatic lesions of Tsc2 null leiomyoma-derived cells, and spontaneous renal cystadenomas from Tsc2+/- mice. Importantly, rapamycin treatment did not affect the expression of AdPLA2 and the production of PGE2 by TSC2-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblast (Tsc2-/-MEFs), rat uterine leiomyoma-derived ELT3 cells, and LAM patient-associated renal angiomyolipoma-derived "mesenchymal" cells. Furthermore, methyl arachidonyl fluorophosphate (MAFP), a potent irreversible PLA2 inhibitor, selectively suppressed the growth and induced apoptosis of TSC2-deficient LAM patient-derived cells relative to TSC2-addback cells. Our findings suggest that AdPLA2 plays an important role

  8. Rapamycin ameliorates CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in mice through reciprocal regulation of the Th17/Treg cell balance.

    PubMed

    Gu, Lei; Deng, Wen-Sheng; Sun, Xiao-Fei; Zhou, Hong; Xu, Qing

    2016-08-01

    Previous investigations have suggested that the activation of Th17 cells and/or deficiency of regulatory T cells (Tregs) are involved in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of rapamycin on immune responses in a carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced murine liver fibrosis model. Liver fibrosis was induced by intraperitoneal administration with CCl4. Following injection of CCl4, the mice were treated intraperitoneally with rapamycin (1.25 mg/kg/day) for 8 weeks. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and Masson's trichrome staining were used for histological examination. The protein levels of forkhead/winged helix transcription factor P3, retinoic-acid-related orphan receptor (ROR)‑γt in liver tissue were determined by western blotting, the frequency of Th17 and Treg cells in the liver was evaluated by flow cytometry, and a suppression assay was measured by incorporating [3H]‑thymidine. In addition, to explore the effect of Tregs expanded with rapamycin on hepatic stellate cells (HSC), HSCs were co‑cultured with Tregs from rapamycin or phosphate‑buffered saline‑treated mice. It was found that rapamycin treatment led to a significant reduction in the number of Th17 cells and in the expression levels of ROR‑γt in the liver tissues. Simultaneously, the results of the present study showed a significant increase in the frequency of Tregs and a marked enhancement in the expression of forkhead/winged helix transcription factor P3 in the rapamycin‑treated mice. Furthermore, the Tregs in rapamycin‑treated mice had significantly higher suppressive effects, compared with the cells from mice treated with phospphate‑buffered saline. Consequently, rapamycin treatment prevented the development of CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis, which was shown by its histological appearances. These results suggested that the immunosuppressive effect of rapamycin on liver fibrosis was associated with the suppression of hepatic

  9. Activation of extracellular regulated kinase and mechanistic target of rapamycin pathway in focal cortical dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Patil, Vinit V; Guzman, Miguel; Carter, Angela N; Rathore, Geetanjali; Yoshor, Daniel; Curry, Daniel; Wilfong, Angus; Agadi, Satish; Swann, John W; Adesina, Adekunle M; Bhattacharjee, Meenakshi B; Anderson, Anne E

    2016-04-01

    Neuropathology of resected brain tissue has revealed an association of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) with drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE). Recent studies have shown that the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is hyperactivated in FCD as evidenced by increased phosphorylation of the ribosomal protein S6 (S6) at serine 240/244 (S(240/244) ), a downstream target of mTOR. Moreover, extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) has been shown to phosphorylate S6 at serine 235/236 (S(235/236) ) and tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2) at serine 664 (S(664) ) leading to hyperactive mTOR signaling. We evaluated ERK phosphorylation of S6 and TSC2 in two types of FCD (FCD I and FCD II) as a candidate mechanism contributing to mTOR pathway dysregulation. Tissue samples from patients with tuberous sclerosis (TS) served as a positive control. Immunostaining for phospho-S6 (pS6(240/244) and pS6(235/236) ), phospho-ERK (pERK), and phospho-TSC2 (pTSC2) was performed on resected brain tissue with FCD and TS. We found increased pS6(240/244) and pS6(235/236) staining in FCD I, FCD II and TS compared to normal-appearing tissue, while pERK and pTSC2 staining was increased only in FCD IIb and TS tissue. Our results suggest that both the ERK and mTOR pathways are dysregulated in FCD and TS; however, the signaling alterations are different for FCD I as compared to FCD II and TS. PMID:26381727

  10. Targeting Rapamycin to Podocytes Using a Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1)-Harnessed SAINT-Based Lipid Carrier System

    PubMed Central

    Visweswaran, Ganesh Ram R.; Gholizadeh, Shima; Ruiters, Marcel H. J.; Molema, Grietje; Kok, Robbert J.; Kamps, Jan. A. A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Together with mesangial cells, glomerular endothelial cells and the basement membrane, podocytes constitute the glomerular filtration barrier (GFB) of the kidney. Podocytes play a pivotal role in the progression of various kidney-related diseases such as glomerular sclerosis and glomerulonephritis that finally lead to chronic end-stage renal disease. During podocytopathies, the slit-diaphragm connecting the adjacent podocytes are detached leading to severe loss of proteins in the urine. The pathophysiology of podocytopathies makes podocytes a potential and challenging target for nanomedicine development, though there is a lack of known molecular targets for cell selective drug delivery. To identify VCAM-1 as a cell-surface receptor that is suitable for binding and internalization of nanomedicine carrier systems by podocytes, we investigated its expression in the immortalized podocyte cell lines AB8/13 and MPC-5, and in primary podocytes. Gene and protein expression analyses revealed that VCAM-1 expression is increased by podocytes upon TNFα-activation for up to 24 h. This was paralleled by anti-VCAM-1 antibody binding to the TNFα-activated cells, which can be employed as a ligand to facilitate the uptake of nanocarriers under inflammatory conditions. Hence, we next explored the possibilities of using VCAM-1 as a cell-surface receptor to deliver the potent immunosuppressant rapamycin to TNFα-activated podocytes using the lipid-based nanocarrier system Saint-O-Somes. Anti-VCAM-1-rapamycin-SAINT-O-Somes more effectively inhibited the cell migration of AB8/13 cells than free rapamycin and non-targeted rapamycin-SAINT-O-Somes indicating the potential of VCAM-1 targeted drug delivery to podocytes. PMID:26407295

  11. Regulation of insulin receptor substrate-1 by mTORC2 (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2)

    PubMed Central

    DeStefano, Michael A.; Jacinto, Estela

    2016-01-01

    mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) responds to the presence of nutrients, energy and growth factors to link cellular metabolism, growth and proliferation. The rapamycin-sensitive mTORC (mTOR complex) 1 activates the translational regulator S6K (S6 kinase), leading to increased protein synthesis in the presence of nutrients. On the other hand, the rapamycin-insensitive mTORC2 responds to the presence of growth factors such as insulin by phosphorylating Akt to promote its maturation and allosteric activation. We recently found that mTORC2 can also regulate insulin signalling at the level of IRS-1 (insulin receptor substrate-1). Whereas mTORC1 promotes IRS-1 serine phosphorylation that is linked to IRS-1 down-regulation, we uncovered that mTORC2 mediates its degradation. In mTORC2-disrupted cells, inactive IRS-1 accumulated despite undergoing phosphorylation at the mTORC1-mediated serine sites. Defective IRS-1 degradation was due to attenuated expression of the CUL7 (Cullin 7) ubiquitin ligase substrate-targeting subunit Fbw8. mTORC2 and Fbw8 co-localize at the membrane where mTORC2 phosphorylates Ser86 to stabilize Fbw8 and promotes its cytosolic localization upon insulin stimulation. Under conditions of chronic insulin exposure, inactive serine-phosphorylated IRS-1 and Fbw8 co-localize to the cytosol where the former becomes ubiquitylated via CUL7/Fbw8. Thus mTORC2 negatively feeds back to IRS-1 via control of Fbw8 stability and localization. Our findings reveal that, in addition to persistent mTORC1 signalling, increased mTORC2 signals can promote insulin resistance due to mTORC2-mediated degradation of IRS-1. PMID:23863152

  12. The Enigma of Rapamycin Dosage.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Suman; Frias, Maria A; Chatterjee, Amrita; Yellen, Paige; Foster, David A

    2016-03-01

    The mTOR pathway is a critical regulator of cell growth, proliferation, metabolism, and survival. Dysregulation of mTOR signaling has been observed in most cancers and, thus, the mTOR pathway has been extensively studied for therapeutic intervention. Rapamycin is a natural product that inhibits mTOR with high specificity. However, its efficacy varies by dose in several contexts. First, different doses of rapamycin are needed to suppress mTOR in different cell lines; second, different doses of rapamycin are needed to suppress the phosphorylation of different mTOR substrates; and third, there is a differential sensitivity of the two mTOR complexes mTORC1 and mTORC2 to rapamycin. Intriguingly, the enigmatic properties of rapamycin dosage can be explained in large part by the competition between rapamycin and phosphatidic acid (PA) for mTOR. Rapamycin and PA have opposite effects on mTOR whereby rapamycin destabilizes and PA stabilizes both mTOR complexes. In this review, we discuss the properties of rapamycin dosage in the context of anticancer therapeutics. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(3); 347-53. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26916116

  13. Pharmaceutical inhibition of mTOR in the common marmoset: effect of rapamycin on regulators of proteostasis in a non-human primate

    PubMed Central

    Lelegren, Matthew; Liu, Yuhong; Ross, Corinna; Tardif, Suzette; Salmon, Adam B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Inhibition of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) has emerged as a viable means to lengthen lifespan and healthspan in mice, although it is still unclear whether these benefits will extend to other mammalian species. We previously reported results from a pilot experiment wherein common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) were treated orally with rapamycin to reduce mTOR signaling in vivo in line with previous reports in mice and humans. Further, long-term treatment did not significantly alter body weight, daily activity, blood lipid concentrations, or glucose metabolism in this cohort. Methods In this study, we report on the molecular consequences of rapamycin treatment in marmosets on mechanisms that regulate protein homeostasis (proteostasis) in vivo. There is growing appreciation for the role of proteostasis in longevity and for the role that mTOR plays in regulating this process. Tissue samples of liver and skeletal muscle from marmosets in our pilot cohort were assessed for expression and activity of components of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, macroautophagy, and protein chaperones. Results Rapamycin treatment was associated with increased expression of PSMB5, a core subunit of the 20S proteasome, but not PSMB8 which is involved in the formation of the immunoproteasome, in the skeletal muscle and liver. Surprisingly, proteasome activity measured in these tissues was not affected by rapamycin. Rapamycin treatment was associated with an increased expression of mitochondria-targeted protein chaperones in skeletal muscle, but not liver. Finally, autophagy was increased in skeletal muscle and adipose, but not liver, from rapamycin-treated marmosets. Conclusions Overall, these data show tissue-specific upregulation of some, but not all, components of the proteostasis network in common marmosets treated with a pharmaceutical inhibitor of mTOR. PMID:27341957

  14. Fission yeast TORC1 regulates phosphorylation of ribosomal S6 proteins in response to nutrients and its activity is inhibited by rapamycin

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Akio; Sato, Tatsuhiro; Tamanoi, Fuyuhiko

    2010-01-01

    Cellular activities are regulated by environmental stimuli through protein phosphorylation. Target of rapamycin (TOR), a serine/threonine kinase, plays pivotal roles in cell proliferation and cell growth in response to nutrient status. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, TORC1, which contains Tor2, plays crucial roles in nutrient response. Here we find a nitrogen-regulated phosphoprotein, p27, in S. pombe using the phospho-Akt substrate antibody. Response of p27 phosphorylation to nitrogen availability is mediated by TORC1 and the TSC-Rhb1 signaling, but not by TORC2 or other nutrient stress-related pathways. Database and biochemical analyses indicate that p27 is identical to ribosomal protein S6 (Rps6). Ser235 and Ser236 in Rps6 are necessary for Rps6 phosphorylation by TORC1. These Rps6 phosphorylations are dispensable for cell viability. Rps6 phosphorylation by TORC1 also responds to availability of glucose and is inhibited by osmotic and oxidative stresses. Rapamycin inhibits the ability of TORC1 to phosphorylate Rps6, owing to interaction of the rapamycin-FKBP12 complex with the FRB domain in Tor2. Rapamycin also leads to a decrease in cell size in a TORC1-dependent manner. Our findings demonstrate that the nutrient-responsive and rapamycin-sensitive TORC1-S6 signaling exists in S. pombe, and that this pathway plays a role in cell size control. PMID:20144990

  15. Protease nexin-1 regulates retinal vascular development.

    PubMed

    Selbonne, Sonia; Francois, Deborah; Raoul, William; Boulaftali, Yacine; Sennlaub, Florian; Jandrot-Perrus, Martine; Bouton, Marie-Christine; Arocas, Véronique

    2015-10-01

    We recently identified protease nexin-1 (PN-1) or serpinE2, as a possibly underestimated player in maintaining angiogenic balance. Here, we used the well-characterized postnatal vascular development of newborn mouse retina to further investigate the role and the mechanism of action of PN-1 in physiological angiogenesis. The development of retinal vasculature was analysed by endothelial cell staining with isolectin B4. PN-1-deficient (PN-1(-/-)) retina displayed increased vascularization in the postnatal period, with elevated capillary thickness and density, compared to their wild-type littermate (WT). Moreover, PN-1(-/-) retina presented more veins/arteries than WT retina. The kinetics of retinal vasculature development, retinal VEGF expression and overall retinal structure were similar in WT and PN-1(-/-) mice, but we observed a hyperproliferation of vascular cells in PN-1(-/-) retina. Expression of PN-1 was analysed by immunoblotting and X-Gal staining of retinas from mice expressing beta-galactosidase under a PN-1 promoter. PN-1 was highly expressed in the first week following birth and then progressively decreased to a low level in adult retina where it localized on the retinal arteries. PCR arrays performed on mouse retinal RNA identified two angiogenesis-related factors, midkine and Smad5, that were overexpressed in PN-1(-/-) newborn mice and this was confirmed by RT-PCR. Both the higher vascularization and the overexpression of midkine and Smad5 mRNA were also observed in gastrocnemius muscle of PN-1(-/-) mice, suggesting that PN-1 interferes with these pathways. Together, our results demonstrate that PN-1 strongly limits physiological angiogenesis and suggest that modulation of PN-1 expression could represent a new way to regulate angiogenesis. PMID:26109427

  16. Regulation of vascular tone and arterial blood pressure: role of chloride transport in vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Hübner, Christian A; Schroeder, Björn C; Ehmke, Heimo

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies suggest that primary changes in vascular resistance can cause sustained changes in arterial blood pressure. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about Cl(-) homeostasis in vascular smooth muscle cells. Within vascular smooth muscle cells, Cl(-) is accumulated above the electrochemical equilibrium, causing Cl(-) efflux, membrane depolarization, and increased contractile force when Cl(-) channels are opened. At least two different transport mechanisms contribute to raise [Cl(-)] i in vascular smooth muscle cells, anion exchange, and cation-chloride cotransport. Recent work suggests that TMEM16A-associated Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) currents mediate Cl(-) efflux in vascular smooth muscle cells leading to vasoconstriction. Additional proteins associated with Cl(-) flux in vascular smooth muscle are bestrophins, which modulate vasomotion, the volume-activated LRRC8, and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Cl(-) transporters and Cl(-) channels in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) significantly contribute to the physiological regulation of vascular tone and arterial blood pressure. PMID:25588975

  17. VESGEN Software for Mapping and Quantification of Vascular Regulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia A.; Vickerman, Mary B.; Keith, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    VESsel GENeration (VESGEN) Analysis is an automated software that maps and quantifies effects of vascular regulators on vascular morphology by analyzing important vessel parameters. Quantification parameters include vessel diameter, length, branch points, density, and fractal dimension. For vascular trees, measurements are reported as dependent functions of vessel branching generation. VESGEN maps and quantifies vascular morphological events according to fractal-based vascular branching generation. It also relies on careful imaging of branching and networked vascular form. It was developed as a plug-in for ImageJ (National Institutes of Health, USA). VESGEN uses image-processing concepts of 8-neighbor pixel connectivity, skeleton, and distance map to analyze 2D, black-and-white (binary) images of vascular trees, networks, and tree-network composites. VESGEN maps typically 5 to 12 (or more) generations of vascular branching, starting from a single parent vessel. These generations are tracked and measured for critical vascular parameters that include vessel diameter, length, density and number, and tortuosity per branching generation. The effects of vascular therapeutics and regulators on vascular morphology and branching tested in human clinical or laboratory animal experimental studies are quantified by comparing vascular parameters with control groups. VESGEN provides a user interface to both guide and allow control over the users vascular analysis process. An option is provided to select a morphological tissue type of vascular trees, network or tree-network composites, which determines the general collections of algorithms, intermediate images, and output images and measurements that will be produced.

  18. Regulation of the Target of Rapamycin and Other Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase-Related Kinases by Membrane Targeting

    PubMed Central

    De Cicco, Maristella; Abd Rahim, Munirah S.; Dames, Sonja A.

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinases (PIKKs) play vital roles in the regulation of cell growth, proliferation, survival, and consequently metabolism, as well as in the cellular response to stresses such as ionizing radiation or redox changes. In humans six family members are known to date, namely mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), ataxia- and Rad3-related (ATR), DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), suppressor of morphogenesis in genitalia-1 (SMG-1), and transformation/transcription domain-associated protein (TRRAP). All fulfill rather diverse functions and most of them have been detected in different cellular compartments including various cellular membranes. It has been suggested that the regulation of the localization of signaling proteins allows for generating a locally specific output. Moreover, spatial partitioning is expected to improve the reliability of biochemical signaling. Since these assumptions may also be true for the regulation of PIKK function, the current knowledge about the regulation of the localization of PIKKs at different cellular (membrane) compartments by a network of interactions is reviewed. Membrane targeting can involve direct lipid-/membrane interactions as well as interactions with membrane-anchored regulatory proteins, such as, for example, small GTPases, or a combination of both. PMID:26426064

  19. Rapamycin induces apoptosis when autophagy is inhibited in T-47D mammary cells and both processes are regulated by Phlda1.

    PubMed

    Moad, Ahmed Ismail Hassan; Muhammad, Tengku Sifzizul Tengku; Oon, Chern Ein; Tan, Mei Lan

    2013-07-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved lysosomal degradation pathway and plays a critical role in the homeostatic process of recycling proteins and organelles. Functional relationships have been described between apoptosis and autophagy. Perturbations in the apoptotic machinery have been reported to induce autophagic cell deaths. Inhibition of autophagy in cancer cells has resulted in cell deaths that manifested hallmarks of apoptosis. However, the molecular relationships and the circumstances of which molecular pathways dictate the choice between apoptosis and autophagy are currently unknown. This study aims to identify specific gene expression of rapamycin-induced autophagy and the effects of rapamycin when the autophagy process is inhibited. In this study, we have demonstrated that rapamycin is capable of inducing autophagy in T-47D breast carcinoma cells. However, when the autophagy process was inhibited by 3-MA, the effects of rapamycin became apoptotic. The Phlda1 gene was found to be up-regulated in both autophagy and apoptosis and silencing this gene was found to reduce both activities, strongly suggests that Phlda1 mediates and positively regulates both autophagy and apoptosis pathways. PMID:23300026

  20. Nitric oxide regulates vascular adaptive mitochondrial dynamics.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew W; Knaub, Leslie A; Olivera-Fragoso, Luis F; Keller, Amy C; Balasubramaniam, Vivek; Watson, Peter A; Reusch, Jane E B

    2013-06-15

    Cardiovascular disease risk factors, such as diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, and physical inactivity, are all correlated with impaired endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) function and decreased nitric oxide (NO) production. NO-mediated regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis has been established in many tissues, yet the role of eNOS in vascular mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics is unclear. We hypothesized that genetic eNOS deletion and 3-day nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition in rodents would result in impaired mitochondrial biogenesis and defunct fission/fusion and autophagy profiles within the aorta. We observed a significant, eNOS expression-dependent decrease in mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) protein subunits from complexes I, II, III, and V in eNOS heterozygotes and eNOS null mice compared with age-matched controls. In response to NOS inhibition with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) treatment in Sprague Dawley rats, significant decreases were observed in ETC protein subunits from complexes I, III, and IV as well as voltage-dependent anion channel 1. Decreased protein content of upstream regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis, cAMP response element-binding protein and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α, were observed in response to 3-day L-NAME treatment. Both genetic eNOS deletion and NOS inhibition resulted in decreased manganese superoxide dismutase protein. L-NAME treatment resulted in significant changes to mitochondrial dynamic protein profiles with decreased fusion, increased fission, and minimally perturbed autophagy. In addition, L-NAME treatment blocked mitochondrial adaptation to an exercise intervention in the aorta. These results suggest that eNOS/NO play a role in basal and adaptive mitochondrial biogenesis in the vasculature and regulation of mitochondrial turnover. PMID:23585138

  1. Syntaxin13 Expression Is Regulated by Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) in Injured Neurons to Promote Axon Regeneration*

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yongcheol; Di Liberto, Valentina; Carlin, Dan; Abe, Namiko; Li, Kathy H.; Burlingame, Alma L.; Guan, Shenheng; Michaelevski, Izhak; Cavalli, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    Injured peripheral neurons successfully activate intrinsic signaling pathways to enable axon regeneration. We have previously shown that dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons activate the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway following injury and that this activity enhances their axon growth capacity. mTOR plays a critical role in protein synthesis, but the mTOR-dependent proteins enhancing the regenerative capacity of DRG neurons remain unknown. To identify proteins whose expression is regulated by injury in an mTOR-dependent manner, we analyzed the protein composition of DRGs from mice in which we genetically activated mTOR and from mice with or without a prior nerve injury. Quantitative label-free mass spectrometry analyses revealed that the injury effects were correlated with mTOR activation. We identified a member of the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) family of proteins, syntaxin13, whose expression was increased by injury in an mTOR-dependent manner. Increased syntaxin13 levels in injured nerves resulted from local protein synthesis and not axonal transport. Finally, knockdown of syntaxin13 in cultured DRG neurons prevented axon growth and regeneration. Together, these data suggest that syntaxin13 translation is regulated by mTOR in injured neurons to promote axon regeneration. PMID:24737317

  2. TOR signaling and rapamycin influence longevity by regulating SKN-1/Nrf and DAF-16/FoxO.

    PubMed

    Robida-Stubbs, Stacey; Glover-Cutter, Kira; Lamming, Dudley W; Mizunuma, Masaki; Narasimhan, Sri Devi; Neumann-Haefelin, Elke; Sabatini, David M; Blackwell, T Keith

    2012-05-01

    The TOR kinase, which is present in the functionally distinct complexes TORC1 and TORC2, is essential for growth but associated with disease and aging. Elucidation of how TOR influences life span will identify mechanisms of fundamental importance in aging and TOR functions. Here we show that when TORC1 is inhibited genetically in C. elegans, SKN-1/Nrf, and DAF-16/FoxO activate protective genes, and increase stress resistance and longevity. SKN-1 also upregulates TORC1 pathway gene expression in a feedback loop. Rapamycin triggers a similar protective response in C. elegans and mice, but increases worm life span dependent upon SKN-1 and not DAF-16, apparently by interfering with TORC2 along with TORC1. TORC1, TORC2, and insulin/IGF-1-like signaling regulate SKN-1 activity through different mechanisms. We conclude that modulation of SKN-1/Nrf and DAF-16/FoxO may be generally important in the effects of TOR signaling in vivo and that these transcription factors mediate an opposing relationship between growth signals and longevity. PMID:22560223

  3. Mis-regulation of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Complexes Induced by Albuminuria in Proximal Tubules*

    PubMed Central

    Peruchetti, Diogo B.; Cheng, Jie; Caruso-Neves, Celso; Guggino, William B.

    2014-01-01

    High albumin concentrations in the proximal tubule of the kidney causes tubulointerstitial injury, but how this process occurs is not completely known. To address the signal transduction pathways mis-regulated in renal injury, we studied the modulation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complexes by physiologic and pathophysiologic albumin concentrations in proximal tubule cells. Physiologic albumin concentrations activated the PI3K/mTORC2/PKB/mTORC1/S6 kinase (S6K) pathway, but pathophysiologically high albumin concentrations overactivated mTORC1 and inhibited mTORC2 activity. This control process involved the activation of ERK1/2, which promoted the inhibition of TSC2 and activation of S6K. Furthermore, S6K was crucial to promoting the over activation of mTORC1 and inhibition of mTORC2. Megalin expression at the luminal membrane is reduced by high concentrations of albumin. In addition, knockdown of megalin mimicked all the effects of pathophysiologic albumin concentrations, which disrupt normal signal transduction pathways and lead to an overactivation of mTORC1 and inhibition of mTORC2. These data provide new perspectives for understanding the molecular mechanisms behind the effects of albumin on the progression of renal disease. PMID:24790108

  4. Target of rapamycin signaling regulates metabolism, growth, and lifespan in Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    TOR is a major nutrition and energy sensor that regulates growth and lifespan in yeast and animals. In plants growth and lifespan are intertwined with not only nutrient acquisition but also nutrition generation and unique aspects of development and differentiation. How TOR functions in these process...

  5. The Prolyl Peptidases PRCP/PREP Regulate IRS-1 Stability Critical for Rapamycin-induced Feedback Activation of PI3K and AKT*

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Lei; Ying, Guoguang; Danzer, Brian; Perez, Ricardo E.; Shariat-Madar, Zia; Levenson, Victor V.; Maki, Carl G.

    2014-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (PKB/AKT)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway conveys signals from receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) to regulate cell metabolism, proliferation, survival, and motility. Previously we found that prolylcarboxypeptidase (PRCP) regulate proliferation and survival in breast cancer cells. In this study, we found that PRCP and the related family member prolylendopeptidase (PREP) are essential for proliferation and survival of pancreatic cancer cells. Depletion/inhibition of PRCP and PREP-induced serine phosphorylation and degradation of IRS-1, leading to inactivation of the cellular PI3K and AKT. Notably, depletion/inhibition of PRCP/PREP destabilized IRS-1 in the cells treated with rapamycin, blocking the feedback activation PI3K/AKT. Consequently, inhibition of PRCP/PREP enhanced rapamycin-induced cytotoxicity. Thus, we have identified PRCP and PREP as a stabilizer of IRS-1 which is critical for PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling in pancreatic cancer cells. PMID:24936056

  6. Target of Rapamycin Regulates Development and Ribosomal RNA Expression through Kinase Domain in Arabidopsis1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Maozhi; Qiu, Shuqing; Venglat, Prakash; Xiang, Daoquan; Feng, Li; Selvaraj, Gopalan; Datla, Raju

    2011-01-01

    Target of rapamycin (TOR) is a central regulator of cell growth, cell death, nutrition, starvation, hormone, and stress responses in diverse eukaryotes. However, very little is known about TOR signaling and the associated functional domains in plants. We have taken a genetic approach to dissect TOR functions in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and report here that the kinase domain is essential for the role of TOR in embryogenesis and 45S rRNA expression. Twelve new T-DNA insertion mutants, spanning 14.2 kb of TOR-encoding genomic region, have been characterized. Nine of these share expression of defective kinase domain and embryo arrest at 16 to 32 cell stage. However, three T-DNA insertion lines affecting FATC domain displayed normal embryo development, indicating that FATC domain was dispensable in Arabidopsis. Genetic complementation showed that the TOR kinase domain alone in tor-10/tor-10 mutant background can rescue early embryo lethality and restore normal development. Overexpression of full-length TOR or kinase domain in Arabidopsis displayed developmental abnormalities in meristem, leaf, root, stem, flowering time, and senescence. We further show that TOR, especially the kinase domain, plays a role in ribosome biogenesis by activating 45S rRNA production. Of the six putative nuclear localization sequences in the kinase domain, nuclear localization sequence 6 was identified to confer TOR nuclear targeting in transient expression assays. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies revealed that the HEAT repeat domain binds to 45S rRNA promoter and the 5′ external transcribed spacer elements motif. Together, these results show that TOR controls the embryogenesis, postembryonic development, and 45S rRNA production through its kinase domain in Arabidopsis. PMID:21266656

  7. Vascular precursors: origin, regulation and function

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this miniseries, we discuss the phenotype, origin, and specialized microenvironment (niche) of distinct populations of stem and progenitor cells that exhibit vascular potential. Their usefulness and effectiveness for clinical therapies are also described. We have learned a great deal about post...

  8. Rapamycin inhibits the growth of glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Arcella, Antonietta; Biagioni, Francesca; Antonietta Oliva, Maria; Bucci, Domenico; Frati, Alessandro; Esposito, Vincenzo; Cantore, Giampaolo; Giangaspero, Felice; Fornai, Francesco

    2013-02-01

    The molecular target of rapamycin (mTOR) is up-regulated in glioblastoma (GBM) and this is associated with the rate of cell growth, stem cell proliferation and disease relapse. Rapamycin is a powerful mTOR inhibitor and strong autophagy inducer. Previous studies analyzed the effects of rapamycin in GBM cell lines. However, to our knowledge, no experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of rapamycin neither in primary cells derived from GBM patients nor in vivo in brain GBM xenograft. These data are critical to get a deeper insight into the effects of such adjuvant therapy in GBM patients. In the present study, various doses of rapamycin were tested in primary cell cultures from GBM patients. These effects were compared with that obtained by the same doses of rapamycin in GBM cell lines (U87Mg). The effects of rapamycin were also evaluated in vivo, in brain tumors developed from mouse xenografts. Rapamycin, starting at the dose of 10nm inhibited cell growth both in U87Mg cell line and primary cell cultures derived from various GBM patients. When administered in vivo to brain xenografts in nude mice rapamycin almost doubled the survival time of mice and inhibited by more than 95% of tumor volume. PMID:23261661

  9. The Adventitia: Essential Regulator of Vascular Wall Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Stenmark, Kurt R.; Yeager, Michael E.; El Kasmi, Karim C.; Nozik-Grayck, Eva; Gerasimovskaya, Evgenia V.; Li, Min; Riddle, Suzette R.; Frid, Maria G.

    2013-01-01

    The vascular adventitia acts as a biological processing center for the retrieval, integration, storage, and release of key regulators of vessel wall function. It is the most complex compartment of the vessel wall and is comprised of a variety of cells including fibroblasts, immunomodulatory cells (dendritic and macrophages), progenitor cells, vasa vasorum endothelial cells and pericytes, and adrenergic nerves. In response to vascular stress or injury, resident adventitial cells are often the first to be activated and re-programmed to then influence tone and structure of the vessel wall, to initiate and perpetuate chronic vascular inflammation, and to act to stimulate expansion of the vasa vasorum, which can act as a conduit for continued inflammatory and progenitor cell delivery to the vessel wall. This review presents the current evidence demonstrating that the adventitia acts as a key regulator of vascular wall function and structure from the “outside-in.” PMID:23216413

  10. The adventitia: essential regulator of vascular wall structure and function.

    PubMed

    Stenmark, Kurt R; Yeager, Michael E; El Kasmi, Karim C; Nozik-Grayck, Eva; Gerasimovskaya, Evgenia V; Li, Min; Riddle, Suzette R; Frid, Maria G

    2013-01-01

    The vascular adventitia acts as a biological processing center for the retrieval, integration, storage, and release of key regulators of vessel wall function. It is the most complex compartment of the vessel wall and is composed of a variety of cells, including fibroblasts, immunomodulatory cells (dendritic cells and macrophages), progenitor cells, vasa vasorum endothelial cells and pericytes, and adrenergic nerves. In response to vascular stress or injury, resident adventitial cells are often the first to be activated and reprogrammed to influence the tone and structure of the vessel wall; to initiate and perpetuate chronic vascular inflammation; and to stimulate expansion of the vasa vasorum, which can act as a conduit for continued inflammatory and progenitor cell delivery to the vessel wall. This review presents the current evidence demonstrating that the adventitia acts as a key regulator of vascular wall function and structure from the outside in. PMID:23216413

  11. Regulation of Vascular Endothelium Inflammatory Signalling by Shear Stress.

    PubMed

    Zakkar, Mustafa; Angelini, Gianni D; Emanueli, Costanza

    2016-01-01

    The vascular endothelium plays a pivotal role in regulating vascular homeostasis. Blood flow exerts several mechanical forces on the luminal surface of the Endothelial Cell (EC) including pressure, circumferential stretch, and shear stress. It is widely believed that shear stress plays a central role in regulating EC inflammatory responses and the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. High shear stress can induce an antiinflammatory status in EC, which is partially mediated by the production of proteins and transcription factors able to suppress different proinflammatory signalling pathways. In this review, we summarise the available evidence regarding the effect of shear stress on vascular EC and smooth muscle cells, the regulation of MAPK and NF-κB including the production of different negative regulators of inflammation such as MKP-1 and NRF2, and the production of microRNAs. We also discuss the possible links between shear stress and the development of atherosclerosis. PMID:26638798

  12. Critical Endothelial Regulation by LRP5 during Retinal Vascular Development

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Li, Qing; Amiry-Moghaddam, Mahmood; Hokama, Madoka; Sardi, Sylvia H.; Nagao, Masashi; Warman, Matthew L.; Olsen, Bjorn R.

    2016-01-01

    Vascular abnormalities in the eye are the leading cause of many forms of inherited and acquired human blindness. Loss-of-function mutations in the Wnt-binding co-receptor LRP5 leads to aberrant ocular vascularization and loss of vision in genetic disorders such as osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome. The canonical Wnt-β-catenin pathway is known to regulate retinal vascular development. However, it is unclear what precise role LPR5 plays in this process. Here, we show that loss of LRP5 function in mice causes retinal hypovascularization during development as well as retinal neovascularization in adulthood with disorganized and leaky vessels. Using a highly specific Flk1-CreBreier line for vascular endothelial cells, together with several genetic models, we demonstrate that loss of endothelium-derived LRP5 recapitulates the retinal vascular defects in Lrp5-/- mice. In addition, restoring LRP5 function only in endothelial cells in Lrp5-/- mice rescues their retinal vascular abnormalities. Furthermore, we show that retinal vascularization is regulated by LRP5 in a dosage dependent manner and does not depend on LRP6. Our study provides the first direct evidence that endothelium-derived LRP5 is both necessary and sufficient to mediate its critical role in the development and maintenance of retinal vasculature. PMID:27031698

  13. Critical Endothelial Regulation by LRP5 during Retinal Vascular Development.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Li, Qing; Amiry-Moghaddam, Mahmood; Hokama, Madoka; Sardi, Sylvia H; Nagao, Masashi; Warman, Matthew L; Olsen, Bjorn R

    2016-01-01

    Vascular abnormalities in the eye are the leading cause of many forms of inherited and acquired human blindness. Loss-of-function mutations in the Wnt-binding co-receptor LRP5 leads to aberrant ocular vascularization and loss of vision in genetic disorders such as osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome. The canonical Wnt-β-catenin pathway is known to regulate retinal vascular development. However, it is unclear what precise role LPR5 plays in this process. Here, we show that loss of LRP5 function in mice causes retinal hypovascularization during development as well as retinal neovascularization in adulthood with disorganized and leaky vessels. Using a highly specific Flk1-CreBreier line for vascular endothelial cells, together with several genetic models, we demonstrate that loss of endothelium-derived LRP5 recapitulates the retinal vascular defects in Lrp5-/- mice. In addition, restoring LRP5 function only in endothelial cells in Lrp5-/- mice rescues their retinal vascular abnormalities. Furthermore, we show that retinal vascularization is regulated by LRP5 in a dosage dependent manner and does not depend on LRP6. Our study provides the first direct evidence that endothelium-derived LRP5 is both necessary and sufficient to mediate its critical role in the development and maintenance of retinal vasculature. PMID:27031698

  14. Rapamycin preserves gut homeostasis during Drosophila aging.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiaolan; Liang, Qing; Lian, Ting; Wu, Qi; Gaur, Uma; Li, Diyan; Yang, Deying; Mao, Xueping; Jin, Zhihua; Li, Ying; Yang, Mingyao

    2015-11-01

    Gut homeostasis plays an important role in maintaining the overall body health during aging. Rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of mTOR, exerts prolongevity effects in evolutionarily diverse species. However, its impact on the intestinal homeostasis remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that rapamycin can slow down the proliferation rate of intestinal stem cells (ISCs) in the aging guts and induce autophagy in the intestinal epithelium in Drosophila. Rapamycin can also significantly affect the FOXO associated genes in intestine and up-regulate the negative regulators of IMD/Rel pathway, consequently delaying the microbial expansion in the aging guts. Collectively, these findings reveal that rapamycin can delay the intestinal aging by inhibiting mTOR and thus keeping stem cell proliferation in check. These results will further explain the mechanism of healthspan and lifespan extension by rapamycin in Drosophila. PMID:26431326

  15. Rapamycin preserves gut homeostasis during Drosophila aging

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Ting; Wu, Qi; Gaur, Uma; Li, Diyan; Yang, Deying; Mao, Xueping; Jin, Zhihua; Li, Ying; Yang, Mingyao

    2015-01-01

    Gut homeostasis plays an important role in maintaining the overall body health during aging. Rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of mTOR, exerts prolongevity effects in evolutionarily diverse species. However, its impact on the intestinal homeostasis remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that rapamycin can slow down the proliferation rate of intestinal stem cells (ISCs) in the aging guts and induce autophagy in the intestinal epithelium in Drosophila. Rapamycin can also significantly affect the FOXO associated genes in intestine and up-regulate the negative regulators of IMD/Rel pathway, consequently delaying the microbial expansion in the aging guts. Collectively, these findings reveal that rapamycin can delay the intestinal aging by inhibiting mTOR and thus keeping stem cell proliferation in check. These results will further explain the mechanism of healthspan and lifespan extension by rapamycin in Drosophila. PMID:26431326

  16. Up-regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 subunit Raptor by aldosterone induces abnormal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell survival patterns to promote pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Aghamohammadzadeh, Reza; Zhang, Ying-Yi; Stephens, Thomas E; Arons, Elena; Zaman, Paula; Polach, Kevin J; Matar, Majed; Yung, Lai-Ming; Yu, Paul B; Bowman, Frederick P; Opotowsky, Alexander R; Waxman, Aaron B; Loscalzo, Joseph; Leopold, Jane A; Maron, Bradley A

    2016-07-01

    Activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) subunit Raptor induces cell growth and is a downstream target of Akt. Elevated levels of aldosterone activate Akt, and, in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), correlate with pulmonary arteriole thickening, which suggests that mTORC1 regulation by aldosterone may mediate adverse pulmonary vascular remodeling. We hypothesized that aldosterone-Raptor signaling induces abnormal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) survival patterns to promote PAH. Remodeled pulmonary arterioles from SU-5416/hypoxia-PAH rats and monocrotaline-PAH rats with hyperaldosteronism expressed increased levels of the Raptor target, p70S6K, which provided a basis for investigating aldosterone-Raptor signaling in human PASMCs. Aldosterone (10(-9) to 10(-7) M) increased Akt/mTOR/Raptor to activate p70S6K and increase proliferation, viability, and apoptosis resistance in PASMCs. In PASMCs transfected with Raptor-small interfering RNA or treated with spironolactone/eplerenone, aldosterone or pulmonary arterial plasma from patients with PAH failed to increase p70S6K activation or to induce cell survival in vitro Optimal inhibition of pulmonary arteriole Raptor was achieved by treatment with Staramine-monomethoxy polyethylene glycol that was formulated with Raptor-small interfering RNA plus spironolactone in vivo, which decreased arteriole muscularization and pulmonary hypertension in 2 experimental animal models of PAH in vivo Up-regulation of mTORC1 by aldosterone is a critical pathobiologic mechanism that controls PASMC survival to promote hypertrophic vascular remodeling and PAH.-Aghamohammadzadeh, R., Zhang, Y.-Y., Stephens, T. E., Arons, E., Zaman, P., Polach, K. J., Matar, M., Yung, L.-M., Yu, P. B., Bowman, F. P., Opotowsky, A. R., Waxman, A. B., Loscalzo, J., Leopold, J. A., Maron, B. A. Up-regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 subunit Raptor by aldosterone induces abnormal pulmonary artery smooth

  17. CRYPTOCHROME2 in Vascular Bundles Regulates Flowering in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Endo, Motomu; Mochizuki, Nobuyoshi; Suzuki, Tomomi; Nagatani, Akira

    2007-01-01

    Plants make full use of light signals to determine the timing of flowering. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a blue/UV-A photoreceptor, CRYPTOCHROME 2 (cry2), and a red/far-red photoreceptor, PHYTOCHROME B (phyB), are two major photoreceptors that control flowering. The light stimuli for the regulation of flowering are perceived by leaves. We have recently shown that phyB expression in mesophyll but not in vascular bundles suppresses the expression of a key flowering regulator, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), in vascular bundles. In this study, we asked where in the leaf cry2 perceives light stimuli to regulate flowering. To answer this question, we established transgenic Arabidopsis lines in which the cry2–green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion was expressed under the control of organ/tissue-specific promoters in a cry2-deficient mutant background. Analysis of these lines revealed that expression of cry2-GFP in vascular bundles, but not in epidermis or mesophyll, rescued the late flowering phenotype. We further confirmed that cry2-GFP expressed in vascular bundles increased FT expression only in vascular bundles. Hence, in striking contrast with phyB, cry2 most likely regulates FT expression in a cell-autonomous manner. PMID:17259260

  18. Characterization of a conserved C-terminal motif (RSPRR) in ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 required for its mammalian target of rapamycin-dependent regulation.

    PubMed

    Schalm, Stefanie S; Tee, Andrew R; Blenis, John

    2005-03-25

    The mammalian target of rapamycin, mTOR, is a Ser/Thr kinase that promotes cell growth and proliferation by activating ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1). We previously identified a conserved TOR signaling (TOS) motif in the N terminus of S6K1 that is required for its mTOR-dependent activation. Furthermore, our data suggested that the TOS motif suppresses an inhibitory function associated with the C terminus of S6K1. Here, we have characterized the mTOR-regulated inhibitory region within the C terminus. We have identified a conserved C-terminal "RSPRR" sequence that is responsible for an mTOR-dependent suppression of S6K1 activation. Deletion or mutations within this RSPRR motif partially rescue the kinase activity of the S6K1 TOS motif mutant (S6K1-F5A), and this rescued activity is rapamycin resistant. Furthermore, we have shown that the RSPRR motif significantly suppresses S6K1 phosphorylation at two phosphorylation sites (Thr-389 and Thr-229) that are crucial for S6K1 activation. Importantly, introducing both the Thr-389 phosphomimetic and RSPRR motif mutations into the catalytically inactive S6K1 mutant S6K1-F5A completely rescues its activity and renders it fully rapamycin resistant. These data show that the N-terminal TOS motif suppresses an inhibitory function mediated by the C-terminal RSPRR motif. We propose that the RSPRR motif interacts with a negative regulator of S6K1 that is normally suppressed by mTOR. PMID:15659381

  19. Regulation of thrombosis and vascular function by protein methionine oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Sean X.; Stevens, Jeff W.

    2015-01-01

    Redox biology is fundamental to both normal cellular homeostasis and pathological states associated with excessive oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen species function not only as signaling molecules but also as redox regulators of protein function. In the vascular system, redox reactions help regulate key physiologic responses such as cell adhesion, vasoconstriction, platelet aggregation, angiogenesis, inflammatory gene expression, and apoptosis. During pathologic states, altered redox balance can cause vascular cell dysfunction and affect the equilibrium between procoagulant and anticoagulant systems, contributing to thrombotic vascular disease. This review focuses on the emerging role of a specific reversible redox reaction, protein methionine oxidation, in vascular disease and thrombosis. A growing number of cardiovascular and hemostatic proteins are recognized to undergo reversible methionine oxidation, in which methionine residues are posttranslationally oxidized to methionine sulfoxide. Protein methionine oxidation can be reversed by the action of stereospecific enzymes known as methionine sulfoxide reductases. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II is a prototypical methionine redox sensor that responds to changes in the intracellular redox state via reversible oxidation of tandem methionine residues in its regulatory domain. Several other proteins with oxidation-sensitive methionine residues, including apolipoprotein A-I, thrombomodulin, and von Willebrand factor, may contribute to vascular disease and thrombosis. PMID:25900980

  20. Regulation of thrombosis and vascular function by protein methionine oxidation.

    PubMed

    Gu, Sean X; Stevens, Jeff W; Lentz, Steven R

    2015-06-18

    Redox biology is fundamental to both normal cellular homeostasis and pathological states associated with excessive oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen species function not only as signaling molecules but also as redox regulators of protein function. In the vascular system, redox reactions help regulate key physiologic responses such as cell adhesion, vasoconstriction, platelet aggregation, angiogenesis, inflammatory gene expression, and apoptosis. During pathologic states, altered redox balance can cause vascular cell dysfunction and affect the equilibrium between procoagulant and anticoagulant systems, contributing to thrombotic vascular disease. This review focuses on the emerging role of a specific reversible redox reaction, protein methionine oxidation, in vascular disease and thrombosis. A growing number of cardiovascular and hemostatic proteins are recognized to undergo reversible methionine oxidation, in which methionine residues are posttranslationally oxidized to methionine sulfoxide. Protein methionine oxidation can be reversed by the action of stereospecific enzymes known as methionine sulfoxide reductases. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II is a prototypical methionine redox sensor that responds to changes in the intracellular redox state via reversible oxidation of tandem methionine residues in its regulatory domain. Several other proteins with oxidation-sensitive methionine residues, including apolipoprotein A-I, thrombomodulin, and von Willebrand factor, may contribute to vascular disease and thrombosis. PMID:25900980

  1. HABP2 is a Novel Regulator of Vascular Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Mambetsariev, N.; Mirzapoiazova, T.; Mambetsariev, B.; Sammani, S.; Lennon, F.E.; Garcia, J.G.N.; Singleton, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the role of the extracellular serine protease, Hyaluronic Acid Binding Protein 2 (HABP2), in vascular barrier regulation. Methods and Results Using immunoblot and immunohistochemical analysis, we observed that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induces HABP2 expression in murine lung endothelium in vivo and in human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell (HPMVEC) in vitro. High molecular weight hyaluronan (HMW-HA, ~1 million Da) decreased HABP2 protein expression in HPMVEC and decreased purified HABP2 enzymatic activity whereas low MW HA (LMW-HA, ~2,500 Da) increased these activities. The effects of LMW-HA on HABP2 activity, but not HMW-HA, were inhibited with a peptide of the polyanion binding domain (PABD) of HABP2. Silencing (siRNA) HABP2 expression augmented HMW-HA-induced EC barrier enhancement and inhibited LPS and LMW-HA-mediated EC barrier disruption, results which were reversed with overexpression of HABP2. Silencing PAR receptors 1 and 3, RhoA or ROCK expression attenuated LPS, LMW-HA and HABP2-mediated EC barrier disruption. Utilizing murine models of acute lung injury, we observed that LPS- and ventilator-induced pulmonary vascular hyper-permeability were significantly reduced with vascular silencing (siRNA) of HABP2. Conclusions HABP2 negatively regulates vascular integrity via activation of PAR receptor/RhoA/ROCK signaling and represents a potentially useful therapeutic target for syndromes of increased vascular permeability. PMID:20042707

  2. [Regulative mechanisms of mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway in glomerular hypertrophy in diabetic nephropathy and interventional effects of Chinese herbal medicine].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing-Jing; Huang, Yan-ru; Wan, Yi-gang; Shen, Shan-mei; Mao, Zhi-min; Wu, Wei; Yao, Jian

    2015-08-01

    Glomerular hypertrophy is the main pathological characteristic in the early stage of diabetic nephropathy (DN), and its regulatory mechanism is closely related to mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway activity. mTOR includes mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTOR complex 2(mTORC2), in which, the upstream pathway of mTORC1 is phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/serine-threonine kinase(Akt)/adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase(AMPK), and the representative signaling molecules in the downstream pathway of mTORC1 are 4E-binding proteins(4EBP) and phosphoprotein 70 S6Kinase(p70S6K). Some Chinese herbal extracts could improve cell proliferation via intervening the expressions of the key molecules in the upstream or downstream of PIK/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in vivo. As for glomerular mesangial cells(MC) and podocyte, mTOR plays an important role in regulating glomerular inherent cells, including adjusting cell cycle, energy metabolism and matrix protein synthesis. Rapamycin, the inhibitor of mTOR, could suppress glomerular inherent cell hypertrophy, cell proliferation, glomerular basement membrane (GBM) thickening and mesangial matrix deposition in model rats with DN. Some Chinese herbal extracts could alleviate glomerular lesions by intervening mTOR signaling pathway activity in renal tissue of DN animal models or in renal inherent cells in vivo and in vitro. PMID:26790279

  3. The mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway regulates myocyte enhancer factor-2C phosphorylation levels through integrin-linked kinase in goat skeletal muscle satellite cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haiqing; Ren, Yu; Pan, Wei; Dong, Zhenguo; Cang, Ming; Liu, Dongjun

    2015-11-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway plays a key role in muscle development and is involved in multiple intracellular signaling pathways. Myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) regulates muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. However, how the mTOR signaling pathway regulates MEF2 activity remains unclear. We isolated goat skeletal muscle satellite cells (gSSCs) as model cells to explore mTOR signaling pathway regulation of MEF2C. We inhibited mTOR activity in gSSCs with PP242 and found that MEF2C phosphorylation was decreased and that muscle creatine kinase (MCK) expression was suppressed. Subsequently, we detected integrin-linked kinase (ILK) using MEF2C coimmunoprecipitation; ILK and MEF2C were colocalized in the gSSCs. We found that inhibiting mTOR activity increased ILK phosphorylation levels and that inhibiting ILK activity with Cpd 22 and knocking down ILK with small interfering RNA increased MEF2C phosphorylation and MCK expression. In the presence of Cpd 22, mTOR activity inhibition did not affect MEF2C phosphorylation. Moreover, ILK dephosphorylated MEF2C in vitro. These results suggest that the mTOR signaling pathway regulates MEF2C positively and regulates ILK negatively and that ILK regulates MEF2C negatively. It appears that the mTOR signaling pathway regulates MEF2C through ILK, further regulating the expression of muscle-related genes in gSSCs. PMID:26041412

  4. Impaired sympathetic vascular regulation in humans after acute dynamic exercise.

    PubMed Central

    Halliwill, J R; Taylor, J A; Eckberg, D L

    1996-01-01

    1. The reduction in vascular resistance which accompanies acute dynamic exercise does not subside immediately during recovery, resulting in a post-exercise hypotension. This sustained vasodilatation suggests that sympathetic vascular regulation is altered after exercise. 2. Therefore, we assessed the baroreflex control of sympathetic outflow in response to arterial pressure changes, and transduction of sympathetic activity into vascular resistance during a sympatho-excitatory stimulus (isometric handgrip exercise) after either exercise (60 min cycling at 60% peak aerobic power (VO2,peak)) or sham treatment (60 min seated rest) in nine healthy subjects. 3. Both muscle sympathetic nerve activity and calf vascular resistance were reduced after exercise (-29.7 +/- 8.8 and -25.3 +/- 9.1%, both P < 0.05). The baroreflex relation between diastolic pressure and sympathetic outflow was shifted downward after exercise (post-exercise intercept, 218 +/- 38 total integrated activity (heartbeat)-1; post-sham intercept, 318 +/- 51 total integrated activity (heartbeat)-1, P < 0.05), indicating less sympathetic outflow across all diastolic pressures. Further, the relation between sympathetic activity and vascular resistance was attenuated after exercise (post-exercise slope, 0.0031 +/- 0.0007 units (total integrated activity)-1 min; post-sham slope, 0.0100 +/- 0.0033 units (total integrated activity)-1 min, P < 0.05), indicating less vasoconstriction with any increase in sympathetic activity. 4. Thus, both baroreflex control of sympathetic outflow and the transduction of sympathetic activity into vascular resistance are altered after dynamic exercise. We conclude that the vasodilation which underlies post-exercise hypotension results from both neural and vascular phenomena. Images Figure 7 PMID:8866370

  5. Impaired sympathetic vascular regulation in humans after acute dynamic exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halliwill, J. R.; Taylor, J. A.; Eckberg, D. L.

    1996-01-01

    1. The reduction in vascular resistance which accompanies acute dynamic exercise does not subside immediately during recovery, resulting in a post-exercise hypotension. This sustained vasodilatation suggests that sympathetic vascular regulation is altered after exercise. 2. Therefore, we assessed the baroreflex control of sympathetic outflow in response to arterial pressure changes, and transduction of sympathetic activity into vascular resistance during a sympatho-excitatory stimulus (isometric handgrip exercise) after either exercise (60 min cycling at 60% peak aerobic power (VO2,peak)) or sham treatment (60 min seated rest) in nine healthy subjects. 3. Both muscle sympathetic nerve activity and calf vascular resistance were reduced after exercise (-29.7 +/- 8.8 and -25.3 +/- 9.1%, both P < 0.05). The baroreflex relation between diastolic pressure and sympathetic outflow was shifted downward after exercise (post-exercise intercept, 218 +/- 38 total integrated activity (heartbeat)-1; post-sham intercept, 318 +/- 51 total integrated activity (heartbeat)-1, P < 0.05), indicating less sympathetic outflow across all diastolic pressures. Further, the relation between sympathetic activity and vascular resistance was attenuated after exercise (post-exercise slope, 0.0031 +/- 0.0007 units (total integrated activity)-1 min; post-sham slope, 0.0100 +/- 0.0033 units (total integrated activity)-1 min, P < 0.05), indicating less vasoconstriction with any increase in sympathetic activity. 4. Thus, both baroreflex control of sympathetic outflow and the transduction of sympathetic activity into vascular resistance are altered after dynamic exercise. We conclude that the vasodilation which underlies post-exercise hypotension results from both neural and vascular phenomena.

  6. Rapamycin, a mTOR inhibitor, induced growth inhibition in retinoblastoma Y79 cell via down-regulation of Bmi-1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Dong; Su, Yong-Jing; Li, Jian-Ying; Yao, Xiang-Chao; Liang, Guang-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Rapamycin is useful in the treatment of certain cancers by inhibiting mTOR(mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway. Here, anticancer activity and its acting mechanisms of rapamycin were investigated in human retinoblastoma Y79 cells. CCK-8 assay showed that the IC50 value of rapamycin against human retinoblastoma Y79 cells was 0.122±0.026 μmol/L. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that rapamycin induced G1 cell cycle arrest. Western blot assay demonstrated that the mTOR pathway in Y79 cells was blocked by rapamycin. Western blot and RT-PCR assay showed that Bmi-1 was downregulated in protein and mRNA level by rapamycin treatment. Further Western blot and RNA interference assays showed that rapamycin-mediated downregulation of Bmi-1 induced decreases of cyclin E1, which accounted for rapamycin-mediated G1 cell cycle arrest in human retinoblastoma cells. Together, all these results illustrated that rapamycin induced growth inhibition of human retinoblastoma cells, and inactive of mTOR pathway and downregulation of Bmi-1 was involved in its action mechanism. PMID:26191215

  7. Rapamycin, a mTOR inhibitor, induced growth inhibition in retinoblastoma Y79 cell via down-regulation of Bmi-1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan-Dong; Su, Yong-Jing; Li, Jian-Ying; Yao, Xiang-Chao; Liang, Guang-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Rapamycin is useful in the treatment of certain cancers by inhibiting mTOR(mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway. Here, anticancer activity and its acting mechanisms of rapamycin were investigated in human retinoblastoma Y79 cells. CCK-8 assay showed that the IC50 value of rapamycin against human retinoblastoma Y79 cells was 0.122 ± 0.026 μmol/L. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that rapamycin induced G1 cell cycle arrest. Western blot assay demonstrated that the mTOR pathway in Y79 cells was blocked by rapamycin. Western blot and RT-PCR assay showed that Bmi-1 was downregulated in protein and mRNA level by rapamycin treatment. Further Western blot and RNA interference assays showed that rapamycin-mediated downregulation of Bmi-1 induced decreases of cyclin E1, which accounted for rapamycin-mediated G1 cell cycle arrest in human retinoblastoma cells. Together, all these results illustrated that rapamycin induced growth inhibition of human retinoblastoma cells, and inactive of mTOR pathway and downregulation of Bmi-1 was involved in its action mechanism. PMID:26191215

  8. Autophagy regulates the apoptosis of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells under hypoxic condition via AMP-activated protein kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zheng; Yang, Ming; Wang, Yabin; Wang, Le; Jin, Zhitao; Ding, Liping; Zhang, Lijuan; Zhang, Lina; Jiang, Wei; Gao, Guojie; Yang, Junke; Lu, Bingwei; Cao, Feng; Hu, Taohong

    2016-06-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) have been demonstrated as an ideal autologous stem cells source for cell-based therapy for myocardial infarction (MI). However, poor viability of donor stem cells after transplantation limits their therapeutic efficiency, whereas the underlying mechanism is still poorly understood. Autophagy, a highly conserved process of cellular degradation, is required for maintaining homeostasis and normal function. Here, we investigated the potential role of autophagy on apoptosis in BM-MSCs induced by hypoxic injury. BM-MSCs, isolated from male C57BL/6 mice, were subjected to hypoxia and serum deprivation (H/SD) injury for 6, 12, and 24 h, respectively. The autophagy state was regulated by 3-methyladenine (3MA) and rapamycin administration. Furthermore, compound C was administrated to inhibit AMPK. The apoptosis induced by H/SD was determined by TUNEL assays. Meanwhile, autophagy was measured by GFP-LC3 plasmids transfection and transmission electron microscope. Moreover, protein expressions were evaluated by Western blot assay. In the present study, we found that hypoxic stress increased autophagy and apoptosis in BM-MSCs time dependently. Meanwhile, hypoxia increased the activity of AMPK/mTOR signal pathway. Moreover, increased apoptosis in BM-MSCs under hypoxia was abolished by 3-MA, whereas was aggravated by rapamycin. Furthermore, the increased autophagy and apoptosis in BM-MSCs induced by hypoxia were abolished by AMPK inhibitor compound C. These data provide evidence that hypoxia induced AMPK/mTOR signal pathway activation which regulated the apoptosis and autophagy in BM-MSCs. Furthermore, the apoptosis of BM-MSCs under hypoxic condition was regulated by autophagy via AMPK/mTOR pathway. PMID:27005844

  9. Interleukin-32 Positively Regulates Radiation-Induced Vascular Inflammation

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Hanako; Yazlovitskaya, Eugenia M.; Lin, P. Charles

    2009-08-01

    Purpose: To study the role of interleukin-32 (IL-32), a novel protein only detected in human tissues, in ionizing radiation (IR)-induced vascular inflammation. Methods and Materials: Irradiated (0-6 Gy) human umbilical vein endothelial cells treated with or without various agents-a cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) inhibitor, a cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) inhibitor, or lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs)-were used to assess IL-32 expression by Northern blot analysis and quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Expression of cell adhesion molecules and leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells using human acute monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1) cells was also analyzed. Results: Ionizing radiation dramatically increased IL-32 expression in vascular endothelial cells through multiple pathways. Ionizing radiation induced IL-32 expression through nuclear factor {kappa}B activation, through induction of cPLA2 and LPC, as well as induction of Cox-2 and subsequent conversion of arachidonic acid to prostacyclin. Conversely, blocking nuclear factor {kappa}B, cPLA2, and Cox-2 activity impaired IR-induced IL-32 expression. Importantly, IL-32 significantly enhanced IR-induced expression of vascular cell adhesion molecules and leukocyte adhesion on endothelial cells. Conclusion: This study identifies IL-32 as a positive regulator in IR-induced vascular inflammation, and neutralization of IL-32 may be beneficial in protecting from IR-induced inflammation.

  10. TRPV4 and the regulation of vascular tone

    PubMed Central

    Filosa, Jessica .A.; Yao, Xiaoqiang; Rath, Geraldine

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have introduced the importance of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid Subtype 4 (TRPV4) channels in the regulation of vascular tone. TRPV4 channels are expressed in both endothelium and vascular smooth muscle cells and can be activated by numerous stimuli including mechanical (e.g. shear stress, cell swelling, and heat) and chemical (e.g. epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), endocanabinoids, 4α-phorbol esters). In the brain, TRPV4 channels are primarily localized to astrocytic endfeet processes which wrap around blood vessels. Thus, TRPV4 channels are strategically localized to sense hemodynamic changes and contribute to the regulation of vascular tone. TRPV4 channel activation leads to smooth muscle cell hyperpolarization and vasodilation. Here we review recent findings on the cellular mechanisms underlying TRPV4-mediated vasodilation, TRPV4 channel interaction with other proteins including Transient Receptor Potential Channel 1 (TRPC1), small conductance (KCa2.3) and large conductance (KCa1.1) calcium-activated, potassium-selective channels and the importance of caveolin-rich domains for these interactions to take place. PMID:23107877

  11. Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates trophoblast folate uptake by modulating the cell surface expression of FR-α and the RFC.

    PubMed

    Rosario, Fredrick J; Powell, Theresa L; Jansson, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Folate deficiency in fetal life is strongly associated with structural malformations and linked to intrauterine growth restriction. In addition, limited availability of methyl donors, such as folate, during pregnancy may result in abnormal gene methylation patterns and contribute to developmental programming. The fetus is dependent on placental transfer of folate, however the molecular mechanisms regulating placental folate transport are unknown. We used cultured primary human trophoblast cells to test the hypothesis that mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and 2 (mTORC2) regulate folate transport by post-translational mechanisms. Silencing raptor (inhibits mTORC1) or rictor (inhibits mTORC2) markedly decreased basal folate uptake. Folate uptake stimulated by insulin + IGF-1 was mediated by mTORC2 but did not involve mTORC1. mTORC1 or mTORC2 silencing markedly decreased the plasma membrane expression of FR-α and RFC transporter isoforms without affecting global protein expression. Inhibition of the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-2 had no effect on folate transport. In conclusion, we report for the first time that mTORC1/C2 are positive regulators of cellular folate uptake by modulating the cell surface abundance of specific transporter isoforms. We propose that regulation of placental folate transport by mTOR signaling provide a direct link between placental function, gene methylation and fetal programming. PMID:27562465

  12. Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates trophoblast folate uptake by modulating the cell surface expression of FR-α and the RFC

    PubMed Central

    Rosario, Fredrick J.; Powell, Theresa L.; Jansson, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Folate deficiency in fetal life is strongly associated with structural malformations and linked to intrauterine growth restriction. In addition, limited availability of methyl donors, such as folate, during pregnancy may result in abnormal gene methylation patterns and contribute to developmental programming. The fetus is dependent on placental transfer of folate, however the molecular mechanisms regulating placental folate transport are unknown. We used cultured primary human trophoblast cells to test the hypothesis that mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and 2 (mTORC2) regulate folate transport by post-translational mechanisms. Silencing raptor (inhibits mTORC1) or rictor (inhibits mTORC2) markedly decreased basal folate uptake. Folate uptake stimulated by insulin + IGF-1 was mediated by mTORC2 but did not involve mTORC1. mTORC1 or mTORC2 silencing markedly decreased the plasma membrane expression of FR-α and RFC transporter isoforms without affecting global protein expression. Inhibition of the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-2 had no effect on folate transport. In conclusion, we report for the first time that mTORC1/C2 are positive regulators of cellular folate uptake by modulating the cell surface abundance of specific transporter isoforms. We propose that regulation of placental folate transport by mTOR signaling provide a direct link between placental function, gene methylation and fetal programming. PMID:27562465

  13. Vegfa regulates perichondrial vascularity and osteoblast differentiation in bone development

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Xuchen; Murata, Yurie; Liu, Yanqiu; Nicolae, Claudia; Olsen, Bjorn R.; Berendsen, Agnes D.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vascular endothelial growth factor A (Vegfa) has important roles in endochondral bone formation. Osteoblast precursors, endothelial cells and osteoclasts migrate from perichondrium into primary ossification centers of cartilage templates of future bones in response to Vegfa secreted by (pre)hypertrophic chondrocytes. Perichondrial osteolineage cells also produce Vegfa, but its function is not well understood. By deleting Vegfa in osteolineage cells in vivo, we demonstrate that progenitor-derived Vegfa is required for blood vessel recruitment in perichondrium and the differentiation of osteoblast precursors in mice. Conditional deletion of Vegfa receptors indicates that Vegfa-dependent effects on osteoblast differentiation are mediated by Vegf receptor 2 (Vegfr2). In addition, Vegfa/Vegfr2 signaling stimulates the expression and activity of Indian hedgehog, increases the expression of β-catenin and inhibits Notch2. Our findings identify Vegfa as a regulator of perichondrial vascularity and osteoblast differentiation at early stages of bone development. PMID:25977369

  14. Mechanosensitive β-catenin signaling regulates lymphatic vascular development.

    PubMed

    Cha, Boksik; Srinivasan, R Sathish

    2016-08-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that plays a pivotal role in embryonic development and adult homeostasis. However, we have limited information about the involvement of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the lymphatic vascular system that regulates fluid homeostasis by absorbing interstitial fluid and returning it to blood circulation. In this recent publication we report that canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling is highly active and critical for the formation of lymphovenus valves (LVVs) and lymphatic valves (LVs). β-catenin directly associates with the regulatory elements of the lymphedema-associated transcription factor, FOXC2 and activates its expression in an oscillatory shear stress (OSS)-dependent manner. The phenotype of β-catenin null embryos was rescued by FOXC2 overexpression. These results suggest that Wnt/β-catenin signaling is a mechanotransducer that links fluid force with lymphatic vascular development. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(8): 403-404]. PMID:27418286

  15. The role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and phosphatidic acid in the regulation of mammalian target of rapamycin following eccentric contractions.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, T K; Duffy, L R; Frey, J W; Hornberger, T A

    2009-07-15

    Resistance exercise induces a hypertrophic response in skeletal muscle and recent studies have begun to shed light on the molecular mechanisms involved in this process. For example, several studies indicate that signalling by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is necessary for a hypertrophic response. Furthermore, resistance exercise has been proposed to activate mTOR signalling through an upstream pathway involving the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (PKB); however, this hypothesis has not been thoroughly tested. To test this hypothesis, we first evaluated the temporal pattern of signalling through PI3K-PKB and mTOR following a bout of resistance exercise with eccentric contractions (EC). Our results indicated that the activation of signalling through PI3K-PKB is a transient event (<15 min), while the activation of mTOR is sustained for a long duration (>12 h). Furthermore, inhibition of PI3K-PKB activity did not prevent the activation of mTOR signalling by ECs, indicating that PI3K-PKB is not part of the upstream regulatory pathway. These observations led us to investigate an alternative pathway for the activation of mTOR signalling involving the synthesis of phosphatidic acid (PA) by phospholipase D (PLD). Our results demonstrate that ECs induce a sustained elevation in [PA] and inhibiting the synthesis of PA by PLD prevented the activation of mTOR. Furthermore, we determined that similar to ECs, PA activates mTOR signalling through a PI3K-PKB-independent mechanism. Combined, the results of this study indicate that the activation of mTOR following eccentric contractions occurs through a PI3K-PKB-independent mechanism that requires PLD and PA. PMID:19470781

  16. Extracellular matrix-modulated Heartless signaling in Drosophila blood progenitors regulates their differentiation via a Ras/ETS/FOG pathway and target of rapamycin function.

    PubMed

    Dragojlovic-Munther, Michelle; Martinez-Agosto, Julian A

    2013-12-15

    Maintenance of hematopoietic progenitors ensures a continuous supply of blood cells during the lifespan of an organism. Thus, understanding the molecular basis for progenitor maintenance is a continued focus of investigation. A large pool of undifferentiated blood progenitors are maintained in the Drosophila hematopoietic organ, the larval lymph gland, by a complex network of signaling pathways that are mediated by niche-, progenitor-, or differentiated hemocyte-derived signals. In this study we examined the function of the Drosophila fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), Heartless, a critical regulator of early lymph gland progenitor specification in the late embryo, during larval lymph gland hematopoiesis. Activation of Heartless signaling in hemocyte progenitors by its two ligands, Pyramus and Thisbe, is both required and sufficient to induce progenitor differentiation and formation of the plasmatocyte-rich lymph gland cortical zone. We identify two transcriptional regulators that function downstream of Heartless signaling in lymph gland progenitors, the ETS protein, Pointed, and the Friend-of-GATA (FOG) protein, U-shaped, which are required for this Heartless-induced differentiation response. Furthermore, cross-talk of Heartless and target of rapamycin signaling in hemocyte progenitors is required for lamellocyte differentiation downstream of Thisbe-mediated Heartless activation. Finally, we identify the Drosophila heparan sulfate proteoglycan, Trol, as a critical negative regulator of Heartless ligand signaling in the lymph gland, demonstrating that sequestration of differentiation signals by the extracellular matrix is a unique mechanism employed in blood progenitor maintenance that is of potential relevance to many other stem cell niches. PMID:23603494

  17. Extracellular matrix-modulated Heartless signaling in Drosophila blood progenitors regulates their differentiation via a Ras/ETS/FOG pathway and target of rapamycin function

    PubMed Central

    Dragojlovic-Munther, Michelle; Martinez-Agosto, Julian A

    2014-01-01

    Maintenance of hematopoietic progenitors ensures a continuous supply of blood cells during the lifespan of an organism. Thus, understanding the molecular basis for progenitor maintenance is a continued focus of investigation. A large pool of undifferentiated blood progenitors are maintained in the Drosophila hematopoietic organ, the larval lymph gland, by a complex network of signaling pathways that are mediated by niche-, progenitor-, or differentiated hemocyte-derived signals. In this study we examined the function of the Drosophila fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), Heartless, a critical regulator of early lymph gland progenitor specification in the late embryo, during larval lymph gland hematopoiesis. Activation of Heartless signaling in hemocyte progenitors by its two ligands, Pyramus and Thisbe, is both required and sufficient to induce progenitor differentiation and formation of the plasmatocyte-rich lymph gland cortical zone. We identify two transcriptional regulators that function downstream of Heartless signaling in lymph gland progenitors, the ETS protein, Pointed, and the Friend-of-GATA (FOG) protein, U-shaped, which are required for this Heartless-induced differentiation response. Furthermore, cross-talk of Heartless and target of rapamycin signaling in hemocyte progenitors is required for lamellocyte differentiation downstream of Thisbe-mediated Heartless activation. Finally, we identify the Drosophila heparan sulfate proteoglycan, Trol, as a critical negative regulator of Heartless ligand signaling in the lymph gland, demonstrating that sequestration of differentiation signals by the extracellular matrix is a unique mechanism employed in blood progenitor maintenance that is of potential relevance to many other stem cell niches. PMID:23603494

  18. Regulation of scar formation by vascular endothelial growth factor

    PubMed Central

    Wilgus, Traci A.; Ferreira, Ahalia M.; Oberyszyn, Tatiana M.; Bergdall, Valerie K.; DiPietro, Luisa A.

    2009-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) is known for its effects on endothelial cells and as a positive mediator of angiogenesis. VEGF is thought to promote the repair of cutaneous wounds due to its pro-angiogenic properties, but its ability to regulate other aspects of wound repair, such as the generation of scar tissue has not been well studied. We examined the role of VEGF in scar tissue production utilizing models of scarless and fibrotic repair. Scarless fetal wounds had lower levels of VEGF and were less vascular than fibrotic fetal wounds, and the scarless phenotype could be converted to a scar-forming phenotype by adding exogenous VEGF. Similarly, neutralization of VEGF reduced vascularity and decreased scar formation in adult wounds. These results show that VEGF levels have a strong influence on scar tissue formation. Our data suggest that VEGF may not simply function as a mediator of wound angiogenesis, but instead may play a more diverse role in the wound repair process. PMID:18427552

  19. Regulation of Vascular Permeability by Sphingosine 1-Phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lichun; Dudek, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    A significant and sustained increase in vascular permeability is a hallmark of acute inflammatory diseases such as acute lung injury (ALI) and sepsis and is an essential component of tumor metastasis, angiogenesis, and atherosclerosis. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), an endogenous bioactive lipid produced in many cell types, regulates endothelial barrier function by activation of its G-protein coupled receptor SIP1. S1P enhances vascular barrier function through a series of profound events initiated by SIP1 ligation with subsequent downstream activation of the Rho family of small GTPases, cytoskeletal reorganization, adherens junction and tight junction assembly, and focal adhesion formation. Furthermore, recent studies have identified transactivation of SIP1 signaling by other barrier enhancing agents as a common mechanism for promoting endothelial barrier function. This review summarizes the state of our current knowledge about the mechanisms through which the S1P/SIP1 axis reduces vascular permeability, which remains an area of active investigation that will hopefully produce novel therapeutic agents in the near future. PMID:18973762

  20. Redox Regulates Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1) Activity by Modulating the TSC1/TSC2-Rheb GTPase Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Sei; Hong, Sungki; Suzuki, Tsukasa; Nada, Shigeyuki; Mannan, Aristotle M.; Wang, Junying; Okada, Masato; Guan, Kun-Liang; Inoki, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a kinase that plays a key role in a wide array of cellular processes and exists in two distinct functional complexes, mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2). Although mTORC2 is primarily activated by growth factors, mTORC1 is regulated by numerous extracellular and intracellular signals such as nutrients, growth factors, and cellular redox. Previous study has shown that cysteine oxidants sufficiently activate mTORC1 activity under amino acid-depleted conditions and that a reducing agent effectively suppresses amino acid-induced mTORC1 activity, thereby raising the possibility that redox-sensitive mechanisms underlie amino acid-dependent mTORC1 regulation. However, the molecular mechanism by which redox regulates mTORC1 activity is not well understood. In this study, we show that the redox-sensitive regulation of mTORC1 occurs via Rheb but not the Rag small GTPase. Enhancing cellular redox potential with cysteine oxidants significantly increases Rheb GTP levels. Importantly, modulation of the cellular redox potential with a cysteine oxidant or reducing agent failed to alter mTORC1 activity in TSC1−/− or TSC2−/− mouse embryonic fibroblast cells. Furthermore, a cysteine oxidant has little effect on mTOR localization but sufficiently activates mTORC1 activity in both p18−/− and control mouse embryonic fibroblast cells, suggesting that the redox-sensitive regulation of mTORC1 occurs independent of the Ragulator·Rag complex. Taken together, our results suggest that the TSC complex plays an important role in redox-sensitive mTORC1 regulation and argues for the activation of mTORC1 in places other than the lysosome upon inhibition of the TSC complex. PMID:21784859

  1. Effects of inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and downstream pathways of receptor tyrosine kinases involving phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin or mitogen-activated protein kinase in canine hemangiosarcoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Mami; Hoshino, Yuki; Izumi, Yusuke; Sakai, Hiroki; Takagi, Satoshi

    2016-07-01

    Canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) is a progressive malignant neoplasm with no current effective treatment. Previous studies showed that receptor tyrosine kinases and molecules within their downstream pathways involving phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (m-TOR) or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were overexpressed in canine, human, and murine tumors, including HSA. The present study investigated the effects of inhibitors of these pathways in canine splenic and hepatic HSA cell lines using assays of cell viability and apoptosis. Inhibitors of the MAPK pathway did not affect canine HSA cell viability. However, cell viability was significantly reduced by exposure to inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and the PI3K/Akt/m-TOR pathway; these inhibitors also induced apoptosis in these cell lines. These results suggest that these inhibitors reduce the proliferation of canine HSA cells by inducing apoptosis. Further study of these inhibitors, using xenograft mouse models of canine HSA, are warranted to explore their potential for clinical application. PMID:27408334

  2. Transforming Growth Factor-β Is an Upstream Regulator of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 2-Dependent Bladder Cancer Cell Migration and Invasion.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sounak; Hau, Andrew M; Al-Ahmadie, Hikmat A; Harwalkar, Jyoti; Shoskes, Aaron C; Elson, Paul; Beach, Jordan R; Hussey, George S; Schiemann, William P; Egelhoff, Thomas T; Howe, Philip H; Hansel, Donna E

    2016-05-01

    Our prior work identified the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) as a key regulator of bladder cancer cell migration and invasion, although upstream growth factor mediators of this pathway in bladder cancer have not been well delineated. We tested whether transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, which can function as a promotility factor in bladder cancer cells, could regulate mTORC2-dependent bladder cancer cell motility and invasion. In human bladder cancers, the highest levels of phosphorylated SMAD2, a TGF-β signaling intermediate, were present in high-grade invasive bladder cancers and associated with more frequent recurrence and decreased disease-specific survival. Increased expression of TGF-β isoforms, receptors, and signaling components was detected in invasive high-grade bladder cancer cells that expressed Vimentin and lacked E-cadherin. Application of TGF-β induced phosphorylation of the Ser473 residue of AKT, a selective target of mTORC2, in a SMAD2- and SMAD4-independent manner and increased bladder cancer cell migration in a modified scratch wound assay and invasion through Matrigel. Inhibition of TGF-β receptor I using SB431542 ablated TGF-β-induced migration and invasion. A similar effect was seen when Rictor, a key mTORC2 component, was selectively silenced. Our results suggest that TGF-β can induce bladder cancer cell invasion via mTORC2 signaling, which may be applicable in most bladder cancers. PMID:26988652

  3. Regulation and involvement of matrix metalloproteinases in vascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Amin, Matthew; Pushpakumar, Sathnur; Muradashvili, Nino; Kundu, Sourav; Tyagi, Suresh C; Sen, Utpal

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc dependent endopeptidases whose main function is to degrade and deposit structural proteins within the extracellular matrix (ECM). A dysregulation of MMPs is linked to vascular diseases. MMPs are classified into collagenases, gelatinases, membrane-type, metalloelastase, stromelysins, matrilysins, enamelysins, and unclassified subgroups. The production of MMPs is stimulated by factors such as oxidative stress, growth factors and inflammation which lead to its up- or down-regulation with subsequent ECM remodeling. Normally, excess activation of MMPs is controlled by their endogenous inhibitors, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). An imbalance of MMPs and TIMPs has been implicated in hypertension, atherosclerotic plaque formation and instability, aortic aneurysms and varicose vein wall remodeling. Also, recent evidence suggests epigenetic regulation of some MMPs in angiogenesis and atherosclerosis. Over the years, pharmacological inhibitors of MMPs have been used to modify or prevent the development of the disease with some success. In this review, we discuss recent advances in MMP biology, and their involvement in the manifestation of vascular disease. PMID:26709763

  4. Regulation of cyclooxygenase expression in cultured vascular cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pash, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Arachidonic acid metabolism in vascular tissue results in synthesis of prostacylin. The key enzyme in this synthesis pathway, cyclooxygenase, is down-regulated through self-inactivation. An analogous refractory state is produced by aspirin which irreversibly acetylates the enzyme. To further understand this phenomenon, the inactivation and recovery of cyclooxygenase activity was assayed in cultured ray vascular smooth muscle cells using exogenously added arachidonic acid. Self-inactivation of cyclooxygenase was observed following treatment with micromolar amounts of arachidonic acid. The recovery of cyclooxygenase activity following self-inactivation was analogous to that observed following aspirin-inactivation in that it depended on protein synthesis and required either serum or EGF. Two additional factors, TGF-{beta} and uric acid, were found to enhance the stimulation of cyclooxygenase recovery by EGF. A defined medium containing 10 ng/mL EGF, 1 ng/mL TGF{beta} and 0.1 mM uric acid duplicated the cyclooxygenase recovery activity of 10% serum. Stimulation of cyclooxygenase activity by EGF and TGF-{beta} was inhibited by cycloheximide but not by actinomycin-D, indicating a link to increased translation of pre-existing mRNA. A lack of significant effect on overall protein synthesis by EGF and TGF-{beta}, measured by ({sup 35}S)-methionine incorporation under conditions where a multi-fold increase in cyclooxygenase activity was seen, indicates that the translational regulation of a small fraction of total mRNA and possibly cyclooxygenase is occurring.

  5. Cortical actin regulation modulates vascular contractility and compliance in veins

    PubMed Central

    Saphirstein, Robert J; Gao, Yuan Z; Lin, Qian Qian; Morgan, Kathleen G

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The literature on arterial mechanics is extensive, but far less is known about mechanisms controlling mechanical properties of veins. We use here a multi-scale approach to identify subcellular sources of venous stiffness. Portal vein tissue displays a severalfold decrease in passive stiffness compared to aortic tissues. The α-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine (PE) increased tissue stress and stiffness, both attenuated by cytochalasin D (CytoD) and PP2, inhibitors of actin polymerization and Src activity, respectively. We quantify, for the first time, cortical cellular stiffness in freshly isolated contractile vascular smooth muscle cells using magnetic microneedle technology. Cortical stiffness is significantly increased by PE and CytoD inhibits this increase but, surprisingly, PP2 does not. No detectable change in focal adhesion size, measured by immunofluorescence of FAK and zyxin, accompanies the PE-induced changes in cortical stiffness. Probing with phospho-specific antibodies confirmed activation of FAK/Src and ERK pathways and caldesmon phosphorylation. Thus, venous tissue stiffness is regulated both at the level of the smooth muscle cell cortex, via cortical actin polymerization, and by downstream smooth muscle effectors of Src/ERK signalling pathways. These findings identify novel potential molecular targets for the modulation of venous capacitance and venous return in health and disease. Key points Most cardiovascular research focuses on arterial mechanisms of disease, largely ignoring venous mechanisms. Here we examine ex vivo venous stiffness, spanning tissue to molecular levels, using biomechanics and magnetic microneedle technology, and show for the first time that venous stiffness is regulated by a molecular actin switch within the vascular smooth muscle cell in the wall of the vein. This switch connects the contractile apparatus within the cell to adhesion structures and facilitates stiffening of the vessel wall, regulating blood flow return

  6. Endothelial podosome rosettes regulate vascular branching in tumour angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Seano, Giorgio; Chiaverina, Giulia; Gagliardi, Paolo Armando; Blasio, Laura di; Puliafito, Alberto; Bouvard, Claire; Sessa, Roberto; Tarone, Guido; Sorokin, Lydia; Helley, Dominique; Jain, Rakesh K.; Serini, Guido; Bussolino, Federico; Primo, Luca

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism by which angiogenic endothelial cells break the physical barrier of the vascular basement membrane and consequently sprout to form new vessels in mature tissues is unclear. Here, we show that the angiogenic endothelium is characterized by the presence of functional podosome rosettes. These extracellular-matrix-degrading and adhesive structures are precursors of de novo branching points and represent a key feature in the formation of new blood vessels. VEGF-A stimulation induces the formation of endothelial podosome rosettes by upregulating integrin α6β1. In contrast, the binding of α6β1 integrin to the laminin of the vascular basement membrane impairs the formation of podosome rosettes by restricting α6β1 integrin to focal adhesions and hampering its translocation to podosomes. Using an ex vivo sprouting angiogenesis assay, transgenic and knockout mouse models and human tumour sample analysis, we provide evidence that endothelial podosome rosettes control blood vessel branching and are critical regulators of pathological angiogenesis. PMID:25218639

  7. Regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    de Brot, Simone; Ntekim, Atara; Cardenas, Ryan; James, Victoria; Allegrucci, Cinzia; Heery, David M; Bates, David O; Ødum, Niels; Persson, Jenny L; Mongan, Nigel P

    2015-06-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common malignancy affecting men in the western world. Although radical prostatectomy and radiation therapy can successfully treat PCa in the majority of patients, up to ~30% will experience local recurrence or metastatic disease. Prostate carcinogenesis and progression is typically an androgen-dependent process. For this reason, therapies for recurrent PCa target androgen biosynthesis and androgen receptor function. Such androgen deprivation therapies (ADT) are effective initially, but the duration of response is typically ≤24 months. Although ADT and taxane-based chemotherapy have delivered survival benefits, metastatic PCa remains incurable. Therefore, it is essential to establish the cellular and molecular mechanisms that enable localized PCas to invade and disseminate. It has long been accepted that metastases require angiogenesis. In the present review, we examine the essential role for angiogenesis in PCa metastases, and we focus in particular on the current understanding of the regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in localized and metastatic PCa. We highlight recent advances in understanding the role of VEGF in regulating the interaction of cancer cells with tumor-associated immune cells during the metastatic process of PCa. We summarize the established mechanisms of transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of VEGF in PCa cells and outline the molecular insights obtained from preclinical animal models of PCa. Finally, we summarize the current state of anti-angiogenesis therapies for PCa and consider how existing therapies impact VEGF signaling. PMID:25870249

  8. The target of rapamycin (TOR) proteins

    PubMed Central

    Raught, Brian; Gingras, Anne-Claude; Sonenberg, Nahum

    2001-01-01

    Rapamycin potently inhibits downstream signaling from the target of rapamycin (TOR) proteins. These evolutionarily conserved protein kinases coordinate the balance between protein synthesis and protein degradation in response to nutrient quality and quantity. The TOR proteins regulate (i) the initiation and elongation phases of translation, (ii) ribosome biosynthesis, (iii) amino acid import, (iv) the transcription of numerous enzymes involved in multiple metabolic pathways, and (v) autophagy. Intriguingly, recent studies have also suggested that TOR signaling plays a critical role in brain development, learning, and memory formation. PMID:11416184

  9. Rapamycin Treatment of Healthy Pigs Subjected to Acute Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Attenuates Cardiac Functions and Increases Myocardial Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Lassaletta, Antonio D; Elmadhun, Nassrene Y; Zanetti, Arthus V D; Feng, Jun; Anduaga, Javier; Gohh, Reginald Y.; Sellke, Frank W; Bianchi, Cesario

    2013-01-01

    Background The Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is a major regulator of cell immunity and metabolism. mTOR is a well-known suppressor of tissue rejection in organ transplants, however, it has other non-immune functions including in the cardiovascular system, where it is a regulator of heart hypertrophy and locally, in coated vascular stents, inhibits vascular wall cell growth and hence neointimal formation/restenosis. Because the mTOR pathway plays major roles in normal cell growth, metabolism and survival, we hypothesized that inhibiting it with rapamycin, prior to an acute myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), would confer cardioprotection by virtue of slowing down cardiac function and metabolism. Methods Yorkshire pigs received orally either placebo or 4 mg/day rapamycin for 7 days before the IRI. All animals underwent median sternotomy and the mid-left anterior descending coronary artery was occluded for 60 min followed by 120 min of reperfusion. Left ventricular pressure-volume data was collected throughout the operation. The ischemic and infarcted areas were determined by monastral blue and triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining, respectively and plasma cardiac troponin I concentration. mTOR kinase activities were monitored in remote cardiac tissue by western blotting with specific antibodies against specific substrates phosphorylating sites. Results Rapamycin pre-treatement impaired endothelial-dependent vasorelaxation, attenuated cardiac function during IRI, and increased myocardial necrosis. Western blotting confirmed effective inhibition of myocardial mTOR kinase activities. Conclusions Pre-treatment of healthy pigs with rapamycin prior to acute myocardial IRI is associated with decreased cardiac function and higher myocardial necrosis. PMID:24266948

  10. Regulation of Vascular and Renal Function by Metabolite Receptors.

    PubMed

    Peti-Peterdi, János; Kishore, Bellamkonda K; Pluznick, Jennifer L

    2016-01-01

    To maintain metabolic homeostasis, the body must be able to monitor the concentration of a large number of substances, including metabolites, in real time and to use that information to regulate the activities of different metabolic pathways. Such regulation is achieved by the presence of sensors, termed metabolite receptors, in various tissues and cells of the body, which in turn convey the information to appropriate regulatory or positive or negative feedback systems. In this review, we cover the unique roles of metabolite receptors in renal and vascular function. These receptors play a wide variety of important roles in maintaining various aspects of homeostasis-from salt and water balance to metabolism-by sensing metabolites from a wide variety of sources. We discuss the role of metabolite sensors in sensing metabolites generated locally, metabolites generated at distant tissues or organs, or even metabolites generated by resident microbes. Metabolite receptors are also involved in various pathophysiological conditions and are being recognized as potential targets for new drugs. By highlighting three receptor families-(a) citric acid cycle intermediate receptors, (b) purinergic receptors, and PMID:26667077

  11. Iron deficiency down-regulates the Akt/TSC1-TSC2/mammalian Target of Rapamycin signaling pathway in rats and in COS-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Ndong, Moussa; Kazami, Machiko; Suzuki, Tsukasa; Uehara, Mariko; Katsumata, Shin-Ichi; Inoue, Hirohumi; Kobayashi, Ken-Ichi; Tadokoro, Tadahiro; Suzuki, Kazuharu; Yamamoto, Yuji

    2009-09-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) is one of the most commonly known forms of nutritional deficiencies. Low body iron is thought to induce neurologic defects but may also play a protective role against cancer development by cell growth arrest. Thus, ID may affect cellular pathways controlling cell growth and proliferation, the mechanism of which is still not fully understood. The serine/threonine protein kinase Akt and its downstream target, the mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR), is known to play a crucial role in the regulation of cell growth and survival. Therefore, we hypothesized that Akt/mTOR pathway could be influenced by ID. Three-week-old male Wistar-strain rats were divided into 3 groups and the 2 groups had free access to a control diet (C group) or an iron-deficient diet (D group). The third group (PF group) were pair-fed the control diet to the mean intake of the D group. After 4 weeks, rats were killed and their brains were sampled. In separate experiments, COS-1 cells were cultured with or without the iron chelator deferoxamine. Western blots of brain samples and COS-1 lysates were used to analyze the expression and phosphorylation state of Akt, TSC2, mTOR, and S6 kinase proteins implicated in the Akt/mTOR pathway. Using 2 different ID models, we show for the first time that iron deficiency depresses Akt activity in rats and in COS-1 cells, leading to a decrease in mTOR activity. PMID:19854379

  12. Nrf2/Keap1 system regulates vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis for vascular homeostasis: role in neointimal formation after vascular injury

    PubMed Central

    Ashino, Takashi; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Numazawa, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal increases in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in the intimal region after a vascular injury is a key event in developing neointimal hyperplasia. To maintain vascular function, proliferation and apoptosis of VSMCs is tightly controlled during vascular remodeling. NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) system, a key component of the oxidative stress response that acts in maintaining homeostasis, plays an important role in neointimal hyperplasia after a vascular injury; however, the role of Nrf2/Keap1 in VSMC apoptosis has not been clarified. Here we report that 14 days after arterial injury in mice, TUNEL-positive VSMCs are detected in both the neointimal and medial layers. These layers contain cells expressing high levels of Nrf2 but low Keap1 expression. In VSMCs, Keap1 depletion induces features of apoptosis, such as positive TUNEL staining and annexin V binding. These changes are associated with an increased expression of nuclear Nrf2. Simultaneous Nrf2 depletion inhibits Keap1 depletion-induced apoptosis. At 14 days after the vascular injury, Nrf2-deficient mice demonstrated fewer TUNEL-positive cells and increased neointimal formation in the neointimal and medial areas. The results suggest that the Nrf2/Keap1 system regulates VSMC apoptosis during neointimal formation, thereby inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia after a vascular injury. PMID:27198574

  13. Gax regulates human vascular smooth muscle cell phenotypic modulation and vascular remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hui; Hu, Zhenlei; Zhai, Xinming; Wang, Yongyi; Liu, Jidong; Wang, Weijun; Xue, Song

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal phenotypic modulation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is a hallmark of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension and restenosis after angioplasty. Transcription factors have emerged as critical regulators for VSMCs function, and recently we verified inhibiting transcription factor Gax was important for controlling VSMCs proliferation and migration. This study aimed to determine its role in phenotypic modulation of VSMCs. Western blot revealed that overexpression of Gax increased expression of VSMCs differentiation marker genes such as calponin and SM-MHC 11. Then, Gax overexpression potently suppressed proliferation and migration of VSMCs with or without platelet-derived growth factor-induced-BB (PDGF-BB) stimuli whereas Gax silencing inhibited these processes. Furthermore, cDNA array analysis indicated that Rap1A gene was the downstream target of Gax in human VSMCs. And overexpression of Gax significantly inhibited expression of Rap1A in VSMCs with or without PDGF-BB stimuli. Moreover, overexpression of Rap1A decreased expression of VSMCs differentiation marker genes and increased proliferation and migration of VSMCs with or without PDGF-BB stimuli. Finally, Gax overexpression significantly inhibited the neointimal formation in carotid artery injury of mouse models, specifically through maintaining VSMCs contractile phenotype by decreasing Rap1A expression. In conclusion, these results indicated that Gax was a regulator of human VSMCs phenotypic modulation by targeting Rap1A gene, which suggested that targeting Gax or its downstream targets in human VSMCs may provide an attractive approach for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27508012

  14. Rapamycin inhibits poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in intact cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fahrer, Joerg; Wagner, Silvia; Buerkle, Alexander; Koenigsrainer, Alfred

    2009-08-14

    Rapamycin is an immunosuppressive drug, which inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase activity inducing changes in cell proliferation. Synthesis of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) is an immediate cellular response to genotoxic stress catalyzed mostly by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1), which is also controlled by signaling pathways. Therefore, we investigated whether rapamycin affects PAR production. Strikingly, rapamycin inhibited PAR synthesis in living fibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner as monitored by immunofluorescence. PARP-1 activity was then assayed in vitro, revealing that down-regulation of cellular PAR production by rapamycin was apparently not due to competitive PARP-1 inhibition. Further studies showed that rapamycin did not influence the cellular NAD pool and the activation of PARP-1 in extracts of pretreated fibroblasts. Collectively, our data suggest that inhibition of cellular PAR synthesis by rapamycin is mediated by formation of a detergent-sensitive complex in living cells, and that rapamycin may have a potential as therapeutic PARP inhibitor.

  15. Chemerin Regulates Crosstalk Between Adipocytes and Vascular Cells Through Nox.

    PubMed

    Neves, Karla Bianca; Nguyen Dinh Cat, Aurelie; Lopes, Rheure Alves Moreira; Rios, Francisco Jose; Anagnostopoulou, Aikaterini; Lobato, Nubia Souza; de Oliveira, Ana Maria; Tostes, Rita C; Montezano, Augusto C; Touyz, Rhian M

    2015-09-01

    Adipocytes produce adipokines, including chemerin, a chemoattractant that mediates effects through its ChemR23 receptor. Chemerin has been linked to endothelial dysfunction and vascular injury in pathological conditions, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. Molecular mechanisms underlying this are elusive. Here we assessed whether chemerin through redox-sensitive signaling influences molecular processes associated with vascular growth, apoptosis, and inflammation. Human microvascular endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells were stimulated with chemerin (50 ng/mL). Chemerin increased generation of reactive oxygen species and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, effects that were inhibited by ML171, GKT137831 (Nox inhibitors), and N-acetylcysteine (reactive oxygen species scavenger). Chemerin increased mRNA expression of proinflammatory mediators in vascular cells and increased monocyte-to-endothelial cell attachment. In human vascular smooth muscle cells, chemerin induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and stimulated proliferation (increased proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression [proliferation marker] and BrdU incorporation [proliferation assay]). Chemerin decreased phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B activation and increased TUNEL-positive human vascular smooth muscle cells. In human microvascular endothelial cells, chemerin reduced endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity and nitric oxide production. Adipocyte-conditioned medium from obese/diabetic mice (db/db), which have elevated chemerin levels, increased reactive oxygen species generation in vascular smooth muscle cells, whereas adipocyte-conditioned medium from control mice had no effect. Chemerin actions were blocked by CCX 832, a ChemR23 inhibitor. Our data demonstrate that chemerin, through Nox activation and redox-sensitive mitogen-activated protein kinases signaling, exerts proapoptotic, proinflammatory, and

  16. Dynamic regulation of β1 subunit trafficking controls vascular contractility

    PubMed Central

    Leo, M. Dennis; Bannister, John P.; Narayanan, Damodaran; Nair, Anitha; Grubbs, Jordan E.; Gabrick, Kyle S.; Boop, Frederick A.; Jaggar, Jonathan H.

    2014-01-01

    Ion channels composed of pore-forming and auxiliary subunits control physiological functions in virtually all cell types. A conventional view is that channels assemble with their auxiliary subunits before anterograde plasma membrane trafficking of the protein complex. Whether the multisubunit composition of surface channels is fixed following protein synthesis or flexible and open to acute and, potentially, rapid modulation to control activity and cellular excitability is unclear. Arterial smooth muscle cells (myocytes) express large-conductance Ca2+-activated potassium (BK) channel α and auxiliary β1 subunits that are functionally significant modulators of arterial contractility. Here, we show that native BKα subunits are primarily (∼95%) plasma membrane-localized in human and rat arterial myocytes. In contrast, only a small fraction (∼10%) of total β1 subunits are located at the cell surface. Immunofluorescence resonance energy transfer microscopy demonstrated that intracellular β1 subunits are stored within Rab11A-postive recycling endosomes. Nitric oxide (NO), acting via cGMP-dependent protein kinase, and cAMP-dependent pathways stimulated rapid (≤1 min) anterograde trafficking of β1 subunit-containing recycling endosomes, which increased surface β1 almost threefold. These β1 subunits associated with surface-resident BKα proteins, elevating channel Ca2+ sensitivity and activity. Our data also show that rapid β1 subunit anterograde trafficking is the primary mechanism by which NO activates myocyte BK channels and induces vasodilation. In summary, we show that rapid β1 subunit surface trafficking controls functional BK channel activity in arterial myocytes and vascular contractility. Conceivably, regulated auxiliary subunit trafficking may control ion channel activity in a wide variety of cell types. PMID:24464482

  17. Development of a model describing regulation of casein synthesis by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway in response to insulin, amino acids, and acetate.

    PubMed

    Castro, J J; Arriola Apelo, S I; Appuhamy, J A D R N; Hanigan, M D

    2016-08-01

    To improve dietary protein use efficiency in lactating cows, mammary protein synthesis responses to AA, energy substrates, and hormones must be better understood. These entities exert their effects through stimulation of mRNA translation via control of initiation and elongation rates at the cellular level. A central protein kinase of this phenomenon is the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which transfers the nutritional and hormonal stimuli onto a series of proteins downstream through a cascade of phosphorylation reactions that ultimately affect protein synthesis. The objective of this work was to further develop an existing mechanistic model of mTOR phosphorylation responses to insulin and total essential AA to include the effects of specific essential AA and acetate mediated by signaling proteins including protein kinase B (Akt), adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK), and mTOR and to add a representation of milk protein synthesis. Data from 6 experiments in MAC-T cells and mammary tissue slices previously conducted in our laboratory were assembled and used to parameterize the dynamic system of differential equations representing Akt, AMPK, and mTOR in their phosphorylated and dephosphorylated states and the resulting regulation of milk protein synthesis. The model predicted phosphorylated Akt, mTOR, AMPK, and casein synthesis rates with root mean square prediction errors of 16.8, 28.4, 33.0, and 54.9%, respectively. All other dependent variables were free of mean and slope bias, indicating an adequate representation of the data. Whereas mTOR was not very sensitive to changes in insulin or acetate levels, it was highly sensitive to leucine and isoleucine, and this signal appeared to be effectively transduced to casein synthesis. Although prior work had observed a relationship with additional essential AA, and data supporting those conclusions were present in the data set, we were unable to derive significant relationships with any essential

  18. Rac regulates vascular endothelial growth factor stimulated motility.

    PubMed

    Soga, N; Connolly, J O; Chellaiah, M; Kawamura, J; Hruska, K A

    2001-01-01

    During angiogenesis endothelial cells migrate towards a chemotactic stimulus. Understanding the mechanism of endothelial cell migration is critical to the therapeutic manipulation of angiogenesis and ultimately cancer prevention. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent chemotactic stimulus of endothelial cells during angiogenesis. The endothelial cell signal transduction pathway of VEGF represents a potential target for cancer therapy, but the mechanisms of post-receptor signal transduction including the roles of rho family GTPases in regulating the cytoskeletal effects of VEGF in endothelial cells are not understood. Here we analyze the mechanisms of cell migration in the mouse brain endothelial cell line (bEND3). Stable transfectants containing a tetracycline repressible expression vector were used to induce expression of Rac mutants. Endothelial cell haptotaxis was stimulated by constitutively active V12Rac on collagen and vitronectin coated supports, and chemotaxis was further stimulated by VEGF. Osteopontin coated supports were the most stimulatory to bEND3 haptotaxis, but VEGF was not effective in further increasing migration on osteopontin coated supports. Haptotaxis on support coated with collagen, vitronectin, and to a lesser degree osteopontin was inhibited by N17 Rac. N17 Rac expression blocked stimulation of endothelial cell chemotaxis by VEGF. As part of the chemotactic stimulation, VEGF caused a loss of actin organization at areas of cell-cell contact and increased stress fiber expression in endothelial cells which were directed towards pores in the transwell membrane. N17 Rac prevented the stimulation of cell-cell contact disruption and the stress fiber stimulation by VEGF. These data demonstrate two pathways of regulating endothelial cell motility, one in which Rac is activated by matrix/integrin stimulation and is a crucial modulator of endothelial cell haptotaxis. The other pathway, in the presence of osteopontin, is Rac independent

  19. Force-specific activation of Smad1/5 regulates vascular endothelial cell cycle progression in response to disturbed flow.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing; Lee, Pei-Ling; Tsai, Chien-Sung; Lee, Chih-I; Yang, Tung-Lin; Chuang, Han-Sheng; Lin, Wei-Wen; Lin, Ting-Er; Lim, Seh Hong; Wei, Shu-Yi; Chen, Yuh-Lien; Chien, Shu; Chiu, Jeng-Jiann

    2012-05-15

    Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) are constantly exposed to blood flow-induced shear stress, but the mechanism of force-specific activation of their signaling to modulate cellular function remains unclear. We have demonstrated that bone morphogenetic protein receptor (BMPR)-specific Smad1/5 can be force-specifically activated by oscillatory shear stress (OSS) in ECs to cause cell cycle progression. Smad1/5 is highly activated in ECs of atherosclerotic lesions in diseased human coronary arteries from patients with end-stage heart failure undergoing heart transplantation and from apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Application of OSS (0.5 ± 4 dyn/cm(2)) causes the sustained activation of Smad1/5 in ECs through activations of mammalian target of rapamycin and p70S6 kinase, leading to up-regulation of cyclin A and down-regulations of p21(CIP1) and p27(KIP1) and, hence, EC cycle progression. En face examination of rat aortas reveals high levels of phospho-Smad1/5 in ECs of the inner, but not the outer, curvature of aortic arch, nor the straight segment of thoracic aorta [corrected]. Immunohistochemical and en face examinations of the experimentally stenosed abdominal aorta in rats show high levels of phospho-Smad1/5 in ECs at poststenotic sites, where OSS occurs. These OSS activations of EC Smad1/5 in vitro and in vivo are not inhibited by the BMP-specific antagonist Noggin and, hence, are independent of BMP ligand. Transfecting ECs with Smad1/5-specific small interfering RNAs inhibits the OSS-induced EC cycle progression. Our findings demonstrate the force-specificity of the activation of Smad1/5 and its contribution to cell cycle progression in ECs induced by disturbed flow. PMID:22550179

  20. Role of Mitochondria in Cerebral Vascular Function: Energy Production, Cellular Protection, and Regulation of Vascular Tone.

    PubMed

    Busija, David W; Rutkai, Ibolya; Dutta, Somhrita; Katakam, Prasad V

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria not only produce energy in the form of ATP to support the activities of cells comprising the neurovascular unit, but mitochondrial events, such as depolarization and/or ROS release, also initiate signaling events which protect the endothelium and neurons against lethal stresses via pre-/postconditioning as well as promote changes in cerebral vascular tone. Mitochondrial depolarization in vascular smooth muscle (VSM), via pharmacological activation of the ATP-dependent potassium channels on the inner mitochondrial membrane (mitoKATP channels), leads to vasorelaxation through generation of calcium sparks by the sarcoplasmic reticulum and subsequent downstream signaling mechanisms. Increased release of ROS by mitochondria has similar effects. Relaxation of VSM can also be indirectly achieved via actions of nitric oxide (NO) and other vasoactive agents produced by endothelium, perivascular and parenchymal nerves, and astroglia following mitochondrial activation. Additionally, NO production following mitochondrial activation is involved in neuronal preconditioning. Cerebral arteries from female rats have greater mitochondrial mass and respiration and enhanced cerebral arterial dilation to mitochondrial activators. Preexisting chronic conditions such as insulin resistance and/or diabetes impair mitoKATP channel relaxation of cerebral arteries and preconditioning. Surprisingly, mitoKATP channel function after transient ischemia appears to be retained in the endothelium of large cerebral arteries despite generalized cerebral vascular dysfunction. Thus, mitochondrial mechanisms may represent the elusive signaling link between metabolic rate and blood flow as well as mediators of vascular change according to physiological status. Mitochondrial mechanisms are an important, but underutilized target for improving vascular function and decreasing brain injury in stroke patients. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1529-1548, 2016. PMID:27347901

  1. Regulator of G Protein Signaling 2: A Versatile Regulator of Vascular Function

    PubMed Central

    Osei-Owusu, Patrick; Blumer, Kendall J.

    2016-01-01

    Regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins of the B/R4 family are widely expressed in the cardiovascular system where their role in fine tuning G protein signaling is critical to maintaining homeostasis. Among members of this family, RGS2 and RGS5 have been shown to play key roles in cardiac and smooth muscle function by tightly regulating signaling pathways that are activated through Gq/11 and Gi/o classes of heterotrimeric G proteins. This chapter reviews accumulating evidence supporting a key role for RGS2 in vascular function and the implication of changes in RGS2 function and/or expression in the pathogenesis of blood pressure disorders, particularly hypertension. With such understanding, RGS2 and the signaling pathways it controls may emerge as novel targets for developing next-generation anti-hypertensive drugs/agents. PMID:26123303

  2. Dopamine- and cAMP-regulated Phosphoprotein of 32-kDa (DARPP-32)-dependent Activation of Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase (ERK) and Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1) Signaling in Experimental Parkinsonism*

    PubMed Central

    Santini, Emanuela; Feyder, Michael; Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Bateup, Helen S.; Greengard, Paul; Fisone, Gilberto

    2012-01-01

    Dyskinesia, a motor complication caused by prolonged administration of the antiparkinsonian drug l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA), is accompanied by activation of cAMP signaling and hyperphosphorylation of the dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa (DARPP-32). Here, we show that the abnormal phosphorylation of DARPP-32 occurs specifically in medium spiny neurons (MSNs) expressing dopamine D1 receptors (D1R). Using mice in which DARPP-32 is selectively deleted in D1R-expressing MSNs, we demonstrate that this protein is required for l-DOPA-induced activation of the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 and the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathways, which are implicated in dyskinesia. We also show that mutation of the phosphorylation site for cAMP-dependent protein kinase on DARPP-32 attenuates l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia and reduces the concomitant activations of ERK and mTORC1 signaling. These studies demonstrate that, in D1R-expressing MSNs, l-DOPA-induced activation of ERK and mTORC1 requires DARPP-32 and indicates the importance of the cAMP/DARPP-32 signaling cascade in dyskinesia. PMID:22753408

  3. Dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of 32-kDa (DARPP-32)-dependent activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling in experimental parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Santini, Emanuela; Feyder, Michael; Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Bateup, Helen S; Greengard, Paul; Fisone, Gilberto

    2012-08-10

    Dyskinesia, a motor complication caused by prolonged administration of the antiparkinsonian drug l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA), is accompanied by activation of cAMP signaling and hyperphosphorylation of the dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa (DARPP-32). Here, we show that the abnormal phosphorylation of DARPP-32 occurs specifically in medium spiny neurons (MSNs) expressing dopamine D1 receptors (D1R). Using mice in which DARPP-32 is selectively deleted in D1R-expressing MSNs, we demonstrate that this protein is required for l-DOPA-induced activation of the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 and the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathways, which are implicated in dyskinesia. We also show that mutation of the phosphorylation site for cAMP-dependent protein kinase on DARPP-32 attenuates l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia and reduces the concomitant activations of ERK and mTORC1 signaling. These studies demonstrate that, in D1R-expressing MSNs, l-DOPA-induced activation of ERK and mTORC1 requires DARPP-32 and indicates the importance of the cAMP/DARPP-32 signaling cascade in dyskinesia. PMID:22753408

  4. p66Shc regulates renal vascular tone in hypertension-induced nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Miller, Bradley; Palygin, Oleg; Rufanova, Victoriya A; Chong, Andrew; Lazar, Jozef; Jacob, Howard J; Mattson, David; Roman, Richard J; Williams, Jan M; Cowley, Allen W; Geurts, Aron M; Staruschenko, Alexander; Imig, John D; Sorokin, Andrey

    2016-07-01

    Renal preglomerular arterioles regulate vascular tone to ensure a large pressure gradient over short distances, a function that is extremely important for maintaining renal microcirculation. Regulation of renal microvascular tone is impaired in salt-sensitive (SS) hypertension-induced nephropathy, but the molecular mechanisms contributing to this impairment remain elusive. Here, we assessed the contribution of the SH2 adaptor protein p66Shc (encoded by Shc1) in regulating renal vascular tone and the development of renal vascular dysfunction associated with hypertension-induced nephropathy. We generated a panel of mutant rat strains in which specific modifications of Shc1 were introduced into the Dahl SS rats. In SS rats, overexpression of p66Shc was linked to increased renal damage. Conversely, deletion of p66Shc from these rats restored the myogenic responsiveness of renal preglomerular arterioles ex vivo and promoted cellular contraction in primary vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) that were isolated from renal vessels. In primary SMCs, p66Shc restricted the activation of transient receptor potential cation channels to attenuate cytosolic Ca2+ influx, implicating a mechanism by which overexpression of p66Shc impairs renal vascular reactivity. These results establish the adaptor protein p66Shc as a regulator of renal vascular tone and a driver of impaired renal vascular function in hypertension-induced nephropathy. PMID:27270176

  5. The insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor-targeting antibody, CP-751,871, suppresses tumor-derived VEGF and synergizes with rapamycin in models of childhood sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Kurmasheva, Raushan T; Dudkin, Lorina; Billups, Catherine; Debelenko, Larisa V; Morton, Christopher L; Houghton, Peter J

    2009-10-01

    Signaling through the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) occurs in many human cancers, including childhood sarcomas. As a consequence, targeting the IGF-1R has become a focus for cancer drug development. We examined the antitumor activity of CP-751,871, a human antibody that blocks IGF-1R ligand binding, alone and in combination with rapamycin against sarcoma cell lines in vitro and xenograft models in vivo. In Ewing sarcoma (EWS) cell lines, CP751,871 inhibited growth poorly (<50%), but prevented rapamycin-induced hyperphosphorylation of AKT(Ser473) and induced greater than additive apoptosis. Rapamycin treatment also increased secretion of IGF-1 resulting in phosphorylation of IGF-1R (Tyr1131) that was blocked by CP751,871. In vivo CP-751,871, rapamycin, or the combination were evaluated against EWS, osteosarcoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma xenografts. CP751871 induced significant growth inhibition [EFS(T/C) >2] in four models. Rapamycin induced significant growth inhibition [EFS(T/C) >2] in nine models. Although neither agent given alone caused tumor regressions, in combination, these agents had greater than additive activity against 5 of 13 xenografts and induced complete remissions in one model each of rhabdomyosarcoma and EWS, and in three of four osteosarcoma models. CP751,871 caused complete IGF-1R down-regulation, suppression of AKT phosphorylation, and dramatically suppressed tumor-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in some sarcoma xenografts. Rapamycin treatment did not markedly suppress VEGF in tumors and synergized only in tumor lines where VEGF was dramatically inhibited by CP751,871. These data suggest a model in which blockade of IGF-1R suppresses tumor-derived VEGF to a level where rapamycin can effectively suppress the response in vascular endothelial cells. PMID:19789339

  6. Enzymatic regulation of functional vascular networks using gelatin hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Chia-Hui; Lin, Ruei-Zeng; Tien, Han-Wen; Chu, Ya-Chun; Li, Yen-Cheng; Melero-Martin, Juan M.; Chen, Ying-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    To manufacture tissue engineering-based functional tissues, scaffold materials that can be sufficiently vascularized to mimic the functionality and complexity of native tissues are needed. Currently, vascular network bioengineering is largely carried out using natural hydrogels as embedding scaffolds, but most natural hydrogels have poor mechanical stability and durability, factors that critically limit their widespread use. In this study, we examined the suitability of gelatin-phenolic hydroxyl (gelatin-Ph) hydrogels that can be enzymatically crosslinked, allowing tuning of the storage modulus and the proteolytic degradation rate, for use as injectable hydrogels to support the human progenitor cell-based formation of a stable and mature vascular network. Porcine gelatin-Ph hydrogels were found to be cytocompatible with human blood-derived endothelial colony-forming cells and white adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells, resulting in >87% viability, and cell proliferation and spreading could be modulated by using hydrogels with different proteolytic degradability and stiffness. In addition, gelatin was extracted from mouse dermis and murine gelatin-Ph hydrogels were prepared. Importantly, implantation of human cell-laden porcine or murine gelatin-Ph hydrogels into immunodeficient mice resulted in the rapid formation of functional anastomoses between the bioengineered human vascular network and the mouse vasculature. Furthermore, the degree of enzymatic crosslinking of the gelatin-Ph hydrogels could be used to modulate cell behavior and the extent of vascular network formation in vivo. Our report details a technique for the synthesis of gelatin-Ph hydrogels from allogeneic or xenogeneic dermal skin and suggests that these hydrogels can be used for biomedical applications that require the formation of microvascular networks, including the development of complex engineered tissues. PMID:25749296

  7. Protein kinase FgSch9 serves as a mediator of the target of rapamycin and high osmolarity glycerol pathways and regulates multiple stress responses and secondary metabolism in Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Gu, Qin; Zhang, Chengqi; Yu, Fangwei; Yin, Yanni; Shim, Won-Bo; Ma, Zhonghua

    2015-08-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein kinase Sch9 is one of the downstream effectors of the target of rapamycin (TOR) complex 1 and plays multiple roles in stress resistance, longevity and nutrient sensing. However, the functions of Sch9 orthologs in filamentous fungi, particularly in pathogenic species, have not been characterized to date. Here, we investigated biological and genetic functions of FgSch9 in Fusarium graminearum. The FgSCH9 deletion mutant (ΔFgSch9) was defective in aerial hyphal growth, hyphal branching and conidial germination. The mutant exhibited increased sensitivity to osmotic and oxidative stresses, cell wall-damaging agents, and to rapamycin, while showing increased thermal tolerance. We identified FgMaf1 as one of the FgSch9-interacting proteins that plays an important role in regulating mycotoxin biosynthesis and virulence of F. graminearum. Co-immunoprecipitation and affinity capture-mass spectrometry assays showed that FgSch9 also interacts with FgTor and FgHog1. More importantly, both ΔFgSch9 and FgHog1 null mutant (ΔFgHog1) exhibited increased sensitivity to osmotic and oxidative stresses. This defect was more severe in the FgSch9/FgHog1 double mutant. Taken together, we propose that FgSch9 serves as a mediator of the TOR and high osmolarity glycerol pathways, and regulates vegetative differentiation, multiple stress responses and secondary metabolism in F. graminearum. PMID:24903410

  8. Biomechanical regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell functions: from in vitro to in vivo understanding

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Juhui; Zheng, Yiming; Hu, Jianjun; Liao, Donghua; Gregersen, Hans; Deng, Xiaoyan; Fan, Yubo; Wang, Guixue

    2014-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) have critical functions in vascular diseases. Haemodynamic factors are important regulators of VSMC functions in vascular pathophysiology. VSMCs are physiologically active in the three-dimensional matrix and interact with the shear stress sensor of endothelial cells (ECs). The purpose of this review is to illustrate how haemodynamic factors regulate VSMC functions under two-dimensional conditions in vitro or three-dimensional co-culture conditions in vivo. Recent advances show that high shear stress induces VSMC apoptosis through endothelial-released nitric oxide and low shear stress upregulates VSMC proliferation and migration through platelet-derived growth factor released by ECs. This differential regulation emphasizes the need to construct more actual environments for future research on vascular diseases (such as atherosclerosis and hypertension) and cardiovascular tissue engineering. PMID:24152813

  9. The alternative splicing factor Nova2 regulates vascular development and lumen formation.

    PubMed

    Giampietro, Costanza; Deflorian, Gianluca; Gallo, Stefania; Di Matteo, Anna; Pradella, Davide; Bonomi, Serena; Belloni, Elisa; Nyqvist, Daniel; Quaranta, Valeria; Confalonieri, Stefano; Bertalot, Giovanni; Orsenigo, Fabrizio; Pisati, Federica; Ferrero, Elisabetta; Biamonti, Giuseppe; Fredrickx, Evelien; Taveggia, Carla; Wyatt, Chris D R; Irimia, Manuel; Di Fiore, Pier Paolo; Blencowe, Benjamin J; Dejana, Elisabetta; Ghigna, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Vascular lumen formation is a fundamental step during angiogenesis; yet, the molecular mechanisms underlying this process are poorly understood. Recent studies have shown that neural and vascular systems share common anatomical, functional and molecular similarities. Here we show that the organization of endothelial lumen is controlled at the post-transcriptional level by the alternative splicing (AS) regulator Nova2, which was previously considered to be neural cell-specific. Nova2 is expressed during angiogenesis and its depletion disrupts vascular lumen formation in vivo. Similarly, Nova2 depletion in cultured endothelial cells (ECs) impairs the apical distribution and the downstream signalling of the Par polarity complex, resulting in altered EC polarity, a process required for vascular lumen formation. These defects are linked to AS changes of Nova2 target exons affecting the Par complex and its regulators. Collectively, our results reveal that Nova2 functions as an AS regulator in angiogenesis and is a novel member of the 'angioneurins' family. PMID:26446569

  10. Delayed Correlation of mRNA and Protein Expression in Rapamycin-treated Cells and a Role for Ggc1 in Cellular Sensitivity to Rapamycin*

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Marjorie L.; Paulson, Ariel; Pavelka, Norman; Mosley, Amber L.; Gaudenz, Karin; Bradford, William D.; Glynn, Earl; Li, Hua; Sardiu, Mihaela E.; Fleharty, Brian; Seidel, Christopher; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    To identify new molecular targets of rapamycin, an anticancer and immunosuppressive drug, we analyzed temporal changes in yeast over 6 h in response to rapamycin at the transcriptome and proteome levels and integrated the expression patterns with functional profiling. We show that the integration of transcriptomics, proteomics, and functional data sets provides novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of rapamycin action. We first observed a temporal delay in the correlation of mRNA and protein expression where mRNA expression at 1 and 2 h correlated best with protein expression changes after 6 h of rapamycin treatment. This was especially the case for the inhibition of ribosome biogenesis and induction of heat shock and autophagy essential to promote the cellular sensitivity to rapamycin. However, increased levels of vacuolar protease could enhance resistance to rapamycin. Of the 85 proteins identified as statistically significantly changing in abundance, most of the proteins that decreased in abundance were correlated with a decrease in mRNA expression. However, of the 56 proteins increasing in abundance, 26 were not correlated with an increase in mRNA expression. These protein changes were correlated with unchanged or down-regulated mRNA expression. These proteins, involved in mitochondrial genome maintenance, endocytosis, or drug export, represent new candidates effecting rapamycin action whose expression might be post-transcriptionally or post-translationally regulated. We identified GGC1, a mitochondrial GTP/GDP carrier, as a new component of the rapamycin/target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling pathway. We determined that the protein product of GGC1 was stabilized in the presence of rapamycin, and the deletion of the GGC1 enhanced growth fitness in the presence of rapamycin. A dynamic mRNA expression analysis of Δggc1 and wild-type cells treated with rapamycin revealed a key role for Ggc1p in the regulation of ribosome biogenesis and cell cycle progression

  11. VEGF-A regulated by progesterone governs uterine angiogenesis and vascular remodelling during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Minah; Park, Hyeung Ju; Seol, Jae Won; Jang, Jeon Yeob; Cho, Young-Suk; Kim, Kyu Rae; Choi, Youngsok; Lydon, John P; DeMayo, Francesco J; Shibuya, Masabumi; Ferrara, Napoleone; Sung, Hoon-Ki; Nagy, Andras; Alitalo, Kari; Koh, Gou Young

    2013-01-01

    The features and regulation of uterine angiogenesis and vascular remodelling during pregnancy are poorly defined. Here we show that dynamic and variable decidual angiogenesis (sprouting, intussusception and networking), and active vigorous vascular remodelling such as enlargement and elongation of ‘vascular sinus folding’ (VSF) and mural cell drop-out occur distinctly in a spatiotemporal manner in the rapidly growing mouse uterus during early pregnancy — just after implantation but before placentation. Decidual angiogenesis is mainly regulated through VEGF-A secreted from the progesterone receptor (PR)-expressing decidual stromal cells which are largely distributed in the anti-mesometrial region (AMR). In comparison, P4-PR-regulated VEGF-A-VEGFR2 signalling, ligand-independent VEGFR3 signalling and uterine natural killer (uNK) cells positively and coordinately regulate enlargement and elongation of VSF. During the postpartum period, Tie2 signalling could be involved in vascular maturation at the endometrium in a ligand-independent manner, with marked reduction of VEGF-A, VEGFR2 and PR expressions. Overall, we show that two key vascular growth factor receptors — VEGFR2 and Tie2 — strikingly but differentially regulate decidual angiogenesis and vascular remodelling in rapidly growing and regressing uteri in an organotypic manner. PMID:23853117

  12. Epicardial GATA factors regulate early coronary vascular plexus formation

    PubMed Central

    Kolander, Kurt D.; Holtz, Mary L.; Cossette, Stephanie M.; Duncan, Stephen A.; Misra, Ravi P.

    2014-01-01

    During early development, GATA factors have been shown to be important for key events of coronary vasculogenesis, including formation of the epicardium. Myocardial GATA factors are required for coronary vascular (CV) formation; however, the role of epicardial localized GATAs in this process has not been addressed. The current study was conducted to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which the epicardium controls coronary vasculogenesis, focusing on the role of epicardial GATAs in establishing the endothelial plexus during early coronary vasculogenesis. To address the role of epicardial GATAs, we ablated GATA4 and GATA6 transcription factors specifically from the mouse epicardium and found that the number of endothelial cells in the sub-epicardium was drastically reduced, and concomitant coronary vascular plexus formation was significantly compromised. Here we present evidence for a novel role for epicardial GATA factors in controlling plexus formation by recruiting endothelial cells to the sub-epicardium. PMID:24380800

  13. Oral rapamycin inhibits growth of atherosclerotic plaque in apoE knock-out mice

    SciTech Connect

    Waksman, Ron; Pakala, Rajbabu; Burnett, Mary S.; Gulick, Cindy P.; Leborgne, Laurent; Fournadjiev, Jana; Wolfram, Roswitha; Hellinga, David

    2003-03-01

    Introduction: Inflammatory and immunological responses of vascular cells are known to play significant roles in atherosclerotic plaque development. Rapamycin with antiinflammatory, immunosuppressive and antiproliferative properties has been shown to reduce neointima formation when coated on stents. This study is designed to test the potential of oral rapamycin to inhibit atherosclerotic plaque development. Methods: Eight-week-old apoE knock-out mice were fed with 0.25% cholesterol supplemented diet (control diet), control diet containing 50 {mu}g/kg rapamycin (low-dose rapamycin) or 100 {mu}g/kg rapamycin (high-dose rapamycin) for 4 or 8 weeks. Subsets of mice from each group (n=10) were weighed and euthanized. Whole blood rapamycin levels were determined using HPLC-MS/MS, and histological analyses of atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic root were performed. Results: Mice fed with high-dose rapamycin did not gain weight (18.5{+-}1.5 vs. 20.6{+-}0.9 g, P=.01). Blood levels of rapamycin 117{+-}7 pg/ml were detected in the blood of mice fed with high-dose rapamycin for 8 weeks. The plaque area in mice fed with high dose oral rapamycin is significantly less as compared to control (0.168{+-}0.008 vs. 0.326{+-}0.013 mm{sup 2}, P=.001 at 4 weeks; 0.234{+-}0.013 vs. 0.447{+-}0.011 mm{sup 2}, P=.001 at 8 weeks). Lumen area was inversely proportional to the plaque area. Conclusions: The results indicate that oral rapamycin is effective in attenuating the progression of atherosclerotic plaque in the mice.

  14. Long Noncoding RNA-GAS5: A Novel Regulator of Hypertension-Induced Vascular Remodeling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang-Ning-Zhi; Shan, Kun; Yao, Mu-Di; Yao, Jin; Wang, Jia-Jian; Li, Xiang; Liu, Ban; Zhang, Yang-Yang; Ji, Yong; Jiang, Qin; Yan, Biao

    2016-09-01

    Vascular remodeling is an important pathological feature of hypertension, leading to increased vascular resistance and reduced compliance. Endothelial cell (EC) and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) dysfunction is involved in vascular remodeling. Long noncoding RNAs are potential regulators of EC and VSMC function. Herein, we determined whether long noncoding RNA-growth arrest-specific 5 (GAS5) is involved in hypertension-related vascular remodeling. We revealed that GAS5 knockdown aggravated hypertension-induced microvascular dysfunction as shown by increased retinal neovascularization and capillary leakage. GAS5 regulated the remodeling of arteries, including caudal arteries, carotid arteries, renal arteries, and thoracic arteries. GAS5 was mainly expressed in ECs and VSMCs, and its expression was significantly downregulated in hypertension. GAS5 knockdown affected endothelial activation, endothelial proliferation, VSMC phenotypic conversion, and EC-VSMC communication in vivo and in vitro. Mechanistically, GAS5 regulated EC and VSMC function through β-catenin signaling. This study identified GAS5 as a critical regulator in hypertension and demonstrated the potential of gene therapy and drug development for treating hypertension. PMID:27432865

  15. [mTOR, the mammalian target of rapamycin].

    PubMed

    Julien, Louis-André; Roux, Philippe P

    2010-12-01

    The discovery of rapamycin from a soil sample on Easter Island in the mid 60's marked the beginning of an exciting field of research in cell biology and medicine. While it was first used as an antifungal and as an immunosuppressive drug, more recent studies confirmed rapamycin's antiproliferative properties over a variety of solid tumors. Research aimed at identifying its mechanism of action uncovered mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin), a protein kinase that regulates mRNA translation and protein synthesis, an essential step in cell division and proliferation. Recent evidence suggests a more complex role for mTOR in the regulation of several growth factor-stimulated protein kinases, including the proto-oncogene Akt. This article reviews mTOR function and regulation, and briefly details the future challenges for anti-cancer therapies based on mTOR inhibition. PMID:21187044

  16. WOX4 and WOX14 act downstream of the PXY receptor kinase to regulate plant vascular proliferation independently of any role in vascular organisation

    PubMed Central

    Etchells, J. Peter; Provost, Claire M.; Mishra, Laxmi; Turner, Simon R.

    2013-01-01

    In plants, the cambium and procambium are meristems from which vascular tissue is derived. In contrast to most plant cells, stem cells within these tissues are thin and extremely long. They are particularly unusual as they divide down their long axis in a highly ordered manner, parallel to the tangential axis of the stem. CLAVATA3-LIKE/ESR-RELATED 41 (CLE41) and PHLOEM INTERCALATED WITH XYLEM (PXY) are a multifunctional ligand-receptor pair that regulate vascular cell division, vascular organisation and xylem differentiation in vascular tissue. A transcription factor gene, WUSCHEL HOMEOBOX RELATED 4 (WOX4) has been shown to act downstream of PXY. Here we show that WOX4 acts redundantly with WOX14 in the regulation of vascular cell division, but that these genes have no function in regulating vascular organisation. Furthermore, we identify an interaction between PXY and the receptor kinase ERECTA (ER) that affects the organisation of the vascular tissue but not the rate of cell division, suggesting that cell division and vascular organisation are genetically separable. Our observations also support a model whereby tissue organisation and cell division are integrated via PXY and ER signalling, which together coordinate development of different cell types that are essential for normal stem formation. PMID:23578929

  17. Expression of set is downregulated by rapamycin in human colorectal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    WEN, XIAOXIA; CHEN, YAO

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism through which rapamycin treatment affects the expression of the set gene in human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. The effect of rapamycin treatment on set expression was evaluated by assessing the mRNA and protein expression of set in the SW480 and LoVo human colon carcinoma cell lines following treatment with rapamycin by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blot analysis, respectively. Our results demonstrated that the mRNA and protein levels of set were significantly decreased subsequent to rapamycin treatment in the two cell lines, indicating that set expression may be downregulated by rapamycin in human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. Our findings suggested that the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway may play a role in tumorigenesis through the regulation of the set gene. PMID:24649018

  18. ROBO4-Mediated Vascular Integrity Regulates the Directionality of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Berdan, Stephanie; Nguyen, Andrew; Hong, Matthew A.; Forsberg, E. Camilla

    2015-01-01

    Summary Despite the use of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in clinical therapy for over half a century, the mechanisms that regulate HSC trafficking, engraftment, and life-long persistence after transplantation are unclear. Here, we show that the vascular endothelium regulates HSC trafficking into and out of bone marrow (BM) niches. Surprisingly, we found that instead of acting as barriers to cellular entry, vascular endothelial cells, via the guidance molecule ROBO4, actively promote HSC translocation across vessel walls into the BM space. In contrast, we found that the vasculature inhibits the reverse process, as induced vascular permeability led to a rapid increase in HSCs in the blood stream. Thus, the vascular endothelium reinforces HSC localization to BM niches both by promoting HSC extravasation from blood-to-BM and by forming vascular barriers that prevent BM-to-blood escape. Our results uncouple the mechanisms that regulate the directionality of HSC trafficking and show that the vasculature can be targeted to improve hematopoietic transplantation therapies. PMID:25640759

  19. Vascular endothelial growth factor signaling regulates the segregation of artery and vein via ERK activity during vascular development

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Se-Hee; Schmitt, Christopher E.; Woolls, Melissa J.; Holland, Melinda B.; Kim, Jun-Dae; Jin, Suk-Won

    2013-01-25

    Highlights: ► VEGF-A signaling regulates the segregation of axial vessels. ► VEGF-A signaling is mediated by PKC and ERK in this process. ► Ectopic activation of ERK is sufficient to rescue defects in vessel segregation. -- Abstract: Segregation of two axial vessels, the dorsal aorta and caudal vein, is one of the earliest patterning events occur during development of vasculature. Despite the importance of this process and recent advances in our understanding on vascular patterning during development, molecular mechanisms that coordinate the segregation of axial vessels remain largely elusive. In this report, we find that vascular endothelial growth factor-A (Vegf-A) signaling regulates the segregation of dorsal aorta and axial vein during development. Inhibition of Vegf-A pathway components including ligand Vegf-A and its cognate receptor Kdrl, caused failure in segregation of axial vessels in zebrafish embryos. Similarly, chemical inhibition of Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (Map2k1)/Extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (Erk) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3 K), which are downstream effectors of Vegf-A signaling pathway, led to the fusion of two axial vessels. Moreover, we find that restoring Erk activity by over-expression of constitutively active MEK in embryos with a reduced level of Vegf-A signaling can rescue the defects in axial vessel segregation. Taken together, our data show that segregation of axial vessels requires the function of Vegf-A signaling, and Erk may function as the major downstream effector in this process.

  20. Nutrient regulation of tumor and vascular endothelial cell proliferation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Specific bioactive dietary components, such as the steroid receptor superfamily ligands vitamins A and D, have been studied extensively as potential cancer preventive and therapeutic agents due to their ability to regulate key processes in a variety of cell types that are dysregulated in neoplastic ...

  1. Gpr116 Receptor Regulates Distinctive Functions in Pneumocytes and Vascular Endothelium.

    PubMed

    Niaudet, Colin; Hofmann, Jennifer J; Mäe, Maarja A; Jung, Bongnam; Gaengel, Konstantin; Vanlandewijck, Michael; Ekvärn, Elisabet; Salvado, M Dolores; Mehlem, Annika; Al Sayegh, Sahar; He, Liqun; Lebouvier, Thibaud; Castro-Freire, Marco; Katayama, Kan; Hultenby, Kjell; Moessinger, Christine; Tannenberg, Philip; Cunha, Sara; Pietras, Kristian; Laviña, Bàrbara; Hong, JongWook; Berg, Tove; Betsholtz, Christer

    2015-01-01

    Despite its known expression in both the vascular endothelium and the lung epithelium, until recently the physiological role of the adhesion receptor Gpr116/ADGRF5 has remained elusive. We generated a new mouse model of constitutive Gpr116 inactivation, with a large genetic deletion encompassing exon 4 to exon 21 of the Gpr116 gene. This model allowed us to confirm recent results defining Gpr116 as necessary regulator of surfactant homeostasis. The loss of Gpr116 provokes an early accumulation of surfactant in the lungs, followed by a massive infiltration of macrophages, and eventually progresses into an emphysema-like pathology. Further analysis of this knockout model revealed cerebral vascular leakage, beginning at around 1.5 months of age. Additionally, endothelial-specific deletion of Gpr116 resulted in a significant increase of the brain vascular leakage. Mice devoid of Gpr116 developed an anatomically normal and largely functional vascular network, surprisingly exhibited an attenuated pathological retinal vascular response in a model of oxygen-induced retinopathy. These data suggest that Gpr116 modulates endothelial properties, a previously unappreciated function despite the pan-vascular expression of this receptor. Our results support the key pulmonary function of Gpr116 and describe a new role in the central nervous system vasculature. PMID:26394398

  2. Modulators of the Vascular Endothelin Receptor in Blood Pressure Regulation and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Raouf A.

    2010-01-01

    Endothelin (ET) is one of the most investigated molecules in vascular biology. Since its discovery two decades ago, several ET isoforms, receptors, signaling pathways, agonists and antagonists have been identified. ET functions as a potent endothelium-derived vasoconstrictor, but could also play a role in vascular relaxation. In endothelial cells, preproET and big ET are cleaved by ET converting enzymes into ET-1, −2, −3 and −4. These ET isoforms bind with different affinities to ETA and ETB receptors in vascular smooth muscle (VSM), and in turn increase [Ca2+]i, protein kinase C and mitogen-activated protein kinase and other signaling pathways of VSM contraction and cell proliferation. ET also binds to endothelial ETB receptors and stimulates the release of nitric oxide, prostacyclin and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor. ET, via endothelial ETB receptor, could also promote ET re-uptake and clearance. While the effects of ET on vascular reactivity and growth have been thoroughly examined, its role in the regulation of blood pressure and the pathogenesis of hypertension is not clearly established. Elevated plasma and vascular tissue levels of ET have been identified in salt-sensitive hypertension and in moderate to severe hypertension, and ET receptor antagonists have been shown to reduce blood pressure to variable extents in these forms of hypertension. The development of new pharmacological and genetic tools could lead to more effective and specific modulators of the vascular ET system for treatment of hypertension and related cardiovascular disease. PMID:21222646

  3. Peptide-modified PELCL electrospun membranes for regulation of vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fang; Jia, Xiaoling; Yang, Yang; Yang, Qingmao; Gao, Chao; Zhao, Yunhui; Fan, Yubo; Yuan, Xiaoyan

    2016-11-01

    The efficiency of biomaterials used in small vascular repair depends greatly on their ability to interact with vascular endothelial cells (VECs). Rapid endothelialization of the vascular grafts is a promising way to prevent thrombosis and intimal hyperplasia. In this work, modification of electrospun membranes of poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PELCL) by three different peptides for regulation of VECs were studied in order to obtain ideal bioactive biomaterials as small diameter vascular grafts. QK (a mimetic peptide to vascular endothelial growth factor), Arg-Glu-Asp-Val (REDV, a specific adhesive peptide to VECs) and Val-Ala-Pro-Gly (VAPG, a specific adhesive peptide to vascular smooth muscle cells) were investigated. Surface properties of the modified membranes and the response of VECs were verified. It was found that protein adsorption and platelet adhesion were effectively suppressed with the introduction of QK, REDV or VAPG peptides on the PELCL electrospun membranes. Both QK- and REDV-modified electrospun membranes could accelerate the proliferation of VECs in the first 9days, and the QK-modified electrospun membrane promoted cell proliferation more significantly than the REDV-modified one. The REDV-modified PELCL membrane was the most favorable for VECs adhesion than QK- and VAPG-modified membranes. It was suggested that QK- or REDV-modified PELCL electrospun membranes may have great potential applications in cardiovascular biomaterials for rapid endothelialization in situ. PMID:27524062

  4. Gpr116 Receptor Regulates Distinctive Functions in Pneumocytes and Vascular Endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Niaudet, Colin; Vanlandewijck, Michael; Ekvärn, Elisabet; Salvado, M. Dolores; Mehlem, Annika; Al Sayegh, Sahar; He, Liqun; Lebouvier, Thibaud; Castro-Freire, Marco; Katayama, Kan; Hultenby, Kjell; Moessinger, Christine; Tannenberg, Philip; Cunha, Sara; Pietras, Kristian; Laviña, Bàrbara; Hong, JongWook; Berg, Tove; Betsholtz, Christer

    2015-01-01

    Despite its known expression in both the vascular endothelium and the lung epithelium, until recently the physiological role of the adhesion receptor Gpr116/ADGRF5 has remained elusive. We generated a new mouse model of constitutive Gpr116 inactivation, with a large genetic deletion encompassing exon 4 to exon 21 of the Gpr116 gene. This model allowed us to confirm recent results defining Gpr116 as necessary regulator of surfactant homeostasis. The loss of Gpr116 provokes an early accumulation of surfactant in the lungs, followed by a massive infiltration of macrophages, and eventually progresses into an emphysema-like pathology. Further analysis of this knockout model revealed cerebral vascular leakage, beginning at around 1.5 months of age. Additionally, endothelial-specific deletion of Gpr116 resulted in a significant increase of the brain vascular leakage. Mice devoid of Gpr116 developed an anatomically normal and largely functional vascular network, surprisingly exhibited an attenuated pathological retinal vascular response in a model of oxygen-induced retinopathy. These data suggest that Gpr116 modulates endothelial properties, a previously unappreciated function despite the pan-vascular expression of this receptor. Our results support the key pulmonary function of Gpr116 and describe a new role in the central nervous system vasculature. PMID:26394398

  5. Endothelial Barrier and Metabolism: New Kids on the Block Regulating Bone Marrow Vascular Niches.

    PubMed

    Harjes, Ulrike; Verfaillie, Catherine; Carmeliet, Peter

    2016-05-01

    The vasculature of the bone marrow remains poorly characterized, yet crucial to maintain hematopoiesis and retain stem cells in a quiescent state. A recent study by Itkin et al. (2016) in Nature reports how vascular barrier integrity and endothelial cell metabolism regulate hematopoietic stem cell quiescence and leukocyte trafficking. PMID:27165553

  6. The Fractal-based Analysis of the Regulation of Vascular Remodeling in the Quail Chorioallantoic Membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Genee S.

    2004-01-01

    Critical to the advancement of space exploration is the safety and well being of astronauts while in space. This study focuses on the second highest of NASA-defined risk categories for human space exploration, cardiovascular alterations. Current research of this problem is being tackled by investigating angiogenesis through vascular remodeling. Angiogenesis is the growth and formation of new blood vessels. Angiogenesis is an important part of maintaining normal development and bodily functions. The loss of control of this process, either insufficient or excessive vascular growth, is considered a common denominator in many diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and coronary artery disease. Objectives are presently being met by observing the effects of various regulators, like thrombospondin 1 (TSP-1) and a novel vessel tortuosity factor (TF), through the use of the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of Japanese quail embryos, which enables the direct optical imaging of 2-dimensional vascular branching trees. Research within the CAM is being performed to deduce numerous methods of regulating vessel growth. This project centers on the ability of a novel vessel regulator to affect angiogenesis. For example, it is hypothesized that the TSP-1 will inhibit the growth of CAM vasculature. Fractal/VESGEN-based techniques and PTV analysis are the methodologies used to investigate vascular differentiation. This tactic is used to quantify results and measure the growth patterns and morphology of blood vessels. The regulatory mechanisms posed by this vessel regulator can be deduced by alterations found within the vasculature patterns of quail embryos.

  7. SIGNALING HIERARCHY THAT REGULATES ENDOTHELIAL CELL PROLIFERATION AND VASCULAR REMODELING DURING VASCULOGENESIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously demonstrated that during vascular morphogenesis, retinoic acid (RA) is required for the control of endothelial cell proliferation and capillary plexus remodeling. In the present studies, we define the signaling hierarchy downstream of RA that independently regulates these cellular eve...

  8. ANAC005 is a membrane-associated transcription factor and regulates vascular development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun; Liu, Jiang-Shu; Meng, Fu-Ning; Zhang, Zhen-Zhen; Long, Hao; Lin, Wen-Hui; Luo, Xiao-Min; Wang, Zhi-Yong; Zhu, Sheng-Wei

    2016-05-01

    Vascular tissues are very important for providing both mechanical strength and long-distance transport. The molecular mechanisms of regulation of vascular tissue development are still not fully understood. In this study we identified ANAC005 as a membrane-associated NAC family transcription factor that regulates vascular tissue development. Reporter gene assays showed that ANAC005 was expressed mainly in the vascular tissues. Increased expression of ANAC005 protein in transgenic Arabidopsis caused dwarf phenotype, reduced xylem differentiation, decreased lignin content, repression of a lignin biosynthetic gene and genes related to cambium and primary wall, but activation of genes related to the secondary wall. Expression of a dominant repressor fusion of ANAC005 had overall the opposite effects on vascular tissue differentiation and lignin synthetic gene expression. The ANAC005-GFP fusion protein was localized at the plasma membrane, whereas deletion of the last 20 amino acids, which are mostly basic, caused its nuclear localization. These results indicate that ANAC005 is a cell membrane-associated transcription factor that inhibits xylem tissue development in Arabidopsis. PMID:26178734

  9. The role of endothelial insulin signaling in the regulation of vascular tone and insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Vicent, David; Ilany, Jacob; Kondo, Tatsuya; Naruse, Keiko; Fisher, Simon J.; Kisanuki, Yaz Y.; Bursell, Sven; Yanagisawa, Masashi; King, George L.; Kahn, C. Ronald

    2003-01-01

    Insulin receptors (IRs) on vascular endothelial cells have been suggested to participate in insulin-regulated glucose homeostasis. To directly address the role of insulin action in endothelial function, we have generated a vascular endothelial cell IR knockout (VENIRKO) mouse using the Cre-loxP system. Cultured endothelium of VENIRKO mice exhibited complete rearrangement of the IR gene and a more than 95% decrease in IR mRNA. VENIRKO mice were born at the expected Mendelian ratio, grew normally, were fertile, and exhibited normal patterns of vasculature in the retina and other tissues. Glucose homeostasis under basal condition was comparable in VENIRKO mice. Both eNOS and endothelin-1 mRNA levels, however, were reduced by approximately 30–60% in endothelial cells, aorta, and heart, while vascular EGF expression was maintained at normal levels. Arterial pressure tended to be lower in VENIRKO mice on both low- and high-salt diets, and on a low-salt diet VENIRKO mice showed insulin resistance. Thus, inactivation of the IR on endothelial cell has no major consequences on vascular development or glucose homeostasis under basal conditions, but alters expression of vasoactive mediators and may play a role in maintaining vascular tone and regulation of insulin sensitivity to dietary salt intake. PMID:12727929

  10. Targeting Abl Kinases to Regulate Vascular Leak During Sepsis and ARDS

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, Alicia N.; Aman, Jurjan; van Nieuw Amerongen, Geerten P.; Dudek, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    The vascular endothelium separates circulating fluid and inflammatory cells from the surrounding tissues. Vascular leak occurs in response to wide-spread inflammatory processes, such as sepsis and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), due to the formation of gaps between endothelial cells (EC). Although these disorders are leading causes of mortality in the ICU, no medical therapies exist to restore EC barrier function. Recent evidence highlights a key role for the Abl family of non-receptor tyrosine kinases in regulating vascular barrier integrity. These kinases have well-described roles in cancer progression and neuronal morphogenesis, but their functions in the vasculature have remained enigmatic until recently. The Abl family kinases, c-Abl (Abl1) and Abl related gene (Arg, Abl2), phosphorylate several cytoskeletal effectors that mediate vascular permeability, including myosin light chain kinase, cortactin, vinculin, and β-catenin. They also regulate cell-cell and cell-matrix junction dynamics, and the formation of actin-based cellular protrusions in multiple cell types. Additionally, both c-Abl and Arg are activated by hyperoxia and contribute to oxidant-induced EC injury. These numerous roles of Abl kinases in EC and the current clinical usage of imatinib and other Abl kinase inhibitors have spurred recent interest in repurposing these drugs for the treatment of vascular barrier dysfunction. This review will describe the structure and function of Abl kinases with an emphasis on their roles in mediating vascular barrier integrity. We will also provide a critical evaluation of the potential for exploiting Abl kinase inhibition as a novel therapy for inflammatory vascular leak syndromes. PMID:25814671

  11. The alternative splicing factor Nova2 regulates vascular development and lumen formation

    PubMed Central

    Giampietro, Costanza; Deflorian, Gianluca; Gallo, Stefania; Di Matteo, Anna; Pradella, Davide; Bonomi, Serena; Belloni, Elisa; Nyqvist, Daniel; Quaranta, Valeria; Confalonieri, Stefano; Bertalot, Giovanni; Orsenigo, Fabrizio; Pisati, Federica; Ferrero, Elisabetta; Biamonti, Giuseppe; Fredrickx, Evelien; Taveggia, Carla; Wyatt, Chris D. R.; Irimia, Manuel; Di Fiore, Pier Paolo; Blencowe, Benjamin J.; Dejana, Elisabetta; Ghigna, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Vascular lumen formation is a fundamental step during angiogenesis; yet, the molecular mechanisms underlying this process are poorly understood. Recent studies have shown that neural and vascular systems share common anatomical, functional and molecular similarities. Here we show that the organization of endothelial lumen is controlled at the post-transcriptional level by the alternative splicing (AS) regulator Nova2, which was previously considered to be neural cell-specific. Nova2 is expressed during angiogenesis and its depletion disrupts vascular lumen formation in vivo. Similarly, Nova2 depletion in cultured endothelial cells (ECs) impairs the apical distribution and the downstream signalling of the Par polarity complex, resulting in altered EC polarity, a process required for vascular lumen formation. These defects are linked to AS changes of Nova2 target exons affecting the Par complex and its regulators. Collectively, our results reveal that Nova2 functions as an AS regulator in angiogenesis and is a novel member of the ‘angioneurins' family. PMID:26446569

  12. Reactive oxygen species: physiological roles in the regulation of vascular cells.

    PubMed

    Vara, D; Pula, G

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are now appreciated to play several important roles in a number of biological processes and regulate cell physiology and function. ROS are a heterogeneous chemical class that includes radicals, such as superoxide ion (O2(•-)), hydroxyl radical (OH(•)) and nitric oxide (NO(•)), and non-radicals, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), singlet oxygen ((1)O2), hypochlorous acid (HOCl), and peroxynitrite (NO3 (-)). In the cardiovascular system, besides playing a critical role in the development and progression of vasculopathies and other important pathologies such as congestive heart failure, atherosclerosis and thrombosis, ROS also regulate physiological processes. Evidence from a wealth of cardiovascular research studies suggests that ROS act as second messengers and play an essential role in vascular homeostasis by influencing discrete signal transduction pathways in various systems and cell types. They are produced throughout the vascular system, regulate differentiation and contractility of vascular smooth muscle cells, control vascular endothelial cell proliferation and migration, mediate platelet activation and haemostasis, and significantly contribute to the immune response. Our understanding of ROS chemistry and cell biology has evolved to the point of realizing that different ROS have distinct and important roles in cardiovascular physiology. This review will outline sources, functions and molecular mechanisms of action of different ROS in the cardiovascular system and will describe their emerging role in healthy cardiovascular physiology and homeostasis. PMID:24894168

  13. Human coronary artery perivascular adipocytes overexpress genes responsible for regulating vascular morphology, inflammation, and hemostasis

    PubMed Central

    Aronow, Bruce J.; Tong, Wilson S.; Manka, David; Tang, Yaoliang; Bogdanov, Vladimir Y.; Unruh, Dusten; Blomkalns, Andra L.; Piegore, Mark G.; Weintraub, Daniel S.; Rudich, Steven M.; Kuhel, David G.; Hui, David Y.; Weintraub, Neal L.

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory cross talk between perivascular adipose tissue and the blood vessel wall has been proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. We previously reported that human perivascular (PV) adipocytes exhibit a proinflammatory phenotype and less adipogenic differentiation than do subcutaneous (SQ) adipocytes. To gain a global view of the genomic basis of biologic differences between PV and SQ adipocytes, we performed genome-wide expression analyses to identify differentially expressed genes between adipocytes derived from human SQ vs. PV adipose tissues. Although >90% of well-expressed genes were similarly regulated, we identified a signature of 307 differentially expressed genes that were highly enriched for functions associated with the regulation of angiogenesis, vascular morphology, inflammation, and blood clotting. Of the 156 PV upregulated genes, 59 associate with angiogenesis, vascular biology, or inflammation, noteworthy of which include TNFRSF11B (osteoprotegerin), PLAT, TGFB1, THBS2, HIF1A, GATA6, and SERPINE1. Of 166 PV downregulated genes, 21 associated with vascular biology and inflammation, including ANGPT1, ANGPTL1, and VEGFC. Consistent with the emergent hypothesis that PV adipocytes differentially regulate angiogenesis and inflammation, cell culture-derived adipocyte-conditioned media from PV adipocytes strongly enhanced endothelial cell tubulogenesis and monocyte migration compared with media from SQ adipocytes. These findings demonstrate that PV adipocytes have the potential to significantly modulate vascular inflammatory crosstalk in the setting of atherosclerosis by their ability to signal to both endothelial and inflammatory cells. PMID:23737535

  14. Role of PGC-1α in Vascular Regulation: Implications for Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kadlec, Andrew O; Chabowski, Dawid S; Ait-Aissa, Karima; Gutterman, David D

    2016-08-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction results in high levels of oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage, leading to disruption of endothelial homeostasis. Recent discoveries have clarified several pathways, whereby mitochondrial dysregulation contributes to endothelial dysfunction and vascular disease burden. One such pathway centers around peroxisome proliferator receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), a transcriptional coactivator linked to mitochondrial biogenesis and antioxidant defense, among other functions. Although primarily investigated for its therapeutic potential in obesity and skeletal muscle differentiation, the ability of PGC-1α to alter a multitude of cellular functions has sparked interest in its role in the vasculature. Within this context, recent studies demonstrate that PGC-1α plays a key role in endothelial cell and smooth muscle cell regulation through effects on oxidative stress, apoptosis, inflammation, and cell proliferation. The ability of PGC-1α to affect these parameters is relevant to vascular disease progression, particularly in relation to atherosclerosis. Upregulation of PGC-1α can prevent the development of, and even encourage regression of, atherosclerotic lesions. Therefore, PGC-1α is poised to serve as a promising target in vascular disease. This review details recent findings related to PGC-1α in vascular regulation, regulation of PGC-1α itself, the role of PGC-1α in atherosclerosis, and therapies that target this key protein. PMID:27312223

  15. Vascular patterning regulates interdigital cell death by a ROS-mediated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Eshkar-Oren, Idit; Krief, Sharon; Ferrara, Napoleone; Elliott, Alison M; Zelzer, Elazar

    2015-02-15

    Blood vessels serve as key regulators of organogenesis by providing oxygen, nutrients and molecular signals. During limb development, programmed cell death (PCD) contributes to separation of the digits. Interestingly, prior to the onset of PCD, the autopod vasculature undergoes extensive patterning that results in high interdigital vascularity. Here, we show that in mice, the limb vasculature positively regulates interdigital PCD. In vivo, reduction in interdigital vessel number inhibited PCD, resulting in syndactyly, whereas an increment in vessel number and distribution resulted in elevation and expansion of PCD. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), toxic compounds that have been implicated in PCD, also depended on interdigital vascular patterning. Finally, ex vivo incubation of limbs in gradually decreasing oxygen levels led to a correlated reduction in both ROS production and interdigital PCD. The results support a role for oxygen in these processes and provide a mechanistic explanation for the counterintuitive positive role of the vasculature in PCD. In conclusion, we suggest a new role for vascular patterning during limb development in regulating interdigital PCD by ROS production. More broadly, we propose a double safety mechanism that restricts PCD to interdigital areas, as the genetic program of PCD provides the first layer and vascular patterning serves as the second. PMID:25617432

  16. Morphogenesis of 3D vascular networks is regulated by tensile forces.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Dekel; Landau, Shira; Shandalov, Yulia; Raindel, Noa; Freiman, Alina; Shor, Erez; Blinder, Yaron; Vandenburgh, Herman H; Mooney, David J; Levenberg, Shulamit

    2016-03-22

    Understanding the forces controlling vascular network properties and morphology can enhance in vitro tissue vascularization and graft integration prospects. This work assessed the effect of uniaxial cell-induced and externally applied tensile forces on the morphology of vascular networks formed within fibroblast and endothelial cell-embedded 3D polymeric constructs. Force intensity correlated with network quality, as verified by inhibition of force and of angiogenesis-related regulators. Tensile forces during vessel formation resulted in parallel vessel orientation under static stretching and diagonal orientation under cyclic stretching, supported by angiogenic factors secreted in response to each stretch protocol. Implantation of scaffolds bearing network orientations matching those of host abdominal muscle tissue improved graft integration and the mechanical properties of the implantation site, a critical factor in repair of defects in this area. This study demonstrates the regulatory role of forces in angiogenesis and their capacities in vessel structure manipulation, which can be exploited to improve scaffolds for tissue repair. PMID:26951667

  17. Pkd1 regulates lymphatic vascular morphogenesis during development

    PubMed Central

    Coxam, Baptiste; Sabine, Amélie; Bower, Neil I.; Smith, Kelly A.; Pichol-Thievend, Cathy; Skoczylas, Renae; Astin, Jonathan W.; Frampton, Emmanuelle; Jaquet, Muriel; Crosier, Philip S.; Parton, Robert G.; Harvey, Natasha L.; Petrova, Tatiana V.; Schulte-Merker, Stefan; Francois, Mathias; Hogan, Benjamin M.

    2016-01-01

    Lymphatic vessels arise during development through sprouting of precursor cells from veins, which is regulated by well-studied signaling and transcriptional mechanisms. Less well understood is the ongoing elaboration of vessels to form a network. This involves cell polarisation, coordinated migration, adhesion, mixing, regression and cell shape rearrangements. We identified a zebrafish mutant, lymphatic and cardiac defects 1 (lyc1), with reduced lymphatic vessel development. We found a mutation in polycystic kidney disease 1a to be responsible for the phenotype. PKD1 is the most frequently mutated gene in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Initial sprouting of lymphatic precursors is normal in lyc1 mutants, but ongoing migration fails. Loss of Pkd1 in mice also has no effect on sprouting of precursors but leads to failed morphogenesis of the subcutaneous lymphatic network. Individual lymphatic endothelial cells display defective polarity, elongation and adherens junctions. This work identifies a highly selective and unexpected role for Pkd1 in lymphatic vessel morphogenesis during development. PMID:24767999

  18. Sox7, Sox17, and Sox18 Cooperatively Regulate Vascular Development in the Mouse Retina.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yulian; Williams, John; Smallwood, Philip M; Nathans, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Vascular development and maintenance are controlled by a complex transcriptional program, which integrates both extracellular and intracellular signals in endothelial cells. Here we study the roles of three closely related SoxF family transcription factors-Sox7, Sox17, and Sox18 -in the developing and mature mouse vasculature using targeted gene deletion on a mixed C57/129/CD1 genetic background. In the retinal vasculature, each SoxF gene exhibits a distinctive pattern of expression in different classes of blood vessels. On a mixed genetic background, vascular endothelial-specific deletion of individual SoxF genes has little or no effect on vascular architecture or differentiation, a result that can be explained by overlapping function and by reciprocal regulation of gene expression between Sox7 and Sox17. By contrast, combined deletion of Sox7, Sox17, and Sox18 at the onset of retinal angiogenesis leads to a dense capillary plexus with a nearly complete loss of radial arteries and veins, whereas the presence of a single Sox17 allele largely restores arterial identity, as determined by vascular smooth muscle cell coverage. In the developing retina, expression of all three SoxF genes is reduced in the absence of Norrin/Frizzled4-mediated canonical Wnt signaling, but SoxF gene expression is unaffected by reduced VEGF signaling in response to deletion of Neuropilin1 (Npn1). In adulthood, Sox7, Sox17, and Sox18 act in a largely redundant manner to maintain blood vessel function, as adult onset vascular endothelial-specific deletion of all three SoxF genes leads to massive edema despite nearly normal vascular architecture. These data reveal critical and partially redundant roles for Sox7, Sox17 and Sox18 in vascular growth, differentiation, and maintenance. PMID:26630461

  19. Sox7, Sox17, and Sox18 Cooperatively Regulate Vascular Development in the Mouse Retina

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yulian; Williams, John; Smallwood, Philip M.; Nathans, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Vascular development and maintenance are controlled by a complex transcriptional program, which integrates both extracellular and intracellular signals in endothelial cells. Here we study the roles of three closely related SoxF family transcription factors–Sox7, Sox17, and Sox18 –in the developing and mature mouse vasculature using targeted gene deletion on a mixed C57/129/CD1 genetic background. In the retinal vasculature, each SoxF gene exhibits a distinctive pattern of expression in different classes of blood vessels. On a mixed genetic background, vascular endothelial-specific deletion of individual SoxF genes has little or no effect on vascular architecture or differentiation, a result that can be explained by overlapping function and by reciprocal regulation of gene expression between Sox7 and Sox17. By contrast, combined deletion of Sox7, Sox17, and Sox18 at the onset of retinal angiogenesis leads to a dense capillary plexus with a nearly complete loss of radial arteries and veins, whereas the presence of a single Sox17 allele largely restores arterial identity, as determined by vascular smooth muscle cell coverage. In the developing retina, expression of all three SoxF genes is reduced in the absence of Norrin/Frizzled4-mediated canonical Wnt signaling, but SoxF gene expression is unaffected by reduced VEGF signaling in response to deletion of Neuropilin1 (Npn1). In adulthood, Sox7, Sox17, and Sox18 act in a largely redundant manner to maintain blood vessel function, as adult onset vascular endothelial-specific deletion of all three SoxF genes leads to massive edema despite nearly normal vascular architecture. These data reveal critical and partially redundant roles for Sox7, Sox17 and Sox18 in vascular growth, differentiation, and maintenance. PMID:26630461

  20. Acute rapamycin treatment improved glucose tolerance through inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Dai, Weiwei; Panserat, Stéphane; Terrier, Frédéric; Seiliez, Iban; Skiba-Cassy, Sandrine

    2014-11-15

    Our aim was to investigate the potential role of TOR (target of rapamycin) signaling pathway in the regulation of hepatic glucose metabolism in rainbow trout. Fasted fish were first treated with a single intraperitoneal injection of rapamycin or vehicle and then submitted to a second intraperitoneal administration of glucose 4 h later. Our results revealed that intraperitoneal administration of glucose induced hyperglycemia for both vehicle and rapamycin treatments, which peaked at 2 h. Plasma glucose level in vehicle-treated fish was significantly higher than in rapamycin-treated fish at 8 and 17 h, whereas it remained at the basal level in rapamycin-treated fish. Glucose administration significantly enhanced the phosphorylation of Akt and ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K1) in vehicle-treated fish, while rapamycin completely abolished the activation of S6K1 in rapamycin-treated fish, without inhibiting the phosphorylation of Akt on Thr-308 or Ser-473. Despite the lack of significant variation in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase mRNA abundance, mRNA abundance for glucokinase (GK), glucose 6-phosphatase (G6Pase) I and II, and fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) was reduced by rapamycin 17 h after glucose administration. The inhibition effect of rapamycin on GK and FBPase was further substantiated at the activity level. The suppression of GK gene expression and activity by rapamycin provided the first in vivo evidence in fish that glucose regulates hepatic GK gene expression and activity through a TORC1-dependent manner. Unlike in mammals, we observed that acute rapamycin treatment improved glucose tolerance through the inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis in rainbow trout. PMID:25163922

  1. Serendipity in splendid isolation: rapamycin.

    PubMed

    Rao, V Koneti

    2016-01-01

    In this issue of Blood, Bride et al report results of the first prospective multi-institutional trial of a long-term single-agent therapy for refractory cytopenias using rapamycin in 30 patients and show remarkable efficacy in children with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS). PMID:26744433

  2. PGC-1α Is a Central Negative Regulator of Vascular Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Shiqin; Salazar, Gloria; Patrushev, Nikolay; Ma, Minhui; Forouzandeh, Farshad; Hilenski, Lula; Alexander, R. Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Objective Cellular senescence influences organismal aging and increases predisposition to age-related diseases, in particular cardiovascular disease, a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. PGC-1α is a master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis and function, oxidative stress and insulin resistance. Senescence is associated with telomere and mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, inferring a potential causal role of PGC-1α in senescence pathogenesis. Methods and Results We generated a PGC-1α+/−/ApoE−/− mouse model and show that PGC-1α deficiency promotes a vascular senescence phenotype that is associated with increased oxidative stress, mitochondrial abnormalities, and reduced telomerase activity. PGC-1α disruption results in reduced expression of the longevity-related deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and the antioxidant catalase, and increased expression of the senescence marker p53 in aortas. Further, angiotensin II (Ang II), a major hormonal inducer of vascular senescence, induces prolonged lysine acetylation of PGC-1α and releases the PGC-1α·FoxO1 complex from the SIRT1 promoter, thus reducing SIRT1 expression. The phosphorylation defective mutant PGC-1α S570A is not acetylated, is constitutively active for FoxO1-dependent SIRT1 transcription and prevents Ang II-induced senescence. Acetylation of PGC-1α by Ang II interrupts the PGC-1α-FoxO1-SIRT1 feed-forward signaling circuit leading to SIRT1 and catalase downregulation and vascular senescence. Conclusions PGC-1α is a primary negative regulator of vascular senescence. Moreover, the central role of post-translational modification of PGC-1α in regulating Ang II-induced vascular senescence may inform development of novel therapeutic strategies for mitigating age-associated diseases such as atherosclerosis. PMID:23430617

  3. Regulation of Blood–Testis Barrier (BTB) Dynamics during Spermatogenesis via the “Yin” and “Yang” Effects of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTORC2

    PubMed Central

    Mok, Ka Wai; Mruk, Dolores D.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2014-01-01

    In mammalian testes, haploid spermatozoa are formed from diploid spermatogonia during spermatogenesis, which is a complicated cellular process. While these cellular events were reported in the 1960s and 1970s, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) that regulates these events remained unexplored until the past ~10 years. For instance, adhesion proteins were shown to be integrated components at the Sertoli cell–cell interface and/or the Sertoli–spermatid interface in the late 1980s. But only until recently, studies have demonstrated that some of the adhesion proteins serve as the platform for signal transduction that regulates cell adhesion. In this chapter, a brief summary and critical discussion are provided on the latest findings regarding these cell-adhesion proteins in the testis and their relationship to spermatogenesis. Moreover, antagonistic effects of two mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complexes, known as mTORC1 and mTORC2, on cell-adhesion function in the testis are discussed. Finally, a hypothetic model is presented to depict how these two mTOR-signaling complexes having the “yin” and “yang” antagonistic effects on the Sertoli cell tight junction (TJ)-permeability barrier can maintain the blood–testis barrier (BTB) integrity during the epithelial cycle while preleptotene spermatocytes are crossing the BTB. PMID:23317821

  4. Select Rab GTPases Regulate the Pulmonary Endothelium via Endosomal Trafficking of Vascular Endothelial-Cadherin.

    PubMed

    Chichger, Havovi; Braza, Julie; Duong, Huetran; Boni, Geraldine; Harrington, Elizabeth O

    2016-06-01

    Pulmonary edema occurs in settings of acute lung injury, in diseases, such as pneumonia, and in acute respiratory distress syndrome. The lung interendothelial junctions are maintained in part by vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin, an adherens junction protein, and its surface expression is regulated by endocytic trafficking. The Rab family of small GTPases are regulators of endocytic trafficking. The key trafficking pathways are regulated by Rab4, -7, and -9. Rab4 regulates the recycling of endosomes to the cell surface through a rapid-shuttle process, whereas Rab7 and -9 regulate trafficking to the late endosome/lysosome for degradation or from the trans-Golgi network to the late endosome, respectively. We recently demonstrated a role for the endosomal adaptor protein, p18, in regulation of the pulmonary endothelium through enhanced recycling of VE-cadherin to adherens junction. Thus, we hypothesized that Rab4, -7, and -9 regulate pulmonary endothelial barrier function through modulating trafficking of VE-cadherin-positive endosomes. We used Rab mutants with varying activities and associations to the endosome to study endothelial barrier function in vitro and in vivo. Our study demonstrates a key role for Rab4 activation and Rab9 inhibition in regulation of vascular permeability through enhanced VE-cadherin expression at the interendothelial junction. We further showed that endothelial barrier function mediated through Rab4 is dependent on extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation and activity. Thus, we demonstrate that Rab4 and -9 regulate VE-cadherin levels at the cell surface to modulate the pulmonary endothelium through extracellular signal-regulated kinase-dependent and -independent pathways, respectively. We propose that regulating select Rab GTPases represents novel therapeutic strategies for patients suffering with acute respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:26551054

  5. Activated mineralocorticoid receptor regulates micro-RNA-29b in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Bretschneider, Maria; Busch, Bianca; Mueller, Daniel; Nolze, Alexander; Schreier, Barbara; Gekle, Michael; Grossmann, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    Inappropriately activated mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is a risk factor for vascular remodeling with unclear molecular mechanism. Recent findings suggest that post-transcriptional regulation by micro-RNAs (miRs) may be involved. Our aim was to search for MR-dependent miRs in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and to explore the underlying molecular mechanism and the pathologic relevance. We detected that aldosteroneviathe MR reduces miR-29bin vivoin murine aorta and in human primary and cultured VSMCs (ED50= 0.07 nM) but not in endothelial cells [quantitative PCR (qPCR), luciferase assays]. This effect was mediated by an increased decay of miR-29b in the cytoplasm with unchanged miR-29 family member or primary-miR levels. Decreased miR-29b led to an increase in extracellular matrix measured by ELISA and qPCR and enhanced VSMC migration in single cell-tracking experiments. Additionally, cell proliferation and the apoptosis/necrosis ratio (caspase/lactate dehydrogenase assay) was modulated by miR-29b. Enhanced VSMC migration by aldosterone required miR-29b regulation. Control experiments were performed with scrambled RNA and empty plasmids, by comparing aldosterone-stimulated with vehicle-incubated cells. Overall, our findings provide novel insights into the molecular mechanism of aldosterone-mediated vascular pathogenesis by identifying miR-29b as a pathophysiologic relevant target of activated MR in VSMCs and by highlighting the importance of miR processing for miR regulation.-Bretschneider, M., Busch, B., Mueller, D., Nolze, A., Schreier, B., Gekle, M., Grossmann, C. Activated mineralocorticoid receptor regulates micro-RNA-29b in vascular smooth muscle cells. PMID:26728178

  6. Keeping the Balance Right: Regulator of G Protein Signaling 5 in Vascular Physiology and Pathology.

    PubMed

    Ganss, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The cardiovascular system including the heart and intricate network of arteries, veins, and capillaries is essential for normal organ homeostasis and tightly controlled by G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling cascades. Imbalances of these signaling systems can manifest in cardiovascular disease. There has been a recent surge in studies on modulators of GPCR activity, so-called regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) molecules, due to their potential as pharmacological targets. Among RGS proteins, RGS5 is prominently expressed in arterial vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMC) suggesting an important role in vascular function. Although apparently dispensable for embryonic development, RGS5 has now emerged as a crucial regulator of adaptive cardiovascular processes, including remodeling of the vascular wall under stress. RGS5 has been shown to regulate signaling pathways which shape vSMC differentiation, migration, contraction, as well as tissue inflammation and fibrosis. Indeed, studies in RGS5 mutant mice have confirmed a crucial and nonredundant role as regulator of cardiac function, blood pressure homeostasis, and adult neovascularization such as angiogenesis and arteriogenesis. In response to environmental cues, RGS5 is dynamically controlled at both mRNA and protein levels. This enables direct, precise, and rapid modulation of Gαq- and Gαi-coupled GPCR signaling which also integrates receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) and Gαs/Gα12/13-mediated GPCR signal transduction. Although RGS5's endogenous role in a spatiotemporal context is still largely unknown, its prominence in vascular tissue makes it an important molecule to study and a prime candidate for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26123304

  7. Transcriptional regulation of vascular bone morphogenetic protein by endothelin receptors in early autoimmune diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Nett, Philipp C; Ortmann, Jana; Celeiro, Jennifer; Haas, Elvira; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Tornillo, Luigi; Terraciano, Luigi M; Barton, Matthias

    2006-04-01

    Endothelin (ET) and bone morphogenic proteins (BMP) have been implicated in the development of micro- and macrovascular complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus due to atherosclerosis. This study investigated vascular BMP-expression during early development of experimental autoimmune diabetes mellitus and whether ET(A) receptors are involved in its regulation, using the selective ET(A) receptor antagonist BSF461314. Specificity of BSF461314 was confirmed through ET-mediated p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK1/2) phosphorylation experiments. For animal studies, non-obese diabetic (NOD) and control mice at 16 weeks of age were treated with BSF461314 for 6 weeks. Plasma glucose levels were measured before and after treatment and vascular gene expression of BMP-2, BMP-7, and BMP-type II receptor was determined in the aorta by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. At the beginning of the study in all animals, plasma glucose levels were within the normal range. After 6 weeks gene expression of vascular BMP-2, BMP-7 and BMP-type II receptor was almost doubled in NOD mice compared with non-diabetic controls (p < 0.05). Concomitant treatment with BSF461314 significantly reduced expression of all BMPs and lowered plasma glucose levels in NOD mice close to controls (all p < 0.05 versus untreated). In conclusion, vascular BMP-2, BMP-7, and BMP-type II receptor expression is upregulated in early stages of autoimmune diabetes mellitus. The data further indicate that ET(A) receptors inhibit diabetes-associated activation of vascular BMPs and regulate plasma glucose levels suggesting that ET(A) receptors might provide a new therapeutic target to interfere with the early development of atherosclerosis in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. PMID:16300798

  8. Arsenite induces endothelial cytotoxicity by down-regulation of vascular endothelial nitric oxide synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Tsou, T.-C. . E-mail: tctsou@nhri.org.tw; Tsai, F.-Y.; Hsieh, Y.-W.; Li, L.-A.; Yeh, S.C; Chang, L.W.

    2005-11-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a high association of inorganic arsenic exposure with vascular diseases. Recent research has also linked this vascular damage to impairment of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) function by arsenic exposure. However, the role of eNOS in regulating the arsenite-induced vascular dysfunction still remains to be clarified. In our present study, we investigated the effect of arsenite on Akt1 and eNOS and its involvement in cytotoxicity of vascular endothelial cells. Our study demonstrated that arsenite decreased the protein levels of both Akt1 and eNOS accompanied with increased levels of ubiquitination of total cell lysates. We found that inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway by MG-132 could partially protect Akt1 and eNOS from degradation by arsenite together with a proportional protection from the arsenite-induced cytoxicity. Moreover, up-regulation of eNOS protein expression significantly attenuated the arsenite-induced cytotoxicity and eNOS activity could be significantly inhibited after incubation with arsenite for 24 h in a cell-free system. Our study indicated that endothelial eNOS activity could be attenuated by arsenite via the ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated degradation of Akt1/eNOS as well as via direct inhibition of eNOS activity. Our study also demonstrated that eNOS actually played a protective role in arsenite-induced cytoxicity. These observations supported the hypothesis that the impairment of eNOS function by arsenite is one of the mechanisms leading to vascular changes and diseases.

  9. Neuropilin-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 are up-regulated in human vascular malformations.

    PubMed

    Partanen, Taina A; Vuola, Pia; Jauhiainen, Suvi; Lohi, Jouko; Salminen, Päivi; Pitkäranta, Anne; Häkkinen, Sanna-Kaisa; Honkonen, Krista; Alitalo, Kari; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2013-01-01

    Despite multiple previous studies in the field of vascular anomalies, the mechanism(s) leading to their development, progression and maintenance has remained unclear. In this study, we have characterized the expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factors and their receptors in 33 human vascular anomalies. Analysis with quantitative real-time PCR and gene-specific assays showed higher expression of neuropilin-2 (NRP2) and VEGF-receptor-3 (VEGFR-3) mRNAs in vascular malformations (VascM) as compared to infantile hemangiomas (Hem). In addition, the expression levels of PlGF and VEGF-C mRNA were significantly higher in venous VascM when compared to the other VascM and Hem. Higher expression of NRP2 and VEGFR-3 were confirmed by immunohistochemistry. To further study the importance of NRP2 and VEGFR-3, endothelial cell (EC) cultures were established from vascular anomalies. It was found that NRP2 and VEGFR-3 mRNA levels were significantly higher in some of the VascM ECs as compared to human umbilical vein ECs which were used as control cells in the study. Furthermore, adenoviral delivery of soluble decoy NRP2 prevented the proliferation of ECs isolated from most of the vascular anomalies. Our findings suggest that NRP2 functions as a factor maintaining the pathological vascular network in these anomalies. Thus, NRP2 could become a potential therapeutic target for the diagnosis and treatment of vascular anomalies. PMID:22961441

  10. Convergence of Ubiquitylation and Phosphorylation Signaling in Rapamycin-treated Yeast Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Iesmantavicius, Vytautas; Weinert, Brian T.; Choudhary, Chunaram

    2014-01-01

    The target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase senses the availability of nutrients and coordinates cellular growth and proliferation with nutrient abundance. Inhibition of TOR mimics nutrient starvation and leads to the reorganization of many cellular processes, including autophagy, protein translation, and vesicle trafficking. TOR regulates cellular physiology by modulating phosphorylation and ubiquitylation signaling networks; however, the global scope of such regulation is not fully known. Here, we used a mass-spectrometry-based proteomics approach for the parallel quantification of ubiquitylation, phosphorylation, and proteome changes in rapamycin-treated yeast cells. Our data constitute a detailed proteomic analysis of rapamycin-treated yeast with 3590 proteins, 8961 phosphorylation sites, and 2299 di-Gly modified lysines (putative ubiquitylation sites) quantified. The phosphoproteome was extensively modulated by rapamycin treatment, with more than 900 up-regulated sites one hour after rapamycin treatment. Dynamically regulated phosphoproteins were involved in diverse cellular processes, prominently including transcription, membrane organization, vesicle-mediated transport, and autophagy. Several hundred ubiquitylation sites were increased after rapamycin treatment, and about half as many decreased in abundance. We found that proteome, phosphorylation, and ubiquitylation changes converged on the Rsp5-ubiquitin ligase, Rsp5 adaptor proteins, and Rsp5 targets. Putative Rsp5 targets were biased for increased ubiquitylation, suggesting activation of Rsp5 by rapamycin. Rsp5 adaptor proteins, which recruit target proteins for Rsp5-dependent ubiquitylation, were biased for increased phosphorylation. Furthermore, we found that permeases and transporters, which are often ubiquitylated by Rsp5, were biased for reduced ubiquitylation and reduced protein abundance. The convergence of multiple proteome-level changes on the Rsp5 system indicates a key role of this pathway in the

  11. Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor regulation of N-cadherin mediates vascular stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Paik, Ji-Hye; Skoura, Athanasia; Chae, Sung-Suk; Cowan, Ann E.; Han, David K.; Proia, Richard L.; Hla, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    Vascular stabilization, a process by which nascent vessels are invested with mural cells, is important in angiogenesis. Here we describe the molecular basis of vascular stabilization regulated by sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), a platelet-derived lipid mediator. S1P1 receptor-dependent cell-surface trafficking and activation of the cell-cell adhesion molecule N-cadherin is essential for interactions between endothelial and mural cells. Endothelial cell S1P1/Gi/Rac pathway induces microtubule polymerization, resulting in trafficking of N-cadherin to polarized plasma membrane domains. S1P treatment modulated the phosphorylation of N-cadherin as well as p120-catenin and induced the formation of cadherin/catenin/actin complexes containing novel regulatory and trafficking factors. The net result of endothelial cell S1P1 receptor activation is the proper trafficking and strengthening of N-cadherin-dependent cell-cell adhesion with mural cells. Perturbation of N-cadherin expression with small interfering RNA profoundly attenuated vascular stabilization in vitro and in vivo. S1P-induced trafficking and activation of N-cadherin provides a novel mechanism for the stabilization of nascent blood vessels by mural cells and may be exploited to control angiogenesis and vascular diseases. PMID:15371328

  12. The zinc transporter ZIP12 regulates the pulmonary vascular response to chronic hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lan; Oliver, Eduardo; Maratou, Klio; Atanur, Santosh S; Dubois, Olivier D; Cotroneo, Emanuele; Chen, Chien-Nien; Wang, Lei; Arce, Cristina; Chabosseau, Pauline L; Ponsa-Cobas, Joan; Frid, Maria G; Moyon, Benjamin; Webster, Zoe; Aldashev, Almaz; Ferrer, Jorge; Rutter, Guy A; Stenmark, Kurt R; Aitman, Timothy J; Wilkins, Martin R

    2015-08-20

    The typical response of the adult mammalian pulmonary circulation to a low oxygen environment is vasoconstriction and structural remodelling of pulmonary arterioles, leading to chronic elevation of pulmonary artery pressure (pulmonary hypertension) and right ventricular hypertrophy. Some mammals, however, exhibit genetic resistance to hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. We used a congenic breeding program and comparative genomics to exploit this variation in the rat and identified the gene Slc39a12 as a major regulator of hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodelling. Slc39a12 encodes the zinc transporter ZIP12. Here we report that ZIP12 expression is increased in many cell types, including endothelial, smooth muscle and interstitial cells, in the remodelled pulmonary arterioles of rats, cows and humans susceptible to hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. We show that ZIP12 expression in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells is hypoxia dependent and that targeted inhibition of ZIP12 inhibits the rise in intracellular labile zinc in hypoxia-exposed pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells and their proliferation in culture. We demonstrate that genetic disruption of ZIP12 expression attenuates the development of pulmonary hypertension in rats housed in a hypoxic atmosphere. This new and unexpected insight into the fundamental role of a zinc transporter in mammalian pulmonary vascular homeostasis suggests a new drug target for the pharmacological management of pulmonary hypertension. PMID:26258299

  13. Regulation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Tone by Adipose-Derived Contracting Factor

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Matthias R.; Fredette, Natalie C.; Barton, Matthias; Prossnitz, Eric R.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and arterial hypertension, important risk factors for atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease, are characterized by an increase in vascular tone. While obesity is known to augment vasoconstrictor prostanoid activity in endothelial cells, less is known about factors released from fat tissue surrounding arteries (perivascular adipose). Using lean controls and mice with either monogenic or diet-induced obesity, we set out to determine whether and through which pathways perivascular adipose affects vascular tone. We unexpectedly found that in the aorta of obese mice, perivascular adipose potentiates vascular contractility to serotonin and phenylephrine, indicating activity of a factor generated by perivascular adipose, which we designated “adipose-derived contracting factor” (ADCF). Inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) fully prevented ADCF-mediated contractions, whereas COX-1 or COX-2-selective inhibition was only partially effective. By contrast, inhibition of superoxide anions, NO synthase, or endothelin receptors had no effect on ADCF activity. Perivascular adipose as a source of COX-derived ADCF was further confirmed by detecting increased thromboxane A2 formation from perivascular adipose-replete aortae from obese mice. Taken together, this study identifies perivascular adipose as a novel regulator of arterial vasoconstriction through the release of COX-derived ADCF. Excessive ADCF activity in perivascular fat under obese conditions likely contributes to increased vascular tone by antagonizing vasodilation. ADCF may thus propagate obesity-dependent hypertension and the associated increased risk in coronary artery disease, potentially representing a novel therapeutic target. PMID:24244459

  14. Differential Regulation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors by Promoter-targeted shRNAs.

    PubMed

    Laham-Karam, Nihay; Lalli, Marianne; Leinonen, Nastasia; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2015-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) and their receptors (VEGF-R) are central regulators of vasculogenesis, angiogenesis, and lymphangiogenesis. They contribute to many vascular-related pathologies, and hence VEGF-targeted therapies have been widely sought after. In this study, the authors investigated the ability of promoter-targeted small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) to regulate VEGF-A, VEGF-C and VEGF-R1 in different cell lines. The authors identified shRNAs that can upregulate hVEGF-C at both the mRNA and protein levels, and differentially regulate hVEGF-A depending on the cell type. Likewise, the authors identified shRNA that downregulated VEGF-R1 gene expression. Hence, promoter-targeted shRNAs can affect endogenous gene expression not only bimodally, but also differentially in a cell-type specific manner. Importantly, all three genes tested were regulated by at least one shRNA, supporting the idea that nuclear RNA interference is a widespread phenomenon. The level of regulation across the panel of shRNAs varied maximally from a 2.2-fold increase to a 4-fold decrease. This level of change should be useful in fine-tuning and modulating target gene expression, which for potent molecules, such as VEGF-A and VEGF-C, can be very beneficial. These promoter-targeted shRNAs may facilitate the design and development of targeted, context-dependent strategies for both pro- and antiangiogenic therapies for the treatment of vascular-related pathologies. PMID:25988242

  15. Differential Regulation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors by Promoter-targeted shRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Laham-Karam, Nihay; Lalli, Marianne; Leinonen, Nastasia; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2015-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) and their receptors (VEGF-R) are central regulators of vasculogenesis, angiogenesis, and lymphangiogenesis. They contribute to many vascular-related pathologies, and hence VEGF-targeted therapies have been widely sought after. In this study, the authors investigated the ability of promoter-targeted small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) to regulate VEGF-A, VEGF-C and VEGF-R1 in different cell lines. The authors identified shRNAs that can upregulate hVEGF-C at both the mRNA and protein levels, and differentially regulate hVEGF-A depending on the cell type. Likewise, the authors identified shRNA that downregulated VEGF-R1 gene expression. Hence, promoter-targeted shRNAs can affect endogenous gene expression not only bimodally, but also differentially in a cell-type specific manner. Importantly, all three genes tested were regulated by at least one shRNA, supporting the idea that nuclear RNA interference is a widespread phenomenon. The level of regulation across the panel of shRNAs varied maximally from a 2.2-fold increase to a 4-fold decrease. This level of change should be useful in fine-tuning and modulating target gene expression, which for potent molecules, such as VEGF-A and VEGF-C, can be very beneficial. These promoter-targeted shRNAs may facilitate the design and development of targeted, context-dependent strategies for both pro- and antiangiogenic therapies for the treatment of vascular-related pathologies. PMID:25988242

  16. Pericytes Regulate Vascular Basement Membrane Remodeling and Govern Neutrophil Extravasation during Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shijun; Cao, Canhong; Chen, Zhongming; Bankaitis, Vytas; Tzima, Eleni; Sheibani, Nader; Burridge, Keith

    2012-01-01

    During inflammation polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) traverse venular walls, composed of the endothelium, pericyte sheath and vascular basement membrane. Compared to PMN transendothelial migration, little is known about how PMNs penetrate the latter barriers. Using mouse models and intravital microscopy, we show that migrating PMNs expand and use the low expression regions (LERs) of matrix proteins in the vascular basement membrane (BM) for their transmigration. Importantly, we demonstrate that this remodeling of LERs is accompanied by the opening of gaps between pericytes, a response that depends on PMN engagement with pericytes. Exploring how PMNs modulate pericyte behavior, we discovered that direct PMN-pericyte contacts induce relaxation rather than contraction of pericyte cytoskeletons, an unexpected response that is mediated by inhibition of the RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway in pericytes. Taking our in vitro results back into mouse models, we present evidence that pericyte relaxation contributes to the opening of the gaps between pericytes and to the enlargement of the LERs in the vascular BM, facilitating PMN extravasation. Our study demonstrates that pericytes can regulate PMN extravasation by controlling the size of pericyte gaps and thickness of LERs in venular walls. This raises the possibility that pericytes may be targeted in therapies aimed at regulating inflammation. PMID:23029055

  17. Endothelial Snail Regulates Capillary Branching Morphogenesis via Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 3 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeong Ae; Kim, Dong Young; Kim, Young-Myeong; Kwon, Young-Guen

    2015-01-01

    Vascular branching morphogenesis is activated and maintained by several signaling pathways. Among them, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) signaling is largely presented in arteries, and VEGFR3 signaling is in veins and capillaries. Recent reports have documented that Snail, a well-known epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition protein, is expressed in endothelial cells, where it regulates sprouting angiogenesis and embryonic vascular development. Here, we identified Snail as a regulator of VEGFR3 expression during capillary branching morphogenesis. Snail was dramatically upregulated in sprouting vessels in the developing retinal vasculature, including the leading-edged vessels and vertical sprouting vessels for capillary extension toward the deep retina. Results from in vitro functional studies demonstrate that Snail expression colocalized with VEGFR3 and upregulated VEGFR3 mRNA by directly binding to the VEGFR3 promoter via cooperating with early growth response protein-1. Snail knockdown in postnatal mice attenuated the formation of the deep capillary plexus, not only by impairing vertical sprouting vessels but also by downregulating VEGFR3 expression. Collectively, these data suggest that the Snail-VEGFR3 axis controls capillary extension, especially in vessels expressing VEGFR2 at low levels. PMID:26147525

  18. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Controls Vascular Integrity by Regulating VE-Cadherin Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Anna E.; Timmerman, Ilse; Kovacevic, Igor; Hordijk, Peter L.; Adriaanse, Luc; Paatero, Ilkka; Belting, Heinz-Georg; van Buul, Jaap D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), a serine protease inhibitor, is expressed and secreted by endothelial cells. Patients with PAI-1 deficiency show a mild to moderate bleeding diathesis, which has been exclusively ascribed to the function of PAI-1 in down-regulating fibrinolysis. We tested the hypothesis that PAI-1 function plays a direct role in controlling vascular integrity and permeability by keeping endothelial cell-cell junctions intact. Methodology/Principal Findings We utilized PAI-039, a specific small molecule inhibitor of PAI-1, to investigate the role of PAI-1 in protecting endothelial integrity. In vivo inhibition of PAI-1 resulted in vascular leakage from intersegmental vessels and in the hindbrain of zebrafish embryos. In addition PAI-1 inhibition in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) monolayers leads to a marked decrease of transendothelial resistance and disrupted endothelial junctions. The total level of the endothelial junction regulator VE-cadherin was reduced, whereas surface VE-cadherin expression was unaltered. Moreover, PAI-1 inhibition reduced the shedding of VE-cadherin. Finally, we detected an accumulation of VE-cadherin at the Golgi apparatus. Conclusions/Significance Our findings indicate that PAI-1 function is important for the maintenance of endothelial monolayer and vascular integrity by controlling VE-cadherin trafficking to and from the plasma membrane. Our data further suggest that therapies using PAI-1 antagonists like PAI-039 ought to be used with caution to avoid disruption of the vessel wall. PMID:26714278

  19. Distal vessel stiffening is an early and pivotal mechanobiological regulator of vascular remodeling and pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fei; Haeger, Christina Mallarino; Dieffenbach, Paul B.; Sicard, Delphine; Chrobak, Izabela; Coronata, Anna Maria F.; Suárez Velandia, Margarita M.; Vitali, Sally; Colas, Romain A.; Norris, Paul C.; Marinković, Aleksandar; Liu, Xiaoli; Ma, Jun; Rose, Chase D.; Lee, Seon-Jin; Comhair, Suzy A.A.; Erzurum, Serpil C.; McDonald, Jacob D.; Serhan, Charles N.; Walsh, Stephen R.; Tschumperlin, Daniel J.; Fredenburgh, Laura E.

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial (PA) stiffness is associated with increased mortality in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH); however, the role of PA stiffening in the pathogenesis of PH remains elusive. Here, we show that distal vascular matrix stiffening is an early mechanobiological regulator of experimental PH. We identify cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) suppression and corresponding reduction in prostaglandin production as pivotal regulators of stiffness-dependent vascular cell activation. Atomic force microscopy microindentation demonstrated early PA stiffening in experimental PH and human lung tissue. Pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC) grown on substrates with the stiffness of remodeled PAs showed increased proliferation, decreased apoptosis, exaggerated contraction, enhanced matrix deposition, and reduced COX-2–derived prostanoid production compared with cells grown on substrates approximating normal PA stiffness. Treatment with a prostaglandin I2 analog abrogated monocrotaline-induced PA stiffening and attenuated stiffness-dependent increases in proliferation, matrix deposition, and contraction in PASMC. Our results suggest a pivotal role for early PA stiffening in PH and demonstrate the therapeutic potential of interrupting mechanobiological feedback amplification of vascular remodeling in experimental PH. PMID:27347562

  20. Regulation of Vascular Growth in the Chorioallantoic Membrane of Japanese Quail Eggs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montague, Idoreyin P.

    2004-01-01

    The Microgravity Research Program is part of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR). The mission of the Microgravity Fluid Physics research program is to facilitate and conduct the best possible fluid physics research using the space environment and make this knowledge available to the scientific community and the public at large. During the summer of 2004, I worked in this division with Dr. Patricia Parsons-Wingerter. Dr. Parsons was working on several projects that used the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of Japanese quail eggs. The CAM develops in the eggs of birds and reptiles and is a very vascular fetal membrane composed of the fused chorion and adjacent wall of the allantois. The CAM is formed on day 4 of incubation and its primary job is to mediate gas exchanges with the extra embryonic environment. The CAM of our Japanese quail eggs is easily identifiable to us because it is transparent and it sits on top of the yolk with the embryo in the center. The CAM is of interest because of its many applications in the field of medicine as it relates to vascular remodeling and angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is simply the growth or formation of new blood vessels and anti-angiogenesis is the inhibition of said vessels. Angiogenesis occurs naturally in a healthy body for healing wounds and for restoring blood flow to tissues after injury and in females during the monthly reproductive cycle. In many serious diseases, like several types of cancer and those that affect the heart and cardiovascular system, the body loses control over angiogenesis. These diseases, which are dependent on angiogenesis, result when new blood vessels either grow excessively or insufficiently. The chorioallantoic membrane of our Japanese quail eggs gives a good model of angiogenesis. We used angiogenic regulators to inhibit or stimulate vascular growth in the CAM in a healthy manner and they induced distinct vascular patterns in vivo. Certain dominant regulators can be recognized by

  1. VEGF and endothelium-derived retinoic acid regulate lung vascular and alveolar development.

    PubMed

    Yun, Eun Jun; Lorizio, Walter; Seedorf, Gregory; Abman, Steven H; Vu, Thiennu H

    2016-02-15

    Prevention or treatment of lung diseases caused by the failure to form, or destruction of, existing alveoli, as observed in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia and adults with emphysema, requires understanding of the molecular mechanisms of alveolar development. In addition to its critical role in gas exchange, the pulmonary circulation also contributes to alveolar morphogenesis and maintenance by the production of paracrine factors, termed "angiocrines," that impact the development of surrounding tissue. To identify lung angiocrines that contribute to alveolar formation, we disrupted pulmonary vascular development by conditional inactivation of the Vegf-A gene during alveologenesis. This resulted in decreased pulmonary capillary and alveolar development and altered lung elastin and retinoic acid (RA) expression. We determined that RA is produced by pulmonary endothelial cells and regulates pulmonary angiogenesis and elastin synthesis by induction of VEGF-A and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-18, respectively. Inhibition of RA synthesis in newborn mice decreased FGF-18 and elastin expression and impaired alveolarization. Treatment with RA and vitamin A partially reversed the impaired vascular and alveolar development induced by VEGF inhibition. Thus we identified RA as a lung angiocrine that regulates alveolarization through autocrine regulation of endothelial development and paracrine regulation of elastin synthesis via induction of FGF-18 in mesenchymal cells. PMID:26566904

  2. Molecular Mechanisms Regulating the Vascular Prostacyclin Pathways and Their Adaptation during Pregnancy and in the Newborn

    PubMed Central

    Majed, Batoule H.

    2012-01-01

    Prostacyclin (PGI2) is a member of the prostanoid group of eicosanoids that regulate homeostasis, hemostasis, smooth muscle function and inflammation. Prostanoids are derived from arachidonic acid by the sequential actions of phospholipase A2, cyclooxygenase (COX), and specific prostaglandin (PG) synthases. There are two major COX enzymes, COX1 and COX2, that differ in structure, tissue distribution, subcellular localization, and function. COX1 is largely constitutively expressed, whereas COX2 is induced at sites of inflammation and vascular injury. PGI2 is produced by endothelial cells and influences many cardiovascular processes. PGI2 acts mainly on the prostacyclin (IP) receptor, but because of receptor homology, PGI2 analogs such as iloprost may act on other prostanoid receptors with variable affinities. PGI2/IP interaction stimulates G protein-coupled increase in cAMP and protein kinase A, resulting in decreased [Ca2+]i, and could also cause inhibition of Rho kinase, leading to vascular smooth muscle relaxation. In addition, PGI2 intracrine signaling may target nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and regulate gene transcription. PGI2 counteracts the vasoconstrictor and platelet aggregation effects of thromboxane A2 (TXA2), and both prostanoids create an important balance in cardiovascular homeostasis. The PGI2/TXA2 balance is particularly critical in the regulation of maternal and fetal vascular function during pregnancy and in the newborn. A decrease in PGI2/TXA2 ratio in the maternal, fetal, and neonatal circulation may contribute to preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN), respectively. On the other hand, increased PGI2 activity may contribute to patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and intraventricular hemorrhage in premature newborns. These observations have raised interest in the use of COX inhibitors and PGI2 analogs in the management of pregnancy-associated and neonatal

  3. Rapamycin Inhibits Cardiac Hypertrophy by Promoting Autophagy via the MEK/ERK/Beclin-1 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Jun; Hu, Wei; Song, Zhi-Ping; Chen, Yue-Guang; Zhang, Da-Dong; Wang, Chang-Qian

    2016-01-01

    Rapamycin, also known as sirolimus, is an antifungal agent and immunosuppressant drug used to prevent organ rejection in transplantation. However, little is known about the role of rapamycin in cardiac hypertrophy and the signaling pathways involved. Here, the effect of rapamycin was examined using phenylephrine (PE) induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in vitro and in a rat model of aortic banding (AB) - induced hypertrophy in vivo. Inhibition of MEK/ERK signaling reversed the effect of rapamycin on the up-regulation of LC3-II, Beclin-1 and Noxa, and the down-regulation of Mcl-1 and p62. Silencing of Noxa or Beclin-1 suppressed rapamycin-induced autophagy, and co-immunoprecipitation experiments showed that Noxa abolishes the inhibitory effect of Mcl-1 on Beclin-1, promoting autophagy. In vivo experiments showed that rapamycin decreased AB-induced cardiac hypertrophy in a MEK/ERK dependent manner. Taken together, our results indicate that rapamycin attenuates cardiac hypertrophy by promoting autophagy through a mechanism involving the modulation of Noxa and Beclin-1 expression by the MEK/ERK signaling pathway. PMID:27047390

  4. Decrease in transient receptor potential melastatin 6 mRNA stability caused by rapamycin in renal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ikari, Akira; Sanada, Ayumi; Sawada, Hayato; Okude, Chiaki; Tonegawa, Chie; Sugatani, Junko

    2011-06-01

    Rapamycin, an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), is used in treatments for transplantation and cancer. Rapamycin causes hypomagnesemia, although precisely how has not been examined. Here, we investigated the effect of rapamycin on the expression of transient receptor potential melastatin 6 (TRPM6), a Mg2+ channel. Rapamycin and LY-294002, an inhibitor of phosphatidilinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) located upstream of mTOR, inhibited epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced expression of the TRPM6 protein without affecting TRPM7 expression in rat renal NRK-52E epithelial cells. Both rapamycin and LY-294002 decreased EGF-induced Mg2+ influx. U0126, a MEK inhibitor, inhibited EGF-induced increases in c-Fos, p-ERK, and TRPM6 levels. In contrast, neither rapamycin nor LY-294002 inhibited EGF-induced increases in p-ERK and c-Fos levels. EGF increased p-Akt level, an effect inhibited by LY-294002 and 1L-6-hydroxymethyl-chiro-inositol2-[(R)-2-O-methyl-3-O-octadecylcarbonate] (Akt inhibitor). Akt inhibitor decreased TRPM6 level similar to rapamycin and LY-294002. These results suggest that a PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway is involved in the regulation of TRPM6 expression. Rapamycin inhibited the EGF-induced increase in TRPM6 mRNA but did not inhibit human TRPM6 promoter activity. In the presence of actinomycin D, a transcriptional inhibitor, rapamycin accelerated the decrease in TRPM6 mRNA. Rapamycin decreased the expression and activity of a luciferase linked with the 3'-untranslated region of human TRPM6 mRNA. These results suggest that TRPM6 expression is up-regulated by a PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and rapamycin reduces TRPM6 mRNA stability, resulting in a decrease in the reabsorption of Mg2+. PMID:21073857

  5. Rapamycin delays salivary gland atrophy following ductal ligation

    PubMed Central

    Bozorgi, S S; Proctor, G B; Carpenter, G H

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland atrophy is a frequent consequence of head and neck cancer irradiation therapy but can potentially be regulated through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Excretory duct ligation of the mouse submandibular gland provokes severe glandular atrophy causing activation of mTOR. This study aims to discover the effects of blocking mTOR signaling in ligation-induced atrophic salivary glands. Following 1 week of unilateral submandibular excretory duct ligation: gland weights were significantly reduced, 4E-BP1 and S6rp were activated, and tissue morphology revealed typical signs of atrophy. However, 3 days following ligation with rapamycin treatment, a selective mTOR inhibitor, gland weights were maintained, 4E-BP1 and S6rp phosphorylation was inhibited, and there were morphological signs of recovery from atrophy. However, following 5 and 7 days of ligation and rapamycin treatment, glands expressed active mTOR and showed signs of considerable atrophy. This evidence suggests that inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin delays ligation-induced atrophy of salivary glands. PMID:24675464

  6. MicroRNA-26a is a novel regulator of vascular smooth muscle cell function.

    PubMed

    Leeper, Nicholas J; Raiesdana, Azad; Kojima, Yoko; Chun, Hyung J; Azuma, Junya; Maegdefessel, Lars; Kundu, Ramendra K; Quertermous, Thomas; Tsao, Philip S; Spin, Joshua M

    2011-04-01

    Aberrant smooth muscle cell (SMC) plasticity has been implicated in a variety of vascular disorders including atherosclerosis, restenosis, and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) formation. While the pathways governing this process remain unclear, epigenetic regulation by specific microRNAs (miRNAs) has been demonstrated in SMCs. We hypothesized that additional miRNAs might play an important role in determining vascular SMC phenotype. Microarray analysis of miRNAs was performed on human aortic SMCs undergoing phenotypic switching in response to serum withdrawal, and identified 31 significantly regulated entities. We chose the highly conserved candidate miRNA-26a for additional studies. Inhibition of miRNA-26a accelerated SMC differentiation, and also promoted apoptosis, while inhibiting proliferation and migration. Overexpression of miRNA-26a blunted differentiation. As a potential mechanism, we investigated whether miRNA-26a influences TGF-β-pathway signaling. Dual-luciferase reporter assays demonstrated enhanced SMAD signaling with miRNA-26a inhibition, and the opposite effect with miRNA-26a overexpression in transfected human cells. Furthermore, inhibition of miRNA-26a increased gene expression of SMAD-1 and SMAD-4, while overexpression inhibited SMAD-1. MicroRNA-26a was also found to be downregulated in two mouse models of AAA formation (2.5- to 3.8-fold decrease, P < 0.02) in which enhanced switching from contractile to synthetic phenotype occurs. In summary, miRNA-26a promotes vascular SMC proliferation while inhibiting cellular differentiation and apoptosis, and alters TGF-β pathway signaling. MicroRNA-26a represents an important new regulator of SMC biology and a potential therapeutic target in AAA disease. PMID:20857419

  7. Effect of rapamycin on endometriosis in mice

    PubMed Central

    REN, XU; WANG, YIFENG; XU, GANG; DAI, LIBING

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate the impact of rapamycin (RAPA) on the endometriosis (EMS) lesions in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice, and to examine the possible mechanism involved in a novel therapy in EMS. Following the successful establishment of an EMS-SCID mouse model, the mice were randomly assigned into the RAPA, control and saline treatment groups. Subsequent to treatment for 2 weeks, the serum hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were detected using ELISA. The levels of HIF-1α and VEGF, as well as the size of EMS lesions, were compared among the three groups. In addition, the HIF-1α, VEGF and CD34 protein expression levels, and the microvessel density (MVD) of the lesions were determined by immunohistochemical analysis. Compared with the control and saline groups, the volume of EMS lesions in the RAPA-treated SCID mice was significantly reduced. Furthermore, the serum level and protein expression of VEGF, and the MVD in the lesions of the RAPA-treated group were significantly reduced when compared with the other two groups. These parameters were comparable in the control and saline groups. In conclusion, RAPA may inhibit the growth of endometriotic lesions, most possibly through the inhibition of the expression of VEGF in lesions, thereby inhibiting angiogenesis. PMID:27347023

  8. Neonatal vascularization and oxygen tension regulate appropriate perinatal renal medulla/papilla maturation.

    PubMed

    Phua, Yu Leng; Gilbert, Thierry; Combes, Alexander; Wilkinson, Lorine; Little, Melissa H

    2016-04-01

    Congenital medullary dysplasia with obstructive nephropathy is a common congenital disorder observed in paediatric patients and represents the foremost cause of renal failure. However, the molecular processes regulating normal papillary outgrowth during the postnatal period are unclear. In this study, transcriptional profiling of the renal medulla across postnatal development revealed enrichment of non-canonical Wnt signalling, vascular development, and planar cell polarity genes, all of which may contribute to perinatal medulla/papilla maturation. These pathways were investigated in a model of papillary hypoplasia with functional obstruction, the Crim1(KST264/KST264) transgenic mouse. Postnatal elongation of the renal papilla via convergent extension was unaffected in the Crim1(KST264/KST264) hypoplastic renal papilla. In contrast, these mice displayed a disorganized papillary vascular network, tissue hypoxia, and elevated Vegfa expression. In addition, we demonstrate the involvement of accompanying systemic hypoxia arising from placental insufficiency, in appropriate papillary maturation. In conclusion, this study highlights the requirement for normal vascular development in collecting duct patterning, development of appropriate nephron architecture, and perinatal papillary maturation, such that disturbances contribute to obstructive nephropathy. PMID:26800422

  9. Alternative rapamycin treatment regimens mitigate the impact of rapamycin on glucose homeostasis and the immune system.

    PubMed

    Arriola Apelo, Sebastian I; Neuman, Joshua C; Baar, Emma L; Syed, Faizan A; Cummings, Nicole E; Brar, Harpreet K; Pumper, Cassidy P; Kimple, Michelle E; Lamming, Dudley W

    2016-02-01

    Inhibition of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway by the FDA-approved drug rapamycin has been shown to promote lifespan and delay age-related diseases in model organisms including mice. Unfortunately, rapamycin has potentially serious side effects in humans, including glucose intolerance and immunosuppression, which may preclude the long-term prophylactic use of rapamycin as a therapy for age-related diseases. While the beneficial effects of rapamycin are largely mediated by the inhibition of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1), which is acutely sensitive to rapamycin, many of the negative side effects are mediated by the inhibition of a second mTOR-containing complex, mTORC2, which is much less sensitive to rapamycin. We hypothesized that different rapamycin dosing schedules or the use of FDA-approved rapamycin analogs with different pharmacokinetics might expand the therapeutic window of rapamycin by more specifically targeting mTORC1. Here, we identified an intermittent rapamycin dosing schedule with minimal effects on glucose tolerance, and we find that this schedule has a reduced impact on pyruvate tolerance, fasting glucose and insulin levels, beta cell function, and the immune system compared to daily rapamycin treatment. Further, we find that the FDA-approved rapamycin analogs everolimus and temsirolimus efficiently inhibit mTORC1 while having a reduced impact on glucose and pyruvate tolerance. Our results suggest that many of the negative side effects of rapamycin treatment can be mitigated through intermittent dosing or the use of rapamycin analogs. PMID:26463117

  10. Increase of microRNA-210, Decrease of Raptor Gene Expression and Alteration of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Regulated Proteins following Mithramycin Treatment of Human Erythroid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Nicoletta; Finotti, Alessia; Ferracin, Manuela; Lampronti, Ilaria; Zuccato, Cristina; Breveglieri, Giulia; Brognara, Eleonora; Fabbri, Enrica; Borgatti, Monica; Negrini, Massimo; Gambari, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Expression and regulation of microRNAs is an emerging issue in erythroid differentiation and globin gene expression in hemoglobin disorders. In the first part of this study microarray analysis was performed both in mithramycin-induced K562 cells and erythroid precursors from healthy subjects or β-thalassemia patients producing low or high levels of fetal hemoglobin. We demonstrated that: (a) microRNA-210 expression is higher in erythroid precursors from β-thalassemia patients with high production of fetal hemoglobin; (b) microRNA-210 increases as a consequence of mithramycin treatment of K562 cells and human erythroid progenitors both from healthy and β-thalassemia subjects; (c) this increase is associated with erythroid induction and elevated expression of γ-globin genes; (d) an anti-microRNA against microRNA-210 interferes with the mithramycin-induced changes of gene expression. In the second part of the study we have obtained convergent evidences suggesting raptor mRNA as a putative target of microRNA-210. Indeed, microRNA-210 binding sites of its 3’-UTR region were involved in expression and are targets of microRNA-210-mediated modulation in a luciferase reporter assays. Furthermore, (i) raptor mRNA and protein are down-regulated upon mithramycin-induction both in K562 cells and erythroid progenitors from healthy and β-thalassemia subjects. In addition, (ii) administration of anti-microRNA-210 to K562 cells decreased endogenous microRNA-210 and increased raptor mRNA and protein expression. Finally, (iii) treatment of K562 cells with premicroRNA-210 led to a decrease of raptor mRNA and protein. In conclusion, microRNA-210 and raptor are involved in mithramycin-mediated erythroid differentiation of K562 cells and participate to the fine-tuning and control of γ-globin gene expression in erythroid precursor cells. PMID:25849663

  11. p73 is required for endothelial cell differentiation, migration and the formation of vascular networks regulating VEGF and TGFβ signaling.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Alonso, R; Martin-Lopez, M; Gonzalez-Cano, L; Garcia, S; Castrillo, F; Diez-Prieto, I; Fernandez-Corona, A; Lorenzo-Marcos, M E; Li, X; Claesson-Welsh, L; Marques, M M; Marin, M C

    2015-08-01

    Vasculogenesis, the establishment of the vascular plexus and angiogenesis, branching of new vessels from the preexisting vasculature, involves coordinated endothelial differentiation, proliferation and migration. Disturbances in these coordinated processes may accompany diseases such as cancer. We hypothesized that the p53 family member p73, which regulates cell differentiation in several contexts, may be important in vascular development. We demonstrate that p73 deficiency perturbed vascular development in the mouse retina, decreasing vascular branching, density and stability. Furthermore, p73 deficiency could affect non endothelial cells (ECs) resulting in reduced in vivo proangiogenic milieu. Moreover, p73 functional inhibition, as well as p73 deficiency, hindered vessel sprouting, tubulogenesis and the assembly of vascular structures in mouse embryonic stem cell and induced pluripotent stem cell cultures. Therefore, p73 is necessary for EC biology and vasculogenesis and, in particular, that DNp73 regulates EC migration and tube formation capacity by regulation of expression of pro-angiogenic factors such as transforming growth factor-β and vascular endothelial growth factors. DNp73 expression is upregulated in the tumor environment, resulting in enhanced angiogenic potential of B16-F10 melanoma cells. Our results demonstrate, by the first time, that differential p73-isoform regulation is necessary for physiological vasculogenesis and angiogenesis and DNp73 overexpression becomes a positive advantage for tumor progression due to its pro-angiogenic capacity. PMID:25571973

  12. Metformin potentiates rapamycin and cisplatin in gastric cancer in mice

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yunshu; Jiao, Xiaodong; Huang, Suyun; Wang, Jiejun; Li, Zhaosheng; Xie, Keping

    2015-01-01

    Here we showed that pAMPKα and PTEN were down-regulated and p-mTOR, p-S6, p-4EBP1, MMP7, and DCN1 were up-regulated in human gastric cancer tissue samples as compared to that in the noncancerous tissues. Metformin inhibited tumor growth in mice. Also it enhanced cisplatin- or rapamycin-induced reduction of tumor growth as compared with treatment of either drug alone. In addition to activation of AMPK and suppression of the mTOR pathway, a series of increased and decreased genes expression were induced by metformin, including PTEN, MMP7, and FN1. We suggest that metformin could potentially be used for the treatment of gastric cancer especially in combination with cisplatin or rapamycin. PMID:25909163

  13. Sorafenib enhances the therapeutic efficacy of rapamycin in colorectal cancers harboring oncogenic KRAS and PIK3CA

    PubMed Central

    Evers, B. Mark

    2012-01-01

    Activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling is associated with tumorigenesis and metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC). The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase, a downstream effector of PI3K/Akt signaling, regulates tumorigenesis and metastasis of CRCs, indicating that mTOR inhibition may have therapeutic potential. Notwithstanding, many cancers, including CRC, demonstrate resistance to the antitumorigenic effects of rapamycin. In this study, we show that inhibition of mTORC1 with rapamycin leads to feedback activation of PI3K/Akt and Ras-MAPK signaling, resulting in cell survival and possible contribution to rapamycin resistance. Combination with the multikinase inhibitor, sorafenib, abrogates rapamycin-induced activation of PI3K/Akt and Ras-MAPK signaling pathways. Combination of rapamycin with sorafenib synergistically inhibits proliferation of CRC cells. CRCs harboring coexistent KRAS and PIK3CA mutations are partially sensitive to either rapamycin or sorafenib monotherapy, but highly sensitive to combination treatment with rapamycin and sorafenib. Combination with sorafenib enhances therapeutic efficacy of rapamycin on induction of apoptosis and inhibition of cell-cycle progression, migration and invasion of CRCs. We demonstrate efficacy and safety of concomitant treatment with rapamycin and sorafenib at inhibiting growth of xenografts from CRC cells with coexistent mutations in KRAS and PIK3CA. The efficacy and tolerability of combined treatment with rapamycin and sorafenib provides rationale for use in treating CRC patients, particularly those with tumors harboring coexistent KRAS and PIK3CA mutations. Abbreviations:CIcombination indexCRCcolorectal cancerIHCimmunohistochemistryMAPKmitogen activated protein kinasemTORmammalian target of rapamycinPI3Kphosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. PMID:22696593

  14. Short-term rapamycin treatment in mice has few effects on the transcriptome of white adipose tissue compared to dietary restriction.

    PubMed

    Fok, Wilson C; Livi, Carolina; Bokov, Alex; Yu, Zhen; Chen, Yidong; Richardson, Arlan; Pérez, Viviana I

    2014-09-01

    Rapamycin, a drug that has been shown to increase lifespan in mice, inhibits the target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway, a major pathway that regulates cell growth and energy status. It has been hypothesized that rapamycin and dietary restriction (DR) extend lifespan through similar mechanisms/pathways. Using microarray analysis, we compared the transcriptome of white adipose tissue from mice fed rapamycin or DR-diet for 6 months. Multidimensional scaling and heatmap analyses showed that rapamycin had essentially no effect on the transcriptome as compared to DR. For example, only six transcripts were significantly altered by rapamycin while mice fed DR showed a significant change in over 1000 transcripts. Using ingenuity pathway analysis, we found that stearate biosynthesis and circadian rhythm signaling were significantly changed by DR. Our findings showing that DR, but not rapamycin, has an effect on the transcriptome of the adipose tissue, suggesting that these two manipulations increase lifespan through different mechanisms/pathways. PMID:25075714

  15. Extracellular Vesicles from Caveolin-Enriched Microdomains Regulate Hyaluronan-Mediated Sustained Vascular Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Mirzapoiazova, Tamara; Lennon, Frances E.; Mambetsariev, Bolot; Allen, Michael; Riehm, Jacob; Poroyko, Valeriy A.; Singleton, Patrick A.

    2015-01-01

    Defects in vascular integrity are an initiating factor in several disease processes. We have previously reported that high molecular weight hyaluronan (HMW-HA), a major glycosaminoglycan in the body, promotes rapid signal transduction in human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMVEC) leading to barrier enhancement. In contrast, low molecular weight hyaluronan (LMW-HA), produced in disease states by hyaluronidases and reactive oxygen species (ROS), induces HPMVEC barrier disruption. However, the mechanism(s) of sustained barrier regulation by HA are poorly defined. Our results indicate that long-term (6–24 hours) exposure of HMW-HA induced release of a novel type of extracellular vesicle from HLMVEC called enlargeosomes (characterized by AHNAK expression) while LMW-HA long-term exposure promoted release of exosomes (characterized by CD9, CD63, and CD81 expression). These effects were blocked by inhibiting caveolin-enriched microdomain (CEM) formation. Further, inhibiting enlargeosome release by annexin II siRNA attenuated the sustained barrier enhancing effects of HMW-HA. Finally, exposure of isolated enlargeosomes to HPMVEC monolayers generated barrier enhancement while exosomes led to barrier disruption. Taken together, these results suggest that differential release of extracellular vesicles from CEM modulate the sustained HPMVEC barrier regulation by HMW-HA and LMW-HA. HMW-HA-induced specialized enlargeosomes can be a potential therapeutic strategy for diseases involving impaired vascular integrity. PMID:26447809

  16. Forkhead box transcription factor FoxC1 preserves corneal transparency by regulating vascular growth

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Seungwoon; Singh, Hardeep P.; Lacal, Pedro M.; Sasman, Amy; Fatima, Anees; Liu, Ting; Schultz, Kathryn M.; Losordo, Douglas W.; Lehmann, Ordan J.; Kume, Tsutomu

    2012-01-01

    Normal vision requires the precise control of vascular growth to maintain corneal transparency. Here we provide evidence for a unique mechanism by which the Forkhead box transcription factor FoxC1 regulates corneal vascular development. Murine Foxc1 is essential for development of the ocular anterior segment, and in humans, mutations have been identified in Axenfeld–Rieger syndrome, a disorder characterized by anterior segment dysgenesis. We show that FOXC1 mutations also lead to corneal angiogenesis, and that mice homozygous for either a global (Foxc1−/−) or neural crest (NC)-specific (NC-Foxc1−/−) null mutation display excessive growth of corneal blood and lymphatic vessels. This is associated with disorganization of the extracellular matrix and increased expression of multiple matrix metalloproteinases. Heterozygous mutants (Foxc1+/− and NC-Foxc1+/−) exhibit milder phenotypes, such as disrupted limbal vasculature. Moreover, environmental exposure to corneal injury significantly increases growth of both blood and lymphatic vessels in both Foxc1+/− and NC-Foxc1+/− mice compared with controls. Notably, this amplification of the angiogenic response is abolished by inhibition of VEGF receptor 2. Collectively, these findings identify a role for FoxC1 in inhibiting corneal angiogenesis, thereby maintaining corneal transparency by regulating VEGF signaling. PMID:22171010

  17. Regulation of NADPH Oxidase in Vascular Endothelium: The Role of Phospholipases, Protein Kinases, and Cytoskeletal Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Pendyala, Srikanth; Usatyuk, Peter V.; Gorshkova, Irina A.; Garcia, Joe G.N.

    2009-01-01

    The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the vasculature plays a major role in the genesis of endothelial cell (EC) activation and barrier function. Of the several potential sources of ROS in the vasculature, the endothelial NADPH oxidase family of proteins is a major contributor of ROS associated with lung inflammation, ischemia/reperfusion injury, sepsis, hyperoxia, and ventilator-associated lung injury. The NADPH oxidase in lung ECs has most of the components found in phagocytic oxidase, and recent studies show the expression of several homologues of Nox proteins in vascular cells. Activation of NADPH oxidase of nonphagocytic vascular cells is complex and involves assembly of the cytosolic (p47phox, p67phox, and Rac1) and membrane-associated components (Noxes and p22phox). Signaling pathways leading to NADPH oxidase activation are not completely defined; however, they do appear to involve the cytoskeleton and posttranslation modification of the components regulated by protein kinases, protein phosphatases, and phospholipases. Furthermore, several key components regulating NADPH oxidase recruitment, assembly, and activation are enriched in lipid microdomains to form a functional signaling platform. Future studies on temporal and spatial localization of Nox isoforms will provide new insights into the role of NADPH oxidase–derived ROS in the pathobiology of lung diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 11, 841–860. PMID:18828698

  18. Adiponectin Regulates Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-C Expression in Macrophages via Syk-ERK Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Di; Fukuhara, Atsunori; Miyata, Yugo; Yokoyama, Chieko; Otsuki, Michio; Kihara, Shinji; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin is exclusively expressed in adipose tissues and exhibits protective effects against cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. It enhances AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) signaling in the liver and skeletal muscles, however, its signaling pathways in macrophages remain to be elucidated. Here, we show that adiponectin upregulated the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C, and induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in macrophages. Inhibition of Syk abrogated adiponectin-induced VEGF-C expression and ERK phosphorylation. Furthermore, inhibition of ERK blocked the induction of VEGF-C gene. Inhibition of Syk, but not that of ERK, abrogated adiponectin-induced expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, and interleukin (IL)-6. These results indicate that adiponectin regulates VEGF-C expression via Syk-ERK pathway in macrophages. PMID:23424645

  19. Post-translational regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in vascular endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Jin; Fulton, David

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a short-lived gaseous signaling molecule. In blood vessels, it is synthesized in a dynamic fashion by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and influences vascular function via two distinct mechanisms, the activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC)/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent signaling and the S-nitrosylation of proteins with reactive thiols (S-nitrosylation). The regulation of eNOS activity and NO bioavailability is critical to maintain blood vessel function. The activity of eNOS and ability to generate NO is regulated at the transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and posttranslational levels. Post-translational modifications acutely impact eNOS activity and dysregulation of these mechanisms compromise eNOS activity and foster the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). This review will intergrate past and current literature on the post-translational modifications of eNOS in both health and disease. PMID:24379783

  20. Inhibition of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) - Rapamycin and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Lamming, Dudley W.

    2016-01-01

    Rapamycin is an FDA-approved immunosuppressant and anti-cancer agent discovered in the soil of Easter Island in the early 1970s. Rapamycin is a potent and selective inhibitor of the mTOR (mechanistic Target Of Rapamycin) protein kinase, which acts as a central integrator of nutrient signaling pathways. During the last decade, genetic and pharmaceutical inhibition of mTOR pathway signaling has been found to promote longevity in yeast, worms, flies and mice. In this chapter, we will discuss the molecular biology underlying the effects of rapamycin and its physiological effects; evidence for rapamycin as an anti-aging compound; mechanisms by which rapamycin may extend lifespan; and the potential limitations of rapamycin as an anti-aging molecule. Finally, we will discuss possible strategies that may allow us to inhibit mTOR signaling safely while minimizing side effects, and reap the health, social and economic benefits from slowing the aging process. PMID:27048303

  1. Inhibition of the Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin (mTOR)-Rapamycin and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Lamming, Dudley W

    2016-01-01

    Rapamycin is a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved immunosuppressant and anticancer agent discovered in the soil of Easter Island in the early 1970s. Rapamycin is a potent and selective inhibitor of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) protein kinase, which acts as a central integrator of nutrient signaling pathways. During the last decade, genetic and pharmaceutical inhibition of mTOR pathway signaling has been found to promote longevity in yeast, worms, flies, and mice. In this article, we will discuss the molecular biology underlying the effects of rapamycin and its physiological effects, evidence for rapamycin as an antiaging compound, mechanisms by which rapamycin may extend life span, and the potential limitations of rapamycin as an antiaging molecule. Finally, we will discuss possible strategies that may allow us to inhibit mTOR signaling safely while minimizing side effects, and reap the health, social, and economic benefits from slowing the aging process. PMID:27048303

  2. The Effects of Protein Regulators on the Vascular Remodeling of Japanese Quail Chorioallantoic Membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, Arati

    2004-01-01

    Contributing to NASA s mission, the Microgravity Fluid Physics research program conducts experiments to promote space exploration and improvement of processes and products on Earth. One of the projects through this program deals with the affect of regulators on vascular remodeling and angiogenesis. This project is being led by Dr. Patricia Parsons-Wingerter. To perform the experiments, protein regulators are tested on the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of the Japanese quail embryos. The different types of regulators used can be broken down into two major groups of stimulators, and inhibitors. Stimulators increase the rate of blood vessel growth and inhibitors decrease of blood vessel growth. The specified regulator proteins include thrombospondin 1 (TSP-1) and a novel vessel tortuosity factor (TF), these are just the ones used in this specific experiment; other various protein regulators can also be used. The novel vessel tortuosity factor (TF) is a special kind of stimulator because it stimulates vessel tortuosity and curvature, rather than actual blood vessel growth. These regulators are being tested on Japanese quail embryos. The Japanese quail embryos naturally form a chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) from which blood flow, vascular remodeling, and angiogenesis can be observed. Chorioallantoic membranes are also easier to use because they are two dimensional when mounted onto a slide for examination. The analysis of the affect of the regulators on the CAM can be studied through PIVPROC; the program is used to analyze the altered blood flow in response to application of TF. Regulators are being thoroughly studied because cardiovascular alterations are the second highest, NASA-defined, risk categories in human space exploration. This research done on the quail is extending to even more projects that will be done on lab animals such as mice and also in human clinical studies like the diabetic retina. Not only will this research be beneficial to further space

  3. Regulation of Nox enzymes expression in vascular pathophysiology: Focusing on transcription factors and epigenetic mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Manea, Simona-Adriana; Constantin, Alina; Manda, Gina; Sasson, Shlomo; Manea, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    NADPH oxidases (Nox) represent a family of hetero-oligomeric enzymes whose exclusive biological function is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Nox-derived ROS are essential modulators of signal transduction pathways that control key physiological activities such as cell growth, proliferation, migration, differentiation, and apoptosis, immune responses, and biochemical pathways. Enhanced formation of Nox-derived ROS, which is generally associated with the up-regulation of different Nox subtypes, has been established in various pathologies, namely cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, obesity, cancer, and neurodegeneration. The detrimental effects of Nox-derived ROS are related to alterations in cell signalling and/or direct irreversible oxidative damage of nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. Thus, understanding of transcriptional regulation mechanisms of Nox enzymes have been extensively investigated in an attempt to find ways to counteract the excessive formation of Nox-derived ROS in various pathological states. Despite the numerous existing data, the molecular pathways responsible for Nox up-regulation are not completely understood. This review article summarizes some of the recent advances and concepts related to the regulation of Nox expression in the vascular pathophysiology. It highlights the role of transcription factors and epigenetic mechanisms in this process. Identification of the signalling molecules involved in Nox up-regulation, which is associated with the onset and development of cardiovascular dysfunction may contribute to the development of novel strategies for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26133261

  4. Organ-selective regulation of vascular adhesion protein-1 expression in man.

    PubMed

    Arvilommi, A M; Salmi, M; Jalkanen, S

    1997-07-01

    Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) is an endothelial molecule which mediates lymphocyte binding to endothelium in peripheral lymph nodes and at certain sites of inflammation. The expression of VAP-1 in vivo is strongly up-regulated in inflamed tissues, such as gut and skin. The purpose of this work was to examine the factors responsible for this induction of VAP-1. Since the expression of VAP-1 could not be induced in cultured endothelial cells with a large panel of mediators, we used an organ culture technique for the investigation of the regulation of VAP-1 expression in a more physiological micromilieu. Indeed, we found that the expression of endothelial VAP-1 could be up-regulated in human tonsillar tissue with interleukin (IL)-1, IL-4, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha), interferon (IFN)-gamma and lipopolysaccharide, whereas histamine, thrombin, dibutyryl cAMP, N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) had no effect. The induced VAP-1 protein was similar in molecular weight to the non-induced VAP-1, suggesting that VAP-1 synthesized de novo carries appropriate carbohydrate moieties. In contrast to tonsil organ culture, similar inductions performed with human appendix showed no up-regulation of VAP-1 expression, indicating that the regulation of VAP-1 expression exhibits organ-selective characteristics. Furthermore, in these tissues the smooth muscle cells, which constitutively express VAP-1, could not be stimulated to alter their level of expression of this molecule. In conclusion, the expression of VAP-1 can be markedly up-regulated with several mediators in tonsil but not in appendix organ culture, whereas cultured endothelial cells cannot be induced to express VAP-1. These results indicate that the expression of VAP-1 is regulated in a tissue- and cell type-selective manner, and a correct micromilieu is required for the up-regulation to occur. PMID:9247594

  5. The Notch Ligand Delta-Like 4 Regulates Multiple Stages of Early Hemato-Vascular Development

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Hélia; Gomes, Andreia C.; Saavedra, Pedro; Carvalho, Catarina C.; Duarte, António; Cidadão, António; Parreira, Leonor

    2012-01-01

    Background In mouse embryos, homozygous or heterozygous deletions of the gene encoding the Notch ligand Dll4 result in early embryonic death due to major defects in endothelial remodeling in the yolk sac and embryo. Considering the close developmental relationship between endothelial and hematopoietic cell lineages, which share a common mesoderm-derived precursor, the hemangioblast, and many key regulatory molecules, we investigated whether Dll4 is also involved in the regulation of early embryonic hematopoiesis. Methodology/Principal Findings Using Embryoid Bodies (EBs) derived from embryonic stem cells harboring hetero- or homozygous Dll4 deletions, we observed that EBs from both genotypes exhibit an abnormal endothelial remodeling in the vascular sprouts that arise late during EB differentiation, indicating that this in vitro system recapitulates the angiogenic phenotype of Dll4 mutant embryos. However, analysis of EB development at early time points revealed that the absence of Dll4 delays the emergence of mesoderm and severely reduces the number of blast-colony forming cells (BL-CFCs), the in vitro counterpart of the hemangioblast, and of endothelial cells. Analysis of colony forming units (CFU) in EBs and yolk sacs from Dll4+/− and Dll4−/− embryos, showed that primitive erythropoiesis is specifically affected by Dll4 insufficiency. In Dll4 mutant EBs, smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were seemingly unaffected and cardiomyocyte differentiation was increased, indicating that SMC specification is Dll4-independent while a normal dose of this Notch ligand is essential for the quantitative regulation of cardiomyogenesis. Conclusions/Significance This study highlights a previously unnoticed role for Dll4 in the quantitative regulation of early hemato-vascular precursors, further indicating that it is also involved on the timely emergence of mesoderm in early embryogenesis. PMID:22514637

  6. Effect of Chronic Administration of Low Dose Rapamycin on Development and Immunity in Young Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhenya; Liu, Furong; Chen, Linglin; Zhang, Huadan; Ding, Yuemin; Liu, Jianxiang; Wong, Michael; Zeng, Ling-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates cell growth, cell differentiation and protein synthesis. Rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTOR, has been widely used as an immunosuppressant and anti-cancer drug. Recently, mTOR inhibitors have also been reported to be a potential anti-epileptic drug, which may be effective when used in young patients with genetic epilepsy. Thus, a suitable dose of rapamycin which can maintain the normal function of mTOR and has fewer side effects ideally should be identified. In the present study, we first detected changes in marker proteins of mTOR signaling pathway during development. Then we determined the dose of rapamycin by treating rats of 2 weeks of age with different doses of rapamycin for 3 days and detected its effect on mTOR pathway. Young rats were then treated with a suitable dose of rapamycin for 4 weeks and the effect of rapamycin on mTOR, development and immunity were investigated. We found that the expression of the marker proteins of mTOR pathway was changed during development in brain hippocampus and neocortex. After 3 days of treanent, 0.03 mg/kg rapamycin had no effect on phospho-S6, whereas 0.1, 0.3, 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg rapamycin inhibited phospho-S6 in a dose-dependent manner. However, only 1.0 mg/kg and 3.0 mg/kg rapamycin inhibited phospho-S6 after 4 weeks treatment of rapamycin. Parallel to this result, rats treated with 0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg rapamycin had no obvious adverse effects, whereas rats treated with 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg rapamycin showed significant decreases in body, spleen and thymus weight. Additionally, rats treated with 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg rapamycin exhibited cognitive impairment and anxiety as evident by maze and open field experiments. Furthermore, the content of IL-1β, IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α in serum and cerebral cortex were significantly decreased in 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg rapamycin-treated rats. The expression of DCX was also significantly decreased in 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg rapamycin-treated rats. However, rats

  7. Effect of Chronic Administration of Low Dose Rapamycin on Development and Immunity in Young Rats.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhenya; Liu, Furong; Chen, Linglin; Zhang, Huadan; Ding, Yuemin; Liu, Jianxiang; Wong, Michael; Zeng, Ling-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates cell growth, cell differentiation and protein synthesis. Rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTOR, has been widely used as an immunosuppressant and anti-cancer drug. Recently, mTOR inhibitors have also been reported to be a potential anti-epileptic drug, which may be effective when used in young patients with genetic epilepsy. Thus, a suitable dose of rapamycin which can maintain the normal function of mTOR and has fewer side effects ideally should be identified. In the present study, we first detected changes in marker proteins of mTOR signaling pathway during development. Then we determined the dose of rapamycin by treating rats of 2 weeks of age with different doses of rapamycin for 3 days and detected its effect on mTOR pathway. Young rats were then treated with a suitable dose of rapamycin for 4 weeks and the effect of rapamycin on mTOR, development and immunity were investigated. We found that the expression of the marker proteins of mTOR pathway was changed during development in brain hippocampus and neocortex. After 3 days of treanent, 0.03 mg/kg rapamycin had no effect on phospho-S6, whereas 0.1, 0.3, 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg rapamycin inhibited phospho-S6 in a dose-dependent manner. However, only 1.0 mg/kg and 3.0 mg/kg rapamycin inhibited phospho-S6 after 4 weeks treatment of rapamycin. Parallel to this result, rats treated with 0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg rapamycin had no obvious adverse effects, whereas rats treated with 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg rapamycin showed significant decreases in body, spleen and thymus weight. Additionally, rats treated with 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg rapamycin exhibited cognitive impairment and anxiety as evident by maze and open field experiments. Furthermore, the content of IL-1β, IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α in serum and cerebral cortex were significantly decreased in 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg rapamycin-treated rats. The expression of DCX was also significantly decreased in 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg rapamycin-treated rats. However, rats

  8. Glucose and glucosamine regulate growth factor gene expression in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed Central

    McClain, D A; Paterson, A J; Roos, M D; Wei, X; Kudlow, J E

    1992-01-01

    We have investigated the regulation of the expression of two growth factors found in vascular smooth muscle, transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Cells cultured in medium containing 30 mM glucose exhibited a 2-fold increase in TGF alpha mRNA and a 3-fold increase in bFGF mRNA compared with cells grown in normal (5.5 mM) glucose. Glucosamine was more potent than glucose, leading to a 6-fold increase in TGF alpha mRNA. TGF alpha protein levels were also increased by glucosamine treatment, and the predominant species present was the membrane-bound precursor form of TGF alpha. To examine further the regulation of growth factors by sugars, cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells were transfected with a plasmid construct consisting of a 1.2-kilobase-pair fragment of the TGF alpha promoter linked to a luciferase reporter gene. Increasing the concentration of glucose in the culture medium from 5.5 mM to 30 mM led to a rapid, 1.7-fold increase in the activity of the TGF alpha promoter. Glucosamine was much more potent than glucose in this stimulation, with 2 mM glucosamine causing a 12-fold increase in TGF alpha promoter activity. Insulin had no effect on luciferase activity in either the presence or the absence of added sugars. The glucose response element of the TGF alpha gene maps to a 130-base-pair segment that includes three potential binding sites for the transcription factor Sp1. We conclude that high glucose concentrations such as are reached in diabetes mellitus can stimulate the transcription of the genes for growth factors in vascular smooth muscle cells. This signaling pathway apparently involves the metabolism of glucose to glucosamine. This effect could be representative of nutritional regulation of a family of genes and could contribute to the toxicity of hyperglycemia and the vascular complications of diabetes. Images PMID:1518840

  9. Rapamycin reduces fibroblast proliferation without causing quiescence and induces STAT5A/B-mediated cytokine production.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Zoe E; MacKay, Kimberly; Sander, Michelle; Trost, Brett; Dawicki, Wojciech; Wickramarathna, Aruna; Gordon, John; Eramian, Mark; Kill, Ian R; Bridger, Joanna M; Kusalik, Anthony; Mitchell, Jennifer A; Eskiw, Christopher H

    2015-01-01

    Rapamycin is a well-known inhibitor of the Target of Rapamycin (TOR) signaling cascade; however, the impact of this drug on global genome function and organization in normal primary cells is poorly understood. To explore this impact, we treated primary human foreskin fibroblasts with rapamycin and observed a decrease in cell proliferation without causing cell death. Upon rapamycin treatment chromosomes 18 and 10 were repositioned to a location similar to that of fibroblasts induced into quiescence by serum reduction. Although similar changes in positioning occurred, comparative transcriptome analyses demonstrated significant divergence in gene expression patterns between rapamycin-treated and quiescence-induced fibroblasts. Rapamycin treatment induced the upregulation of cytokine genes, including those from the Interleukin (IL)-6 signaling network, such as IL-8 and the Leukemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF), while quiescent fibroblasts demonstrated up-regulation of genes involved in the complement and coagulation cascade. In addition, genes significantly up-regulated by rapamycin treatment demonstrated increased promoter occupancy of the transcription factor Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 5A/B (STAT5A/B). In summary, we demonstrated that the treatment of fibroblasts with rapamycin decreased proliferation, caused chromosome territory repositioning and induced STAT5A/B-mediated changes in gene expression enriched for cytokines. PMID:26652669

  10. Thrombospondin-1 and CD47 Regulation of Cardiac, Pulmonary and Vascular Responses in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Natasha M.; Sharifi-Sanjani, Maryam; Csányi, Gábor; Pagano, Patrick J.; Isenberg, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular homeostasis and health is maintained through the balanced interactions of cardiac generated blood flow and cross-talk between the cellular components that comprise blood vessels. Central to this cross-talk is endothelial generated nitric oxide (NO) that stimulates relaxation of the contractile vascular smooth muscle (VSMC) layer of blood vessels. In cardiovascular disease this balanced interaction is disrupted and NO signaling lost. Work over the last several years indicates regulation of NO is much more complex than previously believed. It is now apparent the secreted protein thrombospondin-1 (TSP1), that is upregulated in cardiovascular disease and animal models of the same, on activating cell surface receptor CD47, redundantly inhibits NO production and NO signaling. This inhibitory event has implications for baseline and disease-related responses mediated by NO. Further work has identified that TSP1-CD47 signaling stimulates enzymatic reactive oxygen species (ROS) production to further limit blood flow and promote vascular disease. Herein consideration is given to the most recent discoveries in this regard which identify the TSP1-CD47 axis as a major proximate governor of cardiovascular health. PMID:24418252

  11. Farnesoid X receptor agonist CDCA reduces blood pressure and regulates vascular tone in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Chenyu; Li, Jing; Weng, Xu; Lan, Xiaofang; Chi, Xiangbo

    2015-07-01

    The Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, which plays an essential role in lipid homeostasis and glucose metabolism. However, whether or not FXR can prevent rise in blood pressure remains unknown. Here, we investigate the possibility of using chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), a natural ligand of FXR, to attenuate elevated blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). SHR and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) were treated with CDCA (30 mg/kg) for 8 weeks. Compared with vehicle control, CDCA attenuated rise in blood pressure in SHR. In addition, CDCA improved vasorelaxation and diminished the contractile response to endothelin-1 (ET-1) in mesenteric arteries from SHR. CDCA also stimulated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression, repressed ET-1 levels, and inhibited NF-κB activities in mesenteric arteries of the SHR. Overall, we showed that CDCA treatment reduces systolic blood pressure, improves vascular relaxation, and inhibits vasoconstriction activity in SHR. The repressed ET-1 level, the raised eNOS expression, and the ameliorated inflammation in mesenteric arteries could be responsible for the vasorelaxant and hypotensive effect of CDCA. These findings support a potential role for FXR as a regulator in vascular activities and in the development of treatment for hypertension. PMID:26188398

  12. Vascular smooth muscle cell-derived adiponectin: a paracrine regulator of contractile phenotype.

    PubMed

    Ding, Min; Carrão, Ana Catarina; Wagner, Robert J; Xie, Yi; Jin, Yu; Rzucidlo, Eva M; Yu, Jun; Li, Wei; Tellides, George; Hwa, John; Aprahamian, Tamar R; Martin, Kathleen A

    2012-02-01

    Adiponectin is a cardioprotective adipokine derived predominantly from visceral fat. We recently demonstrated that exogenous adiponectin induces vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) differentiation via repression of mTORC1 and FoxO4. Here we report for the first time that VSMC express and secrete adiponectin, which acts in an autocrine and paracrine manner to regulate VSMC contractile phenotype. Adiponectin was found to be expressed in human coronary artery and mouse aortic VSMC. Importantly, siRNA knock-down of endogenous adiponectin in VSMC significantly reduced the expression of VSMC contractile proteins. Contractile protein deficiency was also observed in primary VSMC isolated from Adiponectin(-/-) mice. This deficiency could be rescued by culturing Adiponectin(-/-) VSMC in conditioned media from wild type (WT) VSMC. Moreover, the paracrine effect of VSMC-derived adiponectin was confirmed as adiponectin neutralizing antibody blocked the rescue. Overexpressed adiponectin also exerted paracrine effects on neighboring untransfected VSMC, which was also blocked by adiponectin neutralizing antibody. Interestingly, adiponectin expression was inducible by the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone. Our data support an important role for VSMC-derived adiponectin in maintaining VSMC contractile phenotype, contributing to critical cardioprotective functions in the vascular wall. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Local Signaling in Myocytes". PMID:21952104

  13. TLR4 regulates pulmonary vascular homeostasis and remodeling via redox signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Liping; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Liu, Hui; Sun, Yong; Jhala, Nirag; Bradley, Wayne E.; Dell’Italia, Louis J.; Michalek, Sue; Wu, Hui; Steele, Chad; Benza, Raymond L; Chen, Yabing

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) contributes to morbidity and mortality of patients with lung and heart diseases. We demonstrated that hypoxia induced PAH and increased pulmonary arterial wall thickness in wild-type mice. Mice deficient in toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4−/−) spontaneously developed PAH, which was not further enhanced by hypoxia. Echocardiography determined right ventricular hypertrophy and decreased pulmonary arterial acceleration time were associated with the development of PAH in TLR4−/− mice. In pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC), hypoxia decreased TLR4 expression and induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Nox1/Nox4. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase decreased hypoxia-induced proliferation of wild-type PASMC. PASMC derived from TLR4−/− mice exhibited increased ROS and Nox4/Nox1 expression. Our studies demonstrate an important role of TLR4 in maintaining normal pulmonary vasculature and in hypoxia-induced PAH. Inhibition of TLR4, by genetic ablation or hypoxia, increases the expression of Nox1/Nox4 and induces PASMC proliferation and vascular remodeling. These results support a novel function of TLR4 in regulating the development of PAH and reveal a new regulatory axis contributing to TLR4 deficiency-induced vascular hypertrophy and remodeling. PMID:26709781

  14. Nogo-B regulates endothelial sphingolipid homeostasis to control vascular function and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Cantalupo, Anna; Zhang, Yi; Kothiya, Milankumar; Galvani, Sylvain; Obinata, Hideru; Bucci, Mariarosaria; Giordano, Frank J; Jiang, Xian-Cheng; Hla, Timothy; Di Lorenzo, Annarita

    2015-09-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is a critical factor in many cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension. Although lipid signaling has been implicated in endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease, specific molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we report that Nogo-B, a membrane protein of the endoplasmic reticulum, regulates endothelial sphingolipid biosynthesis with direct effects on vascular function and blood pressure. Nogo-B inhibits serine palmitoyltransferase, the rate-limiting enzyme of the de novo sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway, thereby controlling production of endothelial sphingosine 1-phosphate and autocrine, G protein-coupled receptor-dependent signaling by this metabolite. Mice lacking Nogo-B either systemically or specifically in endothelial cells are hypotensive, resistant to angiotensin II-induced hypertension and have preserved endothelial function and nitric oxide release. In mice that lack Nogo-B, pharmacological inhibition of serine palmitoyltransferase with myriocin reinstates endothelial dysfunction and angiotensin II-induced hypertension. Our study identifies Nogo-B as a key inhibitor of local sphingolipid synthesis and shows that autocrine sphingolipid signaling within the endothelium is critical for vascular function and blood pressure homeostasis. PMID:26301690

  15. Nogo-B regulates endothelial sphingolipid homeostasis to control vascular function and blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Kothiya, Milankumar; Galvani, Sylvain; Obinata, Hideru; Bucci, Mariarosaria; Giordano, Frank J; Jiang, Xian-Cheng; Hla, Timothy; Di Lorenzo, Annarita

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is a critical factor in many cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension. Although lipid signaling has been implicated in endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease, specific molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we report that Nogo-B, a membrane protein of the endoplasmic reticulum, regulates endothelial sphingolipid biosynthesis with direct effects on vascular function and blood pressure. Nogo-B inhibits serine palmitoyltransferase, the rate-limiting enzyme of the de novo sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway, thereby controlling production of endothelial sphingosine 1-phosphate and autocrine, G protein–coupled receptor–dependent signaling by this metabolite. Mice lacking Nogo-B either systemically or specifically in endothelial cells are hypotensive, resistant to angiotensin II–induced hypertension and have preserved endothelial function and nitric oxide release. In mice that lack Nogo-B, pharmacological inhibition of serine palmitoyltransferase with myriocin reinstates endothelial dysfunction and angiotensin II–induced hypertension. Our study identifies Nogo-B as a key inhibitor of local sphingolipid synthesis and shows that autocrine sphingolipid signaling within the endothelium is critical for vascular function and blood pressure homeostasis. PMID:26301690

  16. Growth differentiation factor 15 stimulates rapamycin-sensitive ovarian cancer cell growth and invasion.

    PubMed

    Griner, Samantha E; Joshi, Jayashree P; Nahta, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Identification of novel molecular markers and therapeutic targets may improve survival rates for patients with ovarian cancer. In the current study, immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of two human ovarian tumor tissue arrays showed high staining for GDF15 in a majority of tissues. Exogenous stimulation of ovarian cancer cell lines with recombinant human GDF15 (rhGDF15) or stable over-expression of a GDF15 expression plasmid promoted anchorage-independent growth, increased invasion, and up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). MMP inhibition suppressed GDF15-mediated invasion. In addition, IHC analysis of human ovarian tumor tissue arrays indicated that GDF15 expression correlated significantly with high MMP2 and MMP9 expression. Exogenous and endogenous GDF15 over-expression stimulated phosphorylation of p38, Erk1/2, and Akt. Pharmacologic inhibition of p38, MEK, or PI3K suppressed GDF15-stimulated growth. Further, proliferation, growth, and invasion of GDF15 stable clones were blocked by rapamycin. IHC analysis demonstrated significant correlation between GDF15 expression and phosphorylation of mTOR. Finally, knockdown of endogenous GDF15 or neutralization of secreted GDF15 suppressed invasion and growth of a GDF15-over-expressing ovarian cancer cell line. These data indicate that GDF15 over-expression, which occurred in a majority of human ovarian cancers, promoted rapamycin-sensitive invasion and growth of ovarian cancer cells. Inhibition of mTOR may be an effective therapeutic strategy for ovarian cancers that over-express GDF15. Future studies should examine GDF15 as a novel molecular target for blocking ovarian cancer progression. PMID:23085437

  17. The NuRD Chromatin-Remodeling Enzyme CHD4 Promotes Embryonic Vascular Integrity by Transcriptionally Regulating Extracellular Matrix Proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, Kyle G.; Curtis, Carol D.; Silasi-Mansat, Robert; Lupu, Florea; Griffin, Courtney T.

    2013-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) supports vascular integrity during embryonic development. Proteolytic degradation of ECM components is required for angiogenesis, but excessive ECM proteolysis causes blood vessel fragility and hemorrhage. Little is understood about how ECM proteolysis is transcriptionally regulated during embryonic vascular development. We now show that the NuRD ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complex promotes vascular integrity by preventing excessive ECM proteolysis in vivo. Mice lacking endothelial CHD4—a catalytic subunit of NuRD complexes—died at midgestation from vascular rupture. ECM components surrounding rupture-prone vessels in Chd4 mutants were significantly downregulated prior to embryonic lethality. Using qPCR arrays, we found two critical mediators of ECM stability misregulated in mutant endothelial cells: the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR or Plaur) was upregulated, and thrombospondin-1 (Thbs1) was downregulated. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that CHD4-containing NuRD complexes directly bound the promoters of these genes in endothelial cells. uPAR and THBS1 respectively promote and inhibit activation of the potent ECM protease plasmin, and we detected increased plasmin activity around rupture-prone vessels in Chd4 mutants. We rescued ECM components and vascular rupture in Chd4 mutants by genetically reducing urokinase (uPA or Plau), which cooperates with uPAR to activate plasmin. Our findings provide a novel mechanism by which a chromatin-remodeling enzyme regulates ECM stability to maintain vascular integrity during embryonic development. PMID:24348274

  18. Fluid shear stress as a regulator of gene expression in vascular cells: possible correlations with diabetic abnormalities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadaki, M.; Eskin, S. G.; Ruef, J.; Runge, M. S.; McIntire, L. V.

    1999-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with increased frequency, severity and more rapid progression of cardiovascular diseases. Metabolic perturbations from hyperglycemia result in disturbed endothelium-dependent relaxation, activation of coagulation pathways, depressed fibrinolysis, and other abnormalities in vascular homeostasis. Atherosclerosis is localized mainly at areas of geometric irregularity at which blood vessels branch, curve and change diameter, and where blood is subjected to sudden changes in velocity and/or direction of flow. Shear stress resulting from blood flow is a well known modulator of vascular cell function. This paper presents what is currently known regarding the molecular mechanisms responsible for signal transduction and gene regulation in vascular cells exposed to shear stress. Considering the importance of the hemodynamic environment of vascular cells might be vital to increasing our understanding of diabetes.

  19. Hedgehog Signaling Regulates Size of the Dorsal Aortae and Density of the Plexus During Avian Vascular Development

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Carlos M.; Salanga, Matthew C.; Krieg, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Signaling by the hedgehog (Hh) family of secreted growth factors is essential for development of embryonic blood vessels. Embryos lacking Hh function have abundant endothelial cells but fail to assemble vascular cords or lumenized endothelial tubes. However, the role of Hh signaling during later aspects of vascular patterning and morphogenesis is largely unexplored. We have used small molecule inhibitors and agonists to alter activity of the Hh signaling pathway in the chick embryo. When cyclopamine is added after cord formation, aortal cells form tubes, but these are small and disorganized and the density of the adjacent vascular plexus is reduced. Activation of the Hh pathway with SAG leads to formation of enlarged aortae and increased density of the plexus. The number of endothelial cell filopodia is found to correlate with Hh signaling levels. These studies show that Hh signaling levels must be tightly regulated for normal vascular patterning to be achieved. PMID:21384473

  20. PTH Receptor Signaling in Osteoblasts Regulates Endochondral Vascularization in Maintenance of Postnatal Growth Plate

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Tao; Xian, Lingling; Crane, Janet; Wen, Chunyi; Hilton, Matthew; Lu, William; Newman, Peter; Cao, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal growth of postnatal bone requires precise control of growth plate cartilage chondrocytes and subsequent osteogenesis and bone formation. Little is known about the role of angiogenesis and bone remodeling in maintenance of cartilaginous growth plate. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulates bone remodeling by activating PTH receptor (PTH1R). Mice with conditional deletion of PTH1R in osteoblasts showed disrupted trabecular bone formation. The mice also exhibited postnatal growth retardation with profound defects in growth plate cartilage, ascribable predominantly to a decrease in number of hypertrophic chondrocytes, resulting in premature fusion of the growth plate and shortened long bones. Further characterization of hypertrophic zone and primary spongiosa revealed that endochondral angiogenesis and vascular invasion of the cartilage were impaired, which was associated with aberrant chondrocyte maturation and cartilage development. These studies reveal that PTH1R signaling in osteoblasts regulates cartilaginous growth plate for postnatal growth of bone. PMID:25196529

  1. Essential Role of TGF-β/Smad Pathway on Statin Dependent Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Vita, Juan; Sánchez-Galán, Eva; Santamaría, Beatriz; Sánchez-López, Elsa; Rodrigues-Díez, Raquel; Blanco-Colio, Luís Miguel; Egido, Jesús; Ortiz, Alberto; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta

    2008-01-01

    Background The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase inhibitors (also called statins) exert proven beneficial effects on cardiovascular diseases. Recent data suggest a protective role for Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) in atherosclerosis by regulating the balance between inflammation and extracellular matrix accumulation. However, there are no studies about the effect of statins on TGF-β/Smad pathway in atherosclerosis and vascular cells. Methodology In cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) statins enhanced Smad pathway activation caused by TGF-β. In addition, statins upregulated TGF-β receptor type II (TRII), and increased TGF-β synthesis and TGF-β/Smad-dependent actions. In this sense, statins, through Smad activation, render VSMCs more susceptible to TGF-β induced apoptosis and increased TGF-β-mediated ECM production. It is well documented that high doses of statins induce apoptosis in cultured VSMC in the presence of serum; however the precise mechanism of this effect remains to be elucidated. We have found that statins-induced apoptosis was mediated by TGF-β/Smad pathway. Finally, we have described that RhoA inhibition is a common intracellular mechanisms involved in statins effects. The in vivo relevance of these findings was assessed in an experimental model of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E deficient mice: Treatment with Atorvastatin increased Smad3 phosphorylation and TRII overexpression, associated to elevated ECM deposition in the VSMCs within atheroma plaques, while apoptosis was not detected. Conclusions Statins enhance TGF-β/Smad pathway, regulating ligand levels, receptor, main signaling pathway and cellular responses of VSMC, including apoptosis and ECM accumulation. Our findings show that TGF-β/Smad pathway is essential for statins-dependent actions in VSMCs. PMID:19088845

  2. Nrf2 in ischemic neurons promotes retinal vascular regeneration through regulation of semaphorin 6A

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yanhong; Gong, Junsong; Xu, Zhenhua; Thimmulappa, Rajesh K.; Mitchell, Katherine L.; Welsbie, Derek S.; Biswal, Shyam; Duh, Elia J.

    2015-01-01

    Delayed revascularization of ischemic neural tissue is a major impediment to preservation of function in central nervous system (CNS) diseases including stroke and ischemic retinopathies. Therapeutic strategies allowing rapid revascularization are greatly needed to reduce ischemia-induced cellular damage and suppress harmful pathologic neovascularization. However, key mechanisms governing vascular recovery in ischemic CNS, including regulatory molecules governing the transition from tissue injury to tissue repair, are largely unknown. NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a major stress-response transcription factor well known for its cell-intrinsic cytoprotective function. However, its role in cell–cell crosstalk is less appreciated. Here we report that Nrf2 is highly activated in ischemic retina and promotes revascularization by modulating neurons in their paracrine regulation of endothelial cells. Global Nrf2 deficiency strongly suppresses retinal revascularization and increases pathologic neovascularization in a mouse model of ischemic retinopathy. Conditional knockout studies demonstrate a major role for neuronal Nrf2 in vascular regrowth into avascular retina. Deletion of neuronal Nrf2 results in semaphorin 6A (Sema6A) induction in hypoxic/ischemic retinal ganglion cells in a hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α)-dependent fashion. Sema6A expression increases in avascular inner retina and colocalizes with Nrf2 in human fetal eyes. Extracellular Sema6A leads to dose-dependent suppression of the migratory phenotype of endothelial cells through activation of Notch signaling. Lentiviral-mediated delivery of Sema6A small hairpin RNA (shRNA) abrogates the defective retinal revascularization in Nrf2-deficient mice. Importantly, pharmacologic Nrf2 activation promotes reparative angiogenesis and suppresses pathologic neovascularization. Our findings reveal a unique function of Nrf2 in reprogramming ischemic tissue toward neurovascular repair via Sema6A regulation

  3. The siRNA-Mediated Down-Regulation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor1

    PubMed Central

    Jafari Sani, Moslem; Yazdi, Foad; Masoomi Karimi, Masoomeh; Alizadeh, Javad; Rahmati, Majid; Zarei Mahmudabadi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background Angiogenesis is an important biological process involved in the proliferation of endothelial cells, tumor growth and metastasis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is considered as a prominent regulator of angiogenesis which exerts the aforementioned effect(s) through its respective receptors (VEGFR1 and VEGFR2). VEGF receptors are targeted as a therapeutic candidate for cancer growth inhibition. RNAi as a new and promising strategy has provided a useful means to specifically suppress gene expression in cancer cells. Objectives The current study aimed to down-regulate expression of the VEGFR1 using siRNA. Materials and Methods This experimental study designed specific siRNAs against VEGFR1. Total RNA was extracted from human umbilical vain endothelial cell (HUVEC) and subsequently cDNA was synthetized. PCR was performed using specific primers to amplify the target gene. After double digestion and purification, the gene was cloned into pEFGP-N1 expression vector. Then, AGS cells were transfected with recombinant pEGFP-N1 using lipofectamin. The gene expression and down-regulation were evaluated by fluorescence scanning, reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blot techniques. Results Fluorescent scanning, RT-PCR (27.68%) and western blot analysis (31.06%) showed that the expression of VEGFR1 was suppressed effectively. Conclusions The results of the current study showed that specifically designed siRNA can be considered as an appropriate strategy to suppress gene expression and might be a promising tool to prevent angiogenesis. PMID:27275397

  4. Occludin S490 Phosphorylation Regulates Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-Induced Retinal Neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuwen; Dreffs, Alyssa; Díaz-Coránguez, Monica; Runkle, E Aaron; Gardner, Thomas W; Chiodo, Vince A; Hauswirth, William W; Antonetti, David A

    2016-09-01

    Occludin is a transmembrane tight junction protein that contributes to diverse cellular functions, including control of barrier properties, cell migration, and proliferation. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induces phosphorylation of occludin at S490, which is required for VEGF-induced endothelial permeability. Herein, we demonstrate that occludin S490 phosphorylation also regulates VEGF-induced retinal endothelial cell proliferation and neovascularization. Using a specific antibody, phospho-occludin was located in centrosomes in endothelial cell cultures, animal models, and human surgical samples of retinal neovessels. Occludin S490 phosphorylation was found to increase with endothelial tube formation in vitro and in vivo during retinal neovascularization after induction of VEGF expression. More important, expression of occludin mutated at S490 to Ala, completely inhibited angiogenesis in cell culture models and in vivo. Collectively, these data suggest a novel role for occludin in regulation of endothelial proliferation and angiogenesis in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. These findings may lead to methods of regulating pathological neovascularization by specifically targeting endothelial cell proliferation. PMID:27423695

  5. Neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein regulates TGF-β1-mediated lung vascular permeability.

    PubMed

    Wagener, Brant M; Hu, Meng; Zheng, Anni; Zhao, Xueke; Che, Pulin; Brandon, Angela; Anjum, Naseem; Snapper, Scott; Creighton, Judy; Guan, Jun-Lin; Han, Qimei; Cai, Guo-Qiang; Han, Xiaosi; Pittet, Jean-Francois; Ding, Qiang

    2016-07-01

    TGF-β1 induces an increase in paracellular permeability and actin stress fiber formation in lung microvascular endothelial and alveolar epithelial cells via small Rho GTPase. The molecular mechanism involved is not fully understood. Neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP) has an essential role in actin structure dynamics. We hypothesized that N-WASP plays a critical role in these TGF-β1-induced responses. In these cell monolayers, we demonstrated that N-WASP down-regulation by short hairpin RNA prevented TGF-β1-mediated disruption of the cortical actin structure, actin stress filament formation, and increased permeability. Furthermore, N-WASP down-regulation blocked TGF-β1 activation mediated by IL-1β in alveolar epithelial cells, which requires actin stress fiber formation. Control short hairpin RNA had no effect on these TGF-β1-induced responses. TGF-β1-induced phosphorylation of Y256 of N-WASP via activation of small Rho GTPase and focal adhesion kinase mediates TGF-β1-induced paracellular permeability and actin cytoskeleton dynamics. In vivo, compared with controls, N-WASP down-regulation increases survival and prevents lung edema in mice induced by bleomycin exposure-a lung injury model in which TGF-β1 plays a critical role. Our data indicate that N-WASP plays a crucial role in the development of TGF-β1-mediated acute lung injury by promoting pulmonary edema via regulation of actin cytoskeleton dynamics.-Wagener, B. M., Hu, M., Zheng, A., Zhao, X., Che, P., Brandon, A., Anjum, N., Snapper, S., Creighton, J., Guan, J.-L., Han, Q., Cai, G.-Q., Han, X., Pittet, J.-F., Ding, Q. Neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein regulates TGF-β1-mediated lung vascular permeability. PMID:27025963

  6. S-glutathionylation uncouples eNOS and regulates its cellular and vascular function

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chun-An; Wang, Tse-Yao; Varadharaj, Saradhadevi; Reyes, Levy A.; Hemann, Craig; Hassan Talukder, M. A.; Chen, Yeong-Renn; Druhan, Lawrence J.; Zweier, Jay L.

    2012-01-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is critical in the regulation of vascular function, and can generate both nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide (O2•−), which are key mediators of cellular signalling. In the presence of Ca2+/calmodulin, eNOS produces NO, endothelial-derived relaxing factor, from L-arginine (L-Arg) by means of electron transfer from NADPH through a flavin containing reductase domain to oxygen bound at the haem of an oxygenase domain, which also contains binding sites for tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) and L-Arg1–3. In the absence of BH4, NO synthesis is abrogated and instead O2•− is generated4–7. While NOS dysfunction occurs in diseases with redox stress, BH4 repletion only partly restores NOS activity and NOS-dependent vasodilation7. This suggests that there is an as yet unidentified redox-regulated mechanism controlling NOS function. Protein thiols can undergo S-glutathionylation, a reversible protein modification involved in cellular signalling and adaptation8,9. Under oxidative stress, S-glutathionylation occurs through thiol–disulphide exchange with oxidized glutathione or reaction of oxidant-induced protein thiyl radicals with reduced glutathione10,11. Cysteine residues are critical for the maintenance of eNOS function12,13; we therefore speculated that oxidative stress could alter eNOS activity through S-glutathionylation. Here we show that S-glutathionylation of eNOS reversibly decreases NOS activity with an increase in O2•− generation primarily from the reductase, in which two highly conserved cysteine residues are identified as sites of S-glutathionylation and found to be critical for redox-regulation of eNOS function. We show that eNOS S-glutathionylation in endothelial cells, with loss of NO and gain of O2•− generation, is associated with impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation. In hypertensive vessels, eNOS S-glutathionylation is increased with impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation that is restored by thiol

  7. p53 and rapamycin are additive

    PubMed Central

    Campisi, Judith; Huang, Jing; Jones, Diane; Dodds, Sherry G.; Williams, Charnae; Hubbard, Gene; Livi, Carolina B.; Gao, Xiaoli; Weintraub, Susan; Curiel, Tyler; Sharp, Z. Dave; Hasty, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a kinase found in a complex (mTORC1) that enables macromolecular synthesis and cell growth and is implicated in cancer etiology. The rapamycin-FK506 binding protein 12 (FKBP12) complex allosterically inhibits mTORC1. In response to stress, p53 inhibits mTORC1 through a separate pathway involving cell signaling and amino acid sensing. Thus, these different mechanisms could be additive. Here we show that p53 improved the ability of rapamycin to: 1) extend mouse life span, 2) suppress ionizing radiation (IR)-induced senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) and 3) increase the levels of amino acids and citric acid in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. This additive effect could have implications for cancer treatment since rapamycin and p53 are anti-oncogenic. PMID:26158292

  8. Chronic rapamycin treatment on the nutrient utilization and metabolism of juvenile turbot (Psetta maxima)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qingchao; He, Gen; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Zhou, Huihui; Wang, Xuan; Mei, Lin

    2016-01-01

    High dietary protein inclusion is necessary in fish feeds and also represents a major cost in the aquaculture industry, which demands improved dietary conversion into body proteins in fish. In mammals, the target of rapamycin (TOR) is a key nutritionally responsive molecule governing postprandial anabolism. However, its physiological significance in teleosts has not been fully examined. In the present study, we examined the nutritional physiology of turbot after chronic rapamycin inhibition. Our results showed that a 6-week inhibition of TOR using dietary rapamycin inclusion (30 mg/kg diet) reduced growth performance and feed utilization. The rapamycin treatment inhibited TOR signaling and reduced expression of key enzymes in glycolysis, lipogenesis, cholesterol biosynthesis, while increasing the expression of enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis. Furthermore, rapamycin treatment increased intestinal goblet cell number in turbot, while the expressions of Notch and Hes1 were down regulated. It was possible that stimulated goblet cell differentiation by rapamycin was mediated through Notch-Hes1 pathway. Therefore, our results demonstrate the important role of TOR signaling in fish nutritional physiology. PMID:27305975

  9. Chronic rapamycin treatment on the nutrient utilization and metabolism of juvenile turbot (Psetta maxima).

    PubMed

    Wang, Qingchao; He, Gen; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Zhou, Huihui; Wang, Xuan; Mei, Lin

    2016-01-01

    High dietary protein inclusion is necessary in fish feeds and also represents a major cost in the aquaculture industry, which demands improved dietary conversion into body proteins in fish. In mammals, the target of rapamycin (TOR) is a key nutritionally responsive molecule governing postprandial anabolism. However, its physiological significance in teleosts has not been fully examined. In the present study, we examined the nutritional physiology of turbot after chronic rapamycin inhibition. Our results showed that a 6-week inhibition of TOR using dietary rapamycin inclusion (30 mg/kg diet) reduced growth performance and feed utilization. The rapamycin treatment inhibited TOR signaling and reduced expression of key enzymes in glycolysis, lipogenesis, cholesterol biosynthesis, while increasing the expression of enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis. Furthermore, rapamycin treatment increased intestinal goblet cell number in turbot, while the expressions of Notch and Hes1 were down regulated. It was possible that stimulated goblet cell differentiation by rapamycin was mediated through Notch-Hes1 pathway. Therefore, our results demonstrate the important role of TOR signaling in fish nutritional physiology. PMID:27305975

  10. Rapamycin Impairs Antitumor CD8+ T-cell Responses and Vaccine-Induced Tumor Eradication.

    PubMed

    Chaoul, Nada; Fayolle, Catherine; Desrues, Belinda; Oberkampf, Marine; Tang, Alexandre; Ladant, Daniel; Leclerc, Claude

    2015-08-15

    The metabolic sensor mTOR broadly regulates cell growth and division in cancer cells, leading to a significant focus on studies of rapamycin and its analogues as candidate anticancer drugs. However, mTOR inhibitors have failed to produce useful clinical efficacy, potentially because mTOR is also critical in T cells implicated in immunosurveillance. Indeed, recent studies using rapamycin have demonstrated the important role of mTOR in differentiation and induction of the CD8+ memory in T-cell responses associated with antitumor properties. In this study, we demonstrate that rapamycin harms antitumor immune responses mediated by T cells in the setting of cancer vaccine therapy. Specifically, we analyzed how rapamycin affects the antitumor efficacy of a human papilloma virus E7 peptide vaccine (CyaA-E7) capable of eradicating tumors in the TC-1 mouse model of cervical cancer. In animals vaccinated with CyaA-E7, rapamycin administration completely abolished recruitment of CD8+ T cells into TC-1 tumors along with the ability of the vaccine to reduce infiltration of T regulatory cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Moreover, rapamycin completely abolished vaccine-induced cytotoxic T-cell responses and therapeutic activity. Taken together, our results demonstrate the powerful effects of mTOR inhibition in abolishing T-cell-mediated antitumor immune responses essential for the therapeutic efficacy of cancer vaccines. PMID:26122844

  11. Rapamycin-mediated CD36 translational suppression contributes to alleviation of hepatic steatosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuan; Yan, Yong; Hu, Lin; Zhao, Lei; Yang, Ping; Moorhead, John F; Varghese, Zac; Chen, Yaxi; Ruan, Xiong Z

    2014-04-25

    Rapamycin, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-specific inhibitor, has the effect of anti-lipid deposition on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but the mechanisms with which rapamycin alleviates hepatic steatosis are not fully disclosed. CD36 is known to facilitate long-chain fatty acid uptake and contribute to NAFLD progression. Hepatic CD36 expression is closely associated with hepatic steatosis, while mTOR pathway is involved in CD36 translational control. This study was undertaken to investigate whether rapamycin alleviates hepatic steatosis via the inhibition of mTOR pathway-dependent CD36 translation. Human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells were treated with palmitate and C57BL/6J mice were fed with high fat diet (HFD) to induce hepatic steatosis. Hepatic CD36 protein expression was significantly increased with lipid accumulation in palmitate-treated HepG2 cells or HFD-fed C57BL/6J mice. Rapamycin reduced hepatic steatosis and CD36 protein expression, but it had no influence on CD36 mRNA expression. Rapamycin had no effect on CD36 protein stability, but it significantly decreased CD36 translational efficiency. We further confirmed that rapamycin inhibited the phosphorylation of mTOR and its downstream translational regulators including p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K), eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E). This study demonstrates that rapamycin inhibits hepatic CD36 translational efficiency through the mTOR pathway, resulting in reduction of CD36 protein expression and alleviation of hepatic steatosis. PMID:24685479

  12. Down-regulation of endothelin binding sites in rat vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Roubert, P.; Gillard, V.; Plas, P.; Chabrier, P.E.; Braquet, P. )

    1990-04-01

    In cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells, ({sup 125}I)endothelin (ET-1) bound to an apparent single class of high affinity recognition sites with a dissociation constant of 1.84 +/- 0.29 nmol/L and a maximum binding of 62 +/- 10.5 fmol/10(6) cells. The binding was not affected by calcium antagonists or vasoactive substances, including angiotensin II, arginine vasopressin, atrial natriuretic factor and bradykinin. Exposure of the cells to ET-1 (0.01 nmol/L to 10 nmol/L) resulted in an apparent dose-dependent reduction of the number of endothelin binding sites with no significant modification of its binding affinity. The time course of the down-regulation of ET-1 binding sites showed that this effect was present after 30 min incubation and persisted after 18 h. This indicates that down-regulation of ET-1 binding sites can modulate the activity of ET-1 and suggests a rapid internalization of ET-1 in vascular cells.

  13. Regulation of ERK5 by insulin and angiotensin-II in vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Girish; Goalstone, Marc Lee; E-mail: Marc.Goalstone@uchsc.edu

    2007-03-23

    ERK5 is involved in proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). The proliferative actions of insulin and angiotensin-II (A-II) in VSMC are mediated in part by ERK1/2. We hypothesized that insulin and A-II also regulate ERK5 activity in VSMC. Acute treatment (<60 min) with insulin or A-II increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 at 15 min and ERK5 at 5 min. Chronic treatment ({<=}8 h) with insulin increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation by 4 h and ERK5 by 8 h. A-II-stimulated phosphorylation of ERK1/2 by 8 h and ERK5 by 4 h. The EC{sub 50} for insulin treatment effecting ERK1/2 and ERK5 phosphorylation was 1.5 and 0.1 nM, whereas the EC{sub 50} for A-II was 2 nM, each. Insulin plus A-II induced an additive effect only on ERK5 phosphorylation. Inhibition of insulin- and A-II-stimulated phosphorylation of ERK5 and ERK1/2 by PD98059 and Wortmannin exhibited differential and time-dependent effects. Taken together, these data indicate that insulin and A-II regulate the activity of ERK5, but different from that seen for ERK1/2.

  14. Molecular Pathways Regulating Macrovascular Pathology and Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Phenotype in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Casella, Sara; Bielli, Alessandra; Mauriello, Alessandro; Orlandi, Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a disease reaching a pandemic proportion in developed countries and a major risk factor for almost all cardiovascular diseases and their adverse clinical manifestations. T2DM leads to several macrovascular and microvascular alterations that influence the progression of cardiovascular diseases. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are fundamental players in macrovascular alterations of T2DM patients. VSMCs display phenotypic and functional alterations that reflect an altered intracellular biomolecular scenario of great vessels of T2DM patients. Hyperglycemia itself and through intraparietal accumulation of advanced glycation-end products (AGEs) activate different pathways, in particular nuclear factor-κB and MAPKs, while insulin and insulin growth-factor receptors (IGFR) are implicated in the activation of Akt and extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2. Nuclear factor-κB is also responsible of increased susceptibility of VSMCs to pro-apoptotic stimuli. Down-regulation of insulin growth-factor 1 receptors (IGFR-1R) activity in diabetic vessels also influences negatively miR-133a levels, so increasing apoptotic susceptibility of VSMCs. Alterations of those bimolecular pathways and related genes associate to the prevalence of a synthetic phenotype of VSMCs induces extracellular matrix alterations of great vessels. A better knowledge of those biomolecular pathways and related genes in VSMCs will help to understand the mechanisms leading to macrovascular alterations in T2DM patients and to suggest new targeted therapies. PMID:26473856

  15. Acetylbritannilactone Modulates Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Signaling and Regulates Angiogenesis in Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jingshan; Niu, Honglin; Li, Aiying; Nie, Lei

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the effects of 1-O-acetylbritannilactone (ABL), a compound extracted from Inula britannica L., on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling and angiogenesis in endothelial cells (ECs). We showed that ABL promotes VEGF-induced cell proliferation, growth, migration, and tube formation in cultured human ECs. Furthermore, the modulatory effect of ABL on VEGF-induced Akt, MAPK p42/44, and p38 phosphorylation, as well as on upstream VEGFR-2 phosphorylation, were associated with VEGF-dependent Matrigel angiogenesis in vivo. In addition, animals treated with ABL (26 mg/kg/day) recovered blood flow significantly earlier than control animals, suggesting that ABL affects ischemia-mediated angiogenesis and arteriogenesis in vivo. Finally, we demonstrated that ABL strongly reduced the levels of VEGFR-2 on the cell surface, enhanced VEGFR-2 endocytosis, which consistent with inhibited VE-cadherin, a negative regulator of VEGF signaling associated with VEGFR-2 complex formation, but did not alter VE-cadherin or VEGFR-2 expression in ECs. Our results suggest that ABL may serve as a novel therapeutic intervention for various cardiovascular diseases, including chronic ischemia, by regulating VEGF signaling and modulating angiogenesis. PMID:26863518

  16. Effect of surface chemistry on the integrin induced pathway in regulating vascular endothelial cells migration.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yang; Gao, Min; Ma, Yunlong; Yu, Hongchi; Cui, Fu-zhai; Gregersen, Hans; Yu, Qingsong; Wang, Guixue; Liu, Xiaoheng

    2015-02-01

    The migration of vascular endothelial cells (ECs) is essential for reendothelialization after implantation of cardiovascular biomaterials. Reendothelialization is largely determined by surface properties of implants. In this study, surfaces modified with various chemical functional groups (CH3, NH2, COOH, OH) prepared by self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) were used as model system. Expressions and distributions of critical proteins in the integrin-induced signaling pathway were examined to explore the mechanisms of surface chemistry regulating EC migration. The results showed that SAMs modulated cell migration were in the order CH3>NH2>OH>COOH, determined by differences in the expressions of focal adhesion components and Rho GTPases. Multiple integrin subunits showed difference in a surface chemistry-dependent manner, which induced a stepwise activation of signaling cascades associated with EC migration. This work provides a broad overview of surface chemistry regulated endothelial cell migration and establishes association among the surface chemistry, cell migration behavior and associated integrin signaling events. Understanding the relationship between these factors will help us to understand the surface/interface behavior between biomaterials and cells, reveal molecular mechanism of cells sensing surface characterization, and guide surface modification of cardiovascular implanted materials. PMID:25575348

  17. Neutrophil AKT2 regulates heterotypic cell-cell interactions during vascular inflammation.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Kim, Kyungho; Hahm, Eunsil; Molokie, Robert; Hay, Nissim; Gordeuk, Victor R; Du, Xiaoping; Cho, Jaehyung

    2014-04-01

    Interactions between platelets, leukocytes, and activated endothelial cells are important during microvascular occlusion; however, the regulatory mechanisms of these heterotypic cell-cell interactions remain unclear. Here, using intravital microscopy to evaluate mice lacking specific isoforms of the serine/threonine kinase AKT and bone marrow chimeras, we found that hematopoietic cell-associated AKT2 is important for neutrophil adhesion and crawling and neutrophil-platelet interactions on activated endothelial cells during TNF-α-induced venular inflammation. Studies with an AKT2-specific inhibitor and cells isolated from WT and Akt KO mice revealed that platelet- and neutrophil-associated AKT2 regulates heterotypic neutrophil-platelet aggregation under shear conditions. In particular, neutrophil AKT2 was critical for membrane translocation of αMβ2 integrin, β2-talin1 interaction, and intracellular Ca2+ mobilization. We found that the basal phosphorylation levels of AKT isoforms were markedly increased in neutrophils and platelets isolated from patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), an inherited hematological disorder associated with vascular inflammation and occlusion. AKT2 inhibition reduced heterotypic aggregation of neutrophils and platelets isolated from SCD patients and diminished neutrophil adhesion and neutrophil-platelet aggregation in SCD mice, thereby improving blood flow rates. Our results provide evidence that neutrophil AKT2 regulates αMβ2 integrin function and suggest that AKT2 is important for neutrophil recruitment and neutrophil-platelet interactions under thromboinflammatory conditions such as SCD. PMID:24642468

  18. CHD4-regulated plasmin activation impacts lymphovenous hemostasis and hepatic vascular integrity.

    PubMed

    Crosswhite, Patrick L; Podsiadlowska, Joanna J; Curtis, Carol D; Gao, Siqi; Xia, Lijun; Srinivasan, R Sathish; Griffin, Courtney T

    2016-06-01

    The chromatin-remodeling enzyme CHD4 maintains vascular integrity at mid-gestation; however, it is unknown whether this enzyme contributes to later blood vessel or lymphatic vessel development. Here, we addressed this issue in mice harboring a deletion of Chd4 specifically in cells that express lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE1), which include lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells. Chd4 mutant embryos died before birth and exhibited severe edema, blood-filled lymphatics, and liver hemorrhage. CHD4-deficient embryos developed normal lymphovenous (LV) valves, which regulate the return of lymph to the blood circulation; however, these valves lacked the fibrin-rich thrombi that prevent blood from entering the lymphatic system. Transcripts of the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), which facilitates activation of the fibrin-degrading protease plasmin, were upregulated in Chd4 mutant LYVE1+ cells, and plasmin activity was elevated near the LV valves. Genetic reduction of the uPAR ligand urokinase prevented degradation of fibrin-rich thrombi at the LV valves and largely resolved the blood-filled lymphatics in Chd4 mutants. Urokinase reduction also ameliorated liver hemorrhage and prolonged embryonic survival by reducing plasmin-mediated extracellular matrix degradation around sinusoidal blood vessels. These results highlight the susceptibility of LV thrombi and liver sinusoidal vessels to plasmin-mediated damage and demonstrate the importance of CHD4 in regulating embryonic plasmin activation after mid-gestation. PMID:27140400

  19. CHD4-regulated plasmin activation impacts lymphovenous hemostasis and hepatic vascular integrity

    PubMed Central

    Crosswhite, Patrick L.; Podsiadlowska, Joanna J.; Curtis, Carol D.; Gao, Siqi; Srinivasan, R. Sathish; Griffin, Courtney T.

    2016-01-01

    The chromatin-remodeling enzyme CHD4 maintains vascular integrity at mid-gestation; however, it is unknown whether this enzyme contributes to later blood vessel or lymphatic vessel development. Here, we addressed this issue in mice harboring a deletion of Chd4 specifically in cells that express lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE1), which include lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells. Chd4 mutant embryos died before birth and exhibited severe edema, blood-filled lymphatics, and liver hemorrhage. CHD4-deficient embryos developed normal lymphovenous (LV) valves, which regulate the return of lymph to the blood circulation; however, these valves lacked the fibrin-rich thrombi that prevent blood from entering the lymphatic system. Transcripts of the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), which facilitates activation of the fibrin-degrading protease plasmin, were upregulated in Chd4 mutant LYVE1+ cells, and plasmin activity was elevated near the LV valves. Genetic reduction of the uPAR ligand urokinase prevented degradation of fibrin-rich thrombi at the LV valves and largely resolved the blood-filled lymphatics in Chd4 mutants. Urokinase reduction also ameliorated liver hemorrhage and prolonged embryonic survival by reducing plasmin-mediated extracellular matrix degradation around sinusoidal blood vessels. These results highlight the susceptibility of LV thrombi and liver sinusoidal vessels to plasmin-mediated damage and demonstrate the importance of CHD4 in regulating embryonic plasmin activation after mid-gestation. PMID:27140400

  20. Proper gibberellin localization in vascular tissue is required to regulate adventitious root development in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Niu, Shihui; Li, Zhexin; Yuan, Huwei; Fang, Pan; Chen, Xiaoyang; Li, Wei

    2013-08-01

    Bioactive gibberellins (GAs) are involved in many developmental aspects of the life cycle of plants, acting either directly or through interaction with other hormones. Accumulating evidence suggests that GAs have an important effect on root growth; however, there is currently little information on the specific regulatory mechanism of GAs during adventitious root development. A study was conducted on tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants for altered rates of biosynthesis, catabolism, and GA signalling constitutively or in specific tissues using a transgenic approach. In the present study, PtGA20ox, PtGA2ox1, and PtGAI were overexpressed under the control of the 35S promoter, vascular cambium-specific promoter (LMX5), or root meristem-specific promoter (TobRB7), respectively. Evidence is provided that the precise localization of bioactive GA in the stem but not in the roots is required to regulate adventitious root development in tobacco. High levels of GA negatively regulate the early initiation step of root formation through interactions with auxin, while a proper and mobile GA signal is required for the emergence and subsequent long-term elongation of established primordia. The results demonstrated that GAs have an inhibitory effect on adventitious root formation but a stimulatory effect on root elongation. PMID:23918971

  1. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) isoform regulation of early forebrain development

    PubMed Central

    Darland, Diane C.; Cain, Jacob T.; Berosik, Matthew A.; Saint-Geniez, Magali; Odens, Patrick W.; Schaubhut, Geoffrey J.; Frisch, Sarah; Stemmer-Rachamimov, Anat; Darland, Tristan; D’Amore, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    This work was designed to determine the role of the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF) isoforms during early neuroepithelial development in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS), specifically in the forebrain. An emerging model of interdependence between neural and vascular systems includes VEGF, with its dual roles as a potent angiogenesis factor and neural regulator. Although a number of studies have implicated VEGF in CNS development, little is known about the role that the different VEGF isoforms play in early neurogenesis. We used a mouse model of disrupted VEGF isoform expression that eliminates the predominant brain isoform, VEGF164, and expresses only the diffusible form, VEGF120. We tested the hypothesis that VEGF164 plays a key role in controlling neural precursor populations in developing cortex. We used microarray analysis to compare gene expression differences between wild type and VEGF120 mice at E9.5, the primitive stem cell stage of the neuroepithelium. We quantified changes in PHH3-positive nuclei, neural stem cell markers (Pax6 and nestin) and the Tbr2-positive intermediate progenitors at E11.5 when the neural precursor population is expanding rapidly. Absence of VEGF164 (and VEGF188) leads to reduced proliferation without an apparent effect on the number of Tbr2-positive cells. There is a corresponding reduction in the number of mitotic spindles that are oriented parallel to the ventricular surface relative to those with a vertical or oblique angle. These results support a role for the VEGF isoforms in supporting the neural precursor population of the early neuroepithelium. PMID:21803034

  2. The vascular Ca2+-sensing receptor regulates blood vessel tone and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Schepelmann, M; Yarova, P L; Lopez-Fernandez, I; Davies, T S; Brennan, S C; Edwards, P J; Aggarwal, A; Graça, J; Rietdorf, K; Matchkov, V; Fenton, R A; Chang, W; Krssak, M; Stewart, A; Broadley, K J; Ward, D T; Price, S A; Edwards, D H; Kemp, P J; Riccardi, D

    2016-02-01

    The extracellular calcium-sensing receptor CaSR is expressed in blood vessels where its role is not completely understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the CaSR expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) is directly involved in regulation of blood pressure and blood vessel tone. Mice with targeted CaSR gene ablation from vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) were generated by breeding exon 7 LoxP-CaSR mice with animals in which Cre recombinase is driven by a SM22α promoter (SM22α-Cre). Wire myography performed on Cre-negative [wild-type (WT)] and Cre-positive (SM22α)CaSR(Δflox/Δflox) [knockout (KO)] mice showed an endothelium-independent reduction in aorta and mesenteric artery contractility of KO compared with WT mice in response to KCl and to phenylephrine. Increasing extracellular calcium ion (Ca(2+)) concentrations (1-5 mM) evoked contraction in WT but only relaxation in KO aortas. Accordingly, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressures of KO animals were significantly reduced compared with WT, as measured by both tail cuff and radiotelemetry. This hypotension was mostly pronounced during the animals' active phase and was not rescued by either nitric oxide-synthase inhibition with nitro-l-arginine methyl ester or by a high-salt-supplemented diet. KO animals also exhibited cardiac remodeling, bradycardia, and reduced spontaneous activity in isolated hearts and cardiomyocyte-like cells. Our findings demonstrate a role for CaSR in the cardiovascular system and suggest that physiologically relevant changes in extracellular Ca(2+) concentrations could contribute to setting blood vessel tone levels and heart rate by directly acting on the cardiovascular CaSR. PMID:26538090

  3. Vascular Endothelial Function and Blood Pressure Regulation in Afferent Autonomic Failure

    PubMed Central

    Jelani, Qurat-ul-ain; Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Lucy; Kaufmann, Horacio

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Familial dysautonomia (FD) is a rare hereditary disease characterized by loss of afferent autonomic neural fiber signaling and consequent profound impairment of arterial baroreflex function and blood pressure regulation. Whether vascular endothelial dysfunction contributes to defective vasomotor control in this form of afferent autonomic failure is not known. METHODS We assessed blood pressure response to orthostatic stress and vascular endothelial function with brachial artery reactivity testing in 34 FD subjects with afferent autonomic failure and 34 healthy control subjects. RESULTS Forty-four percent of the afferent autonomic failure subjects had uncontrolled hypertension at supine rest (median systolic blood pressure = 148mm Hg, interquartile range (IQR) = 144–155mm Hg; median diastolic blood pressure = 83mm Hg, IQR = 78–105mm Hg), and 88% had abnormal response to orthostatic stress (median decrease in systolic blood pressure after upright tilt = 48mm Hg, IQR = 29–61mm Hg). Flow-mediated brachial artery reactivity did not differ in subjects with afferent autonomic failure vs. healthy control subjects (median = 6.00%, IQR = 1.86–11.77%; vs. median = 6.27%, IQR = 4.65–9.34%; P = 0.75). In afferent autonomic failure subjects, brachial artery reactivity was not associated with resting blood pressure or the magnitude of orthostatic hypotension but was decreased in association with reduced glomerular filtration rate (r = 0.62; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Brachial artery reactivity was preserved in subjects with afferent autonomic failure despite the presence of marked blood pressure dysregulation. Comorbid renal dysfunction was associated with reduced brachial artery reactivity. PMID:25128693

  4. Perivascular tissue mediated relaxation - a novel player in human vascular tone regulation.

    PubMed

    Deja, M A; Malinowski, M; Golba, K S; Piekarska, M; Wos, S

    2015-12-01

    Perivascular tissue (PVT) modulates vascular tone, releasing adventitia/adipocyte derived relaxing factor (ADRF). Its physiological role remains unclear. We studied isolated internal thoracic artery (ITA) segments obtained from 132 patients subjected to coronary artery bypass grafting. The vessels were skeletonized in vitro and the ITA rings and PVT were incubated in separate isolated organ baths. Skeletonized ITA segments were first precontracted with 10(-5.5)mol/L 5-hydroxytryptamine hydrochloride. The PVT was next transferred to the ITA tissue bath. This resulted in relaxation of ITA, presumably related to ADRF release from PVT which was floating freely in the tissue bath. The in-vitro relaxation responses were then correlated to patients' characteristics - including demographics, clinical and laboratory data, as well as therapy. Perivascular tissue transfer resulted in 49.7 ± 26.2% relaxation of precontracted ITA segments. In multiple linear regression modelling, the relaxation of ITAto PVT was negatively related to patient age (β = -0.67; 95% CI -1.17 - -0.17; P = 0.009), symptoms of CCS class 4 angina (β = -20.11; 95%CI -32.25 - -7.97; P = 0.001), and positively to body mass (β = 0.37; 95%CI 0.08 - 0.67; P = 0.01) and lack of heart failure symptoms (NYHA class 1) (β = 9.06; 95%CI 0.33 - 17.79; P = 0.04). The relaxation response to PVT was not related to patients' sex, diabetes, hypertension, lipid profile or therapy in both univariate and multivariate analysis. PVT might play an important role in regulating vascular tone in humans as exemplified by its changing physiological function with age and in atherosclerosis. PMID:26769833

  5. Phosphorylation of GATA-6 is required for vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation after mTORC1 inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yi; Jin, Yu; Merenick, Bethany L.; Ding, Min; Fetalvero, Kristina M.; Wagner, Robert J.; Mai, Alice; Gleim, Scott; Tucker, David; Birnbaum, Morris J.; Ballif, Bryan A.; Luciano, Amelia K.; Sessa, William C.; Rzucidlo, Eva M.; Powell, Richard J.; Hou, Lin; Zhao, Hongyu; Hwa, John; Yu, Jun; Martin, Kathleen A.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) undergo transcriptionally regulated reversible differentiation in growing and injured blood vessels. This de-differentiation also contributes to VSMC hyperplasia following vascular injury, including that caused by angioplasty and stenting. Stents provide mechanical support and can contain and release rapamycin, an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Rapamycin suppresses VSMC hyperplasia and promotes VSMC differentiation. We report that rapamycin-induced differentiation of VSMCs required the transcription factor GATA-6. Inhibition of mTORC1 stabilized GATA-6 and promoted the nuclear accumulation of GATA-6, its binding to DNA, and its transactivation of promoters encoding contractile proteins and inhibitors of proliferation. These effects were mediated by phosphorylation of GATA-6 at Ser290, potentially by Akt2, a kinase that is activated in VSMCs when mTORC1 is inhibited. Rapamycin induced phosphorylation of GATA-6 in wild-type mice, but not in Akt2−/− mice. Intimal hyperplasia after arterial injury was greater in Akt2−/− mice than in wild-type mice, and the exacerbated response in Akt2−/− mice was rescued to a greater extent by local overexpression of the wild-type or phosphomimetic (S290D) mutant GATA-6 than by that of the phosphorylation-deficient (S290A) mutant. Our data indicated that GATA-6 and Akt2 are involved in the mTORC1-mediated regulation of VSMC proliferation and differentiation. Identifying the downstream transcriptional targets of mTORC1 may provide cell type-specific drug targets to combat cardiovascular diseases associated with excessive proliferation of VSMCs. PMID:25969542

  6. Phosphorylation of GATA-6 is required for vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation after mTORC1 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yi; Jin, Yu; Merenick, Bethany L; Ding, Min; Fetalvero, Kristina M; Wagner, Robert J; Mai, Alice; Gleim, Scott; Tucker, David F; Birnbaum, Morris J; Ballif, Bryan A; Luciano, Amelia K; Sessa, William C; Rzucidlo, Eva M; Powell, Richard J; Hou, Lin; Zhao, Hongyu; Hwa, John; Yu, Jun; Martin, Kathleen A

    2015-05-12

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) undergo transcriptionally regulated reversible differentiation in growing and injured blood vessels. This dedifferentiation also contributes to VSMC hyperplasia after vascular injury, including that caused by angioplasty and stenting. Stents provide mechanical support and can contain and release rapamycin, an inhibitor of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Rapamycin suppresses VSMC hyperplasia and promotes VSMC differentiation. We report that rapamycin-induced differentiation of VSMCs required the transcription factor GATA-6. Inhibition of mTORC1 stabilized GATA-6 and promoted the nuclear accumulation of GATA-6, its binding to DNA, its transactivation of promoters encoding contractile proteins, and its inhibition of proliferation. These effects were mediated by phosphorylation of GATA-6 at Ser(290), potentially by Akt2, a kinase that is activated in VSMCs when mTORC1 is inhibited. Rapamycin induced phosphorylation of GATA-6 in wild-type mice, but not in Akt2(-/-) mice. Intimal hyperplasia after arterial injury was greater in Akt2(-/-) mice than in wild-type mice, and the exacerbated response in Akt2(-/-) mice was rescued to a greater extent by local overexpression of the wild-type or phosphomimetic (S290D) mutant GATA-6 than by that of the phosphorylation-deficient (S290A) mutant. Our data indicated that GATA-6 and Akt2 are involved in the mTORC1-mediated regulation of VSMC proliferation and differentiation. Identifying the downstream transcriptional targets of mTORC1 may provide cell type-specific drug targets to combat cardiovascular diseases associated with excessive proliferation of VSMCs. PMID:25969542

  7. MicroRNAs 29b, 133b, and 211 Regulate Vascular Smooth Muscle Calcification Mediated by High Phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Panizo, Sara; Naves-Díaz, Manuel; Carrillo-López, Natalia; Martínez-Arias, Laura; Fernández-Martín, José Luis; Ruiz-Torres, María Piedad; Cannata-Andía, Jorge B; Rodríguez, Isabel

    2016-03-01

    Vascular calcification is a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with CKD and the general population. The common association between vascular calcification and osteoporosis suggests a link between bone and vascular disorders. Because microRNAs (miRs) are involved in the transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells into osteoblast-like cells, we investigated whether miRs implicated in osteoblast differentiation and bone formation are involved in vascular calcification. Different levels of uremia, hyperphosphatemia, and aortic calcification were induced by feeding nephrectomized rats a normal or high-phosphorus diet for 12 or 20 weeks, at which times the levels of eight miRs (miR-29b, miR-125, miR-133b, miR-135, miR-141, miR-200a, miR-204, and miR-211) in the aorta were analyzed. Compared with controls and uremic rats fed a normal diet, uremic rats fed a high-phosphorous diet had lower levels of miR-133b and miR-211 and higher levels of miR-29b that correlated respectively with greater expression of osteogenic RUNX2 and with lower expression of several inhibitors of osteoblastic differentiation. Uremia per se mildly reduced miR-133b levels only. Similar results were obtained in two in vitro models of vascular calcification (uremic serum and high-calcium and -phosphorus medium), and experiments using antagomirs and mimics to modify miR-29b, miR-133b, and miR-211 expression levels in these models confirmed that these miRs regulate the calcification process. We conclude that miR-29b, miR-133b, and miR-211 have direct roles in the vascular smooth muscle calcification induced by high phosphorus and may be new therapeutic targets in the management of vascular calcification. PMID:26187577

  8. Vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation depends on caveolin-1-regulated polyamine uptake

    PubMed Central

    Grossi, Mario; Rippe, Catarina; Sathanoori, Ramasri; Swärd, Karl; Forte, Amalia; Erlinge, David; Persson, Lo; Hellstrand, Per; Nilsson, Bengt-Olof

    2014-01-01

    Much evidence highlights the importance of polyamines for VSMC (vascular smooth muscle cell) proliferation and migration. Cav-1 (caveolin-1) was recently reported to regulate polyamine uptake in intestinal epithelial cells. The aim of the present study was to assess the importance of Cav-1 for VSMC polyamine uptake and its impact on cell proliferation and migration. Cav-1 KO (knockout) mouse aortic cells showed increased polyamine uptake and elevated proliferation and migration compared with WT (wild-type) cells. Both Cav-1 KO and WT cells expressed the smooth muscle differentiation markers SM22 and calponin. Cell-cycle phase distribution analysis revealed a higher proportion of Cav-1 KO than WT cells in the S phase. Cav-1 KO cells were hyper-proliferative in the presence but not in the absence of extracellular polyamines, and, moreover, supplementation with exogenous polyamines promoted proliferation in Cav-1 KO but not in WT cells. Expression of the solute carrier transporters Slc7a1 and Slc43a1 was higher in Cav-1 KO than in WT cells. ODC (ornithine decarboxylase) protein and mRNA expression as well as ODC activity were similar in Cav-1 KO and WT cells showing unaltered synthesis of polyamines in Cav-1 KO cells. Cav-1 was reduced in migrating cells in vitro and in carotid lesions in vivo. Our data show that Cav-1 negatively regulates VSMC polyamine uptake and that the proliferative advantage of Cav-1 KO cells is critically dependent on polyamine uptake. We provide proof-of-principle for targeting Cav-1-regulated polyamine uptake as a strategy to fight unwanted VSMC proliferation as observed in restenosis. PMID:25301005

  9. Regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor expression in human colon cancer by interleukin-1β

    PubMed Central

    Akagi, Y; Liu, W; Xie, K; Zebrowski, B; Shaheen, R M; Ellis, L M

    1999-01-01

    Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), an important angiogenic factor in colon cancer, is tightly regulated by factors in the microenvironment. However, specific factors indigenous to the organ microenvironment of colon cancer growth that regulate VEGF expression in human colon cancer are not well defined. We investigated interleukin-1β (IL-1β) induction of VEGF expression in colon cancer cells and the mechanism by which this occurs. HT29 human colon cancer cells were treated with IL-1β for various periods. Induction of VEGF mRNA by IL-1β peaked at 24 h (> fivefold) and returned to baseline by 48 h. SW620 human colon cancer cells also reached a peak induction of VEGF mRNA 24 h after treatment with IL-1β. VEGF was induced at a dose range between 1 and 20 ng ml−1 of IL-1β. IL-1β induction of VEGF was also confirmed at the protein level. To examine the mechanism for VEGF induction by IL-1β, we transiently transfected VEGF promoter-reporter constructs into HT29 cells. IL-1β increased the activity of the VEGF promoter-reporter construct. Pretreatment of HT29 cells with dactinomycin abrogated the induction of VEGF mRNA by IL-1β. The half-life of VEGF mRNA was not prolonged by treatment with IL-1β. These findings suggest that IL-1β regulates VEGF expression in human colon cancer cells by increasing transcription of the VEGF gene. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10408390

  10. Rapamycin interacts synergistically with idarubicin to induce T-leukemia cell apoptosis in vitro and in a mesenchymal stem cell simulated drug-resistant microenvironment via Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin and extracellular signal-related kinase signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kang-Ni; Zhao, Yan-Min; He, Ying; Wang, Bin-Sheng; Du, Kai-Li; Fu, Shan; Hu, Kai-Min; Zhang, Li-Fei; Liu, Li-Zhen; Hu, Yong-Xian; Wang, Ying-Jia; Huang, He

    2014-03-01

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias (T-ALLs) are clonal lymphoid malignancies with a poor prognosis, and still a lack of effective treatment. Here we examined the interactions between the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor rapamycin and idarubicin (IDA) in a series of human T-ALL cell lines Molt-4, Jurkat, CCRF-CEM and CEM/C1. Co-exposure of cells to rapamycin and IDA synergistically induced T-ALL cell growth inhibition and apoptosis mediated by caspase activation via the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway and extrinsic pathway. Combined treatment with rapamycin and IDA down-regulated Bcl-2 and Mcl-1, and inhibited the activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/mTOR and extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK). They also played synergistic pro-apoptotic roles in the drug-resistant microenvironment simulated by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as a feeder layer. In addition, MSCs protected T-ALL cells from IDA cytotoxicity by up-regulating ERK phosphorylation, while rapamycin efficiently reversed this protective effect. Taken together, we confirm the synergistic antitumor effects of rapamycin and IDA, and provide an insight into the potential future clinical applications of combined rapamycin-IDA regimens for treating T-cell malignancies. PMID:23741975

  11. Rapamycin reduces motivated responding for cocaine and alters GluA1 expression in the ventral but not dorsal striatum.

    PubMed

    James, Morgan H; Quinn, Rikki K; Ong, Lin Kooi; Levi, Emily M; Smith, Doug W; Dickson, Phillip W; Dayas, Christopher V

    2016-08-01

    The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) regulates synaptic protein synthesis and therefore synaptic function and plasticity. A role for mTORC1 has recently been demonstrated for addiction-related behaviors. For example, central or intra-accumbal injections of the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin attenuates several indices of cocaine-seeking including progressive ratio (PR) responding and reinstatement. These behavioral effects are associated with decreased mTORC1 activity and synaptic protein translation in the nucleus accumbens (NAC) and point to a possible therapeutic role for rapamycin in the treatment of addiction. Currently, it is unclear whether similar behavioral and biochemical effects can be achieved by administering rapamycin systemically, which represents a more clinically-appropriate route of administration. Here, we assessed the effects of repeated, systemic administration of rapamycin (10mg/kg, i.p.) on PR responding for cocaine. We also assessed whether systemic rapamycin was associated with changes in measures of mTORC1 activity and GluA1 expression in the ventral and dorsal striatum. We report that systemic rapamycin treatment reduced PR breakpoints to levels comparable to intra-NAC rapamycin. Systemic rapamycin treatment also reduced phosphorylated p70S6K and GluA1 AMPARs within the NAC but not dorsal striatum. Thus, systemic administration of rapamycin is as effective at reducing drug seeking behavior and measures of mTORC1 activity compared to direct accumbal application and may therefore represent a possible therapeutic option in the treatment of addiction. Possible caveats of this treatment approach are discussed. PMID:27181066

  12. Regulation and localization of vascular endothelial growth factor within the mammary glands during the transition from late gestation to lactation.

    PubMed

    VanKlompenberg, M K; Manjarín, R; Donovan, C E; Trott, J F; Hovey, R C

    2016-01-01

    The vascular network within the developing mammary gland (MG) grows in concert with the epithelium to prepare for lactation, although the mechanisms coordinating this vascular development are unresolved. Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) mediates angiogenesis and vascular permeability in the MG during pregnancy and lactation, where its expression is upregulated by prolactin. Given our previous finding that late-gestational hyperprolactinemia induced by domperidone (DOM) increased subsequent milk yield from gilts, we sought to establish changes in vascular development during late gestation and lactation in the MGs of these pigs and determine whether DOM altered MG angiogenesis and the factors regulating it. Gilts received either no treatment (n = 6) or DOM (n = 6) during late gestation, then had their MG biopsied from late gestation through lactation to assess microvessel density, VEGF-A distribution and messenger RNA expression, and aquaporin (AQP) gene expression. Microvessel density in the MG was unchanged during gestation then increased between days 2 and 21 of lactation (P < 0.05). The local expression of messenger RNA for VEGF-A120, VEGF-A147, VEGF-A164, VEGF-A164b, VEGF-A188, VEGF receptors-1 and -2, and AQP1 and AQP3 all generally increased during the transition from gestation to lactation (P < 0.05). Immunostaining localized VEGF-A to the apical cytoplasm of secretory epithelial cells, consistent with a far greater concentration of VEGF-A in colostrum and/or milk vs plasma (P < 0.0001). There was no effect of DOM on any of the variables analyzed. In summary, we found that vascular development in the MG increases during lactation in first-parity gilts and that VEGF-A is a part of the mammary secretome. Although late-gestational hyperprolactinemia increases milk yield, there was no evidence that it altered vascular development. PMID:26490114

  13. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A Regulates the Secretion of Different Angiogenic Factors in Lung Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Frezzetti, Daniela; Gallo, Marianna; Roma, Cristin; D'Alessio, Amelia; Maiello, Monica R; Bevilacqua, Simona; Normanno, Nicola; De Luca, Antonella

    2016-07-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) is one of the main mediators of angiogenesis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Recently, it has been described an autocrine feed-forward loop in NSCLC cells in which tumor-derived VEGFA promoted the secretion of VEGFA itself, amplifying the proangiogenic signal. In order to investigate the role of VEGFA in lung cancer progression, we assessed the effects of recombinant VEGFA on proliferation, migration, and secretion of other angiogenic factors in A549, H1975, and HCC827 NSCLC cell lines. We found that VEGFA did not affect NSCLC cell proliferation and migration. On the other hand, we demonstrated that VEGFA not only produced a strong and persistent increase of VEGFA itself but also significantly induced the secretion of a variety of angiogenic factors, including follistatin (FST), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), angiopoietin-2 (ANGPT2), granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), interleukin (IL)-8, leptin (LEP), platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1), and platelet-derived growth factor bb (PDGF-BB). PI3K/AKT, RAS/ERK, and STAT3 signalling pathways were found to mediate the effects of VEGFA in NSCLC cell lines. We also observed that VEGFA regulation mainly occurred at post-transcriptional level and that NSCLC cells expressed different isoforms of VEGFA. Collectively, our data suggested that VEGFA contributes to lung cancer progression by inducing a network of angiogenic factors, which might offer potential for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26542886

  14. Differential regulation of matrix metalloproteinases in varicella zoster virus-infected human brain vascular adventitial fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Maria A; Choe, Alexander; Rempel, April; Wyborny, Ann; Stenmark, Kurt; Gilden, Don

    2015-11-15

    Upon reactivation, varicella zoster virus (VZV) spreads transaxonally, infects cerebral arteries and causes ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, as well as aneurysms. The mechanism(s) of VZV-induced aneurysm formation is unknown. However, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which digest extracellular structural proteins in the artery wall, play a role in cerebral and aortic artery aneurysm formation and rupture. Here, we examined the effect of VZV infection on expression of MMP-1, -2, -3, and -9 in primary human brain vascular adventitial fibroblasts (BRAFS). At 6 days post-infection, VZV- and mock-infected BRAFs were analyzed for mRNA levels of MMP-1, -2, -3 and -9 by RT-PCR and for corresponding total intra- and extracellular protein levels by multiplex ELISA. The activity of MMP-1 was also measured in a substrate cleavage assay. Compared to mock-infected BRAFs, MMP-1, MMP-3 and MMP-9 transcripts, cell lysate protein and conditioned supernatant protein were all increased in VZV-infected BRAFs, whereas MMP-2 transcripts, cell lysate protein and conditioned supernatant protein were decreased. MMP-1 from the conditioned supernatant of VZV-infected BRAFs showed increased cleavage activity on an MMP-1-specific substrate compared to mock-infected BRAFs. Differential regulation of MMPs in VZV-infected BRAFs may contribute to aneurysm formation in VZV vasculopathy. PMID:26443282

  15. Molecular Control of Vascular Tube Morphogenesis and Stabilization: Regulation by Extracellular Matrix, Matrix Metalloproteinases, and Endothelial Cell-Pericyte Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, George E.; Stratman, Amber N.; Sacharidou, Anastasia

    Recent studies have revealed a critical role for both extracellular matrices and matrix metalloproteinases in the molecular control of vascular morphogenesis and stabilization in three-dimensional (3D) tissue environments. Key interactions involve endothelial cells (ECs) and pericytes, which coassemble to affect vessel formation, remodeling, and stabilization events during development and postnatal life. EC-pericyte interactions control extracellular matrix remodeling events including vascular basement membrane matrix assembly, a necessary step for endothelial tube maturation and stabilization. ECs form tube networks in 3D extracellular matrices in a manner dependent on integrins, membrane-type metalloproteinases, and the Rho GTPases, Cdc42 and Rac1. Recent work has defined an EC lumen signaling complex of proteins composed of these proteins that controls 3D matrix-specific signaling events required for these processes. The EC tube formation process results in the creation of a network of proteolytically generated vascular guidance tunnels. These tunnels are physical matrix spaces that regulate vascular tube remodeling and represent matrix conduits into which pericytes are recruited to allow dynamic cell-cell interactions with ECs. These dynamic EC-pericyte interactions induce vascular basement membrane matrix deposition, leading to vessel maturation and stabilization.

  16. The pre-clinical assessment of rapamycin-eluting, durable polymer-free stent coating concepts.

    PubMed

    Steigerwald, Kristin; Merl, Sabine; Kastrati, Adnan; Wieczorek, Anna; Vorpahl, Marc; Mannhold, Raimund; Vogeser, Michael; Hausleiter, Jörg; Joner, Michael; Schömig, Albert; Wessely, Rainer

    2009-02-01

    All four currently FDA-approved drug-eluting stents (DESs) contain a durable polymeric coating which can negatively impact vascular healing processes and eventually lead to adverse cardiac events. Aim of this study was the pre-clinical assessment of two novel rapamycin-eluting stent (RES) coating technologies that abstain from use of a durable polymer. Two distinctive RES coating technologies were evaluated in vitro and in the porcine coronary artery stent model. The R-poly(S) stent platform elutes rapamycin from a biodegradable polymer that is top coated with the resin shellac to minimize the amount of polymer. The R-pro(S) stent platform allows dual drug release of rapamycin and probucol, blended by shellac. HPLC-based determination of pharmacokinetics indicated drug release for more than 28 days. At 30 days, neointimal formation was found to be significantly decreased for both DESs compared to bare-metal stents. Assessment of vascular healing revealed absence of increased inflammation in both DESs, which is commonly observed in DES with non-erodible polymeric coating. In conclusion, the pre-clinical assessment of RESs with resin-based or dual drug coating indicated an adequate efficacy profile as well as a beneficial effect for vascular healing processes. These results encourage the transfer of these technologies to clinical evaluation. PMID:18990438

  17. Monocyte/macrophage cytokine activity regulates vascular smooth muscle cell function within a degradable polyurethane scaffold.

    PubMed

    Battiston, K G; Ouyang, B; Labow, R S; Simmons, C A; Santerre, J P

    2014-03-01

    Tissue engineering strategies rely on the ability to promote cell proliferation and migration into porous biomaterial constructs, as well as to support specific phenotypic states of the cells in vitro. The present study investigated the use of released factors from monocytes and their derived macrophages (MDM) and the mechanism by which they regulate vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) response in a VSMC-monocyte co-culture system within a porous degradable polyurethane (D-PHI) scaffold. VSMCs cultured in monocyte/MDM-conditioned medium (MCM), generated from the culture of monocytes/MDM on D-PHI scaffolds for up to 28 days, similarly affected VSMC contractile marker expression, growth and three-dimensional migration when compared to direct VSMC-monocyte co-culture. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were identified as two cytokines present in MCM, at concentrations that have previously been shown to influence VSMC phenotype. VSMCs cultured alone on D-PHI scaffolds and exposed to MCP-1 (5 ng ml(-1)) or IL-6 (1 ng ml(-1)) for 7 days experienced a suppression in contractile marker expression (with MCP-1 or IL-6) and increased growth (with MCP-1) compared to no cytokine medium supplementation. These effects were also observed in VSMC-monocyte co-culture on D-PHI. Neutralization of IL-6, but not MCP-1, was subsequently shown to decrease VSMC growth and enhance calponin expression for VSMC-monocyte co-cultures on D-PHI scaffolds for 7 days, implying that IL-6 mediates VSMC response in monocyte-VSMC co-cultures. This study highlights the use of monocytes and their derived macrophages in conjunction with immunomodulatory biomaterials, such as D-PHI, as agents for regulating VSMC response, and demonstrates the importance of monocyte/MDM-released factors, such as IL-6 in particular, in this process. PMID:24361424

  18. Poldip2 controls vascular smooth muscle cell migration by regulating focal adhesion turnover and force polarization

    PubMed Central

    Datla, Srinivasa Raju; McGrail, Daniel J.; Vukelic, Sasa; Huff, Lauren P.; Lyle, Alicia N.; Pounkova, Lily; Lee, Minyoung; Seidel-Rogol, Bonnie; Khalil, Mazen K.; Hilenski, Lula L.; Terada, Lance S.; Dawson, Michelle R.; Lassègue, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Polymerase-δ-interacting protein 2 (Poldip2) interacts with NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) and regulates migration; however, the precise underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here, we investigated the role of Poldip2 in focal adhesion turnover, as well as traction force generation and polarization. Poldip2 overexpression (AdPoldip2) in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) impairs PDGF-induced migration and induces a characteristic phenotype of long cytoplasmic extensions. AdPoldip2 also prevents the decrease in spreading and increased aspect ratio observed in response to PDGF and slightly impairs cell contraction. Moreover, AdPoldip2 blocks focal adhesion dissolution and sustains H2O2 levels in focal adhesions, whereas Poldip2 knockdown (siPoldip2) significantly decreases the number of focal adhesions. RhoA activity is unchanged when focal adhesion dissolution is stimulated in control cells but increases in AdPoldip2-treated cells. Inhibition of RhoA blocks Poldip2-mediated attenuation of focal adhesion dissolution, and overexpression of RhoA or focal adhesion kinase (FAK) reverses the loss of focal adhesions induced by siPoldip2, indicating that RhoA and FAK mediate the effect of Poldip2 on focal adhesions. Nox4 silencing prevents focal adhesion stabilization by AdPoldip2 and induces a phenotype similar to siPoldip2, suggesting a role for Nox4 in Poldip2-induced focal adhesion stability. As a consequence of impaired focal adhesion turnover, PDGF-treated AdPoldip2 cells are unable to reduce and polarize traction forces, a necessary first step in migration. These results implicate Poldip2 in VSMC migration via regulation of focal adhesion turnover and traction force generation in a Nox4/RhoA/FAK-dependent manner. PMID:25063792

  19. Perlecan regulates Oct-1 gene expression in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed Central

    Weiser, M C; Grieshaber, N A; Schwartz, P E; Majack, R A

    1997-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are very quiescent in the mature vessel and exhibit a remarkable phenotype-dependent diversity in gene expression that may reflect the growth responsiveness of these cells under a variety of normal and pathological conditions. In this report, we describe the expression pattern of Oct-1, a member of a family of transcription factors involved in cell growth processes, in cultured and in in vivo SMCs. Oct-1 mRNA was undetectable in the contractile-state in vivo SMCs; was induced upon disruption of in vivo SMC-extracellular matrix interactions; and was constitutively expressed by cultured SMCs. Oct-1 transcripts were repressed when cultured SMCs were plated on Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm tumor-derived basement membranes (EHS-BM) but were rapidly induced after disruption of SMC-EHS-BM contacts; reexpression was regulated at the transcriptional level. To identify the EHS-BM component involved in the active repression of Oct-1 mRNA expression, SMCs were plated on laminin, type IV collagen, fibronectin, or perlecan matrices. Oct-1 mRNA levels were readily detectable when SMCs were cultured on matrices composed of laminin, type IV collagen, or fibronectin but were repressed when SMCs were cultured on perlecan matrices. Finally, the Oct-1-suppressing activity of EHS-BM was sensitive to heparinase digestion but not to chondroitinase ABC or hyaluronidase digestion, suggesting that the heparan sulfate side chains of perlecan play a biologically important role in negatively regulating the expression of Oct-1 transcripts. Images PMID:9201711

  20. Poldip2 controls vascular smooth muscle cell migration by regulating focal adhesion turnover and force polarization.

    PubMed

    Datla, Srinivasa Raju; McGrail, Daniel J; Vukelic, Sasa; Huff, Lauren P; Lyle, Alicia N; Pounkova, Lily; Lee, Minyoung; Seidel-Rogol, Bonnie; Khalil, Mazen K; Hilenski, Lula L; Terada, Lance S; Dawson, Michelle R; Lassègue, Bernard; Griendling, Kathy K

    2014-10-01

    Polymerase-δ-interacting protein 2 (Poldip2) interacts with NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) and regulates migration; however, the precise underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here, we investigated the role of Poldip2 in focal adhesion turnover, as well as traction force generation and polarization. Poldip2 overexpression (AdPoldip2) in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) impairs PDGF-induced migration and induces a characteristic phenotype of long cytoplasmic extensions. AdPoldip2 also prevents the decrease in spreading and increased aspect ratio observed in response to PDGF and slightly impairs cell contraction. Moreover, AdPoldip2 blocks focal adhesion dissolution and sustains H2O2 levels in focal adhesions, whereas Poldip2 knockdown (siPoldip2) significantly decreases the number of focal adhesions. RhoA activity is unchanged when focal adhesion dissolution is stimulated in control cells but increases in AdPoldip2-treated cells. Inhibition of RhoA blocks Poldip2-mediated attenuation of focal adhesion dissolution, and overexpression of RhoA or focal adhesion kinase (FAK) reverses the loss of focal adhesions induced by siPoldip2, indicating that RhoA and FAK mediate the effect of Poldip2 on focal adhesions. Nox4 silencing prevents focal adhesion stabilization by AdPoldip2 and induces a phenotype similar to siPoldip2, suggesting a role for Nox4 in Poldip2-induced focal adhesion stability. As a consequence of impaired focal adhesion turnover, PDGF-treated AdPoldip2 cells are unable to reduce and polarize traction forces, a necessary first step in migration. These results implicate Poldip2 in VSMC migration via regulation of focal adhesion turnover and traction force generation in a Nox4/RhoA/FAK-dependent manner. PMID:25063792

  1. TLR4-Activated MAPK-IL-6 Axis Regulates Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Function.

    PubMed

    Lee, Guan-Lin; Wu, Jing-Yiing; Tsai, Chien-Sung; Lin, Chih-Yuan; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Lin, Chin-Sheng; Wang, Yi-Fu; Yet, Shaw-Fang; Hsu, Yu-Juei; Kuo, Cheng-Chin

    2016-01-01

    Migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) into the intima is considered to be a vital event in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. Despite substantial evidence supporting the pathogenic role of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the progression of atherogenesis, its function in the regulation of VSMC migration remains unclear. The goal of the present study was to elucidate the mechanism by which TLR4 regulates VSMC migration. Inhibitor experiments revealed that TLR4-induced IL-6 secretion and VSMC migration were mediated via the concerted actions of MyD88 and TRIF on the activation of p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 signaling. Neutralizing anti-IL-6 antibodies abrogated TLR4-driven VSMC migration and F-actin polymerization. Blockade of p38 MAPK or ERK1/2 signaling cascade inhibited TLR4 agonist-mediated activation of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). Moreover, siRNA-mediated suppression of CREB production repressed TLR4-induced IL-6 production and VSMC migration. Rac-1 inhibitor suppressed TLR4-driven VSMC migration but not IL-6 production. Importantly, the serum level of IL-6 and TLR4 endogenous ligand HMGB1 was significantly higher in patients with coronary artery diseases (CAD) than in healthy subjects. Serum HMGB1 level was positively correlated with serum IL-6 level in CAD patients. The expression of both HMGB1 and IL-6 was clearly detected in the atherosclerotic tissue of the CAD patients. Additionally, there was a positive association between p-CREB and HMGB1 in mouse atherosclerotic tissue. Based on our findings, we concluded that, upon ligand binding, TLR4 activates p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 signaling through MyD88 and TRIF in VSMCs. These signaling pathways subsequently coordinate an additive augmentation of CREB-driven IL-6 production, which in turn triggers Rac-1-mediated actin cytoskeleton to promote VSMC migration. PMID:27563891

  2. UAP56 is a novel interacting partner of Bcr in regulating vascular smooth muscle cell DNA synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Sahni, Abha; Wang, Nadan; Alexis, Jeffrey D.

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UAP56 is an important regulator of DNA synthesis in vascular smooth muscle cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UAP56 binds to Bcr. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interaction between Bcr and UAP56 is critical for Bcr induced DNA synthesis. -- Abstract: Bcr is a serine/threonine kinase that is a critical regulator of vascular smooth muscle cell inflammation and proliferation. We have previously demonstrated that Bcr acts in part via phosphorylation and inhibition of PPAR{gamma}. We have identified the RNA helicase UAP56 as another substrate of Bcr. In this report we demonstrate that knockdown of UAP56 blocks Bcr induced DNA synthesis in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). We also found that over expression of Bcr increased the expression of cyclin E and decreased the expression of p27. Knockdown of UAP56 reversed the effect of Bcr on cyclin E and p27 expression. Furthermore, we found that Bcr binds to UAP56 and demonstrate that binding of UAP56 to Bcr is critical for Bcr induced DNA synthesis in VSMC. Our data identify UAP56 as an important binding partner of Bcr and a novel target for inhibiting vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation.

  3. Transdermal regulation of vascular network bioengineering using a photopolymerizable methacrylated gelatin hydrogel

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ruei-Zeng; Chen, Ying-Chieh; Moreno-Luna, Rafael; Khademhosseini, Ali; Melero-Martin, Juan M.

    2013-01-01

    The search for hydrogel materials compatible with vascular morphogenesis is an active area of investigation in tissue engineering. One candidate material is methacrylated gelatin (GelMA), a UV-photocrosslinkable hydrogel that is synthesized by adding methacrylate groups to the amine-containing side-groups of gelatin. GelMA hydrogels containing human endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be photopolymerized ex vivo and then surgically transplanted in vivo as a means to generate vascular networks. However, the full clinical potential of GelMA will be best captured by enabling minimally invasive implantation and in situ polymerization. In this study, we demonstrated the feasibility of bioengineering human vascular networks inside GelMA constructs that were first subcutaneously injected into immunodeficient mice while in liquid form, and then rapidly crosslinked via transdermal exposure to UV light. These bioengineered vascular networks developed within 7 days, formed functional anastomoses with the host vasculature, and were uniformly distributed throughout the constructs. Most notably, we demonstrated that the vascularization process can be directly modulated by adjusting the initial exposure time to UV light (15–45 s range), with constructs displaying progressively less vascular density and smaller average lumen size as the degree of GelMA crosslinking was increased. Our studies support the use of GelMA in its injectable form, followed by in situ transdermal photopolymerization, as a preferable means to deliver cells in applications that require the formation of vascular networks in vivo. PMID:23773819

  4. Transdermal regulation of vascular network bioengineering using a photopolymerizable methacrylated gelatin hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ruei-Zeng; Chen, Ying-Chieh; Moreno-Luna, Rafael; Khademhosseini, Ali; Melero-Martin, Juan M

    2013-09-01

    The search for hydrogel materials compatible with vascular morphogenesis is an active area of investigation in tissue engineering. One candidate material is methacrylated gelatin (GelMA), a UV-photocrosslinkable hydrogel that is synthesized by adding methacrylate groups to the amine-containing side-groups of gelatin. GelMA hydrogels containing human endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be photopolymerized ex vivo and then surgically transplanted in vivo as a means to generate vascular networks. However, the full clinical potential of GelMA will be best captured by enabling minimally invasive implantation and in situ polymerization. In this study, we demonstrated the feasibility of bioengineering human vascular networks inside GelMA constructs that were first subcutaneously injected into immunodeficient mice while in liquid form, and then rapidly crosslinked via transdermal exposure to UV light. These bioengineered vascular networks developed within 7 days, formed functional anastomoses with the host vasculature, and were uniformly distributed throughout the constructs. Most notably, we demonstrated that the vascularization process can be directly modulated by adjusting the initial exposure time to UV light (15-45 s range), with constructs displaying progressively less vascular density and smaller average lumen size as the degree of GelMA crosslinking was increased. Our studies support the use of GelMA in its injectable form, followed by in situ transdermal photopolymerization, as a preferable means to deliver cells in applications that require the formation of vascular networks in vivo. PMID:23773819

  5. ATP-Competitive Inhibitors of the Mammalian Target of Rapamycin: Design and Synthesis of Highly Potent and Selective Pyrazolopyrimidines

    SciTech Connect

    Zask, Arie; Verheijen, Jeroen C.; Curran, Kevin; Kaplan, Joshua; Richard, David J.; Nowak, Pawel; Malwitz, David J.; Brooijmans, Natasja; Bard, Joel; Svenson, Kristine; Lucas, Judy; Toral-Barza, Lourdes; Zhang, Wei-Guo; Hollander, Irwin; Gibbons, James J.; Abraham, Robert T.; Ayral-Kaloustian, Semiramis; Mansour, Tarek S.; Yu, Ker

    2009-09-18

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a central regulator of growth, survival, and metabolism, is a validated target for cancer therapy. Rapamycin and its analogues, allosteric inhibitors of mTOR, only partially inhibit one mTOR protein complex. ATP-competitive, global inhibitors of mTOR that have the potential for enhanced anticancer efficacy are described. Structural features leading to potency and selectivity were identified and refined leading to compounds with in vivo efficacy in tumor xenograft models.

  6. Multi-Scale Optical Imaging of the Delayed Type Hypersensitivity Reaction Attenuated by Rapamycin

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Meijie; Zhang, Zhihong; Li, Hui; Qiao, Sha; Liu, Zheng; Fu, Ling; Shen, Guanxin; Luo, Qingming

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages (MMs) play important roles in the development of cell-mediated delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH). However, the dynamics of neutrophils and MMs during the DTH reaction and how the immunosuppressant rapamycin modulates their behavior in vivo are rarely reported. Here, we take advantage of multi-scale optical imaging techniques and a footpad DTH reaction model to non-invasively investigate the dynamic behavior and properties of immune cells from the whole field of the footpad to the cellular level. During the classic elicitation phase of the DTH reaction, both neutrophils and MMs obviously accumulated at inflammatory foci at 24 h post-challenge. Rapamycin treatment resulted in advanced neutrophil recruitment and vascular hyperpermeability at an early stage (4 h), the reduced accumulation of neutrophils (> 50% inhibition ratio) at 48 h, and the delayed involvement of MMs in inflammatory foci. The motility parameters of immune cells in the rapamycin-treated reaction at 4 h post-challenge displayed similar mean velocities, arrest durations, mean displacements, and confinements as the classic DTH reaction at 24 h. These results indicate that rapamycin treatment shortened the initial preparation stage of the DTH reaction and attenuated its intensity, which may be due to the involvement of T helper type 2 cells or regulatory T cells. PMID:24465276

  7. Protease-sensitive PEG hydrogels regulate vascularization in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Vigen, Marina; Ceccarelli, Jacob; Putnam, Andrew J

    2014-10-01

    Forming functional blood vessel networks in engineered or ischemic tissues is a significant scientific and clinical hurdle. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogels are adapted to investigate the role of mechanical properties and proteolytic susceptibility on vascularization. Four arm PEG vinyl sulfone is polymerized by Michael-type addition with cysteine groups on a slowly degraded matrix metalloprotease (MMP) susceptible peptide, GPQG↓IWGQ, or a more rapidly cleaved peptide, VPMS↓MRGG. Co-encapsulation of endothelial cells and supportive fibroblasts within the gels lead to vascular morphogenesis in vitro that is robust to changes in crosslinking peptide identity, but is significantly attenuated by increased crosslinking and MMP inhibition. Perfused vasculature forms from transplanted cells in vivo in all gel types; however, in contrast to the in vitro results, vascularization in vivo is not decreased in the more crosslinked gels. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the utility of this platform to support vascularization both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24943402

  8. Angiotensin-(1-7) regulates Angiotensin II-induced VCAM-1 expression on vascular endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Feng; Ren, Jingyi; Chan, Kenneth; Chen, Hong

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We for the first time found that Ang-(1-7) inhibits Ang II-induced VCAM-1 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The inhibitory effect of Ang-(1-7) on VCAM-1 is mediated by MAS receptor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of Ang-(1-7) is due to the suppression of NF-kappaB translocation. -- Abstract: Angiotensin II (Ang II) and Angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)) are key effector peptides in the renin-angiotensin system. Increased circulatory Ang II level is associated with the development of hypertension and atherosclerosis, whereas Ang-(1-7) is a counter-regulatory mediator of Ang II which appears to be protective against cardiovascular disease. However, whether Ang-(1-7) regulates the action of Ang II on vascular endothelial cells (EC) remains unclear. We investigated the effects of Ang II and Ang-(1-7) in the context of atherogenesis, specifically endothelial cell VCAM-1 expression that is implicated in early plaque formation. The results show that Ang II increased VCAM-1 mRNA expression and protein displayed on EC surface, while Ang-(1-7) alone exerted no effects. However, Ang-(1-7) significantly suppressed Ang II-induced VCAM-1 expression. Ang-(1-7) also inhibited the Ang II-induced VCAM-1 promoter activity driven by transcription factor NF-KappaB. Furthermore, immunofluorescence assay and ELISA showed that Ang II facilitated the nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB in ECs, and this was attenuated by the presence of Ang-(1-7). The inhibitory effects of Ang-(1-7) on Ang II-induced VCAM-1 promoter activity and NF-kappaB nuclear translocation were all reversed by the competitive antagonist of Ang-(1-7) at the Mas receptor. Our results suggest that Ang-(1-7) mediates its affects on ECs through the Mas receptor, and negatively regulates Ang II-induced VCAM-1 expression by attenuating nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB.

  9. Role of chemokine RANTES in the regulation of perivascular inflammation, T-cell accumulation, and vascular dysfunction in hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Mikolajczyk, Tomasz P.; Nosalski, Ryszard; Szczepaniak, Piotr; Budzyn, Klaudia; Osmenda, Grzegorz; Skiba, Dominik; Sagan, Agnieszka; Wu, Jing; Vinh, Antony; Marvar, Paul J.; Guzik, Bartlomiej; Podolec, Jakub; Drummond, Grant; Lob, Heinrich E.; Harrison, David G.; Guzik, Tomasz J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have emphasized the role of perivascular inflammation in cardiovascular disease. We studied mechanisms of perivascular leukocyte infiltration in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension and their links to vascular dysfunction. Chronic Ang II infusion in mice increased immune cell content of T cells (255 ± 130 to 1664 ± 349 cells/mg; P < 0.01), M1 and M2 macrophages, and dendritic cells in perivascular adipose tissue. In particular, the content of T lymphocytes bearing CC chemokine receptor (CCR) 1, CCR3, and CCR5 receptors for RANTES chemokine was increased by Ang II (CCR1, 15.6 ± 1.5% vs. 31 ± 5%; P < 0.01). Hypertension was associated with an increase in perivascular adipose tissue expression of the chemokine RANTES (relative quantification, 1.2 ± 0.2 vs. 3.5 ± 1.1; P < 0.05), which induced T-cell chemotaxis and vascular accumulation of T cells expressing the chemokine receptors CCR1, CCR3, and CCR5. Mechanistically, RANTES−/− knockout protected against vascular leukocyte, and in particular T lymphocyte infiltration (26 ± 5% in wild type Ang II vs. 15 ± 4% in RANTES−/−), which was associated with protection from endothelial dysfunction induced by Ang II. This effect was linked with diminished infiltration of IFN-γ-producing CD8+ and double-negative CD3+CD4−CD8− T cells in perivascular space and reduced vascular oxidative stress while FoxP3+ T-regulatory cells were unaltered. IFN-γ ex vivo caused significant endothelial dysfunction, which was reduced by superoxide anion scavenging. In a human cohort, a significant inverse correlation was observed between circulating RANTES levels as a biomarker and vascular function measured as flow-mediated dilatation (R = −0.3, P < 0.01) or endothelial injury marker von Willebrand factor (R = +0.3; P < 0.01). Thus, chemokine RANTES is important in the regulation of vascular dysfunction through modulation of perivascular inflammation.—Mikolajczyk, T. P., Nosalski, R., Szczepaniak, P

  10. Target of rapamycin (TOR) plays a critical role in triacylglycerol accumulation in microalgae.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Sousuke; Kawase, Yasuko; Kobayashi, Ikki; Sone, Toshiyuki; Era, Atsuko; Miyagishima, Shin-Ya; Shimojima, Mie; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Kan

    2015-10-01

    Most microalgae produce triacylglycerol (TAG) under stress conditions such as nitrogen depletion, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we focused on the role of target of rapamycin (TOR) in TAG accumulation. TOR is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is highly conserved and plays pivotal roles in nitrogen and other signaling pathways in eukaryotes. We previously constructed a rapamycin-susceptible Cyanidioschyzon merolae, a unicellular red alga, by expressing yeast FKBP12 protein to evaluate the results of TOR inhibition (Imamura et al. in Biochem Biophys Res Commun 439:264-269, 2013). By using this strain, we here report that rapamycin-induced TOR inhibition results in accumulation of cytoplasmic lipid droplets containing TAG. Transcripts for TAG synthesis-related genes, such as glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase and acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), were increased by rapamycin treatment. We also found that fatty acid synthase-dependent de novo fatty acid synthesis was required for the accumulation of lipid droplets. Induction of TAG and up-regulation of DGAT gene expression by rapamycin were similarly observed in the unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. These results suggest the general involvement of TOR signaling in TAG accumulation in divergent microalgae. PMID:26350402