Science.gov

Sample records for rape crop density

  1. Root length densities of UK wheat and oilseed rape crops with implications for water capture and yield

    PubMed Central

    White, Charlotte A.; Sylvester-Bradley, Roger; Berry, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Root length density (RLD) was measured to 1 m depth for 17 commercial crops of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) and 40 crops of winter oilseed rape [Brassica napus; oilseed rape (OSR)] grown in the UK between 2004 and 2013. Taking the critical RLD (cRLD) for water capture as 1cm cm–3, RLDs appeared inadequate for full water capture on average below a depth of 0.32 m for winter wheat and below 0.45 m for OSR. These depths compare unfavourably (for wheat) with average depths of ‘full capture’ of 0.86 m and 0.48 m, respectively, determined for three wheat crops and one OSR crop studied in the 1970s and 1980s, and treated as references here. A simple model of water uptake and yield indicated that these shortfalls in wheat and OSR rooting compared with the reference data might be associated with shortfalls of up to 3.5 t ha–1 and 1.2 t ha–1, respectively, in grain yields under water-limited conditions, as increasingly occur through climate change. Coupled with decreased summer rainfall, poor rooting of modern arable crops could explain much of the yield stagnation that has been observed on UK farms since the 1990s. Methods of monitoring and improving rooting under commercial conditions are reviewed and discussed. PMID:25750427

  2. Root length densities of UK wheat and oilseed rape crops with implications for water capture and yield.

    PubMed

    White, Charlotte A; Sylvester-Bradley, Roger; Berry, Peter M

    2015-04-01

    Root length density (RLD) was measured to 1 m depth for 17 commercial crops of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) and 40 crops of winter oilseed rape [Brassica napus; oilseed rape (OSR)] grown in the UK between 2004 and 2013. Taking the critical RLD (cRLD) for water capture as 1cm cm(-3), RLDs appeared inadequate for full water capture on average below a depth of 0.32 m for winter wheat and below 0.45 m for OSR. These depths compare unfavourably (for wheat) with average depths of 'full capture' of 0.86 m and 0.48 m, respectively, determined for three wheat crops and one OSR crop studied in the 1970s and 1980s, and treated as references here. A simple model of water uptake and yield indicated that these shortfalls in wheat and OSR rooting compared with the reference data might be associated with shortfalls of up to 3.5 t ha(-1) and 1.2 t ha(-1), respectively, in grain yields under water-limited conditions, as increasingly occur through climate change. Coupled with decreased summer rainfall, poor rooting of modern arable crops could explain much of the yield stagnation that has been observed on UK farms since the 1990s. Methods of monitoring and improving rooting under commercial conditions are reviewed and discussed. PMID:25750427

  3. Annual dynamics of wild bee densities: attractiveness and productivity effects of oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Riedinger, Verena; Mitesser, Oliver; Hovestadt, Thomas; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Holzschuh, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    Mass-flowering crops may affect long-term population dynamics, but effects on pollinators have never been studied across several years. We monitored wild bees in oilseed rape fields in 16 landscapes in Germany in two consecutive years. Effects on bee densities of landscape oilseed rape cover in the years of monitoring and in the previous years were evaluated with landscape data from three consecutive years. We fit empirical data to a mechanistic model to provide estimates for oilseed rape attractiveness and its effect on bee productivity in comparison to the rest of the landscape, and we evaluated consequences for pollinator densities in consecutive years. Our results show that high oilseed rape cover in the previous year enhances current densities of wild bees (except for bumble bees). Moreover, we show a strong attractiveness of and dilution on (i.e., decreasing bee densities with increasing landscape oilseed rape cover) oilseed rape for bees during flowering in the current year, modifying the effect of the previous year's oilseed rape cover in the case of wild bees (excluding Bombus). As long as other factors such as nesting sites or natural enemies do not limit bee reproduction, our findings suggest long-term positive effects of mass-flowering crops on bee populations, at least for non-Bombus generalists, which possibly help to maintain crop pollination services even when crop area increases. Similar effects are conceivable for other organisms providing ecosystem services in annual crops and should be considered in future studies. PMID:26236848

  4. Rape

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Rape KidsHealth > For Teens > Rape Print A A A Text Size What's in ... Happens During the Medical Exam? Dealing With Feelings Rape, sometimes also called sexual assault, can happen to ...

  5. Nitrous oxide emissions from crop rotations including wheat, oilseed rape and dry peas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeuffroy, M. H.; Baranger, E.; Carrouée, B.; de Chezelles, E.; Gosme, M.; Hénault, C.; Schneider, A.; Cellier, P.

    2013-03-01

    Approximately 65% of anthropogenic emissions of N2O, a potent greenhouse gas (GHG), originate from soils at a global scale, and particularly after N fertilisation of the main crops in Europe. Thanks to their capacity to fix atmospheric N2 through biological fixation, legumes can reduce N fertilizer use, and possibly N2O emissions. Nevertheless, the decomposition of crop organic matter during the crop cycle and residue decomposition, and possibly the N fixation process itself, could lead to N2O emissions. The objective of this study was to quantify N2O emissions from a dry pea crop (Pisum sativum, harvested at maturity) and from the subsequent crops in comparison with N2O emissions from wheat and oilseed rape crops, fertilized or not, in various rotations. A field experiment was conducted over 4 consecutive years to compare the emissions during the pea crop, in comparison with those during the wheat (fertilized or not) or oilseed rape crops, and after the pea crop, in comparison with other preceding crops. N2O fluxes were measured using static chambers. In spite of low N2O fluxes, mainly due to the site's soil characteristics, fluxes during the crop were significantly lower for pea and unfertilized wheat than for fertilized wheat and oilseed rape. The effect of the preceding crop was not significant, while soil mineral N at harvest was higher after the pea crop. These results should be confirmed over a wider range of soil types. Nevertheless, they demonstrate the absence of N2O emissions linked to the symbiotic N fixation process, and allow us to estimate the decrease in N2O emissions by 20-25% through including one pea crop in a three-year rotation. On a larger scale, this reduction of GHG emissions at field level has to be added to the decrease due to the reduced production and transport of the N fertilizer not applied to the pea crop.

  6. Persistence of seeds from crops of conventional and herbicide tolerant oilseed rape (Brassica napus).

    PubMed

    Lutman, Peter J W; Berry, Kate; Payne, Roger W; Simpson, Euan; Sweet, Jeremy B; Champion, Gillian T; May, Mike J; Wightman, Pat; Walker, Kerr; Lainsbury, Martin

    2005-09-22

    A series of rotation experiments at five sites over four years has explored the environmental and agronomic implications of growing herbicide tolerant oilseed rape and sugar beet. This paper reports on the population dynamics of volunteer rape (Brassica napus). The experiments compared four winter oilseed rape (WOSR) cultivars: a conventional cultivar (Apex) and three developmental cultivars either genetically modified (GM) to be tolerant to glyphosate or glufosinate, or conventionally bred to be tolerant to herbicides of the imidazolinone group. Seed losses at harvest averaged 3575 seeds m(-2) but ranged from less than 2000 up to more than 10000 seeds m(-2). There was a rapid decline in seed numbers during the first few months after harvest, resulting in a mean loss of seeds of 60%. In subsequent seasons, the seedbank declined much more slowly at four of the five sites (ca 20% per year) and the models predicted 95% seed loss after approximately 9 years. Seed decline was much faster at the fifth site. There were no clear differences between the four cultivars in either the numbers of seeds shed at harvest or in their subsequent persistence. The importance of the persistence of GM rape seeds, in the context of the coexistence of GM and non-GM crops and the role of good management practices that minimize seed persistence, are discussed. PMID:16191596

  7. [Effects of rape cropping in summer fallow period on dryland soil moisture content and winter wheat yield].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gang; Fan, Ting-Lu; Li, Shang-Zhong; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Wang, Yong; Dang, Yi; Wang, Lei

    2013-10-01

    Taking the fallow land with wheat stubble after harvesting as the control, a 4-year field experiment was conducted in a dryland of east Gansu, Northwest China to investigate the effects of rape cropping in summer fallow period on the soil moisture content, wheat yield, and water use efficiency (WUE). The rape was sown at 6 dates. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in the soil moisture content in summer fallow period when the rape was sown at different dates. When the rape was sown on August 5, the soil water storage efficiency was 58.5%, and the wheat yield and WUE were increased by 7.5% and 5.9%, respectively, as compared with the control. Averagely, cropping rape in fallow period could increase the wheat yield by 16. 1% in dry year and 6.8% in normal year. It was suggested that rape cropping in summer fallow period would benefit the wheat yield and drought resistance of drylands in Northwest China. PMID:24483074

  8. Development of crop-specific transposable element (SINE) markers for studying gene flow from oilseed rape to wild radish.

    PubMed

    Prieto, J L; Pouilly, N; Jenczewski, E; Deragon, J M; Chèvre, A M

    2005-08-01

    The screening of wild populations for evidence of gene flow from a crop to a wild related species requires the unambiguous detection of crop genes within the genome of the wild species, taking into account the intraspecific variability of each species. If the crop and wild relatives share a common ancestor, as is the case for the Brassica crops and their wild relatives (subtribe Brassiceae), the species-specific markers needed to make this unambiguous detection are difficult to identify. In the model oilseed rape (Brassica napus, AACC, 2n = 38)-wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum, RrRr, 2n = 18) system, we utilized the presence or absence of a short-interspersed element (SINE) at a given locus to develop oilseed rape-specific markers, as SINE insertions are irreversible. By means of sequence-specific amplified polymorphism (SINE-SSAP) reactions, we identified and cloned 67 bands specific to the oilseed rape genome and absent from that of wild radish. Forty-seven PCR-specific markers were developed from three combinations of primers anchored either in (1) the 5'- and 3'-genomic sequences flanking the SINE, (2) the 5'-flanking and SINE internal sequences or (3) the SINE internal and flanking 3'-sequences. Seventeen markers were monomorphic whatever the oilseed rape varieties tested, whereas 30 revealed polymorphism and behaved either as dominant (17) or co-dominant (13) markers. Polymorphic markers were mapped on 19 genomic regions assigned to ten linkage groups. The markers developed will be efficient tools to trace the occurrence and frequency of introgressions of oilseed rape genomic region within wild radish populations. PMID:15942756

  9. An Individual-Based Model of the Evolution of Pesticide Resistance in Heterogeneous Environments: Control of Meligethes aeneus Population in Oilseed Rape Crops

    PubMed Central

    Stratonovitch, Pierre; Elias, Jan; Denholm, Ian; Slater, Russell; Semenov, Mikhail A.

    2014-01-01

    Preventing a pest population from damaging an agricultural crop and, at the same time, preventing the development of pesticide resistance is a major challenge in crop protection. Understanding how farming practices and environmental factors interact with pest characteristics to influence the spread of resistance is a difficult and complex task. It is extremely challenging to investigate such interactions experimentally at realistic spatial and temporal scales. Mathematical modelling and computer simulation have, therefore, been used to analyse resistance evolution and to evaluate potential resistance management tactics. Of the many modelling approaches available, individual-based modelling of a pest population offers most flexibility to include and analyse numerous factors and their interactions. Here, a pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus) population was modelled as an aggregate of individual insects inhabiting a spatially heterogeneous landscape. The development of the pest and host crop (oilseed rape) was driven by climatic variables. The agricultural land of the landscape was managed by farmers applying a specific rotation and crop protection strategy. The evolution of a single resistance allele to the pyrethroid lambda cyhalothrin was analysed for different combinations of crop management practices and for a recessive, intermediate and dominant resistance allele. While the spread of a recessive resistance allele was severely constrained, intermediate or dominant resistance alleles showed a similar response to the management regime imposed. Calendar treatments applied irrespective of pest density accelerated the development of resistance compared to ones applied in response to prescribed pest density thresholds. A greater proportion of spring-sown oilseed rape was also found to increase the speed of resistance as it increased the period of insecticide exposure. Our study demonstrates the flexibility and power of an individual-based model to simulate how farming

  10. Development and application of SINE multilocus and quantitative genetic markers to study oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) crops.

    PubMed

    Allnutt, T R; Roper, K; Henry, C

    2008-01-23

    A genetic marker system based on the S1 Short Interspersed Elements (SINEs) in the important commercial crop, oilseed rape ( Brassica napus L.) has been developed. SINEs provided a successful multilocus, dominant marker system that was capable of clearly delineating winter- and spring-type crop varieties. Sixteen of 20 varieties tested showed unique profiles from the 17 polymorphic SINE markers generated. The 3' or 5' flank region of nine SINE markers were cloned, and DNA was sequenced. In addition, one putative pre-transposition SINE allele was cloned and sequenced. Two SINE flanking sequences were used to design real-time PCR assays. These quantitative SINE assays were applied to study the genetic structure of eight fields of oilseed rape crops. Studied fields were more genetically diverse than expected for the chosen loci (mean H T = 0.23). The spatial distribution of SINE marker frequencies was highly structured in some fields, suggesting locations of volunteer impurities within the crop. In one case, the assay identified a mislabeling of the crop variety. SINE markers were a useful tool for crop genetics, phylogenetics, variety identification, and purity analysis. The use and further application of quantitative, real-time PCR markers are discussed. PMID:18092752

  11. Ideotype population exploration: growth, photosynthesis, and yield components at different planting densities in winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Ma, Ni; Yuan, Jinzhan; Li, Ming; Li, Jun; Zhang, Liyan; Liu, Lixin; Naeem, Muhammad Shahbaz; Zhang, Chunlei

    2014-01-01

    Rapeseed is one of the most important edible oil crops in the world and the seed yield has lagged behind the increasing demand driven by population growth. Winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is widely cultivated with relatively low yield in China, so it is necessary to find the strategies to improve the expression of yield potential. Planting density has great effects on seed yield of crops. Hence, field experiments were conducted in Wuhan in the Yangtze River basin with one conventional variety (Zhongshuang 11, ZS11) and one hybrid variety (Huayouza 9, HYZ9) at five planting densities (27.0×10(4), 37.5×10(4), 48.0×10(4), 58.5×10(4), 69.0×10(4) plants ha(-1)) during 2010-2012 to investigate the yield components. The physiological traits for high-yield and normal-yield populations were measured during 2011-2013. Our results indicated that planting densities of 58.5×10(4) plants ha(-1) in ZS11 and 48.0×10(4) plants ha(-1) in HYZ9 have significantly higher yield compared with the density of 27.0×10(4) plants ha(-1) for both varieties. The ideal silique numbers for ZS11 and HYZ9 were ∼0.9×10(4) (n m(-2)) and ∼1×10(4) (n m(-2)), respectively, and ideal primary branches for ZS11 and HYZ9 were ∼250 (n m(-2)) and ∼300 (n m(-2)), respectively. The highest leaf area index (LAI) and silique wall area index (SAI) was ∼5.0 and 7.0, respectively. Moreover, higher leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and water use efficiency (WUE) were observed in the high-yield populations. A significantly higher level of silique wall photosynthesis and rapid dry matter accumulation were supposed to result in the maximum seed yield. Our results suggest that increasing the planting density within certain range is a feasible approach for higher seed yield in winter rapeseed in China. PMID:25517990

  12. Ideotype Population Exploration: Growth, Photosynthesis, and Yield Components at Different Planting Densities in Winter Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ni; Yuan, Jinzhan; Li, Ming; Li, Jun; Zhang, Liyan; Liu, Lixin; Naeem, Muhammad Shahbaz; Zhang, Chunlei

    2014-01-01

    Rapeseed is one of the most important edible oil crops in the world and the seed yield has lagged behind the increasing demand driven by population growth. Winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is widely cultivated with relatively low yield in China, so it is necessary to find the strategies to improve the expression of yield potential. Planting density has great effects on seed yield of crops. Hence, field experiments were conducted in Wuhan in the Yangtze River basin with one conventional variety (Zhongshuang 11, ZS11) and one hybrid variety (Huayouza 9, HYZ9) at five planting densities (27.0×104, 37.5×104, 48.0×104, 58.5×104, 69.0×104 plants ha–1) during 2010–2012 to investigate the yield components. The physiological traits for high-yield and normal-yield populations were measured during 2011–2013. Our results indicated that planting densities of 58.5×104 plants ha–1 in ZS11 and 48.0×104 plants ha–1 in HYZ9 have significantly higher yield compared with the density of 27.0×104 plants ha–1for both varieties. The ideal silique numbers for ZS11 and HYZ9 were ∼0.9×104 (n m–2) and ∼1×104 (n m-2), respectively, and ideal primary branches for ZS11 and HYZ9 were ∼250 (n m–2) and ∼300 (n m–2), respectively. The highest leaf area index (LAI) and silique wall area index (SAI) was ∼5.0 and 7.0, respectively. Moreover, higher leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and water use efficiency (WUE) were observed in the high-yield populations. A significantly higher level of silique wall photosynthesis and rapid dry matter accumulation were supposed to result in the maximum seed yield. Our results suggest that increasing the planting density within certain range is a feasible approach for higher seed yield in winter rapeseed in China. PMID:25517990

  13. Method of Determining the Filtration Properties of oil-Bearing Crops in the Process of Their Pressing by the Example of Rape-oil Extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavnov, E. V.; Petrov, I. A.

    2014-07-01

    A method of determining the change in the fi ltration properties of oil-bearing crops in the process of their pressing by repeated dynamic loading is proposed. The use of this method is demonstrated by the example of rape-oil extrusion. It was established that the change in the mass concentration of the oil in a rape mix from 0.45 to 0.23 leads to a decrease in the permeability of the mix by 101.5-102 times depending on the pressure applied to it. It is shown that the dependence of the permeability of this mix on the pressure applied to it is nonmonotone in character.

  14. Genetic Diversity of Oilseed Rape Fields and Feral Populations in the Context of Coexistence with GM Crops.

    PubMed

    Bailleul, Diane; Ollier, Sébastien; Lecomte, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Despite growing concern about transgenes escaping from fields, few studies have analysed the genetic diversity of crops in an agroecosystem over several years. Accurate information about the dynamics and relationship of the genetic diversity of crops in an agroecosystem is essential for risk assessment and policies concerning the containment of genetically modified crops and their coexistence with crops grown by conventional practices. Here, we analysed the genetic diversity of oilseed rape plants from fields and feral populations over 4 years in an agricultural landscape of 41 km2. We used exact compatibility and maximum likelihood assignment methods to assign these plants to cultivars. Even pure lines and hybrid cultivar seed lots contained several genotypes. The cultivar diversity in fields reflected the conventional view of agroecosystems quite well: that is, there was a succession of cultivars, some grown for longer than others because of their good performance, some used for one year and then abandoned, and others gradually adopted. Three types of field emerged: fields sown with a single cultivar, fields sown with two cultivars, and unassigned fields (too many cultivars or unassigned plants to reliably assign the field). Field plant diversity was higher than expected, indicating the persistence of cultivars that were grown for only one year. The cultivar composition of feral populations was similar to that of field plants, with an increasing number of cultivars each year. By using genetic tools, we found a link between the cultivars of field plants in a particular year and the cultivars of feral population plants in the following year. Feral populations on road verges were more diverse than those on path verges. All of these findings are discussed in terms of their consequences in the context of coexistence with genetically modified crops. PMID:27359342

  15. Genetic Diversity of Oilseed Rape Fields and Feral Populations in the Context of Coexistence with GM Crops

    PubMed Central

    Bailleul, Diane; Ollier, Sébastien; Lecomte, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Despite growing concern about transgenes escaping from fields, few studies have analysed the genetic diversity of crops in an agroecosystem over several years. Accurate information about the dynamics and relationship of the genetic diversity of crops in an agroecosystem is essential for risk assessment and policies concerning the containment of genetically modified crops and their coexistence with crops grown by conventional practices. Here, we analysed the genetic diversity of oilseed rape plants from fields and feral populations over 4 years in an agricultural landscape of 41 km2. We used exact compatibility and maximum likelihood assignment methods to assign these plants to cultivars. Even pure lines and hybrid cultivar seed lots contained several genotypes. The cultivar diversity in fields reflected the conventional view of agroecosystems quite well: that is, there was a succession of cultivars, some grown for longer than others because of their good performance, some used for one year and then abandoned, and others gradually adopted. Three types of field emerged: fields sown with a single cultivar, fields sown with two cultivars, and unassigned fields (too many cultivars or unassigned plants to reliably assign the field). Field plant diversity was higher than expected, indicating the persistence of cultivars that were grown for only one year. The cultivar composition of feral populations was similar to that of field plants, with an increasing number of cultivars each year. By using genetic tools, we found a link between the cultivars of field plants in a particular year and the cultivars of feral population plants in the following year. Feral populations on road verges were more diverse than those on path verges. All of these findings are discussed in terms of their consequences in the context of coexistence with genetically modified crops. PMID:27359342

  16. Tropical Rotation Crops Influence Nematode Densities and Vegetable Yields

    PubMed Central

    McSorley, R.; Dickson, D. W.; de Brito, J. A.; Hochmuth, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of eight summer rotation crops on nematode densities and yields of subsequent spring vegetable crops were determined in field studies conducted in north Florida from 1991 to 1993. The crop sequence was as follows: (i) rotation crops during summer 1991; (ii) cover crop of rye (Secale cereale) during winter 1991-92; (iii) 'Lemondrop L' squash (Cucurbita pepo) during spring 1992; (iv) rotation crops during summer 1992; (v) rye during winter 1992-93; (vi) 'Classic' eggplant (Solanum melongena) during spring 1993. The eight summer crop rotation treatments were as follows: 'Hale' castor (Ricinus communis), velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana), sesame (Sesamum indicum), American jointvetch (Aeschynomene americana), weed fallow, 'SX- 17' sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor x S. sudanense), 'Kirby' soybean (Glycine max), and 'Clemson Spineless' okra (Hibiscus esculentus) as a control. Rotations with castor, velvetbean, American jointvetch, and sorghum-sudangrass were most effective in maintaining the lowest population densities of Meloidogyne spp. (a mixture of M. incognita race 1 and M. arenaria race 1), but Paratrichodorus minor built up in the sorghum-sudangrass rotation. Yield of squash was lower (P ≤ 0.05) following sorghum-sudangrass than after any of the other treatments except fallow. Yield of eggplant was greater (P ≤ 0.05) following castor, sesame, or American jointvetch than following okra or fallow. Several of the rotation crops evaluated here may be useful for managing nematodes in the field and for improving yields of subsequent vegetable crops. PMID:19279897

  17. Tropical rotation crops influence nematode densities and vegetable yields.

    PubMed

    McSorley, R; Dickson, D W; de Brito, J A; Hochmuth, R C

    1994-09-01

    The effects of eight summer rotation crops on nematode densities and yields of subsequent spring vegetable crops were determined in field studies conducted in north Florida from 1991 to 1993. The crop sequence was as follows: (i) rotation crops during summer 1991; (ii) cover crop of rye (Secale cereale) during winter 1991-92; (iii) 'Lemondrop L' squash (Cucurbita pepo) during spring 1992; (iv) rotation crops during summer 1992; (v) rye during winter 1992-93; (vi) 'Classic' eggplant (Solanum melongena) during spring 1993. The eight summer crop rotation treatments were as follows: 'Hale' castor (Ricinus communis), velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana), sesame (Sesamum indicum), American jointvetch (Aeschynomene americana), weed fallow, 'SX- 17' sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor x S. sudanense), 'Kirby' soybean (Glycine max), and 'Clemson Spineless' okra (Hibiscus esculentus) as a control. Rotations with castor, velvetbean, American jointvetch, and sorghum-sudangrass were most effective in maintaining the lowest population densities of Meloidogyne spp. (a mixture of M. incognita race 1 and M. arenaria race 1), but Paratrichodorus minor built up in the sorghum-sudangrass rotation. Yield of squash was lower (P crops evaluated here may be useful for managing nematodes in the field and for improving yields of subsequent vegetable crops. PMID:19279897

  18. Sequencing-based variant detection in the polyploid crop oilseed rape

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The detection and exploitation of genetic variation underpins crop improvement. However, the polyploid nature of the genomes of many of our most important crops represents a barrier, particularly for the analysis of variation within genes. To overcome this, we aimed to develop methodologies based on amplicon sequencing that involve the incorporation of barcoded amplification tags (BATs) into PCR products. Results A protocol was developed to tag PCR products with 5’ 6-base oligonucleotide barcode extensions before pooling for sequencing library production using standard Illumina adapters. A computational method was developed for the de-convolution of products and the robust detection and scoring of sequence variants. Using this methodology, amplicons targeted to gene sequences were screened across a B. napus mapping population and the resulting allele scoring strings for 24 markers linkage mapped to the expected regions of the genome. Furthermore, using one-dimensional 8-fold pooling, 4608 lines of a B. napus mutation population were screened for induced mutations in a locus-specific amplicon (an orthologue of GL2.b) and mixed product of three co-amplified loci (orthologues of FAD2), identifying 10 and 41 mutants respectively. Conclusions The utilisation of barcode tags to de-convolute pooled PCR products in multiplexed, variation screening via Illumina sequencing provides a cost effective method for SNP genotyping and mutation detection and, potentially, markers for causative changes, even in polyploid species. Combining this approach with existing Illumina multiplexing workflows allows the analysis of thousands of lines cheaply and efficiently in a single sequencing run with minimal library production costs. PMID:23915099

  19. Impact of Shortened Crop Rotation of Oilseed Rape on Soil and Rhizosphere Microbial Diversity in Relation to Yield Decline

    PubMed Central

    Hilton, Sally; Bennett, Amanda J.; Keane, Gary; Bending, Gary D.; Chandler, David; Stobart, Ron; Mills, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Oilseed rape (OSR) grown in monoculture shows a decline in yield relative to virgin OSR of up to 25%, but the mechanisms responsible are unknown. A long term field experiment of OSR grown in a range of rotations with wheat was used to determine whether shifts in fungal and bacterial populations of the rhizosphere and bulk soil were associated with the development of OSR yield decline. The communities of fungi and bacteria in the rhizosphere and bulk soil from the field experiment were profiled using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) and sequencing of cloned internal transcribed spacer regions and 16S rRNA genes, respectively. OSR cropping frequency had no effect on rhizosphere bacterial communities. However, the rhizosphere fungal communities from continuously grown OSR were significantly different to those from other rotations. This was due primarily to an increase in abundance of two fungi which showed 100% and 95% DNA identity to the plant pathogens Olpidium brassicae and Pyrenochaeta lycopersici, respectively. Real-time PCR confirmed that there was significantly more of these fungi in the continuously grown OSR than the other rotations. These two fungi were isolated from the field and used to inoculate OSR and Brassica oleracea grown under controlled conditions in a glasshouse to determine their effect on yield. At high doses, Olpidium brassicae reduced top growth and root biomass in seedlings and reduced branching and subsequent pod and seed production. Pyrenochaeta sp. formed lesions on the roots of seedlings, and at high doses delayed flowering and had a negative impact on seed quantity and quality. PMID:23573215

  20. Impact of shortened crop rotation of oilseed rape on soil and rhizosphere microbial diversity in relation to yield decline.

    PubMed

    Hilton, Sally; Bennett, Amanda J; Keane, Gary; Bending, Gary D; Chandler, David; Stobart, Ron; Mills, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Oilseed rape (OSR) grown in monoculture shows a decline in yield relative to virgin OSR of up to 25%, but the mechanisms responsible are unknown. A long term field experiment of OSR grown in a range of rotations with wheat was used to determine whether shifts in fungal and bacterial populations of the rhizosphere and bulk soil were associated with the development of OSR yield decline. The communities of fungi and bacteria in the rhizosphere and bulk soil from the field experiment were profiled using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) and sequencing of cloned internal transcribed spacer regions and 16S rRNA genes, respectively. OSR cropping frequency had no effect on rhizosphere bacterial communities. However, the rhizosphere fungal communities from continuously grown OSR were significantly different to those from other rotations. This was due primarily to an increase in abundance of two fungi which showed 100% and 95% DNA identity to the plant pathogens Olpidium brassicae and Pyrenochaeta lycopersici, respectively. Real-time PCR confirmed that there was significantly more of these fungi in the continuously grown OSR than the other rotations. These two fungi were isolated from the field and used to inoculate OSR and Brassica oleracea grown under controlled conditions in a glasshouse to determine their effect on yield. At high doses, Olpidium brassicae reduced top growth and root biomass in seedlings and reduced branching and subsequent pod and seed production. Pyrenochaeta sp. formed lesions on the roots of seedlings, and at high doses delayed flowering and had a negative impact on seed quantity and quality. PMID:23573215

  1. What Is Rape and Date Rape?

    MedlinePlus

    ... What is rape and date rape? What is rape and date rape? Get help National Sexual Assault Hotline 800-656- ... drinking, it is NOT your fault. What is sexual assault? Sexual assault and abuse is any kind of ...

  2. [Bacterial diseases of rape].

    PubMed

    Zakharova, O M; Mel'nychuk, M D; Dankevych, L A; Patyka, V P

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial destruction of the culture was described and its agents identified in the spring and winter rape crops. Typical symptoms are the following: browning of stem tissue and its mucilagization, chlorosis of leaves, yellowing and beginning of soft rot in the place of leaf stalks affixion to stems, loss of pigmentation (violet). Pathogenic properties of the collection strains and morphological, cultural, physiological, and biochemical properties of the agents of rape's bacterial diseases isolated by the authors have been investigated. It was found that all the isolates selected by the authors are highly or moderately aggressive towards different varieties of rape. According to the complex of phenotypic properties 44% of the total number of isolates selected by the authors are related to representatives of the genus Pseudomonas, 37% - to Xanthomonas and 19% - to Pectobacterium. PMID:23293826

  3. Transgenic oilseed rape along transportation routes and port of Vancouver in western Canada.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Yasuyuki; Beckie, Hugh J; Matsuo, Kazuhito

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of transgenic herbicide-resistant oilseed rape (Brassica napus) in ruderal (non-crop disturbed) areas has not been investigated previously in Canada. The primary objective of this study was to document their occurrence in two main ruderal areas (along railways and roads) in the province of Saskatchewan, where half of all oilseed rape is grown, and at the port of Vancouver, British Columbia on the west coast of Canada, where most oilseed rape destined for export is transported by rail. During the 2005 growing season, leaf samples of oilseed rape plants were collected at randomly-selected sites along railways and roads across Saskatchewan ecoregions and at Vancouver; infestation area, density, and plant height of oilseed rape were measured at each site. The presence of the glyphosate and glufosinate resistance traits was determined using test strips. The infestation area of oilseed rape, averaged across 155 sampled sites in the Saskatchewan survey, was markedly smaller in populations along railways than roads; in contrast, infestation area averaged across 54 sites in the Vancouver survey was greater for populations along railways than roads. In both surveys, mean plant density was greater for populations found along railways than roads. Two-thirds of oilseed rape plants sampled across Saskatchewan ecoregions and at Vancouver were transgenic, although the relative proportion of plants with the glyphosate or glufosinate resistance trait varied between surveys. Frequency of occurrence of transgenic plants in ruderal areas was similar to the proportion of the oilseed rape area planted with transgenic cultivars in the recent preceding years. A single transgenic B. rapa x B. napus hybrid was found along a road in Vancouver, confirming the relatively high probability of hybridization between these two Brassica species. With current control measures, transgenic oilseed rape populations may persist and spread in these ruderal areas. PMID:17328853

  4. A High-Density Genetic Map Identifies a Novel Major QTL for Boron Efficiency in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaohua; Zhao, Hua; Shi, Lei; Xu, Fangsen

    2014-01-01

    Low boron (B) seriously limits the growth of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), a high B demand species that is sensitive to low B conditions. Significant genotypic variations in response to B deficiency have been observed among B. napus cultivars. To reveal the genetic basis for B efficiency in B. napus, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for the plant growth traits, B uptake traits and the B efficiency coefficient (BEC) were analyzed using a doubled haploid (DH) population derived from a cross between a B-efficient parent, Qingyou 10, and a B-inefficient parent, Westar 10. A high-density genetic map was constructed based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) assayed using Brassica 60 K Infinium BeadChip Array, simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). The linkage map covered a total length of 2139.5 cM, with 19 linkage groups (LGs) and an average distance of 1.6 cM between adjacent markers. Based on hydroponic evaluation of six B efficiency traits measured in three separate repeated trials, a total of 52 QTLs were identified, accounting for 6.14–46.27% of the phenotypic variation. A major QTL for BEC, qBEC-A3a, was co-located on A3 with other QTLs for plant growth and B uptake traits under low B stress. Using a subset of substitution lines, qBEC-A3a was validated and narrowed down to the interval between CNU384 and BnGMS436. The results of this study provide a novel major locus located on A3 for B efficiency in B. napus that will be suitable for fine mapping and marker-assisted selection breeding for B efficiency in B. napus. PMID:25375356

  5. Rape (sexual assault) - overview

    MedlinePlus

    Sex and rape; Date rape; Sexual assault ... Rape may occur between members of the same sex. This is more common in places such as prisons, military settings, and single-sex schools. People with physical or mental disabilities or ...

  6. Effect of tillage and crop residue management on nematode densities on corn.

    PubMed

    McSorley, R; Gallaher, R N

    1994-12-01

    Effects of winter cover crop management on nematode densities associated with a subsequent corn (Zea mays) crop were examined in five sites in north Florida. Two sites had received winter cover crops of lupine (Lupinus angustifolius), and one site each had rye (Secale cereale), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum). In each site, five different management regimes were compared: 1) conventional tillage after the cover crop was removed for forage; 2) conventional tillage with the cover crop retained as green manure; 3) no-till with the cover crop mowed and used as a mulch; 4) no-till with the cover crop removed as forage; and 5) fallow. Sites were sampled at corn planting and harvest for estimates of initial (Pi) and final (Pf) nematode population densities, respectively. Whether the cover crop was removed as forage or retained as green manure or mulch had no effect (P > 0.10) on population densities of any plant-parasitic nematode before or after corn at any site. Differences between conventional-till and no-till treatments were significant (P crop residues had little consistent effect on nematodes, and these practices should be considered based on agronomic benefits rather than for nematode management. PMID:19279946

  7. Nitrous oxide emission from wetland soil following single and seasonal split application of cattle manure to field tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill var. Heinz) and rape (Brassica napus, L. var. Giant) crops.

    PubMed

    Masaka, Johnson; Nyamangara, Justice; Wuta, Menas

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of the contribution of manure applications to global atmospheric N2O loading is needed to evaluate agriculture's contribution to the global warming process. Two field experiments were carried out at Dufuya wetland (19°17'S; 29°21'E, 1260 m above sea level) to determine the effects of single and split manure applications on emissions of N2O from soil during the growing seasons of two rape and two tomato crops. Two field experiments were established. In the first experiment the manure was applied in three levels of 0, 15, and 30 Mg ha(-1) as a single application just before planting of the first tomato crop. In the second experiment the 15 and 30 Mg ha(-1) manure application rates were divided into four split applications of 3.75 and 7.5 Mg ha(-1) respectively, for each of the four cropping events. Single applications of 15 and 30 Mg ha(-1) manure once in four cropping events had higher emissions of N2O than those recorded on plots that received split applications of 3.75 and 7.5 Mg ha(-1) manure at least up to the second test crop. Thereafter N2O emissions on plots subjected to split applications of manure were higher or equal to those recorded in plots that received single basal applications of 30 Mg ha(-1) applied a week before planting the first crop. Seasonal split applications of manure to wetland vegetable crops can reduce emissions of N2O at least up to the second seasonal split application. PMID:27099826

  8. Weeds in fields with contrasting conventional and genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops. II. Effects on individual species.

    PubMed

    Heard, M S; Hawes, C; Champion, G T; Clark, S J; Firbank, L G; Haughton, A J; Parish, A M; Perry, J N; Rothery, P; Roy, D B; Scott, R J; Skellern, M P; Squire, G R; Hill, M O

    2003-11-29

    We compared the effects of the management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) and conventional beet, maize and spring oilseed rape on 12 weed species. We sampled the seedbank before and after cropping. During the season we counted plants and measured seed rain and biomass. Ratios of densities were used to calculate emergence, survival, reproduction and seedbank change. Treatments significantly affected the biomass of six species in beet, eight in maize and five in spring oilseed rape. The effects were generally consistent, with biomass lower in GMHT beet and spring oilseed rape and higher in GMHT maize. With few exceptions, emergence was higher in GMHT crops. Subsequent survival was significantly lowered for eight species in beet and six in spring oilseed rape in the GMHT treatments. It was increased for five species in maize and one in spring oilseed rape. Significant effects on seedbank change were found for four species. However, for many species in beet and spring oilseed rape (19 out of 24 cases), seed densities were lower in the seedbank after GMHT cropping. These differences compounded over time would result in large decreases in population densities of arable weeds. In maize, populations may increase. PMID:14561317

  9. Effects of Cropping Sequences on Population Densities of Meloidogyne hapla and Carrot Yield in Organic Soil.

    PubMed

    Bélair, G

    1992-09-01

    The influence of various cropping sequences on population densities of Meloidogyne hapla and carrot yield was studied in organic soil under microplot-and field conditions. Spinach, radish, barley, oat, and wheat were poor or nonhosts for M. hapla. Population densities of M. hapla were maintained or increased on cabbage, celery, lettuce, leek, marigold, and potato. Marketable percent-age and root weight of carrots were greater following spinach, oat, radish, and fallow-onion than those following two crops of onion or carrot in microplots. Under field conditions, the carrot-onion-oat-carrot cropping sequence decreased M. hapla population densities and provided a 282% increase in marketable yield of carrot compared to a carrot monoculture. Two consecutive years of onion increased M. hapla population densities causing severe root galling and a 50% yield loss in the following crop of carrot. Based on root-gall indices, carrots could be grown economically for 2 years following radish, spinach, and oat, but not following onion and carrot without the use of nematicides. PMID:19283022

  10. Increased Phytochrome B Alleviates Density Effects on Tuber Yield of Field Potato Crops1

    PubMed Central

    Boccalandro, Hernán E.; Ploschuk, Edmundo L.; Yanovsky, Marcelo J.; Sánchez, Rodolfo A.; Gatz, Christiane; Casal, Jorge J.

    2003-01-01

    The possibility that reduced photomorphogenic responses could increase field crop yield has been suggested often, but experimental support is still lacking. Here, we report that ectopic expression of the Arabidopsis PHYB (phytochrome B) gene, a photoreceptor involved in detecting red to far-red light ratio associated with plant density, can increase tuber yield in field-grown transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum) crops. Surprisingly, this effect was larger at very high densities, despite the intense reduction in the red to far-red light ratios and the concomitant narrowed differences in active phytochrome B levels between wild type and transgenics at these densities. Increased PHYB expression not only altered the ability of plants to respond to light signals, but they also modified the light environment itself. This combination resulted in larger effects of enhanced PHYB expression on tuber number and crop photosynthesis at high planting densities. The PHYB transgenics showed higher maximum photosynthesis in leaves of all strata of the canopy, and this effect was largely due to increased leaf stomatal conductance. We propose that enhanced PHYB expression could be used in breeding programs to shift optimum planting densities to higher levels. PMID:14605224

  11. Rape Myths, Rape Scripts, and Common Rape Experiences of College Women: Differences in Perceptions of Women Who Have Been Raped.

    PubMed

    Hockett, Jericho M; Saucier, Donald A; Badke, Caitlyn

    2016-03-01

    Rape is prevalent at colleges. Although research suggests commonalities across many college women's rape experiences (e.g., perpetrators using multiple coercive strategies), vignettes used to assess rape perceptions often reflect false beliefs. Two studies varying a perpetrator's coercive tactics examine rape perceptions using vignettes reflecting rape myths, rape scripts, or many college women's common rape experiences. Participants perceive a woman who was raped more positively in vignettes reflecting common rape experiences versus those reflecting rape myths or scripts. Theoretical, educational, and research implications are discussed. PMID:26276120

  12. Adolescent Attitudes about Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kershner, Ruth

    1996-01-01

    A very significant problem in society is adolescent rape victimization and the growing number of adolescent perpetrators. This paper examines adolescent attitudes about rape in order to develop curricular materials. It is found that adolescents exhibit conservative attitudes about gender roles, general rape myths, and victim issues. (Author)

  13. Attitudes toward Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Knud S.; Long, Ed

    While the perception of rape has been studied intensely in recent years, most scales focus on rape myths as the content domain. The need exists for a more general instrument which would include items from a variety of sources, e.g., attitudes toward rape awareness, sexual history, age, virginity, community support, etc., in addition to the myth of…

  14. Victims of Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krasner William; And Others

    A scientific, multidisciplinary examination of the social and psychological effects of rape upon female victims is presented, which is then correlated with: (1) the circumstances that surrounded the rape; (2) the victim's personality and social adaptation before she was raped; and (3) the support available from organizations and people who were…

  15. Effect of a Terminated Cover Crop and Aldicarb on Cotton Yield and Meloidogyne incognita Population Density

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, T. A.; Leser, J. F.; Keeling, J. W.; Mullinix, B.

    2008-01-01

    Terminated small grain cover crops are valuable in light textured soils to reduce wind and rain erosion and for protection of young cotton seedlings. A three-year study was conducted to determine the impact of terminated small grain winter cover crops, which are hosts for Meloidogyne incognita, on cotton yield, root galling and nematode midseason population density. The small plot test consisted of the cover treatment as the main plots (winter fallow, oats, rye and wheat) and rate of aldicarb applied in-furrow at-plant (0, 0.59 and 0.84 kg a.i./ha) as subplots in a split-plot design with eight replications, arranged in a randomized complete block design. Roots of 10 cotton plants per plot were examined at approximately 35 days after planting. Root galling was affected by aldicarb rate (9.1, 3.8 and 3.4 galls/root system for 0, 0.59 and 0.84 kg aldicarb/ha), but not by cover crop. Soil samples were collected in mid-July and assayed for nematodes. The winter fallow plots had a lower density of M. incognita second-stage juveniles (J2) (transformed to Log10 (J2 + 1)/500 cm3 soil) than any of the cover crops (0.88, 1.58, 1.67 and 1.75 Log10(J2 + 1)/500 cm3 soil for winter fallow, oats, rye and wheat, respectively). There were also fewer M. incognita eggs at midseason in the winter fallow (3,512, 7,953, 8,262 and 11,392 eggs/500 cm3 soil for winter fallow, oats, rye and wheat, respectively). Yield (kg lint per ha) was increased by application of aldicarb (1,544, 1,710 and 1,697 for 0, 0.59 and 0.84 kg aldicarb/ha), but not by any cover crop treatments. These results were consistent over three years. The soil temperature at 15 cm depth, from when soils reached 18°C to termination of the grass cover crop, averaged 9,588, 7,274 and 1,639 centigrade hours (with a minimum threshold of 10°C), in 2005, 2006 and 2007, respectively. Under these conditions, potential reproduction of M. incognita on the cover crop did not result in a yield penalty. PMID:19259531

  16. Rice cropping density and intensity lessened in southeast China during the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Bingwen; Qi, Wen; Tang, Zhenghong; Chen, Chongcheng; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2016-01-01

    Accurate and updated time series maps of paddy rice distribution and planting intensity will greatly improve our knowledge. Unfortunately, spatiotemporal explicit information on rice fields is relatively limited, and considerable uncertainties still exist as regards to its inter-annual variations in China. In this study, an improved rice mapping methodology was proposed through combined consideration of vegetation phenology and surface moisture variations from different seasonal rice. This method was applied to southeast China based on 500 m 8 day composite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Enhance Vegetation Indices with two bands (EVI2) during the period 2001-2013. Its efficiency was validated with 763 ground survey sites, with an overall accuracy of 95.02 % and the kappa index of 0.9217. Spatiotemporal analysis indicated that rice cropping density and intensity lessened in southeast China during the period 2001-2013. Particularly, the paddy rice-planted areas reduced by 30.09 %, changing from 231,005 to 161,484 km(2). Among them, the planted areas of double rice decreased by 49.34 %, changing from 34,215 to 17,335 km(2). Therefore, averaged rice cropping intensity in southeast China decreased from 1.148 to 1.107. The primary dynamic patterns were from single rice or a rotation of rice plus other crops to non-rice (93,386 km(2)) and double rice to non-double rice (24,132 km(2)). When analyzed at provincial and altitudinal gradient levels, it was obvious that areas with greater rice cropping density or intensity were associated with more remarkable reductions. Graphical abstract The left graph shows that the rice cropping density lessened in Hubei, Hunan, Guangdong, Jiangxi, Anhui, Jiangsu, Henan provinces and other three provincial-level administrative units (Zhejiang, Fujian and Shanghai) from 2001 to 2013. The middle graph indicates the movement of gravity center as well as the variations in the total planted areas of single rice, rice plus

  17. Effect of yard waste compost on plant-parasitic nematode densities in vegetable crops.

    PubMed

    McSorley, R; Gallaher, R N

    1995-12-01

    The effects of yard-waste compost on densities of plant-parasitic nematodes were determined on four crops at two sites in north Florida. Separate experiments were conducted with sweet corn (Zea mays), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), yellow squash (Cucurbita pepo), and okra (Hibiscus esculentus). In each test, the design was a randomized complete block replicated four times and involving three treatments: 269 mt/ha yard-waste compost applied to the soil surface as a mulch, 269 mt/ha compost incorporated into the soil, and an unamended control. Final population densities of Criconemella spp. and Meloidogyne incognita were lower in plots receiving a compost treatment than in unamended control plots in only one of eight tests (P densities of Paratrichodorus minor, Pratylenchus spp., and Xiphinema spp. were unaffected by compost treatment in all tests (P > 0.10). Vegetable yields were either unaffected by treatment or, in some tests, were lowest following the mulch treatment (P densities of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with short-term (ca. 4 months) vegetable crops. PMID:19277320

  18. Effect of Yard Waste Compost on Plant-Parasitic Nematode Densities in Vegetable Crops

    PubMed Central

    McSorley, R.; Gallaher, R. N.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of yard-waste compost on densities of plant-parasitic nematodes were determined on four crops at two sites in north Florida. Separate experiments were conducted with sweet corn (Zea mays), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), yellow squash (Cucurbita pepo), and okra (Hibiscus esculentus). In each test, the design was a randomized complete block replicated four times and involving three treatments: 269 mt/ha yard-waste compost applied to the soil surface as a mulch, 269 mt/ha compost incorporated into the soil, and an unamended control. Final population densities of Criconemella spp. and Meloidogyne incognita were lower in plots receiving a compost treatment than in unamended control plots in only one of eight tests (P ≤ 0.05). Final densities of Paratrichodorus minor, Pratylenchus spp., and Xiphinema spp. were unaffected by compost treatment in all tests (P > 0.10). Vegetable yields were either unaffected by treatment or, in some tests, were lowest following the mulch treatment (P ≤ 0.10). Results indicate that the yard-waste compost used had little effect on densities of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with short-term (ca. 4 months) vegetable crops. PMID:19277320

  19. The Realities of Date Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presley, Cara; Watson, Jennifer; Williams, Audrey R.

    This poster presentation addresses the issue of date rape, specifically in the college environment. Highlighted are date rape statistics, demographics, and date rape drugs. Also discussed are date rape warnings and prevention strategies. It is concluded that college and university administrators must place the issue of date rape and acquaintance…

  20. Contrasting effects of mass-flowering crops on bee pollination of hedge plants at different spatial and temporal scales.

    PubMed

    Kovács-Hostyánszki, Anikó; Haenke, Sebastian; Batáry, Péter; Jauker, Birgit; Báldi, András; Tscharntke, Teja; Holzschuh, Andrea

    2013-12-01

    Landscape-wide mass-flowering of oilseed rape (canola Brassica napus) can considerably affect wild bee communities and pollination success of wild plants. We aimed to assess the impact of oilseed rape on the pollination of wild plants and bee abundance during and after oilseed-rape bloom, including effects on crop-noncrop spillover at landscape and adjacent-field scales. We focused on two shrub species (hawthorn Crataegus spp., dog rose Rosa canina) and adjacent herb flowering in forest edges, connected hedges, and isolated hedges in Lower Saxony, Germany. We selected 35 landscape circles of 1 km radius, differing in the amount of oilseed rape; 18 were adjacent to oilseed rape and 17 to cereal fields, and we quantified bee density via pan traps at all sites. Adjacent oilseed rape positively affected fruit mass and seed number per fruit of simultaneously flowering hawthorn (no effect on dog rose, which flowers after the oilseed rape bloom). At the landscape scale, oilseed rape had a negative effect on bumble bee density in the hedges during flowering due to dilution of pollinators per unit area and the consequently intensified competition between oilseed rape and wild shrubs, but a positive effect after flowering when bees moved to the hedges, which still provided resources. In contrast, positive landscape-scale effects of oilseed rape were found throughout the season in forest edges, suggesting that edges support nesting activity and enhanced food resources. Our results show that oilseed rape effects on bee abundances and pollination success in seminatural habitats depend on the spatial and temporal scale considered and on the habitat type, the wild plant species, and the time of crop flowering. These scale-dependent positive and negative effects should be considered in evaluations of landscape-scale configuration and composition of crops. Food resources provided by mass-flowering crops should be most beneficial for landscape-wide enhancement of wild bee

  1. Pesticide occurrence in groundwater in areas of high-density row crop production in Alabama, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moreland, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    High-density row crop production occurs in three areas of Alabama that are underlain by productive aquifers, northern Alabama, southeastern Alabama, and Baldwin County in southwestern Alabama. The U.S. Geological Survey collected five groundwater samples from each of these three areas during 2009 for analysis of selected pesticides. Results of these analyses showed detections for 37 of 152 analytes. The three most frequently detected compounds were atrazine, 2-Chloro-4-isopropylamino-6-amino-triazine (CIAT), and metolachlor. The highest concentration for any analyte was 4.08 micrograms per liter for metolachlor.

  2. Ecological Variation in Response to Mass-Flowering Oilseed Rape and Surrounding Landscape Composition by Members of a Cryptic Bumblebee Complex

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Dara A.; Knight, Mairi E.; Stout, Jane C.

    2013-01-01

    The Bombus sensu stricto species complex is a widespread group of cryptic bumblebee species which are important pollinators of many crops and wild plants. These cryptic species have, until now, largely been grouped together in ecological studies, and so little is known about their individual colony densities, foraging ranges or habitat requirements, which can be influenced by land use at a landscape scale. We used mass-flowering oilseed rape fields as locations to sample bees of this complex, as well as the second most common visitor to oilseed rape B. lapidarius, and molecular RFLP methods to distinguish between the cryptic species. We then used microsatellite genotyping to identify sisters and estimate colony densities, and related both proportions of cryptic species and their colony densities to the composition of the landscape surrounding the fields. We found B. lucorum was the most common member of the complex present in oilseed rape followed by B. terrestris. B. cryptarum was also present in all but one site, with higher proportions found in the east of the study area. High numbers of bumblebee colonies were estimated to be using oilseed rape fields as a forage resource, with B. terrestris colony numbers higher than previous estimates from non-mass-flowering fields. We also found that the cryptic species responded differently to surrounding landscape composition: both relative proportions of B. cryptarum in samples and colony densities of B. lucorum were negatively associated with the amount of arable land in the landscape, while proportions and colony densities of other species did not respond to landscape variables at the scale measured. This suggests that the cryptic species have different ecological requirements (which may be scale-dependent) and that oilseed rape can be an important forage resource for many colonies of bumblebees. Given this, we recommend sustainable management of this crop to benefit bumblebees. PMID:23840338

  3. Spatial density and movement of the Lygus spp. parasitoid Peristenus relictus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in organic strawberries with alfalfa trap crops.

    PubMed

    Swezey, Sean L; Nieto, Diego J; Pickett, Charles H; Hagler, James R; Bryer, Janet A; Machtley, Scott A

    2014-04-01

    Alfalfa trap crops are currently used to manage Lygus spp. in organic strawberry fields on the California Central Coast. The retention of Lygus spp. in alfalfa creates aggregated distributions that provide improved opportunities for biological control by the introduced parasitoid Peristenus relictus (Ruthe). The abundance and distribution of P. relictus between two trap crops separated by 50 strawberry rows were analyzed in 2008 and 2010. Parasitism of Lygus spp. nymphs by P. relictus (measured by larval abundance and % parasitism) was greatest in alfalfa trap crops compared with strawberry rows. A significantly positive correlation between host nymphs and P. relictus larvae in and between trap crops was found. Movement of P. relictus adults from a marked alfalfa trap crop into adjacent strawberry rows or trap crops was also studied in 2008 and 2009 using a chicken egg-albumin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay mark-capture technique. In 2008 and 2009, 85 and 49% of protein-marked wasps were captured from central trap crops, respectively, indicating that alfalfa trap crops act as a concentrated "host-density anchor" in organic strawberry fields. PMID:24763093

  4. Are We Encouraging Rape?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Patricia B.

    The purpose of this paper was to increase awareness of some of the ways that we, as individuals and as a society, are encouraging the crime of rape. The paper examines our ideals about sexuality, appropriate sexual roles for women and men, the relationship between sex and aggression and how these contribute to rape. Laws, court procedures and…

  5. Rape: A Family Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Priscilla N.; Rollins, Judith C.

    1981-01-01

    Rape is a crisis shared by the victim and her family. The family's reaction is influenced by cultural views such as viewing rape as sex rather than violence. Adaptive responses can be supported by open expression, education, and family, as well as individual counseling. (JAC)

  6. Naming the Rape Victim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, Nolan

    Since state laws prohibiting identification of rape victims were struck down in a 1975 United States Supreme Court ruling, the media have been reconsidering their traditional policy of preserving victims' anonymity. Explaining their decision to begin naming victims in rape trials, several newspapers cite the press's responsibility to provide the…

  7. Explaining wartime rape.

    PubMed

    Gottschall, Jonathan

    2004-05-01

    In the years since the first reports of mass rapes in the Yugoslavian wars of secession and the genocidal massacres in Rwanda, feminist activists and scholars, human rights organizations, journalists, and social scientists have dedicated unprecedented efforts to document, explain, and seek solutions for the phenomenon of wartime rape. While contributors to this literature agree on much, there is no consensus on causal factors. This paper provides a brief overview of the literature on wartime rape in historical and ethnographical societies and a critical analysis of the four leading explanations for its root causes: the feminist theory, the cultural pathology theory, the strategic rape theory, and the biosocial theory. The paper concludes that the biosocial theory is the only one capable of bringing all the phenomena associated with wartime rape into a single explanatory context. PMID:15326538

  8. Gender Differences in Rape Reporting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pino, Nathan W.; Meier, Robert F.

    1999-01-01

    Compares male and female rape reporting behavior using data from the National Crime and Victimization Survey for 897 rape victims. Data indicate that the situational characteristics of rape and factors that influence reporting a rape differ by sex. Women reported victimization more frequently than did men. (SLD)

  9. Is the Rape Rate Increasing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Paul; And Others

    While it has been asserted that rape has increased in frequency over the past generation, part of this increase may be due to a greater willingness to report rape to the authorities. A study was conducted to examine the frequency of rape and to describe the characteristics of rape victims. A random questionnaire survey of 4,340 adults in five…

  10. Large-scale pollination experiment demonstrates the importance of insect pollination in winter oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Sandra A M; Herbertsson, Lina; Rundlöf, Maj; Smith, Henrik G; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2016-03-01

    Insect pollination, despite its potential to contribute substantially to crop production, is not an integrated part of agronomic planning. A major reason for this are knowledge gaps in the contribution of pollinators to yield, which partly result from difficulties in determining area-based estimates of yield effects from insect pollination under field conditions. We have experimentally manipulated honey bee Apis mellifera densities at 43 oilseed rape Brassica napus fields over 2 years in Scandinavia. Honey bee hives were placed in 22 fields; an additional 21 fields without large apiaries in the surrounding landscape were selected as controls. Depending on the pollination system in the parental generation, the B. napus cultivars in the crop fields are classified as either open-pollinated or first-generation hybrids, with both types being open-pollinated in the generation of plants cultivated in the fields. Three cultivars of each type were grown. We measured the activity of flower-visiting insects during flowering and estimated yields by harvesting with small combine harvesters. The addition of honey bee hives to the fields dramatically increased abundance of flower-visiting honey bees in those fields. Honey bees affected yield, but the effect depended on cultivar type (p = 0.04). Post-hoc analysis revealed that open-pollinated cultivars, but not hybrid cultivars, had 11% higher yields in fields with added honey bees than those grown in the control fields (p = 0.07). To our knowledge, this is the first whole-field study in replicated landscapes to assess the benefit of insect pollination in oilseed rape. Our results demonstrate that honey bees have the potential to increase oilseed rape yields, thereby emphasizing the importance of pollinator management for optimal cultivation of oilseed rape. PMID:26650584

  11. Regulation of Population Densities of Heterodera cajani and Other Plant-Parasitic Nematodes by Crop Rotations on Vertisols, in Semi-Arid Tropical Production Systems in India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S B; Rego, T J; Mohiuddin, M; Rao, V N

    1996-06-01

    The significance of double crop (intercrop and sequential crop), single crop (rainy season crop fallow from June to September), and rotations on densities of Heterodera cajani, Helicotylenchus retusus, and Rotylenchulus reniformis was studied on Vertisol (Typic Pellusterts) between 1987 and 1993. Cowpea (Vigna sinensis), mungbean (Phaseolus aureus), and pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) greatly increased the population densities of H. cajani and suppressed the population densities of other plant-parasitic nematodes. Mean population densities of H. cajani were about 8 times lower in single crop systems than in double crop systems, with pigeonpea as a component intercrop. Plots planted to sorghum, safflower, and chickpea in the preceding year contained fewer H. cajani eggs and juveniles than did plots previously planted to pigeonpea, cowpea, or mungbean. Continuous cropping of sorghum in the rainy season and safflower in the post-rainy season markedly reduced the population density of H. cajani. Sorghum, safflower, and chickpea favored increased population densities of H. retusus. Adding cowpea to the system resulted in a significant increase in the densities of R. reniformis. Mean densities of total plant-parasitic nematodes were three times greater in double crop systems, with pigeonpea as a component intercrop than in single crop systems with rainy season fallow component. Cropping systems had a regulatory effect on the nematode populations and could be an effective nematode management tactic. Intercropping of sorghum with H. cajani tolerant pigeonpea could be effective in increasing the productivity of traditional production systems in H. cajani infested regions. PMID:19277141

  12. Regulation of Population Densities of Heterodera cajani and Other Plant-Parasitic Nematodes by Crop Rotations on Vertisols, in Semi-Arid Tropical Production Systems in India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, S. B.; Rego, T. J.; Mohiuddin, M.; Rao, V. N.

    1996-01-01

    The significance of double crop (intercrop and sequential crop), single crop (rainy season crop fallow from June to September), and rotations on densities of Heterodera cajani, Helicotylenchus retusus, and Rotylenchulus reniformis was studied on Vertisol (Typic Pellusterts) between 1987 and 1993. Cowpea (Vigna sinensis), mungbean (Phaseolus aureus), and pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) greatly increased the population densities of H. cajani and suppressed the population densities of other plant-parasitic nematodes. Mean population densities of H. cajani were about 8 times lower in single crop systems than in double crop systems, with pigeonpea as a component intercrop. Plots planted to sorghum, safflower, and chickpea in the preceding year contained fewer H. cajani eggs and juveniles than did plots previously planted to pigeonpea, cowpea, or mungbean. Continuous cropping of sorghum in the rainy season and safflower in the post-rainy season markedly reduced the population density of H. cajani. Sorghum, safflower, and chickpea favored increased population densities of H. retusus. Adding cowpea to the system resulted in a significant increase in the densities of R. reniformis. Mean densities of total plant-parasitic nematodes were three times greater in double crop systems, with pigeonpea as a component intercrop than in single crop systems with rainy season fallow component. Cropping systems had a regulatory effect on the nematode populations and could be an effective nematode management tactic. Intercropping of sorghum with H. cajani tolerant pigeonpea could be effective in increasing the productivity of traditional production systems in H. cajani infested regions. PMID:19277141

  13. Crop residue and residue management effects on Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda: Armadillidiidae) populations and soybean stand densities.

    PubMed

    Johnson, W A; Alfaress, S; Whitworth, R J; McCornack, B P

    2012-10-01

    In general, Armadillidium vulgare (Latreille) are considered nonpests of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill], but changes in soil conservation practices have shifted the pest status of this organism from an opportunistic to a perennial, early-season pest in parts of central Kansas. As a result, soybean producers that rotate with corn (Zea mays L.) under conservation tillage practices have resorted to removing excess corn residue by using controlled burns. In a 2-yr field study (2009-2010), we demonstrated that residue removal in burned compared with unburned plots (measured as previous crop residue weights) had minimal impact on numbers of live and dead A. vulgare, soybean seedling emergence, and isopod feeding damage over time. Specifically, removal of residue by burning did not result in higher emergence rates for soybean stands or less feeding damage by A. vulgare. In a separate study, we found that number of live A. vulgare and residue weights had no consistent relationship with seedling emergence or feeding damage. Furthermore, seedling emergence was not impacted by higher numbers ofA. vulgare in unburned plots, indicating that emergence in this study may have been influenced by factors other than A. vulgare densities. These studies demonstrate that removing residue through controlled burning did not impact seedling emergence in presence of A. vulgare and that residue and feeding damage to seedlings did not consistently relate to A. vulgare densities. Other factors that may have influenced a relationship between residue and live isopod numbers, such as variable moisture levels, are discussed. PMID:23156159

  14. Effect of biofumigation with manure amendments and repeated biosolarization on Fusarium densities in pepper crops.

    PubMed

    Martínez, M A; Martínez, M C; Bielza, P; Tello, J; Lacasa, A

    2011-01-01

    In the region of Murcia (southeast Spain), sweet pepper has been grown as a monoculture in greenhouses for many years. Until 2005, when it was banned, soils were disinfested with methyl bromide (MB) to control pathogens and to prevent soil fatigue effects. The genus Fusarium plays an important role in the microbiological component associated with yield decline in pepper monocultures. In the present study, soils were treated with manure amendments, alone (biofumigation, B) or in combination with solarization (biosolarization, BS), with or without the addition of pepper plant residues. The B and BS treatments were compared with a treatment using MB. The extent of disinfestation was measured from the density of Fusarium spp. isolated from the soil before and after the respective treatments. Three different species were systematically isolated: Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani and Fusarium equiseti. The repeated use of manure amendments with pepper crop residues, without solarization, was unable to decrease the Fusarium spp. density (which increased from 2,047.17 CFU g(-1) to 3,157.24 CFU g(-1) before and after soil disinfestation, respectively), unlike MB-treated soil (in which the fungi decreased from 481.39 CFU g(-1) to 23.98 CFU g(-1)). However, the effectiveness of the repeated application of BS in diminishing doses (with or without adding plant residues) on Fusarium populations (reductions greater than 72%) was similar to or even greater than the effect of MB. PMID:20820866

  15. Tolerance of sweet sorghum to Meloidogyne incognita and crop effect on nematode population density

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a sugar-producing crop that can be used for biofuel and plastics production, and the crop could be incorporated into annual cropping systems in the southern US. The effect of Meloidogyne incognita on sweet sorghum yield and sugar content has not been reported. Beca...

  16. Effect of plant density and mixing ratio on crop yield in sweet corn/mungbean intercropping.

    PubMed

    Sarlak, S; Aghaalikhani, M; Zand, B

    2008-09-01

    In order to evaluate the ear and forage yield of sweet corn (Zea mays L. var. Saccarata) in pure stand and intercropped with mung bean (Vigna radiata L.), a field experiment was conducted at Varamin region on summer 2006. Experiment was carried out in a split plot design based on randomized complete blocks with 4 replications. Plant density with 3 levels [Low (D1), Mean (D2) and High (D3) respecting 6, 8 and 10 m(-2) for sweet corn, cultivar S.C.403 and 10, 20 and 30 m(-2) for mung bean cultivar, Partow] was arranged in main plots and 5 mixing ratios [(P1) = 0/100, (P2) = 25/75, (P3) = 50/50, (P4) = 75/25, (P5) = 100/0% for sweet corn/mung bean, respectively] were arranged in subplots. Quantitative attributes such as plant height, sucker numbers, LER, dry matter distribution in different plant organs were measured in sweet corn economical maturity. Furthermore the yield of cannable ear corn and yield components of sweet corn and mung bean were investigated. Results showed that plant density has not any significant effect on evaluated traits, while the effect of mixing ratio was significant (p < 0.01). Therefore, the mixing ratio of 75/25 (sweet corn/mung bean) could be introduced as the superior mixing ratio; because of it's maximum rate of total sweet corn's biomass, forage yield, yield and yield components of ear corn in intercropping. Regarding to profitability indices of intercropping, the mixing ratio 75/25 (sweet corn/mung bean) in low density (D1P2) which showed the LER = 1.03 and 1.09 for total crop yield before ear harvesting and total forage yield after ear harvest respectively, was better than corn or mung bean monoculture. PMID:19266927

  17. Manipulating Crop Density to Optimize Nitrogen and Water Use: An Application of Precision Agroecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, T. T.; Huggins, D. R.; Smith, J. L.; Keller, C. K.; Kruger, C.

    2011-12-01

    Rising levels of reactive nitrogen (Nr) in the environment coupled with increasing population positions agriculture as a major contributor for supplying food and ecosystem services to the world. The concept of Precision Agroecology (PA) explicitly recognizes the importance of time and place by combining the principles of precision farming with ecology creating a framework that can lead to improvements in Nr use efficiency. In the Palouse region of the Pacific Northwest, USA, relationships between productivity, N dynamics and cycling, water availability, and environmental impacts result from intricate spatial and temporal variations in soil, ecosystem processes, and socioeconomic factors. Our research goal is to investigate N use efficiency (NUE) in the context of factors that regulate site-specific environmental and economic conditions and to develop the concept of PA for use in sustainable agroecosystems and science-based Nr policy. Nitrogen and plant density field trials with winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were conducted at the Washington State University Cook Agronomy Farm near Pullman, WA under long-term no-tillage management in 2010 and 2011. Treatments were imposed across environmentally heterogeneous field conditions to assess soil, crop and environmental interactions. Microplots with a split N application using 15N-labeled fertilizer were established in 2011 to examine the impact of N timing on uptake of fertilizer and soil N throughout the growing season for two plant density treatments. Preliminary data show that plant density manipulation combined with precision N applications regulated water and N use and resulted in greater wheat yield with less seed and N inputs. These findings indicate that improvements to NUE and agroecosystem sustainability should consider landscape-scale patterns driving productivity (e.g., spatial and temporal dynamics of water availability and N transformations) and would benefit from policy incentives that promote a PA

  18. Identification of irrigated crop types from ERTS-1 density contour maps and color infrared aerial photography. [Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrs, R. W.; Evans, M. A.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The crop types of a Great Plains study area were mapped from color infrared aerial photography. Each field was positively identified from field checks in the area. Enlarged (50x) density contour maps were constructed from three ERTS-1 images taken in the summer of 1973. The map interpreted from the aerial photography was compared to the density contour maps and the accuracy of the ERTS-1 density contour map interpretations were determined. Changes in the vegetation during the growing season and harvest periods were detectable on the ERTS-1 imagery. Density contouring aids in the detection of such charges.

  19. Rape (sexual assault) - overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... This is more common in places such as prisons, military settings, and single-sex schools. People with ... rape. Explain ways to reduce the odds of HIV infection if the rapist may have had HIV. ...

  20. Transfer of thallium from rape seed to rape oil is negligible and oil is fit for human consumption.

    PubMed

    Loula, Martin; Kaňa, Antonín; Vosmanská, Magda; Koplík, Richard; Mestek, Oto

    2016-04-01

    Rape and other Brassicaceae family plants can accumulate appreciable amounts of thallium from the soil. Because some species of this family are common crops utilised as food for direct consumption or raw materials for food production, thallium can enter the food chain. A useful method for thallium determination is inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The limit of detection (0.2 pg ml(-1) Tl or 0.02 ng g(-1) Tl, taking in the account dilution during sample decomposition) found in the current study was very low, and the method can be used for ultra-trace analysis. Possible transfer of thallium from rape seed to the rape oil was investigated in two ways. The balance of thallium in rape seed meal (content 140-200 ng g(-1) Tl) and defatted rape seed meal indicated that thallium did not pass into the oil (p < 0.05). Moreover, the analyses of thallium in six kinds of edible rape seed oil and three kinds of margarines showed that the amount of thallium in rape seed oil is negligible. PMID:26934111

  1. Relationship Between Population Densities of Pratylenchus penetrans and Crop Losses in Flue-Cured Tobacco in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Olthof, T H; Marks, C F; Elliot, J M

    1973-04-01

    Flue-cured tobacco was grown in microplots consisting of concrete drainage tries, 40-cm (i.d.), infested with 0; 666 ; 2000; 6000 or 18,000 root-lesion nematodes, Pratylenchus penetrans/kg of soil. Yield and grade index decreased with preplant soil population densities in excess of 2000/kg of soil. At initial densities of 6000 and 18,000/kg of soil losses in crop returns were 11.0% and 27.5%, respectively. Decreases in the maturity index and in percentage dry stalk weight with increasing densities showed that the nematode delayed maturity. Increases in population densities of nematodes were correlated with decreases in weights of tops and roots and in plant height. All final population densities in soil were lower than the initial densities except at the lowest pre-plant density. All soil populations at midseason were lower than those at the beginning and end of the growing season. Populations of P. penetrans at harvest were in excess of half a million per root system with the 18,000/kg initial soil population density. The results suggest that fumigation, which costs $75/ha, or approximately 2% of the crop value, is economically warranted at preplant densities in excess of 2000/kg of soft. PMID:19319324

  2. Secondary victims of rape.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Dorte; Bak, Rikke; Elklit, Ask

    2012-01-01

    Rape is often a very traumatic experience, which affects not only the primary victim (PV) but also his/her significant others. Studies on secondary victims of rape are few and have almost exclusively studied male partners of female rape victims. This study examined the impact of rape on 107 secondary victims, including family members, partners, and friends of male and female rape victims. We found that many respondents found it difficult to support the PV and that their relationship with the PV was often affected by the assault. Furthermore, the sample showed significant levels of traumatization, and it was estimated that approximately one quarter of the respondents suffered from posttraumatic stress syndrome (PTSD). Degree of traumatization was associated with a more recent assault, higher efforts to support the PV, recurrent thoughts about having been able to prevent the assault, a lack of social support for the respondent, and feeling let down by others. The respondents were generally interested in friend-, family-, and partner-focused interventions, particularly in receiving education about how best to support a rape victim. PMID:22594219

  3. Crop management and agronomic context of the Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops.

    PubMed

    Champion, G T; May, M J; Bennett, S; Brooks, D R; Clark, S J; Daniels, R E; Firbank, L G; Haughton, A J; Hawes, C; Heard, M S; Perry, J N; Randle, Z; Rossall, M J; Rothery, P; Skellern, M P; Scott, R J; Squire, G R; Thomas, M R

    2003-11-29

    The Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops (GMHT) were conducted in the UK from 2000 to 2002 on beet (sugar and fodder), spring oilseed rape and forage maize. The management of the crops studied is described and compared with current conventional commercial practice. The distribution of field sites adequately represented the areas currently growing these crops, and the sample contained sites operated at a range of management intensities, including low intensity. Herbicide inputs were audited, and the active ingredients used and the rates and the timings of applications compared well with current practice for both GMHT and conventional crops. Inputs on sugar beet were lower than, and inputs on spring oilseed rape and forage maize were consistent with, national averages. Regression analysis of herbicide-application strategies and weed emergence showed that inputs applied by farmers increased with weed densities in beet and forage maize. GMHT crops generally received only one herbicide active ingredient per crop, later and fewer herbicide sprays and less active ingredient (for beet and maize) than the conventional treatments. The audit of inputs found no evidence of bias. PMID:14561315

  4. Crop management and agronomic context of the Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops.

    PubMed Central

    Champion, G T; May, M J; Bennett, S; Brooks, D R; Clark, S J; Daniels, R E; Firbank, L G; Haughton, A J; Hawes, C; Heard, M S; Perry, J N; Randle, Z; Rossall, M J; Rothery, P; Skellern, M P; Scott, R J; Squire, G R; Thomas, M R

    2003-01-01

    The Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops (GMHT) were conducted in the UK from 2000 to 2002 on beet (sugar and fodder), spring oilseed rape and forage maize. The management of the crops studied is described and compared with current conventional commercial practice. The distribution of field sites adequately represented the areas currently growing these crops, and the sample contained sites operated at a range of management intensities, including low intensity. Herbicide inputs were audited, and the active ingredients used and the rates and the timings of applications compared well with current practice for both GMHT and conventional crops. Inputs on sugar beet were lower than, and inputs on spring oilseed rape and forage maize were consistent with, national averages. Regression analysis of herbicide-application strategies and weed emergence showed that inputs applied by farmers increased with weed densities in beet and forage maize. GMHT crops generally received only one herbicide active ingredient per crop, later and fewer herbicide sprays and less active ingredient (for beet and maize) than the conventional treatments. The audit of inputs found no evidence of bias. PMID:14561315

  5. Effects of reduced terrestrial LiDAR point density on high-resolution grain crop surface models in precision agriculture.

    PubMed

    Hämmerle, Martin; Höfle, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    3D geodata play an increasingly important role in precision agriculture, e.g., for modeling in-field variations of grain crop features such as height or biomass. A common data capturing method is LiDAR, which often requires expensive equipment and produces large datasets. This study contributes to the improvement of 3D geodata capturing efficiency by assessing the effect of reduced scanning resolution on crop surface models (CSMs). The analysis is based on high-end LiDAR point clouds of grain crop fields of different varieties (rye and wheat) and nitrogen fertilization stages (100%, 50%, 10%). Lower scanning resolutions are simulated by keeping every n-th laser beam with increasing step widths n. For each iteration step, high-resolution CSMs (0.01 m2 cells) are derived and assessed regarding their coverage relative to a seamless CSM derived from the original point cloud, standard deviation of elevation and mean elevation. Reducing the resolution to, e.g., 25% still leads to a coverage of >90% and a mean CSM elevation of >96% of measured crop height. CSM types (maximum elevation or 90th-percentile elevation) react differently to reduced scanning resolutions in different crops (variety, density). The results can help to assess the trade-off between CSM quality and minimum requirements regarding equipment and capturing set-up. PMID:25521383

  6. Effects of Reduced Terrestrial LiDAR Point Density on High-Resolution Grain Crop Surface Models in Precision Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Hämmerle, Martin; Höfle, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    3D geodata play an increasingly important role in precision agriculture, e.g., for modeling in-field variations of grain crop features such as height or biomass. A common data capturing method is LiDAR, which often requires expensive equipment and produces large datasets. This study contributes to the improvement of 3D geodata capturing efficiency by assessing the effect of reduced scanning resolution on crop surface models (CSMs). The analysis is based on high-end LiDAR point clouds of grain crop fields of different varieties (rye and wheat) and nitrogen fertilization stages (100%, 50%, 10%). Lower scanning resolutions are simulated by keeping every n-th laser beam with increasing step widths n. For each iteration step, high-resolution CSMs (0.01 m2 cells) are derived and assessed regarding their coverage relative to a seamless CSM derived from the original point cloud, standard deviation of elevation and mean elevation. Reducing the resolution to, e.g., 25% still leads to a coverage of >90% and a mean CSM elevation of >96% of measured crop height. CSM types (maximum elevation or 90th-percentile elevation) react differently to reduced scanning resolutions in different crops (variety, density). The results can help to assess the trade-off between CSM quality and minimum requirements regarding equipment and capturing set-up. PMID:25521383

  7. Campus Gang Rape: Party Games?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrhart, Julie K.; Sandler, Bernice R.

    The phenomenon of gang rape as it sometimes occurs on college campuses is described, with attention to causes, impacts on the victim and other students, responses the college should take, and prevention. Consideration is given to the role of alcohol, drugs, and pornography in fraternity gang rape; successful model programs for rape prevention…

  8. An Acquaintance Rape Prevention Program: Effects on Attitudes Toward Women, Rape-Related Attitudes, and Perceptions of Rape Scenarios.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinzone-Glover, Holly A.; Gidycz, Christine A.; Jacobs, Cecilia Dine

    1998-01-01

    Studied the effects of an acquaintance-rape prevention program on college students' attitudes (n=152) toward rape and attitudes toward women, perceptions of acquaintance rape scenarios, and rape empathy. Positive attitude change was stronger among men, who became more certain of rape definitions. Contains 53 references. (SLD)

  9. Social Perception of Rape: How Rape Myth Acceptance Modulates the Influence of Situational Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frese, Bettina; Moya, Miguel; Megias, Jesus

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the role of rape myth acceptance (RMA) and situational factors in the perception of three different rape scenarios (date rape, marital rape, and stranger rape). One hundred and eighty-two psychology undergraduates were asked to emit four judgements about each rape situation: victim responsibility, perpetrator responsibility,…

  10. Why Do Women Accept the Rape Myth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabone, Christopher; And Others

    The rape myth, defined as prejudicial, stereotyped, or false beliefs about rape, rape victims, and rapists, is accepted by individuals from varied walks of life, including women. It has been suggested that rape myth acceptance (RMA) among women serves a protective function by enabling women to dissociate themselves from a rape victim's experience.…

  11. Spectral estimates of crop residue cover and density for standing and flat wheat stubble

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop residue is important for erosion control, soil water storage, filling gaps in various agroecosystem-based modeling, and sink for atmospheric carbon. The use of remote sensing technology provides a fast, objective, and efficient tool for measuring and managing this resource. The challenge is t...

  12. Attitudes toward rape and victims of rape: a test of the feminist theory in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Boakye, Kofi E

    2009-10-01

    This study explores the usefulness of the feminist theory in explaining attitudes toward rape and victims of rape in Ghana. The feminist theory of rape posits, inter alia, that patriarchy and gender inequality are major factors in the aetiology of rape and attitudes toward rape and that underlying patriarchy and gender inequality are gender stereotypes and false beliefs (myths) about rape, rapists, and victims of rape. Thus, the theory suggests a relationship between rape myths and less favorable attitudes toward rape and victims of rape. Results from a survey conducted in Ghana show some support for the feminist theory of rape: There is evidence of rape myth acceptance in Ghana; gender is significant in predicting levels of rape myth acceptance; and finally, education or profession and age, but not religion, are associated with levels of rape myth acceptance in a predictable way. PMID:19252064

  13. The costs of rape.

    PubMed

    Perilloux, Carin; Duntley, Joshua D; Buss, David M

    2012-10-01

    The current study examined costs experienced by victims of completed rape (n=49) and attempted sexual assault (n=91) using quantitative analyses of 13 domains: health, self-esteem, self-perceived attractiveness, self-perceived mate value, family relationships,work life, social life, social reputation, sexual reputation, desire to have sex, frequency of sex, enjoyment of sex, and long-term, committed relationships. Women also provided descriptive accounts of their experiences, and we used these to illustrate the costs in the victims' own words.Compared to victims of an attempted sexual assault, victims of a completed rape reported significantly more negative outcomes in 11 of the 13 domains. The most negatively affected domains were self-esteem, sexual reputation, frequency of sex, desire to have sex, and self-perceived mate value. Although victims of rape experienced more negative effects than victims of attempted sexual assault,both groups of victims reported negative effects in every domain.Discussion focuses on the implications of the differing degrees and patterns of the costs of attempted and completed sexual victimization. PMID:21975924

  14. Rape Myth Consistency and Gender Differences in Perceiving Rape Victims: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hockett, Jericho M; Smith, Sara J; Klausing, Cathleen D; Saucier, Donald A

    2016-02-01

    An overview discusses feminist analyses of oppression, attitudes toward rape victims, and previously studied predictors of individuals' attitudes toward rape victims. To better understand such attitudes, this meta-analysis examines the moderating influences of various rape victim, perpetrator, and crime characteristics' rape myth consistency on gender differences in individuals' perceptions of rape victims (i.e., victim responsibility and blame attributions and rape minimizing attitudes). Consistent with feminist theoretical predictions, results indicated that, overall, men perceived rape victims more negatively than women did. However, this sex difference was moderated by the rape myth consistency within the rape vignettes. Implications for research are discussed. PMID:26446194

  15. Rape Myth Acceptance and Rape Proclivity: Expected Dominance Versus Expected Arousal as Mediators in Acquaintance-Rape Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiroro, Patrick; Bohner, Gerd; Viki, G. Tendayi; Jarvis, Christopher I.

    2004-01-01

    Individuals who are high in rape myth acceptance (RMA) have been found to report a high proclivity to rape. In a series of three studies, the authors examined whether the relationship between RMA and self-reported rape proclivity was mediated by anticipated sexual arousal or anticipated enjoyment of sexually dominating the rape victim. Results of…

  16. Weeds in fields with contrasting conventional and genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops. I. Effects on abundance and diversity.

    PubMed

    Heard, M S; Hawes, C; Champion, G T; Clark, S J; Firbank, L G; Haughton, A J; Parish, A M; Perry, J N; Rothery, P; Scott, R J; Skellern, M P; Squire, G R; Hill, M O

    2003-11-29

    We compared the seedbanks, seed rains, plant densities and biomasses of weeds under two contrasting systems of management in beet, maize and spring oilseed rape. Weed seedbank and plant density were measured at the same locations in two subsequent seasons. About 60 fields were sown with each crop. Each field was split, one half being sown with a conventional variety managed according to the farmer's normal practice, the other half being sown with a genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) variety, with weeds controlled by a broad-spectrum herbicide. In beet and rape, plant densities shortly after sowing were higher in the GMHT treatment. Following weed control in conventional beet, plant densities were approximately one-fifth of those in GMHT beet. In both beet and rape, this effect was reversed after the first application of broad-spectrum herbicide, so that late-season plant densities were lower in the GMHT treatments. Biomass and seed rain in GMHT crops were between one-third and one-sixth of those in conventional treatments. The effects of differing weed-seed returns in these two crops persisted in the seedbank: densities following the GMHT treatment were about 20% lower than those following the conventional treatment. The effect of growing maize was quite different. Weed density was higher throughout the season in the GMHT treatment. Late-season biomass was 82% higher and seed rain was 87% higher than in the conventional treatment. The difference was not subsequently detectable in the seedbank because the total seed return was low after both treatments. In all three crops, weed diversity was little affected by the treatment, except for transient effects immediately following herbicide application. PMID:14561316

  17. Acquaintance Rape: Effective Avoidance Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine-MacCombie, Joyce; Koss, Mary P.

    1986-01-01

    Determined that acknowledged and unacknowledged acquaintance rape victims and rape avoiders could be discriminated by situational variables and response strategies. Avoiders were less likely to have experienced passive or internalizing emotions at the time of the assault, perceived the assault as less violent, and were more likely to have utilized…

  18. Gender Differences in Rape Supportive Attitudes before and after a Date Rape Education Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenihan, Genie O.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Assessed university students' attitudes toward rape and rape mythology and measured impact on these attitudes following exposure to acquaintance rape education program. Findings from 821 students revealed that women readily changed rape supportive attitudes, whereas men were resistant to date rape education program. Findings suggest need for new…

  19. Date and Acquaintance Rape: The Legal Point of View. Part 1. The Traditional Law of Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julian, Frank H.

    1993-01-01

    First article in two-part series on date and acquaintance rape explains unique circumstances of rape trials and looks at development of traditional rape law. Examines judicial history of rape, and reviews elements of rape (penetration, intent, force, and consent). (Author/NB)

  20. Attitudes toward Rape and Victims of Rape: A Test of the Feminist Theory in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boakye, Kofi E.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the usefulness of the feminist theory in explaining attitudes toward rape and victims of rape in Ghana. The feminist theory of rape posits, inter alia, that patriarchy and gender inequality are major factors in the aetiology of rape and attitudes toward rape and that underlying patriarchy and gender inequality are gender…

  1. Rape Prevention: Experiential Training for Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lucienne A.

    This report describes the Rape Prevention Education Project, an experiential program designed to educate men about the myths and facts of rape and to increase their empathic understanding of the rape victim. The four parts of the educational workshops contained in the program are listed: (1) defining rape, explaining the severity of the problem,…

  2. Reactions to Stranger and Acquaintance Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tetreault, Patricia A.; Barnett, Mark A.

    1987-01-01

    Investigated reactions to a woman who presumably had been raped by a stranger or an acquaintance. Undergraduates read one of two rape descriptions prior to watching a videotape of the woman who (they were led to believe) had been the victim of the rape. Females and males showed markedly different reactions to stranger and acquaintance rape and…

  3. ASD and PTSD in Rape Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the prediction of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). The predictive power of ASD on PTSD was examined in a population of 148 female rape victims who visited a center for rape victims shortly after the rape or attempted rape. The PTSD…

  4. Rape: Legal issues in mental health perspective

    PubMed Central

    Jiloha, R. C.

    2013-01-01

    Rape of women by men has occurred throughout recorded history and across cultures and religions. It is a crime against basic human right and a most common crime against women in India. In this article, rape is discussed from legal and mental health perspective. In India ‘rape laws’ began with enactment of Indian Penal Code in 1860. There have been subsequent amendments and the main issue of focus remained the definition of ‘rape and inclusion of ‘marital rape’ in the ambit of rape. Law Commission Reports related to rape and the psychological impacts of rape have been discussed. PMID:24082245

  5. ROOT DENSITY AND ROOT SURFACE AREA OF SELECTED PACIFIC NORTHWEST CROPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root length density and root surface area were evaluated for soft white winter and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L), spring peas (Pisum sativum) and winter canola (Brassica napus L.) for at least two years at two locations (Pendleton, OR and Pullman, WA). Spring wheat was sampled at 3-leaf, anthe...

  6. Competition affects gene flow from oilseed rape (female symbol) to Brassica rapa (male symbol).

    PubMed

    Johannessen, M M; Andersen, B A; Jørgensen, R B

    2006-05-01

    Unlike most studies on hybridisation between oilseed rape and Brassica rapa, this study focused on hybridisation with oilseed rape as the maternal parent. This is a key cross because, assuming that plastids are inherited maternally, F(1)-hybrid production with maternal oilseed rape (B. napus) is the only transgene escape route from transplastomic oilseed rape. We investigated such F(1)-hybrid production in winter oilseed rape co-cultivated with weedy B. rapa at three plant densities each with two proportions of the different species. The paternity of the progeny produced on oilseed rape was assessed, and several fitness parameters were determined in oilseed rape mother plants in order to correlate hybridisation and plant competition. At higher density, the vegetative fitness per mother plant decreased significantly, but the density only affected the frequency of F(1)-hybrids significantly (a decrease) in the treatment with equal proportions of each species. As to the proportions, at higher B. napus frequencies, there were fewer F(1)-hybrids per mother plant and a significant increase in most biomass components. Thus, B. rapa was the stronger competitor in its effect on both the vegetative and reproductive fitness in B. napus, and the hybridisation frequency. In conclusion, the relative frequency of the two species was a more influential parameter than the density. Hybridisation with B. napus as the female will be most likely at current field densities of B. napus and when B. rapa is an abundant weed. PMID:16508664

  7. Effects of LiDAR point density, sampling size and height threshold on estimation accuracy of crop biophysical parameters.

    PubMed

    Luo, Shezhou; Chen, Jing M; Wang, Cheng; Xi, Xiaohuan; Zeng, Hongcheng; Peng, Dailiang; Li, Dong

    2016-05-30

    Vegetation leaf area index (LAI), height, and aboveground biomass are key biophysical parameters. Corn is an important and globally distributed crop, and reliable estimations of these parameters are essential for corn yield forecasting, health monitoring and ecosystem modeling. Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) is considered an effective technology for estimating vegetation biophysical parameters. However, the estimation accuracies of these parameters are affected by multiple factors. In this study, we first estimated corn LAI, height and biomass (R2 = 0.80, 0.874 and 0.838, respectively) using the original LiDAR data (7.32 points/m2), and the results showed that LiDAR data could accurately estimate these biophysical parameters. Second, comprehensive research was conducted on the effects of LiDAR point density, sampling size and height threshold on the estimation accuracy of LAI, height and biomass. Our findings indicated that LiDAR point density had an important effect on the estimation accuracy for vegetation biophysical parameters, however, high point density did not always produce highly accurate estimates, and reduced point density could deliver reasonable estimation results. Furthermore, the results showed that sampling size and height threshold were additional key factors that affect the estimation accuracy of biophysical parameters. Therefore, the optimal sampling size and the height threshold should be determined to improve the estimation accuracy of biophysical parameters. Our results also implied that a higher LiDAR point density, larger sampling size and height threshold were required to obtain accurate corn LAI estimation when compared with height and biomass estimations. In general, our results provide valuable guidance for LiDAR data acquisition and estimation of vegetation biophysical parameters using LiDAR data. PMID:27410085

  8. Reflections on researching rape resistance.

    PubMed

    Ullman, Sarah E

    2014-03-01

    This article provides a retrospective account of my experience embarking on research about women's resistance to rape, including reflections on personal and professional experiences related to studying this topic. I discuss factors inspiring my interest, including pioneering feminist rape researchers, my experience as a woman living with the reality and fear of rape, and influential mentors who facilitated my career development as a scholar in graduate school and beyond. I weave this narrative together with my thoughts about how the study of resistance relates to other important issues in the field of sexual assault including alcohol, recovery, and prevention. PMID:24626768

  9. Predicting Rape Victim Empathy Based on Rape Victimization and Acknowledgment Labeling.

    PubMed

    Osman, Suzanne L

    2016-06-01

    Two studies examined rape victim empathy based on personal rape victimization and acknowledgment labeling. Female undergraduates (Study 1, n = 267; Study 2, n = 381) from a Northeast U.S. midsize public university completed the Rape-Victim Empathy Scale and Sexual Experiences Survey. As predicted, both studies found that acknowledged "rape" victims reported greater empathy than unacknowledged victims and nonvictims. Unexpectedly, these latter two groups did not differ. Study 1 also found that acknowledged "rape" victims reported greater empathy than victims who acknowledged being "sexually victimized." Findings suggest that being raped and acknowledging "rape" together may facilitate rape victim empathy. PMID:26490506

  10. Precursors to rape: pressuring behaviors and rape proclivity.

    PubMed

    Strain, Megan L; Hockett, Jericho M; Saucier, Donald A

    2015-01-01

    We developed measures assessing personal and normative attitudes toward two types of behaviors that are symptomatic of rape culture. We conceptualize sexual violence as existing on a continuum and argue that two types of behaviors may be potential antecedents to (and consequences of) sexual violence: attempts to pressure, which mimic the power dynamics of rape in a less aggressive fashion, and benevolent dating behaviors, which are accepted dating scripts in which men initiate action. We examined individuals' acceptance of these behaviors in relation to their attitudes toward rape victims and among men to rape proclivity. This initial work suggests that these constructs and measures may be useful to investigate in future research. PMID:25929145

  11. Density and Distribution of Xylocopa Nests (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Caatinga Areas in the Surroundings of Passion Fruit Crops.

    PubMed

    Martins, C F; de Siqueira, K M M; Kiill, L H P; Sá, I I S; Aguiar, C M L

    2014-08-01

    Due to their importance as pollinators of many plant species, this study aimed to know the nest density, spatial distribution, and nesting substrates used by Xylocopa species in the Caatinga, a xerophilous vegetation of Northeastern Brazil. Three areas of Caatinga in the surroundings of passion fruit crops were sampled. The bee species found in these areas were Xylocopa grisescens Lepeletier and Xylocopa frontalis (Olivier). All nests were in Commiphora leptophloeos (Burseraceae) trees (n = 113). Phytosociological analysis showed that this tree species presented the highest absolute density (212.5 individuals/ha) and index of importance value (52.7). The distribution pattern of the C. leptophloeos was aggregated. The nests were located in dead and dried branches with an average diameter of 5.3 ± 2.0 cm (n = 43). The mean number of nests/tree was 3.1 ± 2.8 (n = 113). The less disturbed area showed 6.7 nests/ha and 4.2 nests/tree. In the disturbed areas, 0.9 nests/ha and 2.4 to 2.7 nests/tree were observed. The availability of substrate for nesting in the studied areas and its importance as a limiting factor for nesting are discussed. PMID:27193809

  12. No Effects of an Autumn Mustard Crop on Wireworm Densities or Damaage to Potatoes in the Following Growing Season

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemicals produced by mustard (Brassica) crops as they are tilled into the soil have been shown especially in laboratory trials to suppress soil-dwelling organisms, including fungal pathogens, nematodes, and some insect pests of crops. Here, I tested in the field whether an autumn mustard crop gro...

  13. Components of a rice-oilseed rape production system augmented with trichoderma sp. Tri-1 control sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses on many crops throughout the world. In two field trials conducted at the same location in consecutive years, a treatment containing formulated Trichoderma harzianum-1 (Tri-1) resulted in oilseed rape seed yield that was significantly greater than...

  14. If Your Child is Raped

    MedlinePlus

    ... for someone whose been raped, such as a forensic nurse examiner (FNE) or sexual assault nurse examiner ( ... doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, ...

  15. Management of the rape victim.

    PubMed

    Enos, W F; Beyer, J C

    1978-09-01

    If a rape crisis center and specialized personnel are not available, the family physician can adequately examine and treat the rape victim as well as collect and properly handle all the required medical evidence. The detailed history has several facets. Laboratory confirmation can be obtained for prior consensual intercourse, sodomy and other special aspects. Treatment is indicated for the prevention of venereal disease and pregnancy. Psychologic support is essential. The physician's examination and testimony can play an important legal role. PMID:685803

  16. [Extragenital injuries in rape].

    PubMed

    Kernbach, G; Püschel, K; Brinkmann, B

    1984-10-01

    The documentation of extragenital injuries to verify violent cohabitation has considerable forensic relevance. 1,875 police files in Hamburg were investigated. Injuries were analysed under the following aspects: kinds, localisations and patterns. According to the most frequent conduct of the doer (manual fixation of the victim and beats in 60% of all cases), consequences of contused violence (i.e. effusions of blood, contusions, dehiscences) were found in 50% of all cases. Injuries due to semi-sharp violence, wounds of genitals or signs of choke were relatively rare (15-3-3%). An isolated state of genital organs is of minor importance. The most frequent localisations of injuries were face and arms, less frequently legs and back. Injuries as result of manual fixation, defence or abutment formed the main patterns. "Banal" hurts were also found. In numerous cases, the outer appearance of the lesions enabled conclusions regarding the instrument used (i.e. double wales after beats with a stick). Self-inflicted injuries can mostly be discerned by their kind and localisation. Rape without any injuries is conceivable as the result of missing defence in the presence of severe threat. Psychic alterations were found in 20% of the cases, half of them continuing for a long time. The medical examination of the suspected man must include the search of signs of a fight (scratch marks, bites), localised at the hands, face and neck (besides ascertainment of traces, for example, smears of semen and smegma, i.e. from the glans penis). Extent and thoroughness of medical examinations as presently practised are discussed critically. The manner in which these examinations are conducted, is considered to be the main cause of a "secondary victimisation" of the raped woman. PMID:6569844

  17. Components of a Rice-Oilseed Rape Production System Augmented with Trichoderma sp. Tri-1 Control Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on Oilseed Rape.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaojia; Roberts, Daniel P; Xie, Lihua; Maul, Jude E; Yu, Changbing; Li, Yinshui; Zhang, Yinbo; Qin, Lu; Liao, Xing

    2015-10-01

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses on many crops throughout the world. A multicomponent treatment that consisted of the residual rice straw remaining after rice harvest and Trichoderma sp. Tri-1 (Tri-1) formulated with the oilseed rape seedcake fertilizer was used in field soil infested with S. sclerotiorum. This treatment resulted in oilseed rape seed yield that was significantly greater than the nontreated control or when the fungicide carbendizem was used in the presence of this pathogen in field trials. Yield data suggested that the rice straw, oilseed rape seedcake, and Tri-1 components of this treatment all contributed incrementally. Similar treatment results were obtained regarding reduction in disease incidence. Slight improvements in yield and disease incidence were detected when this multicomponent treatment was combined with a fungicide spray. Inhibition of sclerotial germination by this multicomponent treatment trended greater than the nontreated control at 90, 120, and 150 days in field studies but was not significantly different from this control. This multicomponent treatment resulted in increased yield relative to the nontreated control in the absence of pathogen in a greenhouse pot study, while the straw alone and the straw plus oilseed rape seedcake treatments did not; suggesting that Tri-1 was capable of promoting growth. Experiments reported here indicate that a treatment containing components of a rice-oilseed rape production system augmented with Tri-1 can control S. sclerotiorum on oilseed rape, be used in integrated strategies containing fungicide sprays for control of this pathogen, and promote plant growth. PMID:26390095

  18. An Assessment of College Students' Attitudes and Empathy toward Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chng, Chwee Lye; Burke, Sloane

    1999-01-01

    College students (n=387) completed the "attitudes toward rape" questionnaire and the rape empathy scale. Analysis found that prior experience as a rape survivor and gender were significantly related to rape intolerant attitudes and empathy toward rape survivors. Rape tolerant attitudes and lower levels of empathy were more commonly found among men…

  19. Challenges to grow oilseed rape Brassica napus in sugar beet rotations.

    PubMed

    Stefanovska, T; Pidlisnyuk, V

    2009-01-01

    The study was carried out in 1989-1991 and repeated in 2003-2006 to compare life cycle and dynamics of Heterodera schachtii Schm. on sugar beet, oilseed rape, fodder radish and to work out recommendations on how to decrease the risk of yield reduction while it grows in sugar-beet rotations. Research was carried out in plot experiment in natural conditions. Nematode community on rape, fodder radish and sugar beet was analyzed. Data of nematode community showed that composition of nematode species was very similar. Heterodera shachtii were dominated species with rape and sugar beet. All tested Brassica crops are susceptible to H. schachtii. However there is significant difference in population dynamics. The highest total number of brown cysts, eggs and juveniles of all ages was observed in winter rape. H.schachtii developed two generations on sugar beet and one generation on mustard. The voluntary seed germination after harvest contributes to increasing H. schachtii population. Therefore it is necessary to destroy oilseed rape voluntary chemically or physically. This operation should be done in about 2-4 weeks. The exact time can be calculated using the temperature- based model. Growing regular fodder radish and mustard as the trap crops can significantly reduce population of H. schachtii. The time of sowing is not earlier than August 20th. While estimating the time of destruction of trap crops it should be taken into consideration that H. schachtii can complete life cycle without foliage. PMID:20222620

  20. In-Crop and Autumn-Applied Glyphosate Reduced Purple Nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus)Density in No-Till Glyphosate-Resistant Corn and Soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 3-yr field study was conducted from 2005 to 2007 at Stoneville, MS to determine efficacy of in-crop and fall-applied glyphosate on purple nutsedge density and yield of no-till glyphosate-resistant (GR) corn and GR soybean. Separate experiments were conducted in GR corn and GR soybean in areas main...

  1. Beyond Rape Myths: A More Complex View of Perceptions of Rape Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buddie, Amy M.; Miller, Arthur G.

    2001-01-01

    Examined personal beliefs and perceptions of cultural stereotypes surrounding rape victims. Primarily white college students listed their beliefs and perceptions and rated a specific rape victim accordingly. Students' personal beliefs tended to focus more on perceptions of victim reactions to the rape rather than rape myths. However, their…

  2. A Study of Women Who Both Were Raped and Avoided Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bart, Pauline B.

    1981-01-01

    This article, based on interviews with women who had both been raped and avoided being raped when attacked, examines the situational circumstances under which women were more likely to be raped, and those under which they were more likely to avoid being raped. (Author/MJL)

  3. Rape reporting: "Classic Rape" and the behavior of law.

    PubMed

    Clay-Warner, Jody; McMahon-Howard, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Two theories of rape reporting, the Classic Rape perspective and Black's Theory of the Behavior of Law, are tested in this article. We offer the first comprehensive multivariate test of Classic Rape predictions among a nationally representative sample of victims, as well as the first test of Black's predictions for rape reporting. Through the construction of multinomial regression models, we are able to examine reporting patterns for both victims and third parties. Weapon use and physical injury consistently predicted reporting. The likelihood of victim reporting significantly increased when assaults occurred either in public or through a "home blitz," whereas place of assault did not affect the likelihood of third-party reporting. On the other hand, victim-offender relationship significantly affected the likelihood of third-party reporting but was not significant in the victim-reporting models. There were mixed findings regarding Black's stratification and morphology predictions, and we found no significant effects for culture, organization, or social control. Overall, these findings lend greater support to the Classic Rape perspective than to Black's model. PMID:20055211

  4. Rape myth acceptance impacts the reporting of rape to the police: a study of incarcerated women.

    PubMed

    Heath, Nicole M; Lynch, Shannon M; Fritch, April M; Wong, Maria M

    2013-09-01

    We examined the association between rape myth acceptance (RMA) and reporting rapes to the police. Situational characteristics of the rape (e.g., stranger attack, injury) are known predictors of reporting, but no existing studies have examined the association between beliefs about rape and reporting. In addition, most studies of RMA do not assess victimization history. Incarcerated women experience high rates of sexual assaults prior to incarceration. We recruited 74 rape survivors from a northwestern state prison. Results suggest that women who endorsed higher levels of RMA were less likely to report their rapes to police; however, participants endorsed few rape myths. PMID:24142951

  5. Oppression through acceptance?: predicting rape myth acceptance and attitudes toward rape victims.

    PubMed

    Hockett, Jericho M; Saucier, Donald A; Hoffman, Bethany H; Smith, Sara J; Craig, Adam W

    2009-08-01

    Feminist theories of rape motivation are based on research suggesting a relationship between dominance and sexual aggression. However, the relationship between dominance and rape myth acceptance (RMA), a predictor of rape proclivity and sexual aggression and a key component in feminist theory, is understudied. The current study tests the hypotheses that individuals' scores on sex-based oppression and intergroup dominance measures will improve the predictive models for RMA and attitudes toward rape and rape victims. The hypotheses are supported. Individuals' general intergroup dominance and sex-based oppression attitudes provide significant unique prediction beyond previously studied predictors of attitudes about rape and rape victims. PMID:19506093

  6. Male rape victim and perpetrator blaming.

    PubMed

    Sleath, Emma; Bull, Ray

    2010-06-01

    One of four possible vignettes manipulated by (a) level of rape myth contained within them (low vs. high) and (b) type of rape (stranger vs. acquaintance) was presented to participants followed by scales measuring victim blame, perpetrator blame, belief in a just world, sex-role egalitarian beliefs, and male rape myth acceptance. Victim blaming was predicted by male rape myth acceptance. Perpetrator blaming was predicted by male rape myth acceptance and sex-role egalitarianism. Differences were found in victim and perpetrator blaming in terms of stranger and acquaintance rape and also in relation to manipulating the level of rape myths. Findings are discussed in relation to the previous literature on rape victim and perpetrator blaming. PMID:19738198

  7. Adolescent attitudes toward victim precipitation of rape.

    PubMed

    Marciniak, L M

    1998-01-01

    Adolescents have high rates of rape victimization and offending compared to other age groups, yet few studies have examined predictors of rape-supportive attitudes among adolescents. Drawing from Burt's (1980) study of rape myth acceptance among adults, this study tests a path analytic model of adolescent attitudes about victim precipitation of rape, using a sample of 1393 cases from the National Youth Survey (NYS) (Elliott, Ageton, Huizinga, Knowles, & Cantor, 1983). LISREL (Jöreskeg & Sörbom, 1988) estimation procedures are applied. Results show direct effects of sociocultural influences on an individual's level of rape myth acceptance, but demonstrate some interesting gender differences. Findings also reveal indirect effects of age, race, and socioeconomic status on attitudes toward rape, which operate through traditional gender role stereo-typing. Educating young adolescents about the nature of rape and the rights and roles of women are logical points of intervention to decrease acceptance of rape myths that target the victim. PMID:9836415

  8. Disconnected Lives: Men, Masculinity, and Rape Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capraro, Rocco L.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses rape prevention in the context of a problematic masculinity. Reviews conservative, mythopoetic, and feminist perspectives on masculinity. Proposes a feminist foundation for rape prevention programs for college males. (Author/KW)

  9. Reliability Reporting Practices in Rape Myth Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buhi, Eric R.

    2005-01-01

    A number of school-based programs address sexual violence by focusing on adolescents' attitudes about rape or acceptance of rape myths. However, really problems exist in the literature regarding measurement of rape myth acceptance, including issues of reliability and validity. This paper addresses measurement reliability issues and reviews…

  10. Rape Prevention: Experiential Training for Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lucienne A.

    1987-01-01

    Describes an experiential program in which men are educated about rape and are helped to increase their empathic understanding of victims of rape. Discusses the two-hour educational workshop which focuses on rape myths and facts, guided fantasy, and experiential empathy. (Author/NB)

  11. Delayed reporting of the rape victim.

    PubMed

    Burgess, A W; Fehder, W P; Hartman, C R

    1995-09-01

    1. Delayed reporting of rape may be due to impaired cognitive processing, altered states of consciousness, or cognitive dissonance. 2. DNA may speak for the victim who does not remember a rape due to being unconscious. 3. Women with psychosis may incorporate a rape into their delusional system. PMID:7500301

  12. Male Rape Victim and Perpetrator Blaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleath, Emma; Bull, Ray

    2010-01-01

    One of four possible vignettes manipulated by (a) level of rape myth contained within them (low vs. high) and (b) type of rape (stranger vs. acquaintance) was presented to participants followed by scales measuring victim blame, perpetrator blame, belief in a just world, sex-role egalitarian beliefs, and male rape myth acceptance. Victim blaming…

  13. Social perception of rape: how rape myth acceptance modulates the influence of situational factors.

    PubMed

    Frese, Bettina; Moya, Miguel; Megías, Jesús L

    2004-02-01

    This study assessed the role of rape myth acceptance (RMA) and situational factors in the perception of three different rape scenarios (date rape, marital rape, and stranger rape). One hundred and eighty-two psychology undergraduates were asked to emit four judgements about each rape situation: victim responsibility, perpetrator responsibility, intensity of trauma, and likelihood to report the crime to the police. It was hypothesized that neither RMA nor situational factors alone can explain how rape is perceived; it is the interaction between these two factors that best account for social reactions to sexual aggression. The results generally supported the authors' hypothesis: Victim blame, estimation of trauma, and the likelihood of reporting the crime to the police were best explained by the interaction between observer characteristics, such as RMA, and situational clues. That is, the less stereotypic the rape situation was, the greater was the influence of attitudes toward rape on attributions. PMID:15005999

  14. Feral genetically modified herbicide tolerant oilseed rape from seed import spills: are concerns scientifically justified?

    PubMed

    Devos, Yann; Hails, Rosemary S; Messéan, Antoine; Perry, Joe N; Squire, Geoffrey R

    2012-02-01

    One of the concerns surrounding the import (for food and feed uses or processing) of genetically modified herbicide tolerant (GMHT) oilseed rape is that, through seed spillage, the herbicide tolerance (HT) trait will escape into agricultural or semi-natural habitats, causing environmental or economic problems. Based on these concerns, three EU countries have invoked national safeguard clauses to ban the marketing of specific GMHT oilseed rape events on their territory. However, the scientific basis for the environmental and economic concerns posed by feral GMHT oilseed rape resulting from seed import spills is debatable. While oilseed rape has characteristics such as secondary dormancy and small seed size that enable it to persist and be redistributed in the landscape, the presence of ferals is not in itself an environmental or economic problem. Crucially, feral oilseed rape has not become invasive outside cultivated and ruderal habitats, and HT traits are not likely to result in increased invasiveness. Feral GMHT oilseed rape has the potential to introduce HT traits to volunteer weeds in agricultural fields, but would only be amplified if the herbicides to which HT volunteers are tolerant were used routinely in the field. However, this worst-case scenario is most unlikely, as seed import spills are mostly confined to port areas. Economic concerns revolve around the potential for feral GMHT oilseed rape to contribute to GM admixtures in non-GM crops. Since feral plants derived from cultivation (as distinct from import) occur at too low a frequency to affect the coexistence threshold of 0.9% in the EU, it can be concluded that feral GMHT plants resulting from seed import spills will have little relevance as a potential source of pollen or seed for GM admixture. This paper concludes that feral oilseed rape in Europe should not be routinely managed, and certainly not in semi-natural habitats, as the benefits of such action would not outweigh the negative effects of

  15. Counseling Date Rape Survivors: Implications for College Student Personnel Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Sherry K.

    A general legal definition of rape is sexual intercourse forced on an individual by another against his/her will and overcoming his/her resistance. Although the female is usually referred to as the survivor and the male as the perpetrator, there are cases of male rape. Rape may be divided into stranger rape and acquaintance rape. Types of…

  16. Interpreting Rape: Differences Among Professionals and Non-Professional Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Lawrence G.

    Physicians and rape crisis counselors may play important roles in assisting a rape victim; their beliefs and perceptions about rape may influence their treatment of the victim. Physicians (N=10) and volunteer rape counselors (N=44) completed questionnaires focused on demographic characteristics, their experiences with rape victims, and personal…

  17. Guidelines For The Rape Examination

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Rebecca A.; Schaefer, Joanne; Goldstein, Frank

    1980-01-01

    The rape victim presents with legal and psychological problems as well as medical ones. In order to respond to all her needs, the physician must be aware of the legal questions to be answered in the record, the patient's psychological needs in this high stress situation, and the medical problems likely to be encountered. PMID:21293620

  18. Preferences for Rape Reduction Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krulewitz, Judith E.; Kahn, Arnold S.

    1983-01-01

    Surveyed 53 female and 36 male college students to examine attitudes on the perceived effectiveness of four rape reduction strategies. Generally aggressive strategies and those placing the locus of responsibility for change upon women were considered most effective. Sex role attitudes were more predictive than subject sex differences. (JAC)

  19. Calling It Rape: Differences in Experiences of Women Who Do or Do Not Label Their Sexual Assault as Rape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Arnold S.; Jackson, Jennifer; Kully, Christine; Badger, Kelly; Halvorsen, Jessica

    2003-01-01

    Past research had found that one-half or more of all women who have had an experience that might meet the definition of rape do not label themselves rape victims. The present study examined the actual rape experiences of 33 women who labeled their assault experience as rape and 56 women who did not label their assault experience as rape through…

  20. Child rape: facets of a heinous crime.

    PubMed

    Gangrade, K D; Sooryamoorthy, R; Renjini, D

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the extent of child rape in India, case studies of girl children in legal procedures, rape settings and perpetrators, public morality, and the nature of rape laws in India. It is concluded that there is no safe place for children. Currently, rapists are allowed to go free or are acquitted. Prevention and control of child rape must involve punishment of rapists. It is not appropriate that society ostracize the victim and her family. Victims should not remain silent. National Crime Records Bureau statistics reveal increases in rape during 1986-91. State figures are given for 1986-88. Madhya Pradesh had the highest reported incidence of rape in 1988. In 1993, Madhya Pradesh had a total of 2459 rapes. Nationally, 10,425 women were reported as raped in 1991. 51.7% were 16-30 years old. There were 1099 cases of pedophilia in 1991, which was an increase over 1990. Over 50% of the pedophilia cases were reported in Uttar Pradesh. The record of convictions shows very low figures. 1992 trial results of 276 rape cases indicated that only 46 persons were convicted. Victims suffer from psychological effects of embarrassment, disgust, depression, guilt, and even suicidal tendencies. There is police and prosecution indifference as well as social stigma and social ostracism of the victim and her family. Many cases go unreported. The case studies illustrate the difficulties for the victim of experiencing the rape and the social responses: police harassment, shame and fear, and occasionally public outrage. The case studies illustrate rape in familiar settings, such as schools, family homes, and neighbors and friends' homes; rape by policemen; and rape by political influentials. Most offenders are young, married, and socioeconomically poor. Mass media portrayals fuel the frustrations of poor and lonely men in cities. Rapists exhibit anti-social behavior or psychopathology. Sexual offenses are related to society's moral values. PMID:12158004

  1. Rape myth acceptance and rape proclivity: expected dominance versus expected arousal as mediators in acquaintance-rape situations.

    PubMed

    Chiroro, Patrick; Bohner, Gerd; Viki, G Tendayi; Jarvis, Christopher I

    2004-04-01

    Individuals who are high in rape myth acceptance (RMA) have been found to report a high proclivity to rape. In a series of three studies, the authors examined whether the relationship between RMA and self-reported rape proclivity was mediated by anticipated sexual arousal or anticipated enjoyment of sexually dominating the rape victim. Results of all three studies suggest that the anticipated enjoyment of sexual dominance mediates the relationship between RMA and rape proclivity, whereas anticipated sexual arousal does not. These findings are consistent with the feminist argument that rape and sexual violence may be motivated by men's desire to exert power over women. Theoretical and practical implications of our findings are discussed. PMID:15038883

  2. Invertebrate responses to the management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant and conventional spring crops. II. Within-field epigeal and aerial arthropods.

    PubMed Central

    Haughton, A J; Champion, G T; Hawes, C; Heard, M S; Brooks, D R; Bohan, D A; Clark, S J; Dewar, A M; Firbank, L G; Osborne, J L; Perry, J N; Rothery, P; Roy, D B; Scott, R J; Woiwod, I P; Birchall, C; Skellern, M P; Walker, J H; Baker, P; Browne, E L; Dewar, A J G; Garner, B H; Haylock, L A; Horne, S L; Mason, N S; Sands, R J N; Walker, M J

    2003-01-01

    The effects of the management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops on the abundances of aerial and epigeal arthropods were assessed in 66 beet, 68 maize and 67 spring oilseed rape sites as part of the Farm Scale Evaluations of GMHT crops. Most higher taxa were insensitive to differences between GMHT and conventional weed management, but significant effects were found on the abundance of at least one group within each taxon studied. Numbers of butterflies in beet and spring oilseed rape and of Heteroptera and bees in beet were smaller under the relevant GMHT crop management, whereas the abundance of Collembola was consistently greater in all GMHT crops. Generally, these effects were specific to each crop type, reflected the phenology and ecology of the arthropod taxa, were indirect and related to herbicide management. These results apply generally to agriculture across Britain, and could be used in mathematical models to predict the possible long-term effects of the widespread adoption of GMHT technology. The results for bees and butterflies relate to foraging preferences and might or might not translate into effects on population densities, depending on whether adoption leads to forage reductions over large areas. These species, and the detritivore Collembola, may be useful indicator species for future studies of GMHT management. PMID:14561319

  3. Invertebrate responses to the management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant and conventional spring crops. II. Within-field epigeal and aerial arthropods.

    PubMed

    Haughton, A J; Champion, G T; Hawes, C; Heard, M S; Brooks, D R; Bohan, D A; Clark, S J; Dewar, A M; Firbank, L G; Osborne, J L; Perry, J N; Rothery, P; Roy, D B; Scott, R J; Woiwod, I P; Birchall, C; Skellern, M P; Walker, J H; Baker, P; Browne, E L; Dewar, A J G; Garner, B H; Haylock, L A; Horne, S L; Mason, N S; Sands, R J N; Walker, M J

    2003-11-29

    The effects of the management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops on the abundances of aerial and epigeal arthropods were assessed in 66 beet, 68 maize and 67 spring oilseed rape sites as part of the Farm Scale Evaluations of GMHT crops. Most higher taxa were insensitive to differences between GMHT and conventional weed management, but significant effects were found on the abundance of at least one group within each taxon studied. Numbers of butterflies in beet and spring oilseed rape and of Heteroptera and bees in beet were smaller under the relevant GMHT crop management, whereas the abundance of Collembola was consistently greater in all GMHT crops. Generally, these effects were specific to each crop type, reflected the phenology and ecology of the arthropod taxa, were indirect and related to herbicide management. These results apply generally to agriculture across Britain, and could be used in mathematical models to predict the possible long-term effects of the widespread adoption of GMHT technology. The results for bees and butterflies relate to foraging preferences and might or might not translate into effects on population densities, depending on whether adoption leads to forage reductions over large areas. These species, and the detritivore Collembola, may be useful indicator species for future studies of GMHT management. PMID:14561319

  4. Cultural myths and supports for rape.

    PubMed

    Burt, M R

    1980-02-01

    This article describes the "rape myth" and tests hypotheses derived from social psychological and feminist theory that acceptance of rape myths can be predicted from attitudes such as sex role stereotyping, adversarial sexual beliefs, sexual conservatism, and acceptance of interpersonal violence. Personality characteristics, background characteristics, and personal exposure to rape, rape victims, and rapists are other factors used in predictions. Results from regression analysis of interview data indicate that the higher the sex role stereotyping, adversarial sexual beliefs, and acceptance of interpersonal violence, the greater a respondent's acceptance of rape myths. In addition, younger and better educated people reveal less stereotypic, adversarial, and proviolence attitudes and less rape myth acceptance. Discussion focuses on the implications of these results for understanding and changing this cultural orientation toward sexual assault. PMID:7373511

  5. Belief in Rape Myths: The Role of Gender, Attitudes Toward Women and Knowledge of Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latta, R. Michael

    Degree of belief in rape myths as determined by participant gender, attitudes about the role of women in contemporary society, and factual knowledge of rape was investigated in a sample of 118 male and 126 female college students. The results support the general assumption that a rape ideology exists which involves components of belief in rape…

  6. Reactions to Rape Victims: Effects of Rape Circumstances, Victim's Emotional Response, and Sex of Helper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krulewitz, Judith E.

    1982-01-01

    Female and male undergraduates judged impact of the rape experience on victims' psychological adjustment and indicated their likely counseling goals. Results are discussed in terms of popular assumptions about rape victims and sex differences in identification with and empathy for female rape victims. Implications for training are noted. (Author)

  7. College Women's Fears and Precautionary Behaviors Relating to Acquaintance Rape and Stranger Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickman, Susan E.; Muehlenhard, Charlene L.

    1997-01-01

    Studied the fears, beliefs, and behaviors of 139 college women about acquaintance and stranger rape. Women were more afraid of stranger rape and took more precautions against it but paradoxically believed that acquaintance rape was more common. Precautionary behaviors were best predicted by level of fear. Theoretical and educational implications…

  8. Victim Blaming in Rape: Effects of Victim and Perpetrator Race, Type of Rape, and Participant Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, William H.; Martinez, Lorraine J.

    2002-01-01

    Stereotypes about Black sexuality fostered hypotheses that racial factors and racism influence rape victim blaming. Predominantly White and Asian college students (170 men, 162 women) completed the Modern Racism Scale and evaluated a rape vignette varying victim race, perpetrator race, and rape type. As predicted, racial factors determined victim…

  9. Rape law: a feminist legal analysis.

    PubMed

    Benson, M

    1989-01-01

    Rape law is analyzed from the feminist perspective. Feminism can be credited with making the first serious efforts to empower women in all aspects of life, including the right to be free from sexual assault. Part 1 describes feminist theory concerning rape, Part 2 discusses some of the misogynistic images that have influenced rape law while Part 3 surveys some of the changes that have occurred in the United States, England and Israel concerning rape law. Part 4 analyzes the effects of these changes. PMID:2516214

  10. War rape, natality and genocide.

    PubMed

    Schott, Robin May

    2011-01-01

    Feminist philosophy can make an important contribution to the field of genocide studies, and issues relating to gender and war are gaining new attention. In this article I trace legal and philosophical analyses of sexual violence against women in war. I analyze the strengths and limitations of the concept of social death—introduced into this field by Claudia Card—for understanding the genocidal features of war rape, and draw on the work of Hannah Arendt to understand the central harm of genocide as an assault on natality. The threat to natality posed by the harms of rape, forced pregnancy and forced maternity lie in the potential expulsion from the public world of certain groups—including women who are victims, members of the 'enemy' group, and children born of forced birth. PMID:21941691

  11. Application of a rotation system to oilseed rape and rice fields in Cd-contaminated agricultural land to ensure food safety.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lingling; Zhu, Junyan; Huang, Qingqing; Su, Dechun; Jiang, Rongfeng; Li, Huafen

    2014-10-01

    This field experiment analyzed the phytoremediation effects of oilseed rape in moderately cadmium (Cd)-contaminated farmland and the food safety of successive rice in an oilseed rape-rice rotation system. Two oilseed rape cultivars accumulated Cd at different rates. The rapeseed cultivar Zhucang Huazi exhibited high Cd accumulation rates, higher than the legal limit for human consumption (0.2mgkg(-1)); Cd concentrations in the cultivar Chuanyou II-93 were all below the maximum allowed level. Planting oilseed rape increased the uptake of Cd by the successive rice crop compared with a previous fallow treatment. Most Cd concentrations of brown rice were below the maximum allowed level. The phytoextraction efficiency was lower in the moderately Cd-contaminated soil in field experiments. The results suggest screening rice cultivars with lower Cd accumulation can assure the food safety; the mobilization of heavy metals by roots of different plant species should be considered during crop rotation to assure food safety. PMID:25108175

  12. Monitoring the occurrence of genetically modified oilseed rape growing along a Japanese roadside: 3-year observations.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Toru; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Aono, Mitsuko; Tamaoki, Masanori; Kubo, Akihiro; Saji, Hikaru

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring for escape of genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape (Brassica napus) during transport can be performed by means of roadside evaluations in areas where cultivation of this GM crop is not conducted, such as in Japan. We performed a survey of oilseed rape plants growing along a 20-km section of Japan's Route 51, one of the main land transportation routes in central Japan for imports of GM oilseed rape from the Port of Kashima into Keiyo District. Oilseed rape plants were found each year, but the number of plants varied substantially during the three years of our study: 2162 plants in 2005, 4066 in 2006, and only 278 in 2007. The low number in 2007 was probably caused by roadwork. Herbicide-resistant individuals were detected in the three consecutive years (26, 8, and 5 individuals with glyphosate resistance), but glufosinate-resistant plants (9 individuals) were detected only in 2005. The roadside plants occurred mainly along the inbound lane from Kashima to Narita. These plants are likely to have their origin in seeds spilled during transportation of cargo from the port, since there are no potential natural seed source plants for B. napus near Route 51. This is the first detailed report on the transition and distribution of herbicide-resistant oilseed rape plants following loss and spillage along Japanese roads. PMID:19419652

  13. Nitrogen stress measurement of rape based on charged coupled device imaging sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Lei; He, Yong; Zhu, Zheyan; Huang, Min

    2005-10-01

    Site-specific variable nitrogen application is one of the major precision crop production management operations. To obtain sufficient crop nitrogen stress information is essential for achieving effective site-specific nitrogen applications. This paper presents the development of a multi-spectral nitrogen deficiency sensor, which uses three channels (green, red, near-infrared) of crop images to determine nitrogen level of the rape. This sensor assess the nitrogen stress by means of the estimated SPAD value of the rape based on rape canopy reflectance sensed using three channels (green, red, near-infrared) of the multispectral camera. The core of this investigation is the calibration methods between the multi-spectral references and the nitrogen levels in crops measured using a SPAD 502 chlorophyll meter. Based on the results obtained from this study (The correlation was 0.89.), it can be concluded that a multi-spectral CCD camera can provide sufficient information to perform reasonable SPAD values estimation on-the-go during field operations.

  14. Assessing winter oilseed rape freeze injury based on Chinese HJ remote sensing data*

    PubMed Central

    She, Bao; Huang, Jing-feng; Guo, Rui-fang; Wang, Hong-bin; Wang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    The winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) accounts for about 90% of the total acreage of oilseed rape in China. However, it suffers the risk of freeze injury during the winter. In this study, we used Chinese HJ-1A/1B CCD sensors, which have a revisit frequency of 2 d as well as 30 m spatial resolution, to monitor the freeze injury of oilseed rape. Mahalanobis distance-derived growing regions in a normal year were taken as the benchmark, and a mask method was applied to obtain the growing regions in the 2010–2011 growing season. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was chosen as the indicator of the degree of damage. The amount of crop damage was determined from the difference in the NDVI before and after the freeze. There was spatial variability in the amount of crop damage, so we examined three factors that may affect the degree of freeze injury: terrain, soil moisture, and crop growth before the freeze. The results showed that all these factors were significantly correlated with freeze injury degree (P<0.01, two-tailed). The damage was generally more serious in low-lying and drought-prone areas; in addition, oilseed rape planted on south- and west-oriented facing slopes and those with luxuriant growth status tended to be more susceptible to freeze injury. Furthermore, land surface temperature (LST) of the coldest day, soil moisture, pre-freeze growth and altitude were in descending order of importance in determining the degree of damage. The findings proposed in this paper would be helpful in understanding the occurrence and severity distribution of oilseed rape freeze injury under certain natural or vegetation conditions, and thus help in mitigation of this kind of meteorological disaster in southern China. PMID:25644468

  15. Assessing winter oilseed rape freeze injury based on Chinese HJ remote sensing data.

    PubMed

    She, Bao; Huang, Jing-feng; Guo, Rui-fang; Wang, Hong-bin; Wang, Jing

    2015-02-01

    The winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) accounts for about 90% of the total acreage of oilseed rape in China. However, it suffers the risk of freeze injury during the winter. In this study, we used Chinese HJ-1A/1B CCD sensors, which have a revisit frequency of 2 d as well as 30 m spatial resolution, to monitor the freeze injury of oilseed rape. Mahalanobis distance-derived growing regions in a normal year were taken as the benchmark, and a mask method was applied to obtain the growing regions in the 2010-2011 growing season. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was chosen as the indicator of the degree of damage. The amount of crop damage was determined from the difference in the NDVI before and after the freeze. There was spatial variability in the amount of crop damage, so we examined three factors that may affect the degree of freeze injury: terrain, soil moisture, and crop growth before the freeze. The results showed that all these factors were significantly correlated with freeze injury degree (P<0.01, two-tailed). The damage was generally more serious in low-lying and drought-prone areas; in addition, oilseed rape planted on south- and west-oriented facing slopes and those with luxuriant growth status tended to be more susceptible to freeze injury. Furthermore, land surface temperature (LST) of the coldest day, soil moisture, pre-freeze growth and altitude were in descending order of importance in determining the degree of damage. The findings proposed in this paper would be helpful in understanding the occurrence and severity distribution of oilseed rape freeze injury under certain natural or vegetation conditions, and thus help in mitigation of this kind of meteorological disaster in southern China. PMID:25644468

  16. Rape avoidance behavior among Slovak women.

    PubMed

    Prokop, Pavol

    2013-01-01

    Rape has been a recurrent adaptive problem for many species, including humans. Rape is costly to women in terms of disease transmission, partner abandonment, and unwanted pregnancy (among other costs). Therefore, behavioral strategies which allow women to avoid coercive men may have been favored by selection. In line with this evolutionary reasoning, the current research documented that physically stronger women and those in a committed romantic relationship reported more rape avoidance behavior. In addition, virgin women tended to perform more rape avoidance behavior compared with their non-virgin counterparts. Women with high conception risk perceived themselves as physically stronger, which may protect them against a potential rapist. Fear of unwanted pregnancy from rape decreased as age increased, reflecting higher fertility among younger participants. However, older women reported more rape avoidance behavior, which contradicts evolutionary predictions. The results provide some support for evolutionary hypotheses of rape avoidance behavior which suggest that woman's perception of rape is influenced by parental investment and perceived physical condition. PMID:23715617

  17. Likelihood To Rape in College Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osland, Julie A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Proclivities toward rape and sexual force were studied among 159 college men at a small church-affiliated college. In completing a questionnaire, 34% reported some proclivity to rape or force sex, and those who reported such proclivities held more gender stereotyped attitudes. (SLD)

  18. Japanese International Students' Attitudes toward Acquaintance Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motoike, Janice; Stockdale, Margaret

    This study looked at the influence of an Asian sociocultural variable, loss of face or social integrity, as a predictor of perceptions of acquaintance rape among Japanese students. In addition to the expected associations between gender, sexism, and perceptions of rape, loss of face was predicted to interact with the perpetrator's reference group…

  19. How to Start a Rape Crisis Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rape Crisis Center, Washington, DC.

    This booklet, written in response to requests from throughout the nation about how a rape crisis center can be started, presents the history of the founding of the Washington, D.C. center. The booklet offers sections dealing with specific issues. A section discusses, for the rape victim, pros and cons of working with the police, together with the…

  20. From Kobe Bryant to Campus Rape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malveaux, Julianne

    2004-01-01

    Even though laws have been passed to protect young women--who are most at risk for rape--from sexual assault on campus, many young men think they can rape without consequence. Thus, the Campus Security Act of 1990 (now known as the Jerome Clery Act), which requires campuses to report serious crimes on campus, and the Campus Sexual Assault Victim's…

  1. Attitudes toward Acquaintance Rape and Risk Appraisal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Doris J.

    1999-01-01

    Examines how men and women judge the presence of risk factors in a scripted acquaintance rape scenario and if alcohol was a significant factor in assessing risk. Significant differences were found in African American and Caucasian participants' attitudes toward rape and risk appraisal. There was a negative correlation between risk appraisal and…

  2. Campus Acquaintance Rape: An Ethical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggard, William K.

    1992-01-01

    Introduces idea of including ethics in acquaintance rape prevention programming. Applies education model for ethical analysis of sexual behavior to problem of acquaintance rape among college and university students to provide practitioners with new insights which will motivate inclusion of moral and ethical objectives in future prevention…

  3. What has Reform of Rape Legislation Wrought?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Wallace D.

    1981-01-01

    Compares the impact of common law and reform rape legislation on prosecution based on analysis of 445 forcible and statutory rape cases in King County, Washington. Concludes that the impact of the statutory reform has been mainly symbolic and educative for society at large, rather than instrumental for law enforcement. (Author/MJL)

  4. Beliefs About Rape and Women's Social Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costin, Frank; And Others

    The hypothesis that views of rape which place women at a disadvantage are positively related to beliefs which restrict the rights and roles of women in our society is tested. Two scales, the R scale and the W scale, based on a survey of beliefs about rape (Hubert Feild) and the attitudes toward women's scale (Janet Spence and Robert Helmreich),…

  5. The Psychological Impact of Rape Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    This review article examines rape victims' experiences seeking postassault assistance from the legal, medical, and mental health systems and how those interactions impact their psychological well-being. This literature suggests that although some rape victims have positive, helpful experiences with social system personnel, for many victims,…

  6. Determination of trace elements in rape honey and its corresponding rape flower and stem by ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Wang, Zhi-Bin; Chang, Qiao-Ying; Wang, Wei; Fan, Chun-Lin; Pang, Guo-Fang

    2014-02-01

    The determination of 10 trace elements including Na, Mg, P, K, Ca, Mn, Zn, Rb, Sr and Ba, in rape honey and its corresponding rape flower and stem gathered from nine sampling sites was carried out by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The contents of K, P, Ca, Mg and Na were obviously higher than Zn, Rb, Mn, Sr and Ba in rape honey, rape flower and rape stem. For the first five elements, K had the highest content, followed by P, Ca, Mg and Na. However, the order of content for latter five elements was not the same in different matrixes. The contents of K, P and Ca were all higher than 1 000 mg x kg(-1) in rape flower and rape stem, while the contents of P, Ca, Mn, Zn and Rb in rape flower were slightly higher than in rape stem. It can be concluded that rape flower showed slightly higher concentrating ability for trace elements than rape stem. Based on these results, radar chart was firstly applied to research the relationship of 10 elements in rape honey and its corresponding rape flower and stem. The aim of the present work was to study the possibility of using trace elements contents in rape flower to trace the geographical and botanical origin of honey instead of rape honey. It can be found from the radar charts that the stars of rape honey, rape flower and rape stem were similar to each other. This research not only provides the basic data of trace elements in comparative study of rape honey, but also gives scientific basis for tracing the origin of rape honey according to the trace elements in corresponding rape flower that replaces those of rape honey. PMID:24822437

  7. Modelling rainfall interception by vegetation of variable density using an adapted analytical model. Part 2. Model validation for a tropical upland mixed cropping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dijk, A. I. J. M.; Bruijnzeel, L. A.

    2001-07-01

    To improve the description of rainfall partitioning by a vegetation canopy that changes in time a number of adaptations to the revised analytical model for rainfall interception by sparse canopies [J. Hydrol., 170 (1995) 79] was proposed in the first of two papers. The current paper presents an application of this adapted analytical model to simulate throughfall, stemflow and interception as measured in a mixed agricultural cropping system involving cassava, maize and rice during two seasons of growth and serial harvesting in upland West Java, Indonesia. Measured interception losses were 18 and 8% during the two measuring periods, while stemflow fractions were estimated at 2 and 4%, respectively. The main reasons for these discrepancies were differences in vegetation density and composition, as well as differences in the exposure of the two sites used in the two respective years. Functions describing the development of the leaf area index of each of the component crops in time were developed. Leaf area index (ranging between 0.7 and 3.8) was related to canopy cover fraction (0.41-0.94). Using average values and time series of the respective parameters, interception losses were modelled using both the revised analytical model and the presently adapted version. The results indicate that the proposed model adaptations substantially improve the performance of the analytical model and provide a more solid base for parameterisation of the analytical model in vegetation of variable density.

  8. Rape myths among Appalachian college students.

    PubMed

    Haywood, Holly; Swank, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Rape myths regularly admonish victims for supposedly provoking the violence done against them. While rape attitudes have been studied in national and urban samples, the support of rape myths in rural populations is seldom investigated. Furthermore, the few empirical studies on sexual coercion in Appalachia are mostly descriptive and rarely compare the sentiments of Appalachians and non-Appalachians. To address this gap, this study surveyed 512 college students at a public university in Eastern Kentucky. In testing an Appalachian distinctiveness question, this study revealed that Appalachian students were less likely to criticize rape victims. Students were also less inclined to condemn rape victims when they were victims themselves, came from egalitarian families, stayed in college longer, rejected modem sexism, and felt little animosity toward women. PMID:18624101

  9. [Effects of sulfur on transformation of selenium in soil and uptake of selenium in rape].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin-wei; Duan, Bi-huil; Xia, Quan-jie; Jiao, Wei; Guo, Zai-hua; Hu, Cheng-xiao; Zhao, Zhu-qing

    2014-09-01

    The high-quality, high-yield rape (Brassica napus L. cv. Xiangnongyou 571) was chosen as the experimental material to undergo seedling stage soil cultivation and solution cultivation. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of sulfur (S) on the fraction and species of amend selenium (Se) in soil by applying S fertilizer, and to reveal the mechanism through which S controls the Se uptake of rape. The results showed that applications of both Se at 5 mg.kg-1 and S at 150 mg.kg-1 could provide some boost to rape growth, however such boost was unremarkable; S application could significantly reduce Se content in shoots and roots by as much as 64. 0% and 39. 1% , respectively; S application could significantly decrease the pH value and increase the organic matter content by as much as 0. 65 units and 1.76 g.kg-1 , respectively; S application could significantly decrease soluble Se and Fe/Mn oxide-bound Se, and significantly increase organic matter-bound Se, however, there was no remarkable effect on exchangeable and residual Se. S could significantly decrease the content of Se(IV) in the soluble Se and significantly increase the content of Se(IV) in the exchangeable Se, with remarkable decrease in Se(VI) content in both fractions, and no remarkable effect on Se(II). S had a profound effect on the uptake of Se by rape seedlings when Se( IV) and Se( VI) were applied. The Se contents in shoot and root of the Se( VI)-treated rape were 7.3 and 3.2 times respectively as high as that of the Se( IV)-treated rape, while with a S rate of 2 mmolL-1, their Se contents were lower than 32.6% and 8.7% of that of the Se(IV)-treated rape. In conclusion, in addition to improving crop growth, appropriate amount of S fertilizer could also reduce soil pH and increase organic content, causing available Se in soil to be Fe/Mn oxide-bound and organic matter-bound, and retarding its transformation to Se( VI), thus reducing Se uptake by rape. This has significant value for regulation of Se

  10. Blacks' and Whites' Perceptions of Interracial and Intraracial Date Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varelas, Nicole; Foley, Linda A.

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes influence of rape myths on victims' decisions to report rapes. Examines respondents' perceptions of responsibility and evaluation of incidents. Explains respondents with strong beliefs in rape myths contribute to a tolerance of the rapist while blaming the victim. Implies attitudes reinforce unreported rapes and a lack of fair trials.…

  11. Rape on College Campuses: Reform through Title IX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Terry Nicole

    1991-01-01

    This article first, analyzes the growing problem of campus rape; second, evaluates some college rape reduction programs; third, uses case law to demonstrate that rape should be considered sex discrimination under Title IX; and, fourth, suggests an amendment to Title IX, defining rape as sex discrimination. Appropriate implementation measures by…

  12. Social Context Variables in the Social Perception of Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cann, Arnie; And Others

    The physical and interpersonal contexts within which rapes occur were investigated. The physical context, defined in terms of observers' perceptions of the likelihood of rapes occurring in a particular setting, produce variations in the degree of responsibility assigned to the victim. Women raped in high probability of rape settings were held as…

  13. Male Rape Myths: The Role of Gender, Violence, and Sexism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapleau, Kristine M.; Oswald, Debra L.; Russell, Brenda L.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the structure of Struckman-Johnson and Struckman-Johnson's Male Rape Myth Scale, examines gender differences in rape myth acceptance, and explores the underlying ideologies that facilitate male rape myth acceptance. A three-factor model, with rape myths regarding Trauma, Blame, and Denial as separate subscales, is the best…

  14. Understanding Attribution of Blame in Cases of Rape: An Analysis of Participant Gender, Type of Rape and Perceived Similarity to the Victim

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grubb, Amy Rose; Harrower, Julie

    2009-01-01

    This study examined a variety of factors that may influence attributions towards rape victims. A total of 156 participants completed a questionnaire, which included a measure of attitudes towards rape victims and a vignette depicting one of three rape scenarios (a stranger rape, date rape and seduction rape). Participants rated the extent to which…

  15. New insights into phosphorus management in agriculture--A crop rotation approach.

    PubMed

    Łukowiak, Remigiusz; Grzebisz, Witold; Sassenrath, Gretchen F

    2016-01-15

    This manuscript presents research results examining phosphorus (P) management in a soil–plant system for three variables: i) internal resources of soil available phosphorus, ii) cropping sequence, and iii) external input of phosphorus (manure, fertilizers). The research was conducted in long-term cropping sequences with oilseed rape (10 rotations) and maize (six rotations) over three consecutive growing seasons (2004/2005, 2005/2006, and 2006/2007) in a production farm on soils originated from Albic Luvisols in Poland. The soil available phosphorus pool, measured as calcium chloride extractable P (CCE-P), constituted 28% to 67% of the total phosphorus input (PTI) to the soil–plant system in the spring. Oilseed rape and maize dominant cropping sequences showed a significant potential to utilize the CCE-P pool within the soil profile. Cropping sequences containing oilseed rape significantly affected the CCE-P pool, and in turn contributed to the P(TI). The P(TI) uptake use efficiency was 50% on average. Therefore, the CCE-P pool should be taken into account as an important component of a sound and reliable phosphorus balance. The instability of the yield prediction, based on the P(TI), was mainly due to an imbalanced management of both farmyard manure and phosphorus fertilizer. Oilseed rape plants provide a significant positive impact on the CCE-P pool after harvest, improving the productive stability of the entire cropping sequence. This phenomenon was documented by the P(TI) increase during wheat cultivation following oilseed rape. The Unit Phosphorus Uptake index also showed a higher stability in oilseed rape cropping systems compared to rotations based on maize. Cropping sequences are a primary factor impacting phosphorus management. Judicious implementation of crop rotations can improve soil P resources, efficiency of crop P use, and crop yield and yield stability. Use of cropping sequences can reduce the need for external P sources such as farmyard manure

  16. The Rape Myth and Blame-Based Beliefs of Counselors-in-Training toward Male Victims of Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassing, Leslee R.; Prieto, Loreto R.

    2003-01-01

    Surveyed counselors-in-training regarding their acceptance of rape myths and their willingness to make blame-based attributions toward a male victim of rape. Results suggested male counselor trainees tended to endorse the greatest degree of acceptance of rape myths. Trainees of both sexes thought that a male rape victim who showed no resistance to…

  17. Evaluations of a Date Rape Situation: Effects of Victim's Power Strategy, Rape Outcome, and Sex of Subject.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Laura E.; DeLamarter, William A.

    According to a recent study a rape occurs every 7 minutes and 60% of those rapes happen on dates. This study examined the impact of assault outcomes (rape, avoidance) and victim's power strategy (direct/bilateral, indirect/unilateral) on male and female evaluations of a date rape situation. College students (N=121) listened to a taped dialogue and…

  18. Hostile sexism, type of rape, and self-reported rape proclivity within a sample of Zimbabwean males.

    PubMed

    Viki, G Tendayi; Chiroro, Patrick; Abrams, Dominic

    2006-08-01

    The role of hostile sexism in accounting for rape proclivity among men was investigated using a sample of Zimbabwean students. Participants were presented with either an acquaintance rape or a stranger rape scenario and asked to respond to five questions about the scenario designed to assess rape proclivity. As expected, a significant relationship between hostile sexism and rape proclivity was obtained in the acquaintance rape but not the stranger rape condition. These results replicate previous research and suggest that hostile sexists are more likely to express their hostility toward women in situations where such behavior might be perceived as acceptable. PMID:16861333

  19. Performance of winter rape (Brassica napus) based fuel mixtures in diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, G.L.; Peterson, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    Winter rape is well adapted to the Palouse region of Northern Idaho and Eastern Washington. Nearly all of the current US production is grown in this region. Yields of 2200 to 2700 kg/ha with 45 percent oil content are common. Even though present production only 2000 to 2500 ha per year, the long history of production and good yields of oil make winter rape the best potential fuel vegetable oil crop for the region. Winter rape oil is more viscous than sunflower oil (50 cSt at 40/sup 0/C for winter rape and 35 cSt at 40/sup 0/C for sunflower oil) and about 17 times more viscous than diesel. The viscosity of the pure oil has been found too high for operation in typical diesel injector systems. Mixtures and/or additives are essential if the oil is to be a satisfactory fuel. Conversely, the fatty acid composition of witer rape oils is such that it is potentially a more favorable fuel because of reduced rates of oxidation and thermal polymerization. This paper will report on results of short and long term engine tests using winter rape, diesel, and commercial additives as the components. Selection of mixtures for long term screening tests was based on laboratory studies which included high temperature oxidation studies and temperature-viscosity data. Fuel temperature has been monitored at the outlet of the injector nozzle on operating engines so that viscosity comparisons at the actual injector temperature can be made. 1 figure, 3 tables.

  20. Using Virtual Plants to Analyse the Light-foraging Efficiency of a Low-density Cotton Crop

    PubMed Central

    Dauzat, Jean; Clouvel, Pascal; Luquet, Delphine; Martin, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Cotton shows a marked plasticity vs. density in terms of branch development and geometry, internode elongation and leaf expansion. This paper proposes interpretations for observed plasticity in terms of light quantity and quality. Methods 3-D virtual plants were reconstructed from field observations and 3-D digitization and were used to simulate the light regime in cotton stands of different densities. Key Results All densities showed the same linear relationship between LAI and the sum of light intercepted by the canopy, from seedling emergence up to flowering. Simulated R : FR ratio profiles can very likely explain (1) the longer first internodes on main stem and branches and (2) the azimuthal re-orientation of branches toward the inter-row. Conclusions Simulation tools were used to analyse plant plasticity in terms of light quantity and quality. The methodology applied here at the stand scale will now be continued at the plant scale to further strengthen the above hypotheses. PMID:18184646

  1. Optimizing hill seeding density for high-yielding hybrid rice in a single rice cropping system in South China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Danying; Chen, Song; Wang, Zaiman; Ji, Chenglin; Xu, Chunmei; Zhang, Xiufu; Chauhan, Bhagirath Singh

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical hill direct seeding of hybrid rice could be the way to solve the problems of high seeding rates and uneven plant establishment now faced in direct seeded rice; however, it is not clear what the optimum hill seeding density should be for high-yielding hybrid rice in the single-season rice production system. Experiments were conducted in 2010 and 2011 to determine the effects of hill seeding density (25 cm×15 cm, 25 cm×17 cm, 25 cm×19 cm, 25 cm×21 cm, and 25 cm×23 cm; three to five seeds per hill) on plant growth and grain yield of a hybrid variety, Nei2you6, in two fields with different fertility (soil fertility 1 and 2). In addition, in 2012 and 2013, comparisons among mechanical hill seeding, broadcasting, and transplanting were conducted with three hybrid varieties to evaluate the optimum seeding density. With increases in seeding spacing from 25 cm×15 cm to 25 cm×23 cm, productive tillers per hill increased by 34.2% and 50.0% in soil fertility 1 and 2. Panicles per m2 declined with increases in seeding spacing in soil fertility 1. In soil fertility 2, no difference in panicles per m2 was found at spacing ranging from 25 cm×17 cm to 25 cm×23 cm, while decreases in the area of the top three leaves and aboveground dry weight per shoot at flowering were observed. Grain yield was the maximum at 25 cm×17 cm spacing in both soil fertility fields. Our results suggest that a seeding density of 25 cm×17 cm was suitable for high-yielding hybrid rice. These results were verified through on-farm demonstration experiments, in which mechanical hill-seeded rice at this density had equal or higher grain yield than transplanted rice. PMID:25290342

  2. What is a typical rape? Effects of victim and participant gender in female and male rape perception.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Irina

    2007-03-01

    The study had three research aims: (1) to examine the current perception of female rape. Given recent changes in public awareness of female rape, it was predicted that respondents would conceptualize a typical female rape as an acquaintance rape rather than as the stranger rape stereotype; (2) to examine whether these perceptions differ according to respondents' gender; (3) to examine the 'cultural lag' theory of male rape, where it was hypothesized that if the public perception of male rape lags behind female rape, then a typical male rape will be conceptualized as the classic stranger rape stereotype. Findings showed that contrary to predictions, a typical female rape was conceptualized according to the stranger rape stereotype. It was also found that instead of lagging behind female rape along the stranger-acquaintance rape dimension, male rape was viewed predominantly in terms of 'other' factors (factors not found on the stranger-acquaintance dimension, e.g. victim/rapist sexual orientation, rapist calls victim names), which were erroneous, sexualizing and homophobic. PMID:17355727

  3. Study on nitrogen stress characterization of rape based on ground multi-spectral imaging sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Lei; He, Yong; Zhu, Zeyan; Huang, Min

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a multi-spectral nitrogen deficiency sensor, which uses three channels (green, red, near-infrared) of crop images to determine nitrogen level of the rape. The core of this investigation is the calibration methods between the multi-spectral references and the nitrogen levels in crops measured using a SPAD 502 chlorophyll meter which may be used to measure N (g)/leaf area (m2). Some noticeable relationships between the multi-spectral reflectance and SPAD readings were found from this study.

  4. Reliability reporting practices in rape myth research.

    PubMed

    Buhi, Eric R

    2005-02-01

    A number of school-based programs address sexual violence by focusing on adolescents' attitudes about rape or acceptance of rape myths. However, many problems exist in the literature regarding measurement of rape myth acceptance, including issues of reliability and validity. This paper addresses measurement reliability issues and reviews reliability reporting practices of studies using the Burt Rape Myth Acceptance Scale. Less than one-half of the 68 articles examined reported reliability coefficients for the data collected. Almost one-third of the studies did not mention reliability. Examples of acceptable reliability reporting are provided. It is argued that reliability coefficients for the data actually analyzed should always be assessed and reported when interpreting program results. Implicationsfor school health research and practice are discussed. PMID:15929595

  5. Acquaintance Rape on Campus: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Dennis; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examines issues related to acquaintance rape: cultural context, legal issues, adolescent attitudes and development, alcohol and sexual assault, the assailants, the victims, and the institutional response, and makes recommendations for a system that all colleges should have in place. (SM)

  6. Rodent food quality and its relation to crops and other environmental and population parameters in an agricultural landscape.

    PubMed

    Eva, Janova; Marta, Heroldova; Ladislav, Cepelka

    2016-08-15

    The diet, its quality and quantity considerably influence population parameters of rodents. In this study, we used NIRS methods for estimation of nitrogen content in stomachs of rodent populations. The study was carried out in diverse arable landscape in South Moravia, Czech Republic. Rodents were sampled in cultural crops (alfalfa, barley, wheat, sunflower, maize and rape) as well as in fallow habitats (herbal set-aside and old orchard). Influence of habitat, date, year, individual parameters (body length, sex, breeding and age), and relative abundance on quality of consumed food was studied. Under conditions of higher population density, dominant species [wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) and common vole (Microtus arvalis)] consumed food richer in nitrogen. Also the strong effect of crop and date (season) was found in both species. There was no significant effect of the other parameters studied on food quality (N-content). PMID:27099997

  7. The Effects of Seed Size on Hybrids Formed between Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus) and Wild Brown Mustard (B. juncea)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong-bo; Tang, Zhi-xi; Darmency, Henri; Stewart, C. Neal; Di, Kun; Wei, Wei; Ma, Ke-ping

    2012-01-01

    Background Seed size has significant implications in ecology, because of its effects on plant fitness. The hybrid seeds that result from crosses between crops and their wild relatives are often small, and the consequences of this have been poorly investigated. Here we report on plant performance of hybrid and its parental transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and wild B. juncea, all grown from seeds sorted into three seed-size categories. Methodology/Principal Findings Three seed-size categories were sorted by seed diameter for transgenic B. napus, wild B. juncea and their transgenic and non-transgenic hybrids. The seeds were sown in a field at various plant densities. Globally, small-seeded plants had delayed flowering, lower biomass, fewer flowers and seeds, and a lower thousand-seed weight. The seed-size effect varied among plant types but was not affected by plant density. There was no negative effect of seed size in hybrids, but it was correlated with reduced growth for both parents. Conclusions Our results imply that the risk of further gene flow would probably not be mitigated by the small size of transgenic hybrid seeds. No fitness cost was detected to be associated with the Bt-transgene in this study. PMID:22745814

  8. College Students' Attitudes toward Date Rape and Date Rape Backlash: Implications for Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Susan; Bower, Douglas J.

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed college students regarding their acceptance of rape-myth beliefs expounded by the date rape backlash movement. Results indicated that gender, adversarial attitudes toward sexual relationships, political and sex role views, perception of false accusation vulnerability, academic honorary membership, Greek affiliation, and knowledge of a…

  9. Do Rape Education Programs Influence Rape Patterns among New York State College Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrot, Andrea

    This study examined the differences in patterns of college student reports of rape and the availability of educational programs among college students. College students (N=994) from 26 colleges and universities in New York State were studied to determine the extent of forced sex and rape experiences. Additionally, they were studied to determine if…

  10. Attributions in Rape: Effects of Type of Rape and Victim Power Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLamarter, William A.; Westervelt, Karen E.

    Recent trials have brought the issue of date rape into public awareness. It is appropriate to examine the impact of variables such as the appearance of the accuser, the relationship between the accuser and the defendant, and the behavior of the accuser and defendant on attributions of responsibility in a rape situation. This study manipulated…

  11. Rape Supportive Attitudes among Greek Students before and after a Date Rape Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenihan, Genie O.; Rawlins, Melanie E.

    1994-01-01

    This study assessed rape supportive attitudes of sorority and fraternity members and evaluated a date rape education program with comparison to a non-Greek group studied earlier. Greek students registered more desirable scores than non-Greeks on an attitudes measure, but the education program did not improve their scores. (Author)

  12. Exploring rape myths, gendered norms, group processing, and the social context of rape among college women: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Deming, Michelle E; Covan, Eleanor Krassen; Swan, Suzanne C; Billings, Deborah L

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the negotiation strategies of college women as they interpret ambiguous rape scenarios. In focus groups, 1st- and 4th-year college women were presented with a series of three vignettes depicting incidents that meet the legal criteria for rape yet are ambiguous due to the presence of cultural rape myths, contexts involving alcohol consumption, varying degrees of consent, and a known perpetrator. These contexts are critical in understanding how college women define rape. Key findings indicated many of these college women utilized rape myths and norms within their peer groups to interpret rape scenarios. PMID:23637315

  13. Prevention of post-rape psychopathology: preliminary findings of a controlled acute rape treatment study.

    PubMed

    Resnick, H; Acierno, R; Holmes, M; Kilpatrick, D G; Jager, N

    1999-01-01

    Violent sexual assault such as rape typically results in extremely high levels of acute distress. The intensity of these acute psychological reactions may play a role in later recovery, with higher levels of immediate distress associated with poorer outcome. Unfortunately, post-rape forensic evidence collection procedures may serve to increase, rather than reduce initial distress, potentially exacerbating future psychopathology. To address these concerns, an acute time-frame hospital-based video intervention was developed to: (a) minimize anxiety during forensic rape exams, and (b) prevent post-rape posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), panic, and anxiety. Preliminary data indicated that (1) psychological distress at the time of the exam was strongly related to PTSD symptomatology 6 weeks post-rape, and (2) the video intervention successfully reduced distress during forensic exams. PMID:10504107

  14. Heterogeneity within multiple perpetrator rapes: a national comparison of lone, duo, and 3+ perpetrator rapes.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Teresa; Woodhams, Jessica; Harkins, Leigh

    2014-12-01

    The effect of number of perpetrators involved in multiple perpetrator rapes on offense characteristics is underresearched despite beliefs that duos/dyads differ in their interactions and dynamics to groups of 3+ members. We analyzed a national sample of 336 allegations of completed and attempted rape of female victims from the United Kingdom. Rapes committed by multiple (duos and groups of 3+ perpetrators) and lone offenders were compared on offense characteristics (incorporating the approach, maintenance, and closure phases of each rape) and victim and offender sociodemographic characteristics. Significant differences between rapes committed by lone, duo, and 3+ group offenders were found for the age and ethnicity of the offenders; the type of approach used; the locations of the initial contact, assault, and release of the victims; the use of a vehicle; the precautions utilized; the verbal themes present; and the sex acts performed. These results have implications for educational prevention programs and interventions with offenders. PMID:24002932

  15. Decomposition and Nutrient Release of Cover Crops on Different Landscape Positions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Decomposition patterns of cover crops determine availability of nutrients to subsequent crops. Decomposition and mineralization patterns of Lupinus albus L. (white lupin), Avena strigosa Shreb (black oat), Trifolium incarnatum L. (crimson clover) and Brassica napus L. (rape) were studied under fiel...

  16. Detection of feral transgenic oilseed rape with multiple-herbicide resistance in Japan.

    PubMed

    Aono, Mitsuko; Wakiyama, Seiji; Nagatsu, Masato; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Tamaoki, Masanori; Kubo, Akihiro; Saji, Hikaru

    2006-01-01

    Repeated monitoring for escaped transgenic crop plants is sometimes necessary, especially in cases when the crop has not been approved for release into the environment. Transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus) was detected along roadsides in central Japan in a previous study. The goal of the current study was to monitor the distribution of transgenic oilseed rape and occurrence of hybridization of transgenic B. napus with feral populations of its closely related species (B. rapa and B. juncea) in the west of Japan in 2005. The progenies of 50 B. napus, 82 B. rapa and 283 B. juncea maternal plants from 95 sampling sites in seven port areas were screened for herbicide-resistance. Transgenic herbicide-resistant seeds were detected from 12 B. napus maternal plants growing at seven sampling sites in two port areas. A portion of the progeny from two transgenic B. napus plants had both glyphosate-resistance and glufosinate-resistance transgenes. Therefore, two types of transgenic B. napus plants are likely to have outcrossed with each other, since the double-herbicide-resistant transgenic strain of oilseed rape has not been developed intentionally for commercial purposes. As found in the previous study, no transgenic seeds were detected from B. rapa or B. juncea, and more extensive sampling is needed to determine whether introgression into these wild species has occurred. PMID:17328854

  17. Are Herbicide Resistant Crops The Answer To Controlling Cascuta?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Herbicide tolerant crop technology could provide new management strategies for the control of parasitic plants. Three herbicide-tolerant oilseed rape genotypes were used to examine the response of attached C. campestris to glyphosate, imazamox and glufosinate. C. campestris was allowed to establi...

  18. Rape, sex partnership, and substance use consequences in women veterans.

    PubMed

    Booth, Brenda M; Mengeling, Michelle; Torner, James; Sadler, Anne G

    2011-06-01

    The association of rape history and sexual partnership with alcohol and drug use consequences in women veterans is unknown. Midwestern women veterans (N = 1,004) completed a retrospective telephone interview assessing demographics, rape history, substance abuse and dependence, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). One third met lifetime criteria for substance use disorder (SUD), half reported lifetime completed rape, a third childhood rape, one quarter in-military rape, 11% sex with women. Lifetime SUD was higher for women with rape history (64% vs. 44%). Women with women as sex partners had significantly higher rates of all measures of rape, and also lifetime substance use disorder. Postmilitary rape, sex partnership, and current depression were significantly associated with lifetime SUD in multivariate models (odds ratio = 2.3, 3.6, 2.1, respectively). Many women veterans have a high need for comprehensive mental health services. PMID:21567476

  19. Rape prevention with college men: evaluating risk status.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Kari A; George, William H

    2009-06-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of a theoretically based rape prevention intervention with college men who were at high or low risk to perpetrate sexually coercive behavior. Participants (N = 146) are randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Outcomes include rape myth acceptance, victim empathy, attraction to sexual aggression, sex-related alcohol expectancies, and behavioral indicators, measured across three time points. Positive effects are found for rape myth acceptance, victim empathy, attraction to sexual aggression, and behavioral intentions to rape. Only rape myth acceptance and victim empathy effects sustain at the 5-week follow-up. High-risk men are generally unaffected by the intervention although low-risk men produced larger effects than the entire sample. Results suggest rape prevention studies must assess risk status moderation effects to maximize prevention for high-risk men. More research is needed to develop effective rape prevention with men who are at high risk to rape. PMID:18591366

  20. Male rape myths: the role of gender, violence, and sexism.

    PubMed

    Chapleau, Kristine M; Oswald, Debra L; Russell, Brenda L

    2008-05-01

    This study investigates the structure of Struckman-Johnson and Struckman-Johnson's Male Rape Myth Scale, examines gender differences in rape myth acceptance, and explores the underlying ideologies that facilitate male rape myth acceptance. A three-factor model, with rape myths regarding Trauma, Blame, and Denial as separate subscales, is the best fitting solution. However, the results indicate that additional scale development and validity tests are necessary. In exploratory analyses, men are more accepting of male rape myths than are women. Benevolent sexism toward men and acceptance of interpersonal violence are strong predictors of male rape myth acceptance for both men and women. Thus, the attitudes that facilitate rape myth acceptance against men appear to be similar to those that facilitate rape myth acceptance against women. Suggestions for future scale development are outlined and theoretical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:18259049

  1. Manipulating inoculum densities of Verticillium dahliae and Pratylenchus penetrans with green manure amendments and solarization influence potato yield.

    PubMed

    Macguidwin, A E; Knuteson, D L; Connell, T; Bland, W L; Bartelt, K D

    2012-05-01

    We used cover crops with demonstrated efficacy against Verticillium dahliae and Pratylenchus penetrans in combination with the biocidal practice of solarization to determine the importance of targeting both organisms for managing potato early dying, an issue relevant to the search for alternatives to soil fumigation. Two experiments were conducted in commercial fields using a split-plot design with cover crop treatments of rapeseed, marigold, forage pearl millet, sorghum-sudangrass, and corn as the main plot factor and solarization as the subplot factor. Cover crops were grown and solarization applied in year one, followed by potato in year two. The main effect of solarization was significant for reduced inoculum levels of both organisms in year two and increased tuber yields. The main effect of cover crop was also significant with lower population densities of P. penetrans following the marigold and millet treatments and of V. dahliae following rape and sorghum-sudangrass. The cover crop treatments influenced yield in only one of the experiments in the absence of solarization. The combinatorial effect of cover crops and solarization resulted in a wide range of pathogen population densities. Mean soil inoculum levels were negatively related to yield for V. dahliae in experiment 1, and for P. penetrans and the P. penetrans × V. dahliae interaction in both experiments. PMID:22494249

  2. Social norms and the likelihood of raping: Perceived rape myth acceptance of others affects men's rape proclivity.

    PubMed

    Bohner, Gerd; Siebler, Frank; Schmelcher, Jürgen

    2006-03-01

    Research showing that rape myth acceptance (RMA) causally affects rape proclivity (RP) was extended by examining the impact of RMA-related norms on RP. Male students (total N = 264) received feedback about the alleged responses of other students to RMA items either before (Experiment 1) or after (Experiment 2) they reported their own RMA, and then their RP was assessed using acquaintance-rape scenarios. The level of RMA feedback was varied. Results showed that higher norms led to higher RP. In Experiment 1, this effect was mediated via self-reported RMA. Experiment 2 yielded main effects of both RMA feedback and self-reported RMA and an interaction effect showing that RMA feedback was particularly influential at higher levels of own RMA. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:16455857

  3. ASD and PTSD in rape victims.

    PubMed

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M

    2010-08-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the prediction of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). The predictive power of ASD on PTSD was examined in a population of 148 female rape victims who visited a center for rape victims shortly after the rape or attempted rape. The PTSD diagnosis based solely on the three core symptom clusters was best identified by a subclinical ASD diagnosis based on all ASD criteria except dissociation. However, a full PTSD diagnosis including the A( 2) and F criteria was best identified by classifying victims according to a full ASD diagnosis. Regardless of whether cases were classified according to full PTSD status or according to meeting the criteria for the three PTSD core symptom clusters, the classification was correct only in approximately two thirds of the cases. A regression analysis based on ASD severity and sexual problems following the rape accounted for only 28% of the PTSD severity variance. In conclusion, the ASD diagnosis is not an optimal method for identifying those most at risk for PTSD. It remains to be seen whether a better way can be found. PMID:20068117

  4. Clinical Treatment of Nonrecent Rape: How Much Do We Know?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Mary P.; And Others

    Although studies indicate that as many as 22 percent of women have been raped, few of these women seek help immediately after the rape. Most rape victims experience a postrape distress response which may not be resolved for some victims. Long-term symptom patterns include fear/avoidance responses, affective constriction, disturbances of…

  5. "Friends" Raping Friends. Could It Happen to You?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Jean O'Gorman; Sandler, Bernice R.

    This publication concerning rape committed by acquaintances and "friends" is designed to provide information and support for college students. The early warning signs and how to react to potential "acquaintance" or "date" rape are addressed. Consideration is given to why this type of rape occurs and information is provided on how to avoid date…

  6. Sex Differences in University Students' Attitudes toward Rape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Nona J.; Feild, Hubert S.

    1977-01-01

    This study investigated the nature of sex differences among university students' attitudes toward rape. Results showed males were quite different from females in their attitudes and tended to support many myths regarding rape. Implications of the results concerning the nature and prevention of rape on college campuses are discussed. (Author)

  7. High School and College Students' Attitudes toward Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Michelle L.; Lester, David

    1991-01-01

    Explored myths about rape and tendency to blame victim in high school (n=54) and college (n=46) students. High school males believed more strongly than did high school females and college males in rape myths and assigned greater blame to victims. For high school students, belief in myths about rape was associated with assigning more victim blame.…

  8. Presumed Motive in the Male and Female Perception of Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilbrun, Alfred B., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Sex differences in "rape stereotypes" were investigated. Males' subjective impressions of rape emphasized the aggressive rather than the sexual motive; females did not differentiate. The stereotype of a sexually motivated rape was well organized for females. No organization was found when an aggressive motive was assumed. (Author)

  9. Reading "Rape Stories": Material Rhetoric and the Trauma of Representation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesford, Wendy S.

    1999-01-01

    Raises questions about the representability of the trauma of rape and the purposes of its representation. Focuses on how the strategic enactment of a culturally dominant rape script can potentially open up a gap within which that script can be contested and the act of rape or death resisted. Discusses pedagogical challenges of teaching the…

  10. Race and Rape: The Black Woman as Legitimate Victim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Linda Meyer

    Scientific investigations of the relationship between race and rape have been flawed by the acceptance of official statistics and have been influenced by prevailing myths about rape and race. This paper proposes a theoretical framework for understanding rape and race. The thesis is presented that only the black victim of sexual assault is viewed…

  11. A Men's Support Group for Significant Others of Rape Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodkin, Lawrence I.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the trauma experienced by women rape victims and focuses on a men's support group for male-significant-others of women who have been raped. Describes the developmental phases through which the male significant others of rape victims achieve resolution and the impact of the male's response upon the relationship. (Author)

  12. Theoretical Consideration of Forcible Rape: A Critical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clagett, Arthur F.

    1988-01-01

    Examined differences in hypothetical apperceptive fantasies of committing forcible rape, which are held by male subjects, as compared with the hypothetical apperceptive fantasies of being forcibly raped, held by the female subjects. Developed a critical analysis of social and cross-cultural variables affecting rape. (Author/ABL)

  13. Preventing Acquaintance Rape through Education. What Do We Know?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonsway, Kimberly A.

    1996-01-01

    Critically reviews current rape prevention education programs, focusing on common techniques and the assumption that change in rape-supportive ideologies will decrease the actual incidence of sexual aggression. Identifies many issues that must be addressed through rigorous experimentation so that the promise of rape prevention can be realized…

  14. Acquaintance Rape on Campus: A Model for Institutional Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burling, Philip

    This booklet explains the actions that college or university administrators should take to prevent or respond to incidents of acquaintance rape ("date rape") on campus. It outlines specific preventive measures, risk management procedures, and internal disciplinary procedures for acquaintance rape cases. Institutions should define acquaintance rape…

  15. Date and Acquaintance Rape among a Sample of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Crystal S.; Granoff, Barbara J.

    1992-01-01

    Conducted date and acquaintance rape needs-assessment survey on 106 male and 113 female college students. Thirty-two women acknowledged that they were victims of rape or attempted rape, and majority reported multiple victimizations. Eighteen men admitted to committing acts that met legal definition of sexual assault in Hawaii. (Author/NB)

  16. Acquaintance Rape: What Is the Law? Teaching Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Pat; Ryan, Roxann

    1995-01-01

    Discusses rape issues and contends that education about it should be provided at all grade levels. Presents a lesson in which students distinguish between facts and myths of rape and identify situations in which the legal definition of rape is met. (CFR)

  17. Exposure to Pornography and Acceptance of Rape Myths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Mike; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Summarizes the literature examining the association between acceptance of rape myths and exposure to pornography. States that nonexperimental methodology shows that exposure to pornography does not increase rape myth acceptance, while experimental studies show that exposure to pornography increases rape myth acceptance. Concludes that experimental…

  18. 66 FR 22234 - Grants for Rape Prevention and Education

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2001-05-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Grants for Rape Prevention and Education.... The Rape Prevention and Education Grant Program strengthens education and training to combat violence.... CDC will award targeted grants to State Health Departments to be used for rape prevention...

  19. Working Together To Change the Rape and Violence Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Julie M.; And Others

    This publication is a collection of 20 supporting documents for a conference program, "Working Together To Change the Rape and Violence Culture." Contents include: (1) "Presenter Contact Information"; (2) "Characteristics of Rape-Prone versus Rape-Free Cultures"; (3) "Dater's Bill of Rights"; (4) "Quotes for Discussion"; (5) "University of…

  20. Freeing Our Lives: A Feminist Analysis of Rape Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff, Sunny; And Others

    The factors which contribute to women's vulnerability to rape are a lack of information about and understanding of rape; women's subordinate relationship to men; socially reinforced physical weakness and passivity; isolation from other women; isolation in the community. Prevention means more than just reducing the incidence of rape or providing…

  1. Reporting Rape in a National Sample of College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Studies indicate that a small percentage of rapes are reported to law enforcement officials. Research also suggests that rapes perpetrated by a stranger are more likely to be reported and that rapes involving drugs and/or alcohol are less likely to be reported. College women represent a unique and understudied population with regard to…

  2. 3 CFR - Implementing the Prison Rape Elimination Act

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Implementing the Prison Rape Elimination Act Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of May 17, 2012 Implementing the Prison Rape... victim, is an assault on human dignity and an affront to American values. The Prison Rape Elimination...

  3. An Updated Measure for Assessing Subtle Rape Myths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Sarah; Farmer, G. Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Social workers responsible for developing rape prevention programs on college campuses must have valid evaluation instruments. This article presents the challenges encountered by the authors when they attempted to keep rape myth measures relevant to student populations by updating the language to reflect the subtleties involved with rape myths.…

  4. Long-Term Effects of Labeling a Rape Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullin, Darcy; White, Jacquelyn W.

    2006-01-01

    Research has found that approximately half of women who report an experience that meets the legal definition of rape do not label it rape. It has been assumed that labeling the experience as rape is necessary and beneficial for recovery; however, conflicting findings have been reported. In the present study, a longitudinal design was utilized to…

  5. Rape Myth Acceptance, Sexual Trauma History, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baugher, Shannon N.; Elhai, Jon D.; Monroe, James R.; Gray, Matt J.

    2010-01-01

    The prediction of false rape-related beliefs (rape myth acceptance [RMA]) was examined using the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale (Payne, Lonsway, & Fitzgerald, 1999) among a nonclinical sample of 258 male and female college students. Predictor variables included measures of attitudes toward women, gender role identity (GRI), sexual trauma…

  6. Assays of the production of harmful substances by genetically modified oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) plants in accordance with regulations for evaluating the impact on biodiversity in Japan.

    PubMed

    Asanuma, Yoko; Jinkawa, Tomoe; Tanaka, Hidenori; Gondo, Takahiro; Zaita, Norihiro; Akashi, Ryo

    2011-02-01

    Environmental risk assessment of transgenic crops is implemented under the Cartagena Protocol domestic law in accordance with guidelines for implementing the assessment established by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) and the Ministry of Environment (MOE) in Japan. Environmental risk assessments of transgenic crops are implemented based on the concept of 'substantial equivalence' to conventional crops. A unique requirement in Japan to monitor the production of harmful substances, or allelochemicals, is unparalleled in other countries. The potential for allelochemicals to be secreted from the roots of transgenic crops to affect other plants or soil microflora or for substances in the plant body to affect other plants after dying out must be evaluated. We evaluated the allelopathic potential of seven transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) lines that express glufosinate tolerance in terms of substantial equivalence to conventional oilseed rape lines, and established evaluation methods. Our results indicate no potential production of allelochemicals for any of the seven transgenic oilseed rape lines compared with conventional oilseed rape lines. PMID:20607604

  7. Formulations of the endophytic bacterium Bacillus subtilis Tu-100 suppress Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape and improve plant vigor in field trials conducted at separate locations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses in crops in The People’s Republic of China. Two formulations of oilseed rape seed containing the endophytic bacterium Bacillus subtilis Tu-100 were evaluated for suppression of this pathogen in field trials conducted at two independent locations....

  8. Date and Acquaintance Rape: The Legal Point of View. Part 2. Reform of Rape Laws and Alternatives to Criminal Prosecution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julian, Frank H.

    1993-01-01

    Second article in two-part series on date and acquaintance rape examines modern reforms in rape laws and alternatives to criminal prosecution. Explains the Rape Shield Law, designed to prevent victim's sexual history from being used against her to prove promiscuity, tendency to lie, or low moral character. Other common statutory revisions are…

  9. "Nobody Told Me It Was Rape": A Parent's Guide for Talking with Teenagers about Acquaintance Rape and Sexual Exploitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Caren; Fay, Jennifer

    This book was written to help parents talk to their adolescent children about acquaintance rape and sexual exploitation. It may also be useful to family life educators presenting units on rape and sexual exploitation. Acquaintance rape and sexual exploitation are explained in the first section. The second section discusses talking with teenagers…

  10. A Community Response to Rape. Polk County Rape/Sexual Assault Care Center, Des Moines, Iowa. An Exemplary Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Gerald; Cirel, Paul

    In Polk County, Iowa, criminal justice agencies and concerned citizens work together to lessen the burden on the rape victim and to increase the chance of ultimate conviction and sentencing in rape and sexual assault cases. The Rape/Sexual Assault Care Center offers medical and social supportive services to victims, aids law enforcement and…

  11. The Effectiveness of Two Types of Rape Prevention Programs in Changing the Rape-Supportive Attitudes of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Linda A.; Stoelb, Matthew P.; Duggan, Peter; Hieger, Brad; Kling, Kathleen H.; Payne, June P.

    1998-01-01

    The effectiveness of two rape-prevention programs in changing college students' rape-supportive attitudes was investigated. (N=215) Conditions included an interactive mock talk show and a structured video intervention. Both interventions were effective, but attitudes were found to rebound over time. Implications for future rape-prevention…

  12. Perceptions of, and Assistance Provided to, a Hypothetical Rape Victim: Differences between Rape Disclosure Recipients and Nonrecipients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Lisa A.; Kehn, Andre; Gray, Matt J.; Salapska-Gelleri, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Undergraduate rape disclosure recipients' and nonrecipients' sociodemographic and life experience variables, attitudes towards rape, and responses to a hypothetical rape disclosure were compared to determine differences between them. Participants: One hundred ninety-two undergraduates at 3 universities participated in this…

  13. Rape, War, and the Socialization of Masculinity: Why Our Refusal to Give up War Ensures that Rape Cannot Be Eradicated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zurbriggen, Eileen L.

    2010-01-01

    Rape is endemic during war, suggesting that there may be important conceptual links between the two. A theoretical model is presented positing that rape and war are correlated because traditional (hegemonic) masculinity underlies, and is a cause of, both. An analysis of the literatures on masculinity, rape perpetration, and military socialization…

  14. Examining the Relationship between Male Rape Myth Acceptance, Female Rape Myth Acceptance, Victim Blame, Homophobia, Gender Roles, and Ambivalent Sexism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Michelle; Gilston, Jennifer; Rogers, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between male rape myth acceptance, female rape myth acceptance, attitudes toward gay men, a series of gender role and sexism measures, victim blame and assault severity were investigated. It was predicted that men would display more negative, stereotypical attitudes than women and that male rape myth endorsement would be related…

  15. Rape stereotypes and labeling: awareness of victimization and trauma.

    PubMed

    Sarmiento, Ilaria

    2011-02-01

    For years, studies in the U.S. college population have described the phenomena of date and acquaintance rape. These phenomena have perpetuated myths regarding rape leading to the faulty labeling of the experience by the survivors themselves. Compared with the U.S., in Europe there are very few studies concerning this issue. This preliminary study in Italy comprised surveys of 210 participants who were asked to express their opinions on 2 scenarios of sexual assault (a forced rape and an acquaintance rape). Only 48% of the participants thought that acquaintance rape should be tried in a criminal court. PMID:21526600

  16. NMR metabolomics of ripened and developing oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa).

    PubMed

    Kortesniemi, Maaria; Vuorinen, Anssi L; Sinkkonen, Jari; Yang, Baoru; Rajala, Ari; Kallio, Heikki

    2015-04-01

    The oilseeds of the commercially important oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa) were investigated with (1)H NMR metabolomics. The compositions of ripened (cultivated in field trials) and developing seeds (cultivated in controlled conditions) were compared in multivariate models using principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Differences in the major lipids and the minor metabolites between the two species were found. A higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and sucrose were observed in turnip rape, while the overall oil content and sinapine levels were higher in oilseed rape. The genotype traits were negligible compared to the effect of the growing site and concomitant conditions on the oilseed metabolome. This study demonstrates the applicability of NMR-based analysis in determining the species, geographical origin, developmental stage, and quality of oilseed Brassicas. PMID:25442524

  17. Are rape memories different? A comparison of rape, other unpleasant, and pleasant memories among employed women.

    PubMed

    Tromp, S; Koss, M P; Figueredo, A J; Tharan, M

    1995-10-01

    The study examined empirically-measured memory characteristics, compared pleasant and unpleasant intense memories as well as rape and other unpleasant memories, and determined whether rape memories exhibited significantly more "flashbulb" characteristics. Data consisted of responses to a mailed survey of women employees of a medical center (N = 1,037) and a university (N = 2,142). Pleasant and unpleasant memories were differentiated by feelings, consequences, and level of unexpectedness. The most powerful discriminator of rape from other unpleasant memories was the degree to which they were less clear and vivid, contained a less meaningful order, were less well-remembered, and were less thought and talked about. Few "flashbulb" characteristics discriminated among memory types. Implications for clinical work with rape survivors were discussed. PMID:8564275

  18. Blacks' and whites' perceptions of interracial and intraracial date rape.

    PubMed

    Varelas, N; Foley, L A

    1998-06-01

    The prevalence of rape myths contributes to victims' reluctance to report rapes. Black (n = 30) and White (n = 96) U.S. college students responded to the Rape Myth Scale (Burt, 1980) and read a scenario of an acquaintance rape; the race of the perpetrator and victim (Black or White) were varied. The respondents assessed the victim's and perpetrator's responsibility and evaluated the incident. As hypothesized, the respondents with strong beliefs in rape myths were more tolerant of the rapist and less tolerant of the victim than were those with weaker beliefs. There was limited support for the myth of the Black rapist and White victim; however, the myth of the Black rapist appeared particularly strong among the Black respondents. The women responded more negatively to the rapist and more positively to the victim than the men did. Such biases in attitudes toward rape could keep women from reporting rapes and accused rapists from receiving fair trials. PMID:9577729

  19. Examining the relationship between male rape myth acceptance, female rape myth acceptance, victim blame, homophobia, gender roles, and ambivalent sexism.

    PubMed

    Davies, Michelle; Gilston, Jennifer; Rogers, Paul

    2012-09-01

    The relationship between male rape myth acceptance, female rape myth acceptance, attitudes toward gay men, a series of gender role and sexism measures, victim blame and assault severity were investigated. It was predicted that men would display more negative, stereotypical attitudes than women and that male rape myth endorsement would be related to, and predicted by, the other attitude and attribution scales. Respondents comprised 323 undergraduates (146 males and 177 females) from a large University in the Northwest of England. Results broadly conformed to predictions, with men generally more negative than women, and male rape myth acceptance significantly related to female rape myth acceptance, negative attitudes about gay men, gender role attitudes, and victim blame. Furthermore, male rape myth acceptance was predicted by female rape myth acceptance, gender attitudes, and victim blame. Methodological issues and implications for future work and those working with victims are discussed. PMID:22550150

  20. Stranger and Acquaintance Rape: Are There Differences in the Victim's Experience?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Mary P.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examined rape by strangers and by acquaintances, including nonromantic acquaintances, casual dates, steady dates, and family members in 489 rape victims. Acquaintance rape typically involved single offender and multiple episodes, was less often perceived as rape or revealed to anyone, and, except for rapes by family members, was rated less…

  1. Suggested Acquaintance/Date Rape Education & Prevention Strategies for School Health Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler, Robert M.; Walls, Nicole A.

    Data suggest that acquaintance and date rape may account for 50-70 percent of all reported rapes in the United States. Recent findings also indicate that one in four college women have been raped or a victim of attempted rape. As most rape victims are between 15 and 24 years of age, high school-based education programs must be provided if society…

  2. Stop Blaming the Victim: A Meta-Analysis on Rape Myths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, Eliana; Gadalla, Tahany M.

    2010-01-01

    Although male rape is being reported more often than before, the majority of rape victims continue to be women. Rape myths--false beliefs used mainly to shift the blame of rape from perpetrators to victims--are also prevalent in today's society and in many ways contribute toward the pervasiveness of rape. Despite this, there has been limited…

  3. Proposed Recruit Training Topic: Rape Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Janet R.

    This guide, prepared by the United States Navy Recruit Training Command, was designed to address the differential training needs of male and female recruits in the area of personal security, i.e., rape awareness/prevention. In section I, the role of the Recruit Training Command is noted, and information on the incidence of sexual assault is…

  4. Forcible Rape: An Analysis of Legal Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice (Dept. of Justice/LEAA), Washington, DC.

    Traditionally, rape has been defined as "carnal knowledge of a woman by force and against her will." The test of force has been crucial, and consent deduced. Victims were assumed to be consenting parties unless criminal circumstances could be proved. Victims were oftened questioned about past sexual behavior. Current reform efforts have attempted…

  5. Rape Within the Hispanic Family Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinones-Sierra, Sylvia

    Because problems such as rape are often viewed as personal concerns of "la familia" there is great tendency on the part of Hispanics to accept this crime as something that must be resolved without intervention from the police, the hospitals or the courts. Seldom will much needed therapy and auxillary type services be sought due to the extreme…

  6. Stop Rape Crisis Center: An Exemplary Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitcomb, Debra; And Others

    An exemplary project, the Stop Rape Crisis Center in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, which was initially funded by the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA), is described. Issues addressed include the following: (1) initlal start-up and continuing program assessment; (2) staffing and the use of volunteers; (3) coordination with law enforcement…

  7. An Evaluation of a Rape Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Patricia; And Others

    This study assessed the effectiveness of an interactive, co-educational date rape prevention program. Participants for the study (n=192, 97% Caucasian) consisted of sorority and fraternity members of a larger midwestern university. Eighty-four individuals were assigned to a control group with the rest making up the intervention group. All subjects…

  8. Coping with the Experience of Rape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littleton, Heather; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki

    2006-01-01

    The coping strategies that a victim of a rape engages in can have a strong impact on the development and persistence of psychological symptoms. Research provides evidence that victims who rely heavily on avoidance strategies, such as suppression, are less likely to recover successfully than those who rely less heavily on these strategies. The…

  9. Acquaintance Rape: A Case Study Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinelli, Rosalie D.

    1994-01-01

    Describes a case study approach to acquaintance rape used in a Personal Health and Lifestyles course at the University of Nevada in Reno that allows students to discuss the characters in a scenario, an instructional process seen as less threatening than describing personal experiences. (MDM)

  10. Acquaintance Rape on College and University Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romeo, Felicia F.

    2004-01-01

    While a university experience offers young women many rewards, unfortunately, there are also significant dangers, and one of these dangers is men who are sexual predators. Acquaintance rape is a sexual assault perpetrated by someone who is known to the victim. It is a violent and serious crime that is far too common an occurrence at our…

  11. Risk Appraisal in Scripted Acquaintance Rape Scenarios.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Doris J.

    Cognitive appraisals are believed to influence how women judge or appraise risk in acquaintance interactions which lead to sexual assault. Ways in which men and women judge the presence of risk factors in scripted acquaintance rape scenarios, and whether alcohol was a significant factor in assessing risk, are examined in this paper. Participants…

  12. Numbing after rape, and depth of therapy.

    PubMed

    Barglow, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The author considers the reactions of four women who had been sexually assaulted, with a focus on the rape trauma of two women with the diagnosis of "Complex-PTSD." Both patients also had prolonged episodes of illegal drug dependence. The article investigates a variety of therapeutic responses to ameliorate disabling post-rape psychological symptoms, especially an intense feeling of numbing. Psychodynamic treatment was chosen for investigation rather than Prolonged Exposure (PET), or Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). Choice of these two treatments is supported by substantial statistical evidence. But many therapists continue to use psychoanalytic based approaches to treat rape victims. Schottenbauer et al, (2008) concluded that PET and CBT approaches had high non-response and dropout rates. Also psychodynamic comprehension may be particularly suitable for "complex PTSD" as defined below in this article. Two vignettes contrast the treatment processes and outcomes of these two women to two other patients who had been sexually assaulted, but whose psychopathology was less severe. The author proposes that full comprehension of severe numbing is essential in the selection of the best intervention strategy because this symptom (or affect) may determine the prognosis of raped patients. PMID:24818460

  13. Critical period of weed control in oilseed rape in two Moroccan regions.

    PubMed

    Maataoui, A; Bouhache, M; Benbella, M; Talouizte, A

    2003-01-01

    The determination of critical period of weed control in oilseed rape is necessary to know the weed control period. To determine the critical period, two fields experiments were carried out during 1995-96 growth season in Loukkos and Saïs regions at two oilseed densities (D1 = 24 and D2 = 36 plants m(-2)). Ten treatments corresponding to plots left weed free or weeded plots until four leaves, flowers bud, flowering, puds formation, and maturity stages of oilseed rape were tested. Density and biomass of weeds were determined at each oilseed stages. Results showed that weed density and biomass were higher in Saïs than in Loukkos sites. For a 10% yield loss, critical period of weed control in Loukkos was from 458 to 720 degree days after emergence (D degrees AE) and from 480 to 720 D degrees AE in oilseed conducted at densities D1 and D2, respectively. In Saïs, critical period of weed control was from 474 to 738 D degrees AE and from 468 to 675 D degrees AE in oilseed conducted at D1 and D2, respectively. It was concluded that the length of the critical period of weed control in oilseed rape grain yield seems to be dependant of the level of the infestation. PMID:15149131

  14. Date-rape drugs scene in Poland.

    PubMed

    Adamowicz, Piotr; Kała, Maria

    2005-01-01

    Since the beginnings of twenty-first century in Poland increasing number of reports about the drug-facilitated sexual assaults have been observed. Many drugs have been identified as so-called "date-rape drugs", because of their pharmacological properties, especially inducing amnesia. These drugs are used for the purpose of "drugging" unsuspected victims and than raping them. In a typical scenario, the perpetrator surreptitiously adds "date-rape drug" to the alcoholic or non-alcoholic beverage of an unsuspecting person, who is subsequently sexually assaulted while under the influence of this substance. Many victims do not report the incident until several days after the event or even do not report it at all. They report the incident so late after the events because they often have problems with remember the course of incident. It causes that victim is not reliable witness for justice. Detection of "date-rape drugs" in biological fluids is unequivocal evidence of perpetration. Analysis of biological fluids collected from victims of rapes for presence of drugs was rare in Poland up to now. The aim of this study is to show the use of "date-rape drugs" in Poland. Materials for this study were from the routine casework elaborated at the Institute of Forensic Research in Kraków. APCI-LC-MS methods were applied for screening of biological fluids (blood and/or urine) for amphetamine and its 6 analogues, for 12 substances from benzodiazepine group and for quantification of the detected drugs. HPLC-DAD was used as a screening method for wide range of medicinal drugs, and NCI-GC-MS methods for determination of ketamine and tetrahydrocannabinols (delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, 9THC) and its metabolite (11-nor-carboxy-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, THCCOOH). In 2000-2004, the biological fluids taken from 33 persons, both sexually assaulted or perpetrators were analysed. In 2000 and 2002 not any case of this type was registered, in 2001 only two cases were recorded. After 2003

  15. Response of seed tocopherols in oilseed rape to nitrogen fertilizer sources and application rates* #

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Nazim; Li, Hui; Jiang, Yu-xiao; Jabeen, Zahra; Shamsi, Imran Haider; Ali, Essa; Jiang, Li-xi

    2014-01-01

    Tocopherols (Tocs) are vital scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and important seed oil quality indicators. Nitrogen (N) is one of the most important fertilizers in promoting biomass and grain yield in crop production. However, the effect of different sources and application rates of N on seed Toc contents in oilseed rape is poorly understood. In this study, pot trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of two sources of N fertilizer (urea and ammonium nitrate). Each source was applied to five oilseed rape genotypes (Zheshuang 72, Jiu-Er-1358, Zheshuang 758, Shiralee, and Pakola) at three different application rates (0.41 g/pot (N1), 0.81 g/pot (N2), and 1.20 g/pot (N3)). Results indicated that urea increased α-, γ-, and total Toc (T-Toc) more than did ammonium nitrate. N3 was proven as the most efficient application rate, which yielded high contents of γ-Toc and T-Toc. Highly significant correlations were observed between Toc isomers, T-Toc, and α-/γ-Toc ratio. These results clearly demonstrate that N sources and application rates significantly affect seed Toc contents in oilseed rape. PMID:24510711

  16. Meta-Analysis of the Prevalence of Unacknowledged Rape.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Laura C; Miller, Katherine E

    2016-04-01

    Many sexual violence survivors do not label their experiences as rape but instead use more benign labels, such as "bad sex" or "miscommunication." A meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the mean prevalence of unacknowledged rape and to inform our understanding of methodological factors that influence the detection of this phenomenon. Studies were identified using PsycINFO, PubMED, and PILOTS and were required to report the percentage of unacknowledged rape that had occurred since the age of 14 among female survivors. Moderator variables included mean participant age, recruitment source, rape definition, and unacknowledged rape definition. Twenty-eight studies (30 independent samples) containing 5,917 female rape survivors met the inclusion criteria. Based on a random effects model, the overall weighted mean percentage of unacknowledged rape was 60.4% (95% confidence interval [55.0%, 65.6%]). There was a large amount of heterogeneity, Q(29) = 445.11, p < .001, and inconsistency (I(2) = 93.5%) among included studies. The prevalence was significantly higher among college student participants compared to noncollege participants. The findings supported that over half of all female rape survivors do not acknowledge that they have been raped. The results suggest that screening tools should use behaviorally descriptive items about sexual contact, rather than using terms such as "rape." PMID:25784571

  17. Ozone dose-response relationships for spring oilseed rape and broccoli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Bock, Maarten; Op de Beeck, Maarten; De Temmerman, Ludwig; Guisez, Yves; Ceulemans, Reinhart; Vandermeiren, Karine

    2011-03-01

    Tropospheric ozone is an important air pollutant with known detrimental effects for several crops. Ozone effects on seed yield, oil percentage, oil yield and 1000 seed weight were examined for spring oilseed rape ( Brassica napus cv. Ability). For broccoli ( Brassica oleracea L. cv. Italica cv. Monaco) the effects on fresh marketable weight and total dry weight were studied. Current ozone levels were compared with an increase of 20 and 40 ppb during 8 h per day, over the entire growing season. Oilseed rape seed yield was negatively correlated with ozone dose indices calculated from emergence until harvest. This resulted in an R2 of 0.24 and 0.26 ( p < 0.001) for the accumulated hourly O 3 exposure over a threshold of 40 ppb (AOT40) and the phytotoxic ozone dose above a threshold of 6 nmol m -2 s -1 (POD 6) respectively. Estimated critical levels, above which 5% yield reduction is expected, were 3.7 ppm h and 4.4 mmol m -2 respectively. Our results also confirm that a threshold value of 6 nmol s -1 m -2 projected leaf area, as recommended for agricultural crops (UNECE, Mills, 2004), can indeed be applied for spring oilseed rape. The reduction of oilseed rape yield showed the highest correlation with the ozone uptake during the vegetative growth stage: when only the first 47 days after emergence were used to calculate POD 6, R2 values increased up to 0.476 or even 0.545 when the first 23 days were excluded. The highest ozone treatments, corresponding to the future ambient level by 2100 (IPCC, Meehl et al., 2007), led to a reduction of approximately 30% in oilseed rape seed yield in comparison to the current ozone concentrations. Oil percentage was also significantly reduced in response to ozone ( p < 0.001). As a consequence oil yield was even more severely affected by elevated ozone exposure compared to seed yield: critical levels for oil yield dropped to 3.2 ppm h and 3.9 mmol m -2. For broccoli the applied ozone doses had no effect on yield.

  18. Cover Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops are great tools to improve soil quality and health, and great tools to increase carbon sequestration. They are nutrient management tools that can help scavenge nitrate, cycle nitrogen to the following crop, mine NO3 from groundwater, and increase nitrogen use efficiency of cropping syste...

  19. Is Reporting of Rape on the Rise? A Comparison of Women with Reported versus Unreported Rape Experiences in the National Women's Study-Replication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B.; Resnick, Heidi S.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    Rape affects one in seven women nationwide. Historically, most rape victims do not report rape to law enforcement. Research is needed to identify barriers to reporting and correlates of reporting to guide policy recommendations that address such barriers. We investigated the prevalence of reporting rape among a national sample of women (N = 3,001)…

  20. Communicating/Muting Date Rape: A Co-Cultural Theoretical Analysis of Communication Factors Related to Rape Culture on a College Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Ann; Mattern, Jody L.; Herakova, Liliana L.; Kahl, David H., Jr.; Tobola, Cloy; Bornsen, Susan E.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that college campuses foster a rape culture in which date rape (most commonly, rape of women) is an accepted part of campus activity (Buchwald, Fletcher, & Roth, 1993; Sanday, 2007). In focus groups at a Midwestern university, researchers asked students about rape as they experienced it or knew about it on campus. The…

  1. Effects of Two Versions of an Empathy-Based Rape Prevention Program on Fraternity Men's Survivor Empathy, Attitudes, and Behavioral Intent to Commit Rape or Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foubert, John D.; Newberry, Johnathan T.

    2006-01-01

    Fraternity men (N = 261) at a small to midsized public university saw one of two versions of a rape prevention program or were in a control group. Program participants reported significant increases in empathy toward rape survivors and significant declines in rape myth acceptance, likelihood of raping, and likelihood of committing sexual assault.…

  2. The incidence and experience of rape among chemically dependent women.

    PubMed

    Teets, J M

    1997-01-01

    This descriptive study investigated the incidence and experience of rape among chemically dependent women. Sixty women in a residential treatment facility were interviewed about sexual trauma they had experienced in their lives. In this sample 73% had been raped, and 45% had been raped more than once. The stories of rape were classified in five categories: rape while in the context of using, when too high to resist, while prostituting, by a significant other, and by a family member. Some 35% of the rapist described were friends of the women with whom they were using drugs. Only 20% of the rapes were reported to the police. Clinical implications for treatment of addicted women who are also survivors of violence is discussed. PMID:9460026

  3. Repeat rape and multiple offending among undetected rapists.

    PubMed

    Lisak, David; Miller, Paul M

    2002-02-01

    Pooling data from four samples in which 1,882 men were assessed for acts of interpersonal violence, we report on 120 men whose self-reported acts met legal definitions of rape or attempted rape, but who were never prosecuted by criminal justice authorities. A majority of these undetected rapists were repeat rapists, and a majority also committed other acts of interpersonal violence. The repeat rapists averaged 5.8 rapes each. The 120 rapists were responsible for 1,225 separate acts of interpersonal violence, including rape, battery, and child physical and sexual abuse. These findings mirror those from studies of incarcerated sex offenders (Abel, Becker, Mittelman, Cunningham-Rathner, Rouleau, & Murphy, 1987; Weinrott and Saylor, 1991), indicating high rates of both repeat rape and multiple types of offending. Implications for the investigation and prosecution of this so-called "hidden" rape are discussed. PMID:11991158

  4. Rapeseed species and environmental concerns related to loss of seeds of genetically modified oilseed rape in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Toru; Tamaoki, Masanori; Aono, Mitsuko; Kubo, Akihiro; Saji, Hikaru; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Feral rapeseed in Japan consists of Brassica rapa, B. juncea and B. napus, mostly produced by escape from crops. Brassica rapa and B. juncea were introduced from abroad long ago as leaf and root vegetables and as an oil crop and breeders have developed various cultivars. Brassica napus was introduced in the late 1800s, mainly as an oil crop. Rapeseed production in Japan is low, and most demand is met by imports from Canada (94.4% of the 2009 trade volume). Recently, spontaneous B. napus, including genetically modified (GM) herbicide-resistant individuals, has been detected along Japanese roads, probably originating from seeds lost during transportation of imports. As GM oilseed production increases abroad, the probability of escape of GM oilseed rape in Japan will increase, raising environmental biosafety concerns related to the impact of feral rapeseed on heirloom brassicaceous crops. In this paper, we review the history of rapeseed introduction in Japan and future concerns. PMID:21844669

  5. North–South divide: contrasting impacts of climate change on crop yields in Scotland and England

    PubMed Central

    Butterworth, Michael H.; Semenov, Mikhail A.; Barnes, Andrew; Moran, Dominic; West, Jonathan S.; Fitt, Bruce D. L.

    2010-01-01

    Effects of climate change on productivity of agricultural crops in relation to diseases that attack them are difficult to predict because they are complex and nonlinear. To investigate these crop–disease–climate interactions, UKCIP02 scenarios predicting UK temperature and rainfall under high- and low-CO2 emission scenarios for the 2020s and 2050s were combined with a crop-simulation model predicting yield of fungicide-treated winter oilseed rape and with a weather-based regression model predicting severity of phoma stem canker epidemics. The combination of climate scenarios and crop model predicted that climate change will increase yield of fungicide-treated oilseed rape crops in Scotland by up to 0.5 t ha−1 (15%). In contrast, in southern England the combination of climate scenarios, crop, disease and yield loss models predicted that climate change will increase yield losses from phoma stem canker epidemics to up to 50 per cent (1.5 t ha−1) and greatly decrease yield of untreated winter oilseed rape. The size of losses is predicted to be greater for winter oilseed rape cultivars that are susceptible than for those that are resistant to the phoma stem canker pathogen Leptosphaeria maculans. Such predictions illustrate the unexpected, contrasting impacts of aspects of climate change on crop–disease interactions in agricultural systems in different regions. PMID:19447817

  6. Deceiving others/deceiving oneself: four cases of factitious rape.

    PubMed

    Feldman, M D; Ford, C V; Stone, T

    1994-07-01

    Although patients with factitious disorders typically seek the "patient" role through illness portrayals, some instead portray themselves falsely as "victims." We discuss the cases of four women who claimed to have been victims of rape; the allegations ultimately were disproved. Factitious rape may be prompted by a search for nurturance; by dissociation, leading individuals to believe that trauma earlier in life is ongoing; by a need to be rescued from real, current abuse; and by projection of anger onto specific male targets. Although dramatic, factitious rape is rare, we advocate thorough investigation of rape claims even when patients have known histories of deceptive behavior. PMID:8023207

  7. Asking what before we ask why: taxonomy, etiology, and rape.

    PubMed

    Baker, Katharine K

    2003-06-01

    This article presents a spectrum of sexual coersion. By looking at the social meaning of the different acts of coercion along the spectrum, the author suggests that most acts of sexual coercion can be classified as either rape (a sexual act with intent to do harm to the victim) or sex (a sexual act engaged in without any intent to harm the victim). Ironically, though, the author suggests that the most and least egregious acts of sexual aggression, that is, the acts we most readily identify as rape and the acts we are most reluctant to label rape are the ones that most easily evade explanation as either rape or sex. PMID:12839906

  8. Introducing the Date and Acquaintance Rape Avoidance Scale.

    PubMed

    Resendez, Josephine R; Hughes, Jamie S

    2016-01-01

    We present the Date and Acquaintance Rape Avoidance Scale (DARAS). The DARAS is a measure of a woman's behaviors used to avoid date and acquaintance rape. Three factor structures were possible. The DARAS may have measured several factors related to alcohol and drug use, self-defense, and date behaviors; 2 factors related to behaviors to avoid acquaintance versus date rape; or a single factor that represented general vigilance. The data revealed a highly reliable, 63 item single factor that was correlated with stranger rape avoidance, rejection of rape myths, hostile sexist beliefs about men, and benevolent sexist beliefs about women. The creation of the DARAS adds to the growing body of research on rape avoidance. The DARAS is key to understanding the behaviors women employ to avoid date rape. Rather than placing the responsibility for rape on the victim, the DARAS was developed as a theoretical and applied tool that can be used to improve theory and construct rape education and prevention programs. PMID:27302901

  9. Vestibular response in denatured rape oil intoxication.

    PubMed

    Gavilán, C; Gavilán, J; Abril, A

    1985-10-01

    During the spring of 1981 a massive intoxication broke out in Spain, which is presently attributed to the ingestion of denatured rape oil, and which has been called 'Toxic Syndrome' (TS). We studied 51 patients affected by the TS one year after the onset of their disease, analyzing their vestibular responses in the caloric test with the help of an analog-digital computer. A significant decrease in the number of nystagmic beats of the affected patients can be observed, while the rest of the parameters studied show similar values to those found simultaneously in 30 normal subjects. It is suggested that these differences are yet another manifestation of the polyneuropathy found in intoxication by denatured rape oil. PMID:3877134

  10. Drug-facilitated sexual assault ('date rape').

    PubMed

    Schwartz, R H; Milteer, R; LeBeau, M A

    2000-06-01

    In the past few years, drug-facilitated sexual assaults have received widespread media coverage. In addition to alcohol, the most frequently used date-rape drug, flunitrazepam (Rohypnol), a fast-acting benzodiazepine, and gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its congeners are among the most popular drugs used for this purpose. The latter drug is easily procured at some gymnasiums, popular bars, discos, and rave clubs, as well as over the Internet. Perpetrators choose these drugs because they act rapidly, produce disinhibition and relaxation of voluntary muscles, and cause the victim to have lasting anterograde amnesia for events that occur under the influence of the drug. Alcoholic beverages potentiate the drug effects. We review several date-rape drugs, provide information on laboratory testing for them, and offer guidelines for preventing drug-facilitated sexual assault. PMID:10881768

  11. Effects of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant cropping systems on weed seedbanks in two years of following crops.

    PubMed

    Firbank, L G; Rothery, P; May, M J; Clark, S J; Scott, R J; Stuart, R C; Boffey, C W H; Brooks, D R; Champion, G T; Haughton, A J; Hawes, C; Heard, M S; Dewar, A M; Perry, J N; Squire, G R

    2006-03-22

    The Farm Scale Evaluations (FSEs) showed that genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) cropping systems could influence farmland biodiversity because of their effects on weed biomass and seed production. Recently published results for winter oilseed rape showed that a switch to GMHT crops significantly affected weed seedbanks for at least 2 years after the crops were sown, potentially causing longer-term effects on other taxa. Here, we seek evidence for similar medium-term effects on weed seedbanks following spring-sown GMHT crops, using newly available data from the FSEs. Weed seedbanks following GMHT maize were significantly higher than following conventional varieties for both the first and second years, while by contrast, seedbanks following GMHT spring oilseed rape were significantly lower over this period. Seedbanks following GMHT beet were smaller than following conventional crops in the first year after the crops had been sown, but this difference was much reduced by the second year for reasons that are not clear. These new data provide important empirical evidence for longer-term effects of GMHT cropping on farmland biodiversity. PMID:17148348

  12. Meteorological risks, impacts on crop production systems and agricultural insurances in Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobin, A.; Piccard, I.

    2012-04-01

    Devastating weather-related events recorded in recent years have captured the interest of the general public in Belgium. Extreme weather events such as droughts, heat stress, rain storms and floods are projected to increase both in frequency and magnitude with climate change. Since more than half of the Belgian territory is managed by the agricultural sector, extreme events have significant impacts on agro-ecosystem services and pose severe limitations to sustainable agricultural land management. The perspective of rising risk-exposure is exacerbated further by more limits to aid received for agricultural damage (amendments to EC Regulation 1857/2006) and an overall reduction of direct income support to farmers. Current knowledge gaps related to the occurrence of extreme events and the response of agro-ecosystems need to be addressed in conjunction with their vulnerability, resilience and adaptive possibilities. A chain of risks approach starts with assessing the likely frequency and magnitude of extreme meteorological events by means of probability density functions. Impacts are subsequently based on physically based models that provide information on the state of the damage at any given time and assist in understanding the links between different factors causing damage and in determining bio-physical vulnerability. The output of regional bio-physical models is compared with remote sensing based algorithms applied on SPOT-VGT temporal data. Crop damage and risk indicators are derived from remote sensing, meteorological records, crop modelling and agricultural statistics and compared to damage statistics obtained from the government-based agricultural disaster funds. Damages due to adverse meteorological events are strongly dependent on crop type, crop stage and soil type. Spatio-temporal indicators of drought during the growing season and waterlogging at harvest showed the highest agreement with damage, followed by hail and frost. In general potatoes, flax and

  13. The role of the new "date rape drugs" in attributions about date rape.

    PubMed

    Girard, April L; Senn, Charlene Y

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of voluntary and involuntary drug use on attributions about sexual assault. The sample was composed of 280 randomly selected male and female undergraduate students. The type of drug used (GHB, alcohol, or none) and the voluntariness of the administration were varied in an unambiguous date rape scenario. Participants viewed sexual assault facilitated by alcohol or drugs similarly to sexual assault without drug or alcohol involvement, assigning the highest levels of responsibility and blame to the perpetrator and the lowest levels of both to the victim in these situations. In contrast, women's voluntary consumption of drugs prior to a sexual assault reduced perpetrator responsibility and blame and increased blame to the victim compared to other situations (except in some cases, voluntary drunkenness). These findings extend the limited research on date rape drugs and previous work on the influence of alcohol on date rape attributions. PMID:18087029

  14. Use Of Crop Canopy Size To Estimate Water Requirements Of Vegetable Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Planting time, plant density, variety, and cultural practices vary widely for horticultural crops. It is difficult to estimate crop water requirements for crops with these variations. Canopy size, or factional ground cover, as an indicator of intercepted sunlight, is related to crop water use. We...

  15. Estimating Crop Water use From Remotely Sensed NDVI, Crop Models and Reference ET

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop water use can be estimated from reference evapotranspiration, ETo, calculated from weather station data, and estimated crop coefficients, Kc. However, because Kc varies with crop growth rate, planting density, and management practices, generic Kc curves often don’t match actual crop water use....

  16. Adverse weather impacts on arable cropping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobin, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Damages due to extreme or adverse weather strongly depend on crop type, crop stage, soil conditions and management. The impact is largest during the sensitive periods of the farming calendar, and requires a modelling approach to capture the interactions between the crop, its environment and the occurrence of the meteorological event. The hypothesis is that extreme and adverse weather events can be quantified and subsequently incorporated in current crop models. Since crop development is driven by thermal time and photoperiod, a regional crop model was used to examine the likely frequency, magnitude and impacts of frost, drought, heat stress and waterlogging in relation to the cropping season and crop sensitive stages. Risk profiles and associated return levels were obtained by fitting generalized extreme value distributions to block maxima for air humidity, water balance and temperature variables. The risk profiles were subsequently confronted with yields and yield losses for the major arable crops in Belgium, notably winter wheat, winter barley, winter oilseed rape, sugar beet, potato and maize at the field (farm records) to regional scale (statistics). The average daily vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and reference evapotranspiration (ET0) during the growing season is significantly lower (p < 0.001) and has a higher variability before 1988 than after 1988. Distribution patterns of VPD and ET0 have relevant impacts on crop yields. The response to rising temperatures depends on the crop's capability to condition its microenvironment. Crops short of water close their stomata, lose their evaporative cooling potential and ultimately become susceptible to heat stress. Effects of heat stress therefore have to be combined with moisture availability such as the precipitation deficit or the soil water balance. Risks of combined heat and moisture deficit stress appear during the summer. These risks are subsequently related to crop damage. The methodology of defining

  17. PERENNIAL CROP NURSERIES TREATED WITH METHYL BROMIDE AND ALTERNATIVE FUMIGANTS: EFFECTS ON WEED SEED VIABILITY, WEED DENSITIES, AND TIME REQUIRED FOR HAND WEEDING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control provided by alternative fumigants to methyl bromide (MeBr) needs to be tested in perennial crop nurseries in California because MeBr is being phased out in accordance with the Montreal Protocol, few herbicides are registered for perennial nursery use, and costs of other control measures...

  18. An endophytic bacterium Acinetobacter calcoaceticus Sasm3-enhanced phytoremediation of nitrate-cadmium compound polluted soil by intercropping Sedum alfredii with oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bao; Ma, Xiaoxiao; Liu, Guiqing; Xu, Xiaomeng; Pan, Fengshan; Zhang, Jie; Tian, Shengke; Feng, Ying; Yang, Xiaoe

    2015-11-01

    Intensive agricultural system with high input of fertilizer results in high agricultural output. However, excessive fertilization in intensive agricultural system has great potential to cause nitrate and heavy metal accumulation in soil, which is adverse to human health. The main objective of the present study was to observe the effects of intercropping and inoculation of endophytic bacterium Acinetobacter calcoaceticus Sasm3 on phytoremediation of combined contaminated soil in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). The results showed that with Sasm3 inoculation, the biomass of rape was increased by 10-20% for shoot, 64% for root, and 23-29% for seeds while the nitrate accumulation in rape was decreased by 14% in root and by 12% in shoot. The cadmium concentration in rape increased significantly with mono-inoculating treatment, whereas it decreased significantly after intercropping treatment. By denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time quantitative PCR analysis, the diversity of bacterial community and the number of nirS and nirK gene copies increased significantly with inoculation or/and intercropping treatment. In conclusion, the endophytic bacterium Sasm3-inoculated intercropping system not only improved the efficiency of clearing cadmium from soil without obstructing crop production, but also improved the quality of crop. PMID:26146371

  19. Temporal changes in climatic variables and their impact on crop yields in southwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hong-Bin; Gou, Yu; Wang, Hong-Ye; Li, Hong-Mei; Wu, Wei

    2014-08-01

    Knowledge of variability in climatic variables changes and its impact on crop yields is important for farmers and policy makers, especially in southwestern China where rainfed agriculture is dominant. In the current study, six climatic parameters (mean temperature, rainfall, relative humidity, sunshine hours, temperature difference, and rainy days) and aggregated yields of three main crops (rice: Oryza sativa L., oilseed rape: Brassica napus L., and tobacco: Nicotiana tabacum L.) during 1985-2010 were collected and analyzed for Chongqing—a large agricultural municipality of China. Climatic variables changes were detected by Mann-Kendall test. Increased mean temperature and temperature difference and decreased relative humidity were found in annual and oilseed rape growth time series ( P < 0.05). Increased sunshine hours were observed during the oilseed rape growth period ( P < 0.05). Rainy days decreased slightly in annual and oilseed rape growth time series ( P < 0.10). Correlation analysis showed that yields of all three crops could benefit from changes in climatic variables in this region. Yield of rice increased with rainfall ( P < 0.10). Yield of oilseed rape increased with mean temperature and temperature difference but decreased with relative humidity ( P < 0.01). Tobacco yield increased with mean temperature ( P < 0.05). Path analysis provided additional information about the importance and contribution paths of climatic variables to crop yields. Temperature difference and sunshine hours had higher direct and indirect effects via other climatic variables on yields of rice and tobacco. Mean temperature, relative humidity, rainy days, and temperature difference had higher direct and indirect effects via others on yield of oilseed rape.

  20. Nitrogen availability impacts oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) plant water status and proline production efficiency under water-limited conditions.

    PubMed

    Albert, Benjamin; Le Cahérec, Françoise; Niogret, Marie-Françoise; Faes, Pascal; Avice, Jean-Christophe; Leport, Laurent; Bouchereau, Alain

    2012-08-01

    Large amounts of nitrogen (N) fertilizers are used in the production of oilseed rape. However, as low-input methods of crop management are introduced crops will need to withstand temporary N deficiency. In temperate areas, oilseed rape will also be affected by frequent drought periods. Here we evaluated the physiological and metabolic impact of nitrate limitation on the oilseed rape response to water deprivation. Different amounts of N fertilizer were applied to plants at the vegetative stage, which were then deprived of water and rehydrated. Both water and N depletion accelerated leaf senescence and reduced leaf development. N-deprived plants exhibited less pronounced symptoms of wilting during drought, probably because leaves were smaller and stomata were partially closed. Efficiency of proline production, a major stress-induced diversion of nitrogen metabolism, was assessed at different positions along the whole plant axis and related to leaf developmental stage and water status indices. Proline accumulation, preferentially in younger leaves, accounted for 25-85% of the free amino acid pool. This was mainly due to a better capacity for proline synthesis in fully N-supplied plants whether they were subjected to drought or not, as deduced from the expression patterns of the proline metabolism BnP5CS and BnPDH genes. Although less proline accumulated in the oldest leaves, a significant amount was transported from senescing to emerging leaves. Moreover, during rehydration proline was readily recycled. Our results therefore suggest that proline plays a significant role in leaf N remobilization and in N use efficiency in oilseed rape. PMID:22526495

  1. Host Status of Selected Crops to Meloidogyne chitwoodi

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, H.; Carlson, H. L.; Viglierchio, D. R.; Westerdahl, B. B.; Wu, F. W.; Anderson, C. E.; Juurma, A.; Kirby, D. W.

    1993-01-01

    Various crops were tested in greenhouse and field trials for their potential utility in the rotation sequence in the potato cropping system in Meloidogyne chitwoodi-infested soils of the Klamath Basin in northeastern California and southern Oregon. Two Solarium accessions from the International Potato Center in Peru were potential sources of resistance to M. chitwoodi. Cultivars of barley, oat, rye, wheat, and white lupine were maintenance hosts, supporting the nematode population at its current level without substantial increase or decline. Poor to nonhosts to race 1 of the nematode included cultivars of alfalfa, amaranth, oilseed radish, oilseed rape, and safflower. These crops have potential for inclusion in the cropping system but are subject to various constraints, including frost sensitivity and availability of markets. Sugarbeet, a new crop in the area, is a maintenance or better host of M. chitwoodi. Potato, tomato, and sunflower are excellent hosts. PMID:19279852

  2. Hidden, Unacknowledged, Acquaintance, and Date Rape: Looking Back, Looking Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Mary P.

    2011-01-01

    In this commentary, the author reflects on two articles that have been among the most highly cited publications in "Psychology of Women Quarterly" ("PWQ") over its first 35 years, "The Hidden Rape Victim: Personality, Attitudinal, and Situational Characteristics" (Koss, 1985) and "Stranger and Acquaintance Rape: Are There Differences in the…

  3. How Organizations Should Respond to Rape in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ellen; Kleiner, Brian H.

    2003-01-01

    Each year approximately 51,000 incidents of rape and sexual assault occur in the workplace. If an incident of rape occurs in the workplace, management can adopt several procedures for both the assaulted victim and the organization. This article highlights those procedures, as well as administrative controls and environmental designs that function…

  4. Leda and the Swan--and other myths about rape.

    PubMed

    Norfolk, Guy A

    2011-07-01

    In his David Jenkins Memorial Lecture, Dr Norfolk discusses rape and some of the myths that surround the topic, exploring the research evidence about conviction rates, false allegations, clinician gender preferences of rape victims and the role of sexual assault referral centres in service delivery. PMID:21663872

  5. Acceptance of Male Rape Myths among College Men and Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Struckman-Johnson, Cindy; Struckman-Johnson, David

    1992-01-01

    College students (157 men and 158 women, mostly white middle-class) rated their agreement with statements reflecting myths about male rape. A majority disagree with all the myths, most strongly with the myth that rape is not traumatic for men. Results are discussed in terms of societal attitudes. (SLD)

  6. Using Education To Modify Students' Attitudes toward Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jayme M.; Muehlenhard, Charlene

    The prevalence of rape points to a need for effective prevention strategies. Ultimately, however, preventing rape necessitates changing men's attitudes and behavior. This study investigated the effects of a lecture aimed at changing the attitudes of men. Also investigated were the effects of lecturer sex (male, female, or male-female team or no…

  7. Sex Differences in Perceptions and Punishment of Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heim, Margaret; And Others

    Two studies examined the effects of variations of intent, outcome and pain in depictions of rape on the perceptions and punishment of rape. Numerous sex differences in perceptions were found. Females perceived more pain and tended to focus on the effects of outcome while males tended to respond more to the intent variation. Females assigned more…

  8. Models of Rape Judgment: Attributions Concerning Event, Perpetrator, and Victim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langley, Travis; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Reviews models developed to identify cognitive mediators of rape judgments. Recent models examine perceptions of perpetrator's violent behavior and of victim's desire for intercourse as mediators of effects of violence levels and victim's behavior upon rape judgments. Sex differences in models suggest that female evaluators may be more likely to…

  9. "Spreading the Love" and Using Performances to Prevent Rape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Aurora

    2013-01-01

    While rape is ordinarily considered an invariable reality, Sharon Marcus argues that it is instead a cultural script, which casts women as victims and men as perpetrators. In imagining rape as a script, it may seem pertinent to suggest that the arts and performance have a role in its prevention. Performances can provide a forum to publicly reflect…

  10. Power, Sex, and Violence: The Case of Marital Rape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelles, Richard J.

    1977-01-01

    The available evidence on marital violence indicates that a number of women are forced into having sexual relations with their husbands through intimidation or physical force. Although marital rape is not possible in a strict legal sense, some women are talking about and reporting incidents of marital rape. (Author)

  11. Female University Student and Staff Perceptions of Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Michele Harway; Sedlacek, William E.

    Female university student and staff perceptions of rape at the University of Maryland were examined with the aid of an anonymous questionnaire on attitudes and perceptions of rape. A randomly selected sample group included 100 female students and 25 female classified employees. Results showed a 64% return rate was achieved despite many follow-up…

  12. Perception of Raped Source and Use of Fact in Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampley, Linda Lee; Shaw, Donald L.

    1977-01-01

    Finds that student journalists reacted differently to--and wrote different stories about--a woman news source who spoke about a rape crisis center, depending on whether they had been told that the woman was herself a rape victim. (GW)

  13. Rape Counseling: A Model for Sensitizing and Training Helpers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Steven M.; Stonestreet, Susan D.

    1978-01-01

    A woman who is raped needs factual information concerning hospital and legal procedures and an emotional support system to help her focus her feelings into productive channels. This article describes a training and outreach program combining rape simulation, film, lecture, and experiential discussion to stimulate thought, action, and increased…

  14. Should We Whistle as We Shirk? What is Rape Prevention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neely, Margery A.

    Different theories have been offered about why some men rape. The interactive theory of rape describes coercive elements in heterosexual relations resulting from faulty socialization or abuse in childhood. Prevention according to this theory would involve mental health specialists incorporating preventive strategies into parent training, guidance,…

  15. Acquaintance Rape on Campus: The Problem, the Victims, and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Laurie

    1988-01-01

    Asserts that, although providing educational programs and materials on acquaintance rape and prevention strategies is important, attention must also be given to victims. Discusses recognition of stress response pattern of victims suffering from Rape Trauma Syndrome and provision of appropriate referral and support services. Includes selected list…

  16. Date and Acquaintance Rape: Perceptions and Attitude Change Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Patrick J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Investigated the dimensions of university students' (n=96) attitudes toward date and acquaintance rape. Examined the effects of a program designed to change those attitudes. Found college men had substantially greater tendencies to blame the victim for date and acquaintance rape than did women. (Author/ABL)

  17. Acquaintance Rape on College Campuses: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kier, Frederick J.

    Although research on acquaintance, or date rape, dates back to the late 1950's, only recently has the literature in this area focused on prevention. In addition, although research has shown that, conservatively, 1 out of 10 women on university campuses has been raped by someone with whom she is familiar, little appears to have been done about the…

  18. A Model Acquaintance Rape Prevention Program for Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Alan D.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the underlying philosophy, content and evaluation issues, and selection and training of facilitators for a model acquaintance rape prevention program for male students conducted at Hobart College. Provides guidelines to help other colleges and universities implement a model rape prevention program for men that uses small-group discussion…

  19. Date Violence and Rape among Adolescents: Associations with Psychological Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackard, Diann M.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    This study assessed the prevalence of date violence and rape among adolescents in order to examine the associations between date violence and rape, and eating disorders and psychopathology. The study also attempted to determine if these associations remained significant after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. A Minnesota…

  20. Rape nitrogen nutrition diagnosis using continuum-removed hyperspectral reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuehong; Tian, Qingjiu

    2008-12-01

    The hyperspectral reflectance for rape fresh leaves and data of chlorophyll and total nitrogen content were acquired in primary growth stages under different nitrogen levels in order to monitor rape status and diagnose nitrogen using remote sensing method. A new method was developed for estimating the nitrogen nutrition of rape using continuum-removed method, which generally used in spectral analysis on rock and mineral. Based on the continuum-removed treatment and the correlation between absorption feature parameters and total nitrogen content of fresh leaves, results show that reflectance at the visible region decreased with increasing in the nitrogen fertilization, and continuum-removed operation can magnify the subtle difference in spectral absorption characteristics arose from the nitrogen stress on rape. During the seeding stage, bud-emerging stage and flowering stage of rape, total area of absorption peak, area left of the absorption peak and area right of the absorption peak in 550-750 nm region increased with increasing in the nitrogen fertilization, but it was opposite for the area-normalized maximal absorption depth. The correlation analysis indicated that it is at seeding stage that the relation between absorption characteristics parameters and leaf total nitrogen was best close. The research demonstrated that continuum-removed method is a feasible method for quantificational evaluation of rape nitrogen nutrition, and the seeding stage of rape is the best stage for assessment of rape nitrogen nutrition based on absorption characteristics of fresh leaves.

  1. A Model for Police Assistance to Rape Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchant, Jerrold J.

    Noting that an increasing number of rape victims who seek alternatives to police procedures do so because of the insensitive behavior of the investigating police officer, this paper provides a model of interpersonal communication skills that will enable police officers to better relate to and support the victims of rape. The areas covered in the…

  2. Decreased interpretation of nonverbal cues in rape victims.

    PubMed

    Giannini, A J; Price, W A; Kniepple, J L

    The ability to receive nonverbal facial cues was tested in twelve female victims of multiple nonserial rapes and matched controls. Subjects attempted to interpret nonverbal messages transmitted by male and female senders who were covertly taped while involved in a gambling task. Rape victims had significantly decreased ability to interpret the nonverbal facial cues of both male and female senders. PMID:3557809

  3. Resources for Developing Acquaintance Rape Prevention Programs for Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earle, James P.; Nies, Charles T.

    1994-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of videos and printed materials that may be used as educational tools in rape prevention programs. Focuses on sources that are aimed directly at men. Also outlines the use of consultants or lecturers as one of many resources in the construction and implementation of rape prevention programs. (KW)

  4. Rape: It Can't Happen to Me!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, W.; Fong-torres, S.

    1979-01-01

    Cultural factors such as the family system, communication patterns and institutional racism make the impact of rape on Asian women different from its impact on other women. In this article suggestions for avoiding a rape attack on the street and at home are offered. (PMR)

  5. Rape Myth Beliefs and Bystander Attitudes among Incoming College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The bystander approach to rape prevention is gaining popularity on college campuses, although research is limited. This study explored bystander attitudes and their relationship with rape myths in a sample of college students. Participants: Surveys from 2,338 incoming undergraduate students at a large, northeastern university were…

  6. Rape Survivors' Agency within the Legal and Medical Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greeson, Megan R.; Campbell, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Many rape survivors seek help from the legal and medical systems post-assault. Previous studies have examined how social system personnel treat survivors, but less attention has been paid to how survivors attempt to shape their interactions with these systems. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine rape survivors' agency--the active…

  7. 77 FR 30871 - Implementing the Prison Rape Elimination Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ..., Washington, May 17, 2012 [FR Doc. 2012-12743 Filed 5-22-12; 2:15 pm] Billing code 3110-01-P ... May 23, 2012 Part VI The President Memorandum of May 17, 2012--Implementing the Prison Rape... 3-- #0;The President ] Memorandum of May 17, 2012 Implementing the Prison Rape Elimination...

  8. Multiple Perpetrator Rape: Naming an Offence and Initial Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Miranda Angel Helena; Kelly, Liz

    2009-01-01

    Multiple perpetrator rape presents a significant problem nationally and internationally. However, previous research is limited and findings are often contradictory. The details of 101 rape allegations recorded in a six-month period in a large police force in England were analysed. Findings are presented about case classification, victim and…

  9. Rape Prevention with College Men: Evaluating Risk Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Kari A.; George, William H.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of a theoretically based rape prevention intervention with college men who were at high or low risk to perpetrate sexually coercive behavior. Participants (N = 146) are randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Outcomes include rape myth acceptance, victim empathy, attraction to sexual…

  10. Development and Validation of the Korean Rape Myth Acceptance Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Euna; Neville, Helen

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to develop a culturally relevant rape myth acceptance scale for Koreans. Three studies on the Korean Rape Myth Acceptance Scale (KRMAS) with approximately 1,000 observations provide initial validity and reliability. Specifically, results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses support four subscales:…

  11. Crop Biotechnology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of crop biotechnology on outcomes of agricultural practices and economics is readily evidenced by the escalating acreage of genetically engineered crops, all occurring in a relatively short time span. Until the mid 1990s, virtually no acreage was planted with commercial genetically mo...

  12. Crop residues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop residues [e.g., corn (Zea mays) stover and small grain straw] are sometimes excluded when discussing cellulosic energy crops per se, but because of the vast area upon which they are grown and their current role in the development of cellulosic energy systems. This chapter focuses on current cor...

  13. Silent Survivors: Rape Myth Acceptance in Incarcerated Women's Narratives of Disclosure and Reporting of Rape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Nicole M.; Lynch, Shannon M.; Fritch, April M.; McArthur, Lyn N.; Smith, Shilo L.

    2011-01-01

    Prior research suggests that rape victims who do not disclose or report to the police give reasons including self-blame and fear of judgment; however, this research has not been conducted with incarcerated women. Female offenders are a unique population because they experience high rates of sexual assault prior to incarceration. This study…

  14. The Role of the New "Date Rape Drugs" in Attributions about Date Rape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girard, April L.; Senn, Charlene Y.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of voluntary and involuntary drug use on attributions about sexual assault. The sample was composed of 280 randomly selected male and female undergraduate students. The type of drug used (GHB, alcohol, or none) and the voluntariness of the administration were varied in an unambiguous date rape scenario.…

  15. Pollen-mediated intraspecific gene flow from herbicide resistant oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Hüsken, Alexandra; Dietz-Pfeilstetter, Antje

    2007-10-01

    The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) herbicide resistant oilseed rape (Brassica napus) has increased over the past few years. The transfer of herbicide resistance genes via pollen (gene flow) from GM crops to non-GM crops is of relevance for the realisation of co-existence of different agricultural cultivation forms as well as for weed management. Therefore the likelihood of pollen-mediated gene flow has been investigated in numerous studies. Despite the difficulty to compare different experiments with varying levels of outcrossing, we performed a literature search for world-wide studies on cross-fertilisation in fully fertile oilseed rape. The occurrence and frequency of pollen-mediated intraspecific gene flow (outcrossing rate) can vary according to cultivar, experimental design, local topography and environmental conditions. The outcrossing rate from one field to another depends also on the size and arrangement of donor and recipient populations and on the ratio between donor and recipient plot size. The outcrossing levels specified in the presented studies are derived mostly from experiments where the recipient field is either surrounding the donor field (continuous design) or is located as a patch at different distances from the donor field (discontinuous design). Reports of gene flow in Brassica napus generally show that the amount of cross-fertilisation decreases as the distance from the pollen source increases. The evidence given in various studies reveals that the bulk of GM cross-fertilisation occurs within the first 10 m of the recipient field. The removal of the first 10 m of a non-transgenic field facing a GM crop might therefore be more efficient for reducing the total level of cross-fertilisation in a recipient sink population than to recommend separation distances. Future experiments should investigate cross-fertilisation with multiple adjacent donor fields at the landscape level under different spatial distributions of rapeseed cultivars

  16. Risk factors for rape re-victimisation: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Lurie, S; Boaz, M; Golan, A

    2013-11-01

    Sexual re-victimisation refers to a pattern in which the sexual assault victim has an increased risk of subsequent victimisation relative to an individual who was never victimised. The purpose of our study was to identify risks factors for a second rape, the severest form of sexual re-victimisation. All rape victims treated at the First Regional Israeli Center for Sexual Assault Victims between October 2000 and July 2010 were included in this retrospective analysis. We compared characteristics of 53 rape victims who were victimised twice to those of 1,939 rape victims who were victimised once. We identified several risk factors for a second rape, which can be used in prevention programmes. These are: psychiatric background, history of social services involvement, adulthood, non-virginity and minority ethnicity. PMID:24219731

  17. Evaluation of an intervention to change attitudes toward date rape.

    PubMed

    Lanier, C A; Elliott, M N; Martin, D W; Kapadia, A

    1998-01-01

    The prevalence of date rape among college students is a major concern. Although much research has been done on risk factors for date rape, few researchers have specifically described interventions for the various stages of developing a date-rape prevention program. Previous programs have often relied on educational videos that feature a "typical" date-rape scenario, a format that some researchers suggest may have a negative effect on the way people engage in aggressive sexual behavior. A less violent theatrical production based on social learning theory and risk-factor reduction that resulted in a significant improvement in attitudes related to date rape among both male and female students at an elite Texas university is described. PMID:9519580

  18. Attitudes toward Rape: Gender and Ethnic Differences across Asian and Caucasian College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, Lisa; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined 302 Asian and Caucasian college students' attitudes towards rape victims and belief in rape myths. Results show significant differences between both groups. Asians more often endorsed negative attitudes toward rape victims than whites, and males endorsed more negative attitudes and more acceptance of rape myths than females. Results are…

  19. A Preliminary Study of Eighth Grade Students' Attitudes toward Rape Myths and Women's Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boxley, Jeanne; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between sex role stereotypes of women and eighth graders' beliefs in rape myths. Surveys indicated that both sexes accepted some rape myths and sex role stereotyping of women. There was an association between belief in rape myths and stereotyping. More boys than girls accepted rape myths. (SM)

  20. Date Rape: Its Relationship to Trauma Symptoms and Sexual Self-Esteem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Brenda L.; Schwarz, J. Conrad

    1997-01-01

    Extends previous research on date rape by assessing trauma symptoms and sexual self-esteem among college women who had, or who had not, been raped. Results indicate that rape victims had significantly more trauma symptoms and lower sexual self-esteem compared to other women, thus suggesting date rape's significant consequences. (RJM)

  1. Scripts for a Date Rape: Similarities and Differences in Males and Females Scripts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, M. Diane; And Others

    While the issue of rape evokes strong responses, confusion seems to occur not when a blitz or stranger rape occurs, but when an acquaintance or date rape occurs. This study assessed acquaintance rape scripts given a preset scenario. Subjects included female college students (N=32) and male college students (N=19). Subjects were given a scenario…

  2. 66 FR 43262 - Grants for Rape Prevention and Education; Notice of Availability of Funds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2001-08-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Grants for Rape Prevention and Education..., to support programs addressing violence against women. The Rape Prevention and Education Grant... States and Territories to be used for rape prevention and education programs conducted by rape...

  3. Rape and Child Sexual Abuse: What Beliefs Persist about Motives, Perpetrators, and Survivors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Hannah; O'Higgins, Madeleine; Garavan, Rebecca; Conroy, Ronan

    2011-01-01

    Rape myths are prejudicial and stereotyped beliefs about rape which persist in society. They may have a significant impact on those affected by rape as well as the performance of legal and public participants in the justice system. Rape myths may differ over time and within different societies and cultural settings. Awareness of contemporary and…

  4. [The knowledge about "date rape drugs" among Polish students].

    PubMed

    Dziuban', Agata; Ratecka, Anna; Brzyski, Piotr; Foryś, Zofia; Gomółka, Ewa; Ogonowska, Dorota

    2009-01-01

    The Main Department of Police in Poland notes about 2000 rapes a year. Some of the crimes are performed with "Date Rape Drugs". The term means substances helping comitting a rape such as GHB (gamma hydroxybutyric acid), ketamine, flunitrazepam and other benzodiazepines derivatives, MDMA ("ecstasy"), marihuana, amphetamine. The substances are often joined with alcohol. The victims are usually young women, and not all the cases are recorded by the police or physicians, because the victims often do not remember details of the event. The toxicological analysis of blood or urine would be helpful to explain the circumstances of the case and to prove using "Date Rape Drug". The samples for toxicological determinations should be collected as soon as possible (24 to 72 hours after admission). Preventing violence with "Date Rape Drugs" include wide education by media, police, teachers and parents. The purpose of the research was to check the level of knowledge about "Date Rape Drugs". The consciousness of risk behavior when the kind of substances is used and the ways of preventing the risk of being a sexual victim were checked. Material for the research were the results of questionnaire prepared by The Department of Medicine Sociology Collegium Medicum Jagiellonian University in Krakow, carried out on 740 students. Most of respondents (77%) were women. The age of respondents was between 19-36 years (mean 21.41; SD - 1.29). The results of the research showed, that respondents didn't have completed knowledge about "Date Rape Drugs". They did not know the ways of recognizing and preventing the risk of being given this kind of substances. The main source of information about "Date Rape Drugs" were internet and colleagues. There is a need to start education about "Date Rape Drugs" by serious institutions such as the police and schools in Poland. This is the best way to prevent young people against a risk of being given "Date Rape Drugs" and being a victim of sexual crimes. PMID

  5. Evaluation of a University-based Date Rape Prevention Program: Effect on Attitudes and Behavior Related to Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shultz, Shelli K.; Scherman, Avraham; Marshall, Lawrence J.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the effectiveness of a date rape prevention program for both male and female undergraduate students (N=60) in changing attitudes and behavioral intent, and exploring the attitude-behavior link for both genders. Results reveal that participants in the treatment groups were less accepting of rape myths and endorsed attitudes…

  6. Gender, Gender Identity, Rape Myth Acceptance, and Time of Initial Resistance on the Perception of Acquaintance Rape Blame and Avoidability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopper, Beverly A.

    1996-01-01

    Investigated the role of gender, gender role identity, rape myth acceptance, and initial resistance in assigning blame in the case of acquaintance rape, and studied the perceived avoidability of the assault for 355 female and 179 male college students. The gender differences in responses are discussed. (SLD)

  7. "You Owe Me": Effects of Date Cost, Who Pays, Participant Gender, and Rape Myth Beliefs on Perceptions of Rape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basow, Susan A.; Minieri, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Sexual social exchange theory was applied to perceptions of a date rape by manipulating the cost of the date and who paid in vignettes presented to 188 U.S. college students, who then rated the characters' sexual expectations, blame, responsibility, and rape justifiability. Findings from this between-participant design partially supported…

  8. Perceptions of, and Assistance Provided to, a Hypothetical Rape Victim: Differences Between Rape Disclosure Recipients and Nonrecipients

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Lisa A.; Kehn, Andre; Gray, Matt J.; Salapska-Gelleri, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Objective Undergraduate rape disclosure recipients and nonrecipients’ sociodemographic and life experience variables, attitudes towards rape and responses to a hypothetical rape disclosure were compared to determine differences between them. Participants One-hundred-ninety-two undergraduates at three universities participated in this online survey between November 2011 – April 2012. Methods Participants reported on their rape myth acceptance (RMA) and personal direct and indirect (i.e., disclosure receipt) experiences with sexual assault. Participants also responded to a hypothetical rape disclosure. Results Disclosure recipients were more likely to report a victimization history, and less confusion and perceived ineffectiveness in helping the hypothetical victim. RMA and nonrecipient status predicted perceived victim responsibility; these variables and childhood victimization predicted confusion about helping. RMA also predicted perceived ineffectiveness of one’s helping behaviors. Victimization history and female gender predicted victim empathy. Conclusions These findings can inform sexual assault-related programming for undergraduates through the provision of targeted assistance and corrective information. PMID:24779405

  9. Mental health assessment of rape offenders

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Jaydip

    2013-01-01

    There is an urgent need for development of methods of assessment and management of sex offenders (rapists, child sex offenders, other sexual offenders, and murderers) to mount a society-wide battle against the scourge of sexual offences in India. This paper provides an overview of theories, models, and assessment methods of rapists. It draws upon literature from psychiatry, psychology, criminology, probation, and ethics to provide a framework for understanding reasons behind rape, how mental health issues are implicated, what mental health professionals can do to contribute to crime management, and why this is ethically right and proper. PMID:24082243

  10. Collection of sugarcane crop residue for energy

    SciTech Connect

    Eiland, B.R.; Clayton, J.E.

    1982-12-01

    Crop residue left after sugarcane harvesting was recovered using a forage harvester and a large round baler. The quantity, bulk density and moisture content of the crop residue was determined in four fields. Crop residue from 7 ha was burned in boilers at a sugar mill. Samples of this residue were tested by a laboratory and compared to sugarcane bagasse.

  11. Thiamethoxam: Assessing flight activity of honeybees foraging on treated oilseed rape using radio frequency identification technology.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Helen; Coulson, Mike; Ruddle, Natalie; Wilkins, Selwyn; Harkin, Sarah

    2016-02-01

    The present study was designed to assess homing behavior of bees foraging on winter oilseed rape grown from seed treated with thiamethoxam (as Cruiser OSR), with 1 field drilled with thiamethoxam-treated seed and 2 control fields drilled with fungicide-only-treated seed. Twelve honeybee colonies were used per treatment group, 4 each located at the field edge (on-field site), at approximately 500 m and 1000 m from the field. A total of nearly 300 newly emerged bees per colony were fitted (tagged) with Mic3 radio frequency identification (RFID) transponders and introduced into each of the 36 study hives. The RFID readers fitted to the entrances of the test colonies were used to monitor the activity of the tagged bees for the duration of the 5-wk flowering period of the crop. These activity data were analyzed to assess any impact on flight activity of bees foraging on the treated compared with untreated crops. Honeybees were seen to be actively foraging within all 3 treatment groups during the exposure period. The data for the more than 3000 RFID-tagged bees and more than 90 000 foraging flights monitored throughout the exposure phase for the study follow the same trends across the treatment and controls and at each of the 3 apiary distances, indicating that there were no effects from foraging on the treated crop. Under the experimental conditions, there was no effect of foraging on thiamethoxam-treated oilseed rape on honeybee flight activity or on their ability to return to the hive. PMID:26222207

  12. Modelling gene flow between oilseed rape and wild radish. I. Evolution of chromosome structure.

    PubMed

    Chèvre, A M; Adamczyk, K; Eber, F; Huteau, V; Coriton, O; Letanneur, J C; Laredo, C; Jenczewski, E; Monod, H

    2007-01-01

    The assessment of gene flow from crop species to weeds has found a new emphasis over the last years because of the marketing of transgenic crops and the possible selective advantage that crop (trans)gene may confer to the weeds. Several studies focused on the F1 interspecific hybrid production but few data are available on the factors affecting the genetic structure of advanced generations. It depends on the genomic structure of the species concerned as well as on the degree of their genome homology that affect the occurrence of intergenomic recombination. Oilseed rape (Brassica napus, AACC, 2n = 38)-wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum, RrRr, 2n = 18), a distantly related weed, is a good model to address such questions. From seven male sterile oilseed rape lines carrying an herbicide tolerance transgene, F1 interspecific hybrids and four advanced generations were produced under field conditions with wild radish as pollinator. Observation of hybrid chromosome numbers across four generations revealed a high variability, especially in the "BC1" generation. A regression model was fitted in order to describe the relationship between parent and offspring chromosome numbers. The effects of generation, transgenic line and selection pressure on the mean relationship were investigated. The first two factors had an influence on the rate of decrease of chromosome numbers, whereas selection pressure resulted in the presence of an additional chromosome in the herbicide treated plants. The model provided a convenient framework for analysing how chromosome numbers evolve over successive hybridization events and it may prove useful as a basis for simulation-based approaches. PMID:17091264

  13. Greenhouse gas fluxes during growth of different bioenergy crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, K.; Don, A.; Flessa, H.

    2012-04-01

    Bioenergy crops are expected to contribute to greenhouse gas mitigation by substituting fossil fuels. However, during production, processing and transport of bioenergy crops greenhouse gas emissions are generated that have to be taken into account when evaluating the role of bioenergy for climate mitigation. Especially nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions during feedstock production determine the greenhouse gas balance of bioenergy due to its strong global warming potential. This fact has often been ignored due to insufficient data and knowledge on greenhouse gas emission from cropland soils under bioenergy production. Therefore, we started to investigate the greenhouse gas emissions of major bioenergy crops maize, oil seed rape, grass (grass-clover, without N-fertilizer) and short rotation coppice (SRC, poplar hybrid) at two sites in Central Germany (near Göttingen and in Thuringia). The nitrous oxide and methane (CH4) fluxes from these sites have been determined by weekly chamber measurements since May 2011. The N2O emissions from all fields were low and without extreme peaks during the first five months of measurement (222 to 687 g N2O-N ha-1 for 5 months). The rape field near Göttingen emitted less N2O than the SRC, probably because SRC was newly established in spring 2011 and the rape has not been fertilized during the measurement period (cumulative emission over 5 months: rape seed 366 ± 188 g N2O-N ha-1, grassland 497 ± 153 g N2O-N ha-1, SRC 687 ± 124 g N2O-N ha-1). The maize field in Thuringia emitted more N2O than the SRC due to emission peaks related to the fertilization of maize (cumulative emission over 5 months: maize 492 ± 140 g N2O-N ha-1, grasslands 253 ± 87 and 361 ± 135 g N2O-N ha-1, new SRC 222 ± 90 g N2O-N ha-1, 4 years old SRC 340 ± 264 g N2O-N ha-1). All sites showed a net uptake of atmospheric methane throughout the summer season (104 to 862 g CH4-C ha-1 for 5 months). However, net-exchange of CH4 is of little importance for the greenhouse

  14. Receipt of Post-Rape Medical Care in a National Sample of Female Victims

    PubMed Central

    Zinzow, Heidi M.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Barr, Simone C.; Danielson, Carla K.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2014-01-01

    Background It is important for rape victims to receive medical care to prevent and treat rape-related diseases and injuries, access forensic exams, and connect to needed resources. Few victims seek care, and factors associated with post-rape medical care–seeking are poorly understood. Purpose The current study examined prevalence and factors associated with post-rape medical care–seeking in a national sample of women who reported a most-recent or only incident of forcible rape, and drug- or alcohol-facilitated/incapacitated rape when they were aged ≥14 years. Methods A national sample of U.S. adult women (N=3001) completed structured telephone interviews in 2006, and data for this study were analyzed in 2011. Logistic regression analyses examined demographic variables, health, rape characteristics, and post-rape concerns in relation to post-rape medical care–seeking among 445 female rape victims. Results A minority of rape victims (21%) sought post-rape medical attention following the incident. In the final multivariate model, correlates of medical care included black race, rape-related injury, concerns about sexually transmitted diseases, pregnancy concerns, and reporting the incident to police. Conclusions Women who experience rapes consistent with stereotypic scenarios, acknowledge the rape, report the rape, and harbor health concerns appear to be more likely to seek post-rape medical services. Education is needed to increase rape acknowledgment, awareness of post-rape services that do not require formal reporting, and recognition of the need to treat rape-related health problems. PMID:22813683

  15. In situ dynamics of microbial communities during decomposition of wheat, rape, and alfalfa residues.

    PubMed

    Pascault, Noémie; Cécillon, Lauric; Mathieu, Olivier; Hénault, Catherine; Sarr, Amadou; Lévêque, Jean; Farcy, Pascal; Ranjard, Lionel; Maron, Pierre-Alain

    2010-11-01

    Microbial communities are of major importance in the decomposition of soil organic matter. However, the identities and dynamics of the populations involved are still poorly documented. We investigated, in an 11-month field experiment, how the initial biochemical quality of crop residues could lead to specific decomposition patterns, linking biochemical changes undergone by the crop residues to the respiration, biomass, and genetic structure of the soil microbial communities. Wheat, alfalfa, and rape residues were incorporated into the 0-15 cm layer of the soil of field plots by tilling. Biochemical changes in the residues occurring during degradation were assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy. Qualitative modifications in the genetic structure of the bacterial communities were determined by bacterial-automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis. Bacterial diversity in the three crop residues at early and late stages of decomposition process was further analyzed from a molecular inventory of the 16S rDNA. The decomposition of plant residues in croplands was shown to involve specific biochemical characteristics and microbial community dynamics which were clearly related to the quality of the organic inputs. Decay stage and seasonal shifts occurred by replacement of copiotrophic bacterial groups such as proteobacteria successful on younger residues with those successful on more extensively decayed material such as Actinobacteria. However, relative abundance of proteobacteria depended greatly on the composition of the residues, with a gradient observed from alfalfa to wheat, suggesting that this bacterial group may represent a good indicator of crop residues degradability and modifications during the decomposition process. PMID:20593174

  16. Acquaintance rape and the high school student.

    PubMed

    Davis, T C; Peck, G Q; Storment, J M

    1993-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of forced sex among high school students and to assess student attitudes about it. The questionnaires were given in conjunction with a presentation on date rape to 9th through 12th grade students in health and science classes in three large metropolitan Louisiana public high schools. The first questionnaire, given before the presentation, elicited demographic information and attitudes about forced sex in 11 scenarios; the second, given after the program, asked if the student had ever been in a situation involving forced sex and, if so, whether he or she had told anyone. The two questionnaires were completed by all 237 students. Although one out of five students (20%) reported they had experienced forced sex, only half had told about the experience. A majority of boys (60%) found it acceptable in one or more situations for a boy to force sex on a girl. Male, black, and older students were significantly more likely (p < 0.05) to indicate that it was acceptable for a boy to force sex on a girl in certain circumstances. These findings should alert physicians to the risk of acquaintance rape among their high school student patients. Student attitudes, particularly those of males, may provide an important focus of preventive sex education in the physician's office, the classroom, and the community. PMID:8323934

  17. Rape in war: the humanitarian response

    PubMed Central

    Shanks, Leslie; Schull, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Women and children are vulnerable to sexual violence in times of conflict, and the risk persists even after they have escaped the conflict area. The impact of rape goes far beyond the immediate effects of the physical attack and has long-lasting consequences. We describe the humanitarian community's response to sexual violence and rape in times of war and civil unrest by drawing on the experiences of Médecins Sans Frontières/Doctors Without Borders and other humanitarian agencies. Health care workers must have a keen awareness of the problem and be prepared to respond appropriately. This requires a comprehensive intervention protocol, including antibiotic prophylaxis, emergency contraception, referral for psychological support, and proper documentation and reporting procedures. Preventing widespread sexual violence requires increasing the security in refugee camps. It also requires speaking out and holding states accountable when violations of international law occur. The challenge is to remain alert to these often hidden, but extremely destructive, crimes in the midst of a chaotic emergency relief setting. PMID:11079062

  18. Insect pollination enhances seed yield, quality, and market value in oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Bommarco, Riccardo; Marini, Lorenzo; Vaissière, Bernard E

    2012-08-01

    The relationships between landscape intensification, the abundance and diversity of pollinating insects, and their contributions to crop yield, quality, and market value are poorly studied, despite observed declines in wild and domesticated pollinators. Abundance and species richness of pollinating insects were estimated in ten fields of spring oilseed rape, Brassica napus var. SW Stratos™, located along a gradient of landscape compositions ranging from simple landscapes dominated by arable land to heterogeneous landscapes with extensive cover of semi-natural habitats. In each field, we assessed the contribution of wind and insect pollination to seed yield, seed quality (individual seed weight and oil and chlorophyll contents), and market value in a block experiment with four replicates and two treatments: (1) all flowers were accessible to insects, self and wind pollination, and (2) flowers enclosed in tulle net bags (mesh: 1 × 1 mm) were accessible only to wind and self pollination. Complex landscapes enhanced the overall abundance of wild insects as well as the abundance and species richness of hoverflies. This did not translate to a higher yield, probably due to consistent pollination by honey bees across all fields. However, the pollination experiment showed that insects increased seed weight per plant by 18% and market value by 20%. Seed quality was enhanced by insect pollination, rendering heavier seeds as well as higher oil and lower chlorophyll contents, clearly showing that insect pollination is required to reach high seed yield and quality in oilseed rape. Our study demonstrates considerable and previously underestimated contributions from pollinating insects to both the yield and the market value of oilseed rape. PMID:22311256

  19. Global gene expression responses to waterlogging in leaves of rape seedlings.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Hwa; Kim, Kwang-Soo; Jang, Young-Seok; Hwang, Ji-Hye; Lee, Dong-Hee; Choi, In-Hu

    2014-02-01

    Soil waterlogging is a serious constraint to crop production. We investigated the physiological responses of rape (Brassica napus L.) seedlings to waterlogging stress and analyzed global gene transcription responses in the aerial leaves of waterlogged rape seedlings. Seedlings of 'Tammi' and 'Youngsan' cultivars were subjected to waterlogging for 3 and 6 days and recovery for 5 days. Waterlogging stress caused a significant decrease in leaf chlorophyll content and premature senescence of the leaves. Maximal quantum efficiency of PSII (F(v)/F(m)) decreased in the waterlogged seedlings compared with the control plants. To evaluate whether the observed physiological changes in the leaves are associated with the differential regulation of gene expression in response to waterlogging stress, we analyzed the global transcriptional profile of leaves of 'Tammi' seedlings that were exposed to waterlogging for a short period (36 and 72 h). SolexaQA RNA-seq analysis revealed that a total of 4,484 contigs (8.5 %) of all contigs assayed (52,747) showed a twofold change in expression after 36 h of the start of waterlogging and 9,659 contigs (18.3 %) showed a twofold change after 72 h. Major genes involved in leaf photosynthesis, including light reactions and carbon-fixing reactions, were downregulated, while a number of genes involved in the scavenging of reactive oxygen species, degradation (proteins, starch, and lipids), premature senescence, and abiotic stress tolerance were upregulated. Transcriptome analysis data suggested that the aerial leaves of waterlogged rape seedlings respond to hypoxia by regulating the expression of diverse genes in the leaves. PMID:24384821

  20. Impact of rape on female sexuality: review of selected literature.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Terri L

    2009-12-01

    This article reviews the medical and psychologic literature on the impact of rape on female sexuality. Studies documented moderately high rates of genital injuries and moderate rates of sexually transmitted infections postrape and significantly greater difficulties with aspects of reproductive/sexual functioning, including dyspareunia, endometriosis, menstrual irregularities, and chronic pelvic pain for raped compared with nonraped women. Raped women also engaged in significantly more high-risk sexual behaviors. Posttraumatic stress disorder emerged as an important mediator of sexual victimization and sexual health. An integrative model outlining interrelated physical, psychologic, biologic, and behavioral factors postrape was presented to assimilate review findings. PMID:20393422

  1. College women's experiences with rape disclosure: a national study.

    PubMed

    Paul, Lisa A; Walsh, Kate; McCauley, Jenna L; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Resnick, Heidi S; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2013-04-01

    Disclosure of a rape to informal support sources (e.g., friends) is a relatively common experience, but it is not well understood. This study expands our limited knowledge of the characteristics and life experiences of disclosure recipients among a national sample of 2,000 female college students. Over 40% of respondents reported having received a rape disclosure, and more than two thirds of these recipients encouraged victims to formally report their rapes to the police or other authorities. Correlates of disclosure receipt and encouragement of reporting, including personal assault history, mental health history, and substance use, are presented and discussed. PMID:23651638

  2. The effects of receiving a rape disclosure: college friends' stories.

    PubMed

    Branch, Kathryn A; Richards, Tara N

    2013-05-01

    Research suggests that college women are at greater risk for rape and sexual assault than women in the general population or in a comparable age group. College women, away from home and family, may turn to friends for support. Friends may experience emotional reactions that affect their own functioning and may not feel they have anywhere to turn. In this study, we interviewed male and female college students who had received a rape disclosure from a friend. Their unique stories provide insight into the secondary effects of rape disclosure on friends. Implications of these findings for college campuses are discussed. PMID:23743351

  3. Changing attitudes and perceptions of Hispanic men ages 18 to 25 about rape and rape prevention.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Sarah Lynn; Munoz-Rojas, Derby; Gutman, Lauren Samantha; Siman, Matilde Nathalia

    2012-12-01

    This exploratory study was designed to test the effectiveness of Foubert's intervention, The Men's Program, on a sample of 18- to 25-year-old Hispanic men who are not enrolled at a University or College. We explored participants' perceptions of, reactions to, and experience of the program. The information collected will be used to adapt the program to this specific population in order to increase cultural relevancy and specificity and create lasting attitudinal change. Three groups of six-eight Hispanic males (n = 22) were exposed to the intervention program. The Bystander Attitude Scale and the Rape Attitude and Beliefs Scale were administered as pre- and post-test measures. A short focus group was conducted to ask the men about their experience of the intervention. Analysis showed a significant increase in participants' willingness to intervene (p = 0.005) along with a decrease in rape myth acceptance in four of the five subscales (Justice p = 0.03; Status p = 0.004; Tactics p = 0.04; and Gender p = 0.002) after exposure to the intervention. Analysis of focus group material yielded several interesting themes about knowledge of rape, family and culture, perceptions of women, and the program material. This study showed promising change in attitudes about rape beliefs and bystander behaviors in Hispanic males exposed to an educational intervention. Through the information obtained, a cultural adaption from the analysis of the focus group data will be implemented during Phase 2 of the study. The adapted intervention will be tested before, after, and 1- and 3-months post-intervention to test whether the change in attitudes and behaviors are sustainable over time. PMID:23215988

  4. Monitoring the escape of transgenic oilseed rape around Japanese ports and roadsides.

    PubMed

    Saji, Hikaru; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Aono, Mitsuko; Tamaoki, Masanori; Kubo, Akihiro; Wakiyama, Seiji; Hatase, Yoriko; Nagatsu, Masato

    2005-01-01

    An investigation was carried out to monitor the escape and spread of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) transgenic plants and the introgression of transgenes to its closely related feral species in Japan. We screened a total of about 7500 feral B. napus, 300 B. rapa, and 5800 B. juncea seedlings from maternal plants in 143 locations at several ports, roadsides, and riverbanks. The presence of glufosinate-resistance or glyphosate-resistance transgenes in these seedlings was confirmed by means of herbicide treatments and also immunochemical and DNA analyses. B. napus plants with herbicide-resistant transgenic seeds were found at five of six major ports and along two of four sampled roadsides in the Kanto District. Transgenic oilseed rape plants have not been commercially cultivated in Japan, suggesting that the transgenes would probably have come from imported transgenic seeds that were spilled during transportation to oilseed processing facilities. No transgenes were detected in seeds collected from B. napus plants growing along riverbanks in the Kanto District or in seeds from closely related species (B. rapa and B. juncea). To our knowledge, this is the first published example of feral, transgenic populations occurring in a nation where the transgenic crop has not been cultivated commercially. PMID:16827549

  5. Assessment of Rape-Supportive Attitudes and Beliefs in College Men: Development, Reliability, and Validity of the Rape Attitudes and Beliefs Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Gerald H.

    2007-01-01

    Discussed is the development and psychometric analysis of a measure of rape-supportive attitudes and beliefs called the Rape Attitudes and Beliefs Scale (RABS), intended for the use with college men. Items were developed from a literature review of "rape myths" that were correlated to some measure of sexual aggression. An exploratory factor…

  6. Schema Effects of Rape Myth Acceptance on Judgments of Guilt and Blame in Rape Cases: The Role of Perceived Entitlement to Judge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyssel, Friederike; Bohner, Gerd

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments (N = 330) examined conditions that facilitate biasing effects of rape myth acceptance (RMA) on judgments of blame in rape cases. In both experiments, participants read a short vignette depicting a rape case. In Experiment 1, the amount of case-irrelevant information about defendant and plaintiff was varied. As predicted, high-RMA…

  7. Influence of development stage of spring oilseed rape and spring wheat on interception of wet-deposited radiocaesium and radiostrontium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bengtsson, S. B.; Eriksson, J.; Gärdenäs, A. I.; Rosén, K.

    2012-12-01

    The dry and wet deposition of radionuclides released into the atmosphere can be intercepted by vegetation in terrestrial ecosystems. The aim of this study was to quantify the interception of wet deposited 134Cs and 85Sr by spring oilseed rape (Brassíca napus L.) and spring wheat (Tríticum aestívum L.). The dependency of the intercepted fraction (f) on total above ground plant biomass, growing stage and the Leaf Area Index (LAI) was quantified. A trial was established in Uppsala (east central Sweden), with land management in accordance to common agricultural practices. The field trial was a randomised block design of 1 × 1 m2 parcels with three replicates. During the growing season of 2010, a rainfall simulator deposited 134Cs and 85Sr during six different growth stages. Two to 3 h after deposition, the biomass of the centre 25 × 25 cm2 area of each parcel was sampled and above ground biomass and LAI were measured. The radioactivity concentration and radioactivity of samples were measured by High Purity Germanium (HPGe)-detectors. For 134Cs, there was a correlation between f and LAI (r2 = 0.55, p < 0.05) for spring wheat, but not for spring oilseed rape (r2 = 0.28, p > 0.05). For 85Sr, there was a correlation between f and LAI for both crops (r2 = 0.41, p < 0.05 for spring oilseed rape and r2 = 0.48 p, <0.05 for spring wheat). There was no correlation between f and above ground plant biomass in spring oilseed rape for either 134Cs (r2 = 0.01, p > 0.05) or for 85Sr (r2 = 0.11, p > 0.05). For spring wheat, there was a correlation for both 134Cs (r2 = 0.36, p < 0.05) and 85Sr (r2 = 0.32, p < 0.05). For spring oilseed rape, f was highest at growth stage 'stem elongation' for 134Cs (0.32 ± 0.22) and 85Sr (0.41 ± 0.29). For spring wheat, f was highest at growth stage 'ripening' for both radionuclides (134Cs was 0.36 ± 0.14 and 85Sr was 0.48 ± 0.18). Thus, LAI can be used to quantify interception of both radionuclides for both crops, whereas, above ground plant

  8. Current perceptions of marital rape: some good and not-so-good news.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Christine; Cermele, Jill; Saltzman, Ann

    2008-06-01

    The current study extends previous research on marital rape and acceptance of general rape myths by comparing the perceptions of undergraduate college students (n = 85) to those of college alumni/ae (n = 44) who graduated from the same university three decades earlier. Participants read a hypothetical rape scenario that depicted the perpetrator as either the victim's husband or neighbor and completed three measures of different aspects of rape myth acceptance. Results indicated that although participants reported fairly low levels of support for different aspects of rape myths, certain rape myths were more strongly endorsed than were others. Furthermore, rape myth acceptance was stronger for marital rape than for acquaintance rape and for undergraduates than for college alumni/ae. Practical and theoretical implications of this study are discussed. PMID:18272725

  9. Rape myth acceptance, sexual trauma history, and posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Baugher, Shannon N; Elhai, Jon D; Monroe, James R; Gray, Matt J

    2010-11-01

    The prediction of false rape-related beliefs (rape myth acceptance [RMA]) was examined using the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale (Payne, Lonsway, & Fitzgerald, 1999) among a nonclinical sample of 258 male and female college students. Predictor variables included measures of attitudes toward women, gender role identity (GRI), sexual trauma history, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity. Using linear regression and testing interaction effects, negative attitudes toward women significantly predicted greater RMA for individuals without a sexual trauma history. However, neither attitudes toward women nor GRI were significant predictors of RMA for individuals with a sexual trauma history. PTSD did not moderate RMA's relationship with attitudes toward women and GRI. This study has clinical implications for treatment as well as for the development of rape myth-dispelling programs. PMID:20065314

  10. 42 CFR 50.306 - Rape and incest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... APPLICABILITY Abortions and Related Medical Services in Federally Assisted Programs of the Public Health Service... participation is also available in expenditures for abortions for victims of rape or incest under...

  11. 42 CFR 50.306 - Rape and incest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... APPLICABILITY Abortions and Related Medical Services in Federally Assisted Programs of the Public Health Service... participation is also available in expenditures for abortions for victims of rape or incest under...

  12. 42 CFR 50.306 - Rape and incest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... APPLICABILITY Abortions and Related Medical Services in Federally Assisted Programs of the Public Health Service... participation is also available in expenditures for abortions for victims of rape or incest under...

  13. 42 CFR 50.306 - Rape and incest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... APPLICABILITY Abortions and Related Medical Services in Federally Assisted Programs of the Public Health Service... participation is also available in expenditures for abortions for victims of rape or incest under...

  14. 42 CFR 50.306 - Rape and incest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... APPLICABILITY Abortions and Related Medical Services in Federally Assisted Programs of the Public Health Service... participation is also available in expenditures for abortions for victims of rape or incest under...

  15. Understanding Disparities in Service Seeking Following Forcible Versus Drug- or Alcohol-Facilitated/Incapacitated Rape.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kate; Zinzow, Heidi M; Badour, Christal L; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Kilpatrick, Dean G; Resnick, Heidi S

    2016-09-01

    Victims of drug- or alcohol-facilitated/incapacitated rape (DAFR/IR) are substantially less likely to seek medical, rape crisis, or police services compared with victims of forcible rape (FR); however, reasons for these disparities are poorly understood. The current study examined explanatory mechanisms in the pathway from rape type (FR vs. DAFR/IR) to disparities in post-rape service seeking (medical, rape crisis, criminal justice). Participants were 445 adult women from a nationally representative household probability sample who had experienced FR, DAFR/IR, or both since age 14. Personal characteristics (age, race, income, prior rape history), rape characteristics (fear, injury, loss of consciousness), and post-rape acknowledgment, medical concerns, and service seeking were collected. An indirect effects model using bootstrapped standard errors was estimated to examine pathways from rape type to service seeking. DAFR/IR-only victims were less likely to seek services compared with FR victims despite similar post-rape medical concerns. FR victims were more likely to report fear during the rape and a prior rape history, and to acknowledge the incident as rape; each of these characteristics was positively associated with service seeking. However, only prior rape history and acknowledgment served as indirect paths to service seeking; acknowledgment was the strongest predictor of service seeking. Diminished acknowledgment of the incident as rape may be especially important to explaining why DAFR/IR victims are less likely than FR victims to seek services. Public service campaigns designed to increase awareness of rape definitions, particularly around DAFR/IR, are important to reducing disparities in rape-related service seeking. PMID:25846758

  16. [Anxiety and depression levels in rape offenders].

    PubMed

    Herrera-Hernández, E; Marván, L; Saavedra, M; Contreras, C M

    1993-03-01

    Whether the active subject of rape possesses a particular personality trait is a much debated matter. It is an accepted fact that a small amount of rapists fall into the sadistic diagnostic category. Other psychopatologic traits likely to identify a rapist are, however, unknown. The present study was carried over at a jail near the city of Xalapa (Veracruz) Mexico. Hamilton, IDARE, and Zung scales, in their modified Spanish version were applied to a sample of imprisoned adult rapists. Compared to their control group (men serving sentences for other felonies), rapists scored higher in anxiety, and depression scales. In the light of these results, it is suggested that some rapists are likely to be anxious-depressive subjects that, after having "acquired" a sociopathic repertoire, offend other people in conditions of indefensiveness, contrary to depressive subjects who aggress themselves. PMID:8237434

  17. [Potential role of winter rape weeds in the extension of broomrape in Poitou-Charentes].

    PubMed

    Gibot-Leclerc, Stéphanie; Brault, Marianne; Pinochet, Xavier; Sallé, Georges

    2003-07-01

    In the Poitou-Charentes district, among the 82 species of winter rape weeds identified, 22 displayed a strong affinity for this crop (Brassica napus L.). In fields, 50% of these weeds were parasitized by Orobanche ramosa, playing the role of host plants. Greenhouse co-cultures (weed/Orobanche ramosa) showed that weeds non-parasitized in fields could be attacked by broomrape, developing a more or less complete cycle. In vitro co-cultures (weed/Orobanche ramosa) revealed that root exudates of non-parasitized weeds, in fields or in greenhouse co-cultures, could induce Orobanche ramosa seed germination, but not attachment. These weeds could play the role of false hosts. PMID:14556384

  18. The presence of Bt-transgenic oilseed rape in wild mustard populations affects plant growth.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongbo; Stewart, C Neal; Li, Junsheng; Huang, Hai; Zhang, Xitao

    2015-12-01

    The adventitious presence of transgenic plants in wild plant populations is of ecological and regulatory concern, but the consequences of adventitious presence are not well understood. Here, we introduced Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac (Bt)-transgenic oilseed rape (Bt OSR, Brassica napus) with various frequencies into wild mustard (Brassica juncea) populations. We sought to better understand the adventitious presence of this transgenic insecticidal crop in a wild-relative plant population. We assessed the factors of competition, resource availability and diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) infestation on plant population dynamics. As expected, Bt OSR performed better than wild mustard in mixed populations under herbivore attack in habitats with enough resources, whereas wild mustard had higher fitness when Bt OSR was rarer in habitats with limited resources. Results suggest that the presence of insect-resistant transgenic plants could decrease the growth of wild mustard and Bt OSR plants and their populations, especially under high herbivore pressure. PMID:26338267

  19. Crop Canopy and Residue Rainfall Interception Effects on Water and Crop Growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop canopies and residues have been shown to intercept a significant amount of rainfall. However, rainfall or irrigation interception by crops and residues has often been overlooked in hydrologic modelling. Crop canopy interception is controlled by canopy density and rainfall intensity and durati...

  20. Women's erotic rape fantasies: an evaluation of theory and research.

    PubMed

    Critelli, Joseph W; Bivona, Jenny M

    2008-01-01

    This article is the first systematic review of the research literature on women's rape fantasies. Current research indicates that between 31% and 57% of women have fantasies in which they are forced into sex against their will, and for 9% to 17% of women these are a frequent or favorite fantasy experience. Erotic rape fantasies are paradoxical: they do not appear to make sense. Why would a person have an erotic and pleasurable fantasy about an event that, in real life, would be abhorrent and traumatic? In this article, the major theories of women's rape fantasies are evaluated both rationally and empirically. These theories explain rape fantasies in terms of masochism, sexual blame avoidance, openness to sexuality, sexual desirability, male rape culture, biological predisposition to surrender, sympathetic physiological activation, and adversary transformation. This article evaluates theory and research, makes provisional judgments as to which theories appear to be most viable, and begins the task of theoretical integration to arrive at a more complete and internally consistent explanation for why many women engage in erotic rape fantasies. Methodological critiques and programs for future research are presented throughout. PMID:18321031

  1. Long-Term Monitoring of Field Trial Sites with Genetically Modified Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.) in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Fifteen Years Persistence to Date but No Spatial Dispersion.

    PubMed

    Belter, Anke

    2016-01-01

    Oilseed rape is known to persist in arable fields because of its ability to develop secondary seed dormancy in certain agronomic and environmental conditions. If conditions change, rapeseeds are able to germinate up to 10 years later to build volunteers in ensuing crops. Extrapolations of experimental data acted on the assumption of persistence periods for more than 20 years after last harvest of rapeseed. Genetically-modified oilseed rape-cultivated widely in Northern America since 1996-is assumed not to differ from its conventional form in this property. Here, experimental data are reported from official monitoring activities that verify these assumptions. At two former field trial sites in Saxony-Anhalt genetically-modified herbicide-resistant oilseed rape volunteers are found up to fifteen years after harvest. Nevertheless, spatial dispersion or establishment of GM plants outside of the field sites was not observed within this period. PMID:26784233

  2. "You owe me": effects of date cost, who pays, participant gender, and rape myth beliefs on perceptions of rape.

    PubMed

    Basow, Susan A; Minieri, Alexandra

    2011-02-01

    Sexual social exchange theory was applied to perceptions of a date rape by manipulating the cost of the date and who paid in vignettes presented to 188 U.S. college students, who then rated the characters' sexual expectations, blame, responsibility, and rape justifiability. Findings from this between-participant design partially supported predictions: When the man paid for an expensive date, men agreed more than did women that both characters should have expected sexual intercourse. Conversely, when the costs of an inexpensive date were split, the perpetrator was assigned the most blame, and women agreed more than men that no sexual expectations were warranted. Participant gender affected some responses, although level of rape myth acceptance was the main predictor of rape perceptions. PMID:20442451

  3. Sunflower crop

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, B.H.

    1981-05-01

    A review of the sunflower as a major commercial crop, including its history, cultivation, hybridization and uses. It is grown principally for its oil which is high in polyunsaturated fatty acids and used in a variety of foods. Recently it has been tested in diesel engines and a high protein meal is produced from the seed residues.

  4. Metacognitive aspects of rape myths: subjective strength of rape myth acceptance moderates its effects on information processing and behavioral intentions.

    PubMed

    Süssenbach, Philipp; Eyssel, Friederike; Bohner, Gerd

    2013-07-01

    The authors present a metacognitive approach to influences of rape myth acceptance (RMA) on the processing of rape-related information and rape proclivity. In Study 1, participants (N = 264) completed an RMA scale and subsequently reported the subjective strength (e.g., importance, certainty) of their RMA. Then they read about a rape case, viewed a photograph of the alleged crime scene, and rated the defendant's guilt on several items. Depending on condition, the photograph contained either RMA-applicable stimuli (e.g., alcoholic beverages) or neutral stimuli. Higher RMA predicted lower ratings of defendant guilt especially when applicable stimuli were present and RMA was strong. Study 2 (N = 85) showed that RMA-related attitude strength also moderated the effect of RMA on self-reported rape proclivity. Results of both studies indicate that the subjective strength of rape-related beliefs may be reliably assessed and serves as an important moderator of effects of RMA. The implications of these findings for prevention programs as well as future directions for research are discussed. PMID:23400886

  5. Specifics of soil temperature under winter oilseed rape canopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krčmářová, Jana; Středa, Tomáš; Pokorný, Radovan

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the course of soil temperature under the winter oilseed rape canopy and to determine relationships between soil temperature, air temperature and partly soil moisture. In addition, the aim was to describe the dependence by means of regression equations usable for pests and pathogens prediction, crop development, and yields models. The measurement of soil and near the ground air temperatures was performed at the experimental field Žabiče (South Moravia, the Czech Republic). The course of temperature was determined under or in the winter oilseed rape canopy during spring growth season in the course of four years (2010 - 2012 and 2014). In all years, the standard varieties (Petrol, Sherpa) were grown, in 2014 the semi-dwarf variety PX104 was added. Automatic soil sensors were positioned at three depths (0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 m) under soil surface, air temperature sensors in 0.05 m above soil surfaces. The course of soil temperature differs significantly between standard (Sherpa and Petrol) and semi-dwarf (PX104) varieties. Results of the cross correlation analysis showed, that the best interrelationships between air and soil temperature were achieved in 2 hours delay for the soil temperature in 0.05 m, 4 hour delay for 0.10 m and 7 hour delay for 0.20 m for standard varieties. For semi-dwarf variety, this delay reached 6 hour for the soil temperature in 0.05 m, 7 hour delay for 0.10 m and 11 hour for 0.20 m. After the time correction, the determination coefficient (R2) reached values from 0.67 to 0.95 for 0.05 m, 0.50 to 0.84 for 0.10 m in variety Sherpa during all experimental years. For variety PX104 this coefficient reached values from 0.51 to 0.72 in 0.05 m depth and from 0.39 to 0.67 in 0.10 m depth in the year 2014. The determination coefficient in the 0.20 m depth was lower for both varieties; its values were from 0.15 to 0.65 in variety Sherpa. In variety PX104 the values of R2 from 0.23 to 0.57 were determined. When using

  6. Attitudes toward rape: a comparison between Asian and Caucasian college students.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joohee; Pomeroy, Elizabeth C; Yoo, Seo-Koo; Rheinboldt, Kurt T

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate differences in attitudes toward rape between Asian and Caucasian college students. The Attitudes Toward Rape scale was used to measure beliefs about rape in a convenience sample of 169 college students. Three items regarding stranger rape myths were added. Findings suggest that Asian students are more likely than Caucasian students to believe women should be held responsible for preventing rape and to view sex as the primary motivation for rape. Asians also have stronger beliefs than Caucasians do that victims cause the rape and that most rapists are strangers. This research suggests that outreach programs can play an important role in providing information, education, and prevention regarding rape and that males and Asian students should be target populations for such programs. PMID:16043546

  7. Perceptions of rape and attitudes toward women in a sample of Lebanese students.

    PubMed

    Rebeiz, Maria J; Harb, Charles

    2010-04-01

    This study investigated values, ambivalent sexism, religiosity, religious differences, gender, and attitudes toward rape victims as predictors of rape myths in a sample of Lebanese students (N = 300). Values of self-transcendence and conservation, gender, hostile sexism, and attitudes toward rape victims emerged as significant predictors of rape myths, confirming some of the premises in the literature. Type of rape (date, marital, acquaintance, and stranger rape) and victim's characteristics (widowed, married, devout, promiscuous, and chaste) were also investigated. Results revealed that no matter what the relationship between the victim and her perpetrator was, and regardless of the victim's characteristics, forcible sexual contact was always considered as rape. However, differences did emerge as to the degree to which these variations were perceived as rape. Implication of findings for research and the Lebanese culture are discussed. PMID:19494244

  8. Nitrous oxide emissions from crop rotations including wheat, rapeseed and dry pea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeuffroy, M. H.; Baranger, E.; Carrouée, B.; de Chezelles, E.; Gosme, M.; Hénault, C.; Schneider, A.; Cellier, P.

    2012-07-01

    Approximately 65% of anthropogenic emissions of N2O, a potent greenhouse gas, originate from soils at global scale, and particularly after N fertilisation of the main crops in Europe. Thanks to their capacity to fix atmospheric N2 through biological fixation, legumes allow to reduce N fertilizer use, and possibly N2O emission. Nevertheless, the decomposition of crop organic matter during the crop cycle and during the residue decomposition, and possibly the N fixation process itself, could lead to N2O emissions. The objective of this study was to quantify N2O emissions from a dry pea crop (Pisum sativum, harvested at maturity) and from the subsequent crops in comparison with N2O emissions from wheat and oilseed-rape crops, fertilized or not, in various rotations. A field experiment was conducted during 4 consecutive years, aiming at comparing the emissions during the pea crop, in comparison with those during the wheat (fertilized or not) or oilseed rape crops, and after the pea crop, in comparison with other preceding crops. N2O fluxes were measured using static chambers. In spite of low N2O fluxes, mainly linked with the site soil characteristics, fluxes during the crop were significantly lower for pea and unfertilized wheat than for fertilized wheat and oilseed rape. The effect of the preceding crop was not significant, while soil mineral N at harvest was higher after pea. These results, combined with the emission reduction allowed by the production and transport of the N fertiliser not applied on the pea crop, should be confirmed in a larger range of soil types. Nevertheless, they demonstrate the absence of N2O emission linked to the symbiotic N fixation process, and allow us to estimate the decrease of N2O emissions to 20-25% by including one pea crop in a three-year rotation. At a larger scale, this reduction of GHG emissions at field level has to be cumulated with the reduction of GHG emissions linked with the lower level of production and transport of the N

  9. Expansion of mass-flowering crops leads to transient pollinator dilution and reduced wild plant pollination.

    PubMed

    Holzschuh, Andrea; Dormann, Carsten F; Tscharntke, Teja; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2011-11-22

    Agricultural land use results in direct biodiversity decline through loss of natural habitat, but may also cause indirect cross-habitat effects on conservation areas. We conducted three landscape-scale field studies on 67 sites to test the hypothesis that mass flowering of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) results in a transient dilution of bees in crop fields, and in increased competition between crop plants and grassland plants for pollinators. Abundances of bumble-bees, which are the main pollinators of the grassland plant Primula veris, but also pollinate oilseed rape (OSR), decreased with increasing amount of OSR. This landscape-scale dilution affected bumble-bee abundances strongly in OSR fields and marginally in grasslands, where bumble-bee abundances were generally low at the time of Primula flowering. Seed set of Primula veris, which flowers during OSR bloom, was reduced by 20 per cent when the amount of OSR within 1 km radius increased from 0 to 15 per cent. Hence, the current expansion of bee-attractive biofuel crops results in transient dilution of crop pollinators, which means an increased competition for pollinators between crops and wild plants. In conclusion, mass-flowering crops potentially threaten fitness of concurrently flowering wild plants in conservation areas, despite the fact that, in the long run, mass-flowering crops can enhance abundances of generalist pollinators and their pollination service. PMID:21471115

  10. Sexual climate and reported rape: a state-level analysis.

    PubMed

    Jaffee, D; Straus, M A

    1987-04-01

    Data on the US states are used to study two aspects of sexual climate: sexually liberal attitudes and sex magazine readership, and their relationship to reported rape. The two sexual climate measures are correlated (r = 0.50), but each also seems to measure a different facet of sexual climate: tolerance for the sexual behavior of others in the case of the Sexual Liberalism Index, and perhaps sexuality per se in the case of sex magazine readership. States in the Northeast have the highest average sexual liberalism score, and states in the West have the highest average readership of sex magazines. The relationship between sexual climate and the incidence of reported rape was investigated using multiple regression. Results indicate no relationship between sexually liberal attitudes and rape, but that sex magazine readership, urbanization, poverty, and a high percentage of divorced men are each significantly associated with the incidence of reported rape. The findings are interpreted within a theoretical model that posits rape as a function of social disorganization and hypermasculine gender roles and sexuality. PMID:3592959

  11. Suspect aggression and victim resistance in multiple perpetrator rapes.

    PubMed

    Woodhams, Jessica; Cooke, Claire

    2013-11-01

    Several research studies have reported an elevated level of aggression in rapes committed by multiple perpetrators compared to rapes committed by lone suspects. Several factors that have been linked to elevated aggression in generic samples of rape were examined for the first time with a sample of multiple perpetrator rapes. Factors that might be associated with victim resistance were also investigated. Victim and offender characteristics, as well as the behaviors displayed by victims and offenders, were extracted from the police files of 89 multiple perpetrator stranger rapes perpetrated against female victims in the United Kingdom. These behaviors were rated for their level of suspect (non-sexual) aggression and victim resistance, respectively. Degree of victim resistance was significantly and positively associated with suspect aggression. Older victims were the recipients of significantly higher levels of suspect aggression. Victims who were incapacitated from drugs and/or alcohol were less likely to be the recipients of suspect aggression. Group leaders displayed more aggression towards the victim than the followers in the groups. The number of perpetrators was significantly related to the degree of resistance displayed by the victim with offences perpetrated by fewer suspects being characterized by more victim resistance. Research regarding cognitive appraisal during criminal interactions and the respective roles of offenders is referred to in considering these relationships. PMID:23740469

  12. Effects of Victim Gaze Behavior and Prior Relationship on Rape Culpability Attributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Cynthia E.; Wrightsman, Lawrence S.

    1995-01-01

    Rape victims' gaze behavior when identifying a defendant and the prior relationship between victim and defendant were examined for effects on rape culpability attributions. In comparison with victims who used gaze maintenance or natural gaze behavior, rape victims' gaze avoidance was perceived as indicative of less truthfulness rather than…

  13. The Long-Term Effects of Rape on Lifestyle and Psychological Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esper, Jody A.; Runge, Christopher J.

    Research has shown rape to be an act of violence which affects the lives of many individuals each year. For many survivors of rape, effects on psychological functioning and lifestyle may endure for many years. This study was undertaken to develop and pilot the Rape Assessment Schedule, an interview schedule designed to assess the very long-term…

  14. Changing the Rape-Supportive Attitudes of Traditional and Nontraditional Male and Female College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Eric H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Tested whether individuals possessing traditional sex role attitudes could have their rape-related attitudes influenced by a psychoeducational intervention that had been effective with less traditional individuals. Results revealed that subjects who received intervention adhered less to rape myths and expressed less rape-supportive attitudes than…

  15. Women's Attitudes and Fantasies about Rape as a Function of Early Exposure to Pornography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corne, Shawn; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Tested hypothesis that women's attitudes and fantasies about rape arise partially from their socialization to accept sexual aggression as normative. Female participants answered questions on childhood exposure to pornography, sex fantasies, and rape attitudes. Early exposure to pornography correlated to "rape fantasies" and attitudes supportive of…

  16. Rape Prevention Education for Men: The Effectiveness of Empathy-Induction Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Dianne R.; Lonsway, Kimberly A.; Fitzgerald, Louise F.

    1999-01-01

    Fifty-four male undergraduates participated in a rape prevention education program in which the experimental group listened to an audiotape of a man versus a woman describing the experience of being raped. Two weeks later, the students who heard the female tape reported more likelihood to engage in rape-supportive behaviors but no difference in…

  17. A Comparison of Strategies for Changing College Students' Attitudes toward Acquaintance Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Eileen S.; Torgler, Cyndee C.

    1990-01-01

    Compared effects of strategies for informing college students about date rape. Assigned students to either experimental group that viewed videotape on acquaintance rape (n=33), experimental group that read brochure on acquaintance rape (n=31), or control group (n=25). Findings revealed no significant difference between effects of videotape and…

  18. The Impact of Acquaintance Rape Stories and Case-Specific Pretrial Publicity on Juror Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullin, Charles; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Reports on a trial simulation in which exposure to publicity regarding the defendant and general stories about acquaintance rape were manipulated; participants then viewed an enacted rape trial. Finds that male subjects exposed to predatory rape publicity were pro-defendant, whereas women were unaffected. Discusses male reaction to information…

  19. Date Violence and Date Rape among Adolescents: Associations with Disordered Eating Behaviors and Psychological Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackard, Diann M.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2002-01-01

    A study assessed prevalence of date violence and rape in 81,247 adolescents. Approximately 9% of girls and 6% of boys had experienced date violence or rape. Date violence and rape was associated with higher rates of disordered eating behaviors and suicidal thoughts and attempts, and lower emotional well-being and self-esteem. (Contains…

  20. 73 FR 9142 - Hearing of the Review Panel on Prison Rape

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2008-02-19

    ... Office of Justice Programs Hearing of the Review Panel on Prison Rape AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs... third hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape (Panel), which will be held in Washington, DC, on... common characteristics of victims and perpetrators of prison rape, and prison systems with the...

  1. 73 FR 65404 - Hearing of the Review Panel on Prison Rape

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2008-11-03

    ... of Justice Programs Hearing of the Review Panel on Prison Rape AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs... Review Panel on Prison Rape (Panel) will hold a hearing in Culpeper, Virginia on November 14, 2008. The... Statistics (BJS) in identifying common characteristics of victims and perpetrators of rape in county...

  2. 79 FR 48252 - Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2014-08-15

    ... of Justice Programs Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs... Review Panel on Prison Rape (Panel) will hold hearings in Washington, DC, on August 28, 2014. The hearing... INFORMATION: The Panel, which was established pursuant to the Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003, Public...

  3. 74 FR 63792 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement-The Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA) Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2009-12-04

    ... National Institute of Corrections Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement--The Prison Rape Elimination Act... 12-month period to begin in February 2010. Section 5 of the Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA... responsible for the prevention, investigation, and punishment of instances of prison rape.'' NIC's...

  4. 71 FR 62488 - Hearing of the Review Panel on Prison Rape

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2006-10-25

    ... of Justice Programs Hearing of the Review Panel on Prison Rape AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs... hearing of the Review Panel on Prison Rape (Panel), which will be held in Represa, California, on November... identify common characteristics, not only of victims and perpetrators of prison rape, but also of...

  5. 73 FR 54856 - Hearing of the Review Panel on Prison Rape

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2008-09-23

    ... of Justice Programs Hearing of the Review Panel on Prison Rape AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs... Panel on Prison Rape (Panel), will hold hearings in Springfield, Massachusetts, on September 24, 2008... common characteristics of victims and perpetrators of prison rape, and prison and prison systems with...

  6. 73 FR 48394 - Hearing of the Review Panel on Prison Rape

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2008-08-19

    ... of Justice Programs Hearing of the Review Panel on Prison Rape AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs... Review Panel on Prison Rape (Panel), will hold hearings in Orlando, Florida on August 27, 2008... characteristics of victims and perpetrators of prison rape, and prison and prison systems with the highest...

  7. 70 FR 13033 - Building Comprehensive Prevention Program Planning and Evaluation Capacity for Rape Prevention...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2005-03-17

    ... Planning and Evaluation Capacity for Rape Prevention and Education Funded Programs Announcement Type: New... evaluation capacity among selected Rape Prevention and Education (RPE) funded sexual violence prevention... program planning and evaluation will be focused on the national Rape Prevention and Education...

  8. An acute post-rape intervention to prevent substance use and abuse.

    PubMed

    Acierno, Ron; Resnick, Heidi S; Flood, Amanda; Holmes, Melisa

    2003-12-01

    The trauma of rape is routinely associated with extreme acute distress. Such peri-event anxiety increases risk of developing psychopathology and substance use or abuse post-rape, with the degree of initial distress positively predicting future problems. Unfortunately, the nature of post-rape forensic evidence collection procedures may exacerbate initial distress, thereby potentiating post-rape negative emotional sequelae. Consequently, substance use may increase in an effort to ameliorate this distress. To address this, a two-part video intervention was developed for use in acute post-rape time frames to (a) minimize anxiety during forensic rape examinations, thereby reducing risk of future emotional problems, and (b) prevent increased post-rape substance use and abuse. Pilot study data with 124 rape victims indicated that the low-cost, easily administered intervention was effective in reducing risk of marijuana abuse at 6 weeks. Nonstatistically significant trends also were evident for reduced marijuana use. Trends were also noted in favor of the intervention in the subgroup of women who were actively using substances pre-rape (among pre-rape alcohol users, 28% viewers vs. 43% nonviewers met criteria for post-rape alcohol abuse; among pre-rape marijuana users, the rates of post-marijuana use were 17% vs. 43%). PMID:14656554

  9. Peer Educators and Close Friends as Predictors of Male College Students' Willingness to Prevent Rape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Jerrold L.

    2007-01-01

    Astin's (1977, 1991, 1993) input-environment-outcome (I-E-O) model provided a conceptual framework for this study which measured 156 male college students' willingness to prevent rape (outcome variable). Predictor variables included personal attitudes (input variable), perceptions of close friends' attitudes toward rape and rape prevention…

  10. Rape Perception and the Function of Ambivalent Sexism and Gender-Role Traditionality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamawaki, Niwako

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the roles of benevolent sexism (BS), hostile sexism (HS), and gender-role traditionality (GRT) in minimizing rape, blaming the victim, and excusing the rapist. As predicted, hostile sexists minimize the seriousness of the rape in both stranger and date-rape scenarios. In the victim-blame scale, both BS and GRT significantly…

  11. From Survivor to Thriver: A Pilot Study of an Online Program for Rape Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littleton, Heather; Buck, Katherine; Rosman, Lindsey; Grills-Taquechel, Amie

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 15% to 20% of women have been victims of rape and close to a third report current rape-related PTSD or clinically significant depression or anxiety. Unfortunately, very few distressed rape victims seek formal help. This suggests a need to develop alternative ways to assist the many distressed victims of sexual violence. Online…

  12. Understanding Rape Survivors' Decisions Not to Seek Help from Formal Social Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Debra; Greeson, Megan; Campbell, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Few rape survivors seek help from formal social systems after their assault. The purpose of this study was to examine factors that prevent survivors from seeking help from the legal, medical, and mental health systems and rape crisis centers. In this study, 29 female rape survivors who did not seek any postassault formal help were interviewed…

  13. 75 FR 11077 - National Standards To Prevent, Detect, and Respond to Prison Rape

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... Part 115 RIN 1105-AB34 National Standards To Prevent, Detect, and Respond to Prison Rape AGENCY... abuse in confinement settings that were prepared by the National Prison Rape Elimination Commission (Commission) pursuant to the Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003 (PREA) and recommended by the Commission...

  14. Understanding Rape and Sexual Assault: 20 Years of Progress and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rebecca; Wasco, Sharon M.

    2005-01-01

    During the past 20 years, researchers have documented the widespread problem of rape in American society. Approximately one in four women are raped in their adult lifetime, which causes severe psychological distress and long-term physical health problems. The impact of sexual assault extends far beyond rape survivors as their family, friends, and…

  15. A Socioecological Model of Rape Survivors' Decisions to Aid in Case Prosecution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anders, Mary C.; Christopher, F. Scott

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to identify factors underlying rape survivors' post-assault prosecution decisions by testing a decision model that included the complex relations between the multiple social ecological systems within which rape survivors are embedded. We coded 440 police rape cases for characteristics of the assault and characteristics…

  16. 75 FR 27000 - Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... of Justice Programs Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs... Review Panel on Prison Rape (Panel) will hold hearings in Washington, DC on June 3-4, 2010. The hearing... incidence of rape, respectively, based on an anonymous survey by the BJS of youth in a representative...

  17. Current Perceptions of Marital Rape: Some Good and Not-So-Good News

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferro, Christine; Cermele, Jill; Saltzman, Ann

    2008-01-01

    The current study extends previous research on marital rape and acceptance of general rape myths by comparing the perceptions of undergraduate college students (n = 85) to those of college alumni/ae (n = 44) who graduated from the same university three decades earlier. Participants read a hypothetical rape scenario that depicted the perpetrator as…

  18. Perceptions of Rape and Attitudes toward Women in a Sample of Lebanese Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebeiz, Maria J.; Harb, Charles

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated values, ambivalent sexism, religiosity, religious differences, gender, and attitudes toward rape victims as predictors of rape myths in a sample of Lebanese students (N = 300). Values of self-transcendence and conservation, gender, hostile sexism, and attitudes toward rape victims emerged as significant predictors of rape…

  19. The Impact of Past Sexual Experiences on Attributions of Responsibility for Rape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Gillian E.; Riger, Stephanie; Foley, Linda A.

    2004-01-01

    Two factors potentially affect observers' attributions of responsibility to a rape survivor: how closely they identify with the survivor and how much they adhere to rape myths. To assess the impact of these factors, 157 female college students categorized by their sexual assault history and by their acceptance of rape myths, evaluated a sexual…

  20. 76 FR 20711 - Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... Office of Justice Programs Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs... Review Panel on Prison Rape (Panel) will hold hearings in Washington, DC on April 26-27, 2011. The... rape, respectively, based on an anonymous survey by the BJS of inmates in a representative sample of...

  1. Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners' Perceptions of Their Relationship with Doctors, Rape Victim Advocates, Police, and Prosecutors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Shana L.

    2012-01-01

    In response to the negative and inefficient treatment of rape victims by emergency room personnel, the first Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs began in the late 1970s. While SANEs, doctors, rape victim advocates, police officers and prosecutors work together to ensure the most comprehensive and sensitive care of rape victims, they all…

  2. 78 FR 77495 - Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... of Justice Programs Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs... Review Panel on Prison Rape (Panel) will hold hearings in Washington, DC, on January 8-9, 2014. The..., and juvenile facilities with the highest and lowest incidence of rape, respectively, based...

  3. [Rape drugs: pharmalogical and analytical aspects].

    PubMed

    Gaulier, J-M; Fonteau, F; Jouanel, E; Lachâtre, G

    2004-01-01

    Rape drugs or compounds used for chemical submission are current hot topics of numerous media based on a few well-documented identified cases. In the aim of considering the compounds potentially involved and subsequently the samples to collect and the toxicological analyses to perform, and according to the aggressor's viewpoint (victim submission and impunity of himself or herself), the characteristics of such compounds were drawn following the drug pharmacological properties. The compounds or therapeutic classes potentially used are numerous and diverse because the expected effects can be obtained by many neuropharmacological mechanisms or combinations of mechanisms. However, a few drugs (i.e. several benzodiazepines, and gamma-hydroxybutyrate) seem to be the ideal candidates owing to advantageous pharmacological properties (low blood concentrations, short elimination half-life) and practical ones (availability, galenic forms). It appears that the quality and precocity of biological specimen collection, the use of specific and sensitive analytical techniques, and the collaboration between the clinician and the toxicologist, are the essential keys for successful toxicological investigations when a case of chemical submission is suspected. PMID:15355803

  4. Crop Rotation in Row Crop Production Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop rotation is a system of growing different kinds of crops in recurrent succession on the same land. Thus, in the strictest sense, crop rotation is more than just changing crops from year to year based on current economic situations. Rather, it is a long-term plan for soil and farm management. Cr...

  5. Distance from forest edge affects bee pollinators in oilseed rape fields.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Samantha; Requier, Fabrice; Nusillard, Benoît; Roberts, Stuart P M; Potts, Simon G; Bouget, Christophe

    2014-02-01

    Wild pollinators have been shown to enhance the pollination of Brassica napus (oilseed rape) and thus increase its market value. Several studies have previously shown that pollination services are greater in crops adjoining forest patches or other seminatural habitats than in crops completely surrounded by other crops. In this study, we investigated the specific importance of forest edges in providing potential pollinators in B. napus fields in two areas in France. Bees were caught with yellow pan traps at increasing distances from both warm and cold forest edges into B. napus fields during the blooming period. A total of 4594 individual bees, representing six families and 83 taxa, were collected. We found that both bee abundance and taxa richness were negatively affected by the distance from forest edge. However, responses varied between bee groups and edge orientations. The ITD (Inter-Tegular distance) of the species, a good proxy for bee foraging range, seems to limit how far the bees can travel from the forest edge. We found a greater abundance of cuckoo bees (Nomada spp.) of Andrena spp. and Andrena spp. males at forest edges, which we assume indicate suitable nesting sites, or at least mating sites, for some abundant Andrena species and their parasites (Fig. 1). Synthesis and Applications. This study provides one of the first examples in temperate ecosystems of how forest edges may actually act as a reservoir of potential pollinators and directly benefit agricultural crops by providing nesting or mating sites for important early spring pollinators. Policy-makers and land managers should take forest edges into account and encourage their protection in the agricultural matrix to promote wild bees and their pollination services. PMID:24634722

  6. Distance from forest edge affects bee pollinators in oilseed rape fields

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Samantha; Requier, Fabrice; Nusillard, Benoît; Roberts, Stuart P M; Potts, Simon G; Bouget, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Wild pollinators have been shown to enhance the pollination of Brassica napus (oilseed rape) and thus increase its market value. Several studies have previously shown that pollination services are greater in crops adjoining forest patches or other seminatural habitats than in crops completely surrounded by other crops. In this study, we investigated the specific importance of forest edges in providing potential pollinators in B. napus fields in two areas in France. Bees were caught with yellow pan traps at increasing distances from both warm and cold forest edges into B. napus fields during the blooming period. A total of 4594 individual bees, representing six families and 83 taxa, were collected. We found that both bee abundance and taxa richness were negatively affected by the distance from forest edge. However, responses varied between bee groups and edge orientations. The ITD (Inter-Tegular distance) of the species, a good proxy for bee foraging range, seems to limit how far the bees can travel from the forest edge. We found a greater abundance of cuckoo bees (Nomada spp.) of Andrena spp. and Andrena spp. males at forest edges, which we assume indicate suitable nesting sites, or at least mating sites, for some abundant Andrena species and their parasites (Fig. 1). Synthesis and Applications. This study provides one of the first examples in temperate ecosystems of how forest edges may actually act as a reservoir of potential pollinators and directly benefit agricultural crops by providing nesting or mating sites for important early spring pollinators. Policy-makers and land managers should take forest edges into account and encourage their protection in the agricultural matrix to promote wild bees and their pollination services. PMID:24634722

  7. Predictors of rape: findings from the National Survey of Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Elwood, Lisa S; Smith, Daniel W; Resnick, Heidi S; Gudmundsdottir, Berglind; Amstadter, Ananda B; Hanson, Rochelle F; Saunders, Benjamin E; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2011-04-01

    The current report examines data for 872 female adolescents obtained during the initial and follow-up interviews of the National Survey of Adolescents, a nationally representative sample. Lifetime prevalence of violence exposure reported was 12% and 13% for sexual assault, 19% and 10% for physical assault/punishment, and 33% and 26% for witnessing violence at Waves I and II, respectively. Racial/ethnic status, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and family drug problems emerged as significant predictors of new rape. Each of the PTSD symptom clusters significantly predicted new rape and analyses supported the mediational role of PTSD between CSA and new rape. African American or other racial identity was associated with lower risk. PMID:21425193

  8. Fear of rape among college women: a social psychological analysis.

    PubMed

    Pryor, Douglas W; Hughes, Marion R

    2013-01-01

    This article examines social psychological underpinnings of fear of rape among college women. We analyze data from a survey of 1,905 female undergraduates to test the influence of 5 subjective perceptions about vulnerability and harm: unique invulnerability, gender risk, defensibility, anticipatory shame, and attribution of injury. We include 3 sources of crime exposure in our models: past sexual victimization, past noncontact violent victimization, and structural risk measured by age, parent's income, and race. Separate measures of fear of stranger and acquaintance rape are modeled, including variables tapping current versus anticipatory fear, fear on campus versus everywhere, and fear anytime versus at night. The data show that fear of rape among college women appears more grounded in constructed perceptions of harm and danger than in past violent experiences. PMID:23862309

  9. Criminal sittings – rape in the colony, New Zealand, 1862.

    PubMed

    Erai, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    In 1862 His Honor, Justice Johnston, issued his instructions to the jury of the New Zealand Supreme Court for two simultaneous rape trials – the alleged rape of a European woman by two Māori men, and an alleged “assault with intent to commit a rape” of a Māori woman by a European man. This article argues that those instructions should be read within an historiographical critique of British colonial expansion, print capitalism and violence. Drawing on feminist postcolonial theorizing the question posed here, is, “What is the historical, ideological context for a newspaper reporting of the possible rape of a Māori woman in 1862? PMID:22059253

  10. Unacknowledged Rape: The Influences of Child Sexual Abuse and Personality Traits.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Laura C; Scarpa, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Evidence supports that the majority of young women who experience sexual victimization that meets the legal definition of rape do not label their experiences as rape--this has been termed unacknowledged rape. In a sample of 77 young adult women, the odds of unacknowledged rape significantly increased as a function of less severe child sexual abuse histories and greater levels of dysfunctional personality traits. Potential explanations for these findings as well as clinical implications are discussed. Because of the potential psychological and societal consequences of unacknowledged rape, it is vital that researchers continue to examine this phenomenon. PMID:26701285

  11. Rape and the Straw Man: A Response to Lindsay Kelland.

    PubMed

    Benatar, David

    2015-11-01

    Lindsay Kelland has taken issue with a claim I made in a book titled The Second Sexism: Discrimination Against Men and Boys. In response to this claim, she has argued that when a woman is raped, it matters that her rapist is a male because "her situation as a woman under patriarchy is partly constitutive of the harm that she suffers" in being raped. In my response to her article, I show that she has taken my claim out of context and thereby misrepresented it. As a result, her article fails to respond to anything I said. PMID:25526728

  12. HIV prophylaxis is deemed pertinent evidence in rape trial.

    PubMed

    2000-01-21

    A Georgia trial judge acted properly in admitting into evidence the fact that a rape victim took an antiretroviral drug for six months following her attack. The victim, identified as J. A., was raped by an HIV-positive defendant, identified as [name removed] was found guilty of battery and aggravated sodomy, and similar charges related to another victim, both of whom he also threatened with a shotgun. The Georgia Court of Appeals held that disclosing J. A.'s prophylactic treatment with AZT demonstrated that she would not have had consensual unprotected sex if she knew [name removed] was HIV-positive. PMID:11367214

  13. Evidence for pollinator cost and farming benefits of neonicotinoid seed coatings on oilseed rape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budge, G. E.; Garthwaite, D.; Crowe, A.; Boatman, N. D.; Delaplane, K. S.; Brown, M. A.; Thygesen, H. H.; Pietravalle, S.

    2015-08-01

    Chronic exposure to neonicotinoid insecticides has been linked to reduced survival of pollinating insects at both the individual and colony level, but so far only experimentally. Analyses of large-scale datasets to investigate the real-world links between the use of neonicotinoids and pollinator mortality are lacking. Moreover, the impacts of neonicotinoid seed coatings in reducing subsequent applications of foliar insecticide sprays and increasing crop yield are not known, despite the supposed benefits of this practice driving widespread use. Here, we combine large-scale pesticide usage and yield observations from oilseed rape with those detailing honey bee colony losses over an 11 year period, and reveal a correlation between honey bee colony losses and national-scale imidacloprid (a neonicotinoid) usage patterns across England and Wales. We also provide the first evidence that farmers who use neonicotinoid seed coatings reduce the number of subsequent applications of foliar insecticide sprays and may derive an economic return. Our results inform the societal discussion on the pollinator costs and farming benefits of prophylactic neonicotinoid usage on a mass flowering crop.

  14. Evidence for pollinator cost and farming benefits of neonicotinoid seed coatings on oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Budge, G E; Garthwaite, D; Crowe, A; Boatman, N D; Delaplane, K S; Brown, M A; Thygesen, H H; Pietravalle, S

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exposure to neonicotinoid insecticides has been linked to reduced survival of pollinating insects at both the individual and colony level, but so far only experimentally. Analyses of large-scale datasets to investigate the real-world links between the use of neonicotinoids and pollinator mortality are lacking. Moreover, the impacts of neonicotinoid seed coatings in reducing subsequent applications of foliar insecticide sprays and increasing crop yield are not known, despite the supposed benefits of this practice driving widespread use. Here, we combine large-scale pesticide usage and yield observations from oilseed rape with those detailing honey bee colony losses over an 11 year period, and reveal a correlation between honey bee colony losses and national-scale imidacloprid (a neonicotinoid) usage patterns across England and Wales. We also provide the first evidence that farmers who use neonicotinoid seed coatings reduce the number of subsequent applications of foliar insecticide sprays and may derive an economic return. Our results inform the societal discussion on the pollinator costs and farming benefits of prophylactic neonicotinoid usage on a mass flowering crop. PMID:26270806

  15. Evidence for pollinator cost and farming benefits of neonicotinoid seed coatings on oilseed rape

    PubMed Central

    Budge, G. E.; Garthwaite, D.; Crowe, A.; Boatman, N. D.; Delaplane, K. S.; Brown, M. A.; Thygesen, H. H.; Pietravalle, S.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exposure to neonicotinoid insecticides has been linked to reduced survival of pollinating insects at both the individual and colony level, but so far only experimentally. Analyses of large-scale datasets to investigate the real-world links between the use of neonicotinoids and pollinator mortality are lacking. Moreover, the impacts of neonicotinoid seed coatings in reducing subsequent applications of foliar insecticide sprays and increasing crop yield are not known, despite the supposed benefits of this practice driving widespread use. Here, we combine large-scale pesticide usage and yield observations from oilseed rape with those detailing honey bee colony losses over an 11 year period, and reveal a correlation between honey bee colony losses and national-scale imidacloprid (a neonicotinoid) usage patterns across England and Wales. We also provide the first evidence that farmers who use neonicotinoid seed coatings reduce the number of subsequent applications of foliar insecticide sprays and may derive an economic return. Our results inform the societal discussion on the pollinator costs and farming benefits of prophylactic neonicotinoid usage on a mass flowering crop. PMID:26270806

  16. Transgenic crops get a test in the wild

    SciTech Connect

    Cherfas, J.

    1991-02-22

    A novel British research program called PROSAMO - Planned Release of Selected and Modified Organisms - has just produced its first batch of results on the ecological behavior of a genetically manipulated variety of oil seed rape (known to Americans as canola). As expected, the preliminary data indicate that these plants do not outgrow their competitors in the wild, nor is there any evidence that they pass on their foreign genes to other species. PROSAMO is moving on to test other crops with other foreign genes. If these results are as reassuring, scientists around the world will have solid evidence with which to soothe fears.

  17. Correlates of Self-Report of Rape Among Male School Adolescents in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogunfowokan, Adesola A; Olagunju, Oluwayemisi E; Olajubu, Aanuoluwapo O; Faremi, Funmilola A; Oloyede, Ajoke S; Sharps, Phyllis W

    2016-02-01

    This study examined male adolescents' self-report of rape of adolescent girls and the socio-demographic variables that correlated with self-report of rape. Descriptive-correlational design was used and the study was conducted in five public senior secondary schools in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Three hundred and thirty-eight male adolescents participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Findings from the study revealed the mean age of the adolescent males to be 16 years, with the majority (73%) of them in the middle adolescent stage. Six percent of the adolescent males reported they had raped an adolescent girl in the past. Among the boys who reported rape, 55% reported they had raped their sexual partners, and 55% reported they had perpetrated gang rape. Smoking (p = .0001), alcohol consumption (p = .001), and birth order (p = .006) predicted self-report of rape. The coefficient of birth order showed that odds of self-report of rape by first-born male increases by 6 times compared with other children. Study findings also provided evidence that adolescent males are moving from lone rape to gang rape in intimate partner relationships. Male adolescents are important group to target in rape prevention programs. PMID:25381280

  18. Incapacitated and Forcible Rape of College Women: Prevalence Across the First Year

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Kate B.; Durney, Sarah; Shepardson, Robyn L.; Carey, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To document the point and cumulative prevalence of incapacitated and forcible rape among first-year college women. Methods Female students (N = 483) completed a health questionnaire: (a) upon arrival on campus, (b) at the end of the fall semester, (c) at the end of the spring semester, and (d) at the end of the summer following their first year of college. Results Before entering college, 18% reported incapacitated rape (attempted and/or completed), and 15% reported forcible rape (attempted and/or completed). During the first year of college, 15% reported incapacitated rape (attempted or completed) and 9% reported forcible rape (attempted or completed). By the start of the second year (lifetime prevalence), 26% and 22% had experienced incapacitated and forcible rape (attempted or completed), respectively. Conclusions Both incapacitated and forcible sexual assaults and rape have reached epidemic levels among college women. Interventions to address sexual violence on campus are urgently needed. PMID:26003585

  19. Creating an alternative framework for preventing rape: applying Haddon's injury prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Mantak, F J

    1995-01-01

    As rape becomes recognized as a public health issue, new paradigms must be constructed to discover viable solutions to this highly prevalent problem. Although the injury prevention field has begun to examine rape and offer solutions, physical injuries surrounding rape tend to become the focus in injury prevention literature, thereby minimizing the trauma of rape itself. This article applies William Haddon's ten general strategies for injury prevention to rape, in order to shift our focus away from women and their behavior onto the systemic causes of rape. These strategies have the advantage of encompassing a wide variety of injury reduction measures from many hazards and have provided the means to conceptualize solutions to an extensive range of issues. The application of these strategies emphasizes sociocultural factors and perpetrator, not victim, responsibility. Through this process, a broader range of normative and structural changes can be identified to promote rape prevention. PMID:7738157

  20. Labeling Sexual Victimization Experiences: The Role of Sexism, Rape Myth Acceptance, and Tolerance for Sexual Harassment.

    PubMed

    LeMaire, Kelly L; Oswald, Debra L; Russell, Brenda L

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether attitudinal variables, such as benevolent and hostile sexism toward men and women, female rape myth acceptance, and tolerance of sexual harassment are related to women labeling their sexual assault experiences as rape. In a sample of 276 female college students, 71 (25.7%) reported at least one experience that met the operational definition of rape, although only 46.5% of those women labeled the experience "rape." Benevolent sexism, tolerance of sexual harassment, and rape myth acceptance, but not hostile sexism, significantly predicted labeling of previous sexual assault experiences by the victims. Specifically, those with more benevolent sexist attitudes toward both men and women, greater rape myth acceptance, and more tolerant attitudes of sexual harassment were less likely to label their past sexual assault experience as rape. The results are discussed for their clinical and theoretical implications. PMID:26832168

  1. There are no "innocent victims": the influence of just world beliefs and prior victimization on rape myth acceptance.

    PubMed

    Vonderhaar, Rebecca L; Carmody, Dianne Cyr

    2015-06-01

    Utilizing data from an online survey of 979 university students, this study explores the relationship between prior sexual assault victimization experiences, belief in a just world, and acceptance of rape myths. Results indicated that men, younger respondents, and those with less education were more likely to support rape myths. Support for just world beliefs and rape myths were also positively associated, while rape victims exhibited less support for rape myths than non-victims. Implications for future studies are discussed. PMID:25236676

  2. Pornography, Sexual Callousness, and the Trivialization of Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zillmann, Dolf; Bryant, Jennings

    1982-01-01

    Explored the consequences of continued exposure to pornography on beliefs about sexuality in general and on dispositions toward women in particular. Found that massive exposure to pornography resulted in a loss of compassion toward women as rape victims and toward women in general. (PD)

  3. Public Opinion and Public Policy: The Case of Rape Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riger, Stephanie; Gordon, Margaret

    Beliefs about the effectiveness of rape prevention strategies influence public cooperation in their implementation. To acquaint public policy makers with these beliefs and to help them assess their impact, a three-city telephone survey of adults was conducted using a random sampling of ages, races, male and female, married and unmarried, from all…

  4. Perception of Rape Victims: The Impact of Evidentiary Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgida, Eugene; And Others

    A simulated jury deliberation with experienced and inexperienced jurors sampled from the jury population of Hennepin County, Minnesota, was investigated. The purpose was to assess the impact of recent reforms in evidentiary rules pertaining to the admissibility of prior sexual history evidence in rape trials. Specific questions included: (1)…

  5. Uses of Erotica and Acceptance of Rape Myths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perse, Elizabeth M.

    1994-01-01

    Explores two models of the effects of sexually explicit materials on college students. Considers the connection between reasons for using sexually explicit materials and beliefs in gender-role stereotypes and acceptance of date-rape myths. Identifies four motives for college students using erotica and connects these reasons to stereotypes. (HB)

  6. Detecting ketamine in beverage residues: Application in date rape detection.

    PubMed

    Albright, Jessica A; Stevens, Sarah A; Beussman, Douglas J

    2012-05-01

    Ketamine can be used to facilitate date-rape when unknowingly spiked into a victim's beverage. If a biological sample is not available from the victim, the beverage container might be the only remaining source of forensic evidence. We present a rapid, simple analysis method for the detection of ketamine in wet or dry beverage residues based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Wet residues consist of the final few drops (<1 ml) in a container while dry residues are the remains once all liquid has evaporated. By using LC-MS, which readily handles aqueous samples, often no derivatization or sample extraction is needed, thus reducing analysis time and lab technician involvement. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) provides an enhancement in both selectivity and sensitivity. We have studied a range of beverages and determined limits of detection between 1.2 × 10-3 and 1.3 × 10-4 mg/ml, compared to 0.21-0.85 mg/ml used in most date-rape scenarios. This paper represents the first published report of using LC-MS/MS for the analysis of beverage residues for the presence of a date-rape drug. This method could replace the current gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methods and provide a faster, more selective method for the analysis of date-rape drugs, requiring virtually no sample preparation. PMID:22114065

  7. Rape Myth Acceptance among Scottish and American Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Grant; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents the results of a study that surveyed a number of U.S. and Scottish undergraduates on the relative acceptance of myths involving sexual assaults. Results suggest that a lower incidence of sexual assaults corresponds to a diminished belief in myths involving rape. Includes statistical analysis of variance. (MJP)

  8. Rape Myth Acceptance in College Students: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iconis, Rosemary

    2008-01-01

    Sexual violence is a common phenomenon in the United States. College women appear to be at an even higher risk than those in the general population. Though there is much we still do not know about the causes of sexual violence, the acceptance of rape myths has been associated with the perpetration of sexual assaults.

  9. Why Rape Survivors Participate in the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Debra; Campbell, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    After a rape, survivors may seek help from multiple community organizations including the criminal justice system (CJS). Research has found that few survivors report their assaults to the police and of those who do report, many withdraw their participation during the investigation. However, relatively little is known about the factors that lead…

  10. Causal Attributions and Recovery from Rape: Implications for Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Patricia A.; Schauben, Laura J.

    One factor related to postrape trauma is the survivor's belief about the cause of the rape. Most research to date on the relation between causal attributions and postrape recovery has been guided by a theoretical model which proposes that certain types of self-blame can be adaptive for survivors. Specifically, behavioral self-blame is thought to…

  11. [Medicolegal considerations about rape as a reason to decriminalize abortion].

    PubMed

    González-Wilhelm, Leonardo; Moreno, Leonardo; Carnevali, Raúl

    2016-06-01

    The Chilean senate is discussing a proposal to decriminalize abortion in 3 causals. One of these is when the pregnancy occurs as a result of a rape. To be legally able to perform the abortion in this circumstance, a health care team must confirm the occurrence of the facts constituting the offence. Regardless of the patient’s will, the accusation will be reported to the justice. In our view, in its current status the proposed rule does not consider certain medicolegal and procedural topics. Those flaws may determine in certain scenarios critical problems, such as: a) a wrongful conviction as a consequence of a false allegation of rape; (b) some pregnant due to a rape will not have access to the abortion procedure; (c) some accusations of rape will not be accredited nor criminally sanctioned. Employing a fictional case, we illustrate how those scenarios can actually be seen in practice. We also emphasize the difficulties and limitations that the health care team will encounter if the project is approved under the current conditions. Finally, we encourage the professional societies implicated in the theme to contribute in the legislatorial debate. Therefore, we give a set of proposals aimed to improve the bill before it may be enacted as a law. PMID:27598498

  12. Date Rape: Hidden Epidemic Makes Campuses Unsafe for Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Eileen M.

    1989-01-01

    Date and acquaintance rape may be more prevalent on college campuses than in other environments, and colleges are struggling to confront the issue. Sexism and racism contribute to underreporting of and misconceptions about sexual abuse in college settings. Policies, programs, and procedures for combating sexual assaults on campus are recommended.…

  13. Sexual Coercion on Dates: It's Not Just Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldner-Haugrud, Lisa

    1995-01-01

    Contends that sexual coercion while dating falls under the umbrella of school-related violence. Discusses acquaintance and date rape, a sexual coercion continuum, and coercion victims. Concludes with a discussion of six techniques to reduce risk of sexual coercion. (CFR)

  14. Responding to the rape of Indonesian Chinese women and girls.

    PubMed

    1998-09-01

    In May 1998, 168 women and girls were gang-raped during the Jakarta riots. In response, the Humanity Volunteer Team, a nongovernmental organization, set up a Violence Against Women Division. This group is composed of 400 people from diverse backgrounds and ethnic groups who undergo training and then volunteer their services to provide psychological and physical support to the affected victims and their families and to investigate the crimes. The volunteers have adopted a holistic approach and work with the cooperation of private hospitals. They accomplish their work in a climate of fear because it is considered subversive simply to bring this issue to light. Rape survivors and their families, as well as medical staff and volunteers, have been intimidated to the point that many rape survivors have traveled abroad to seek treatment. Long-term prevention strategies should include 1) a state apology to rape survivors and their communities, 2) an independent investigation to expose the perpetrators, and 3) the protection of the civil rights of the minority Chinese in Indonesia. PMID:12294313

  15. Rape and Older Women: A Guide to Prevention and Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Linda J.; Brody, Elaine M.

    Due to rising violent crime rates, crime and fear of victimization have joined health, income and housing as major concerns of older Americans. This guide proposes solutions which reflect the best available information. The three main sections focus on rape of women over 50, its prevention, and education programs and training aids. The guidelines…

  16. Perceptions Matter: Case Studies of Policing Statutory Rape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandakai, Tina L.; Ding, Kele; Broomfield, Tyree S.; Iverson, Susan V.

    2013-01-01

    The legal parameters regarding adult-child sexual intimacy varies across states. In many states, rules regarding the definition of "child" and age-of-consent laws seem to perpetuate lax and ambivalent responses to adult- child sex. To explore the criminal response to adult-child sex, particularly statutory rape, seven active male and…

  17. Simulating Stochastic Crop Management in Cropping Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction -- Crop simulation models are uniquely suitable for examining long term crop responses to environmental variability due to changes in climate or other factors. Long-term studies typically emphasize variability related to weather conditions; certain weather-dependent cropping practices m...

  18. Consequences of gene flow between oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and its relatives.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongbo; Wei, Wei; Ma, Keping; Li, Junsheng; Liang, Yuyong; Darmency, Henri

    2013-10-01

    Numerous studies have focused on the probability of occurrence of gene flow between transgenic crops and their wild relatives and the likelihood of transgene escape, which should be assessed before the commercial release of transgenic crops. This review paper focuses on this issue for oilseed rape, Brassica napus L., a species that produces huge numbers of pollen grains and seeds. We analyze separately the distinct steps of gene flow: (1) pollen and seeds as vectors of gene flow; (2) spontaneous hybridization; (3) hybrid behavior, fitness cost due to hybridization and mechanisms of introgression; (4) and fitness benefit due to transgenes (e.g. herbicide resistance and Bt toxin). Some physical, biological and molecular means of transgene containment are also described. Although hybrids and first generation progeny are difficult to identify in fields and non-crop habitats, the literature shows that transgenes could readily introgress into Brassica rapa, Brassica juncea and Brassica oleracea, while introgression is expected to be rare with Brassica nigra, Hirschfeldia incana and Raphanus raphanistrum. The hybrids grow well but produce less seed than their wild parent. The difference declines with increasing generations. However, there is large uncertainty about the evolution of chromosome numbers and recombination, and many parameters of life history traits of hybrids and progeny are not determined with satisfactory confidence to build generic models capable to really cover the wide diversity of situations. We show that more studies are needed to strengthen and organize biological knowledge, which is a necessary prerequisite for model simulations to assess the practical and evolutionary outputs of introgression, and to provide guidelines for gene flow management. PMID:23987810

  19. Violence against women in war: rape, AIDS, sex slavery. International.

    PubMed

    At an international conference attended by 2000 delegates, violence against women in Rwanda, former Yugoslavia, and Kurdistan was discussed. Kalliope Migirou, of the United Nations Human Rights Field Operation in Rwanda, described the slaughter of between 500,000 and 1.5 million Tutsis and moderate Hutus in 1994; estimates of the number of rapes ranged from 15,700 (Rwandan government) to 250,000-500,000 (UN special representative). Women were gang-raped and sexually mutilated; fathers were forced to rape their daughters, and sons, their mothers. The transmission of HIV was used as a weapon to murder women and their communities. Women were taken to refugee camps as sex slaves and have written their families about their "new marriages" to Hutu militia men. No rape charge is found among the more than 4000 cases prepared for the Rwandan war crimes trial. 80,000 Rwandans are in prison on suspicion of participating in the genocide; 8% are women. Violete Krasnic, of the Autonomous Women's Center Against Sexual Violence in Belgrade, spoke about the war in former Yugoslavia, which increased all forms of violence against women: 1) domestic violence, particularly in inter-ethnic marriages; 2) death threats against women (up 30-50%); 3) rape (up 30%); and 4) threats with weapons (40%). Men, upon exposure to nationalistic propaganda, used violence against their wives. Nazaneen Rasheed, a London-based representative of the Women's Union of Kurdistan, stated that women in northern Iraq had no power or land. While some turned to prostitution to survive, hundreds were killed by male relatives because of shame to the family. PMID:12347566

  20. Rape against Brazilian Women: Characteristics of Victims and Sex Offenders

    PubMed Central

    SOUTO, Rafaella Q.; ARAÚJO, Francisco K. C. D.; XAVIER, Alidianne F. C.; CAVALCANTI, Alessandro L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Violence against women is a serious social problem and affects mainly young women. This study aimed to evaluate sexual violence against women in Campina Grande, Brazil. Methods: A retrospective study with analysis of 886 forensic medical reports of sexual violence from the Institute of Legal Medicine of Campina Grande, Brazil, was conducted between January 2005 and December 2009. Sociodemographic variables related to victims, offenders and aggressions were analyzed. Significance level of 5% was adopted. Results: Two hundred and ninety-one cases of rape (32.8%) were confirmed, the majority of victims aged between 0 and 19 years (89.9%), were single (98.8%) and had low educational level (86.9%), with association with marital status (P = 0.02). The sex offender was known to the victim in 84.2% of cases and in 93.8% of cases, he acted alone. There was an association between rape and the relationship with the offenders (P = 0.01) and the age of the offenders (P = 0.03). The rape occurred in most cases at the home of victims (49.3%), with the use of violence in 72.3% of cases, but only 5.7% of the victims exhibited physical injuries. There was an association between rape and variables date of occurrence (P = 0.001), previous virginity (P = 0.001) and violence during practice (P = 0.001). Conclusion: Over one third of women were victims of rape, predominantly adolescents, unmarried and with low educational level. The offenders were known to the victims, and acted alone in most situations, making use of physical violence. PMID:26811812

  1. Effect of Poly(γ-glutamic acid) on the Physiological Responses and Calcium Signaling of Rape Seedlings (Brassica napus L.) under Cold Stress.

    PubMed

    Lei, Peng; Xu, Zongqi; Ding, Yan; Tang, Bao; Zhang, Yunxia; Li, Huashan; Feng, Xiaohai; Xu, Hong

    2015-12-01

    Cold stress adversely affects plant growth and development. Poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) is a potential plant growth regulator that may be an effective cryoprotectant that prevents crops from damage during cold weather. In this study, the effects of γ-PGA on the physiological responses of rape seedlings subject to cold stress were investigated using hydroponic experiments. We determined that the malondialdehyde content was decreased by 33.4% and the proline content was increased by 62.5% by γ-PGA after 144 h under cold stress. Antioxidant enzymes activities were also evidently enhanced after treatment with γ-PGA. These responses counteracted increases in the fresh weight and chlorophyll content of rape seedlings, which increased by 24.5 and 50.9%, respectively, after 144 h, which meant that growth inhibition caused by cold was mitigated by γ-PGA. Our results also showed that γ-PGA also regulated Ca(2+) concentrations in the cytoplasm and calcium-dependent protein kinases, which are associated with cold resistance. In conclusion, we suggest that the Ca(2+)/CPKs signal pathway is involved in the γ-PGA-mediated enhancement of cold resistance in rape seedlings. PMID:26585291

  2. Antagonistic activity of bacteria isolated from crops cultivated in a rotation system and a monoculture against Pythium debaryanum and Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Gorlach-Lira, K; Stefaniak, O

    2009-09-01

    The effect of crop rotation and monocropping on the occurrence of bacteria with antagonistic activity toward Pythium debaryanum and Fusarium oxysporum was shown. Arthrobacter spp., fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. and actinomycetes were isolated from winter rape, sugar beet and winter barley rhizosphere and bulk soil from the plots of a long-term crop rotation experiment (18 years). The occurrence of mycoantagonistic isolates and their antibiosis level exhibited specificity for the site, crop and crop rotation. Mycoantagonistic activity was common among actinomycetes and fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. and less frequent among Arthrobacter spp. Antibiosis of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. and Arthrobacter spp. was in general stronger against P. debaryanum than F. oxysporum. The highest percentage of antagonistic Pseudomonas spp. against P. debaryanum was in the plots of barley crop, while plots of winter rape showed higher frequency of antagonists against F. oxysporum. The highest antibiosis activity of Arthrobacter spp. against both pathogens occurred in isolates from barley and winter rape monoculture, and there were no F. oxysporum antagonists among these bacteria in sugar beet monoculture. Most of actinomycete isolates strongly inhibited growth of P. debaryanum and F. oxysporum. The percentage of mycoantagonistic actinomycetes and their antibiosis level were the highest in the 6-year crop rotation system. PMID:19937218

  3. Characterization of senescence-associated protease activities involved in the efficient protein remobilization during leaf senescence of winter oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Poret, Marine; Chandrasekar, Balakumaran; van der Hoorn, Renier A L; Avice, Jean-Christophe

    2016-05-01

    Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is a crop plant characterized by a poor nitrogen (N) use efficiency that is mainly due to low N remobilization efficiency during the sequential leaf senescence of the vegetative stage. As a high leaf N remobilization efficiency was strongly linked to a high remobilization of proteins during leaf senescence of rapeseed, our objective was to identify senescence-associated protease activities implicated in the protein degradation. To reach this goal, leaf senescence processes and protease activities were investigated in a mature leaf becoming senescent in plants subjected to ample or low nitrate supply. The characterization of protease activities was performed by using in vitro analysis of RuBisCO degradation with or without inhibitors of specific protease classes followed by a protease activity profiling using activity-dependent probes. As expected, the mature leaf became senescent regardless of the nitrate treatment, and nitrate limitation enhanced the senescence processes associated with an enhanced degradation of soluble proteins. The characterization of protease activities revealed that: (i) aspartic proteases and the proteasome were active during senescence regardless of nitrate supply, and (ii) the activities of serine proteases and particularly cysteine proteases (Papain-like Cys proteases and vacuolar processing enzymes) increased when protein remobilization associated with senescence was accelerated by nitrate limitation. Short statement: Serine and particularly cysteine proteases (both PLCPs and VPEs) seem to play a crucial role in the efficient protein remobilization when leaf senescence of oilseed rape was accelerated by nitrate limitation. PMID:26993244

  4. Misogyny, Acculturation, and Ethnic Identity: Relation to Rape-Supportive Attitudes in Asian American College Men

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Kelly H.; Stephens, Kari A.; Lindgren, Kristen P.; George, William H.

    2013-01-01

    Asian Americans have been understudied with respect to sexuality and rape and its contributory factors. Some attitudinal research has shown that Asian American college males tend to hold more rape-supportive beliefs than their White counterparts. Generally, this research treats ethnicity as a proxy for culture rather than examining specific facets of culture per se. The current study incorporated measures of misogynistic beliefs, acculturation, and ethnic identity to investigate these ethnic differences in rape-supportive attitudes. White (n = 222) and Asian American (n = 155) college men read an acquaintance rape vignette and evaluated it on four judgments: how much they blamed the perpetrator and the victim, how credible they viewed the victim’s refusal, and to what degree they defined the event as rape. Consistent with previous research, Asian American men made more rape-supportive judgments than Whites. This relationship was partially mediated by misogynistic beliefs for all judgments except the extent to which they defined the vignette as rape. Among Asian Americans, acculturation was negatively associated with all four rape vignette judgments above and beyond generational status, and ethnic identity was positively associated with two of the four judgments above and beyond acculturation and generational status. These findings suggest that cultural constructs are relevant to understanding rape-supportive attitudes among Asian American men, and may be useful for promoting culturally enhanced theoretical models of rape and sexual assault prevention efforts, as well as a deeper understanding of cultural influences on sexuality. PMID:21290256

  5. Misogyny, acculturation, and ethnic identity: relation to rape-supportive attitudes in Asian American college men.

    PubMed

    Koo, Kelly H; Stephens, Kari A; Lindgren, Kristen P; George, William H

    2012-08-01

    Asian Americans have been understudied with respect to sexuality and rape and its contributory factors. Some attitudinal research has shown that Asian American college males tend to hold more rape-supportive beliefs than their White counterparts. Generally, this research treats ethnicity as a proxy for culture rather than examining specific facets of culture per se. The current study incorporated measures of misogynistic beliefs, acculturation, and ethnic identity to investigate these ethnic differences in rape-supportive attitudes. White (n = 222) and Asian American (n = 155) college men read an acquaintance rape vignette and evaluated it on four judgments: how much they blamed the perpetrator and the victim, how credible they viewed the victim's refusal, and to what degree they defined the event as rape. Consistent with previous research, Asian American men made more rape-supportive judgments than Whites. This relationship was partially mediated by misogynistic beliefs for all judgments except the extent to which they defined the vignette as rape. Among Asian Americans, acculturation was negatively associated with all four rape vignette judgments above and beyond generational status, and ethnic identity was positively associated with two of the four judgments above and beyond acculturation and generational status. These findings suggest that cultural constructs are relevant to understanding rape-supportive attitudes among Asian American men, and may be useful for promoting culturally enhanced theoretical models of rape and sexual assault prevention efforts, as well as a deeper understanding of cultural influences on sexuality. PMID:21290256

  6. Root-Derived Short-Chain Suberin Diacids from Rice and Rape Seed in a Paddy Soil under Rice Cultivar Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Haishi; Ding, Yuanjun; Liu, Xiaoyu; Li, Lianqing; Zhang, Dengxiao; Li, Zichuan; Sun, Jingling; Lashari, Muhammad Siddique; Joseph, Stephen; Meng, Yuanduo; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Pan, Genxing

    2015-01-01

    Suberin-derived substituted fatty acids have been shown to be potential biomarkers for plant-derived carbon (C) in soils across ecosystems. Analyzing root derived suberin compounds bound in soil could help to understand the root input into a soil organic carbon pool. In this study, bound lipids were extracted and identified in root and topsoil samples. Short-chain suberin diacids were quantified under rice (Oryza sativa L.) and rape (Brassica campestris) rotations with different cultivar combinations in a Chinese rice paddy. After removal of free lipids with sequential extraction, the residual bound lipids were obtained with saponification and derivatization before analysis using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Diacids C16 and C18 in bound lipids were detected both in rice and rape root samples, while diacids C20 and C22 were detected only in rape root samples. Accordingly, diacids were quantified in both rhizosphere and bulk soil (0–15 cm). The amount of total root-derived diacids in bulk soil varied in a range of 5.6–9.6 mg/kg across growth stages and crop seasons. After one year-round rice-rape rotation, root-derived suberin diacids were maintained at a level of 7–9 mg/kg in bulk soil; this was higher under a super rice cultivar LY than under a hybrid cultivar IIY. While concentrations of the analyzed diacids were generally higher in rhizosphere than in bulk soil, the total diacid (DA) concentration was higher at the time of rape harvest than at rice harvest, suggesting that rape roots made a major contribution to the preservation of diacids in the paddy. Moreover, the net change in the concentration and the ratios of C16:0 DA to C18:1 DA, and of C16:0 DA to C18:0 DA, over a whole growing season, were greater under LY than under IIY, though there was no difference between cultivars within a single growth stage. Overall, total concentration of root-derived suberin diacids was found to be positively correlated to soil organic carbon

  7. Root-Derived Short-Chain Suberin Diacids from Rice and Rape Seed in a Paddy Soil under Rice Cultivar Treatments.

    PubMed

    Ji, Haishi; Ding, Yuanjun; Liu, Xiaoyu; Li, Lianqing; Zhang, Dengxiao; Li, Zichuan; Sun, Jingling; Lashari, Muhammad Siddique; Joseph, Stephen; Meng, Yuanduo; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Pan, Genxing

    2015-01-01

    Suberin-derived substituted fatty acids have been shown to be potential biomarkers for plant-derived carbon (C) in soils across ecosystems. Analyzing root derived suberin compounds bound in soil could help to understand the root input into a soil organic carbon pool. In this study, bound lipids were extracted and identified in root and topsoil samples. Short-chain suberin diacids were quantified under rice (Oryza sativa L.) and rape (Brassica campestris) rotations with different cultivar combinations in a Chinese rice paddy. After removal of free lipids with sequential extraction, the residual bound lipids were obtained with saponification and derivatization before analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Diacids C16 and C18 in bound lipids were detected both in rice and rape root samples, while diacids C20 and C22 were detected only in rape root samples. Accordingly, diacids were quantified in both rhizosphere and bulk soil (0-15 cm). The amount of total root-derived diacids in bulk soil varied in a range of 5.6-9.6 mg/kg across growth stages and crop seasons. After one year-round rice-rape rotation, root-derived suberin diacids were maintained at a level of 7-9 mg/kg in bulk soil; this was higher under a super rice cultivar LY than under a hybrid cultivar IIY. While concentrations of the analyzed diacids were generally higher in rhizosphere than in bulk soil, the total diacid (DA) concentration was higher at the time of rape harvest than at rice harvest, suggesting that rape roots made a major contribution to the preservation of diacids in the paddy. Moreover, the net change in the concentration and the ratios of C16:0 DA to C18:1 DA, and of C16:0 DA to C18:0 DA, over a whole growing season, were greater under LY than under IIY, though there was no difference between cultivars within a single growth stage. Overall, total concentration of root-derived suberin diacids was found to be positively correlated to soil organic carbon concentration

  8. Effects of Break Crops on Yield and Grain Protein Concentration of Barley in a Boreal Climate

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Ling; Yli-Halla, Markku; Stoddard, Frederick L.; Mäkelä, Pirjo S. A.

    2015-01-01

    Rotation with dicotyledonous crops to break cereal monoculture has proven to be beneficial to successive cereals. In two fields where the soil had been subjected to prolonged, continuous cereal production, two 3-year rotation trials were established. In the first year, faba bean, turnip rape and barley were grown, as first crops, in large blocks and their residues tilled into the soil after harvest. In the following year, barley, buckwheat, caraway, faba bean, hemp and white lupin were sown, as second crops, in each block and incorporated either at flowering stage (except barley) or after harvest. In the third year, barley was grown in all plots and its yield and grain protein concentration were determined. Mineral N in the plough layer was determined two months after incorporation of crops and again before sowing barley in the following year. The effect of faba bean and turnip rape on improving barley yields and grain protein concentration was still detectable two years after they were grown. The yield response of barley was not sensitive to the growth stage of second crops when they were incorporated, but was to different second crops, showing clear benefits averaging 6-7% after white lupin, faba bean and hemp but no benefit from caraway or buckwheat. The effect of increased N in the plough layer derived from rotation crops on barley yields was minor. Incorporation of plants at flowering stage slightly increased third-year barley grain protein concentration but posed a great potential for N loss compared with incorporation of crop residues after harvest, showing the value of either delayed incorporation or using catch crops. PMID:26076452

  9. Effects of Break Crops on Yield and Grain Protein Concentration of Barley in a Boreal Climate.

    PubMed

    Zou, Ling; Yli-Halla, Markku; Stoddard, Frederick L; Mäkelä, Pirjo S A

    2015-01-01

    Rotation with dicotyledonous crops to break cereal monoculture has proven to be beneficial to successive cereals. In two fields where the soil had been subjected to prolonged, continuous cereal production, two 3-year rotation trials were established. In the first year, faba bean, turnip rape and barley were grown, as first crops, in large blocks and their residues tilled into the soil after harvest. In the following year, barley, buckwheat, caraway, faba bean, hemp and white lupin were sown, as second crops, in each block and incorporated either at flowering stage (except barley) or after harvest. In the third year, barley was grown in all plots and its yield and grain protein concentration were determined. Mineral N in the plough layer was determined two months after incorporation of crops and again before sowing barley in the following year. The effect of faba bean and turnip rape on improving barley yields and grain protein concentration was still detectable two years after they were grown. The yield response of barley was not sensitive to the growth stage of second crops when they were incorporated, but was to different second crops, showing clear benefits averaging 6-7% after white lupin, faba bean and hemp but no benefit from caraway or buckwheat. The effect of increased N in the plough layer derived from rotation crops on barley yields was minor. Incorporation of plants at flowering stage slightly increased third-year barley grain protein concentration but posed a great potential for N loss compared with incorporation of crop residues after harvest, showing the value of either delayed incorporation or using catch crops. PMID:26076452

  10. Secondary victimization of rape victims: insights from mental health professionals who treat survivors of violence.

    PubMed

    Campbell, R; Raja, S

    1999-01-01

    Rape victims may turn to the legal, medical, and mental health systems for assistance, but there is a growing body of literature indicating that many survivors are denied help by these agencies. What help victims do receive often leaves them feeling revictimized. These negative experiences have been termed "the second rape" or "secondary victimization." If indeed secondary victimization occurs, then these issues may be raised in rape survivors' mental health treatment. In the current study, probability sampling was used to survey a representative sample of licensed mental health professionals about the extent to which they believe rape victims are "re-raped" in their interactions with social system personnel. Most therapists believed that some community professionals engage in harmful behaviors that are detrimental to rape survivors' psychological well-being. Implications for future research on secondary victimization are discussed. PMID:10606433

  11. Rape myth acceptance in men who completed the prostitution offender program of British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Klein, Carolin; Kennedy, M Alexis; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2009-06-01

    In an effort to characterize the attitudes and characteristics of men who solicit sex, this study investigated rape myth acceptance as assessed by a modification of Burt's Rape Myth Acceptance Scale. The participants were all men who took part in the Prostitution Offender Program of British Columbia after being arrested for attempting to solicit sex from an undercover police officer. Relationships between endorsement of rape myths, other attitudes, sexual behavior, and demographic variables were examined. Results reveal that age, education, use of pornography, ideal frequency of intercourse, and believing that purchasing sex is a problem are all negatively correlated with rape myth acceptance. Positive correlations were found between rape myth acceptance and sexual conservatism, sexual violence/coercion, and social desirability. Results are discussed in terms of the association between rape myth acceptance and the violence frequently perpetrated against those working in the sex trade. PMID:18397991

  12. Rape Myth Scale: factor structure and relationship with gender egalitarianism among Japanese professionals.

    PubMed

    Uji, Masayo; Shono, Masahiro; Shikai, Noriko; Kitamura, Toshinori

    2007-08-01

    Services provided to rape victims by human service professionals are usually helpful but are occasionally very harmful in that the victim ends up feeling 're-victimized'. This may be caused by the attitudes of the professionals towards the victims based on beliefs regarding rape and gender roles. Japanese human service professionals were solicited for responses to the Rape Myth Scale (RMS) and the short form of the Scale of Egalitarian Sex Role Attitudes (SESRA-S). One interpretable factor was extracted according to an exploratory factor analysis. Impact of the participants' age, sex, residential area, and type of profession on rape myth acceptance were examined by four-way layout ANOVA. Nurses had significantly higher rape myth acceptance than any other professional group. Furthermore, a structural equation model showing the contribution of sex role egalitarian attitude to rape myth acceptance was established. PMID:17610664

  13. An empirical study of rape in the context of multiple murder.

    PubMed

    DeLisi, Matt

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, multiple homicide offending has received increased research attention from criminologists; however, there is mixed evidence about the role of rape toward the perpetration of multiple murder. Drawing on criminal career data from a nonprobability sample of 618 confined male homicide offenders selected from eight U.S. states, the current study examines the role of rape as a predictor of multiple homicide offending. Bivariate analyses indicated a significant association between rape and murder charges. Multivariate path regression models indicated that rape had a significant and robust association with multiple murder. This relationship withstood the confounding effects of kidnapping, prior prison confinement, and prior murder, rape, and kidnapping. These results provide evidence that rape potentially serves as a gateway to multiple murder for some serious offenders. Suggestions for future research are proffered. PMID:24745077

  14. The efficacy of a high school rape prevention program in Israel.

    PubMed

    Moor, Avigail

    2011-01-01

    Sexual violence against women and girls in Israel is rather prevalent. To address this problem, the Association of Rape Crisis Centers in Israel (ARCCI) provides rape prevention programs for middle to high school teens. These programs have been in place for several decades, but their effectiveness has not been evaluated empirically to date. This study seeks to fill this gap by performing an evaluation of one such preventive program. Three hundred and ninety-four 11th graders completed a preintervention and postintervention questionnaire, assessing their rape-related attitudes and behaviors. Results indicate a significant improvement following the workshop in the understanding of what distinguishes rape from mutually consensual relations, along with a substantial shift in many rape-supportive attitudes. At the same time, some victim blaming still remained. Likewise, self-reported behavioral changes were minimal, possibly because of a ceiling effect. Implications for future rape prevention programs in Israel are discussed. PMID:21846018

  15. Gender equality and women's absolute status: a test of the feminist models of rape.

    PubMed

    Martin, Kimberly; Vieraitis, Lynne M; Britto, Sarah

    2006-04-01

    Feminist theory predicts both a positive and negative relationship between gender equality and rape rates. Although liberal and radical feminist theory predicts that gender equality should ameliorate rape victimization, radical feminist theorists have argued that gender equality may increase rape in the form of male backlash. Alternatively, Marxist criminologists focus on women's absolute socioeconomic status rather than gender equality as a predictor of rape rates, whereas socialist feminists combine both radical and Marxist perspectives. This study uses factor analysis to overcome multicollinearity limitations of past studies while exploring the relationship between women's absolute and relative socioeconomic status on rape rates in major U.S. cities using 2000 census data. The findings indicate support for both the Marxist and radical feminist explanations of rape but no support for the ameliorative hypothesis. These findings support a more inclusive socialist feminist theory that takes both Marxist and radical feminist hypotheses into account. PMID:16567334

  16. Reading Playboy for the articles: the graying of rape myths in black and white text, 1953 to 2003.

    PubMed

    Kettrey, Heather Hensman

    2013-08-01

    This longitudinal investigation analyzes the manner in which rape myths are conveyed through textual material published in Playboy. Results indicate that Playboy (a) portrays rape as a gender-neutral issue, ignoring patriarchal roots of sexual violence against women, and (b) promulgates ambiguous discourse, which is equally likely to endorse and refute rape myths. Interestingly, readers' contributions are most often the source of refutations of rape myths. Overall, findings suggest that little progress has been made over time in deconstructing rape myths promulgated to men, as this particular men's publication has consistently painted a gray picture in which refutations have remained unsuccessful in disempowering rape myths. PMID:24048186

  17. Prediction of crop yield in Sweden based on mesoscale meteorological analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foltescu, Valentin L.

    2000-12-01

    This paper presents a prediction system for regional crop growth in Sweden, recently set up at SMHI (Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute). The system includes a state-of-the-art crop growth model, WOFOST (WOrld FOod STudies) and inputs from meteorological mesoscale analysis. The simulated crops are spring barley, spring rape, oats and winter wheat, and the period of investigation is 1985-98. The simulated water-limited grain yield is used as a predictor in the yield prediction procedure. The technological time trend describing the yearly increase of the production level is accounted for as well. Yield prediction based on crop growth modelling is justified since the ability to forecast the yield is higher compared to that using the technological time trend alone. The prediction errors are of the order of 8 to 16%, with the lowest errors for winter wheat and spring barley.

  18. Effects of Potato-Cotton Cropping Systems and Nematicides on Plant-Parasitic Nematodes and Crop Yields

    PubMed Central

    Crow, W. T.; Weingartner, D. P.; Dickson, D. W.

    2000-01-01

    Belonolaimus longicaudatus has been reported as damaging both potato (Solanum tuberosum) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). These crops are not normally grown in cropping systems together in areas where the soil is infested with B. longicaudatus. During the 1990s cotton was grown in a potato production region that was a suitable habitat for B. longicaudatus. It was not known how integrating the production of these two crops by rotation or double-cropping would affect the population densities of B. longicaudatus, other plant-parasitic nematodes common in the region, or crop yields. A 3-year field study evaluated the viability of both crops in monocropping, rotation, and double-cropping systems. Viability was evaluated using effects on population densities of plant-parasitic nematodes and yields. Rotation of cotton with potato was found to decrease population densities of B. longicaudatus and Meloidogyne incognita in comparison with continuous potato. Population densities of B. longicaudatus following double-cropping were greater than following continuous cotton. Yields of both potato and cotton in rotation were equivalent to either crop in monocropping. Yields of both crops were lower following double-cropping when nematicides were not used. PMID:19270980

  19. The role of rape myth acceptance in the social norms regarding sexual behavior among college students.

    PubMed

    Aronowitz, Teri; Lambert, Cheryl Ann; Davidoff, Sara

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the antecedents for the acceptance of rape myths. The information motivation behavioral skills model was the basis for this study. In this cross-sectional study at a northeastern university, 237 students consented to participate in an online survey examining knowledge, social norms regarding sexual behavior, future time perspective, and rape myth acceptance (RMA). The majority of the sample was female. Forty-one percent believed that a woman who was raped while drunk was responsible. Men had higher RMA and the less sexual knowledge they had, the more they accepted the rape myths. Direction is provided regarding primary prevention of sexual assault. PMID:22857406

  20. Faulty perceptions? The impact of binge drinking history on college women's perceived rape resistance efficacy.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Jenna L; Calhoun, Karen S

    2008-12-01

    College women who binge drink are at greater risk than their peers for experiencing an alcohol-involved rape. Evidence suggests that these women commonly underestimate their risk for assault. This study examines college women's perceptions of their rape resistance efficacy in two acquaintance rape scenarios (one involving the woman's alcohol consumption and one not) as a function of their binge drinking and alcohol-involved rape history. Alcohol-involved rape was inversely associated only with efficacy in situations involving alcohol. Binge drinking was differentially predictive of efficacy in the two scenarios, with regular binge drinkers being significantly more likely to have high perceived efficacy in rape scenarios in which they were drinking and significantly less likely than their peers to have high perceived efficacy in rape scenarios in which they weren't drinking. Findings have direct implications for both college drinking and rape risk reduction interventions, highlighting the need to address women's minimization of alcohol's impact on their rape resistance ability. PMID:18760879

  1. [Extraction of rape seed proanthocyanidin with ultrasonic wave].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Wu, Jian-Ming; Xia, Chun-Tang; Zhu, Jian; Xie, Zheng-Rong

    2010-01-01

    Rape seed proanthocyanidin was extracted by ultrasonic technology, and the conditions of extraction were studied. The results showed that the order of the factors which influenced the extraction effects were as follows: ethanol concentration, extracting temperature, ultrasonic extracting time and the ratio of the quantity of raw material to extraction agent (w/v). The optimal conditions were as follows: temperature: 60 degrees C, extracting agent: 60% ethanol aqueous, the ratio of the quantity of raw material to extracting agent: 1 : 20 (w/v), extracting number: 3 times, extracting time: 20 min, respectively. The yield of proanthocyanidins extracted by ultrasonic technology was 84.5% higher than traditional method. Rape Seed was rich in proanthocyanidin. PMID:20518317

  2. The identity of crop pollinators helps target conservation for improved ecosystem services☆

    PubMed Central

    Garratt, M.P.D.; Coston, D.J.; Truslove, C.L.; Lappage, M.G.; Polce, C.; Dean, R.; Biesmeijer, J.C.; Potts, S.G.

    2014-01-01

    Insect pollinated mass flowering crops are becoming more widespread and there is a need to understand which insects are primarily responsible for the pollination of these crops so conservation measures can be appropriately targeted in the face of pollinator declines. This study used field surveys in conjunction with cage manipulations to identify the relative contributions of different pollinator taxa to the pollination of two widespread flowering crops, field beans and oilseed rape. Flower visiting pollinator communities observed in the field were distinct for each crop; while field beans were visited primarily by a few bumblebee species, multiple pollinator taxa visited oilseed, and the composition of this pollinator community was highly variable spatially and temporally. Neither pollinator community, however, appears to be meeting the demands of crops in our study regions. Cage manipulations showed that multiple taxa can effectively pollinate both oilseed and field beans, but bumblebees are particularly effective bean pollinators. Combining field observations and cage manipulations demonstrated that the pollination demands of these two mass flowering crops are highly contrasting, one would benefit from management to increase the abundance of some key taxa, whilst for the other, boosting overall pollinator abundance and diversity would be more appropriate. Our findings highlight the need for crop specific mitigation strategies that are targeted at conserving specific pollinator taxa (or group of taxa) that are both active and capable of crop pollination in order to reduce pollination deficits and meet the demands of future crop production. PMID:24696525

  3. Drug- or alcohol-facilitated, incapacitated, and forcible rape in relationship to mental health among a national sample of women.

    PubMed

    Zinzow, Heidi M; Resnick, Heidi S; Amstadter, Ananda B; McCauley, Jenna L; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2010-12-01

    Rape is a well-established risk factor for mental health disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. However, most studies have focused on forcible rape tactics and have not distinguished these from tactics that involve drug or alcohol intoxication. The authors' aim was to examine correlates of PTSD and depression in a community sample of women, with particular emphasis on evaluating the unique effects of lifetime exposure to three specific rape tactics. A nationally representative sample of 3,001 noninstitutionalized, civilian, English- or Spanish-speaking women (aged 18-86 years) participated in a structured telephone interview by use of Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI) technology. Multivariable models showed that history of drug or alcohol-facilitated rape tactics (OR = 1.87, p < .05) and history of forcible rape tactics (OR = 3.46, p < .001) were associated with PTSD. History of forcible rape was associated with depression (OR = 3.65, p < .001). Forcible rape tactics were associated with a number of factors that may have contributed to their stronger association with mental health outcomes, including force, injury, lower income, revictimization history, and labeling the event as rape. The results underscore the importance of using a behaviorally specific assessment of rape history, as rape tactic and multiple rape history differentially predicted psychopathology outcomes. The association between drug- or alcohol-facilitated rape tactics and PTSD suggests that these are important rape tactics to include in assessments and future studies. PMID:20100896

  4. Court upholds conviction in rape of mentally retarded boy.

    PubMed

    1999-06-25

    An Ohio appeals court upheld the conviction of an HIV-positive man convicted of kidnapping and raping a 17-year-old mentally retarded boy. The defendant had appealed his conviction, claiming that disclosure of his HIV status prejudiced the jury against him. The appeals court found that the statements about his HIV infection were relevant testimony, although some prejudice may conceivably arise. Details from the original trial and appellate hearing are provided. PMID:11367289

  5. A History of Rape in American Society Prior to 1900.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossman, Leslie

    By tracing the concept of rape as it has been defined by man in the earliest laws, it is evident that the criminal act was viewed with horror, and the deadly punishments that were seen fit to apply had little to do with an actual act of sexual violence that a woman might sustain. The past records indicate a gradual decrease in the prosecution rate…

  6. Don't tell: Military culture and male rape.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Carol; Keith, Jessica; Shoemaker, Lisa

    2015-11-01

    The issue of sexual assault that occurs during military service has been a focus of attention over the past several years. Although approximately 50% of survivors of military sexual assault are men, virtually all of the literature focuses on the assault of female service members. Research has demonstrated that cultural variables are robust correlates of the sexual assault of women. This paper proposes that cultural variables are equally important when examining the rape of men, especially when this assault occurs in military contexts. We discuss male rape myths and related constructs as they are expressed within military culture. The results of data analysis from a treatment sample of veterans with military sexual trauma (MST)-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and clinical case examples are presented to further explore the concepts. We conclude that male rape myths and related beliefs that arise from cultural norms and are further amplified and modified by military culture impact male MST survivors and delay or obstruct their recovery. Suggestions for clinical application and future research are offered to encourage further efforts in this important area of practice. PMID:26524277

  7. DNA typing from vaginal smear slides in suspected rape cases.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Dayse Aparecida; Góes, Andréa Carla de Souza; de Carvalho, Jorge José; de Carvalho, Elizeu Fagundes

    2004-03-01

    In an investigation of suspected rape, proof of sexual assault with penetration is required. In view of this, detailed descriptions of the genitalia, the thighs and pubic region are made within the forensic medical service. In addition, vaginal swabs are taken from the rape victim and some of the biological material collected is then transferred to glass slides. In this report, we describe two rape cases solved using DNA typing from cells recovered from vaginal smear slides. In 1999, two young women informed the Rio de Janeiro Police Department that they had been victims of sexual assaults. A suspect was arrested and the victims identified him as the offender. The suspect maintained that he was innocent. In order to elucidate these crimes, vaginal smear slides were sent to the DNA Diagnostic Laboratory for DNA analysis three months after the crimes, as unique forensic evidence. To get enough epithelial and sperm cells to perform DNA analysis, we used protocols modified from the previously standard protocols used for DNA extraction from biological material fixed on glass slides. The quantity of cells was sufficient to perform human DNA typing using nine short tandem repeat (STR) loci. It was 3.3 billion times more probable that it was the examined suspect who had left sperm cells in the victims, rather than any other individual in the population of Rio de Janeiro. PMID:15257364

  8. Transesterification process to manufacture ethyl ester of rape oil

    SciTech Connect

    Korus, R.A.; Hoffman, D.S.; Bam, N.; Peterson, C.L.; Drown, D.C.

    1993-12-31

    A process for the production of the ethyl ester of winter rape [EEWR] for use as a biodiesel fuel has been studied. The essential part of the process is the transesterification of rape oil with ethanol, in the presence of a catalyst, to yield the ethyl ester of rape oil as a product and glycerin as a by-product. Experiments have been performed to determine the optimum conditions for the preparation of EEWR. The process variables were: (1) temperature, (2) catalyst, (3) rate of agitation, (4) water content of the alcohol used, and (5) the amount of excess alcohol used. The optimum conditions were: (1) room temperature, (2) 0.5% sodium methoxide or 1% potassium hydroxide catalyst by weight of rapeseed oil, (3) extremely vigorous agitation with some splashing during the initial phase of the reaction and agitation was not necessary after the reaction mixture became homogeneous, (4) absolute ethanol was necessary for high conversion, and (5) 50% excess ethanol with NaOCH{sub 3} or 100% excess with KOH gave a maximum conversion. Viscosity, cloud point and pour point of the EEWR were measured. A preliminary break-even cost for the commercial production of EEWR was found to be $0.55/liter [$2.08/US gallon].

  9. Sources of uncertainty in the quantification of genetically modified oilseed rape contamination in seed lots.

    PubMed

    Begg, Graham S; Cullen, Danny W; Iannetta, Pietro P M; Squire, Geoff R

    2007-02-01

    Testing of seed and grain lots is essential in the enforcement of GM labelling legislation and needs reliable procedures for which associated errors have been identified and minimised. In this paper we consider the testing of oilseed rape seed lots obtained from the harvest of a non-GM crop known to be contaminated by volunteer plants from a GM herbicide tolerant variety. The objective was to identify and quantify the error associated with the testing of these lots from the initial sampling to completion of the real-time PCR assay with which the level of GM contamination was quantified. The results showed that, under the controlled conditions of a single laboratory, the error associated with the real-time PCR assay to be negligible in comparison with sampling error, which was exacerbated by heterogeneity in the distribution of GM seeds, most notably at a small scale, i.e. 25 cm3. Sampling error was reduced by one to two thirds on the application of appropriate homogenisation procedures. PMID:17106767

  10. Effect of exogenous gibberellin on reserve accumulation during the seed filling stage of oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Huang, X Q; He, R Q; Liao, X Y; Zhou, B; Peng, W S; Lin, J Z; Tang, D Y; Zhu, Y H; Zhao, X Y; Liu, X M

    2014-01-01

    Exogenous gibberellins (GAs) are widely applied to increase crop yields, with knowledge about the physiological functioning and biochemistry mechanisms of these phytohormones improving; however, information remains limited about the effect of GAs on seed filling. In this study, the siliques (containing the seeds) of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) were treated with GA3 at 3 stages of seed filling. We confirmed that GA3 regulates the deposition of storage reserves in developing seeds. The percentage of crude fat in the seeds increased during the early stage, but remained stable during the middle and late stages. In comparison, the percentage of total protein decreased during the early and middle stages, but significantly increased during the late stage. In addition, Q-PCR was employed to analyze the expression level of related genes in response to GA3. It was found that the expression of WRI and ABI3 transcription factors corresponded to crude fat content and total protein content, respectively. The expression of storage reserve related genes DGAT, MCAT, SUC2, and GPT was consistent with crude fat content, whereas the expression of Napin corresponded to total protein content. The results of this study indicate that exogenous GA3 has a different effect on storage reserve deposition in seed during different stages of seed filling, and the effect might be achieved via changing the expression of related genes. PMID:24535906

  11. Barriers to gene flow from oilseed rape (Brassica napus) into populations of Sinapis arvensis.

    PubMed

    Moyes, C L; Lilley, J M; Casais, C A; Cole, S G; Haeger, P D; Dale, P J

    2002-01-01

    One concern over growing herbicide-tolerant crops is that herbicide-tolerance genes may be transferred into the weeds they are designed to control. Brassica napus (oilseed rape) has a number of wild relatives that cause weed problems and the most widespread of these is Sinapis arvensis (charlock). Sinapis arvensis seed was collected from 102 populations across the UK, within and outside B. napus-growing areas. These populations were tested for sexual compatibility with B. napus and it was found that none of them hybridized readily in the glasshouse. In contrast to previous studies, we have found that hybrids can be formed naturally with S. arvensis as the maternal parent. Six diverse B. napus cultivars (Capricorn, Drakkar, Falcon, Galaxy, Hobson and Regent) were tested for their compatibility with S. arvensis but no cultivar hybridized readily in the glasshouse. We were unable to detect gene transfer from B. napus to S. arvensis in the field, confirming the extremely low probability of hybridization predicted from the glasshouse work. PMID:11903908

  12. Rape oil methyl ester (RME) and used cooking oil methyl ester (UOME) as alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Hohl, G.H.

    1995-12-31

    The author presents a review about the fleet tests carried out by the Austrian Armed Forces concerning the practical application of a vegetable oil, i.e Rape Oil Methyl Ester (RME) and Used Cooking Oil Methyl Ester (UOME) as alternative fuels for vehicles under military conditions, and reviews other research results carried out in Austria. As a result of over-production in Western European agriculture, the increase in crop yields has led to tremendous surpluses. Alternative agricultural products have been sought. One alternative can be seen in biological fuel production for tractors, whereby the farmer is able to produce his own fuel supply as was the case when he previously provided self-made feed for his horses. For the market introduction different activities were necessary. A considerable number of institutes and organizations including the Austrian Armed Forces have investigated, tested and developed these alternative fuels. The increasing disposal problems of used cooking oil have initiated considerations for its use. The recycling of this otherwise waste product, and its preparation for use as an alternative fuel to diesel oil, seems to be most promising.

  13. [Effects of intercropping different crops with maize on the Cd uptake by maize].

    PubMed

    Li, Ning-Yu; Li, Zhi-An; Ding, Yong-Zhen; Zou, Bi; Zhuang, Ping

    2008-06-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of intercropping 7 kinds of crops on the Cd uptake by maize (Zea mays L.). The results showed that most intercrops had no significant effects on the growth of maize, only with purple haricot reduced the maize biomass by 32.2% of the control. Legume crops enhanced the total quantity of Cd in maize in a great magnitude, and chickpea worked most efficiently, which doubled the Cd quantity in maize. The 7 intercrops showed different capability of Cd uptake, among which, rape and amaranth absorbed larger amount of Cd, with a Cd level of 53.9 mg x kg(-1) and 51.0 mg x kg(-1) in their aboveground parts, respectively, and of 91.8 mg x kg(-1) in amaranth root when the soil Cd content was 3 mg x kg(-1) soil. There was an interaction between maize and intercrops in Cd uptake. Legumes absorbed smaller amount of Cd but significantly increased the Cd uptake by maize, while amaranth was in adverse. Rape had a higher level of Cd concentration in its shoot, but reduced the Cd in aboveground part of maize. It was indicated that if maize was used for phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soil, a higher efficiency of Cd removal could be achieved by intercropping it with legumes. Rape and amaranth could be the two promising plants for phytoremediation because of their high Cd accumulation. PMID:18808034

  14. Agricultural crop harvest progress monitoring by fully polarimetric synthetic aperture radar imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hao; Zhao, Chunjiang; Yang, Guijun; Li, Zengyuan; Chen, Erxue; Yuan, Lin; Yang, Xiaodong; Xu, Xingang

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic mapping and monitoring of crop harvest on a large spatial scale will provide critical information for the formulation of optimal harvesting strategies. This study evaluates the feasibility of C-band polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) for monitoring the harvesting progress of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) fields. Five multitemporal, quad-pol Radarsat-2 images and one optical ZY-1 02C image were acquired over a farmland area in China during the 2013 growing season. Typical polarimetric signatures were obtained relying on polarimetric decomposition methods. Temporal evolutions of these signatures of harvested fields were compared with the ones of unharvested fields in the context of the entire growing cycle. Significant sensitivity was observed between the specific polarimetric parameters and the harvest status of oilseed rape fields. Based on this sensitivity, a new method that integrates two polarimetric features was devised to detect the harvest status of oilseed rape fields using a single image. The validation results are encouraging even for the harvested fields covered with high residues. This research demonstrates the capability of PolSAR remote sensing in crop harvest monitoring, which is a step toward more complex applications of PolSAR data in precision agriculture.

  15. GPP estimates in a biodiesel crop using MERIS products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, M. L.; Pardo, N.; Pérez, I.; García, M. A.; Paredes, V.

    2012-04-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions in Spain in 2008-2009 were 34.3 % higher than the base-year level, significantly above the burden-sharing target of 15 % for the period 2008-2012. Based on this result, our country will need to make a major effort to meet the committed target on time using domestic measures as well as others foreseen in the Kyoto Protocol, such as LULUFC activities. In this framework, agrofuels, in other words biofuels produced by crops that contain high amounts of vegetable oil such as sorghum, sunflower, rape seed and jatropha, appear to be an interesting mitigation alternative. Bearing in mind the meteorological conditions in Spain, sunflower and rape seed in particular are considered the most viable crops. Sunflower cultivated surface in Spain has remained fairly constant in recent years, in contrast to rapeseed crop surface which, although still scarce, has followed an increasing trend. In order to assess rape seed ability as a CO2 sink as well as to describe GPP dynamic evolution, we installed an eddy correlation station in an agricultural plot of the Spanish plateau. Measurements at the plot consisted of 30-min NEE flux measurements (using a LI-7500 and a METEK USA-1 sonic anemometer) as well as other common meteorological variables. Measurements were performed from March to October. This paper presents the results of the GPP 8-d estimated values using a Light Use Efficiency Model, LUE. Input data for the LUE model were the FPAR 8-d products supplied by MERIS, the PAR in situ measurements, and a scalar f varying, between 0 and 1, to take into account the reduction of the maximum PAR conversion efficiency, ɛ0, under limiting environmental conditions. The f values were assumed to be dependent on air temperature and the evaporative fraction, EF, which was considered as a proxy of soil moisture. ɛ0, a key parameter, which depends on biome types, was derived through the results of a linear regression fit between the GPP 8-d eddy covariance composites

  16. The longitudinal effects of a rape-prevention program on fraternity men's attitudes, behavioral intent, and behavior.

    PubMed

    Foubert, J D

    2000-01-01

    Rape myth acceptance, likelihood of raping, and sexually coercive behavior of 145 fraternity men randomly assigned to a control group or a rape-prevention program were surveyed. One third of 23 fraternities on a mid-Atlantic public university campus volunteered to participate in the study. The rape-prevention intervention consisted of "the men's program," a victim empathy-based presentation titled "How to help a sexual assault survivor: What men can do." Although no evidence of change in sexually coercive behavior was found, significant 7-month declines in rape myth acceptance and the likelihood of committing rape were shown among program participants. In the case of rape myth acceptance, the 7-month decrement remained lower in the participant group than in the control group. Implications of using these initial findings from the men's program for rape-prevention programming are discussed. PMID:10650733

  17. Potential Effects of Oilseed Rape Expressing Oryzacystatin-1 (OC-1) and of Purified Insecticidal Proteins on Larvae of the Solitary Bee Osmia bicornis

    PubMed Central

    Konrad, Roger; Ferry, Natalie; Gatehouse, Angharad M. R.; Babendreier, Dirk

    2008-01-01

    Despite their importance as pollinators in crops and wild plants, solitary bees have not previously been included in non-target testing of insect-resistant transgenic crop plants. Larvae of many solitary bees feed almost exclusively on pollen and thus could be highly exposed to transgene products expressed in the pollen. The potential effects of pollen from oilseed rape expressing the cysteine protease inhibitor oryzacystatin-1 (OC-1) were investigated on larvae of the solitary bee Osmia bicornis ( = O. rufa). Furthermore, recombinant OC-1 (rOC-1), the Bt toxin Cry1Ab and the snowdrop lectin Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) were evaluated for effects on the life history parameters of this important pollinator. Pollen provisions from transgenic OC-1 oilseed rape did not affect overall development. Similarly, high doses of rOC-1 and Cry1Ab as well as a low dose of GNA failed to cause any significant effects. However, a high dose of GNA (0.1%) in the larval diet resulted in significantly increased development time and reduced efficiency in conversion of pollen food into larval body weight. Our results suggest that OC-1 and Cry1Ab expressing transgenic crops would pose a negligible risk for O. bicornis larvae, whereas GNA expressing plants could cause detrimental effects, but only if bees were exposed to high levels of the protein. The described bioassay with bee brood is not only suitable for early tier non-target tests of transgenic plants, but also has broader applicability to other crop protection products. PMID:18628826

  18. Potential effects of oilseed rape expressing oryzacystatin-1 (OC-1) and of purified insecticidal proteins on larvae of the solitary bee Osmia bicornis.

    PubMed

    Konrad, Roger; Ferry, Natalie; Gatehouse, Angharad M R; Babendreier, Dirk

    2008-01-01

    Despite their importance as pollinators in crops and wild plants, solitary bees have not previously been included in non-target testing of insect-resistant transgenic crop plants. Larvae of many solitary bees feed almost exclusively on pollen and thus could be highly exposed to transgene products expressed in the pollen. The potential effects of pollen from oilseed rape expressing the cysteine protease inhibitor oryzacystatin-1 (OC-1) were investigated on larvae of the solitary bee Osmia bicornis (= O. rufa). Furthermore, recombinant OC-1 (rOC-1), the Bt toxin Cry1Ab and the snowdrop lectin Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) were evaluated for effects on the life history parameters of this important pollinator. Pollen provisions from transgenic OC-1 oilseed rape did not affect overall development. Similarly, high doses of rOC-1 and Cry1Ab as well as a low dose of GNA failed to cause any significant effects. However, a high dose of GNA (0.1%) in the larval diet resulted in significantly increased development time and reduced efficiency in conversion of pollen food into larval body weight. Our results suggest that OC-1 and Cry1Ab expressing transgenic crops would pose a negligible risk for O. bicornis larvae, whereas GNA expressing plants could cause detrimental effects, but only if bees were exposed to high levels of the protein. The described bioassay with bee brood is not only suitable for early tier non-target tests of transgenic plants, but also has broader applicability to other crop protection products. PMID:18628826

  19. Crop synergism can help dryland crop production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water supply is a major constraint for crop production in dryland agriculture across the world, and extensive research has been conducted to improve water use. In the grass steppe of the United States, water use has improved through a series of management advancements, such as preservation of crop ...

  20. Rape and its relation to social disorganization, pornography and inequality in the USA.

    PubMed

    Baron, L; Straus, M A

    1989-01-01

    A theoretical model seeks to integrate social disorganization and feminist theories of rape, reporting an empirical test of that model using data on rapes per 100,000 population known to the police in the 50 states of the United States. The model includes the following aspects of the social organization of the states: social disorganization (measured by a six item index), sexual inequality (measured by a status of women index to men), pornography (measured by a sex magazine circulation index for eight sexually explicit magazines) and the level of culturally legitimate violence (measured by a 12 item legitimate violence index using indicators like corporal punishment in schools. There were marked differences between states of the USA in the incidence of rape during the 1980-82. Path analysis was used to test the theoretical model, which posits rape as a function of the direct and indirect effects of social disorganization, sexual inequality, pornography, legitimate violence and seven control variables. The results show that all four variables play an important part in explaining differences between states in rape; and that together, the variables in the model explain 83 per cent of the state-to-state variation in rape. Women are in much greater danger of being raped in some American states than in others. Since the FBI began compiling statistics on rape, states like Alaska, Nevada, and California have consistently registered many more rapes per capita than North Dakota, Maine, and Iowa. What factors account for such differences between states? Could the variation in the rape rate be explained by four aspects of the social structure of states: (1) the proliferation of pornography (2) sexual inequality (3) culturally legitimate violence and (4) social disorganization. Each factor represents a theory which will be examined within the context of an integrated theory on rape. PMID:2516203

  1. Ecoinformatics Reveals Effects of Crop Rotational Histories on Cotton Yield

    PubMed Central

    Meisner, Matthew H.; Rosenheim, Jay A.

    2014-01-01

    Crop rotation has been practiced for centuries in an effort to improve agricultural yield. However, the directions, magnitudes, and mechanisms of the yield effects of various crop rotations remain poorly understood in many systems. In order to better understand how crop rotation influences cotton yield, we used hierarchical Bayesian models to analyze a large ecoinformatics database consisting of records of commercial cotton crops grown in California's San Joaquin Valley. We identified several crops that, when grown in a field the year before a cotton crop, were associated with increased or decreased cotton yield. Furthermore, there was a negative association between the effect of the prior year's crop on June densities of the pest Lygus hesperus and the effect of the prior year's crop on cotton yield. This suggested that some crops may enhance L. hesperus densities in the surrounding agricultural landscape, because residual L. hesperus populations from the previous year cannot continuously inhabit a focal field and attack a subsequent cotton crop. In addition, we found that cotton yield declined approximately 2.4% for each additional year in which cotton was grown consecutively in a field prior to the focal cotton crop. Because L. hesperus is quite mobile, the effects of crop rotation on L. hesperus would likely not be revealed by small plot experimentation. These results provide an example of how ecoinformatics datasets, which capture the true spatial scale of commercial agriculture, can be used to enhance agricultural productivity. PMID:24465657

  2. Long-Term Monitoring of Field Trial Sites with Genetically Modified Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.) in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Fifteen Years Persistence to Date but No Spatial Dispersion

    PubMed Central

    Belter, Anke

    2016-01-01

    Oilseed rape is known to persist in arable fields because of its ability to develop secondary seed dormancy in certain agronomic and environmental conditions. If conditions change, rapeseeds are able to germinate up to 10 years later to build volunteers in ensuing crops. Extrapolations of experimental data acted on the assumption of persistence periods for more than 20 years after last harvest of rapeseed. Genetically-modified oilseed rape—cultivated widely in Northern America since 1996—is assumed not to differ from its conventional form in this property. Here, experimental data are reported from official monitoring activities that verify these assumptions. At two former field trial sites in Saxony-Anhalt genetically-modified herbicide-resistant oilseed rape volunteers are found up to fifteen years after harvest. Nevertheless, spatial dispersion or establishment of GM plants outside of the field sites was not observed within this period. PMID:26784233

  3. Wind Turbines Benefit Crops

    SciTech Connect

    Takle, Gene

    2010-01-01

    Ames Laboratory associate scientist Gene Takle talks about research into the effect of wind turbines on nearby crops. Preliminary results show the turbines may have a positive effect by cooling and drying the crops and assisting with carbon dioxide uptake.

  4. Wind Turbines Benefit Crops

    ScienceCinema

    Takle, Gene

    2013-03-01

    Ames Laboratory associate scientist Gene Takle talks about research into the effect of wind turbines on nearby crops. Preliminary results show the turbines may have a positive effect by cooling and drying the crops and assisting with carbon dioxide uptake.

  5. Pleiotropic effects of herbicide-resistance genes on crop yield: a review.

    PubMed

    Darmency, Henri

    2013-08-01

    The rapid adoption of genetically engineered herbicide-resistant crop varieties (HRCVs)-encompassing 83% of all GM crops and nearly 8% of the worldwide arable area-is due to technical efficiency and higher returns. Other herbicide-resistant varieties obtained from genetic resources and mutagenesis have also been successfully released. Although the benefit for weed control is the main criteria for choosing HRCVs, the pleiotropic costs of genes endowing resistance have rarely been investigated in crops. Here the available data of comparisons between isogenic resistant and susceptible varieties are reviewed. Pleiotropic harmful effects on yield are reported in half of the cases, mostly with resistance mechanisms that originate from genetic resources and mutagenesis (atrazine in oilseed rape and millet, trifluralin in millet, imazamox in cotton) rather than genetic engineering (chlorsulfuron and glufosinate in some oilseed rape varieties, glyphosate in soybean). No effect was found for sethoxydim and bromoxynil resistance. Variable minor effects were found for imazamox, chlorsulfuron, glufosinate and glyphosate resistance. The importance of the breeding plan and the genetic background on the emergence of these effects is pointed out. Breeders' efforts to produce better varieties could compensate for the yield loss, which eliminates any possibility of formulating generic conclusions on pleiotropic effects that can be applied to all resistant crops. PMID:23457026

  6. Development of a biologically based fertilizer, incorporating Bacillus megaterium A6, for improved phosphorus nutrition of oilseed rape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable methods with diminished impact on the environment need to be developed for the production of oilseed rape in China and other regions of the world. A biological fertilizer consisting of Bacillus megaterium A6 cultured on oilseed rape meal doubled oilseed rape seed yield (P < 0.0001) rela...

  7. Beyond No Means No: Outcomes of an Intensive Program To Train Peer Facilitators for Campus Acquaintance Rape Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonsway, Kimberly A.; Klaw, Elena L.; Berg, Dianne R.; Waldo, Craig R.; Kothari, Chevon; Mazurek, Christopher J.; Hegeman, Kurt E.

    As part of a larger multimethod evaluation, the present study examined the effects of a uniquely intensive rape education program. Participants included 74 undergraduates (53 women and 21 men) enrolled in Campus Acquaintance Rape Education (CARE), a semester-long university course designed to train peer facilitators to conduct rape education…

  8. Hidden Rape: Incidence and Prevalence of Sexual Aggression and Victimization in a National Sample of Students in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Mary P.; And Others

    Rape is believed to be one of the most underreported crimes with 3 to 10 rapes committed for every one that is reported. Rape represents an extreme behavior which can be placed on a continuum of sexual aggression defined by degrees of coercion and force. The prevalence of sexual aggression among college students nationally was examined in 3,187…

  9. Moving beyond Naturalism: Using a Discussion of "Miss Julie" to Educate Students about Date Rape--and More

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Davida

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about using the play entitled, "Miss Julie" to educate her students about date rape. According to her, the play presents a unique opportunity to bring up the topic of date rape. Several theories, including the social learning theory and the evolutionary theory, have been put forth to explain the existence of rape.…

  10. Rape Myth Acceptance among Korean College Students: The Roles of Gender, Attitudes toward Women, and Sexual Double Standard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joohee; Kim, Jinseok; Lim, Hyunsung

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine factors that influence rape myths among Korean college students. This study was particularly interested in the ways in which attitudes toward women and sexual double standard affect the relationship between gender and rape myths. Although the incidence of rape is a common concern in many current…

  11. Sorghums as energy crops

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinsky, E. S.; Kresovich, S.

    1980-01-01

    The botanical, physiological, and agronomic characteristics of sorghum are described. Integration concepts to improve sorghum prospects are discussed as follows: multiple sweet sorghum crops each year, integration with sugarcane, integration with sugar beets, integration with starch crops, sweet stemmed grain sorghum, and integration with lignocellulosic crops. (MHR)

  12. Cucurbitaceae (Vine Crops)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cucurbitaceae or vine crop family is a distinct family without any close relatives. The Cucurbitaceae or vine crop family includes many important vegetables collectively referred to as cucurbits. Cucumber, melon, and watermelon are major crop species originally from the Old World (cucumber fro...

  13. Cover crops for Alabama

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops are grown to benefit the following crop as well as to improve the soil, but they are normally not intended for harvest. Selecting the right cover crops for farming operations can improve yields, soil and water conservation and quality, and economic productivity. Properly managed cover ...

  14. Cover Crop Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential benefits of cover crops in vegetable production systems depend on the type of cover crop that is used and how it is managed from planting to termination date. This chapter focuses on management practices that are applicable to a broad range cover crops and vegetable production systems ...

  15. Assessment of the incidence of rape--North Carolina, 1989-1993.

    PubMed

    1995-09-29

    Rape has a substantial impact on the health of victims, including a broad spectrum of physical, psychologic, and social sequelae (1-3). The development of appropriate and effective rape-prevention programs is assisted by consistent collection of information about and by accurate estimation of the incidence of rape. In North Carolina, as in many other states, the only source of statewide and county-specific population-based data on rape incidence is the Uniform Crime Reporting Program (UCR), coordinated by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI); however, these data may underestimate the actual incidence of rape (4,5) because they include only assaults that have been reported to police and that conform to the UCR definition of forcible rape. To assess the usefulness of rape crisis centers (RCCs) as an additional potential source of data for determining the incidence of rape, in 1994 the Injury Control Section, North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources (NC-DEHNR), surveyed RCCs in North Carolina, then compared estimates of the annual incidence based on RCC and UCR data for selected counties during 1989-1993. This report summarizes the results of the survey and comparative analysis. PMID:7675018

  16. A Review of Acquaintance/Date Rape Research: Implications for the University Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drapeau, Robert F.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews literature on incidence and ramifications of acquaintance rape and discusses specific gender-related factors. Identifies four areas that require proactive college response: access and intrusion, nonnegligent hiring and training, alcohol and drugs, and awareness education. Concludes that effective response to acquaintance rape requires…

  17. Differences in College Students' Belief in Common Myths about Rape by Gender and Year in College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonker, Robert J.; And Others

    The degree to which college students agree with common myths about rape was investigated, using the Attitude Toward Rape Questionnaire. The effect of gender and years in college on student attitudes was also assessed. The sample consisted of 500 randomly-selected students from a state-assisted, four-year residential university in Ohio. The…

  18. 2003 Carolyn Sherif Award Address: What College Women Do and Do Not Experience as Rape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Arnold S.

    2004-01-01

    College women who did (n=33) and did not (n=56) label their sexual assault experience as rape provided written descriptions of their sexual assaults. From these descriptions we identified eight different sexual assault situations. Women who labeled their experience as rape were most likely to have been assaulted forcefully by an acquaintance,…

  19. Anti-Rape on the Road: Men Hit the Highways to Share a Powerful Message

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foubert, John D.

    2005-01-01

    Several years ago, the author was asked to counsel one university's male students on the truth of rape. Today, he and other men are taking that truth on the road--in a used RV. Their "One in Four" national tour will work to end rape on college campuses by presenting "The Men's Program" to college students nationwide. The program aims to educate…

  20. Getting inside the House: The Effectiveness of a Rape Prevention Program for College Fraternity Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Tracy L.; Liddell, Debora L.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the effectiveness of a socialization-focused rape prevention program designed specifically for college fraternity men. Results suggest that a socialization approach to rape education was as effective as a more traditional prevention program with regard to attitudes and knowledge. Although attitudes rebounded to previous levels at the…

  1. Attitudes toward Rape among African American Male and Female College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Marty; Farrell, Walter C., Jr.; Johnson, James H., Jr.; Hitchcock, Kim

    1999-01-01

    Investigates how African American male and female college students differ in their attitudes concerning rape. Two hundred and ten college students completed a 12-item questionnaire designed to measure their views toward this issue. Differences are discussed in the context of sexism and rape myths. Strategies for changing students' attitudes toward…

  2. Effects of Victim Sex and Sexual Orientation on Perceptions of Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Bradley H.; Kurpius, Sharon E. Robinson

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the relationship of sex, gender role attitudes, and sexual orientation to perceptions of rape. College students responded to scenarios depicting the rape of heterosexual and homosexual males and females. Men assigned more blame to victims (particularly male victims) than did women. Traditional gender role attitudes positively related…

  3. Attitudes Toward Victims of Rape: Effects of Gender, Race, Religion, and Social Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Barbara; Matsuo, Hisako; McIntyre, Kevin P.; Morrison, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    Although previous literature focusing on perceptions of victims of rape has examined how gender, race, and culture influence the attitudes one holds toward victims, these studies have yielded mixed results. This study compared perceptions of victims of rape across a wide range of ages, educational backgrounds, religions, and income levels, while…

  4. Predicting Perceptions of Date Rape Based on Individual Beliefs and Female Alcohol Consumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osman, Suzanne L.; Davis, Clive M.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates whether female alcohol consumption predicts perceptions of date rape based on two personality measures administered to 290 undergraduates. Results indicate that a stronger belief in token resistance to sex was related to weaker perceptions of rape. As hypothesized, participants scoring higher on sex-role stereotyping perceived fewer…

  5. Homogeneity in Community-Based Rape Prevention Programs: Empirical Evidence of Institutional Isomorphism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Stephanie M.; Campbell, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the practices of 24 community-based rape prevention programs. Although these programs were geographically dispersed throughout one state, they were remarkably similar in their approach to rape prevention programming. DiMaggio and Powell's (1991) theory of institutional isomorphism was used to explain the underlying causes of…

  6. Innovative community services for rape victims: an application of multiple case study methodology.

    PubMed

    Campbell, R; Ahrens, C E

    1998-08-01

    A qualitative multiple case study design was used to examine communities across the United States that have developed coordinated community-based programs to assist rape victims. Previous studies have suggested that coordinated community programs help victims obtain needed resources and services. This study provided a follow-up examination of how and why these programs are helpful to rape victims. In-depth interviews were conducted with rape victim advocates, rape crisis center directors, police officers, prosecutors, doctors, nurses, and rape survivors from 22 communities with coordinated programs. A comparison sample of 22 communities with fewer coordinated programs was also obtained. Results indicated that the high coordination communities had three types of programs to address sexual assault: coordinated service programs, interagency training programs, and community-level reform groups. Although not all of these programs directly address service delivery for rape victims, they help create a community culture that is more responsive to victims' needs. The research team and participants developed an explanatory model of why these program are effective in addressing rape victims' needs. This model hypothesizes that coordinated programs reflect an understanding of the multiple contexts of service delivery and embody that knowledge in services that are consistent with victims' needs. Narrative data from the interviews with service providers and rape survivors are used to develop and support this model. PMID:9772731

  7. Date Rape: Effects of Race of Assailant and Victim and Gender of Subjects on Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Linda S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines the effects of race (black or white) of assailant and victim of subjects on perceptions of date rape. Results indicated that date rape encounters were perceived as less serious if the victim was black, and that females were more likely to define the forced sexual encounter as a crime and to be in favor of prosecuting the perpetrator. (JPS)

  8. Perceptions of Dating Behaviors and Reasons Offered to Justify Date Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostwick, Tracy; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Reports on a study that asked undergraduate students from a large, public midwestern university to identify specific dating behaviors that indicate an interest in sex, as well as perceptions of what women do that lead men to justify raping them and perceptions of what men say to justify having raped. (Author/JPS)

  9. A Multivariate Model for Predicting Rape and Physical Injury Outcomes during Sexual Assaults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Knight, Raymond A.

    1991-01-01

    Analyzed relation of situational factors, offender aggression, and victim resistance to women's sexual abuse and physical injury during sexual assaults using police reports/court testimonies of 274 women who avoided rape or were raped. After situational variables were partialed out, women's screaming was related to less severe sexual abuse;…

  10. Risk Factors for Physical Assault and Rape among Six Native American Tribes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Nicole P.; Koss, Mary P.; Polacca, Mona; Goldman, David

    2006-01-01

    Prevalence and correlates of adult physical assault and rape in six Native American tribes are presented (N = 1,368). Among women, 45% reported being physically assaulted and 14% were raped since age 18 years. For men, figures were 36% and 2%, respectively. Demographic characteristics, adverse childhood experiences, adulthood alcohol dependence,…

  11. American College Students' Attitudes toward Rape Victims and Beliefs in a Just World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jeaw Mei; Lin, Phylis Lan

    Two hundred sixty-six college students from four Indiana colleges and universities completed a series of surveys to determine gender differences in attitudes toward rape victims. The instruments adapted and used included the Rubin and Peplau Just World Scale (JWS), the Burt Sex Role Stereotype Scale, the Attitudes Toward Rape Victims Scale (ATRVS)…

  12. Preventing Alcohol-Related Problems on Campus: Acquaintance Rape. A Guide for Program Coordinators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Peter

    This is a guide for college and university program coordinators and planning committees on how to establish, expand, or improve a program on the prevention of acquaintance rape. Information is given for Presidents, Vice Presidents, and Deans on the relationship between acquaintance rape and alcohol, reasons for top administrators to become…

  13. Gender Role and Attitudes toward Rape in Male and Female College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szymanski, Lynda A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examines the relationship between college students' gender roles and attitudes toward rape for 145 male and 374 female students. Responses to a scenario questionnaire suggest that women and men view acquaintance rape differently and that men may experience more attitude change resulting from an awareness workshop than do women. (SLD)

  14. Description of an Early Intervention to Prevent Substance Abuse and Psychopathology in Recent Rape Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, Heidi; Acierno, Ron; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Holmes, Melissa

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 683,000 adult women are raped each year. Only one in seven of these victims report the assault to police and receive forensic exams and other professional services. For many rape victims, this may be the only professional contact with service providers; however these services are typically limited to evidence collection and…

  15. The Rape Prevention and Education (RPE) Theory Model of Community Change: Connecting Individual and Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Pamela J.; Lang, Karen S.; Townsend, Stephanie M.; Campbell, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Social work practice has long focused on the connections between an individual and the social environment that affect the individual's social functioning. The Rape Prevention and Education (RPE) Program's theory model, Creating Safer Communities: The Rape Prevention and Education Model of Community Change, provides family social workers with a…

  16. Where Do I Start?: A Parents' Guide for Talking to Teens about Acquaintance Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bateman, Py; Stringer, Gayle M.

    This is a booklet designed for parents interested in helping their teenage children avoid the possibility of sexual assault. The first section of the booklet provides background on acquaintance rape, discussing attitudes about acquaintance rape, what boys and girls learn about sexual activity, gender different perceptions, and teenagers and peer…

  17. 64 FR 18935 - Notice of Cancellation of the Post Rape Stress Video for Indian Country Solicitation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1999-04-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office for Victims of Crime RIN 1121-ZB56 Notice of Cancellation of the Post Rape Stress Video for Indian...). SUMMARY: The Office for Victims of Crime (OVC) is canceling the solicitation, Post Rape Stress Video...

  18. 77 FR 37105 - National Standards To Prevent, Detect, and Respond to Prison Rape

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ...The Department of Justice (Department) is issuing a final rule adopting national standards to prevent, detect, and respond to prison rape, as required by the Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003 (PREA). In addition, the Department is requesting comment on one issue relating to staffing in juvenile facilities. Further discussion of the final rule is found in the Executive...

  19. The Masculine Ideal: Rape on Prime-Time Television, 1976-1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuklanz, Lisa M.

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship regarding whether, when, and how feminist formulations of rape made their way into the mainstream by examining 25 episodes of prime-time television featuring rape as a primary plot element from 1976 through 1978. Finds that these episodes bolster hegemonic masculinity by focusing on male protagonists, depicting them as…

  20. The Feminist Theory of Rape: Implications for Prevention Programming Targeted at Male College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggard, William K.

    1991-01-01

    Briefly describes three prevailing theories of rape: evolutionary theory, social learning theory, and feminist theory. Applies feminist theory of rape to practice rationale for prevention programming targeted specifically at traditional-aged college males. Support for the theory, based on results of previous studies, is presented, and implications…