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Sample records for rapid meta-ii intermediate

  1. RABBIT: Rapid Alignment of Brains by Building Intermediate Templates

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Songyuan; Fan, Yong; Shen, Dinggang

    2009-01-01

    A brain image registration algorithm, referred to as RABBIT, is proposed to achieve fast and accurate image registration with the help of an intermediate template generated by a statistical deformation model. The statistical deformation model is built by principal component analysis (PCA) on a set of training samples of brain deformation fields that warp a selected template image to the individual brain samples. The statistical deformation model is capable of characterizing individual brain deformations by a small number of parameters, which is used to rapidly estimate the brain deformation between the template and a new individual brain image. The estimated deformation is then used to warp the template, thus generating an intermediate template close to the individual brain image. Finally, the shape difference between the intermediate template and the individual brain is estimated by an image registration algorithm, e.g., HAMMER. The overall registration between the template and the individual brain image can be achieved by directly combining the deformation fields that warp the template to the intermediate template, and the intermediate template to the individual brain image. The algorithm has been validated for spatial normalization of both simulated and real magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain images. Compared with HAMMER, the experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can achieve over five times speedup, with similar registration accuracy and statistical power in detecting brain atrophy. PMID:19285145

  2. Rapid fertility decline in Iran: analysis of intermediate variables.

    PubMed

    Erfani, Amir; McQuillan, Kevin

    2008-05-01

    The remarkable decline in fertility in Iran, which saw the total fertility rate fall from 7 children per woman in 1986 to 2 in 2000, has received only limited analysis in the demographic literature. Using the 2000 Iran Demographic and Health Survey and Bongaarts' age-specific fertility model, this paper examines the role of the major proximate determinants of fertility in bringing about the rapid decrease in fertility in Iran. The analysis indicates that contraception had the largest effect on fertility, accounting for 61% of the reduction in fertility from its theoretical maximum. The fertility-inhibiting effect of marriage patterns accounted for an additional 31% reduction, and was most important among the young. Further analysis of contraceptive behaviour suggests that the current period fertility rate of 2.0 children per woman is an outcome of a synchronization of delaying and spacing of births among younger women with stopping of childbearing among women in the middle and late reproductive ages. The policy implications of the results are discussed. PMID:17850688

  3. Southern Hemisphere SETI Survey - Five years of project META II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemarchand, Guillermo A.; Colomb, Fernando R.; Hurrell, E. E.; Olalde, Juan C.

    1997-01-01

    Project META II, a full-sky survey for artificial narrowband signals, has been conducted from one of the two 30-m radiotelescopes of the Instituto Argentino de Radioastronomia (IAR). The search was performed near the 1420-MHz line of neutral hydrogen, using a 8.4 million channels Fourier spectrometer of 0.05-Hz resolution and 400-kHz instantaneous bandwidth. The observing frequency was corrected both for motions with respect to three astronomical inertial frames, and for the effect of the Earth's rotation, which provides a characteristic changing signature for narrowband signals of extraterrestrial origin. Among the 2 x 10 exp 13 spectral channels analyzed, 29 extra statistical narrowband events exceeding the average threshold of 1.7 x 10 exp -23 W/sq m were found. The strongest signals that survive culling for terrestrial interference lie in or near the galactic plane. A description of the project META II observing scheme and results is made, as well as a possible interpretation of the results using the Cordes Lazio-Sagan model based on interstellar scattering theory.

  4. Characterizing millisecond intermediates in hemoproteins using rapid-freeze-quenched resonance Raman spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Matsumura, Hirotoshi; Moënne-Loccoz, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Summary The combination of rapid-freeze-quenching (RFQ) technique and resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy represents a unique tool to investigate the nature of short-lived intermediates formed during the enzymatic reaction of metalloproteins. Commercially available equipment allows trapping of intermediates within the millisecond to second timescale for low-temperature RR analysis and direct detection of metal-ligand vibrations and porphyrin skeletal vibrations in hemoproteins. This chapter briefly discusses previous RFQ-RR studies carried-out in our laboratory, and presents as a practical example protocols for the preparation of RFQ samples of the reaction of metmyoglobin with nitric oxide (NO) which requires anaerobic conditions. We also describe important controls and practical procedure for the analysis of these samples by low-temperature RR spectroscopy. PMID:24639256

  5. Kinetic modeling of hydrocarbon autoignition at low and intermediate temperatures in a rapid compression machine

    SciTech Connect

    Curran, H J; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Griffiths, J F; Mohamed, C

    2000-11-01

    A computer model is used to examine oxidation of hydrocarbon fuels in a rapid compression machine. For one of the fuels studied, n-heptane, significant fuel consumption is computed to take place during the compression stroke under some operating conditions, while for the less reactive n-pentane, no appreciable fuel consumption occurs until after the end of compression. The third fuel studied, a 60 PRF mixture of iso-octane and n-heptane, exhibits behavior that is intermediate between that of n-heptane and n-pentane. The model results indicate that computational studies of rapid compression machine ignition must consider fuel reaction during compression in order to achieve satisfactory agreement between computed and experimental results.

  6. Application of near infrared spectroscopy for rapid analysis of intermediates of Tanreqing injection.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenlong; Xing, Lihong; Fang, Limin; Wang, Jue; Qu, Haibin

    2010-11-01

    A method for rapid quantitative analysis of four kinds of Tanreqing injection intermediates was developed based on Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy and partial least squares (PLS) algorithm. The NIR spectra of 120 samples were collected in transflective mode. The concentrations of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, luteoloside, baicalin, ursodesoxycholic acid (UDCA), and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) were determined with the HPLC-DAD/ELSD as reference method. In the PLS calibration, the NIR spectra were pretreated with different methods and the number of PLS factors used in the model calibration was optimized by leave-one-out cross-validation. The performance of the final PLS models was evaluated according to the root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC), root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP), BIAS, standard error of prediction (SEP), and correlation coefficients (R). The R values in the prediction sets were all higher than 0.93, and the SEPs for the 6 compounds are 1.18, 6.02, 2.71, 155, 126, 30.0mg/l, respectively. The established models were used for the liquid preparation process analysis of Tanreqing injection in three batches, and a model updating method was proposed for the long-term usage of the established models. This work demonstrated that NIR spectroscopy is more rapid and convenient than the conventional methods to analyze the intermediates of Tanreqing injection, and the presented method is helpful to the implementation of process analytical technology (PAT) in pharmaceutical industry of Chinese Medicines Injections. PMID:20457503

  7. Rapid Movements of Vimentin on Microtubule Tracks: Kinesin-dependent Assembly of Intermediate Filament Networks

    PubMed Central

    Prahlad, Veena; Yoon, Miri; Moir, Robert D.; Vale, Ronald D.; Goldman, Robert D.

    1998-01-01

    The assembly and maintenance of an extended intermediate filament (IF) network in fibroblasts requires microtubule (MT) integrity. Using a green fluorescent protein–vimentin construct, and spreading BHK-21 cells as a model system to study IF–MT interactions, we have discovered a novel mechanism involved in the assembly of the vimentin IF cytoskeleton. This entails the rapid, discontinuous, and MT-dependent movement of IF precursors towards the peripheral regions of the cytoplasm where they appear to assemble into short fibrils. These precursors, or vimentin dots, move at speeds averaging 0.55 ± 0.24 μm/s. The vimentin dots colocalize with MT and their motility is inhibited after treatment with nocodazole. Our studies further implicate a conventional kinesin in the movement of the vimentin dots. The dots colocalize with conventional kinesin as shown by indirect immunofluorescence, and IF preparations from spreading cells are enriched in kinesin. Furthermore, microinjection of kinesin antibodies into spreading cells prevents the assembly of an extended IF network. These studies provide insights into the interactions between the IF and MT systems. They also suggest a role for conventional kinesin in the distribution of non-membranous protein cargo, and the local regulation of IF assembly. PMID:9763428

  8. Rapid movements of vimentin on microtubule tracks: kinesin-dependent assembly of intermediate filament networks.

    PubMed

    Prahlad, V; Yoon, M; Moir, R D; Vale, R D; Goldman, R D

    1998-10-01

    The assembly and maintenance of an extended intermediate filament (IF) network in fibroblasts requires microtubule (MT) integrity. Using a green fluorescent protein-vimentin construct, and spreading BHK-21 cells as a model system to study IF-MT interactions, we have discovered a novel mechanism involved in the assembly of the vimentin IF cytoskeleton. This entails the rapid, discontinuous, and MT-dependent movement of IF precursors towards the peripheral regions of the cytoplasm where they appear to assemble into short fibrils. These precursors, or vimentin dots, move at speeds averaging 0.55 +/- 0.24 micrometer/s. The vimentin dots colocalize with MT and their motility is inhibited after treatment with nocodazole. Our studies further implicate a conventional kinesin in the movement of the vimentin dots. The dots colocalize with conventional kinesin as shown by indirect immunofluorescence, and IF preparations from spreading cells are enriched in kinesin. Furthermore, microinjection of kinesin antibodies into spreading cells prevents the assembly of an extended IF network. These studies provide insights into the interactions between the IF and MT systems. They also suggest a role for conventional kinesin in the distribution of non-membranous protein cargo, and the local regulation of IF assembly. PMID:9763428

  9. Chemotherapy of colorectal liver metastases induces a rapid rise in intermediate blood monocytes which predicts treatment response.

    PubMed

    Schauer, Dominic; Starlinger, Patrick; Alidzanovic, Lejla; Zajc, Philipp; Maier, Thomas; Feldman, Alexandra; Padickakudy, Robin; Buchberger, Elisabeth; Elleder, Vanessa; Spittler, Andreas; Stift, Judith; Pop, Lorand; Gruenberger, Birgit; Gruenberger, Thomas; Brostjan, Christine

    2016-06-01

    We have previously reported that intermediate monocytes (CD14(++)/CD16(+)) were increased in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, while the subset of pro-angiogenic TIE2-expressing monocytes (TEMs) was not significantly elevated. This study was designed to evaluate changes in frequency and function of intermediate monocytes and TEMs during chemotherapy and anti-angiogenic cancer treatment and their relation to treatment response. Monocyte populations were determined by flow cytometry in 60 metastasized CRC (mCRC) patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab. Blood samples were taken before treatment, after two therapy cycles, at the end of neoadjuvant therapy and immediately before surgical resection of liver metastases. Neoadjuvant treatment resulted in a significant increase in circulating intermediate monocytes which was most pronounced after two cycles and positively predicted tumor response (AUC = 0.875, p = 0.005). With a cut-off value set to 1% intermediate monocytes of leukocytes, this parameter showed a predictive sensitivity and specificity of 75% and 88%. Anti-angiogenic therapy with bevacizumab had no impact on monocyte populations including TEMs. In 15 patients and six healthy controls, the gene expression profile and the migratory behavior of monocyte subsets was evaluated. The profile of intermediate monocytes suggested functions in antigen presentation, inflammatory cytokine production, chemotaxis and was remarkably stable during chemotherapy. Intermediate monocytes showed a preferential migratory response to tumor-derived signals in vitro and correlated with the level of CD14(+)/CD16(+) monocytic infiltrates in the resected tumor tissue. In conclusion, the rapid rise of intermediate monocytes during chemotherapy may offer a simple marker for response prediction and a timely change in regimen. PMID:27471631

  10. A rapid multi-device wireless power transfer scheme using an intermediate energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, C. S.; Nam, S. S.; Cho, S. H.

    2016-04-01

    We introduce a new time-division multiplex wireless power transfer (TDM-WPT) scheme for charging multiple devices with a single transmitter. More specifically, our proposed scheme adopts the intermediate energy storage (IES) circuit which enables storing the received energy from the source temporarily and then supplying it to the load. Thus, by adopting the IES, the receiver can charge the battery with the stored energy in the IES even while the receiver is not performing the direct charging process (from the transmitter). This allows charging multiple receivers simultaneously in a virtual manner, and it eventually leads to the reduction of overall charging time. For the theoretical verification, we analyse the performance of our proposed scheme based on the identical environment and in some selected results. We show that with our proposed scheme the required total charging time can be reduced compared to the conventional TDM-WPT. We also consider practical load (battery charger) requirements which change continuously. We present the simple guidelines for some key design parameters such as the optimal capacity of the IES and the proper number of receivers. Note that we additionally present the sample IES circuit and the related circuit simulation to show the detailed operation and the feasibility of the proposed scheme.

  11. Mechanism of the reduction of the native intermediate in the multicopper oxidases: insights into rapid intramolecular electron transfer in turnover.

    PubMed

    Heppner, David E; Kjaergaard, Christian H; Solomon, Edward I

    2014-12-24

    The multicopper oxidases (MCOs) are the family of enzymes that catalyze the 4-electron reduction of O2 to H2O coupled to the four 1-electron oxidations of substrate. In the catalytic cycle electrons are transferred intramolecularly over ∼13 Å from a Type 1 (T1) Cu site that accepts electrons from substrate to a trinuclear Cu cluster (TNC) where O2 is reduced to H2O at rapid rates consistent with turnover (560 s(-1)). The oxygen reduction mechanism for the MCOs is well-characterized, whereas the rereduction is less understood. Our initial study of Rhus vernicifera Laccase (Heppner et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 12212) experimentally established that the native intermediate (NI), the species formed upon O-O bond cleavage, is reduced with an IET rate >700 s(-1) and is the catalytically relevant fully oxidized form of the enzyme, rather than the resting state. In this report, we present kinetic and spectroscopic results coupled to DFT calculations that evaluate the mechanism of the 3 e(-)/3 H(+) reduction of NI, where all three catalytically relevant intramolecular electron transfer (IET) steps are rapid and involve three different structural changes. These three rapid IET processes reflect the sophisticated mechanistic control of the TNC to enable rapid turnover. All three IET processes are fast due to the associated protonation of the bridging oxo and hydroxo ligands, generated by O-O cleavage, to form water products that are extruded from the TNC upon full reduction, thereby defining a unifying mechanism for oxygen reduction and rapid IET by the TNC in the catalytic cycle of the MCOs. PMID:25490729

  12. Pulsations of rapidly rotating stars. II. Realistic modelling for intermediate-mass stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouazzani, R.-M.; Roxburgh, I. W.; Dupret, M.-A.

    2015-07-01

    Context. Very high precision seismic space missions such as CoRoT and Kepler provide the means for testing the modelling of transport processes in stellar interiors. For some stars, such as δ Scuti, γ Doradus, and Be stars, the observed pulsation spectra are modified by rotation to such an extent that it prevents any fruitful interpretation. Aims: Our aim is to characterise acoustic pulsation spectra of realistic stellar models in order to be able to interpret asteroseismic data from such stars. Methods: The 2D oscillation code ACOR, which treats rotation in a non-perturbative manner, is used to study pulsation spectra of highly distorted evolved models of stars. Two-dimensional models of stars are obtained by a self-consistent method that distorts spherically averaged stellar models a posteriori, at any stage of evolution, and for any type of rotation law. Results: Four types of modes are calculated in a very dense frequency spectrum, among which are island modes. The regularity of the island modes spectrum is confirmed and yields a new set of quantum numbers, with which an échelle diagram can be built. Mixed gravito-acoustic modes are calculated in rapidly rotating models for the first time.

  13. Subcomplexes of Ancestral Respiratory Complex I Subunits Rapidly Turn Over in Vivo as Productive Assembly Intermediates in Arabidopsis*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lei; Nelson, Clark J.; Carrie, Chris; Gawryluk, Ryan M. R.; Solheim, Cory; Gray, Michael W.; Whelan, James; Millar, A. Harvey

    2013-01-01

    Subcomplexes of mitochondrial respiratory complex I (CI; EC 1.6.5.3) are shown to turn over in vivo, and we propose a role in an ancestral assembly pathway. By progressively labeling Arabidopsis cell cultures with 15N and isolating mitochondria, we have identified CI subcomplexes through differences in 15N incorporation into their protein subunits. The 200-kDa subcomplex, containing the ancestral γ-carbonic anhydrase (γ-CA), γ-carbonic anhydrase-like, and 20.9-kDa subunits, had a significantly higher turnover rate than intact CI or CI+CIII2. In vitro import of precursors for these CI subunits demonstrated rapid generation of subcomplexes and revealed that their specific abundance varied when different ancestral subunits were imported. Time course studies of precursor import showed the further assembly of these subcomplexes into CI and CI+CIII2, indicating that the subcomplexes are productive intermediates of assembly. The strong transient incorporation of new subunits into the 200-kDa subcomplex in a γ-CA mutant is consistent with this subcomplex being a key initiator of CI assembly in plants. This evidence alongside the pattern of coincident occurrence of genes encoding these particular proteins broadly in eukaryotes, except for opisthokonts, provides a framework for the evolutionary conservation of these accessory subunits and evidence of their function in ancestral CI assembly. PMID:23271729

  14. Rapid screening of copper intermediates in Cu(i)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition using a modified ICP-MS/MS platform.

    PubMed

    He, Qian; Xing, Zhi; Wei, Chao; Fang, Xiang; Zhang, Sichun; Zhang, Xinrong

    2016-08-18

    Rapid screening of Cu(+)-intermediates by using (63)Cu(+) or (65)Cu(+) ions as catalysts with or without ligand protection in Cu(i)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition was realized using an on-line modified ICP-MS/MS platform in this work, while the Cu(+)-intermediates without ligand protection are very active, which are extremely difficult to be observed using other existing techniques. This universal platform was suitable to study the mechanism of organic reactions catalyzed by unstable metal(i) ions as well as to discover new candidates for metal(i) catalysts. PMID:27487942

  15. Rapid Reduction of the Diferric-Peroxyhemiacetal Intermediate in Aldehyde-Deformylating Oxygenase by a Cyanobacterial Ferredoxin: Evidence for a Free-Radical Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Rajakovich, Lauren J; Nørgaard, Hanne; Warui, Douglas M; Chang, Wei-chen; Li, Ning; Booker, Squire J; Krebs, Carsten; Bollinger, J Martin; Pandelia, Maria-Eirini

    2015-09-16

    Aldehyde-deformylating oxygenase (ADO) is a ferritin-like nonheme-diiron enzyme that catalyzes the last step in a pathway through which fatty acids are converted into hydrocarbons in cyanobacteria. ADO catalyzes conversion of a fatty aldehyde to the corresponding alk(a/e)ne and formate, consuming four electrons and one molecule of O2 per turnover and incorporating one atom from O2 into the formate coproduct. The source of the reducing equivalents in vivo has not been definitively established, but a cyanobacterial [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin (PetF), reduced by ferredoxin-NADP(+) reductase (FNR) using NADPH, has been implicated. We show that both the diferric form of Nostoc punctiforme ADO and its (putative) diferric-peroxyhemiacetal intermediate are reduced much more rapidly by Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 PetF than by the previously employed chemical reductant, 1-methoxy-5-methylphenazinium methyl sulfate. The yield of formate and alkane per reduced PetF approaches its theoretical upper limit when reduction of the intermediate is carried out in the presence of FNR. Reduction of the intermediate by either system leads to accumulation of a substrate-derived peroxyl radical as a result of off-pathway trapping of the C2-alkyl radical intermediate by excess O2, which consequently diminishes the yield of the hydrocarbon product. A sulfinyl radical located on residue Cys71 also accumulates with short-chain aldehydes. The detection of these radicals under turnover conditions provides the most direct evidence to date for a free-radical mechanism. Additionally, our results expose an inefficiency of the enzyme in processing its radical intermediate, presenting a target for optimization of bioprocesses exploiting this hydrocarbon-production pathway. PMID:26284355

  16. Direct Observation by Rapid-Scan FT-IR Spectroscopy of Two-Electron-Reduced Intermediate of Tetraaza Catalyst [Co(II)N4H(MeCN)](2+) Converting CO2 to CO.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Hua; Frei, Heinz

    2016-08-10

    In the search for the two-electron-reduced intermediate of the tetraaza catalyst [Co(II)N4H(MeCN)](2+) (N4H = 2,12-dimethyl-3,7,11,17-tetraazabicyclo[11.3.1]heptadeca-1(17),2,11,13,15-pentaene) for CO2 reduction and elementary steps that result in the formation of CO product, rapid-scan FT-IR spectroscopy of the visible-light-sensitized catalysis, using Ir(ppy)3 in wet acetonitrile (CD3CN) solution, led to the observation of two sequential intermediates. The initially formed one-electron-reduced [Co(I)N4H](+)-CO2 adduct was converted by the second electron to a transient [Co(I)N4H](+)-CO2(-) complex that spontaneously converted CO2 to CO in a rate-limiting step on the second time scale in the dark under regeneration of the catalyst (room temperature). The macrocycle IR spectra of the [Co(I)N4H](+)-CO2(-) complex and the preceding one-electron [Co(I)N4H](+)-CO2 intermediate show close similarity but distinct differences in the carboxylate modes, indicating that the second electron resides mainly on the CO2 ligand. Vibrational assignments are corroborated by (13)C isotopic labeling. The structure and stability of the two-electron-reduced intermediate derived from the time-resolved IR study are in good agreement with recent predictions by DFT electronic structure calculations. This is the first observation of an intermediate of a molecular catalyst for CO2 reduction during the bond-breaking step producing CO. The reaction pathway for the Co tetraaza catalyst uncovered here suggests that the competition between CO2 reduction and proton reduction of a macrocyclic multi-electron catalyst is steered toward CO2 activation if the second electron is directly captured by an adduct of CO2 and the one-electron-reduced catalyst intermediate. PMID:27420191

  17. Rapid Detection of Vancomycin-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mather, Cheryl A; Werth, Brian J; Sivagnanam, Shobini; SenGupta, Dhruba J; Butler-Wu, Susan M

    2016-04-01

    Vancomycin is the standard of care for the treatment of invasive methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus(MRSA) infections. Infections with vancomycin-nonsusceptible MRSA, including vancomycin-intermediateS. aureus(VISA) and heterogeneous VISA (hVISA), are clinically challenging and are associated with poor patient outcomes. The identification of VISA in the clinical laboratory depends on standard susceptibility testing, which takes at least 24 h to complete after isolate subculture, whereas hVISA is not routinely detected in clinical labs. We therefore sought to determine whether VISA and hVISA can be differentiated from vancomycin-susceptibleS. aureus(VSSA) using the spectra produced by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Strains of MRSA were characterized for vancomycin susceptibility phenotype by broth microdilution and modified population analysis. We tested 21 VISA, 21 hVISA, and 38 VSSA isolates by MALDI-TOF MS. Susceptibility phenotypes were separated by using a support vector machine (SVM) machine learning algorithm. The resulting model was validated by leave-one-out cross validation. Models were developed and validated by using spectral profiles generated under various subculture conditions, as well as with and without hVISA strains. Using SVM, we correctly identified 100% of the VISA and 97% of the VSSA isolates with an overall classification accuracy of 98%. Addition of hVISA to the model resulted in 76% hVISA identification, 100% VISA identification, and 89% VSSA identification, for an overall classification accuracy of 89%. We conclude that VISA/hVISA and VSSA isolates are separable by MALDI-TOF MS with SVM analysis. PMID:26763961

  18. Characterization of a microbial consortium capable of rapid and simultaneous dechlorination of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and chlorinated ethane and ethene intermediates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, E.J.P.; Voytek, M.A.; Lorah, M.M.; Kirshtein, J.D.

    2006-01-01

    A study was carried out to develop a culture of microorganisms for bioaugmentation treatment of chlorinated-ethane contaminated groundwater at sites where dechlorination is incomplete or rates are too slow for effective remedation. Mixed cultures capable of dechlorinating chlorinated ethanes and ethenes were enriched from contaminated wetland sediment at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) Maryland. The West Branch Consortium (WBC-2) was capable of degrading 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (TeCA), trichloroethylene (TCE), cis and trans 1,2-dichloroethylene (DCE), 1,1,2-trichloroethane (TCA), 1,2-dichloroethane, and vinyl chloride to nonchlorinated end products ethylene and ethane. WBC-2 dechlorinated TeCA, TCA, and cisDCE rapidly and simultaneously. Methanogens in the consortium were members of the class Methanomicrobia, which includes acetoclastic methanogens. The WBC-2 consortium provides opportunities for the in situ bioremediation of sites contaminated with mixtures of chlorinated ethylenes and ethanes.

  19. Reactions of nitrogen oxides with heme models. Characterization of NO and NO2 dissociation from Fe(TPP)(NO2)(NO) by flash photolysis and rapid dilution techniques: Fe(TPP)(NO2) as an unstable intermediate.

    PubMed

    Lim, Mark D; Lorkovic, Ivan M; Wedeking, Katrin; Zanella, Andrew W; Works, Carmen F; Massick, Steve M; Ford, Peter C

    2002-08-21

    Described are studies directed toward elucidating the controversial chemistry relating to the solution phase reactions of nitric oxide with the iron(II) porphyrin complex Fe(TPP)(NO) (1, TPP = meso-tetraphenylporphinato2-). The only reaction observable with clean NO is the formation of the diamagnetic dinitrosyl species Fe(TPP)(NO)2 (2), and this is seen only at low temperatures (K(1) < 3 M(-1) at ambient temperature). However, 1 does readily react reversibly with N2O3 in the presence of excess NO to give the nitro nitrosyl complex Fe(TPP)(NO2)(NO) (3), suggesting that previous claims that 1 promotes NO disproportionation to give 3 may have been compromised by traces of air in the nitric oxide sources. It is also noted that 3 undergoes reversible loss of NO to give the elusive nitro species Fe(TPP)(NO2) (4), which has been implicated as a powerful oxygen atom transfer agent in reactions with various substrates. Furthermore, in the presence of excess NO2, the latter undergoes oxidation to the stable nitrato analogue Fe(TPP)(NO3) (5). Owing to such reactivity of Fe(TPP)(NO2), flash photolysis and stopped-flow kinetics rather than static techniques were necessary for the accurate measurement of dissociation equilibria characteristic of Fe(TPP)(NO2)(NO) in 298 K toluene solution. Flash photolysis of 3 resulted in competitive NO2 and NO dissociation to give Fe(TPP)(NO) and Fe(TPP)(NO2), respectively. The rate constant for the reaction of 1 with N2O3 to generate Fe(TPP)(NO2)(NO) was determined to be 1.8 x 10(6) M(-1) s(-1), and that for the NO reaction with 4 was similarly determined to be 4.2 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1). Stopped-flow rapid dilution techniques were used to determine the rate constant for NO dissociation from 3 as 2.6 s(-1). The rapid dilution experiments also demonstrated that Fe(TPP)(NO2) readily undergoes further oxidation to give Fe(TPP)(NO3). The mechanistic implications of these observations are discussed, and it is suggested that NO2 liberated

  20. Intermediate Strength Gravitational Lensing

    SciTech Connect

    Irwin, John

    2005-03-17

    Weak lensing is found in the correlations of shear in {approx}10{sup 4} galaxy images, strong lensing is detected by the obvious distortion of a single galaxy image, whereas intermediate lensing requires detection of less obvious curvature in several neighboring galaxies. Small impact-parameter lensing causes a sextupole distortion whose orientation is correlated with the quadrupole distortion (shear). By looking within a field for the spatial correlation of this sextupole-quadrupole correlation, an intermediate lensing regime is observed. This technique requires correction for the sextupole as well as the quadrupole content of the PSF. We remove the HST PSF and uncover intermediate lensing in the Hubble deep fields. Correlations of the type expected are found.

  1. Intermediate Cambodian Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Franklin E., Ed.; Proum, Im, Ed.

    This book is a sequel to the "Cambodian System of Writing and Beginning Reader." It is intended to serve as an intermediate reader to develop the student's ability to the point of reading Cambodian texts with the aid of a dictionary. Part One of the book consists of 37 readings, graded in length and difficulty, and selected to provide a wide range…

  2. GLOSSARY TO INTERMEDIATE HINDI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Indian Language and Area Center.

    INCLUDED IN THIS GLOSSARY ARE THE VOCABULARY ITEMS FOR THE READINGS IN "INTERMEDIATE HINDI." THE ITEMS ARE ARRANGED BY SELECTION IN SERIAL ORDER. EACH ENTRY INCLUDES NAGARI (DEVANAGARI) SCRIPT SPELLING, A NOTATION OF THE FORM CLASS, AND A SHORT ENGLISH GLOSS. THESE TWO VOLUMES ARE ALSO AVAILABLE AS A SET FOR $7.00 FROM THE COLLEGE PRINTING…

  3. SPACE: Intermediate Level Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis. Center for School Improvement and Performance.

    These modules were developed to assist teachers at the intermediate level to move away from extensive skill practice and toward more meaningful interdisciplinary learning. This packet, to be used by teachers in the summer Extended Learning Program, provides detailed thematic lesson plans matched to the Indiana Curriculum Proficiency Guide. The…

  4. Hispanic American Heritage, Intermediate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Mike

    This resource book features the cultural heritage of Hispanics living within the United States and includes ideas, materials, and activities to be used with students in the intermediate grades and middle school. This book explores the definition of the term "Hispanic Americans" and suggests a multilayered population with a variety of cultural…

  5. English 200: Intermediate Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Kelly

    2005-01-01

    "English 200: Intermediate Composition" is a program elective for English majors and a writing-intensive elective for nonmajors at Southern Connecticut State University (SCSU), a comprehensive institution of 11,000 undergraduate and graduate (master's level) students. English 200 is described in the departmental course catalog as a course "in…

  6. Water oxidation: Intermediate identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, Alexander J.

    2016-08-01

    The slow kinetics of light-driven water oxidation on haematite is an important factor limiting the material's efficiency. Now, an intermediate of the water-splitting reaction has been identified offering hope that the full mechanism will soon be resolved.

  7. INTERMEDIATE READINGS IN TAGALOG.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BOWEN, J. DONALD, ED.

    THE SECOND IN A SERIES OF TEXTS DESIGNED TO HELP THE STUDENT ACHIEVE AN UNDERSTANDING OF FILIPINO CULTURE AND ACQUIRE ENOUGH PROFICIENCY IN TAGALOG TO COMMUNICATE EASILY AND MEANINGFULLY, THESE INTERMEDIATE READINGS ARE COORDINATED WITH THE EDITOR'S "BEGINNING TAGALOG" (ED 014 696). INCLUDED IN PART I ARE READINGS WRITTEN ESPECIALLY FOR THIS TEXT…

  8. Intermediate water recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckman, G.; Anderson, A. R. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    A water recovery system for collecting, storing, and processing urine, wash water, and humidity condensates from a crew of three aboard a spacecraft is described. The results of a 30-day test performed on a breadboard system are presented. The intermediate water recovery system produced clear, sterile, water with a 96.4 percent recovery rate from the processed urine. Recommendations for improving the system are included.

  9. Characterization of a folding intermediate from HIV-1 ribonuclease H.

    PubMed Central

    Kern, G.; Handel, T.; Marqusee, S.

    1998-01-01

    The RNase H domain from HIV-1 (HIV RNase H) encodes an essential retroviral activity. Refolding of the isolated HIV RNase H domain shows a kinetic intermediate detectable by stopped-flow far UV circular dichroism and pulse-labeling H/D exchange. In this intermediate, strands 1, 4, and 5 as well as helices A and D appear to be structured. Compared to its homolog from Escherichia coli, the rate limiting step in refolding of HIV RNase H appears closer to the native state. We have modeled this kinetic intermediate using a C-terminal deletion fragment lacking helix E. Like the kinetic intermediate, this variant folds rapidly and shows a decrease in stability. We propose that inhibition of the docking of helix E to this folding intermediate may present a novel strategy for anti HIV-1 therapy. PMID:9792104

  10. Conformational dynamics through an intermediate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garai, Ashok; Zhang, Yaojun; Dudko, Olga K.

    2014-04-01

    The self-assembly of biological and synthetic nanostructures commonly proceeds via intermediate states. In living systems in particular, the intermediates have the capacity to tilt the balance between functional and potentially fatal behavior. This work develops a statistical mechanical treatment of conformational dynamics through an intermediate under a variable force. An analytical solution is derived for the key experimentally measurable quantity—the distribution of forces at which a conformational transition occurs. The solution reveals rich kinetics over a broad range of parameters and enables one to locate the intermediate and extract the activation barriers and rate constants.

  11. Intermediate BL Lac objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondi, M.; Marchã, M. J. M.; Dallacasa, D.; Stanghellini, C.

    2001-08-01

    The 200-mJy sample, defined by Marchã et al., contains about 60 nearby, northern, flat-spectrum radio sources. In particular, the sample has proved effective at finding nearby radio-selected BL Lac objects with radio luminosities comparable to those of X-ray-selected objects, and low-luminosity flat-spectrum weak emission-line radio galaxies (WLRGs). The 200-mJy sample contains 23 BL Lac objects (including 6 BL Lac candidates) and 19 WLRGs. We will refer to these subsamples as the 200-mJy BL Lac sample and the 200-mJy WLRG sample, respectively. We have started a systematic analysis of the morphological pc-scale properties of the 200-mJy radio sources using VLBI observations. This paper presents VLBI observations at 5 and 1.6GHz of 14 BL Lac objects and WLRGs selected from the 200-mJy sample. The pc-scale morphology of these objects is briefly discussed. We derive the radio beaming parameters of the 200-mJy BL Lac objects and WLRGs and compare them with those of other BL Lac samples and with a sample of FR I radio galaxies. The overall broad-band radio, optical and X-ray properties of the 200-mJy BL Lac sample are discussed and compared with those of other BL Lac samples, radio- and X-ray-selected. We find that the 200-mJy BL Lac objects fill the gap between HBL and LBL objects in the colour-colour plot, and have intermediate αXOX as expected in the spectral energy distribution unification scenario. Finally, we briefly discuss the role of the WLRGs.

  12. Welding. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Kenneth

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of nine terminal objectives for an intermediate welding course. The materials were developed for a 36-week (3 hours daily) course designed to prepare the student for employment in the field of welding. Electric welding and specialized (TIG & MIG)…

  13. Masonry. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Moses

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 13 terminal objectives for an intermediate masonry course. These materials, developed for a two-semester (3 hours daily) course, are designed to provide the student with the skills and knowledge necessary for entry level employment in the field…

  14. Printing. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seivert, Chester

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 13 terminal objectives for an intermediate printing course. The materials were developed for a two-semester (3 hours daily) course with specialized classroom, shop, and practical experiences designed to enable the student to develop proficiency…

  15. Time-resolved heme protein intermediates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, Denis

    2005-03-01

    To determine the enzymatic mechanisms of heme proteins, it is necessary to identify the intermediates along the catalytic pathway and measure the times of their formation and decay. Resonance Raman scattering spectra are especially powerful for obtaining such information as the electronic structure of the heme group and the nature of the ligand coordinated to the heme iron atom may be monitored. The oxygen intermediates of two physiologically important enzymes will be presented. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) uses oxygen to convert arginine to NO and citrulline; and cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) reduces oxygen to water to support oxidative phosphorylation. The fate or the oxygen in each of these enzymes has been followed by resonance Raman scattering. In NOS the oxygen is slowly converted to an activated species that then reacts fast, whereas in CcO the oxygen is rapidly converted to a reactive species that subsequently reacts slowly. The properties of the intermediates and the origin of the differences between these enzymes will be discussed.

  16. Kinetically Competent Intermediate(s) in the Translocation Step of Protein Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Dongli; Kirillov, Stanislav V.; Cooperman, Barry S.

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY Translocation requires large-scale movements of ribosome-bound tRNAs. Using tRNAs that are proflavin-labeled and single turnover rapid kinetics assays, we identify one or possibly two kinetically competent intermediates in translocation. EF-G.GTP binding to the pretranslocation (PRE) complex and GTP hydrolysis is rapidly followed by formation of the securely identified intermediate complex (INT), which is more slowly converted to the posttranslocation (POST) complex. Peptidyl tRNA within the INT complex occupies a hybrid site, having puromycin reactivity intermediate between those of the PRE and POST complexes. Thiostrepton and viomycin inhibit INT formation, whereas spectinomycin selectively inhibits INT disappearance. The effects of other translocation modulators suggest that EF-G-dependent GTP hydrolysis is more important for INT complex formation than for INT complex conversion to POST complex, and that subtle changes in tRNA structure influence coupling of tRNA movement to EF-G.GTP-induced conformational changes. PMID:17317625

  17. Cryospectrokinetic characterization of intermediates in biochemical reactions: carboxypeptidase A.

    PubMed Central

    Auld, D S; Galdes, A; Geoghegan, K F; Holmquist, B; Martinelli, R A; Vallee, B L

    1984-01-01

    Cryospectrokinetic studies provide concurrent structural, kinetic, and chemical data on short-lived intermediates in the course of the interactions of enzymes with their substrates and of other, similar pairs of biomolecules. Subzero temperatures extend the lifetimes of these intermediates and, combined with rapid-mixing and rapid-scanning instrumentation, allow simultaneous measurement of both their physical-chemical and kinetic characteristics. For carboxypeptidase A, the spectra of a chromophoric, enzymatically functional cobalt atom at the active site signal the structure of the coordination complex during catalysis, while radiationless energy transfer between enzyme tryptophans and the fluorescent dansyl blocking group of rapidly hydrolyzed peptide and ester substrates provides the basis for measurement of the rates of formation and breakdown of intermediates. Subzero radiationless energy transfer kinetic studies of the zinc and cobalt enzymes disclose two intermediates in the hydrolysis of both peptides and esters and furnish all the rate and equilibrium constants for the reaction scheme E + S in equilibrium ES1 in equilibrium ES2----E + P. The chemical and kinetic data indicate that neither of these is an acylenzyme intermediate. Both absorption and EPR spectra of the ES2 reaction intermediates consistently demonstrate the formation of transient metal complexes, differences between the effects induced by peptides and esters, and strong similarities between those induced by all peptides on the one hand and all esters on the other. The marked alterations of the cobalt spectra likely reflect the coordination of a substrate carboxyl and/or carbonyl group to the metal at a critical step in the course of catalysis. The cryospectrokinetic approach developed here in the mechanistic study of this metalloenzyme is applicable to the examination of transients of biochemical reactions in general. It will allow molecular characterization of previously elusive

  18. Intermediate ions in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tammet, Hannes; Komsaare, Kaupo; Hõrrak, Urmas

    2014-01-01

    Intermediate air ions are charged nanometer-sized aerosol particles with an electric mobility of about 0.03-0.5 cm2 V- 1 s- 1 and a diameter of about 1.5-7.5 nm. Intensive studies of new particle formation provided good knowledge about intermediate ions during burst events of atmospheric aerosol nucleation. Information about intermediate ions during quiet periods between the bursts remained poor. The new mobility analyzer SIGMA can detect air ions at concentrations of mobility fractions of about 1 cm- 3 and enables studying intermediate ions during quiet periods. It became evident that intermediate ions always exist in atmospheric air and should be considered an indicator and a mediator of aerosol nucleation. The annual average concentration of intermediate ions of one polarity in Tartu, Estonia, was about 40 cm- 3 while 5% of the measurements showed a concentration of less than 10 cm- 3. The fraction concentrations in logarithmic 1/8-decade mobility bins between 0.1 and 0.4 cm2 V- 1 s- 1 often dropped below 1 cm- 3. The bursts of intermediate ions at stations separated by around 100 km appeared to be correlated. The lifespan of intermediate ions in the atmosphere is a few minutes, and they cannot be carried by wind over long distances. Thus the observed long-range correlation of intermediate ions is explained by simultaneous changes in air composition in widely spaced stations. A certain amount of intermediate ion bursts, predominantly of negative polarity, are produced by the balloelectric effect at the splashing of water drops during rain. These bursts are usually excluded when speaking about new particle formation because the balloelectric particles are assumed not to grow to the size of the Aitken mode. The mobility distribution of balloelectric ions is uniform in shape in all measurements. The maximum is located at a mobility of about 0.2 cm2 V- 1 s- 1, which corresponds to the diameter of particles of about 2.5 nm.

  19. Nuclear reactions at intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shyam, Radhey

    2016-05-01

    In the domain of Nuclear reactions at intermediate energies, the QCD coupling constant αs is large enough (~ 0.3 - 0.5) to render the perturbative calculational techniques inapplicable. In this regime the quarks are confined into colorless hadrons and it is expected that effective field theories of hadron interactions via exchange of hadrons, provide useful tools to describe such reactions. In this contribution we discuss the application of one such theory, the effective Lagrangian model, in describing the hadronic reactions at intermediate energies whose measurements are the focus of a vast international experimental program.

  20. Compact intermediates in RNA folding

    SciTech Connect

    Woodson, S.A.

    2011-12-14

    Large noncoding RNAs fold into their biologically functional structures via compact yet disordered intermediates, which couple the stable secondary structure of the RNA with the emerging tertiary fold. The specificity of the collapse transition, which coincides with the assembly of helical domains, depends on RNA sequence and counterions. It determines the specificity of the folding pathways and the magnitude of the free energy barriers to the ensuing search for the native conformation. By coupling helix assembly with nascent tertiary interactions, compact folding intermediates in RNA also play a crucial role in ligand binding and RNA-protein recognition.

  1. Rapid Prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  2. Intermediate Filaments: A Historical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Oshima, Robert G.

    2007-01-01

    Intracellular protein filaments intermediate in size between actin microfilaments and microtubules are composed of a surprising variety of tissue specific proteins commonly interconnected with other filamentous systems for mechanical stability and decorated by a variety of proteins that provide specialized functions. The sequence conservation of the coiled-coil, alpha-helical structure responsible for polymerization into individual 10 nm filaments defines the classification of intermediate filament proteins into a large gene family. Individual filaments further assemble into bundles and branched cytoskeletons visible in the light microscope. However, it is the diversity of the variable terminal domains that likely contributes most to different functions. The search for the functions of intermediate filament proteins has led to discoveries of roles in diseases of the skin, heart, muscle, liver, brain, adipose tissues and even premature aging. The diversity of uses of intermediate filaments as structural elements and scaffolds for organizing the distribution of decorating molecules contrasts with other cytoskeletal elements. This review is an attempt to provide some recollection of how such a diverse field emerged and changed over about 30 years. PMID:17493611

  3. Intermediate Nepali Structure. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verma, M. K.; Sharma, T. N.

    This volume is made up of 20 lessons and is part of a comprehensive course in intermediate Nepali. It explains and illustrates the basic structures of Nepali grammar through lessons which include different tense forms, postpositions, conditionals, comparatives, and other structural elements. The first lesson is devoted specifically to guiding…

  4. Cestina pro Pokrocile (Intermediate Czech).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabat, Grazyna; And Others

    The textbook in intermediate Czech is designed for second-year students of the language and those who already have a basic knowledge of Czech grammar and vocabulary. It is appropriate for use in a traditional college language classroom, the business community, or a government language school. It can be covered in a year-long conventional…

  5. Learning through Literature: Geography, Intermediate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Mary Ellen

    This resource book provides specific strategies and activities for integrating the intermediate geography curriculum with related children's literature selections. The book includes the following sections: (1) "World Geography Overview"; (2) "Oceans"; (3) "Polar Regions"; (4) "Islands"; (5) "Rain Forests"; (6) "Mountains"; (7) "Forests"; (8)…

  6. Intermediality and the Child Performer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    This report details examples of praxis in the creation and presentation of "Joy Fear and Poetry": an intermedial theatre performance in which children aged 7-12 years generated aesthetic gestures using a range of new media forms. The impetus for the work's development was a desire to make an intervention into habituated patterns of…

  7. Material Voices: Intermediality and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimingham, Melissa; Shaughnessy, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Autism continues to be regarded enigmatically; a community that is difficult to access due to perceived disruptions of interpersonal connectedness. Through detailed observations of two children participating in the Arts and Humanities Research Council funded project "Imagining Autism: Drama, Performance and Intermediality as Interventions for…

  8. Susu Intermediate Course. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sangster, Linda W.; Faber, Emmanuel

    This intermediate text in Susu is intended to provide the student of Susu with further practice on the grammatical constructions learned in the Basic Course. (See related document AL 001 956.) It is also intended to provide the student with some practice in reading Susu, and to help him gain some appreciation of the cultural life of the Susu in…

  9. Mechanics of vimentin intermediate filaments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ning; Stamenovic, Dimitrijie

    2002-01-01

    It is increasingly evident that the cytoskeleton of living cells plays important roles in mechanical and biological functions of the cells. Here we focus on the contribution of intermediate filaments (IFs) to the mechanical behaviors of living cells. Vimentin, a major structural component of IFs in many cell types, is shown to play an important role in vital mechanical and biological functions such as cell contractility, migration, stiffness, stiffening, and proliferation.

  10. Branching of keratin intermediate filaments.

    PubMed

    Nafeey, Soufi; Martin, Ines; Felder, Tatiana; Walther, Paul; Felder, Edward

    2016-06-01

    Keratin intermediate filaments (IFs) are crucial to maintain mechanical stability in epithelial cells. Since little is known about the network architecture that provides this stiffness and especially about branching properties of filaments, we addressed this question with different electron microscopic (EM) methods. Using EM tomography of high pressure frozen keratinocytes, we investigated the course of several filaments in a branching of a filament bundle. Moreover we found several putative bifurcations in individual filaments. To verify our observation we also visualized the keratin network in detergent extracted keratinocytes with scanning EM. Here bifurcations of individual filaments could unambiguously be identified additionally to bundle branchings. Interestingly, identical filament bifurcations were also found in purified keratin 8/18 filaments expressed in Escherichia coli which were reassembled in vitro. This excludes that an accessory protein contributes to the branch formation. Measurements of the filament cross sectional areas showed various ratios between the three bifurcation arms. This demonstrates that intermediate filament furcation is very different from actin furcation where an entire new filament is attached to an existing filament. Instead, the architecture of intermediate filament bifurcations is less predetermined and hence consistent with the general concept of IF formation. PMID:27039023

  11. Intermediate P* from Soluble Methane Monooxygenase Contains a Diferrous Cluster

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Rahul; Meier, Katlyn K.; Münck, Eckard; Lipscomb, John D.

    2013-01-01

    During a single turnover of the hydroxylase component (MMOH) of soluble methane monooxygenase from Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b, several discrete intermediates are formed. The diiron cluster of MMOH is first reduced to the FeIIFeII state (Hred). O2 binds rapidly at a site away from the cluster to form the FeIIFeII intermediate O, which converts to an FeIIIFeIII-peroxo intermediate P and finally to the FeIVFeIV intermediate Q. Q binds and reacts with methane to yield methanol and water. The rate constants for these steps are increased by a regulatory protein, MMOB. Previously reported transient kinetic studies have suggested that an intermediate P* forms between O and P in which the g = 16 EPR signal characteristic of the reduced diiron cluster of Hred and O is lost. This was interpreted as signaling oxidation of the cluster, but low accumulation of P* prevented further characterization. In this study, three methods to directly detect and trap P* are applied together to allow its spectroscopic and kinetic characterization. First, the MMOB mutant His33Ala is used to specifically slow the decay of P* without affecting its formation rate, leading to its nearly quantitative accumulation. Second, spectra-kinetic data collection is used to provide a sensitive measure of the formation and decay rate constants of intermediates as well as their optical spectra. Finally, the substrate furan is included to react with Q and quench its strong chromophore. The optical spectrum of P* closely mimics those of Hred and O, but it is distinctly different from that of P. The reaction cycle rate constants allowed prediction of the times for maximal accumulation of the intermediates. Mössbauer spectra of rapid freeze quench samples at these times show that the intermediates are formed at almost exactly the predicted levels. The Mössbauer spectra show that the diiron cluster of P*, quite unexpectedly, is in the FeIIFeII state. Thus, the loss of the g = 16 EPR results from a change of

  12. Role of Intermediate Filaments in Vesicular Traffic

    PubMed Central

    Margiotta, Azzurra; Bucci, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Intermediate filaments are an important component of the cellular cytoskeleton. The first established role attributed to intermediate filaments was the mechanical support to cells. However, it is now clear that intermediate filaments have many different roles affecting a variety of other biological functions, such as the organization of microtubules and microfilaments, the regulation of nuclear structure and activity, the control of cell cycle and the regulation of signal transduction pathways. Furthermore, a number of intermediate filament proteins have been involved in the acquisition of tumorigenic properties. Over the last years, a strong involvement of intermediate filament proteins in the regulation of several aspects of intracellular trafficking has strongly emerged. Here, we review the functions of intermediate filaments proteins focusing mainly on the recent knowledge gained from the discovery that intermediate filaments associate with key proteins of the vesicular membrane transport machinery. In particular, we analyze the current understanding of the contribution of intermediate filaments to the endocytic pathway. PMID:27120621

  13. Role of Intermediate Filaments in Vesicular Traffic.

    PubMed

    Margiotta, Azzurra; Bucci, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Intermediate filaments are an important component of the cellular cytoskeleton. The first established role attributed to intermediate filaments was the mechanical support to cells. However, it is now clear that intermediate filaments have many different roles affecting a variety of other biological functions, such as the organization of microtubules and microfilaments, the regulation of nuclear structure and activity, the control of cell cycle and the regulation of signal transduction pathways. Furthermore, a number of intermediate filament proteins have been involved in the acquisition of tumorigenic properties. Over the last years, a strong involvement of intermediate filament proteins in the regulation of several aspects of intracellular trafficking has strongly emerged. Here, we review the functions of intermediate filaments proteins focusing mainly on the recent knowledge gained from the discovery that intermediate filaments associate with key proteins of the vesicular membrane transport machinery. In particular, we analyze the current understanding of the contribution of intermediate filaments to the endocytic pathway. PMID:27120621

  14. The LMC Intermediate and Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olszewski, E. W.

    I will discuss our current understanding of the intermediate and old populations of the LMC. Dominant themes will be what those populations tell us about the relative ages of the oldest components of the Milky Way and LMC, what they tell us about the star formation history of the LMC, and what they tell us about the presence or absence of a halo (as we understand that term in the Milky Way) in the LMC. Topics not discussed at previous Magellanic Cloud meetings include the ages of the oldest LMC clusters from HST data, and the seeming lack of agreement between deep luminosity function analyses and distributions of abundances of red giants.

  15. Rapid weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... loss-rapid weight loss; Overweight-rapid weight loss; Obesity-rapid weight loss; Diet-rapid weight loss ... for people who have health problems because of obesity. For these people, losing a lot of weight ...

  16. White Dwarfs in Intermediate Polars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belle, Kunegunda E.; Sion, E. M.

    2009-01-01

    Intermediate polars (IPs), magnetic cataclysmic variables (CVs) in which the white dwarf (WD) has an intermediate strength magnetic field (B< 5 MG), present an interesting laboratory for the study of the evolution of CVs as they contain elements of both non-magnetic and magnetic systems. Do magnetic CVs and IPs evolve in the same manner as non-magnetic systems? One answer in this puzzle may come from understanding the nature of the white dwarf in a magnetic CV. Standard CV evolution theory predicts a white dwarf temperature for a given CV orbital period and accretion rate. By investigating the temperature of white dwarfs in IPs and comparing the temperatures to those predicted from theory, we can learn where IPs fit into the model of CV evolution. Here we present the results of our continued study of the nature of WDs in IPs. We compare temperatures derived from model fits to UV spectra with temperatures calculated based on the accretion rate and binary orbital period. Our preliminary results indicate that IPs follow the general trend of magnetic CVs containing cooler WDs than non-magnetic CVs.

  17. Intermediate Filaments in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Zuela, Noam; Gruenbaum, Yosef

    2016-01-01

    More than 70 different genes in humans and 12 different genes in Caenorhabditis elegans encode the superfamily of intermediate filament (IF) proteins. In C. elegans, similar to humans, these proteins are expressed in a cell- and tissue-specific manner, can assemble into heteropolymers and into 5-10nm wide filaments that account for the principal structural elements at the nuclear periphery, nucleoplasm, and cytoplasm. At least 5 of the 11 cytoplasmic IFs, as well as the nuclear IF, lamin, are essential. In this chapter, we will include a short review of our current knowledge of both cytoplasmic and nuclear IFs in C. elegans and will describe techniques used for their analyses. PMID:26795488

  18. Storage Stability and Improvement of Intermediate Moisture Foods, Phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labuza, T. P.

    1975-01-01

    Methods were determined for the improvement of shelf-life stability of intermediate moisture foods (IMF). Microbial challenge studies showed that protection against molds and Staphylococcus aureus could be achieved by a combination of antimicrobial agents, humectants and food acids. Potassium sorbate and propylene glycol gave the best results. It was also confirmed that the maximum in heat resistance shown by vegetative pathogens at intermediate water activities also occurred in a solid food. Glycols and sorbitol both achieve browning inhibition because of their action as a medium for reaction and effect on viscosity of the adsorbed phase. Chemical availability results showed rapid lysine loss before visual discoloration occurred. This is being confirmed with a biological test using Tetrahymena pyriformis W. Accelerated temperature tests show that effectiveness of food antioxidants against rancidity development can be predicted; however, the protection factor changes with temperature. BHA was found to be the best antioxidant for iron catalyzed oxidation.

  19. Radial velocity study of the intermediate polar EX Hydrae .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-Torres, A.; Echevarria, J.; Michel, R.

    Intermediate Polars study from the canonical approach used for non magnetic systems is indeed controversial. Nevertheless, we present hereby high dispersion spectroscopic observations with simultaneous optical photometry of the intermediate polar EX Hya. A normalization method for doppler tomography throughout a complete observation run is introduced. We find rapid variations, orbital period averaged, in the Halpha emission line, with the capability to map the region where they come from in the velocity-space doppler tomogram. By applying the double-Gaussian method to the same line profile we determine a velocity semi-amplitude of the primary star K_1= 52 ± 5 \\: km s-1 which, even if suggests a lower value than recent results, is still within the error bars of the such estimations.

  20. Rapid mixing kinetic techniques.

    PubMed

    Martin, Stephen R; Schilstra, Maria J

    2013-01-01

    Almost all of the elementary steps in a biochemical reaction scheme are either unimolecular or bimolecular processes that frequently occur on sub-second, often sub-millisecond, time scales. The traditional approach in kinetic studies is to mix two or more reagents and monitor the changes in concentrations with time. Conventional spectrophotometers cannot generally be used to study reactions that are complete within less than about 20 s, as it takes that amount of time to manually mix the reagents and activate the instrument. Rapid mixing techniques, which generally achieve mixing in less than 2 ms, overcome this limitation. This chapter is concerned with the use of these techniques in the study of reactions which reach equilibrium; the application of these methods to the study of enzyme kinetics is described in several excellent texts (Cornish-Bowden, Fundamentals of enzyme kinetics. Portland Press, 1995; Gutfreund, Kinetics for the life sciences. Receptors, transmitters and catalysis. Cambridge University Press, 1995).There are various ways to monitor changes in concentration of reactants, intermediates and products after mixing, but the most common way is to use changes in optical signals (absorbance or fluorescence) which often accompany reactions. Although absorbance can sometimes be used, fluorescence is often preferred because of its greater sensitivity, particularly in monitoring conformational changes. Such methods are continuous with good time resolution but they seldom permit the direct determination of the concentrations of individual species. Alternatively, samples may be taken from the reaction volume, mixed with a chemical quenching agent to stop the reaction, and their contents assessed by techniques such as HPLC. These methods can directly determine the concentrations of different species, but are discontinuous and have a limited time resolution. PMID:23729251

  1. Experiments in intermediate energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Dehnhard, D.

    2003-02-28

    Research in experimental nuclear physics was done from 1979 to 2002 primarily at intermediate energy facilities that provide pion, proton, and kaon beams. Particularly successful has been the work at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) on unraveling the neutron and proton contributions to nuclear ground state and transition densities. This work was done on a wide variety of nuclei and with great detail on the carbon, oxygen, and helium isotopes. Some of the investigations involved the use of polarized targets which allowed the extraction of information on the spin-dependent part of the triangle-nucleon interaction. At the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) we studied proton-induced charge exchange reactions with results of importance to astrophysics and the nuclear few-body problem. During the first few years, the analysis of heavy-ion nucleus scattering data that had been taken prior to 1979 was completed. During the last few years we created hypernuclei by use of a kaon beam at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and an electron beam at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab). The data taken at BNL for a study of the non-mesonic weak decay of the A particle in a nucleus are still under analysis by our collaborators. The work at JLab resulted in the best resolution hypernuclear spectra measured thus far with magnetic spectrometers.

  2. Modeling of intermediate phase growth

    SciTech Connect

    Umantsev, A.

    2007-01-15

    We introduced a continuum method for modeling of intermediate phase growth and numerically simulated three common experimental situations relevant to the physical metallurgy of soldering: growth of intermetallic compound layer from an unlimited amount of liquid and solid solders and growth of the compound from limited amounts of liquid solder. We found qualitative agreements with the experimental regimes of growth in all cases. For instance, the layer expands in both directions with respect to the base line when it grows from solid solder, and grows into the copper phase when the solder is molten. The quantitative agreement with the sharp-interface approximation was also achieved in these cases. In the cases of limited amounts of liquid solder we found the point of turnaround when the compound/solder boundary changed the direction of its motion. Although such behavior had been previously observed experimentally, the simulations revealed important information: the turnaround occurs approximately at the time of complete saturation of solder with copper. This result allows us to conclude that coarsening of the intermetallic compound structure starts only after the solder is practically saturated with copper.

  3. Intermediate Energy Metabolism of Leptospira

    PubMed Central

    Baseman, J. B.; Cox, C. D.

    1969-01-01

    Metabolic studies were performed on three representative serotypes of Leptospira: a water isolate designated B16 and two pathogenic serotypes, pomona and schueffneri. Examination of whole cells of B16 for their ability to oxidize various substrates revealed that oleate significantly stimulated oxygen uptake. The respiratory quotient of 0.7 implied that oleate was degraded to carbon dioxide and water. Other substrates, such as carbohydrates, alcohols, intermediates of the citric acid cycle, and short-chain acids, including selected amino acids, did not stimulate endogenous respiration of whole cells. No oxygen uptake could be measured when cell-free extracts were tested with the substrates used with whole cells. Enzymatic analyses of cell-free extracts of the three strains demonstrated enzymes of the citric acid cycle, enzymes of the glycolytic and pentose pathways, and the general acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase required for β-oxidation of fatty acids. Strain B16 and the two pathogenic serotypes appeared to possess similar metabolic capabilities. Enzymatic data might also explain the apparent inability of B16 to oxidize other substrates; kinases necessary for activation of common nonphosphorylated compounds were not detected in leptospiral extracts. These findings emphasized the dependence of leptospiral growth upon long-chain fatty acids. PMID:5776541

  4. Rapid shallow breathing

    MedlinePlus

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the lung Choking Chronic obstructive ...

  5. Nuclear structure at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Bonner, B.E.; Mutchler, G.S.

    1991-09-30

    The theme that unites the sometimes seemingly disparate experiments undertaken by the Bonner Lab Medium Energy Group is a determination to understand in detail the many facets and manifestations of the strong interaction, that which is now referred to as nonperturbative QCD. Whether we are investigating the question of just what does carry the spin of baryons, or the extent of the validity of the SU(6) wavefunctions for the excited hyperons (as will be measured in their radiative decays in our CEBAF experiment), or questions associated with the formation of a new state of matter predicted by QCD (the subject of our BNL experiments E810, E854, as well as our approved experiment at RHIC), -- all these projects share this common goal. Our other experiments represent different approaches to the same broad undertaking. LAMPF E1097 will provide definitive answers to the question of the spin dependence of the inelastic channel of pion production in the n-p interaction. FNAL E683 may well open a new field of investigation in nuclear physics: that of just how quarks and gluons interact with nuclear matter as they transverse nuclei of different sizes. In most all of the experiments mentioned above, the Bonner Lab Group is playing major leadership roles as well as doing a big fraction of the hard work that such experiments require. We use many of the facilities that are unavailable to the intermediate energy physics community and we use our expertise to design and fabricate the detectors and instrumentation that are required to perform the measurements which we decide to do.

  6. Diesel Mechanics. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidwell, Joseph

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of six terminal objectives for an intermediate diesel mechanics course (two semesters, 3 hours daily) designed for high school students who upon completion would be ready for an on-the-job training experience in diesel service and repair. Through…

  7. Gasoline Engine Mechanics. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Marion

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of six terminal objectives presented in this curriculum guide for an intermediate gasoline engine mechanics course at the secondary level. (For the beginning course guide see CE 010 947.) The materials were developed for a two-semester (2 hour…

  8. Air Conditioning. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, William

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of seven terminal objectives for an intermediate air conditioning course. The titles of the seven terminal objectives are Refrigeration Cycle, Job Requirement Skills, Air Conditioning, Trouble Shooting, Performance Test, Shop Management, and S.I.E.…

  9. Business Machine Maintenance. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMinn, Robert

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 28 terminal objectives presented in this guide for an intermediate business machine maintenance course at the secondary level. (For the basic course guide see CE 010 949.) Titles of the 28 terminal objective sections are Career Opportunities,…

  10. Marine Engine Mechanics. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Marion

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are presented for each of ten terminal objectives for a two-semester course (3 hours daily). This 540-hour intermediate course includes advanced troubleshooting techniques on outboard marine engines, inboard-outboard marine engines, inboard marine engines, boat…

  11. [Intermediate phenotype studies in psychiatric disorder].

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Ryota

    2016-02-01

    The concept of intermediate phenotype was proposed by Dr. Weinberger of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). The risk genes for mental disorders define intermediate phenotypes, neurobiological characteristics observed in psychiatric disorders, and intermediate phenotypes increase the risk of mental disorders. The author worked at Dr. Weinberger's laboratory, and after returning home, introduced the concept to Japan, creating a term "Chukanhyogengata" to translate "intermediate phenotype". Intermediate phenotype has been proposed as a tool for the identification of risk genes for mental disorders, spreading the concept as a biomarker for the bridging between genes and behaviors. Intermediate phenotype studies later became one of the main pillars of psychiatric research. As a large number of data and samples are needed for intermediate phenotype research, we built a research resource database that combines the brain phenotype and bioresources. We performed genome-wide association analysis of cognitive decline in schizophrenia and identified the DEGS2 gene using this sample. This research resource database was developed for a multicenter study by COCORO (Cognitive Genetics Collaborative Research Organization). COCORO carried out genome-wide association analysis of the gray matter volume of the superior temporal gyrus and identified genome-wide significant loci. In this paper, we introduce the concept and history of intermediate phenotype study of mental illness and the latest trends. We hope to contribute to the future development of mental illness research through translational research. PMID:27044135

  12. Radio and Television Servicing. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Guy; And Others

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 32 terminal objectives for an intermediate (second year) radio/TV servicing course. This 1-year course (3 hours daily) was designed to provide the student with the basic skills and knowledges necessary for entry level employment in the Radio/TV…

  13. Appliance Services. Intermediate Course. Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killough, Joseph

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 16 terminal objectives for an intermediate appliance repair course. The materials were developed for a 36-week course (3 hours daily) covering the areas of refrigeration, maintenance, repair, and troubleshooting of refrigerators and air…

  14. Some Intermediate-Level Violin Concertos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Contends that many violin students attempt difficult concertos before they are technically or musically prepared. Identifies a variety of concertos at the intermediate and advanced intermediate-level for students to study and master before attempting the advanced works by Bach and Mozart. Includes concertos by Vivaldi, Leclair, Viotti, Haydn,…

  15. BETTER EDUCATION THROUGH EFFECTIVE INTERMEDIATE UNITS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RHODES, ALVIN E.

    AN INTERMEDIATE EDUCATION UNIT, ORGANIZED AT THE REGIONAL LEVEL AND COVERING SUFFICIENT AREA TO WARRANT EMPLOYMENT OF A STAFF OF SPECIALISTS, IS CAPABLE OF OFFERING A WIDE VARIETY OF ESSENTIAL SERVICES, AND THUS OCCUPIES A UNIQUE NICHE IN THE EDUCATIONAL SETTING. THE ACTIVITIES OF AN INTERMEDIATE UNIT MAY BE CATEGORIZED INTO (1) ARTICULATIVE, OR…

  16. 39 CFR 3001.39 - Intermediate decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intermediate decisions. 3001.39 Section 3001.39... Applicability § 3001.39 Intermediate decisions. (a) Initial decision by presiding officer. In any proceedings in... certify and file with the Secretary, a copy of the record of the hearing and his/her initial decision...

  17. Liver resection for intermediate hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Peng-Sheng; Zhang, Ming; Zhao, Ji-Tong; Xu, Ming-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors in China. The Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system is regarded as the gold standard staging system for HCC, classifying HCC as early, intermediate, or advanced. For intermediate HCC, trans-catheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) is recommended as the optimal strategy by the BCLC guideline. This review investigates whether liver resection is better than TACE for intermediate HCC. Based on published studies, we compare the survival benefits and complications of liver resection and TACE for intermediate HCC. We also compare the survival benefits of liver resection in early and intermediate HCC. We find that liver resection can achieve better or at least comparable survival outcomes compared with TACE for intermediate HCC; however, we do not observe a significant difference between liver resection and TACE in terms of safety and morbidity. We conclude that liver resection may improve the short- and long-term survival of carefully selected intermediate HCC patients, and the procedure may be safely performed in the management of intermediate HCC. PMID:27190577

  18. Automotive Body Repair. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Thomas

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 10 terminal objectives for an intermediate automotive body repair and refinishing course. The materials were developed for a two-semester (3 hours daily) course for specialized classrooms, shop, and practical experiences designed to enable the…

  19. Radical SAM catalysis via an organometallic intermediate with an Fe-[5'-C]-deoxyadenosyl bond.

    PubMed

    Horitani, Masaki; Shisler, Krista; Broderick, William E; Hutcheson, Rachel U; Duschene, Kaitlin S; Marts, Amy R; Hoffman, Brian M; Broderick, Joan B

    2016-05-13

    Radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) enzymes use a [4Fe-4S] cluster to cleave SAM to initiate diverse radical reactions. These reactions are thought to involve the 5'-deoxyadenosyl radical intermediate, which has not yet been detected. We used rapid freeze-quenching to trap a catalytically competent intermediate in the reaction catalyzed by the radical SAM enzyme pyruvate formate-lyase activating enzyme. Characterization of the intermediate by electron paramagnetic resonance and (13)C, (57)Fe electron nuclear double-resonance spectroscopies reveals that it contains an organometallic center in which the 5' carbon of a SAM-derived deoxyadenosyl moiety forms a bond with the unique iron site of the [4Fe-4S] cluster. Discovery of this intermediate extends the list of enzymatic bioorganometallic centers to the radical SAM enzymes, the largest enzyme superfamily known, and reveals intriguing parallels to B12 radical enzymes. PMID:27174986

  20. PUBLISHER'S NOTE: Rapid Communications Rapid Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Tom

    2009-09-01

    As part of a general review of Superconductor Science and Technology, we have been examining the scope for Rapid Communications (RAPs). We recognize these articles make up an important part of the journal representing the latest state-of-the-art research in superconductivity. To reflect this, we have devised a new scope for this article type: 'Rapid Communications. The journal offers open access to outstanding short articles (no longer than 5 journal pages or 4500 words including figures) reporting new and timely developments in superconductivity and its applications. These articles should report very substantial new advances in superconductivity to the readers of Superconductor Science and Technology, but are not expected to meet any requirement of 'general interest'. RAPs will be processed quickly (average receipt to online publication for RAPs is around 60 days) and are permanently free to read in the electronic journal. Authors submitting a RAP should provide reasons why the work is urgent and requires rapid publication. Each RAP will be assessed for suitability by our Reviews and Rapid Communications Editor before full peer review takes place.' The essential points are: They should report very substantial new advances in superconductivity and its application; They must be no longer than 5 journal pages long (approx. 4500 words); Average publication time for a Rapid Communication is 60 days; They are free to read. As mentioned in the previous publisher's announcement (2009 Supercond. Sci. Technol. 22 010101), each submitted Rapid Communication must come with a letter justifying why it should be prioritized over regular papers and will be pre-assessed by our Reviews and Rapid Communications Editor. In addition, we will work with the authors of any Rapid Communication to promote and raise the visibility of the work presented in it. We will be making further changes to the journal in the near future and we write to you accordingly. Thank you for your kind

  1. The deterioration of intermediate moisture foods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labruza, T. P.

    1971-01-01

    Deteriorative reactions are low and food quality high if intermediate moisture content of a food is held at a water activity of 0.6 to 0.75. Information is of interest to food processing and packaging industry.

  2. Intermediate/Advanced Research Design and Statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this module is To provide Institutional Researchers (IRs) with an understanding of the principles of advanced research design and the intermediate/advanced statistical procedures consistent with such designs

  3. Bursts of intermediate ions in atmospheric air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hõrrak, U.; Salm, J.; Tammet, H.

    1998-06-01

    The mobility spectrum of air ions has been measured at Tahkuse Observatory in Estonia for several years. The average concentration of intermediate ions with mobilities of 0.05-0.5 cm2 V-1 s-1 in atmospheric air is about 50 cm-3. On the level of this low background, high concentration bursts of intermediate air ions occur occasionally. A burst can be followed by subsequent evolution of intermediate ions into larger ones. To explain the bursts of intermediate air ions, two hypotheses can be advanced: (1)A burst of neutral particles occurs due to homogeneous nucleation, and the particles are charged by the attachment of cluster ions. (2) The cluster ions grow by ion-induced nucleation in proper environmental conditions.

  4. Data requirements for intermediate energy nuclear applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pearlstein, S.

    1990-01-01

    Several applications that include spallation neutron sources, space radiation effects, biomedical isotope production, accelerator shielding and radiation therapy make use of intermediate energy nuclear data extending to several GeV. The overlapping data needs of these applications are discussed in terms of what projectiles, targets and reactions are of interest. Included is a discussion of what is generally known about these data and what is needed to facilitate their use in intermediate energy applications. 40 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Microeconomic Concepts Students Should Learn before Intermediate Macroeconomics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salemi, Michael K.

    1996-01-01

    Identifies four microeconomic concepts students should learn before entering the study of intermediate macroeconomics. Included are relative prices, general versus partial equilibrium, constrained optimization, and the nature of production concepts. Recommends making intermediate microeconomics a prerequisite for intermediate macroeconomics. (MJP)

  6. Novel Approaches for the Accumulation of Oxygenated Intermediates to Multi-Millimolar Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, Carsten; Dassama, Laura M. K.; Matthews, Megan L.; Jiang, Wei; Price, John C.; Korboukh, Victoria; Li, Ning; Bollinger, J. Martin

    2012-01-01

    Metalloenzymes that utilize molecular oxygen as a co-substrate catalyze a wide variety of chemically difficult oxidation reactions. Significant insight into the reaction mechanisms of these enzymes can be obtained by the application of a combination of rapid kinetic and spectroscopic methods to the direct structural characterization of intermediate states. A key limitation of this approach is the low aqueous solubility (< 2 mM) of the co-substrate, O2, which undergoes further dilution (typically by one-third or one-half) upon initiation of reactions by rapid-mixing. This situation imposes a practical upper limit on [O2] (and therefore on the concentration of reactive intermediate(s) that can be rapidly accumulated) of ∼1-1.3 mM in such experiments as they are routinely carried out. However, many spectroscopic methods benefit from or require significantly greater concentrations of the species to be studied. To overcome this problem, we have recently developed two new approaches for the preparation of samples of oxygenated intermediates: (1) direct oxygenation of reduced metalloenzymes using gaseous O2 and (2) the in situ generation of O2 from chlorite catalyzed by the enzyme chlorite dismutase (Cld). Whereas the former method is applicable only to intermediates with half lives of several minutes, owing to the sluggishness of transport of O2 across the gas-liquid interface, the latter approach has been successfully applied to trap several intermediates at high concentration and purity by the freeze-quench method. The in situ approach permits generation of a pulse of at least 5 mM O2 within ∼ 1 ms and accumulation of O2 to effective concentrations of up to ∼ 11 mM (i.e. ∼ 10-fold greater than by the conventional approach). The use of these new techniques for studies of oxygenases and oxidases is discussed. PMID:24368870

  7. ER/Golgi Intermediates Acquire Golgi Enzymes by Brefeldin a–Sensitive Retrograde Transport in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chung-Chih; Love, Harold D.; Gushue, Jennifer N.; Bergeron, John J.M.; Ostermann, Joachim

    1999-01-01

    Secretory proteins exit the ER in transport vesicles that fuse to form vesicular tubular clusters (VTCs) which move along microtubule tracks to the Golgi apparatus. Using the well-characterized in vitro approach to study the properties of Golgi membranes, we determined whether the Golgi enzyme NAGT I is transported to ER/Golgi intermediates. Secretory cargo was arrested at distinct steps of the secretory pathway of a glycosylation mutant cell line, and in vitro complementation of the glycosylation defect was determined. Complementation yield increased after ER exit of secretory cargo and was optimal when transport was blocked at an ER/Golgi intermediate step. The rapid drop of the complementation yield as secretory cargo progresses into the stack suggests that Golgi enzymes are preferentially targeted to ER/Golgi intermediates and not to membranes of the Golgi stack. Two mechanisms for in vitro complementation could be distinguished due to their different sensitivities to brefeldin A (BFA). Transport occurred either by direct fusion of preexisting transport intermediates with ER/Golgi intermediates, or it occurred as a BFA-sensitive and most likely COP I–mediated step. Direct fusion of ER/Golgi intermediates with cisternal membranes of the Golgi stack was not observed under these conditions. PMID:10613904

  8. Intermediate disturbance in experimental landscapes improves persistence of beetle metapopulations.

    PubMed

    Govindan, Byju N; Feng, Zhilan; DeWoody, Yssa D; Swihart, Robert K

    2015-03-01

    Human-dominated landscapes often feature patches that fluctuate in suitability through space and time, but there is little experimental evidence relating the consequences of dynamic patches for species persistence. We used a spatially and temporally dynamic metapopulation model to assess and compare metapopulation capacity and persistence for red flour beetles (Tribolium castaneum) in experimental landscapes differentiated by resource structure, patch dynamics (destruction and restoration), and connectivity. High connectivity increased the colonization rate of beetles, but this effect was less pronounced in heterogeneous relative to homogeneous landscapes. Higher connectivity and faster patch dynamics increased extinction rates in landscapes. Lower connectivity promoted density-dependent emigration. Heterogeneous landscapes containing patches of different carrying capacity enhanced landscape-level occupancy probability. The highest metapopulation capacity and persistence was observed in landscapes with heterogeneous patches, low connectivity, and slow patch dynamics. Control landscapes with no patch dynamics exhibited rapid declines in abundance and approached extinction due to increased adult mortality in the matrix, higher pupal cannibalism by adults, and extremely low rates of exchange between remaining habitable patches. Our results highlight the role of intermediate patch dynamics, intermediate connectivity, and the nature of density dependence of emigration for persistence of species in heterogeneous landscapes. Our results also demonstrate the importance of incorporating local dynamics into the estimation of metapopulation capacity for conservation planning. PMID:26236869

  9. Modeling Linear and Cyclic PKS Intermediates through Atom Replacement

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The mechanistic details of many polyketide synthases (PKSs) remain elusive due to the instability of transient intermediates that are not accessible via conventional methods. Here we report an atom replacement strategy that enables the rapid preparation of polyketone surrogates by selective atom replacement, thereby providing key substrate mimetics for detailed mechanistic evaluations. Polyketone mimetics are positioned on the actinorhodin acyl carrier protein (actACP) to probe the underpinnings of substrate association upon nascent chain elongation and processivity. Protein NMR is used to visualize substrate interaction with the actACP, where a tetraketide substrate is shown not to bind within the protein, while heptaketide and octaketide substrates show strong association between helix II and IV. To examine the later cyclization stages, we extended this strategy to prepare stabilized cyclic intermediates and evaluate their binding by the actACP. Elongated monocyclic mimics show much longer residence time within actACP than shortened analogs. Taken together, these observations suggest ACP-substrate association occurs both before and after ketoreductase action upon the fully elongated polyketone, indicating a key role played by the ACP within PKS timing and processivity. These atom replacement mimetics offer new tools to study protein and substrate interactions and are applicable to a wide variety of PKSs. PMID:25406716

  10. New Cathode Materials for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Allan J. Jacobson

    2005-11-17

    Operation of SOFCs at intermediate temperatures (500-800 C) requires new combinations of electrolyte and electrode materials that will provide both rapid ion transport across the electrolyte and electrode--electrolyte interfaces and efficient electrocatalysis of the oxygen reduction and fuel oxidation reactions. This project concentrates on materials and issues associated with cathode performance that are known to become limiting factors as the operating temperature is reduced. The specific objectives of the proposed research are to develop cathode materials that meet the electrode performance targets of 1.0 W/cm{sup 2} at 0.7 V in combination with YSZ at 700 C and with GDC, LSGM or bismuth oxide based electrolytes at 600 C. The performance targets imply an area specific resistance of {approx}0.5 {Omega}cm{sup 2} for the total cell. The research strategy is to investigate both established classes of materials and new candidates as cathodes, to determine fundamental performance parameters such as bulk diffusion, surface reactivity and interfacial transfer, and to couple these parameters to performance in single cell tests. In this report, the oxygen exchange kinetics of a P2 composition are described in detail. The oxygen exchange kinetics of the oxygen deficient double perovskite LnBaCo{sub 2}O{sub 5.5+{delta}} (Ln=Pr and Nd) have been determined by electrical conductivity relaxation. The high electronic conductivity and rapid diffusion and surface exchange kinetics of PBCO suggest its application as cathode material in intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells.

  11. Intermediate-energy nuclear chemistry workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, G.W.; Giesler, G.C.; Liu, L.C.; Dropesky, B.J.; Knight, J.D.; Lucero, F.; Orth, C.J.

    1981-05-01

    This report contains the proceedings of the LAMPF Intermediate-Energy Nuclear Chemistry Workshop held in Los Alamos, New Mexico, June 23-27, 1980. The first two days of the Workshop were devoted to invited review talks highlighting current experimental and theoretical research activities in intermediate-energy nuclear chemistry and physics. Working panels representing major topic areas carried out indepth appraisals of present research and formulated recommendations for future research directions. The major topic areas were Pion-Nucleus Reactions, Nucleon-Nucleus Reactions and Nuclei Far from Stability, Mesonic Atoms, Exotic Interactions, New Theoretical Approaches, and New Experimental Techniques and New Nuclear Chemistry Facilities.

  12. Intermediate load-center photovoltaic application experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    A total of nine intermediate load-center photovoltaic systems were carried into the construction phase this year. These nine systems range in size from 20 to 225 kW/sub p/ electrical output and total almost 1 MW/sub p/. They are being installed in a diverse set of applications and locations and represent the bulk of the photovoltaic initial system evaluation experiments (ISEE) for the intermediate load-center sector. Each of these experiments are briefly described and the status of the construction phase is given for each project.

  13. Blue outliers among intermediate redshift quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marziani, P.; Sulentic, J. W.; Stirpe, G. M.; Dultzin, D.; Del Olmo, A.; Martínez-Carballo, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    [OIII]λ 5007 "blue outliers"—that are suggestive of outflows in the narrow line region of quasars—appear to be much more common at intermediate z (high luminosity) than at low z. About 40~% of quasars in a Hamburg ESO intermediate z sample of 52 sources qualify as "blue outliers" (i.e., quasars with [OIII]λλ 4959,5007 lines showing large systematic blueshifts with respect to rest frame). We discuss major findings on what has become an intriguing field in active galactic nuclei research and stress the relevance of "blue outliers" to feedback and host galaxy evolution.

  14. Rapid synthesis of oligodeoxyribonucleotides. IV. Improved solid phase synthesis of oligodeoxyribonucleotides through phosphotriester intermediates.

    PubMed Central

    Gait, M J; Singh, M; Sheppard, R C; Edge, M D; Greene, A R; Heathcliffe, G R; Atkinson, T C; Newton, C R; Markham, A F

    1980-01-01

    A phosphotriester solid phase method on a polyamide support has been used to prepare oligodeoxyribonucleotides up to 12 units long. Compared to solid phase phosphodiester synthesis the new methodology is quicker, more flexible and gives 10-60-fold better overall yields. PMID:7443540

  15. Priming of Simple and Complex Scene Layout: Rapid Function from the Intermediate Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanocki, Thomas; Sulman, Noah

    2009-01-01

    Three experiments examined the time course of layout priming with photographic scenes varying in complexity (number of objects). Primes were presented for varying durations (800-50 ms) before a target scene with 2 spatial probes; observers indicated whether the left or right probe was closer to viewpoint. Reaction time was the main measure. Scene…

  16. 29 CFR 452.123 - Elections of intermediate body officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Elections of intermediate body officers. 452.123 Section... intermediate body officers. Section 401(d) states that officers of intermediate bodies shall be elected either... intermediate bodies. Such delegates may therefore participate in the election of officers of...

  17. 29 CFR 452.123 - Elections of intermediate body officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Elections of intermediate body officers. 452.123 Section... intermediate body officers. Section 401(d) states that officers of intermediate bodies shall be elected either... intermediate bodies. Such delegates may therefore participate in the election of officers of...

  18. 29 CFR 452.123 - Elections of intermediate body officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Elections of intermediate body officers. 452.123 Section... intermediate body officers. Section 401(d) states that officers of intermediate bodies shall be elected either... intermediate bodies. Such delegates may therefore participate in the election of officers of...

  19. 29 CFR 452.123 - Elections of intermediate body officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Elections of intermediate body officers. 452.123 Section... intermediate body officers. Section 401(d) states that officers of intermediate bodies shall be elected either... intermediate bodies. Such delegates may therefore participate in the election of officers of...

  20. 29 CFR 452.123 - Elections of intermediate body officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Elections of intermediate body officers. 452.123 Section... intermediate body officers. Section 401(d) states that officers of intermediate bodies shall be elected either... intermediate bodies. Such delegates may therefore participate in the election of officers of...

  1. Results of intermediate-scale hot isostatic press can experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, L.O.; Vinjamuri, K.

    1995-05-01

    Radioactive high-level waste (HLW) has been managed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for a number of years. Since 1963, liquid HLW has been solidified into a granular solid (calcine). Presently, over 3,800 m{sup 3} of calcine is stored in partially-underground stainless steel bins. Four intermediate- scale HLW can tests (two 6-in OD {times} 12-in tall and two 4-in OD {times} 7-in tall) are described and compared to small-scale HIP can tests (1- to 3-in OD {times} 1- to 4.5-in tall). The intermediate-scale HIP cans were loaded with a 70/30 calcine/frit blend and HIPped at an off-site facility at 1050{degrees}C; and 20 ksi. The dimensions of two cans (4-in OD {times} 7-in tall) were monitored during the HIP cycle with eddy-current sensors. The sensor measurements indicated that can deformation occurs rapidly at 700{degrees}C; after which, there is little additional can shrinkage. HIP cans were subjected to a number of analyses including calculation of the overall packing efficiency (56 to 59%), measurement of glass-ceramic (3.0 to 3.2 g/cc), 14-day MCC-1 leach testing (total mass loss rates < 1 g/m{sup 2} day), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Based on these analyses, the glass-ceramic material produced in intermediate-scale cans is similar to material produced in small-scale cans. No major scale-up problems were indicated. Based on the packing efficiency observed in intermediate- and small-scale tests, the overall packing efficiency of production-scale (24-in OD {times} 36- to 190-in tall) cans would be approximately 64% for a pre-HIP right-circular cylinder geometry. An efficiency of 64% would represent a volume reduction factor of 2.5 over a candidate glass waste prepared at 33 wt% waste loading.

  2. Moroccan Arabic Intermediate Reader, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alami, Wali A.; Hodge, Carlton T., Ed.

    The first section of this companion volume to "Moroccan Arabic Intermediate Reader, Part I" (AL 002 041) presents the Arabic script version of the pre-drills in Lessons IA-IIB in that volume. The second and major section comprises 20 lessons consisting of pre-drills, texts, notes, and questions. All material in this volume appears in Arabic script…

  3. Unveiling the crucial intermediates in androgen production

    PubMed Central

    Mak, Piotr J.; Gregory, Michael C.; Denisov, Ilia G.; Sligar, Stephen G.; Kincaid, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Ablation of androgen production through surgery is one strategy against prostate cancer, with the current focus placed on pharmaceutical intervention to restrict androgen synthesis selectively, an endeavor that could benefit from the enhanced understanding of enzymatic mechanisms that derives from characterization of key reaction intermediates. The multifunctional cytochrome P450 17A1 (CYP17A1) first catalyzes the typical hydroxylation of its primary substrate, pregnenolone (PREG) and then also orchestrates a remarkable C17–C20 bond cleavage (lyase) reaction, converting the 17-hydroxypregnenolone initial product to dehydroepiandrosterone, a process representing the first committed step in the biosynthesis of androgens. Now, we report the capture and structural characterization of intermediates produced during this lyase step: an initial peroxo-anion intermediate, poised for nucleophilic attack on the C20 position by a substrate-associated H-bond, and the crucial ferric peroxo-hemiacetal intermediate that precedes carbon–carbon (C-C) bond cleavage. These studies provide a rare glimpse at the actual structural determinants of a chemical transformation that carries profound physiological consequences. PMID:26668369

  4. A Concurrent Support Course for Intermediate Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Cameron I.

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes the creation and implementation of a concurrent support class for TRS 92--Intermediate Algebra, a developmental mathematics course at Fort Lewis College in Durango, Colorado. The concurrent course outlined in this article demonstrates a statistically significant increase in student success rates since its inception.…

  5. Tape Lessons to Accompany Intermediate Nepali Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verma, Manindra K.

    These tape lessons follow the sequence of the intermediate Nepali Reader. There are 12 lessons each containing various types of exercises designed to increase listening, speaking, and reading skills. Each lesson contains the following types of exercises: (1) listening comprehension; (2) question answering; (3) repetition; and (4) multiple choice…

  6. Membrane Fission: Model for Intermediate Structures

    PubMed Central

    Kozlovsky, Yonathan; Kozlov, Michael M.

    2003-01-01

    Membrane budding-fission is a fundamental process generating intracellular carriers of proteins. Earlier works were focused only on formation of coated buds connected to the initial membrane by narrow membrane necks. We present the theoretical analysis of the whole pathway of budding-fission, including the crucial stage where the membrane neck undergoes fission and the carrier separates from the donor membrane. We consider two successive intermediates of the reaction: 1), a constricted membrane neck coming out of aperture of the assembling protein coat, and 2), hemifission intermediate resulting from self-fusion of the inner monolayer of the neck, while its outer monolayer remains continuous. Transformation of the constricted neck into the hemifission intermediate is driven by the membrane stress produced in the neck by the protein coat. Although apparently similar to hemifusion, the fission is predicted to have an opposite dependence on the monolayer spontaneous curvature. Analysis of the further stages of the process demonstrates that in all practically important cases the hemifission intermediate decays spontaneously into two separate membranes, thereby completing the fission process. We formulate the “job description” for fission proteins by calculating the energy they have to deliver and the radii of the protein coat aperture which have to be reached to drive the fission process. PMID:12829467

  7. Teaching Vocabulary and Morphology in Intermediate Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palumbo, Anthony; Kramer-Vida, Louisa; Hunt, Carolyn V.

    2015-01-01

    Direct vocabulary instruction of Tier 2 and Tier 3 words in intermediate-grade curricula is an important tool of literacy instruction because English is a language grafted from many roots and has not developed a one-to-one phoneme-grapheme correspondence. In addition to knowing graphemes and phonemes, students must formally learn words that cross…

  8. Graphing. USMES Intermediate "How To" Set.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agro, Sally; And Others

    In this set of six booklets on graphing, intermediate grade students learn how to choose which kind of graph to make; make bar graphs, histograms, line graphs, and conversion graphs; and use graphs to compare two sets of data. The major emphasis in all Unified Sciences and Mathematics for Elementary Schools (USMES) units is on open-ended,…

  9. Measuring. USMES Intermediate "How To" Set.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agro, Sally; And Others

    In this set of five booklets on measuring, intermediate grade students learn how to use a stopwatch, choose the right tool to measure distance, use a trundle wheel, make a scale drawing, and find the speed of things. The major emphasis in all Unified Sciences and Mathematics for Elementary Schools (USMES) units is on open-ended, long-range…

  10. Collecting Data. USMES Intermediate "How To" Set.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agro, Sally; And Others

    In this set of six booklets on collecting data, intermediate grade students learn how to collect good data, round off and record data, do an experiment, make an opinion survey, and choose a sample. The major emphasis in all Unified Sciences and Mathematics for Elementary Schools (USMES) units is on open-ended, long-range investigations of real…

  11. Simplifying Data. USMES Intermediate "How To" Set.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agro, Sally; And Others

    In this set of six booklets on simplifying data, intermediate grade students learn how to tell what data show, find the median/mean/mode from sets of data, find different kinds of ranges, and use key numbers to compare two sets of data. The major emphasis in all Unified Sciences and Mathematics for Elementary Schools (USMES) units is on…

  12. Teacher Education for the Intermediate School Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stainbrook, James R., Jr.

    The aim of this 1970 investigation was to analyze the professional education of Indiana's intermediate school teachers. This analysis involved a comparison of the data collected from middle and junior high school teachers. Results obtained from the junior high school teachers were also utilized in a second comparison with the findings from a…

  13. The intermediate anomaly. [satellite orbit integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nacozy, P.

    1977-01-01

    Time transformations of the equation dt = cr to the n ds, where s is a variable called the intermediate anomaly, are known to reduce global error in the solution of gravitational systems obtained by numerical integration. Attention is given to the Sundman time transformation, and its relation to equations of Keplerian elliptical motion.

  14. THE INTERMEDIATE UNIT IN IOWA. (TITLE SUPPLIED).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MESSERLI, JOHN H.

    THE INTERMEDIATE UNIT IS A MODEL WHICH WOULD ENABLE TWO OR MORE SCHOOL DISTRICTS TO DEVELOP SEVERAL COOPERATIVE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS. REASONS PRESENTED FOR FORMING SUCH A UNIT INCLUDE THE RECOGNITION THAT A MAJORITY OF RURAL SCHOOL DISTRICTS CANNOT BE SELF SUFFICIENT AND THAT SUCH A COOPERATIVE PLAN MAY EFFECT GREAT SAVINGS TO SCHOOL SYSTEMS. ONE…

  15. What Should be Taught in Intermediate Macroeconomics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Araujo, Pedro; O'Sullivan, Roisin; Simpson, Nicole B.

    2013-01-01

    A lack of consensus remains on what should form the theoretical core of the undergraduate intermediate macroeconomic course. In determining how to deal with the Keynesian/classical divide, instructors must decide whether to follow the modern approach of building macroeconomic relationships from micro foundations, or to use the traditional approach…

  16. A new intermediate in the Prins reaction

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, Takeshi; Yamazaki, Shoko

    2013-01-01

    Summary Two Prins reactions were investigated by the use of DFT calculations. A model composed of R–CH=CH2 + H3O+(H2O)13 + (H2C=O)2, R = Me and Ph, was adopted to trace reaction paths. For both alkenes, the concerted path forming 1,3-diols was obtained as the rate determining step (TS1). TS stands for a transition state. From the 1,3-diol, a bimolecular elimination (TS2) leads to the allylic alcohol as the first channel. In the second channel, the 1,3-diol was converted via TS3 into an unprecedented hemiacetal intermediate, HO–CH2–O–CH(R)–CH2–CH2–OH. This intermediate undergoes ring closure (TS4), affording the 1,3-dioxane product. The intermediate is of almost the same stability as the product, and two species were suggested to be in a state of equilibrium. While the geometry of TS1 appears to be forwarded to that of a carbocation intermediate, the cation disappeared through the enlargement of the water cluster. Dynamical calculations of a classical trajectory using the atom-centered density matrix propagation molecular dynamics model on the four TSs were carried out, and results of IRC calculations were confirmed by them. PMID:23532354

  17. A new intermediate in the Prins reaction.

    PubMed

    Yamabe, Shinichi; Fukuda, Takeshi; Yamazaki, Shoko

    2013-01-01

    Two Prins reactions were investigated by the use of DFT calculations. A model composed of R-CH=CH2 + H3O(+)(H2O)13 + (H2C=O)2, R = Me and Ph, was adopted to trace reaction paths. For both alkenes, the concerted path forming 1,3-diols was obtained as the rate determining step (TS1). TS stands for a transition state. From the 1,3-diol, a bimolecular elimination (TS2) leads to the allylic alcohol as the first channel. In the second channel, the 1,3-diol was converted via TS3 into an unprecedented hemiacetal intermediate, HO-CH2-O-CH(R)-CH2-CH2-OH. This intermediate undergoes ring closure (TS4), affording the 1,3-dioxane product. The intermediate is of almost the same stability as the product, and two species were suggested to be in a state of equilibrium. While the geometry of TS1 appears to be forwarded to that of a carbocation intermediate, the cation disappeared through the enlargement of the water cluster. Dynamical calculations of a classical trajectory using the atom-centered density matrix propagation molecular dynamics model on the four TSs were carried out, and results of IRC calculations were confirmed by them. PMID:23532354

  18. Giano Intermediate School: The Parent Factor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rourke, James; Hartzman, Marlene

    2009-01-01

    On a Wednesday morning at Giano Intermediate School in West Covina, California, 25 mothers and fathers sit in rapt attention, many taking notes, as a school counselor outlines the morning's Parent Chat. The session is devoted to exploring how well the parents know their children. Parents complete a questionnaire that asks them to answer such…

  19. Unveiling the crucial intermediates in androgen production.

    PubMed

    Mak, Piotr J; Gregory, Michael C; Denisov, Ilia G; Sligar, Stephen G; Kincaid, James R

    2015-12-29

    Ablation of androgen production through surgery is one strategy against prostate cancer, with the current focus placed on pharmaceutical intervention to restrict androgen synthesis selectively, an endeavor that could benefit from the enhanced understanding of enzymatic mechanisms that derives from characterization of key reaction intermediates. The multifunctional cytochrome P450 17A1 (CYP17A1) first catalyzes the typical hydroxylation of its primary substrate, pregnenolone (PREG) and then also orchestrates a remarkable C17-C20 bond cleavage (lyase) reaction, converting the 17-hydroxypregnenolone initial product to dehydroepiandrosterone, a process representing the first committed step in the biosynthesis of androgens. Now, we report the capture and structural characterization of intermediates produced during this lyase step: an initial peroxo-anion intermediate, poised for nucleophilic attack on the C20 position by a substrate-associated H-bond, and the crucial ferric peroxo-hemiacetal intermediate that precedes carbon-carbon (C-C) bond cleavage. These studies provide a rare glimpse at the actual structural determinants of a chemical transformation that carries profound physiological consequences. PMID:26668369

  20. NTTC Course 215: Intermediate Water Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Navy, Washington, DC.

    This publication is the examination booklet used for a home study course in water treatment. This course is the intermediate part of a series produced by the Department of the Navy. This publication is designed to be used in conjunction with a textbook. Each of the two examinations contained in this document are referenced to a section of the…

  1. Reactive intermediates: Radicals with multiple personalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, Malcolm D. E.

    2013-06-01

    A combined theoretical and experimental approach has revealed that radicals can be significantly stabilized by the presence of a remote anionic site in the same molecule. This finding has implications for understanding and potentially controlling the reactivity of these important reactive intermediates.

  2. Renne Intermediate School Features Personalized Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Profiles, Programs & Products, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Renne (Oregon) Intermediate School offers an innovative program of personalized instruction to students in grades 6-8. Teachers work closely with individual students, following a continuous progress curriculum which allows cross-grade-level placement in the core areas of math, reading, and language arts. Based on cooperative district planning, the…

  3. 34 CFR 200.17 - Intermediate goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intermediate goals. 200.17 Section 200.17 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE DISADVANTAGED Improving...

  4. Changes to the Intermediate Accounting Course Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lesley H.; Francisco, William H.

    2009-01-01

    There is an ever-growing amount of information that must be covered in Intermediate Accounting courses. Due to recent accounting standards and the implementation of IFRS this trend is likely to continue. This report incorporates the results of a recent survey to examine the trend of spending more course time to cover this additional material.…

  5. Modeling rapidly rotating stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieutord, M.

    2006-06-01

    We review the quest of modeling rapidly rotating stars during the past 40 years and detail the challenges to be taken up by models facing new data from interferometry, seismology, spectroscopy... We then present the progress of the ESTER project aimed at giving a physically self-consistent model for the structure and evolution of rapidly rotating stars.

  6. Immunological detection of degradation intermediates of skeletal-muscle glycogen phosphorylase in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Cookson, E J; Flannery, A V; Cidlowski, J A; Beynon, R J

    1992-01-01

    Over 95% of the pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) in skeletal is bound to one protein, glycogen phosphorylase. This, and the fact that phosphorylase constitutes approx. 5% of the soluble protein in skeletal muscle, introduce the possibility that PLP might be used as a specific label to identify degradation intermediates of the enzyme. In this investigation, we have developed immunological methods, using a monoclonal antibody to PLP and polyclonal antibodies to phosphorylase, to detect degradation intermediates in vitro and in vivo. We have identified a family of degradation intermediates of glycogen phosphorylase in the high-speed-supernatant fraction of mouse skeletal muscle. These peptides react with both types of antibodies and are in the size and concentration range expected for degradation intermediates in a model in which the committed step is followed by rapid clearance of the products. Changes in amounts of degradation intermediates are examined in physiological or pathological conditions in which the rate of degradation of phosphorylase is altered. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:1445274

  7. Rapid Airplane Parametric Input Design (RAPID)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    RAPID is a methodology and software system to define a class of airplane configurations and directly evaluate surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity on and about the configurations. A distinguishing characteristic which separates RAPID from other airplane surface modellers is that the output grids and grid sensitivity are directly applicable in CFD analysis. A small set of design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process which is incorporated into interactive software for 'real time' visual analysis and into batch software for the application of optimization technology. The computed surface grids and volume grids are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, horizontal tail, and vertical tail components. The double-delta wing and tail components are manifested by solving a fourth order partial differential equation (PDE) subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design parameters are incorporated into the boundary conditions and therefore govern the shapes of the surfaces. The PDE solution yields a smooth transition between boundaries. Surface grids suitable for CFD calculation are created by establishing an H-type topology about the configuration and incorporating grid spacing functions in the PDE equation for the lifting components and the fuselage definition equations. User specified grid parameters govern the location and degree of grid concentration. A two-block volume grid about a configuration is calculated using the Control Point Form (CPF) technique. The interactive software, which runs on Silicon Graphics IRIS workstations, allows design parameters to be continuously varied and the resulting surface grid to be observed in real time. The batch software computes both the surface and volume grids and also computes the sensitivity of the output grid with respect to the input design parameters by applying the precompiler tool

  8. Rapidly Progressive Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Geschwind, Michael D.; Shu, Huidy; Haman, Aissa; Sejvar, James J.; Miller, Bruce L.

    2009-01-01

    In contrast with more common dementing conditions that typically develop over years, rapidly progressive dementias can develop subacutely over months, weeks, or even days and be quickly fatal. Because many rapidly progressive dementias are treatable, it is paramount to evaluate and diagnose these patients quickly. This review summarizes recent advances in the understanding of the major categories of RPD and outlines efficient approaches to the diagnosis of the various neurodegenerative, toxic-metabolic, infectious, autoimmune, neoplastic, and other conditions that may progress rapidly. PMID:18668637

  9. Intermediate filaments in small configuration spaces.

    PubMed

    Nöding, Bernd; Köster, Sarah

    2012-02-24

    Intermediate filaments play a key role in cell mechanics. Apart from their great importance from a biomedical point of view, they also act as a very suitable micrometer-sized model system for semiflexible polymers. We perform a statistical analysis of the thermal fluctuations of individual filaments confined in microchannels. The small channel width and the resulting deflections at the walls give rise to a reduction of the configuration space by about 2 orders of magnitude. This circumstance enables us to precisely measure the intrinsic persistence length of vimentin intermediate filaments and to show that they behave as ideal wormlike chains; we observe that small fluctuations in perpendicular planes decouple. Furthermore, the inclusion of results for confined actin filaments demonstrates that the Odijk confinement regime is valid over at least 1 order of magnitude in persistence length. PMID:22463576

  10. Substrate Activation by Iron Superoxo Intermediates

    PubMed Central

    van der Donk, Wilfred A.; Krebs, Carsten; Bollinger, J. Martin

    2010-01-01

    A growing number of non-heme-iron oxygenases and oxidases catalyze reactions for which the well-established mechanistic paradigm involving a single C-H-bond cleaving intermediate of the Fe(IV)-oxo (ferryl) type [1] is insufficient to explain the chemistry. It is becoming clear that, in several of these cases, Fe(III)-superoxide complexes formed by simple addition of O2 to the reduced [Fe(II)] cofactor initiate substrate oxidation by abstracting hydrogen [2]. This substrate-oxidizing entry route into high-valent-iron intermediates makes possible an array of complex and elegant oxidation reactions without consumption of valuable reducing equivalents. Examples of this novel mechanistic strategy are discussed with the goal of bringing forth unifying principles. PMID:20951572

  11. Studying Reaction Intermediates Formed at Graphenic Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Depanjan; Sen Gupta, Soujit; Narayanan, Rahul; Pradeep, Thalappil

    2014-03-01

    We report in-situ production and detection of intermediates at graphenic surfaces, especially during alcohol oxidation. Alcohol oxidation to acid occurs on graphene oxide-coated paper surface, driven by an electrical potential, in a paper spray mass spectrometry experiment. As paper spray ionization is a fast process and the time scale matches with the reaction time scale, we were able to detect the intermediate, acetal. This is the first observation of acetal formed in surface oxidation. The process is not limited to alcohols and the reaction has been extended to aldehydes, amines, phosphenes, sugars, etc., where reaction products were detected instantaneously. By combining surface reactions with ambient ionization and mass spectrometry, we show that new insights into chemical reactions become feasible. We suggest that several other chemical transformations may be studied this way. This work opens up a new pathway for different industrially and energetically important reactions using different metal catalysts and modified substrate.

  12. Comments on intermediate-scale models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, J.; Enqvist, K.; Nanopoulos, D. V.; Olive, K.

    1987-04-01

    Some superstring-inspired models employ intermediate scales m1 of gauge symmetry breaking. Such scales should exceed 10 16 GeV in order to avoid prima facie problems with baryon decay through heavy particles and non-perturbative behaviour of the gauge couplings above mI. However, the intermediate-scale phase transition does not occur until the temperature of the Universe falls below O( mw), after which an enormous excess of entropy is generated. Moreover, gauge symmetry breaking by renormalization group-improved radiative corrections is inapplicable because the symmetry-breaking field has no renormalizable interactions at scales below mI. We also comment on the danger of baryon and lepton number violation in the effective low-energy theory.

  13. Intermediate Temperature Water Heat Pipe Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devarakonda, Angirasa; Xiong, Da-Xi; Beach, Duane E.

    2005-01-01

    Heat pipes are among the most promising technologies for space radiator systems. Water heat pipes are explored in the intermediate temperature range of 400 to above 500 K. The thermodynamic and thermo-physical properties of water are reviewed in this temperature range. Test data are reported for a copper-water heat pipe. The heat pipe was tested under different orientations. Water heat pipes show promise in this temperature range. Fabrication and testing issues are being addressed.

  14. Intermediate state trapping of a voltage sensor

    PubMed Central

    Lacroix, Jérôme J.; Pless, Stephan A.; Maragliano, Luca; Campos, Fabiana V.; Galpin, Jason D.; Ahern, Christopher A.; Roux, Benoît

    2012-01-01

    Voltage sensor domains (VSDs) regulate ion channels and enzymes by undergoing conformational changes depending on membrane electrical signals. The molecular mechanisms underlying the VSD transitions are not fully understood. Here, we show that some mutations of I241 in the S1 segment of the Shaker Kv channel positively shift the voltage dependence of the VSD movement and alter the functional coupling between VSD and pore domains. Among the I241 mutants, I241W immobilized the VSD movement during activation and deactivation, approximately halfway between the resting and active states, and drastically shifted the voltage activation of the ionic conductance. This phenotype, which is consistent with a stabilization of an intermediate VSD conformation by the I241W mutation, was diminished by the charge-conserving R2K mutation but not by the charge-neutralizing R2Q mutation. Interestingly, most of these effects were reproduced by the F244W mutation located one helical turn above I241. Electrophysiology recordings using nonnatural indole derivatives ruled out the involvement of cation-Π interactions for the effects of the Trp inserted at positions I241 and F244 on the channel’s conductance, but showed that the indole nitrogen was important for the I241W phenotype. Insight into the molecular mechanisms responsible for the stabilization of the intermediate state were investigated by creating in silico the mutations I241W, I241W/R2K, and F244W in intermediate conformations obtained from a computational VSD transition pathway determined using the string method. The experimental results and computational analysis suggest that the phenotype of I241W may originate in the formation of a hydrogen bond between the indole nitrogen atom and the backbone carbonyl of R2. This work provides new information on intermediate states in voltage-gated ion channels with an approach that produces minimum chemical perturbation. PMID:23183699

  15. Intermediate Temperature Water Heat Pipe Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devarakonda, Angirasa; Xiong, Daxi; Beach, Duane E.

    2004-01-01

    Heat pipes are among the most promising technologies for space radiator systems. Water heat pipes are explored in the intermediate temperature range of 400 to above 500 K. The thermodynamic and thermo-physical properties of water are reviewed in this temperature range. Test Data are reported for a copper-water heat pipe. The heat pipe was tested under different orientations. Water heat pipes show promise in this temperature range.Fabrication and testing issues are being addressed.

  16. Exploring Granular Flows at Intermediate Velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodsky, E. E.; van der Elst, N.

    2012-12-01

    Geophysical and geomorphological flows often encompass a wide range of strain rates. Landslides accelerate from nearly static conditions to velocities in the range of meters/seconds. The rheology of granular flows for the end-members is moderately well-understood, but the constitutive low at intermediate velocities is largely unexplored. Here we present evidence that granular flows transition through a regime in which internally generated acoustic waves play a critical role in controlling rheology. In laboratory experiments on natural sand under shear in a commercial rheometer, we observe that the steady-state flows at intermediate velocities are compacted relative to the end members. In a confined volume, this compaction results in a decrease in stress on the boundaries. We establish the key role of the acoustic waves by measuring the noise generated by the shear flows with an accelerometer and then exciting the flow with similar amplitude noise under lower shear rate conditions. The observed compaction for a given amplitude noise is the same in both cases, regardless of whether the noise is generated internally by the grains colliding or artificially applied externally. The boundaries of this acoustically controlled regime can be successfully predicted through non-dimensional analysis balancing the overburden, acoustic pressure and granular inertial terms. In our laboratory experiments, this regime corresponds to 0.1 to 10 cm/s. The controlling role of acoustic waves in intermediate velocities is significant because: (1) Geological systems must pass through this regime on their route to instability. (2) Acoustic waves are much more efficiently generated by angular particles, likely to be found in natural samples, than by perfectly spherical particles, which are more tractable for laboratory and theoretical studies. Therefore, this regime is likely to be missed in many analog and computational approaches. (3) Different mineralogies and shapes result in different

  17. Withaferin a alters intermediate filament organization, cell shape and behavior.

    PubMed

    Grin, Boris; Mahammad, Saleemulla; Wedig, Tatjana; Cleland, Megan M; Tsai, Lester; Herrmann, Harald; Goldman, Robert D

    2012-01-01

    Withaferin A (WFA) is a steroidal lactone present in Withania somnifera which has been shown in vitro to bind to the intermediate filament protein, vimentin. Based upon its affinity for vimentin, it has been proposed that WFA can be used as an anti-tumor agent to target metastatic cells which up-regulate vimentin expression. We show that WFA treatment of human fibroblasts rapidly reorganizes vimentin intermediate filaments (VIF) into a perinuclear aggregate. This reorganization is dose dependent and is accompanied by a change in cell shape, decreased motility and an increase in vimentin phosphorylation at serine-38. Furthermore, vimentin lacking cysteine-328, the proposed WFA binding site, remains sensitive to WFA demonstrating that this site is not required for its cellular effects. Using analytical ultracentrifugation, viscometry, electron microscopy and sedimentation assays we show that WFA has no effect on VIF assembly in vitro. Furthermore, WFA is not specific for vimentin as it disrupts the cellular organization and induces perinuclear aggregates of several other IF networks comprised of peripherin, neurofilament-triplet protein, and keratin. In cells co-expressing keratin IF and VIF, the former are significantly less sensitive to WFA with respect to inducing perinuclear aggregates. The organization of microtubules and actin/microfilaments is also affected by WFA. Microtubules become wavier and sparser and the number of stress fibers appears to increase. Following 24 hrs of exposure to doses of WFA that alter VIF organization and motility, cells undergo apoptosis. Lower doses of the drug do not kill cells but cause them to senesce. In light of our findings that WFA affects multiple IF systems, which are expressed in many tissues of the body, caution is warranted in its use as an anti-cancer agent, since it may have debilitating organism-wide effects. PMID:22720028

  18. Phase slips and dissipation of Alfvenic intermediate shocks and solitons

    SciTech Connect

    Laveder, D.; Passot, T.; Sulem, P. L.

    2012-09-15

    The time evolution of a rotational discontinuity, characterized by a change of the magnetic-field direction by an angle {Delta}{theta} such that {pi}<|{Delta}{theta}|<2{pi} and no amplitude variation, is considered in the framework of asymptotic models that, through reductive perturbative expansions, isolate the dynamics of parallel or quasi-parallel Alfven waves. In the presence of viscous and Ohmic dissipation, and for a zero or sufficiently weak dispersion (originating from the Hall effect), an intermediate shock rapidly forms, steepens and undergoes reconnection through a quasi gradient collapse, leading to a reduction of |{Delta}{theta}| by an amount of 2{pi}, which can be viewed as the breaking of a topological constraint. Afterwards, as |{Delta}{theta}|<{pi}, the intermediate shock broadens and slowly dissipates. In the case of a phase jump |{Delta}{theta}|>3{pi}, which corresponds to a wave train limited on both sides by uniform fields, a sequence of such reconnection processes takes place. Differently, in the presence of a strong enough dispersion, the rotational discontinuity evolves, depending on the sign of {Delta}{theta}, to a dark or bright soliton displaying a 2{pi} phase variation. The latter is then eliminated, directly by reconnection in the case of a dark soliton, or through a more complex process involving a quasi amplitude collapse in that of a bright soliton. Afterwards, the resulting structure is progressively damped. For a prescribed initial rotational discontinuity, both quasi gradient and amplitude collapses lead to a sizeable energy decay that in the collisional regime is independent of the diffusion coefficient {eta} but requires a time scaling like 1/{eta}. In the non-collisional regime where dissipation originates from Landau resonance, the amount of dissipated energy during the event is independent of the plasma {beta}, but the process becomes slower for smaller {beta}.

  19. A new intermediate for the production of flexible stable polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Method of incorporating ether linkages into perfluoroalkylene segment of a dianydride intermediate yields intermediate that may be used in synthesis of flexible, stable polyimides for use as high-temperature, solvent-resistant sealants.

  20. Intermediate depth seismicity - a reflection seismic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberland, C.; Rietbrock, A.

    2004-12-01

    During subduction the descending oceanic lithosphere is subject to metamorphic reactions, some of them associated with the release of fluids. It is now widely accepted, that these reactions and associated dehydration processes are directly related with the generation of intermediate depth earthquakes (dehydration embrittlement). However, the structure of the layered oceanic plate at depth and the location of the earthquakes relative to structural units of the subducting plate (sources within the oceanic crust and/or in the upper oceanic mantle lithosphere?) are still not resolved yet. This is in mainly due to the fact that the observational resolution needed to address these topics (in the range of only a few kilometers) is hardly achieved in field experiments and related studies. Here we study the wavefields of intermediate depth earthquakes typically observed by temporary networks in order to assess their high-resolution potential in resolving structure of the down going slab and locus of seismicity. In particular we study whether the subducted oceanic Moho can be detected by the analysis of secondary phases of local earthquakes (near vertical reflection). Due to the irregular geometry of sources and receivers we apply an imaging technique similar to diffraction stack migration. The method is tested using synthetic data both based on 2-D finite difference simulations and 3-D kinematic ray tracing. The accuracy of the hypocenter location and onset times crucial for the successful application of stacking techniques (coherency) was achieved by the use of relatively relocated intermediate depth seismicity. Additionally, we simulate the propagation of the wavefields at larger distance (wide angle) indicating the development of guided waves traveling in the low-velocity waveguide associated with the modeled oceanic crust. We also present application on local earthquake data from the South American subduction zone.

  1. Intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Brett, Daniel J L; Atkinson, Alan; Brandon, Nigel P; Skinner, Stephen J

    2008-08-01

    High temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), typified by developers such as Siemens Westinghouse and Rolls-Royce, operate in the temperature region of 850-1000 degrees C. For such systems, very high efficiencies can be achieved from integration with gas turbines for large-scale stationary applications. However, high temperature operation means that the components of the stack need to be predominantly ceramic and high temperature metal alloys are needed for many balance-of-plant components. For smaller scale applications, where integration with a heat engine is not appropriate, there is a trend to move to lower temperatures of operation, into the so-called intermediate temperature (IT) range of 500-750 degrees C. This expands the choice of materials and stack geometries that can be used, offering reduced system cost and, in principle, reducing the corrosion rate of stack and system components. This review introduces the IT-SOFC and explains the advantages of operation in this temperature regime. The main advances made in materials chemistry that have made IT operation possible are described and some of the engineering issues and the new opportunities that reduced temperature operation affords are discussed. This tutorial review examines the advances being made in materials and engineering that are allowing solid oxide fuel cells to operate at lower temperature. The challenges and advantages of operating in the so-called 'intermediate temperature' range of 500-750 degrees C are discussed and the opportunities for applications not traditionally associated with solid oxide fuel cells are highlighted. This article serves as an introduction for scientists and engineers interested in intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells and the challenges and opportunities of reduced temperature operation. PMID:18648682

  2. Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development

    SciTech Connect

    S. Elangovan; Scott Barnett; Sossina Haile

    2008-06-30

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are high efficiency energy conversion devices. Present materials set, using yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte, limit the cell operating temperatures to 800 C or higher. It has become increasingly evident however that lowering the operating temperature would provide a more expeditious route to commercialization. The advantages of intermediate temperature (600 to 800 C) operation are related to both economic and materials issues. Lower operating temperature allows the use of low cost materials for the balance of plant and limits degradation arising from materials interactions. When the SOFC operating temperature is in the range of 600 to 700 C, it is also possible to partially reform hydrocarbon fuels within the stack providing additional system cost savings by reducing the air preheat heat-exchanger and blower size. The promise of Sr and Mg doped lanthanum gallate (LSGM) electrolyte materials, based on their high ionic conductivity and oxygen transference number at the intermediate temperature is well recognized. The focus of the present project was two-fold: (a) Identify a cell fabrication technique to achieve the benefits of lanthanum gallate material, and (b) Investigate alternative cathode materials that demonstrate low cathode polarization losses at the intermediate temperature. A porous matrix supported, thin film cell configuration was fabricated. The electrode material precursor was infiltrated into the porous matrix and the counter electrode was screen printed. Both anode and cathode infiltration produced high performance cells. Comparison of the two approaches showed that an infiltrated cathode cells may have advantages in high fuel utilization operations. Two new cathode materials were evaluated. Northwestern University investigated LSGM-ceria composite cathode while Caltech evaluated Ba-Sr-Co-Fe (BSCF) based pervoskite cathode. Both cathode materials showed lower polarization losses at temperatures as low as 600

  3. Structure based prediction of protein folding intermediates.

    PubMed

    Xie, D; Freire, E

    1994-09-01

    The complete unfolding of a protein involves the disruption of non-covalent intramolecular interactions within the protein and the subsequent hydration of the backbone and amino acid side-chains. The magnitude of the thermodynamic parameters associated with this process is known accurately for a growing number of globular proteins for which high-resolution structures are also available. The existence of this database of structural and thermodynamic information has facilitated the development of statistical procedures aimed at quantifying the relationships existing between protein structure and the thermodynamic parameters of folding/unfolding. Under some conditions proteins do not unfold completely, giving rise to states (commonly known as molten globules) in which the molecule retains some secondary structure and remains in a compact configuration after denaturation. This phenomenon is reflected in the thermodynamics of the process. Depending on the nature of the residual structure that exists after denaturation, the observed enthalpy, entropy and heat capacity changes will deviate in a particular and predictable way from the values expected for complete unfolding. For several proteins, these deviations have been shown to exhibit similar characteristics, suggesting that their equilibrium folding intermediates exhibit some common structural features. Employing empirically derived structure-energetic relationships, it is possible to identify in the native structure of the protein those regions with the higher probability of being structured in equilibrium partly folded states. In this work, a thermodynamic search algorithm aimed at identifying the structural determinants of the molten globule state has been applied to six globular proteins; alpha-lactalbumin, barnase, IIIGlc, interleukin-1 beta, phage T4 lysozyme and phage 434 repressor. Remarkably, the structural features of the predicted equilibrium intermediates coincide to a large extent with the known

  4. Membranous intermediates in endocytosis are labile, as shown in a temperature-sensitive mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Kessell, I; Holst, B D; Roth, T F

    1989-01-01

    Membranous tubules, especially prevalent in mammalian absorptive epithelia and insect oocytes, are one of the pleomorphic endocytic compartments that have a role in receptor-mediated endocytosis. To determine whether these tubules are evanescent, and to investigate their temporal relationships with other endocytic intermediates, we studied these tubules during oocyte vitellogenesis in the temperature-sensitive mutant Drosophila melanogaster, shibiretsl. Raising the temperature of shibire oocytes for 1 min from 19 degrees C to 29 degrees C caused a loss of these membranous tubules. The percentage of membrane in tubules decreased from 36% at 19 degrees C to 1.5% after 5 min at 29 degrees C. Concomitantly, the amount of surface membrane increased from 64% at 19 degrees C to 98% after 5 min at 29 degrees C, causing surface membrane invaginations to extend deeper into the cortex. At 29 degrees C the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane was studded with coated pits, and the extracellular face was coated with electron-dense material. Return from 29 degrees C to either 19 degrees C or 26 degrees C for 1-2 min produced a rapid reappearance of tubules containing extracellular horseradish peroxidase in the cortex. These data suggest that tubular intermediates are evanescent structures, and that temperature shock (i) rapidly blocks their formation from the plasma membrane, (ii) causes existing tubules to rapidly recycle to the plasma membrane, and (iii) is rapidly reversed, as newly formed tubules derive their membrane and content from the cell surface. Images PMID:2472637

  5. EGRET Sources at Intermediate Galactic Latitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, Jules P.

    1998-01-01

    During the period 15 March 1992 through 31 October 1997, 12 papers using ROSAT data, supported in part by this grant, were published in referred journals, and one paper was published in a conference proceedings. Their bibliographical references are listed in the Appendix, and the abstracts of these papers are given in the next 13 sections of this report. Finally, a summary of the work completed to date on the newest project, for which ROSAT data are still being received, is given in the section entitled "EGRET Sources at Intermediate Galactic Latitude".

  6. National pilot audit of intermediate care.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Tom; Young, John; Forsyth, Duncan

    2011-04-01

    The National Service Framework for Older People resulted in the widespread introduction of intermediate care (IC) services. However, although these services have shared common aims, there has been considerable diversity in their staffing, organisation and delivery. Concerns have been raised regarding the clinical governance of IC with a paucity of data to evaluate the effectiveness, quality and safety of these services. This paper presents the results of a national pilot audit of IC services focusing particularly on clinical governance issues. The results confirm these concerns and provide support for a larger scale national audit of IC services to monitor and improve care quality. PMID:21526696

  7. Ruthenium Vinyl Carbene Intermediates in Enyne Metathesis

    PubMed Central

    Diver, Steven T.

    2009-01-01

    This review provides an overview of ruthenium vinyl carbene reactivity as it relates to enyne metathesis. Methods for the synthesis of metathesis-active and metathesis-inactive complexes are also summarized. Some of the early hypotheses about vinyl carbene intermediates in enyne metatheses were tested in the arena of synthetic chemistry and subsequently led to mechanistic studies. In these two areas, studies from the author's labs are described. There are still many unresolved questions in enyne metathesis that trace back to vinyl carbene reactivity. Hopefully this review will stimulate further investigation into vinyl carbene reactivity which should further refine our understanding of catalytic enyne metathesis. PMID:19590747

  8. Thermoelectric power generator with intermediate loop

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Lon E; Crane, Douglas Todd

    2013-05-21

    A thermoelectric power generator is disclosed for use to generate electrical power from heat, typically waste heat. An intermediate heat transfer loop forms a part of the system to permit added control and adjustability in the system. This allows the thermoelectric power generator to more effectively and efficiently generate power in the face of dynamically varying temperatures and heat flux conditions, such as where the heat source is the exhaust of an automobile, or any other heat source with dynamic temperature and heat flux conditions.

  9. Solvent effects on ozonolysis reaction intermediates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Rio, Emma; Aplincourt, Philippe; Ruiz-López, Manuel F.

    1997-12-01

    Solvent effects on relative stability, electronic and molecular structure of ozonolysis reaction intermediates are analyzed with the help of ab initio MP2/6-31+G ** calculations. A continuum model is employed to account for solute-solvent electrostatic interactions. The results show that there are large effects on the structure and relative stability of carbonyl oxide by substantially favoring its zwitterionic character. A complex formed by carbonyl oxide and formaldehyde is shown to be stable in the gas phase and in solution. This complex can be involved in solvent cage reactions leading to secondary ozonides. Thermodynamically, primary ozonide decomposition is favored by the solvent.

  10. Intermediate Bandgap Solar Cells From Nanostructured Silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Black, Marcie

    2014-10-30

    This project aimed to demonstrate increased electronic coupling in silicon nanostructures relative to bulk silicon for the purpose of making high efficiency intermediate bandgap solar cells using silicon. To this end, we formed nanowires with controlled crystallographic orientation, small diameter, <111> sidewall faceting, and passivated surfaces to modify the electronic band structure in silicon by breaking down the symmetry of the crystal lattice. We grew and tested these silicon nanowires with <110>-growth axes, which is an orientation that should produce the coupling enhancement.

  11. Reactive Intermediates in Cytochrome P450 Catalysis*

    PubMed Central

    Krest, Courtney M.; Onderko, Elizabeth L.; Yosca, Timothy H.; Calixto, Julio C.; Karp, Richard F.; Livada, Jovan; Rittle, Jonathan; Green, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, we reported the spectroscopic and kinetic characterizations of cytochrome P450 compound I in CYP119A1, effectively closing the catalytic cycle of cytochrome P450-mediated hydroxylations. In this minireview, we focus on the developments that made this breakthrough possible. We examine the importance of enzyme purification in the quest for reactive intermediates and report the preparation of compound I in a second P450 (P450ST). In an effort to bring clarity to the field, we also examine the validity of controversial reports claiming the production of P450 compound I through the use of peroxynitrite and laser flash photolysis. PMID:23632017

  12. Thermoelectric power generator with intermediate loop

    DOEpatents

    Bel,; Lon E.; Crane, Douglas Todd

    2009-10-27

    A thermoelectric power generator is disclosed for use to generate electrical power from heat, typically waste heat. An intermediate heat transfer loop forms a part of the system to permit added control and adjustability in the system. This allows the thermoelectric power generator to more effectively and efficiently generate power in the face of dynamically varying temperatures and heat flux conditions, such as where the heat source is the exhaust of an automobile, or any other heat source with dynamic temperature and heat flux conditions.

  13. MHD oxidant intermediate temperature ceramic heater study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, A. W.; Chait, I. L.; Saari, D. P.; Marksberry, C. L.

    1981-01-01

    The use of three types of directly fired ceramic heaters for preheating oxygen enriched air to an intermediate temperature of 1144K was investigated. The three types of ceramic heaters are: (1) a fixed bed, periodic flow ceramic brick regenerative heater; (2) a ceramic pebble regenerative heater. The heater design, performance and operating characteristics under conditions in which the particulate matter is not solidified are evaluated. A comparison and overall evaluation of the three types of ceramic heaters and temperature range determination at which the particulate matter in the MHD exhaust gas is estimated to be a dry powder are presented.

  14. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, Leo M.

    1999-01-01

    Disclosed are improvments to a rapid road repair vehicle comprising an improved cleaning device arrangement, two dispensing arrays for filling defects more rapidly and efficiently, an array of pre-heaters to heat the road way surface in order to help the repair material better bond to the repaired surface, a means for detecting, measuring, and computing the number, location and volume of each of the detected surface imperfection, and a computer means schema for controlling the operation of the plurality of vehicle subsystems. The improved vehicle is, therefore, better able to perform its intended function of filling surface imperfections while moving over those surfaces at near normal traffic speeds.

  15. Rapid small lot manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Harrigan, R.W.

    1998-05-09

    The direct connection of information, captured in forms such as CAD databases, to the factory floor is enabling a revolution in manufacturing. Rapid response to very dynamic market conditions is becoming the norm rather than the exception. In order to provide economical rapid fabrication of small numbers of variable products, one must design with manufacturing constraints in mind. In addition, flexible manufacturing systems must be programmed automatically to reduce the time for product change over in the factory and eliminate human errors. Sensor based machine control is needed to adapt idealized, model based machine programs to uncontrolled variables such as the condition of raw materials and fabrication tolerances.

  16. 22 CFR 140.10 - Intermediate credit institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Intermediate credit institutions. 140.10... TRAFFICKERS Enforcement § 140.10 Intermediate credit institutions. (a) Treatment as non-governmental entity or as a foreign government entity. Intermediate credit institutions (“ICIs”) shall be subject to...

  17. 22 CFR 140.10 - Intermediate credit institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Intermediate credit institutions. 140.10... TRAFFICKERS Enforcement § 140.10 Intermediate credit institutions. (a) Treatment as non-governmental entity or as a foreign government entity. Intermediate credit institutions (“ICIs”) shall be subject to...

  18. 14 CFR 398.8 - Number of intermediate stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Number of intermediate stops. 398.8 Section 398.8 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... Number of intermediate stops. (a) Except in Alaska, no more than one intermediate stop is permitted...

  19. Coalignment of microtubules, cytokeratin intermediate filaments, and collagen fibrils in a collagen-secreting cell system.

    PubMed

    McBeath, E; Fujiwara, K

    1989-12-01

    The distribution of microtubules and intermediate filaments in the collagen-secreting scleroblasts of the goldfish scale was investigated by immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Many of the microtubules and cytokeratin type intermediate filaments formed bundles that were aligned with the underlying, parallel collagen fibrils. The intermediate filament bundles were evenly spaced and located adjacent to the basal plasma membrane. The microtubules, on the other hand, were located further away from the membrane, although many were found very close to the intermediate filament bundles. No detectable change was observed in scleroblast microtubules when cells on scales were treated with colchicine or cooled (greater than or equal to 0 degrees C) for up to 1 h. Cells had to be cooled overnight before the microtubules were affected. The final number and length of the microtubules in the cell depended only on the final steady-state temperature and not the temperature history of the scale cell, and steady state was reached more slowly at colder temperatures. The microtubules but not the intermediate filaments rapidly (within 5 min) and reversibly depolymerized when cells were chilled to -2 approximately -4 degrees C. When chilled cells were warmed, the microtubules polymerized back, within 15 min at room temperature, to the same pattern of parallel coalignment with the underlying collagen. They appeared to repolymerize via two different pathways: (1) a radial growth outwards from the microtubule organizing center followed by a progressive realignment with the underlying collagen and (2) a gradual and simultaneous polymerization along cold-stable, antitubulin staining fibers. These fibers were also aligned with the collagen fibrils and may be related to the aligned intermediate filaments. PMID:2483378

  20. Rapid Cycling and Its Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be rapid, ultra-rapid or ultradian cycling. Biological rhythm disturbances: This theory proposes that people with rapid cycling have daily biological rhythms that are out of sync with typical “ ...

  1. Rapid Prototyping in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Cesar A.; Butler, Ricky (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    PVSio is a conservative extension to the PVS prelude library that provides basic input/output capabilities to the PVS ground evaluator. It supports rapid prototyping in PVS by enhancing the specification language with built-in constructs for string manipulation, floating point arithmetic, and input/output operations.

  2. Navigate the Digital Rapids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Julie; Davis, Vicki

    2010-01-01

    How can teachers teach digital citizenship when the digital landscape is changing so rapidly? How can teachers teach proper online social interactions when the students are outside their classroom and thus outside their control? Will encouraging students to engage in global collaborative environments land teachers in hot water? These are the…

  3. AFRPL Rapid Indexing System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltran, Alfred A.

    A modified Keyword Out of Context (KWOC) system was developed to gain rapid control over more than 8,000 scattered, unindexed documents. This was the first step in providing the technical information support required by Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory scientists and engineers. Implementation of the KWOC system, computer routines, and…

  4. Fission in intermediate energy heavy ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelmy, J.B.; Begemann-Blaich, M.; Blaich, T.; Boissevain, J.; Fowler, M.M.; Gavron, A.; Jacak, B.V.; Lysaght, P.S.; Britt, H.C.; Fields, D.J.

    1989-04-01

    A systematic study of reaction mechanisms at intermediate energies (50--100 MeV/A) has been performed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's BeValac using medium weight projectiles on medium and heavy element targets. A gas and plastic phoswich detector system was employed which gave large geometric coverage and a wide dynamic response. The particles identified with the gas detectors could be characterized into three components--intermediate mass fragments (IMF), fission fragments (FF) and heavy residues (HR). Major observed features are: the reaction yields are similar in the 50 to 100 MeV/A range, central collisions have high multiplicity of IMF's with broad angular correlations consistent with a large participant region, effects of final state Coulomb interactions are observed and give information on the size and temporal behavior of the source, true fission yields are dependent on target fissility and correlated with relatively peripheral collisions. Analysis of fission and evaporation yields implies limiting conditions for which fission decay remains a viable deexcitation channel. 15 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Li-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Yi-Wei; Yang, Hui; Shen, Xiao-Dong

    2014-12-01

    Sodium metal chloride batteries, also called as ZEBRA batteries, possess many merits such as low cost, high energy density and high safety, but their high operation temperature (270-350 °C) may cause several issues and limit their applications. Therefore, decreasing the operation temperature is of great importance in order to broaden their usage. Using a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) catholyte composed of sodium chloride buffered 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride-aluminum chloride and a dense β″-aluminates solid electrolyte film with 500 micron thickness, we report an intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery which can be operated at only 150 °C, therefore alleviating the corrosion issues, improving the material compatibilities and reducing the operating complexities associated with the conventional ZEBRA batteries. The RTIL presents a high ionic conductivity (0.247 S cm-1) at 150 °C and a wide electrochemical window (-2.6 to 2.18 vs. Al3+/Al). With the discharge plateau at 2.64 V toward sodium and the specific capacity of 285 mAh g-1, this intermediate temperature battery exhibits an energy density (750 mWh g-1) comparable to the conventional ZEBRA batteries (728-785 mWh g-1) and superior to commercialized Li-ion batteries (550-680 mWh g-1), making it very attractive for renewable energy integration and other grid related applications.

  6. Intermediate energy neutron beams from the MURR

    SciTech Connect

    Brugger, R.M.; Herleth, W.H. )

    1990-01-01

    Several reactors in the United States are potential candidates to deli1ver beams of intermediate energy neutrons for NCT. At this time, moderators, as compared to filters, appear to be the more effective means of tailoring the flux of these reactors. The objective is to sufficiently reduce the flux of fast neutrons while producing enough intermediate energy neutrons for treatments. At the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR), the code MCNP has recently been used to calculate doses in a phantom. First, ideal beams of 1, 35, and 1000 eV neutrons were analyzed to determine doses and advantage depths in the phantom. Second, a high quality beam that had been designed to fit in the thermal column of the MURR, was reanalyzed. MCNP calculations of the dose in phantom in this beam confirmed previous calculations and showed that this beam would be a nearly ideal one with neutrons of the desired energy and also a high neutron current. However, installation of this beam will require a significant modification of the thermal column of the MURR. Therefore, a second beam that is less difficult to build and install, but of lower neutron current, has been designed to fit in MURR port F. This beam is designed using inexpensive A1, S, and Pb. The doses calculated in the phantom placed in this beam show that it will be satisfactory for sample tests, animal tests, and possible initial patient trials. Producing this beam will require only modest modifications of the existing tube.

  7. X-rays from intermediate mass stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robrade, Jan

    I will review the X-ray properties of intermediate mass stars and discuss possible X-ray generating mechanisms. Main-sequence stars of spectral type mid B to mid A neither drive sufficiently strong winds to produce shock generated X-rays, nor possess an outer convection zone to generate dynamo driven magnetic activity and coronae. Consequently they should be virtually X-ray dark and occasionally detected X-ray emission was usually attributed to undetected low-mass companions. However, in magnetic intermediate mass stars, the Ap/Bp stars, a different X-ray production mechanism may operate. It is termed the magnetically channeled wind-shock model, where the stellar wind from both hemispheres is channelled towards the equatorial plane, collides and forms a rigidly rotating disk around the star. The strong shocks of the nearly head-on wind collision as well as the existence of magnetically confined plasma in a dynamic circumstellar disk can lead to diverse X-ray phenomena. In this sense Ap/Bp stars bridge the 'classical' X-ray regimes of cool and hot stars.

  8. Keto-Enol Thermodynamics of Breslow Intermediates.

    PubMed

    Paul, Mathias; Breugst, Martin; Neudörfl, Jörg-Martin; Sunoj, Raghavan B; Berkessel, Albrecht

    2016-04-20

    Breslow intermediates, first postulated in 1958, are pivotal intermediates in carbene-catalyzed umpolung. Attempts to isolate and characterize these fleeting amino enol species first met with success in 2012 when we found that saturated bis-Dipp/Mes imidazolidinylidenes readily form isolable, though reactive diamino enols with aldehydes and enals. In contrast, triazolylidenes, upon stoichiometric reaction with aldehydes, gave exclusively the keto tautomer, and no isolable enol. Herein, we present the synthesis of the "missing" keto tautomers of imidazolidinylidene-derived diamino enols, and computational thermodynamic data for 15 enol-ketone pairs derived from various carbenes/aldehydes. Electron-withdrawing substituents on the aldehyde favor enol formation, the same holds for N,N'-Dipp [2,6-di(2-propyl)phenyl] and N,N'-Mes [2,4,6-trimethylphenyl] substitution on the carbene component. The latter effect rests on stabilization of the diamino enol tautomer by Dipp substitution, and could be attributed to dispersive interaction of the 2-propyl groups with the enol moiety. For three enol-ketone pairs, equilibration of the thermodynamically disfavored tautomer was attempted with acids and bases but could not be effected, indicating kinetic inhibition of proton transfer. PMID:26876370

  9. Physics of intermediate shocks: A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karimabadi, H.

    1995-01-01

    Intermediate shocks (ISs) lead to a transition from super-Alfvenic to sub-Alfvenic flow and are different from slow and fast shocks in that an IS rotates the component of the magnetic field tangent to the shock plane by 180 deg. Another peculiarity of ISs is that for the same upstream conditions an IS can have two different downstream states. There also exist a second class of ISs which rotate the magnetic field by an angle other than 180 deg. Due to their noncoplanar nature they cannot be time-stationary and are referred to as time-dependent intermediate shocks (TDIS). The existence of ISs has been the subject of much controversy over the years. Early studies questioned the physical reality of ISs. However, the studies of ISs found a new impetus when C.C. Wu showed that ISs do exist and are stable within the resistive MHD framework. In this paper, after a brief historical overview of the subject, we will review the latest developments in the study of ISs. In particular, we will address the questions of stability and structure of ISs and the relationship between ISs and other discontinuities. One of the recent developments has been the finding that ISs can be unsteady, reforming in time. Details of this process will be discussed. Finally, we examine the effect of anisotropy on the resolutions and discuss the relevance of ISs to the observed field rotations at the Earth's magnetopause.

  10. Rapid characterization of molecular diffusion by NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pudakalakatti, Shivanand M; Chandra, Kousik; Thirupathi, Ravula; Atreya, Hanudatta S

    2014-11-24

    An NMR-based approach for rapid characterization of translational diffusion of molecules has been developed. Unlike the conventional method of acquiring a series of 2D (13)C and (1)H spectra, the proposed approach involves a single 2D NMR spectrum, which can be acquired in minutes. Using this method, it was possible to detect the presence of intermediate oligomeric species of diphenylalanine in solution during the process of its self-assembly to form nanotubular structures. PMID:25331210

  11. Freeze-quenched iron-oxo intermediates in cytochromes P450

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Christiane . E-mail: christiane_jung@hotmail.com; Schuenemann, Volker; Lendzian, Friedhelm

    2005-12-09

    Since the discovery of cytochromes P450 and their assignment to heme proteins a reactive iron-oxo intermediate as the hydroxylating species has been discussed. It is believed that the electronic structure of this intermediate corresponds to an iron(IV)-porphyrin-{pi}-cation radical system (Compound I). To trap this intermediate the reaction of P450 with oxidants (shunt pathway) has been used. The common approaches are stopped-flow experiments with UV-visible spectroscopic detection or rapid-mixing/freeze-quench studies with EPR and Moessbauer spectroscopic characterization of the trapped intermediate. Surprisingly, the two approaches seem to give conflicting results. While the stopped-flow data indicate the formation of a porphyrin-{pi}-cation radical, no such species is seen by EPR spectroscopy, although the Moessbauer data indicate iron(IV) for P450cam (CYP101) and P450BMP (CYP102). Instead, radicals on tyrosine and tryptophan residues are observed. These findings are reviewed and discussed with respect to intramolecular electron transfer from aromatic amino acids to a presumably transiently formed porphyrin-{pi}-cation radical.

  12. Increased Ice-age Influence of Antarctic Intermediate Water.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muratli, J.; McManus, J.; Mix, A.; Chase, Z.

    2008-12-01

    A depth transect of three ODP sites collected along the central Chile Margin constrain Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) distributions and regional export production over the last 30 ka. Reduced Re and Cd, and increased Mn are proxies for higher bottom water oxygenation; 230Th-normalized burial of opal is a proxy for productivity. Mn/Al is high during the glacial interval at all three sites, suggesting high oxygenation and the retreat of the oxygen minimum zone during this period. At Site 1233, within the core of modern AAIW, Re and Cd are unchanged from detrital values throughout the last 30 ky, implying continuously oxic conditions. In contrast, at the northern sites 1234 and 1235, which reside below and above AAIW respectively, Re and Cd rise rapidly from low glacial values at ~15ka, signifying lower oxygen concentrations at the sea floor during Holocene time relative to ice-age conditions. Local productivity, recorded in Th-normalized opal burial, is highest during the glacial interval at both sites 1233 and 1234, and varies independently from the redox proxies. We conclude that local productivity does not drive bottom water oxygenation here, and that ventilation of the shallow subsurface southeast Pacific increased during the last ice age, with an expanded depth range of AAIW relative to the present.

  13. Microtubule-dependent transport and dynamics of vimentin intermediate filaments

    PubMed Central

    Hookway, Caroline; Ding, Liya; Davidson, Michael W.; Rappoport, Joshua Z.; Danuser, Gaudenz; Gelfand, Vladimir I.

    2015-01-01

    We studied two aspects of vimentin intermediate filament dynamics—transport of filaments and subunit exchange. We observed transport of long filaments in the periphery of cells using live-cell structured illumination microscopy. We studied filament transport elsewhere in cells using a photoconvertible-vimentin probe and total internal reflection microscopy. We found that filaments were rapidly transported along linear tracks in both anterograde and retrograde directions. Filament transport was microtubule dependent but independent of microtubule polymerization and/or an interaction with the plus end–binding protein APC. We also studied subunit exchange in filaments by long-term imaging after photoconversion. We found that converted vimentin remained in small clusters along the length of filaments rather than redistributing uniformly throughout the network, even in cells that divided after photoconversion. These data show that vimentin filaments do not depolymerize into individual subunits; they recompose by severing and reannealing. Together these results show that vimentin filaments are very dynamic and that their transport is required for network maintenance. PMID:25717187

  14. ABA-alcohol is an intermediate in abscisic acid biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Rock, C.D.; Zeevaart, J.A.D. )

    1990-05-01

    It has been established that ABA-aldehyde is a precursor to ABA. The ABA-deficient flacca and sitiens mutants of tomato are blocked in the conversion of ABA-aldehyde to ABA, and accumulate trans-ABA-alcohol. {sup 18}O-Labeling studies of ABA in flacca and sitiens show that these mutants synthesize a large percentage of ({sup 18}O)ABA which contains two {sup 18}O atoms in the carboxyl group. Furthermore, the mutants synthesize much greater amounts of trans-ABA-glucose ester (t-ABA-GE) compared with the wild type, and this ({sup 18}O)t-ABA-GE is also double labeled in the carboxyl group. Our interpretation of these data is that the {sup 18}O in ABA-aldehyde is trapped in the side chain by reduction to ({sup 18}O)ABA-alcohol, followed by isomerization to ({sup 18}O)t-ABA-alcohol and oxidation with {sup 18}O{sub 2} to ({sup 18}O)t-ABA. The ({sup 18}O)t-ABA is then rapidly converted to ({sup 18}O)t-ABA-GE. Because ({sup 18}O)ABA doubly labeled in the carboxyl group has been observed in small amounts in labeling experiments with several species, and various species have been shown to convert ABA-aldehyde to ABA-alcohol and t-ABA-alcohol, we propose that ABA-alcohol is an ABA intermediate in a shunt pathway.

  15. Intermediate Pashto Textbook Revised Edition and Intermediate Pashto Workbook Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tegey, Habibullah; Robson, Barbara

    Intermediate Pashto is part of a set of materials for teaching oral and written Afghan Pashto. The transcription of a word or phrase is given only when the word or phrase is introduced, or when pronunciation is the focus. Dialogues and readings on various topics (e.g. food, shopping, weather, family, etc.) are used, with accompanying presentations…

  16. How a rapid response team is supporting people to remain at home.

    PubMed

    Clift, Esther

    2015-12-01

    This article explores the work of a rapid response team (RRT) in an English city. The RRT is a multiprofessional intermediate care team that is able to support patients to remain at home during clinical crises and changes to their social care needs. The service is popular with patients and cost effective. The National Audit of Intermediate Care is in its fourth year and benchmarks how intermediate care services are delivered across England. RRT data are compared with the national data, and show that keeping the team as a crisis intervention service has enabled it to maintain capacity to support patients at home without requiring hospital admission. PMID:26607624

  17. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  18. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, L.M.

    1998-05-05

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find at the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was not heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past. 2 figs.

  19. Rapid climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Morantine, M.C.

    1995-12-31

    Interactions between insolation changes due to orbital parameter variations, carbon dioxide concentration variations, the rate of deep water formation in the North Atlantic and the evolution of the northern hemisphere ice sheets during the most recent glacial cycle will be investigated. In order to investigate this period, a climate model is being developed to evaluate the physical mechanisms thought to be most significant during this period. The description of the model sub-components will be presented. The more one knows about the interactions between the sub-components of the climate system during periods of documented rapid climate change, the better equipped one will be to make rational decisions on issues related to impacts on the environment. This will be an effort to gauge the feedback processes thought to be instrumental in rapid climate shifts documented in the past, and their potential to influence the current climate. 53 refs.

  20. Structural Characterization of the Partially Folded Intermediates of An Immunoglobulin Light Chain Leading to Amyloid Fibrillation And Amorphous Aggregation

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, Z.; Hu, D.; Zhu, M.; Fink, A.L.; /UC, Santa Cruz

    2007-07-12

    Immunoglobulin light chain deposition diseases involve various types of extracellular deposition of light chain variable domains, including amyloid fibrils and amorphous deposits. The decreased thermodynamic stability of the light chain is believed to be the major factor leading to fibrillation. However, the differences in the nature of the deposits among the light chain deposition diseases raise the question of whether the mechanisms leading to fibrillar or amorphous aggregation is different. In this study, we generated two partially folded intermediates of the light chain variable domain SMA in the presence of guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl) and characterized their conformations. The more unfolded intermediate formed fibrils most rapidly, while the more native-like intermediate predominantly led to amorphous deposits. The results also show that the monomeric, rather than the dimeric state, was critical for fibrillation. The data also indicate that fibril elongation involves addition of a partially unfolded intermediate, rather than the native state. We postulate that a more highly unfolded intermediate is more suited to undergo the topological rearrangements necessary to form amyloid fibrils than a more structured one and that this also correlates with increased destabilization. In the case of light chain aggregation, it appears that more native-like intermediate conformations are more prone to form amorphous deposits.

  1. Rapidly refuelable fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Joy, R.W.

    1982-09-20

    A rapidly refuelable dual cell of an electrochemical type is described wherein a single anode cooperates with two cathodes and wherein the anode has a fixed position and the cathodes are urged toward opposite faces of the anodes at constant and uniform force. The associated cathodes are automatically retractable to permit the consumed anode remains to be removed from the housing and a new anode inserted between the two cathodes.

  2. Rapid Detection of Pathogens

    SciTech Connect

    David Perlin

    2005-08-14

    Pathogen identification is a crucial first defense against bioterrorism. A major emphasis of our national biodefense strategy is to establish fast, accurate and sensitive assays for diagnosis of infectious diseases agents. Such assays will ensure early and appropriate treatment of infected patients. Rapid diagnostics can also support infection control measures, which monitor and limit the spread of infectious diseases agents. Many select agents are highly transmissible in the early stages of disease, and it is critical to identify infected patients and limit the risk to the remainder of the population and to stem potential panic in the general population. Nucleic acid-based molecular approaches for identification overcome many of the deficiencies associated with conventional culture methods by exploiting both large- and small-scale genomic differences between organisms. PCR-based amplification of highly conserved ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, intergenic sequences, and specific toxin genes is currently the most reliable approach for bacterial, fungal and many viral pathogenic agents. When combined with fluorescence-based oligonucleotide detection systems, this approach provides real-time, quantitative, high fidelity analysis capable of single nucleotide allelic discrimination (4). These probe systems offer rapid turn around time (<2 h) and are suitable for high throughput, automated multiplex operations that are critical for clinical diagnostic laboratories. In this pilot program, we have used molecular beacon technology invented at the Public health Research Institute to develop a new generation of molecular probes to rapidly detect important agents of infectious diseases. We have also developed protocols to rapidly extract nucleic acids from a variety of clinical specimen including and blood and tissue to for detection in the molecular assays. This work represented a cooperative research development program between the Kramer-Tyagi/Perlin labs on probe development

  3. Kinetic advantage of controlled intermediate nuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Xiaoming

    2012-09-26

    The dominated process of controlled fusion is to let nuclei gain enough kinetic energy to overcome Coulomb barrier. As a result, a fusion scheme can consider two factors in its design: to increase kinetic energy of nuclei and to alter the Coulomb barrier. Cold Fusion and Hot fusion are all one-factor schemes while Intermediate Fusion is a twofactors scheme. This made CINF kinetically superior. Cold Fusion reduces deuteron-deuteron distance, addressing Coulomb barrier, and Hot Fusion heat up plasma into extreme high temperature, addressing kinetic energy. Without enough kinetic energy made Cold Fusion skeptical. Extreme high temperature made Hot Fusion very difficult to engineer. Because CIFN addresses both factors, CIFN is a more promising technique to be industrialized.

  4. Kinetic advantage of controlled intermediate nuclear fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaoming

    2012-09-01

    The dominated process of controlled fusion is to let nuclei gain enough kinetic energy to overcome Coulomb barrier. As a result, a fusion scheme can consider two factors in its design: to increase kinetic energy of nuclei and to alter the Coulomb barrier. Cold Fusion and Hot fusion are all one-factor schemes while Intermediate Fusion is a twofactors scheme. This made CINF kinetically superior. Cold Fusion reduces deuteron-deuteron distance, addressing Coulomb barrier, and Hot Fusion heat up plasma into extreme high temperature, addressing kinetic energy. Without enough kinetic energy made Cold Fusion skeptical. Extreme high temperature made Hot Fusion very difficult to engineer. Because CIFN addresses both factors, CIFN is a more promising technique to be industrialized.

  5. Intermediate inflation driven by DBI scalar field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazavari, N.; Mohammadi, A.; Ossoulian, Z.; Saaidi, Kh.

    2016-06-01

    Picking out a DBI scalar field as inflation, the slow-rolling inflationary scenario is studied by attributing an exponential time function to scale factor, known as intermediate inflation. The perturbation parameters of the model are estimated numerically for two different cases, and the final result is compared with Planck data. The diagram of tensor-to-scalar ratio r versus scalar spectra index ns is illustrated, and it is found that they are within an acceptable range as suggested by Planck. In addition, the acquired values for amplitude of scalar perturbation reveal the ability of the model to depict a good picture of the Universe in one of its earliest stages. As a further argument, the non-Gaussianity is investigated, displaying that the model prediction stands in a 68% C.L. regime according to the latest Planck data.

  6. Physical properties of cytoplasmic intermediate filaments.

    PubMed

    Block, Johanna; Schroeder, Viktor; Pawelzyk, Paul; Willenbacher, Norbert; Köster, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    Intermediate filaments (IFs) constitute a sophisticated filament system in the cytoplasm of eukaryotes. They form bundles and networks with adapted viscoelastic properties and are strongly interconnected with the other filament types, microfilaments and microtubules. IFs are cell type specific and apart from biochemical functions, they act as mechanical entities to provide stability and resilience to cells and tissues. We review the physical properties of these abundant structural proteins including both in vitro studies and cell experiments. IFs are hierarchical structures and their physical properties seem to a large part be encoded in the very specific architecture of the biopolymers. Thus, we begin our review by presenting the assembly mechanism, followed by the mechanical properties of individual filaments, network and structure formation due to electrostatic interactions, and eventually the mechanics of in vitro and cellular networks. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mechanobiology. PMID:25975455

  7. A Mechanochemical Switch to Control Radical Intermediates

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    B12-dependent enzymes employ radical species with exceptional prowess to catalyze some of the most chemically challenging, thermodynamically unfavorable reactions. However, dealing with highly reactive intermediates is an extremely demanding task, requiring sophisticated control strategies to prevent unwanted side reactions. Using hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations, we follow the full catalytic cycle of an AdoB12-dependent enzyme and present the details of a mechanism that utilizes a highly effective mechanochemical switch. When the switch is “off”, the 5′-deoxyadenosyl radical moiety is stabilized by releasing the internal strain of an enzyme-imposed conformation. Turning the switch “on,” the enzyme environment becomes the driving force to impose a distinct conformation of the 5′-deoxyadenosyl radical to avoid deleterious radical transfer. This mechanochemical switch illustrates the elaborate way in which enzymes attain selectivity of extremely chemically challenging reactions. PMID:24846280

  8. The intermediate comets and nongravitational effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeomans, D. K.

    1986-01-01

    The motions of the intermediate-period comets Pons-Brooks, Olbers, Brorsen-Metcalf, and Westphal are investigated over their observed intervals. The three apparitions of comets Pons-Brooks and Olbers were successfully linked, using the now standard nongravitational-force model. The two apparitions of Comet Brorsen-Metcalf were successfully linked without the need for nongravitational effects. For the 1852 and 1913 apparitions of Comet Westphal, complete success was not achieved in modeling the comet's motion either with or without nongravitational effects. However, by including these effects, the comet's astrometric observations could be represented significantly better than if they were assumed inoperative. Comet Westphal's dynamic and photometric behavior suggests its complete disintegration before reaching perihelion in 1913. If the very large radial nongravitational parameter determined for Comet Westphal is due to the comet's disintegration into dust, then the resultant dust-particle size is of the order of 0.8 mm.

  9. Pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation.

    PubMed

    Patil, Meena; Karandikar, Manjiri

    2015-01-01

    The 2007 World Health Organization classification of tumors of the central nervous system identified "pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation" (PPTID) as a new pineal parenchymal neoplasm, located between pineocytoma and pineoblastoma as grade II or III. Because of the small number of reported cases, the classification of PPT is still a matter of controversy. We report a case of PPTID. A 25-year-old female patient was admitted to hospital with complaints of a headache, nausea, vomiting since 1-year. Computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed well-defined, mildly enhancing lesion in the region of the pineal gland with areas of calcification. The tumor was excised. After 3 years, she presented with metastasis in thoracic and lumbosacral spinal region. This is a rare event. PMID:26549088

  10. EGRET sources at intermediate galactic latitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, Jules P. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the abstracts of four papers (using ROSAT data) that are submitted to refereed journals during the current reporting period. The papers are: (1) Extreme x-ray variability in the narrow-line QSO PHL 1092; (2) The Geminga pulsar (soft x-ray variability and an EUVE observation); (3) a broad-band x-ray study of the geminga pulsar; and (4) Classification of IRAS-selected x-ray galaxies in the ROSAT all-sky survey. The abstracts of these papers are given in the next four sections of this report, and their status is given in the Appendix. Finally, two new projects (De-identifying a non-AGN and EGRET sources at intermediate galactic latitude) for which ROSAT data were recently received are currently being studied under this grant. A summary of work in progress on these new projects is given in the last two sections of this report.

  11. A mechanochemical switch to control radical intermediates.

    PubMed

    Brunk, Elizabeth; Kellett, Whitney F; Richards, Nigel G J; Rothlisberger, Ursula

    2014-06-17

    B₁₂-dependent enzymes employ radical species with exceptional prowess to catalyze some of the most chemically challenging, thermodynamically unfavorable reactions. However, dealing with highly reactive intermediates is an extremely demanding task, requiring sophisticated control strategies to prevent unwanted side reactions. Using hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations, we follow the full catalytic cycle of an AdoB₁₂-dependent enzyme and present the details of a mechanism that utilizes a highly effective mechanochemical switch. When the switch is "off", the 5'-deoxyadenosyl radical moiety is stabilized by releasing the internal strain of an enzyme-imposed conformation. Turning the switch "on," the enzyme environment becomes the driving force to impose a distinct conformation of the 5'-deoxyadenosyl radical to avoid deleterious radical transfer. This mechanochemical switch illustrates the elaborate way in which enzymes attain selectivity of extremely chemically challenging reactions. PMID:24846280

  12. Intermediate load modules for test and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Photovoltaic modules were tested for qualification. Tests involved the following: (1) delivery of 20 solar cells for use as reference cells; (2) module documentation and inspection plans specifying the 10 Group I modules; (3) design review of module documentation from Group I modules; (4) revise module documentation to overcome any problems of deficiencies associated with the Group I modules; (5) delivery of 10 Group II modules built to revised specifications; (6) testing of Group II modules to the criteria as outlined in qualification specification. It is found that the solarvolt MSP43E40B satisfies the design criteria of qualification specification for intermediate load modules. Design changes were made in the Group I modules to overcome the deficiencies which allowed Group II modules to pass the qualification tests.

  13. Benchmark West Texas Intermediate crude assayed

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1994-08-15

    The paper gives an assay of West Texas Intermediate, one of the world's market crudes. The price of this crude, known as WTI, is followed by market analysts, investors, traders, and industry managers around the world. WTI price is used as a benchmark for pricing all other US crude oils. The 41[degree] API < 0.34 wt % sulfur crude is gathered in West Texas and moved to Cushing, Okla., for distribution. The WTI posted prices is the price paid for the crude at the wellhead in West Texas and is the true benchmark on which other US crudes are priced. The spot price is the negotiated price for short-term trades of the crude. And the New York Mercantile Exchange, or Nymex, price is a futures price for barrels delivered at Cushing.

  14. Supervising Remote Humanoids Across Intermediate Time Delay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hambuchen, Kimberly; Bluethmann, William; Goza, Michael; Ambrose, Robert; Rabe, Kenneth; Allan, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The President's Vision for Space Exploration, laid out in 2004, relies heavily upon robotic exploration of the lunar surface in early phases of the program. Prior to the arrival of astronauts on the lunar surface, these robots will be required to be controlled across space and time, posing a considerable challenge for traditional telepresence techniques. Because time delays will be measured in seconds, not minutes as is the case for Mars Exploration, uploading the plan for a day seems excessive. An approach for controlling humanoids under intermediate time delay is presented. This approach uses software running within a ground control cockpit to predict an immersed robot supervisor's motions which the remote humanoid autonomously executes. Initial results are presented.

  15. Picornavirus uncoating intermediate captured in atomic detail

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jingshan; Wang, Xiangxi; Hu, Zhongyu; Gao, Qiang; Sun, Yao; Li, Xuemei; Porta, Claudine; Walter, Thomas S.; Gilbert, Robert J.; Zhao, Yuguang; Axford, Danny; Williams, Mark; McAuley, Katherine; Rowlands, David J.; Yin, Weidong; Wang, Junzhi; Stuart, David I.; Rao, Zihe; Fry, Elizabeth E.

    2013-01-01

    It remains largely mysterious how the genomes of non-enveloped eukaryotic viruses are transferred across a membrane into the host cell. Picornaviruses are simple models for such viruses, and initiate this uncoating process through particle expansion, which reveals channels through which internal capsid proteins and the viral genome presumably exit the particle, although this has not been clearly seen until now. Here we present the atomic structure of an uncoating intermediate for the major human picornavirus pathogen CAV16, which reveals VP1 partly extruded from the capsid, poised to embed in the host membrane. Together with previous low-resolution results, we are able to propose a detailed hypothesis for the ordered egress of the internal proteins, using two distinct sets of channels through the capsid, and suggest a structural link to the condensed RNA within the particle, which may be involved in triggering RNA release. PMID:23728514

  16. Intermediate range order in alkaline borate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crupi, C.; Carini, G.; Ruello, G.; D'Angelo, G.

    2016-03-01

    We describe the neutron diffraction patterns of a series of alkaline borate glasses at different metal oxide content. Strong differences are observed in the intermediate range order as a function of the specific alkaline ion and of its concentration. On these results, we propose that the first sharp diffraction peak arises from correlations of atoms of voids and show that the compositional variation of this peak intensity in alkaline borate glasses is due to changes in the distribution of void sizes within the three-dimensional network. We argue that our interpretation in terms of interstitial (empty and/or filled) voids, having different sizes, provides a general explanation for all anomalous behaviours revealed for the first sharp diffraction peak.

  17. Search via quantum walks with intermediate measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buksman, Efrain; de Oliveira, André L. Fonseca; de Lacalle, Jesús García López

    2015-06-01

    A modification of Tulsi's quantum search algorithm with intermediate measurements of the control qubit is presented. In order to analyze the effect of measurements in quantum searches, a different choice of the angular parameter is used. The study is performed for several values of time lapses between measurements, finding close relationships between probabilities and correlations (mutual information and cumulative correlation measure). The order of this modified algorithm is estimated, showing that for some time lapses the performance is improved, and becomes of order O(N) (classical brute-force search) when measurements are taken in every step. The results provide a possible way to analyze improvements to other quantum algorithms using one, or more, control qubits.

  18. Rapid frequency scan EPR.

    PubMed

    Tseitlin, Mark; Rinard, George A; Quine, Richard W; Eaton, Sandra S; Eaton, Gareth R

    2011-08-01

    In rapid frequency scan EPR with triangular scans, sufficient time must be allowed to insure that the magnetization in the x, y plane decays to baseline at the end of the scan, which typically is about 5T(2) after the spins are excited. To permit relaxation of signals excited toward the extremes of the scan the total scan time required may be much longer than 5T(2). However, with periodic, saw-tooth excitation, the slow-scan EPR spectrum can be recovered by Fourier deconvolution of data recorded with a total scan period of 5T(2), even if some spins are excited later in the scan. This scan time is similar to polyphase excitation methods. The peak power required for either polyphase excitation or rapid frequency scans is substantially smaller than for pulsed EPR. The use of an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) and cross loop resonator facilitated implementation of the rapid frequency scan experiments reported here. The use of constant continuous low B(1), periodic excitation waveform, and constant external magnetic field is similar to polyphase excitation, but could be implemented without the AWG that is required for polyphase excitation. PMID:21664848

  19. Rapid Frequency Scan EPR

    PubMed Central

    Tseitlin, Mark; Rinard, George A.; Quine, Richard W.; Eaton, Sandra S.; Eaton, Gareth R.

    2011-01-01

    In rapid frequency scan EPR with triangular scans, sufficient time must be allowed to insure that the magnetization in the x,y plane decays to baseline at the end of the scan, which typically is about 5 T2 after the spins are excited. To permit relaxation of signals excited toward the extremes of the scan the total scan time required may be much longer than 5 T2. However, with periodic, saw-tooth excitation, the slow-scan EPR spectrum can be recovered by Fourier deconvolution of data recorded with a total scan period of 5 T2, even if some spins are excited later in the scan. This scan time is similar to polyphase excitation methods. The peak power required for either polyphase excitation or rapid frequency scans is substantially smaller than for pulsed EPR. The use of an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) and cross loop resonator facilitated implementation of the rapid frequency scan experiments reported here. The use of constant continuous low B1, periodic excitation waveform, and constant external magnetic field is similar to polyphase excitation, but could be implemented without the AWG that is required for polyphase excitation. PMID:21664848

  20. Rapidly Progressive Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Geschwind, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of Review This article presents a practical and informative approach to the evaluation of a patient with a rapidly progressive dementia (RPD). Recent Findings Prion diseases are the prototypical causes of RPD, but reversible causes of RPD might mimic prion disease and should always be considered in a differential diagnosis. Aside from prion diseases, the most common causes of RPD are atypical presentations of other neurodegenerative disorders, curable disorders including autoimmune encephalopathies, as well as some infections, and neoplasms. Numerous recent case reports suggest dural arterial venous fistulas sometimes cause RPDs. Summary RPDs, in which patients typically develop dementia over weeks to months, require an alternative differential than the slowly progressive dementias that occur over a few years. Because of their rapid decline, patients with RPDs necessitate urgent evaluation and often require an extensive workup, typically with multiple tests being sent or performed concurrently. Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease, perhaps the prototypical RPD, is often the first diagnosis many neurologists consider when treating a patient with rapid cognitive decline. Many conditions other than prion disease, however, including numerous reversible or curable conditions, can present as an RPD. This chapter discusses some of the major etiologies for RPDs and offers an algorithm for diagnosis. PMID:27042906

  1. Rapid adhesive bonding concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, B. A.; Tyeryar, J. R.; Hodges, W. T.

    1984-01-01

    Adhesive bonding in the aerospace industry typically utilizes autoclaves or presses which have considerable thermal mass. As a consequence, the rates of heatup and cooldown of the bonded parts are limited and the total time and cost of the bonding process is often relatively high. Many of the adhesives themselves do not inherently require long processing times. Bonding could be performed rapidly if the heat was concentrated in the bond lines or at least in the adherends. Rapid adhesive bonding concepts were developed to utilize induction heating techniques to provide heat directly to the bond line and/or adherends without heating the entire structure, supports, and fixtures of a bonding assembly. Bonding times for specimens are cut by a factor of 10 to 100 compared to standard press bonding. The development of rapid adhesive bonding for lap shear specimens (per ASTM D1003 and D3163), for aerospace panel bonding, and for field repair needs of metallic and advanced fiber reinforced polymeric matrix composite structures are reviewed.

  2. Intermediate Ethanol Blends Catalyst Durability Program

    SciTech Connect

    West, Brian H; Sluder, Scott; Knoll, Keith; Orban, John; Feng, Jingyu

    2012-02-01

    In the summer of 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a test program to evaluate the potential impacts of intermediate ethanol blends (also known as mid-level blends) on legacy vehicles and other engines. The purpose of the test program was to develop information important to assessing the viability of using intermediate blends as a contributor to meeting national goals for the use of renewable fuels. Through a wide range of experimental activities, DOE is evaluating the effects of E15 and E20 - gasoline blended with 15% and 20% ethanol - on tailpipe and evaporative emissions, catalyst and engine durability, vehicle driveability, engine operability, and vehicle and engine materials. This report provides the results of the catalyst durability study, a substantial part of the overall test program. Results from additional projects will be reported separately. The principal purpose of the catalyst durability study was to investigate the effects of adding up to 20% ethanol to gasoline on the durability of catalysts and other aspects of the emissions control systems of vehicles. Section 1 provides further information about the purpose and context of the study. Section 2 describes the experimental approach for the test program, including vehicle selection, aging and emissions test cycle, fuel selection, and data handling and analysis. Section 3 summarizes the effects of the ethanol blends on emissions and fuel economy of the test vehicles. Section 4 summarizes notable unscheduled maintenance and testing issues experienced during the program. The appendixes provide additional detail about the statistical models used in the analysis, detailed statistical analyses, and detailed vehicle specifications.

  3. Lung cancer: chemoprevention and intermediate effect markers.

    PubMed

    Tockman, M S

    2001-01-01

    Even after smoking cessation, genetic damage in the airways epithelium may lead to focal progression of lung carcinogenesis. Some centres now report as many new lung cancer cases among former smokers as among current smokers. Chemoprevention is a potential approach to diminish the progression of pre-clinical genetic damage. The most intensively studied lung cancer chemoprevention agents are the retinoids, including vitamin A and its synthetic analogues and precursors. While effective in suppressing lung carcinogenesis in animal models, retinoids have failed to inhibit carcinogenesis in human chemoprevention trials with premalignant end-points (sputum atypia, bronchial metaplasia). In trials with lung cancer end-points, administration of retinoids either was ineffective or, in the case of beta-carotene, led to greater lung cancer incidence and mortality. In view of these findings, markers of specific retinoid effect (i.e., levels of RAR-beta) become less relevant. Other markers of genetic instability and proliferation may be useful for both early detection and potentially as intermediate-effect markers for new chemoprevention trials. Cytological atypia, bronchial metaplasia, protein (hnRNP A2/B1) overexpression, ras oncogene activation and tumour-suppressor gene deletion, genomic instability (loss of heterozygosity, microsatellite alterations), abnormal methylation, helical CT detection of atypical adenomatous hyperplasia and fluorescent bronchoscopic detection of angiogenic squamous dysplasia offer great promise for molecular diagnosis of lung cancer far in advance of clinical presentation. These end-points can now be evaluated as monitors of response to chemoprevention as potential intermediate-effect markers. PMID:11220665

  4. Establishing the kinetic competency of the cationic imine intermediate in nitroalkane oxidase.

    PubMed

    Valley, Michael P; Tichy, Shane E; Fitzpatrick, Paul F

    2005-02-23

    The flavoprotein nitroalkane oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of neutral nitroalkanes to the corresponding aldehydes and ketones. Cyanide inactivates the enzyme during turnover in a concentration-dependent fashion. Mass spectrometry of the flavin from enzyme inactivated by cyanide in the presence of nitroethane or nitrohexane shows that a flavin cyanoethyl or cyanohexyl intermediate has formed. At high concentrations of cyanide, inactivation does not consume oxygen. Rapid reaction studies show that formation of the adduct with 2-(2H2)-nitroethane shows a kinetic isotope effect of 7.9. These results are consistent with cyanide reacting with a species formed after proton abstraction but before flavin oxidation. The proposed mechanism for nitroalkane oxidase involves removal of a proton from the nitroalkane, forming a carbanion which adds to the flavin N(5). Elimination of nitrite from the resulting adduct would form an electrophilic imine which can be attacked by hydroxide. The present results are consistent with cyanide trapping this electrophilic intermediate. PMID:15713081

  5. Intermediate Phenotypes of ATP1A3 Mutations: Phenotype–Genotype Correlations

    PubMed Central

    Termsarasab, Pichet; Yang, Amy C.; Frucht, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Background ATP1A3-related disorders include rapid-onset dystonia–parkinsonism (RDP or DYT12), alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC), and CAPOS syndrome (Cerebellar ataxia, Areflexia, Pes cavus, Optic atrophy, and Sensorineural hearing loss). Case Report We report two cases with intermediate forms between RDP and AHC. Patient 1 initially presented with the AHC phenotype, but the RDP phenotype emerged at age 14 years. The second patient presented with levodopa-responsive paroxysmal oculogyria, a finding never before reported in ATP1A3-related disorders. Genetic testing confirmed heterozygous changes in the ATP1A3 gene in both patients, one of them novel. Discussion Intermediate phenotypes of RDP and AHC support the concept that these two disorders are part of a spectrum. We add our cases to the phenotype–genotype correlations of ATP1A3-related disorders. PMID:26417536

  6. Intermediate binding of phycocyanobilin to the lyase, CpeS1, and transfer to apoprotein.

    PubMed

    Tu, Jun-Ming; Kupka, Michaela; Böhm, Stephan; Plöscher, Matthias; Eichacker, Lutz; Zhao, Kai-Hong; Scheer, Hugo

    2008-01-01

    The phycobilin: Cysteine-84-phycobiliprotein lyase, CpeS1, catalyzes phycocyanobilin (PCB) and phycoerythrobilin attachment to nearly all cysteine-84 (consensus sequence) binding sites of phycoerythrin, phycoerythrocyanin, phycocyanin and allophycocyanin (Zhao et al. (2007) Proc Natl Acad Sci 104:14300-14305). We now show that CpeS1 can bind PCB, as assayed by Ni(2+) chelating affinity chromatography. Binding is rapid, and the chromophore is bound in an extended conformation similar to that in phycobiliproteins but only poorly fluorescent. Upon addition of apo-biliproteins, the chromophore is transferred to the latter much slower ( approximately 1 h), indicating that chromophorylated CpeS1 is an intermediate in the enzymatic reaction. In addition, imidazole is bound to PCB, as shown by mass spectroscopy of tryptic digests of the intermediate CpeS1-PCB complex. PMID:17912606

  7. Disk instability and outburst properties of the intermediate polar GK Persei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Soon-Wook; Wheeler, J. C.; Mineshige, Shin

    1992-01-01

    The present study reproduces the observed recurrence time scales and duration of the 1981-1989 dwarf nova-type outbursts of the intermediate polar GK Per with a model based on the time-dependent disk instability model. The model gives approximately symmetric (type B, inside-out) outbursts, as observed. This agreement suggests that the outbursts cannot result from a mass transfer instability. A modest variation of the mass transfer rate from the companion is sufficient to account for the variable outburst recurrence time scale. Contamination from the companion and the hot spot dominate the light from the disk except during a bright outburst. An intermediate temperature stagnation wave followed by a full heating wave is consistent with the observed rapid rise and double-peaked structure in the UV and optical light curves. It is argued that the hard X-ray efficiency is dime-dependent, and it is found to be much smaller in outburst than in quiescence.

  8. Rapids configuration and flow dynamics at Warm Springs Rapid on the Yampa River, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Hammack, L.A.; Wohl, E.E. )

    1993-04-01

    Debris flows from the mouths of tributaries form the majority of the rapids in the Green and Colorado River systems. On June 10, 1965, a large debris flow dammed the Yampa River at Warm Springs Draw in Dinosaur National Monument, depositing nearly 10,000 metric tons of gravel and boulders in the river channel and forming Warm Springs Rapid. The Yampa River is the only river in the Colorado River system that is unregulated, and thus provides one of the few opportunities to study a canyon system under natural flow conditions. Kieffer (1985) has proposed that the configuration of a debris fan-rapid represents the interactions between the sediment characteristics (grain size, cementation) of the debris flow, the hydraulic conditions within the construction (roughness, velocities, channel dimensions), and the discharge history of the river since its modification. Warm Springs Rapid currently exhibits a constriction width to upstream channel width ratio of 0.59. Discharges on the Yampa River for June of 1965 averaged 420 m[sup 3]/sec. Estimates of the mean flow velocities (10--20 m/sec) through the initial channel constriction show that critical threshold velocities for sediment transport were reached for the range of boulder sizes contained in the debris fan (intermediate axis = 20--200 cm). However, the width and configuration of the present channel constriction could not have been formed by these flows. A discharge of 940 m[sup 3]/sec was recorded on the Yampa River on May 18, 1984. Mean flow velocities (10--20 m/sec) associated with a discharge of this magnitude may have been competent to erode the channel into its present configuration. Step-backwater modeling will be used to simulate the modification of Warm Springs Rapid through time and to quantify the exact relationship between the morphologic and hydraulic conditions in the evolution of a debris fan-rapid.

  9. Rapid and Quiet Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2007-01-01

    This describes aspects of the rapid and quiet drill (RAQD), which is a prototype apparatus for drilling concrete or bricks. The design and basic principle of operation of the RAQD overlap, in several respects, with those of ultrasonic/ sonic drilling and coring apparatuses described in a number of previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. The main difference is that whereas the actuation scheme of the prior apparatuses is partly ultrasonic and partly sonic, the actuation scheme of the RAQD is purely ultrasonic. Hence, even though the RAQD generates considerable sound, it is characterized as quiet because most or all of the sound is above the frequency range of human hearing.

  10. Right-Rapid-Rough

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Craig

    2003-01-01

    IDEO (pronounced 'eye-dee-oh') is an international design, engineering, and innovation firm that has developed thousands of products and services for clients across a wide range of industries. Its process and culture attracted the attention of academics, businesses, and journalists around the world, and are the subject of a bestselling book, The Art of Innovation by Tom Kelley. One of the keys to IDEO's success is its use of prototyping as a tool for rapid innovation. This story covers some of IDEO's projects, and gives reasons for why they were successful.

  11. Rapidly Progressing Chagas Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Hollowed, John; McCullough, Matthew; Sanchez, Daniel; Traina, Mahmoud; Hernandez, Salvador; Murillo, Efrain

    2016-04-01

    Chagas disease, caused by the parasiteTrypanosoma cruzi, can cause a potentially life-threatening cardiomyopathy in approximately 10-40% of afflicted individuals. The decline in cardiac function characteristically progresses over the course of many years. We report a case of Chagas disease in which the patient experienced an atypical rapid deterioration to severe cardiomyopathy over the course of 16 months. This case argues the need for increased routine surveillance for patients with confirmedT. cruziinfection, who are determined to be at high-risk for worsening cardiomyopathy. PMID:26856912

  12. Rapid prototype and test

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, D.L.; Hansche, B.D.

    1996-06-01

    In order to support advanced manufacturing, Sandia has acquired the capability to produce plastic prototypes using stereolithography. Currently, these prototypes are used mainly to verify part geometry and ``fit and form`` checks. This project investigates methods for rapidly testing these plastic prototypes, and inferring from prototype test data actual metal part performance and behavior. Performances examined include static load/stress response, and structural dynamic (modal) and vibration behavior. The integration of advanced non-contacting measurement techniques including scanning laser velocimetry, laser holography, and thermoelasticity into testing of these prototypes is described. Photoelastic properties of the epoxy prototypes to reveal full field stress/strain fields are also explored.

  13. Intergalactic stellar populations in intermediate redshift clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnick, J.; Giraud, E.; Toledo, I.; Selman, F.; Quintana, H.

    2012-11-01

    A substantial fraction of the total stellar mass in rich clusters of galaxies resides in a diffuse intergalactic component usually referred to as the intracluster light (ICL). Theoretical models indicate that these intergalactic stars originate mostly from the tidal interaction of the cluster galaxies during the assembly history of the cluster, and that a significant fraction of these stars could have formed in situ from the late infall of cold metal-poor gas clouds on to the cluster. However, these models also overpredict the fraction of stellar mass in the ICL by a substantial margin, something that is still not well understood. The models also make predictions about the age distribution of the ICL stars, which may provide additional observational constraints. Here we present population synthesis models for the ICL of an intermediate redshift (z = 0.29) X-ray cluster that we have extensively studied in previous papers. The advantage of observing intermediate redshift clusters rather than nearby ones is that the former fit the field of view of multi-object spectrographs in 8-m telescopes and therefore permit us to encompass most of the ICL with only a few well-placed slits. In this paper we show that by stacking spectra at different locations within the ICL it is possible to reach sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratios to fit population synthesis models and derive meaningful results. The models provide ages and metallicities for the dominant populations at several different locations within the ICL and the brightest cluster galaxies (BCG) halo, as well as measures of the kinematics of the stars as a function of distance from the BCG. We thus find that the ICL in our cluster is dominated by old metal-rich stars, at odds with what has been found in nearby clusters where the stars that dominate the ICL are old and metal poor. While we see weak evidence of a young, metal-poor component, if real, these young stars would amount to less than 1 per cent of the total ICL

  14. Energetics of intermediates in membrane fusion: comparison of stalk and inverted micellar intermediate mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, D P

    1993-01-01

    To understand the mechanism of membrane fusion, we have to infer the sequence of structural transformations that occurs during the process. Here, it is shown how one can estimate the lipid composition-dependent free energies of intermediate structures of different geometries. One can then infer which fusion mechanism is the best explanation of observed behavior in different systems by selecting the mechanism that requires the least energy. The treatment involves no adjustable parameters. It includes contributions to the intermediate energy resulting from the presence of hydrophobic interstices within structures formed between apposed bilayers. Results of these calculations show that a modified form of the stalk mechanism proposed by others is a likely fusion mechanism in a wide range of lipid compositions, but a mechanism based on inverted micellar intermediates (IMIs) is not. This should be true even in the vicinity of the lamellar/inverted hexagonal phase transition, where IMI formation would be most facile. Another prediction of the calculations is that traces of apolar lipids (e.g., long-chain alkanes) in membranes should have a substantial influence on fusion rates in general. The same theoretical methods can be used to generate and refine mechanisms for protein-mediated fusion. PMID:8298039

  15. Structure and Mechanistic Implications of a Tryptophan Synthase Quinonoid Intermediate

    SciTech Connect

    Barends,T.; Domratcheva, T.; Kulik, V.; Blumenstein, L.; Niks, D.; Dunn, M.; Schlichting, I.

    2008-01-01

    Quinonoid intermediates play a key role in the catalytic mechanism of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes. Whereas structures of other PLP-bound reaction intermediates have been determined, a high-quality structure of a quinonoid species has not been reported. We present the crystal structure of the indoline quinonoid intermediate of tryptophan synthase (see figure) and discuss its implications for the enzymatic mechanism and allosteric regulation.

  16. Rapid mineralocorticoid receptor trafficking.

    PubMed

    Gekle, M; Bretschneider, M; Meinel, S; Ruhs, S; Grossmann, C

    2014-03-01

    The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that physiologically regulates water-electrolyte homeostasis and controls blood pressure. The MR can also elicit inflammatory and remodeling processes in the cardiovascular system and the kidneys, which require the presence of additional pathological factors like for example nitrosative stress. However, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) for pathophysiological MR effects remain(s) elusive. The inactive MR is located in the cytosol associated with chaperone molecules including HSP90. After ligand binding, the MR monomer rapidly translocates into the nucleus while still being associated to HSP90 and after dissociation from HSP90 binds to hormone-response-elements called glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) as a dimer. There are indications that rapid MR trafficking is modulated in the presence of high salt, oxidative or nitrosative stress, hypothetically by induction or posttranslational modifications. Additionally, glucocorticoids and the enzyme 11beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase may also influence MR activation. Because MR trafficking and its modulation by micro-milieu factors influence MR cellular localization, it is not only relevant for genomic but also for nongenomic MR effects. PMID:24252381

  17. Rapid response manufacturing (RRM)

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, W.D.; Waddell, W.L.

    1997-02-18

    US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Today markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies, to survive, have to be able to respond with quick-to-market, improved, high quality, cost efficient products. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies. The RRM project was established to leverage the expertise and resources of US private industries and federal agencies to develop, integrate, and deploy new technologies that meet critical needs for effective product realization. The RRM program addressed a needed change in the US Manufacturing infrastructure that will ensure US competitiveness in world market typified by mass customization. This project provided the effort needed to define, develop and establish a customizable infrastructure for rapid response product development design and manufacturing. A major project achievement was the development of a broad-based framework for automating and integrating the product and process design and manufacturing activities involved with machined parts. This was accomplished by coordinating and extending the application of feature-based product modeling, knowledge-based systems, integrated data management, and direct manufacturing technologies in a cooperative integrated computing environment. Key technological advancements include a product model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering environment, knowledge-based software aids for design and process planning, and new production technologies to make products directly from design application software.

  18. Rapid Decisions From Experience

    PubMed Central

    Zeigenfuse, Matthew D.; Pleskac, Timothy J.; Liu, Taosheng

    2014-01-01

    In many everyday decisions, people quickly integrate noisy samples of information to form a preference among alternatives that offer uncertain rewards. Here, we investigated this decision process using the Flash Gambling Task (FGT), in which participants made a series of choices between a certain payoff and an uncertain alternative that produced a normal distribution of payoffs. For each choice, participants experienced the distribution of payoffs via rapid samples updated every 50 ms. We show that people can make these rapid decisions from experience and that the decision process is consistent with a sequential sampling process. Results also reveal a dissociation between these preferential decisions and equivalent perceptual decisions where participants had to determine which alternatives contained more dots on average. To account for this dissociation, we developed a sequential sampling rank-dependent utility model, which showed that participants in the FGT attended more to larger potential payoffs than participants in the perceptual task despite being given equivalent information. We discuss the implications of these findings in terms of computational models of preferential choice and a more complete understanding of experience-based decision making. PMID:24549141

  19. Intermediate Band Solar Cell with Extreme Broadband Spectrum Quantum Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datas, A.; López, E.; Ramiro, I.; Antolín, E.; Martí, A.; Luque, A.; Tamaki, R.; Shoji, Y.; Sogabe, T.; Okada, Y.

    2015-04-01

    We report, for the first time, about an intermediate band solar cell implemented with InAs/AlGaAs quantum dots whose photoresponse expands from 250 to ˜6000 nm . To our knowledge, this is the broadest quantum efficiency reported to date for a solar cell and demonstrates that the intermediate band solar cell is capable of producing photocurrent when illuminated with photons whose energy equals the energy of the lowest band gap. We show experimental evidences indicating that this result is in agreement with the theory of the intermediate band solar cell, according to which the generation recombination between the intermediate band and the valence band makes this photocurrent detectable.

  20. Intermediate magnetite formation during dehydration of goethite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özdemir, Özden; Dunlop, David J.

    2000-04-01

    The dehydration of goethite has been studied by low-temperature induced magnetization (LTIM) and X-ray diffraction on well-characterized acicular crystals. Fresh samples were heated in air to temperatures between 155°C and 610°C. Goethite and hematite were the magnetically dominant phases after all runs except 500°C and 610°C, for which only hematite was found. However, partially dehydrated goethites after the 238-402°C runs had broad peaks or inflections in the LTIM curves around 120 K, suggesting the formation of an intermediate spinel phase. These samples were next given a saturation remanence in a field of 2 T at 10 K and the remanence was measured continuously during zero-field warming to 300 K. There was a decrease in remanence at the Verwey transition (120 K), diagnostic of magnetite. The possible formation of a small amount of magnetite is of serious concern in studies of goethite-bearing sediments and rocks. Chemical remanent magnetization (CRM) of this strongly magnetic spinel phase could significantly modify the direction as well as the intensity of the original goethite CRM. As well, it would be a new source of paleomagnetic noise as far as primary remanence carried by other mineral phases is concerned.

  1. Intermediate Temperature Fluids Life Tests - Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarau, Calin; Sarraf, David B.; Locci, Ivan E.; Anderson, William G.

    2008-01-01

    There are a number of different applications that could use heat pipes or loop heat pipes (LHPs) in the intermediate temperature range of 450 to 750 K, including space nuclear power system radiators, and high temperature electronics cooling. Potential working fluids include organic fluids, elements, and halides, with halides being the least understood, with only a few life tests conducted. Potential envelope materials for halide working fluids include pure aluminum, aluminum alloys, commercially pure (CP) titanium, titanium alloys, and corrosion resistant superalloys. Life tests were conducted with three halides (AlBr3, SbBr3, and TiCl4) and water in three different envelopes: two aluminum alloys (Al-5052, Al-6061) and Cp-2 titanium. The AlBr3 attacked the grain boundaries in the aluminum envelopes, and formed TiAl compounds in the titanium. The SbBr3 was incompatible with the only envelope material that it was tested with, Al-6061. TiCl4 and water were both compatible with CP2-titanium. A theoretical model was developed that uses electromotive force differences to predict the compatibility of halide working fluids with envelope materials. This theory predicts that iron, nickel, and molybdenum are good envelope materials, while aluminum and titanium halides are good working fluids. The model is in good agreement with results form previous life tests, as well as the current life tests.

  2. Mechanical properties of intermediate filament proteins

    PubMed Central

    Charrier, Elisabeth E.; Janmey, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Purified intermediate filament proteins can be reassembled in vitro to produce polymers closely resembling those found in cells, and these filament form viscoelastic gels. The crosslinks holding IFs together in the network include specific bonds between polypeptides extending from the filament surface and ionic interactions mediated by divalent cations. IF networks exhibit striking non-linear elasticity with stiffness, as quantified by shear modulus, increasing an order of magnitude as the networks are deformed to large stains resembling those that soft tissues undergo in vivo. Individual Ifs can be stretched to more than 2 or 3 times their resting length without breaking. At least ten different rheometric methods have been used to quantify the viscoelasticity of IF networks over a wide range of timescales and strain magnitudes. The mechanical roles of different classes of IF on mesenchymal and epithelial cells in culture have also been studied by an even wider range of microrheological methods. These studies have documented the effects on cell mechanics when IFs are genetically or pharmacologically disrupted or when normal or mutant IF proteins are exogenously expressed in cells. Consistent with in vitro rheology, the mechanical role of IFs is more apparent as cells are subjected to larger and more frequent deformations. PMID:26795466

  3. Molecular phylogeny of metazoan intermediate filament proteins.

    PubMed

    Erber, A; Riemer, D; Bovenschulte, M; Weber, K

    1998-12-01

    We have cloned cytoplasmic intermediate filament (IF) proteins from a large number of invertebrate phyla using cDNA probes, the monoclonal antibody IFA, peptide sequence information, and various RT-PCR procedures. Novel IF protein sequences reported here include the urochordata and nine protostomic phyla, i.e., Annelida, Brachiopoda, Chaetognatha, Echiura, Nematomorpha, Nemertea, Platyhelminthes, Phoronida, and Sipuncula. Taken together with the wealth of data on IF proteins of vertebrates and the results on IF proteins of Cephalochordata, Mollusca, Annelida, and Nematoda, two IF prototypes emerge. The L-type, which includes 35 sequences from 11 protostomic phyla, shares with the nuclear lamins the long version of the coil 1b subdomain and, in most cases, a homology segment of some 120 residues in the carboxyterminal tail domain. The S-type, which includes all four subfamilies (types I to IV) of vertebrate IF proteins, lacks 42 residues in the coil 1b subdomain and the carboxyterminal lamin homology segment. Since IF proteins from all three phyla of the chordates have the 42-residue deletion, this deletion arose in a progenitor prior to the divergence of the chordates into the urochordate, cephalochordate, and vertebrate lineages, possibly already at the origin of the deuterostomic branch. Four phyla recently placed into the protostomia on grounds of their 18S rDNA sequences (Brachiopoda, Nemertea, Phoronida, and Platyhelminthes) show IF proteins of the L-type and fit by sequence identity criteria into the lophotrochozoic branch of the protostomia. PMID:9847417

  4. Mechanical Properties of Intermediate Filament Proteins.

    PubMed

    Charrier, Elisabeth E; Janmey, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    Purified intermediate filament (IF) proteins can be reassembled in vitro to produce polymers closely resembling those found in cells, and these filaments form viscoelastic gels. The cross-links holding IFs together in the network include specific bonds between polypeptides extending from the filament surface and ionic interactions mediated by divalent cations. IF networks exhibit striking nonlinear elasticity with stiffness, as quantified by shear modulus, increasing an order of magnitude as the networks are deformed to large strains resembling those that soft tissues undergo in vivo. Individual IFs can be stretched to more than two or three times their resting length without breaking. At least 10 different rheometric methods have been used to quantify the viscoelasticity of IF networks over a wide range of timescales and strain magnitudes. The mechanical roles of different classes of cytoplasmic IFs on mesenchymal and epithelial cells in culture have also been studied by an even wider range of microrheological methods. These studies have documented the effects on cell mechanics when IFs are genetically or pharmacologically disrupted or when normal or mutant IF proteins are exogenously expressed in cells. Consistent with in vitro rheology, the mechanical role of IFs is more apparent as cells are subjected to larger and more frequent deformations. PMID:26795466

  5. Substrate radical intermediates in soluble methane monooxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Aimin; Jin Yi; Zhang Jingyan; Brazeau, Brian J.; Lipscomb, John D. . E-mail: lipsc001@umn.edu

    2005-12-09

    EPR spin-trapping experiments were carried out using the three-component soluble methane monooxygenase (MMO). Spin-traps 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO), {alpha}-4-pyridyl-1-oxide N-tert-butylnitrone (POBN), and nitrosobenzene (NOB) were used to investigate the possible formation of substrate radical intermediates during catalysis. In contrast to a previous report, the NADH-coupled oxidations of various substrates did not produce any trapped radical species when DMPO or POBN was present. However, radicals were detected by these traps when only the MMO reductase component and NADH were present. DMPO and POBN were found to be weak inhibitors of the MMO reaction. In contrast, NOB is a strong inhibitor for the MMO-catalyzed nitrobenzene oxidation reaction. When NOB was used as a spin-trap in the complete MMO system with or without substrate, EPR signals from an NOB radical were detected. We propose that a molecule of NOB acts simultaneously as a substrate and a spin-trap for MMO, yielding the long-lived radical and supporting a stepwise mechanism for MMO.

  6. Simulations of Oligomeric Intermediates in Prion Diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobley, D.

    2003-10-01

    We extend our previous stochastic cellular automata based model for areal aggregation of prion proteins on neuronal surfaces. The new anisotropic model allow us to simulate both strong beta-sheet and weaker attachment bonds between proteins. Constraining binding directions allows us to generate aggregate structures with the hexagonal lattice symmetry found in recently observed in vitro experiments. We argue that these constraints on rules may correspond to underlying steric constraints on the aggregation process. We find that monomer dominated growth of the areal aggregate is too slow to account for some observed doubling time-to-incubation time ratios inferred from data, and so consider aggregation dominated by relatively stable but non-infectious oligomeric intermediates. We compare a kinetic theory analysis of oligomeric aggregation to spatially explicit simulations of the process. We find that with suitable rules for misfolding of oligomers, possibly due to water exclusion by the surrounding aggregate, the resulting oligomeric aggregation model maps onto our previous monomer aggregation model. Therefore it can produce some of the same attractive features for the description of prion incubation time data. We propose experiments to test the oligomeric aggregation model.

  7. Intermediate- and long-term earthquake prediction.

    PubMed

    Sykes, L R

    1996-04-30

    Progress in long- and intermediate-term earthquake prediction is reviewed emphasizing results from California. Earthquake prediction as a scientific discipline is still in its infancy. Probabilistic estimates that segments of several faults in California will be the sites of large shocks in the next 30 years are now generally accepted and widely used. Several examples are presented of changes in rates of moderate-size earthquakes and seismic moment release on time scales of a few to 30 years that occurred prior to large shocks. A distinction is made between large earthquakes that rupture the entire downdip width of the outer brittle part of the earth's crust and small shocks that do not. Large events occur quasi-periodically in time along a fault segment and happen much more often than predicted from the rates of small shocks along that segment. I am moderately optimistic about improving predictions of large events for time scales of a few to 30 years although little work of that type is currently underway in the United States. Precursory effects, like the changes in stress they reflect, should be examined from a tensorial rather than a scalar perspective. A broad pattern of increased numbers of moderate-size shocks in southern California since 1986 resembles the pattern in the 25 years before the great 1906 earthquake. Since it may be a long-term precursor to a great event on the southern San Andreas fault, that area deserves detailed intensified study. PMID:11607658

  8. Intermediate- and long-term earthquake prediction.

    PubMed Central

    Sykes, L R

    1996-01-01

    Progress in long- and intermediate-term earthquake prediction is reviewed emphasizing results from California. Earthquake prediction as a scientific discipline is still in its infancy. Probabilistic estimates that segments of several faults in California will be the sites of large shocks in the next 30 years are now generally accepted and widely used. Several examples are presented of changes in rates of moderate-size earthquakes and seismic moment release on time scales of a few to 30 years that occurred prior to large shocks. A distinction is made between large earthquakes that rupture the entire downdip width of the outer brittle part of the earth's crust and small shocks that do not. Large events occur quasi-periodically in time along a fault segment and happen much more often than predicted from the rates of small shocks along that segment. I am moderately optimistic about improving predictions of large events for time scales of a few to 30 years although little work of that type is currently underway in the United States. Precursory effects, like the changes in stress they reflect, should be examined from a tensorial rather than a scalar perspective. A broad pattern of increased numbers of moderate-size shocks in southern California since 1986 resembles the pattern in the 25 years before the great 1906 earthquake. Since it may be a long-term precursor to a great event on the southern San Andreas fault, that area deserves detailed intensified study. Images Fig. 1 PMID:11607658

  9. Intermediate endpoint biomarkers for lung cancer chemoprevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacAulay, Calum E.; Lam, Stephen; Klein-Parker, Helga; Gazdar, Adi; Guillaud, Martial; Payne, Peter W.; Le Riche, Jean C.; Dawe, Chris; Band, Pierre; Palcic, Branko

    1998-04-01

    Given the demographics of current and ex-smoking populations in North America, lung cancer will be a major problem in the foreseeable future. Early detection and treatment of lung cancer holds great promise for the management of this disease. Unlike cervical cancer, the physical, complete removal/destruction of all dysplastic lesions in the bronchial tree is not possible; however, treatment of the lesions using a chemopreventive agent is. Intermediate biomarkers have been used to screen promising chemopreventive agents for larger population studies. We have examined the natural history of lung cancer development by following a group of subjects at high risk of developing lung cancer using fluorescence endoscopy to identify the areas of abnormality for biopsy. Approximately 900 biopsies have been collected in this fashion and graded by at least two experienced, expert pathologists. Using an interactive version of the Cyto-Savant (Oncometrics Imaging Corp.), cytometric and tissue architectural data were collected from these biopsies. Using only the data from the normal and invasive cancer biopsies, quantitative morphometric and architectural indices were generated and calculated for all the collected biopsies. These indices were compared with Loss of Heterozygosity (LOH) of ten sites commonly associated with cancer. These results and the application of these quantitative measures to two small chemoprevention studies will be reported.

  10. Intrinsic Josephson Junctions with Intermediate Damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warburton, Paul A.; Saleem, Sajid; Fenton, Jon C.; Speller, Susie; Grovenor, Chris R. M.

    2011-03-01

    In cuprate superconductors, adjacent cuprate double-planes are intrinsically Josephson-coupled. For bias currents perpendicular to the planes, the current-voltage characteristics correspond to those of an array of underdamped Josephson junctions. We will discuss our experiments on sub-micron Tl-2212 intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJs). The dynamics of the IJJs at the plasma frequency are moderately damped (Q ~ 8). This results in a number of counter-intuitive observations, including both a suppression of the effect of thermal fluctuations and a shift of the skewness of the switching current distributions from negative to positive as the temperature is increased. Simulations confirm that these phenomena result from repeated phase slips as the IJJ switches from the zero-voltage to the running state. We further show that increased dissipation counter-intuitively increases the maximum supercurrent in the intermediate damping regime (PRL vol. 103, art. no. 217002). We discuss the role of environmental dissipation on the dynamics and describe experiments with on-chip lumped-element passive components in order control the environment seen by the IJJs. Work supported by EPSRC.

  11. EINSTEIN SSS Observations of Two Intermediate Polars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, J.; Swank, J. H.

    1992-12-01

    We present the Einstein Solid State Spectrometer (SSS) observations of two Intermediate Polars, EX Hydrae and TV Columbae. These data have revealed a new soft X-ray component in the spectra of both the objects. The spectrum of EX Hya is modeled with two temperature components, ~ 9 keV and ~ 0.74 keV optically thin plasma in collisional ionization equilibrium. The variation in the spectrum in phase with the 67 minute pulsation can be interpreted as arising due to excess absorbing material covering 40% of the emission region at the minimum phase, a modification of the ``accretion curtain model''. The spectrum of TV Col also reveals an excess at soft energies above the previously accepted thermal model ( ~ 15 keV), with a patchy absorber. This excess can be modeled with two optically thin thermal components with kT ~ 0.18 and ~ 0.75 keV. The spectrum is found to vary with the phase of the ~ 4 day period found in the optical photometry of this source. There is also evidence for the 32 minute pulsation, interpreted as the white dwarf spin period. The variation in the spectrum due to the 32 minute pulsation will be compared to the variations found in EX Hya due to the 67 minute pulsations.

  12. Rapid shallow breathing index.

    PubMed

    Karthika, Manjush; Al Enezi, Farhan A; Pillai, Lalitha V; Arabi, Yaseen M

    2016-01-01

    Predicting successful liberation of patients from mechanical ventilation has been a focus of interest to clinicians practicing in intensive care. Various weaning indices have been investigated to identify an optimal weaning window. Among them, the rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI) has gained wide use due to its simple technique and avoidance of calculation of complex pulmonary mechanics. Since its first description, several modifications have been suggested, such as the serial measurements and the rate of change of RSBI, to further improve its predictive value. The objective of this paper is to review the utility of RSBI in predicting weaning success. In addition, the use of RSBI in specific patient populations and the reported modifications of RSBI technique that attempt to improve the utility of RSBI are also reviewed. PMID:27512505

  13. rapidMCR

    SciTech Connect

    2011-11-04

    rapidMCR is a user friendly software package that includes automatic preprocessing, analysis, and viewing of hyperspectral image data sets. Currently, this software package specifically preprocesses and analyzes hyperspectral fluorescence image data sets that have been created on Sandia hyperspectral imaging microscopes; however, this software can be modified to include spectroscopic image data sets from other (non-Sandia developed) instruments as well. This software relies on using prior information about the spectroscopic image data sets by conducting a rigorous characterization of the instrument. By characterizing the instrument for noise and artifacts, we can implement our algorithms to account for the effects specific to a particular instrument. This allows us to automate the data preprocessing while improving the analysis results.

  14. Rapid Polymer Sequencer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolc, Viktor (Inventor); Brock, Mathew W. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Method and system for rapid and accurate determination of each of a sequence of unknown polymer components, such as nucleic acid components. A self-assembling monolayer of a selected substance is optionally provided on an interior surface of a pipette tip, and the interior surface is immersed in a selected liquid. A selected electrical field is impressed in a longitudinal or transverse direction at the tip, a polymer sequence is passed through the tip, and a change in an electrical current signal is measured as each polymer component passes through the tip. Each measured change in electrical current signals is compared with a database of reference signals, with each reference signal identified with a polymer component, to identify the unknown polymer component. The tip preferably has a pore inner diameter of no more than about 40 nm and is prepared by heating and pulling a very small section of a glass tubing.

  15. Rapid mercury assays

    SciTech Connect

    Szurdoki, S.; Kido, H.; Hammock, B.D.

    1996-10-01

    We have developed rapid assays with the potential of detecting mercury in environmental samples. our methods combine the simple ELISA-format with the selective, high affinity complexation of mercuric ions by sulfur-containing ligands. The first assay is based on a sandwich chelate formed by a protein-bound ligand immobilized on the wells of a microliter plate, mercuric ion of the analyzed sample, and another ligand conjugated to a reporter enzyme. The second assay involves competition between mercuric ions and an organomercury-conjugate to bind to a chelating conjugate. Several sulfur containing chelators (e.g., dithiocarbamates) and organomercurials linked to macromolecular carriers have been investigated in these assay formats. The assays detect mercuric ions in ppb/high ppt concentrations with high selectivity.

  16. Solid state rapid thermocycling

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Spadaccini, Christopher

    2014-05-13

    The rapid thermal cycling of a material is targeted. A solid state heat exchanger with a first well and second well is coupled to a power module. A thermoelectric element is coupled to the first well, the second well, and the power module, is configured to transfer thermal energy from the first well to the second well when current from the power module flows through the thermoelectric element in a first direction, and is configured to transfer thermal energy from the second well to the first well when current from the power module flows through the thermoelectric element in a second direction. A controller may be coupled to the thermoelectric elements, and may switch the direction of current flowing through the thermoelectric element in response to a determination by sensors coupled to the wells that the amount of thermal energy in the wells falls below or exceeds a pre-determined threshold.

  17. Rapid shallow breathing index

    PubMed Central

    Karthika, Manjush; Al Enezi, Farhan A.; Pillai, Lalitha V.; Arabi, Yaseen M.

    2016-01-01

    Predicting successful liberation of patients from mechanical ventilation has been a focus of interest to clinicians practicing in intensive care. Various weaning indices have been investigated to identify an optimal weaning window. Among them, the rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI) has gained wide use due to its simple technique and avoidance of calculation of complex pulmonary mechanics. Since its first description, several modifications have been suggested, such as the serial measurements and the rate of change of RSBI, to further improve its predictive value. The objective of this paper is to review the utility of RSBI in predicting weaning success. In addition, the use of RSBI in specific patient populations and the reported modifications of RSBI technique that attempt to improve the utility of RSBI are also reviewed. PMID:27512505

  18. rapidMCR

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2011-11-04

    rapidMCR is a user friendly software package that includes automatic preprocessing, analysis, and viewing of hyperspectral image data sets. Currently, this software package specifically preprocesses and analyzes hyperspectral fluorescence image data sets that have been created on Sandia hyperspectral imaging microscopes; however, this software can be modified to include spectroscopic image data sets from other (non-Sandia developed) instruments as well. This software relies on using prior information about the spectroscopic image data sets by conductingmore » a rigorous characterization of the instrument. By characterizing the instrument for noise and artifacts, we can implement our algorithms to account for the effects specific to a particular instrument. This allows us to automate the data preprocessing while improving the analysis results.« less

  19. The Close Stellar Companions to Intermediate-mass Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLeod, Morgan; Trenti, Michele; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2016-03-01

    When embedded in dense cluster cores, intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) acquire close stellar or stellar-remnant companions. These companions are not only gravitationally bound, but also tend to hierarchically isolate from other cluster stars through series of multibody encounters. In this paper we study the demographics of IMBH companions in compact star clusters through direct N-body simulations. We study clusters initially composed of 105 or 2 × 105 stars with IMBHs of 75 and 150 solar masses, and we follow their evolution for 6-10 Gyr. A tight, innermost binary pair of IMBH and stellar object rapidly forms. The IMBH has a companion with an orbital semimajor axis at least three times tighter than the second-most-bound object over 90% of the time. These companionships have typical periods on the order of years and are subject to cycles of exchange and destruction. The most frequently observed, long-lived pairings persist for ˜107 years. The demographics of IMBH companions in clusters are diverse: they include both main-sequence, giant stars and stellar remnants. Companion objects may reveal the presence of an IMBH in a cluster in one of several ways. The most-bound companion stars routinely suffer grazing tidal interactions with the IMBH, offering a dynamical mechanism to produce repeated flaring episodes like those seen in the IMBH candidate HLX-1. The stellar winds of companion stars provide a minimum quiescent accretion rate for IMBHs, with implications for radio searches for IMBH accretion in globular clusters. Finally, gravitational wave inspirals of compact objects occur with promising frequency.

  20. Rapid geophysical surveyor

    SciTech Connect

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sties where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed due to refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was one of several projects funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) on the INEL in September of 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 inches along survey lines spaced 1 foot apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 man-days using conventional ground survey techniques. This report documents the design and demonstration of the RGS concept including the presentation of magnetic data collected at the SDA. The surveys were able to show pit and trench boundaries and determine details of their spatial orientation never before achieved.

  1. Rapid geophysical surveyor

    SciTech Connect

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-07-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sties where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed due to refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was one of several projects funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) on the INEL in September of 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 inches along survey lines spaced 1 foot apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 man-days using conventional ground survey techniques. This report documents the design and demonstration of the RGS concept including the presentation of magnetic data collected at the SDA. The surveys were able to show pit and trench boundaries and determine details of their spatial orientation never before achieved.

  2. Advances in rapid prototyping

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, C.L.; McCarty, G.D.; Pardo, B.T.; Bryce, E.A.

    1993-12-31

    Recent advances in stereolithography and selective laser sintering have had a significant impact on the overall quality of parts produced using these rapid prototyping processes. The development and implementation of 3D System`s QuickCast{trademark} resin and software for building investment casting patterns have proven to be major steps toward fabricating highly accurate patterns with very good surface finishes. Sandia uses patterns generated from rapid prototyping processes to reduce the cycle time and cost of fabricating prototype parts in support of a Sandia National Laboratories managed program called FASTCAST. As participants in the Beta test program for QuickCast{trademark} resin and software, they experienced a steep learning curve and were able to build accurate parts in a short period of time. It is now possible, using this technology, to produce highly accurate prototype parts as well as acceptable firs article and small lots size production parts. They use the Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) process to fabricate prototype wax patterns for investment casting. DTM Corporation recently introduced the use of their polycarbonate material for fabricating investment casting patterns. The polycarbonate material is processed significantly faster, with improved strength, dimensional stability, and without a support structure during the build process. Sandia is currently changing from investment casting wax to polycarbonate for the fabrication of investment casting patterns using the SLS process. This presentation will focus on the successes with these new materials from the standpoints of application, accuracy, surface finish, and post processing. Also presented will be examples of parts manufactured by these processes.

  3. Constraints on Galactic intermediate mass black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mapelli, M.; Ferrara, A.; Rea, N.

    2006-05-01

    Intermediate mass black holes (IMBHs; 101.3 to 105Msolar) are thought to form as relics of Population III stars or from the runaway collapse of stars in young clusters; their number and very existence are uncertain. We ran N-body simulations of Galactic IMBHs, modelling them as a halo population distributed according to a Navarro, Frenk & White (NFW) or a more concentrated Diemand, Madau & Moore (DMM) density profile. As IMBHs pass through Galactic molecular/atomic hydrogen regions, they accrete gas, thus becoming X-ray sources. We constrain the density of Galactic IMBHs, Ω•, by comparing the distribution of simulated X-ray sources with the observed one. From the null detections of Milky Way ultra-luminous X-ray sources, and from a comparison of simulations with unidentified sources in the Imager on Board the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) Satellite/INTEGRAL Soft Gamma-Ray Imager (IBIS/ISGRI) catalogue, we find a strong upper limit Ω•<= 10-2Ωb(<=10-1Ωb) for a DMM (NFW) profile, if IMBHs accrete via advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF) discs. Slightly stronger constraints (Ω•<= 10-3Ωb for a DMM profile; Ω•<= 10-2Ωb for a NFW profile) can be derived if IMBHs accrete with higher efficiency, such as by forming thin accretion discs. Although not very tight, such constraints are the most stringent ones derived so far in the literature.

  4. Intermediate Temperature Fluids Life Tests - Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, William G.; Bonner, Richard W.; Dussinger, Peter M.; Hartenstine, John R.; Sarraf, David B.; Locci, Ivan E.

    2007-01-01

    There are a number of different applications that could use heat pipes or loop heat pipes (LHPs) in the intermediate temperature range of 450 to 725 K (170 to 450 C), including space nuclear power system radiators, fuel cells, and high temperature electronics cooling. Historically, water has been used in heat pipes at temperatures up to about 425 K (150 C). Recent life tests, updated below, demonstrate that titanium/water and Monel/water heat pipes can be used at temperatures up to 550 K (277 C), due to water's favorable transport properties. At temperatures above roughly 570 K (300 C), water is no longer a suitable fluid, due to high vapor pressure and low surface tension as the critical point is approached. At higher temperatures, another working fluid/envelope combination is required, either an organic or halide working fluid. An electromotive force method was used to predict the compatibility of halide working fluids with envelope materials. This procedure was used to reject aluminum and aluminum alloys as envelope materials, due to their high decomposition potential. Titanium and three corrosion resistant superalloys were chosen as envelope materials. Life tests were conducted with these envelopes and six different working fluids: AlBr3, GaCl3, SnCl4, TiCl4, TiBr4, and eutectic diphenyl/diphenyl oxide (Therminol VP-1/Dowtherm A). All of the life tests except for the GaCl3 are ongoing; the GaCl3 was incompatible. As the temperature approaches 725 K (450 C), cesium is a potential heat pipe working fluid. Life tests results are also presented for cesium/Monel 400 and cesium/70-30 copper/nickel heat pipes operating near 750 K (477 C). These materials are not suitable for long term operation, due to copper transport from the condenser to the evaporator.

  5. Micromechanical properties of keratin intermediate filament networks.

    PubMed

    Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaraj; DeGiulio, James V; Lorand, Laszlo; Goldman, Robert D; Ridge, Karen M

    2008-01-22

    Keratin intermediate filaments (KIFs) form cytoskeletal KIF networks that are essential for the structural integrity of epithelial cells. However, the mechanical properties of the in situ network have not been defined. Particle-tracking microrheology (PTM) was used to obtain the micromechanical properties of the KIF network in alveolar epithelial cells (AECs), independent of other cytoskeletal components, such as microtubules and microfilaments. The storage modulus (G') at 1 Hz of the KIF network decreases from the perinuclear region (335 dyn/cm(2)) to the cell periphery (95 dyn/cm(2)), yielding a mean value of 210 dyn/cm(2). These changes in G' are inversely proportional to the mesh size of the network, which increases approximately 10-fold from the perinuclear region (0.02 microm(2)) to the cell periphery (0.3 microm(2)). Shear stress (15 dyn/cm(2) for 4 h) applied across the surface of AECs induces a more uniform distribution of KIF, with the mesh size of the network ranging from 0.02 microm(2) near the nucleus to only 0.04 microm(2) at the cell periphery. This amounts to a 40% increase in the mean G'. The storage modulus of the KIF network in the perinuclear region accurately predicts the shear-induced deflection of the cell nucleus to be 0.87 +/- 0.03 microm. The high storage modulus of the KIF network, coupled with its solid-like rheological behavior, supports the role of KIF as an intracellular structural scaffold that helps epithelial cells to withstand external mechanical forces. PMID:18199836

  6. Machine Shop. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course. Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Arthur; Lambert, George

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of eight terminal objectives for a high school intermediate machine shop course. The materials were developed for a 36-week course (3 hours daily) designed to enable students to become familiar with the operation of machine shop equipment, to…

  7. Kent Intermediate School District: From Invisible Agency to Power Player

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Michigan's intermediate school districts were created by constitutional convention in 1962. Between their inception and 2000, few units of government were less visible and less understood. This article chronicles the emergence of one intermediate school district as an aggressive force for change in education and a locus of activity for community…

  8. Placement Tools for Developmental Mathematics and Intermediate Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, William J.; Wheland, Ethel R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the placement of students at an urban Ohio college campus in developmental mathematics and Intermediate Algebra courses. We have found that the ACT Mathematics and COMPASS Domain I (Algebra) Placement scores both correlate well with success in the Intermediate Algebra course and that, although females have lower placement…

  9. Exemplary Dissemination Programs for Intermediate Units Serving Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edington, Everett; Hays, Leonard

    Utilizing information derived from documents, site visits, correspondence, and personal interviews re: 6 intermediate education units serving rural schools which were initially identified via a mail survey, this report describes intermediate education units with exemplary information dissemination programs. Varying considerably, each program is…

  10. "Intermediate" seed storage physiology: populus as a natural model system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    “Intermediate” seeds are short lived because they have low tolerance to the combined stresses of low moisture and temperature during storage. We hypothesize that intermediate seeds either 1) exhibit intermediate sensitivity to desiccation compared to orthodox and recalcitrant seeds; 2) are damaged b...