Science.gov

Sample records for rapid prototyping models

  1. Utilizing Rapid Prototyping for Architectural Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirton, E. F.; Lavoie, S. D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper will discuss our approach to, success with and future direction in rapid prototyping for architectural modeling. The premise that this emerging technology has broad and exciting applications in the building design and construction industry will be supported by visual and physical evidence. This evidence will be presented in the form of…

  2. Rapid prototype modeling in a multimodality world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidaut, Luc; Madewell, John; Yasko, Alan

    2006-03-01

    Introduction: Rapid prototype modeling (RPM) has been used in medicine principally for bones - that are easily extracted from CT data sets - for planning orthopaedic, plastic or maxillo-facial interventions, and/or for designing custom prostheses and implants. Based on newly available technology, highly valuable multimodality approaches can now be applied to RPM, particularly for complex musculo-skeletal (MSK) tumors where multimodality often transcends CT alone. Methods: CT data sets are acquired for primary evaluation of MSK tumors in parallel with other modalities (e.g., MR, PET, SPECT). In our approach, CT is first segmented to provide bony anatomy for RPM and all other data sets are then registered to the CT reference. Parametric information relevant to the tumor's characterization is then extracted from the multimodality space and merged with the CT anatomy to produce a hybrid RPM-ready model. This model - that also accommodates digital multimodality visualization - is then produced on the latest generation of 3D printers, which permits both shapes and colors. Results: Multimodality models of complex MSK tumors have been physically produced on modern RPM equipment. This new approach has been found to be a clear improvement over the previously disconnected physical RPM and digital multimodality visualization. Conclusions: New technical developments keep opening doors to sophisticated medical applications that can directly impact the quality of patient care. Although this early work still deals with bones as base models for RPM, its use to encompass soft tissues is already envisioned for future approaches.

  3. Rapid Prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  4. Femur Model Reconstruction Based on Reverse Engineering and Rapid Prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Tongming; Zhang, Zheng; Ni, Hongjun; Deng, Jiawen; Huang, Mingyu

    Precise reconstruction of 3D models is fundamental and crucial to the researches of human femur. In this paper we present our approach towards tackling this problem. The surface of a human femur was scanned using a hand-held 3D laser scanner. The data obtained, in the form of point cloud, was then processed using the reverse engineering software Geomagic and the CAD/CAM software CimatronE to reconstruct a digital 3D model. The digital model was then used by the rapid prototyping machine to build a physical model of human femur using 3D printing. The geometric characteristics of the obtained physical model matched that of the original femur. The process of "physical object - 3D data - digital 3D model - physical model" presented in this paper provides a foundation of precise modeling for the digital manufacturing, virtual assembly, stress analysis, and simulated surgery of artificial bionic femurs.

  5. Rapid Prototyping Instructional Design: Revisiting the ISD Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Jenny; Teng, Ya-Ting; Cornachione, Edgard

    2007-01-01

    An exploratory investigation, utilizing mixed methods, was used to examine the quality and usability of the product and the client's role within a rapid prototyping instructional design approach. Forty engineering and business undergraduates participating in a leadership training session and an instructional design team comprised the sample for…

  6. Procedural Modeling for Rapid-Prototyping of Multiple Building Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saldana, M.; Johanson, C.

    2013-02-01

    RomeLab is a multidisciplinary working group at UCLA that uses the city of Rome as a laboratory for the exploration of research approaches and dissemination practices centered on the intersection of space and time in antiquity. In this paper we present a multiplatform workflow for the rapid-prototyping of historical cityscapes through the use of geographic information systems, procedural modeling, and interactive game development. Our workflow begins by aggregating archaeological data in a GIS database. Next, 3D building models are generated from the ArcMap shapefiles in Esri CityEngine using procedural modeling techniques. A GIS-based terrain model is also adjusted in CityEngine to fit the building elevations. Finally, the terrain and city models are combined in Unity, a game engine which we used to produce web-based interactive environments which are linked to the GIS data using keyhole markup language (KML). The goal of our workflow is to demonstrate that knowledge generated within a first-person virtual world experience can inform the evaluation of data derived from textual and archaeological sources, and vice versa.

  7. Vibrational testing of trabecular bone architectures using rapid prototype models.

    PubMed

    Mc Donnell, P; Liebschner, M A K; Tawackoli, Wafa; Mc Hugh, P E

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if standard analysis of the vibrational characteristics of trabecular architectures can be used to detect changes in the mechanical properties due to progressive bone loss. A cored trabecular specimen from a human lumbar vertebra was microCT scanned and a three-dimensional, virtual model in stereolithography (STL) format was generated. Uniform bone loss was simulated using a surface erosion algorithm. Rapid prototype (RP) replicas were manufactured from these virtualised models with 0%, 16% and 42% bone loss. Vibrational behaviour of the RP replicas was evaluated by performing a dynamic compression test through a frequency range using an electro-dynamic shaker. The acceleration and dynamic force responses were recorded and fast Fourier transform (FFT) analyses were performed to determine the response spectrum. Standard resonant frequency analysis and damping factor calculations were performed. The RP replicas were subsequently tested in compression beyond failure to determine their strength and modulus. It was found that the reductions in resonant frequency with increasing bone loss corresponded well with reductions in apparent stiffness and strength. This suggests that structural dynamics has the potential to be an alternative diagnostic technique for osteoporosis, although significant challenges must be overcome to determine the effect of the skin/soft tissue interface, the cortex and variabilities associated with in vivo testing. PMID:18555727

  8. Rapid Prototyping of Hydrologic Model Interfaces with IPython

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farthing, M. W.; Winters, K. D.; Ahmadia, A. J.; Hesser, T.; Howington, S. E.; Johnson, B. D.; Tate, J.; Kees, C. E.

    2014-12-01

    A significant gulf still exists between the state of practice and state of the art in hydrologic modeling. Part of this gulf is due to the lack of adequate pre- and post-processing tools for newly developed computational models. The development of user interfaces has traditionally lagged several years behind the development of a particular computational model or suite of models. As a result, models with mature interfaces often lack key advancements in model formulation, solution methods, and/or software design and technology. Part of the problem has been a focus on developing monolithic tools to provide comprehensive interfaces for the entire suite of model capabilities. Such efforts require expertise in software libraries and frameworks for creating user interfaces (e.g., Tcl/Tk, Qt, and MFC). These tools are complex and require significant investment in project resources (time and/or money) to use. Moreover, providing the required features for the entire range of possible applications and analyses creates a cumbersome interface. For a particular site or application, the modeling requirements may be simplified or at least narrowed, which can greatly reduce the number and complexity of options that need to be accessible to the user. However, monolithic tools usually are not adept at dynamically exposing specific workflows. Our approach is to deliver highly tailored interfaces to users. These interfaces may be site and/or process specific. As a result, we end up with many, customized interfaces rather than a single, general-use tool. For this approach to be successful, it must be efficient to create these tailored interfaces. We need technology for creating quality user interfaces that is accessible and has a low barrier for integration into model development efforts. Here, we present efforts to leverage IPython notebooks as tools for rapid prototyping of site and application-specific user interfaces. We provide specific examples from applications in near

  9. Rapid prototype and test

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, D.L.; Hansche, B.D.

    1996-06-01

    In order to support advanced manufacturing, Sandia has acquired the capability to produce plastic prototypes using stereolithography. Currently, these prototypes are used mainly to verify part geometry and ``fit and form`` checks. This project investigates methods for rapidly testing these plastic prototypes, and inferring from prototype test data actual metal part performance and behavior. Performances examined include static load/stress response, and structural dynamic (modal) and vibration behavior. The integration of advanced non-contacting measurement techniques including scanning laser velocimetry, laser holography, and thermoelasticity into testing of these prototypes is described. Photoelastic properties of the epoxy prototypes to reveal full field stress/strain fields are also explored.

  10. Rapid Prototyping in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Cesar A.; Butler, Ricky (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    PVSio is a conservative extension to the PVS prelude library that provides basic input/output capabilities to the PVS ground evaluator. It supports rapid prototyping in PVS by enhancing the specification language with built-in constructs for string manipulation, floating point arithmetic, and input/output operations.

  11. Teaching Tip: Using Rapid Game Prototyping for Exploring Requirements Discovery and Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalal, Nikunj

    2012-01-01

    We describe the use of rapid game prototyping as a pedagogic technique to experientially explore and learn requirements discovery, modeling, and specification in systems analysis and design courses. Students have a natural interest in gaming that transcends age, gender, and background. Rapid digital game creation is used to build computer games…

  12. Advances in rapid prototyping

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, C.L.; McCarty, G.D.; Pardo, B.T.; Bryce, E.A.

    1993-12-31

    Recent advances in stereolithography and selective laser sintering have had a significant impact on the overall quality of parts produced using these rapid prototyping processes. The development and implementation of 3D System`s QuickCast{trademark} resin and software for building investment casting patterns have proven to be major steps toward fabricating highly accurate patterns with very good surface finishes. Sandia uses patterns generated from rapid prototyping processes to reduce the cycle time and cost of fabricating prototype parts in support of a Sandia National Laboratories managed program called FASTCAST. As participants in the Beta test program for QuickCast{trademark} resin and software, they experienced a steep learning curve and were able to build accurate parts in a short period of time. It is now possible, using this technology, to produce highly accurate prototype parts as well as acceptable firs article and small lots size production parts. They use the Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) process to fabricate prototype wax patterns for investment casting. DTM Corporation recently introduced the use of their polycarbonate material for fabricating investment casting patterns. The polycarbonate material is processed significantly faster, with improved strength, dimensional stability, and without a support structure during the build process. Sandia is currently changing from investment casting wax to polycarbonate for the fabrication of investment casting patterns using the SLS process. This presentation will focus on the successes with these new materials from the standpoints of application, accuracy, surface finish, and post processing. Also presented will be examples of parts manufactured by these processes.

  13. New Algorithm for CAD Solid Model Direct Slicing on Rapid Prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Huiqun; Wu, Jianjun

    In the paper, a new algorithm for CAD solid model direct slicing has been given. The three-dimensional CAD solid models have been divided into a series of layer which meeting tolerance required on the basis of rapid prototyping. Section contour extraction method has been adopted, then, section contour has been into line, arc, free curves, and the data is stored in a specific file format. In the contour interior, scanning area has been formed. The examples show that the algorithm can better achieve layered manufacturing to rapid prototyping.

  14. Knowledge-based visual image processing IDE model for algorithm and system rapid prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Biyin; Chen, Wei; Wang, Yuanbin

    2009-10-01

    A novel intelligent model for Image Processing (IP) research integrated development environment (IDE) is presented for rapid converting conceptual model of IP algorithm into computational model and program implementation. Considering psychology of IP and computer programming, this model presents a cycle model of IP research process and establishes an improved expert system prototype. Visualization approaches are introduced into visualizing three phases of IP development. An intelligent methodology is applied to reuse algorithms, graphical user interfaces (GUI) and data visualizing tools. Thus, researchers are allowed to fix more attention only on their own interest algorithm models. Experimental results show that the development based the new model enhances rapid algorithm prototype modeling with great efficiency and speed.

  15. Application of 3-D printing (rapid prototyping) for creating physical models of pediatric orthopedic disorders.

    PubMed

    Starosolski, Zbigniew A; Kan, J Herman; Rosenfeld, Scott D; Krishnamurthy, Rajesh; Annapragada, Ananth

    2014-02-01

    Three-dimensional printing called rapid prototyping, a technology that is used to create physical models based on a 3-D computer representation, is now commercially available and can be created from CT or MRI datasets. This technical innovation paper reviews the specific requirements and steps necessary to apply biomedical 3-D printing of pediatric musculoskeletal disorders. We discuss its role for the radiologist, orthopedist and patient. PMID:24202430

  16. Aortic aneurysm: construction of a life-size model by rapid prototyping.

    PubMed

    Lermusiaux, P; Leroux, C; Tasse, J C; Castellani, L; Martinez, R

    2001-03-01

    Development of new endovascular techniques for repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) requires the use of experimental models. Stereolithography is a rapid prototyping technique used in industry to prototype parts during the design phase. A stereolithography apparatus (STL) employs laser technology to build a digital model layer by layer with photopolymer resin. The purpose of this study was to use this technology to produce a life-size AAA model. Data were acquired by CT scan and stored in DICOM 3 format. Specifically designed software was used for 3-D imaging and conversion of data to a standard STL format. Two replicas were made: one to scale and the other 3 mm larger. The final model was made by pouring silicone rubber or polyurethane into the mold over the life-size model so as to obtain a sturdy, life-size, soft, transparent plastic casting. Arterial models made for living subjects with these rapid prototyping techniques can be used to simulate surgical procedures, calibrate imaging modalities, and design new stent grafts. PMID:11265074

  17. Rapid prototyping modelling in oral and maxillofacial surgery: A two year retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Stoor, Patricia; Mesimäki, Karri; Kontio, Risto K.

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of rapid prototyping (RP) models in medicine to construct bony models is increasing. Material and Methods The aim of the study was to evaluate retrospectively the indication for the use of RP models in oral and maxillofacial surgery at Helsinki University Central Hospital during 2009-2010. Also, the used computed tomography (CT) examination – multislice CT (MSCT) or cone beam CT (CBCT) - method was evaluated. Results In total 114 RP models were fabricated for 102 patients. The mean age of the patients at the time of the production of the model was 50.4 years. The indications for the modelling included malignant lesions (29%), secondary reconstruction (25%), prosthodontic treatment (22%), orthognathic surgery or asymmetry (13%), benign lesions (8%), and TMJ disorders (4%). MSCT examination was used in 92 and CBCT examination in 22 cases. Most of the models (75%) were conventional hard tissue models. Models with colored tumour or other structure(s) of interest were ordered in 24%. Two out of the 114 models were soft tissue models. Conclusions The main benefit of the models was in treatment planning and in connection with the production of pre-bent plates or custom made implants. The RP models both facilitate and improve treatment planning and intraoperative efficiency. Key words:Rapid prototyping, radiology, computed tomography, cone beam computed tomography. PMID:26644837

  18. Customer-experienced rapid prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lijuan; Zhang, Fu; Li, Anbo

    2008-12-01

    In order to describe accurately and comprehend quickly the perfect GIS requirements, this article will integrate the ideas of QFD (Quality Function Deployment) and UML (Unified Modeling Language), and analyze the deficiency of prototype development model, and will propose the idea of the Customer-Experienced Rapid Prototyping (CE-RP) and describe in detail the process and framework of the CE-RP, from the angle of the characteristics of Modern-GIS. The CE-RP is mainly composed of Customer Tool-Sets (CTS), Developer Tool-Sets (DTS) and Barrier-Free Semantic Interpreter (BF-SI) and performed by two roles of customer and developer. The main purpose of the CE-RP is to produce the unified and authorized requirements data models between customer and software developer.

  19. The use of a block diagram simulation language for rapid model prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlow, Jonathan E.

    1995-01-01

    The research performed this summer focussed on the development of a predictive model for the loading of liquid oxygen (LO2) into the external tank (ET) of the shuttle prior to launch. A predictive model can greatly aid the operational personnel since instrumentation aboard the orbiter and ET is limited due to weight constraints. The model, which focuses primarily on the orbiter section of the system was developed using a block diagram based simulation language known as VisSim. Simulations were run on LO2 loading data for shuttle flights STS50 and STS55 and the model was demonstrated to accurately predict the sensor data recorded for these flights. As a consequence of the simulation results, it can be concluded that the software tool can be very useful for rapid prototyping of complex models.

  20. Physical human lumen carotid reconstruction: life-size models by rapid prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pili, Piero; Murgia, Fabrizio; Pusceddu, Gabriella; Franzoni, Gregorio; Tuveri, Massimiliano

    2003-05-01

    Rapid Prototyping (RP) is a technique used in industry for manufacturing prototypes. Its capability to physically reproduce geometrical complex shapes is getting increasing interest in many fields of medicine. In the field of vascular surgery, replicas of artery lumen have utility in complex cases or when standard imaging is felt to be equivocal. Replicas can also facilitate experimental studies of computational vascular fluid-dynamics permitting in-vitro reproductions of blood flow in living subjects before and after surgery. The VIrtual VAscular (VIVA) project at CRS4, developed a system able to process three-dimensional (3D) datasets extracted from a Computer Tomography (CT) apparatus, visualize them, reconstruct the geometry of arteries of specific patients, and simulate blood flow in them. In this paper, the applicability of RP techniques to VIVA's real size replicas of an autoptic carotid vessel lumen is presented and an overview of the RP based system developed is provided. The techniques used in our prototype are discussed and experimental results for the creation of a human carotid lumen replica are analyzed. We discuss in detail the pipeline of manufacturing process: 3D geometric reconstruction from segmented points, geometry tessellation, STL (Stereo Lithography format) conversion. Moreover we illustrate some technical details of the specific RP technique used to build the lumen replicas, which is called Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM), the materials used for prototypes, throughput time and costs of the FDM models realized. The system is totally based on open-source software. This enables us to control each step of the pipeline, from data acquisition to STL export file. In this context, we present main sources of error encountered during all manufacturing process stages.

  1. Preliminary Component Integration Using Rapid Prototyping Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Ken; Salvail, Pat; Gordon, Gail (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Rapid prototyping is a very important tool that should be used by both design and manufacturing disciplines during the development of elements for the aerospace industry. It helps prevent lack of adequate communication between design and manufacturing engineers (which could lead to costly errors) through mutual consideration of functional models generated from drawings. Rapid prototyping techniques are used to test hardware for design and material compatibility at Marshall Space Flight Center.

  2. D Modelling and Rapid Prototyping for Cardiovascular Surgical Planning - Two Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nocerino, E.; Remondino, F.; Uccheddu, F.; Gallo, M.; Gerosa, G.

    2016-06-01

    In the last years, cardiovascular diagnosis, surgical planning and intervention have taken advantages from 3D modelling and rapid prototyping techniques. The starting data for the whole process is represented by medical imagery, in particular, but not exclusively, computed tomography (CT) or multi-slice CT (MCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). On the medical imagery, regions of interest, i.e. heart chambers, valves, aorta, coronary vessels, etc., are segmented and converted into 3D models, which can be finally converted in physical replicas through 3D printing procedure. In this work, an overview on modern approaches for automatic and semiautomatic segmentation of medical imagery for 3D surface model generation is provided. The issue of accuracy check of surface models is also addressed, together with the critical aspects of converting digital models into physical replicas through 3D printing techniques. A patient-specific 3D modelling and printing procedure (Figure 1), for surgical planning in case of complex heart diseases was developed. The procedure was applied to two case studies, for which MCT scans of the chest are available. In the article, a detailed description on the implemented patient-specific modelling procedure is provided, along with a general discussion on the potentiality and future developments of personalized 3D modelling and printing for surgical planning and surgeons practice.

  3. Rapid Prototyping Enters Mainstream Manufacturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winek, Gary

    1996-01-01

    Explains rapid prototyping, a process that uses computer-assisted design files to create a three-dimensional object automatically, speeding the industrial design process. Five commercially available systems and two emerging types--the 3-D printing process and repetitive masking and depositing--are described. (SK)

  4. Assessment of Mechanical Performance of Bone Architecture Using Rapid Prototyping Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saparin, Peter; Woesz, Alexander; Thomsen, Jasper S.; Fratzl, Peter

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this on-going research project is to assess the influence of bone microarchitecture on the mechanical performance of trabecular bone. A testing chain consist-ing of three steps was established: 1) micro computed tomography (μCT) imaging of human trabecular bone; 2) building of models of the bone from a light-sensitive polymer using Rapid Prototyping (RP); 3) mechanical testing of the models in a material testing machine. A direct resampling procedure was developed to convert μCT data into the format of the RP machine. Standardized parameters for production and testing of the plastic models were established by use of regular cellular structures. Next, normal, osteoporotic, and extreme osteoporotic vertebral trabecular bone architectures were re-produced by RP and compression tested. We found that normal architecture of vertebral trabecular bone exhibit behaviour characteristic of a cellular structure. In normal bone the fracture occurs at much higher strain values that in osteoporotic bone. After the fracture a normal trabecular architecture is able to carry much higher loads than an osteoporotic architecture. However, no statistically significant differences were found in maximal stress during uniaxial compression of the central part of normal, osteoporotic, and extreme osteoporotic vertebral trabecular bone. This supports the hypothesis that osteoporotic trabecular bone can compensate for a loss of trabeculae by thickening the remaining trabeculae in the loading direction (compensatory hypertrophy). The developed approach could be used for mechanical evaluation of structural data acquired non-invasively and assessment of changes in performance of bone architecture.

  5. Rapid prototyping and stereolithography in dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Nayar, Sanjna; Bhuminathan, S.; Bhat, Wasim Manzoor

    2015-01-01

    The word rapid prototyping (RP) was first used in mechanical engineering field in the early 1980s to describe the act of producing a prototype, a unique product, the first product, or a reference model. In the past, prototypes were handmade by sculpting or casting, and their fabrication demanded a long time. Any and every prototype should undergo evaluation, correction of defects, and approval before the beginning of its mass or large scale production. Prototypes may also be used for specific or restricted purposes, in which case they are usually called a preseries model. With the development of information technology, three-dimensional models can be devised and built based on virtual prototypes. Computers can now be used to create accurately detailed projects that can be assessed from different perspectives in a process known as computer aided design (CAD). To materialize virtual objects using CAD, a computer aided manufacture (CAM) process has been developed. To transform a virtual file into a real object, CAM operates using a machine connected to a computer, similar to a printer or peripheral device. In 1987, Brix and Lambrecht used, for the first time, a prototype in health care. It was a three-dimensional model manufactured using a computer numerical control device, a type of machine that was the predecessor of RP. In 1991, human anatomy models produced with a technology called stereolithography were first used in a maxillofacial surgery clinic in Viena. PMID:26015715

  6. Rapid prototyping and stereolithography in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Nayar, Sanjna; Bhuminathan, S; Bhat, Wasim Manzoor

    2015-04-01

    The word rapid prototyping (RP) was first used in mechanical engineering field in the early 1980s to describe the act of producing a prototype, a unique product, the first product, or a reference model. In the past, prototypes were handmade by sculpting or casting, and their fabrication demanded a long time. Any and every prototype should undergo evaluation, correction of defects, and approval before the beginning of its mass or large scale production. Prototypes may also be used for specific or restricted purposes, in which case they are usually called a preseries model. With the development of information technology, three-dimensional models can be devised and built based on virtual prototypes. Computers can now be used to create accurately detailed projects that can be assessed from different perspectives in a process known as computer aided design (CAD). To materialize virtual objects using CAD, a computer aided manufacture (CAM) process has been developed. To transform a virtual file into a real object, CAM operates using a machine connected to a computer, similar to a printer or peripheral device. In 1987, Brix and Lambrecht used, for the first time, a prototype in health care. It was a three-dimensional model manufactured using a computer numerical control device, a type of machine that was the predecessor of RP. In 1991, human anatomy models produced with a technology called stereolithography were first used in a maxillofacial surgery clinic in Viena. PMID:26015715

  7. Cyberinfrastructure for Rapid Prototyping Capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haupt, T. A.; Kalyanasundaram, A.; Zhuk, I.; Goli, V.

    2007-12-01

    The overall goal of the NASA Rapid Prototyping Capability is to speed the evaluation of potential uses of NASA research products and technologies to improve future operational systems by reducing the time to access, configure, and assess the effectiveness of NASA products and technologies. The infrastructure to support the RPC is thus expected to provide the capability to rapidly evaluate innovative methods of linking science observations. The RPC infrastructure supports two major categories of experiments (and subsequent analysis): comparing results of a particular model as fed with data coming from different sources, and comparing different models using the data coming from the same source. In spite of being conceptually simple, two use cases in fact entail a significant technical challenge. Enabling RPC experiments requires thus a radical simplification of access to both actual and simulated data, as well as tools for data pre- and post-processing. The tools must be interoperable, allowing the user to create computational workflows with the data seamlessly transferred as needed, including third-party transfers to high-performance computing platforms. In addition, the provenance of the data must be preserved in order to document results of different what-if scenarios and to enable collaboration and data sharing between users. The functionality of the RPC splits into several independent modules such as interactive Web site, data server, tool's interfaces, or monitoring service. Each such module is implemented as an independent portlet. The RPC Portal aggregates the different contents provided by the portlets into a single interface employing a popular GridSphere portlet container. The RPC data access is based on Unidata's THREDDS Data server (TDS) extended to support, among others, interactive creation of containers for new data collections and uploading new data sets, downloading the data either to the user desktop or transferring it to a remote location using

  8. Parametric Modeling as a Technology of Rapid Prototyping in Light Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomilov, I. N.; Grudinin, S. N.; Frolovsky, V. D.; Alexandrov, A. A.

    2016-04-01

    The paper deals with the parametric modeling method of virtual mannequins for the purposes of design automation in clothing industry. The described approach includes the steps of generation of the basic model on the ground of the initial one (obtained in 3D-scanning process), its parameterization and deformation. The complex surfaces are presented by the wireframe model. The modeling results are evaluated with the set of similarity factors. Deformed models are compared with their virtual prototypes. The results of modeling are estimated by the standard deviation factor.

  9. Rapid prototyping applications at Sandia National Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwood, C. L.; McCarty, G. D.; Pardo, B. T.; Bryce, E. A.

    In an effort to reduce the cycle time for producing prototypical mechanical and electro-mechanical components, Sandia National Laboratories has integrated rapid prototyping processes into the design and manufacturing process. The processes currently in operation within the Rapid Prototyping Laboratory are Stereolithography (SL), Selective Laser Sintering (SLS), and Direct Shell Production Casting (DSPC). These emerging technologies have proven to be valuable tools for reducing lead times and fabrication costs. Sandia uses the SL and SLS processes to support internal product development efforts. Their primary use is to fabricate patterns for investment casting in support of a Sandia-managed program called FASTCAST that integrates computational technologies and experimental data into the investment casting process. These processes are also used in the design iteration process to produce proof-of-concept models, hands-on models for design reviews, fit-check models, visual aids for manufacturing, and functional parts in assemblies. The DSPC process is currently being developed as a method of fabricating ceramic investment casting molds directly from a CAD solid model. Sandia is an Alpha machine test site for this process. This presentation will provide an overview of the SL and SLS processes and an update of our experience and success in integrating these technologies into the product development cycle. It will also provide a lead-in for a tour of the Rapid Prototyping Laboratory, where these processes will be demonstrated.

  10. Aeroelastic characteristics of a rapid prototype multi-material wind tunnel model of a mechanically deployable aerodynamic decelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raskin, Boris

    Scaled wind tunnel models are necessary for the development of aircraft and spacecraft to simulate aerodynamic behavior. This allows for testing multiple iterations of a design before more expensive full-scale aircraft and spacecraft are built. However, the cost of building wind tunnel models can still be high because they normally require costly subtractive manufacturing processes, such as machining, which can be time consuming and laborious due to the complex surfaces of aerodynamic models. Rapid prototyping, commonly known as 3D printing, can be utilized to save on wind tunnel model manufacturing costs. A rapid prototype multi-material wind tunnel model was manufactured for this thesis to investigate the possibility of using PolyJet 3D printing to create a model that exhibits aeroelastic behavior. The model is of NASA's Adaptable Deployable entry and Placement (ADEPT) aerodynamic decelerator, used to decelerate a spacecraft during reentry into a planet's atmosphere. It is a 60° cone with a spherically blunted nose that consists of a 12 flexible panels supported by a rigid structure of nose, ribs, and rim. The novel rapid prototype multi-material model was instrumented and tested in two flow conditions. Quantitative comparisons were made of the average forces and dynamic forces on the model, demonstrating that the model matched expected behavior for average drag, but not Strouhal number, indicating that there was no aeroelastic behavior in this particular case. It was also noted that the dynamic properties (e.g., resonant frequency) associated with the mounting scheme are very important and may dominate the measured dynamic response.

  11. Integration of rapid prototyping into product development

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, C.L.; McCarty, G.D.; Pardo, B.T.; Bryce, E.A.

    1993-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories is a vertically multi-disciplined research and development laboratory with a long history of designing and developing d electro-mechanical products in the national interest. Integrating new technologies into the prototyping phase of our development cycle is necessary to reduce the cycle time from initial design to finished product. The introduction of rapid prototyping machines into the marketplace promises to revolutionize the process of producing prototype parts with relative speed and production-like quality. Issues of accuracy, feature definition, and surface finish continue to drive research and development of these processes. Sandia uses Stereolithography (SL) and Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) capabilities to support internal product development efforts. The primary use of SL and SLS is to produce patterns for investment casting in support of a Sandia managed program called FASTCAST that integrates computational technologies and experimental data into the investment casting process. These processes are also used in the design iteration process to produce proof-of-concept models, hands-on models for design reviews, fit-check models, visual aids for manufacturing, and functional parts in assemblies. This presentation will provide an overview of the SL and SLS processes and an update of our experience and success in integrating these technologies into the product development cycle. Also presented will be several examples of prototype parts manufactured using SL and SLS with a focus on application, accuracy, surface and feature definition.

  12. Rapid Prototyping of Mobile Learning Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federley, Maija; Sorsa, Timo; Paavilainen, Janne; Boissonnier, Kimo; Seisto, Anu

    2014-01-01

    This position paper presents the first results of an on-going project, in which we explore rapid prototyping method to efficiently produce digital learning solutions that are commercially viable. In this first phase, rapid game prototyping and an iterative approach was tested as a quick and efficient way to create learning games and to evaluate…

  13. A Rapid Prototyping Capability Experiment to Evaluate CrIS / ATMS Observations for Urban Modeling Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, C. M.; Fitzpatrick, P. J.; Anantharaj, V. G.; Riishojgaard, L.

    2007-12-01

    The goal of this project is to evaluate the potential for data from the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) and the Crosstrack Infrared Sounder (CrIS) to impact forecasting of a significant mesoscale weather event over a major urban center along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. The ATMS and the CrIS will be deployed as part of a suite of atmospheric sensors aboard the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) and the preceding NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) satellite, scheduled to be launched in 2009. An Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) methodology is adopted to characterize the uncertainties associated with instrument measurement and retrieval processes. The methodology will be based on the procedures adopted by NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) and NOAA Environmental Modeling Center (EMC). Within the OSSE framework, a nature run (NR) is a proxy for real atmospheric and land surface conditions; it is based on a "free run" of a global-scale forecast model. For an OSSE, it is very important that different data-assimilating models be used to generate the NR and subsequent sensitivity tests. Otherwise, a "fraternal twin" problem may result, in which a low error bias between models does not realistically portray the error bias expected with assimilation of the candidate sensor data. A regional-scale NR (RSNR) will be produced using the MM5, and will serve as "truth" for our modeling experiments. The RSNR will be a nest simulation within one of the larger scale NRs produced from the ECMWF model. To simulate observations from the candidate sensors, error and bias characteristics may be adopted from the NPOESS Aircraft Sounder Testbed (NAST), in which prototypes of the ATMS and the CrIS were tested aboard aircraft. The WRF model is in conjunction with the MM5 to perform the sensitivity experiments involving the assimilation of existing sensor data and synthesized data representing candidate

  14. Web tools for rapid experimental visualization prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decker, Jonathan W.; Livingstion, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Quite often a researcher finds themselves looking at spreadsheets of high-dimensional data generated by experimental models and user studies. We can use analysis to challenge or confirm hypothesis, but unexpected results can easily be lost in the shuffle. For this reason, it would be useful to visualize the results so we can explore our data and make new discoveries. Web browsers have become increasingly capable for creating complex, multi-view applications. Javascript is quickly becoming a de facto standard for scripting, online and offline. This work demonstrates the use of web technologies as a powerful tool for rapid visualization prototyping. We have developed two prototypes: One for high-dimensional results of the abELICIT - multi-agent version of the ELICIT platform tasked with collaborating to identify the parameters of a pending attack. Another prototype displays responses to a user study on the effectiveness of multi-layer visualization techniques. We created coordinated multiple views prototypes in the Google Chrome web browser written in Javascript, CSS and HTML. We will discuss the benefits and shortcomings of this approach.

  15. Preliminary Component Integration Utilizing Rapid Prototyping Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, K.; Salvail, P.

    2001-01-01

    One of the most costly errors committed during the development of an element to be used in the space industry is the lack of communication between design and manufacturing engineers. A very important tool that should be utilized in the development stages by both design and manufacturing disciplines is rapid prototyping. Communication levels are intensified with the injection of functional models that are generated from a drawing. At the Marshall Space Flight Center, this discipline is utilized on a more frequent basis as a manner by which hardware may be tested for design and material compatibility.

  16. Simulink based behavioural modelling of a pulse oximeter for deployment in rapid development, prototyping and verification.

    PubMed

    Shokouhian, M; Morling, R C S; Kale, I

    2012-01-01

    The pulse oximeter is a well-known device for measuring the level of oxygen in blood. Since their invention, pulse oximeters have been under constant development in both aspects of hardware and software; however there are still unsolved problems that limit their performance [6], [7]. Many fresh algorithms and new design techniques are being suggested every year by industry and academic researchers which claim that they can improve accuracy of measurements [8], [9]. With the lack of an accurate computer-based behavioural model for pulse oximeters, the only way for evaluation of these newly developed systems and algorithms is through hardware implementation which can be both expensive and time consuming. This paper presents an accurate Simulink based behavioural model for a pulse oximeter that can be used by industry and academia alike working in this area, as an exploration as well as productivity enhancement tool during their research and development process. The aim of this paper is to introduce a new computer-based behavioural model which provides a simulation environment from which new ideas can be rapidly evaluated long before the real implementation. PMID:23367190

  17. Review on CNC-Rapid Prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Z, M. Nafis O.; Y, Nafrizuan M.; A, Munira M.; J, Kartina

    2012-09-01

    This article reviewed developments of Computerized Numerical Control (CNC) technology in rapid prototyping process. Rapid prototyping (RP) can be classified into three major groups; subtractive, additive and virtual. CNC rapid prototyping is grouped under the subtractive category which involves material removal from the workpiece that is larger than the final part. Richard Wysk established the use of CNC machines for rapid prototyping using sets of 2½-D tool paths from various orientations about a rotary axis to machine parts without refixturing. Since then, there are few developments on this process mainly aimed to optimized the operation and increase the process capabilities to stand equal with common additive type of RP. These developments include the integration between machining and deposition process (hybrid RP), adoption of RP to the conventional machine and optimization of the CNC rapid prototyping process based on controlled parameters. The article ended by concluding that the CNC rapid prototyping research area has a vast space for improvement as in the conventional machining processes. Further developments and findings will enhance the usage of this method and minimize the limitation of current approach in building a prototype.

  18. Recognition system rapid application prototyping tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Stuart A.; Karins, James P.; Dydyk, Robert B.

    1997-03-01

    The recognition system rapid application prototyping tool (RSRAPT) was developed to evaluate various potential configurations of miniature ruggedized optical correlator (MROC) modules and to rapidly assess the feasibility of their use within systems such as missile seekers. RSRAPT is a simulation environment for rapidly prototyping, developing, and evaluating recognition systems that incorporate MROC technology. It is designed to interface to OLE compliant Windows applications using standard OLE interfaces. The system consists of nine key functional elements: sensor, detection, segmentation, pre-processor, filter selection, correlator, post-processor, identifier, and controller. The RSRAPT is a collection of object oriented server components, a client user interface and a recognitions system image and image sensor database. The server components are implemented to encapsulate processes that are typical to any optical-correlator based pattern recognition system. All the servers are implemented as Microsoft component object model objects. In addition to the system servers there are two key 'helper servers.' The first is the image server, which encapsulates all 'images'. This includes gray scale images and even complex images. The other supporting server is the filter generation server. This server trains the system on user data by calculating filters for user selected image types. The system hosts a library of standard image processing routines such as convolution, edge operators, clustering algorithms, median filtering, morphological operators such as erosion and dilation, connected components, region growing, and adaptive thresholding. In this paper we describe the simulator and show sample results from diverse applications.

  19. Application of Rapid Prototyping Pelvic Model for Patients with DDH to Facilitate Arthroplasty Planning: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jie; Li, Deng; Ma, Ruo-fan; Barden, Bertram; Ding, Yue

    2015-11-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is challenging in cases of osteoarthritis secondary to developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). Acetabular deficiency makes the positioning of the acetabular component difficult. Computer tomography based, patient-individual three dimensional (3-D) rapid prototype technology (RPT)-models were used to plan the placement of acetabular cup so that a surgeon was able to identify pelvic structures, assess the ideal extent of reaming and determine the size of cup after a reconstructive procedure. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to analyze the agreement between the sizes of chosen components on the basis of preoperative planning and the actual sizes used in the operation. The use of the 3-D RPT-model facilitates the surgical procedures due to better planning and improved orientation. PMID:26129852

  20. Rapid Prototyping in Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Jim; Moniz, Matt

    2002-01-01

    Describes how technology education majors are using a high-tech model builder, called a fused deposition modeling machine, to develop their models directly from computer-based designs without any machining. Gives examples of applications in technology education. (JOW)

  1. Lumped Parameter Modeling for Rapid Vibration Response Prototyping and Test Correlation for Electronic Units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Dyke, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    Present preliminary work using lumped parameter models to approximate dynamic response of electronic units to random vibration; Derive a general N-DOF model for application to electronic units; Illustrate parametric influence of model parameters; Implication of coupled dynamics for unit/board design; Demonstrate use of model to infer printed wiring board (PWB) dynamics from external chassis test measurement.

  2. Fluorescence Imaging and Streamline Visualization of Hypersonic Flow over Rapid Prototype Wind-Tunnel Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danehy, Paul M.; Alderfer, David W.; Inman, Jennifer A.; Berger, Karen T.; Buck, Gregory M.; Schwartz, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    Reentry models for use in hypersonic wind tunnel tests were fabricated using a stereolithography apparatus. These models were produced in one day or less, which is a significant time savings compared to the manufacture of ceramic or metal models. The models were tested in the NASA Langley Research Center 31-Inch Mach 10 Air Tunnel. Only a few of the models survived repeated tests in the tunnel, and several failure modes of the models were identified. Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of nitric oxide (NO) was used to visualize the flowfields in the wakes of these models. Pure NO was either seeded through tubes plumbed into the model or via a tube attached to the strut holding the model, which provided localized addition of NO into the model s wake through a porous metal cylinder attached to the end of the tube. Models included several 2- inch diameter Inflatable Reentry Vehicle Experiment (IRVE) models and 5-inch diameter Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) models. Various model configurations and NO seeding methods were used, including a new streamwise visualization method based on PLIF. Virtual Diagnostics Interface (ViDI) technology, developed at NASA Langley Research Center, was used to visualize the data sets in post processing. The use of calibration "dotcards" was investigated to correct for camera perspective and lens distortions in the PLIF images.

  3. Rapid Prototyping of Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colton, Jonathan S.

    1998-01-01

    This progress report for the project Rapid Production of Composite Structures covers the period from July 14, 1997 to June 30, 1998. It will present a short overview of the project, followed by the results to date and plans for the future. The goal of this research is to provide a minimum 100x reduction in the time required to produce arbitrary, laminated products without the need for a separate mold or an autoclave. It will accomplish this by developing the science underlying the rapid production of composite structures, specifically those of carbon fiber-epoxy materials. This scientific understanding will be reduced to practice in a demonstration device that will produce a part on the order of 12" by 12" by 6". Work in the past year has focussed on developing an understanding of the materials issues and of the machine design issues. Our initial goal was to use UV cureable resins to accomplish full cure on the machine. Therefore, we have centered our materials work around whether or not UV cureable resins will work. Currently, the answer seems to be that they will not work, because UV light cannot penetrate the carbon fibers, and because no "shadow" curing seems to occur. As a result, non-UV cureable resins are being investigated. This has resulted in a change in the machine design focus. We are now looking into a "dip and place" machine design, whereby a prepreg layer would have one side coated with a curing agent, and then would be placed onto the previous layer. This would lead to cure at the interface, but not to the top of the layer. The formulation of the resins to accomplish this task at room or slightly elevated temperatures is being investigated, as is the machine design needed to apply the curing agent and then cure or partially cure the part. A final, out-of-autoclave, post-cure may be needed with this strategy, as final cure on the machine may not be possible, as it was for the initial UV cure strategy. The remainder of this report details the progress

  4. Fluorescence Visualization of Hypersonic Flow over Rapid Prototype Wind-Tunnel Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alderfer, D. W.; Danehy, P. M.; Inma, J. A.; Berger, K. T.; Buck, G. M.; Schwartz, R J.

    2007-01-01

    Reentry models for use in hypersonic wind tunnel tests were fabricated using a stereolithography apparatus. These models were produced in one day or less, which is a significant time savings compared to the manufacture of ceramic or metal models. The models were tested in the NASA Langley Research Center 31-Inch Mach 10 Air Tunnel. Most of the models did not survive repeated tests in the tunnel, and several failure modes of the models were identified. Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of nitric oxide (NO) was used to visualize the flowfields in the wakes of these models. Pure NO was either seeded through tubes plumbed into the model or via a tube attached to the strut holding the model, which provided localized addition of NO into the model s wake through a porous metal cylinder attached to the end of the tube. Models included several 2-inch diameter Inflatable Reentry Vehicle Experiment (IRVE) models and 5-inch diameter Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) models. Various configurations were studied including different sting placements relative to the models, different model orientations and attachment angles, and different NO seeding methods. The angle of attack of the models was also varied and the location of the laser sheet was scanned to provide three-dimensional flowfield information. Virtual Diagnostics Interface technology, developed at NASA Langley, was used to visualize the data sets in post processing. The use of calibration "dotcards" was investigated to correct for camera perspective and lens distortions in the PLIF images. Lessons learned and recommendations for future experiments are discussed.

  5. Rapid prototyping in aortic surgery.

    PubMed

    Bangeas, Petros; Voulalas, Grigorios; Ktenidis, Kiriakos

    2016-04-01

    3D printing provides the sequential addition of material layers and, thus, the opportunity to print parts and components made of different materials with variable mechanical and physical properties. It helps us create 3D anatomical models for the better planning of surgical procedures when needed, since it can reveal any complex anatomical feature. Images of abdominal aortic aneurysms received by computed tomographic angiography were converted into 3D images using a Google SketchUp free software and saved in stereolithography format. Using a 3D printer (Makerbot), a model made of polylactic acid material (thermoplastic filament) was printed. A 3D model of an abdominal aorta aneurysm was created in 138 min, while the model was a precise copy of the aorta visualized in the computed tomographic images. The total cost (including the initial cost of the printer) reached 1303.00 euros. 3D imaging and modelling using different materials can be very useful in cases when anatomical difficulties are recognized through the computed tomographic images and a tactile approach is demanded preoperatively. In this way, major complications during abdominal aorta aneurysm management can be predicted and prevented. Furthermore, the model can be used as a mould; the development of new, more biocompatible, less antigenic and individualized can become a challenge in the future. PMID:26803324

  6. The Use of a Block Diagram Simulation Language for Rapid Model Prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlow, Johnathan E.; Engrand, Peter

    1996-01-01

    The research performed this summer was a continuation of work performed during the 1995 NASA/ASEE Summer Fellowship. The focus of the work was to expand previously generated predictive models for liquid oxygen (LOX) loading into the external fuel tank of the shuttle. The models which were developed using a block diagram simulation language known as VisSim, were evaluated on numerous shuttle flights and found to well in most cases. Once the models were refined and validated, the predictive methods were integrated into the existing Rockwell software propulsion advisory tool (PAT). Although time was not sufficient to completely integrate the models developed into PAT, the ability to predict flows and pressures in the orbiter section and graphically display the results was accomplished.

  7. PyTrilinos Rapid Prototyping Package

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-03-01

    PyTrilinos provides access to selected Trilinos packages from the python scripting language. This allows interactive and dynamic creation of Trilinos objects, rapid prototyping that does not require compilation, and "gluing" Trilinos scripts to other python modules, such as plotting, etc. The currently supported packages are Epetra, EpetraExt, and NOX.

  8. Integrating Rapid Prototyping into Graphic Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Renmei; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Integrating different science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) areas can help students learn and leverage both the equipment and expertise at a single school. In comparing graphic communications classes with classes that involve rapid prototyping (RP) technologies like 3D printing, there are sufficient similarities between goals,…

  9. Review, Selection and Installation of a Rapid Prototype Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McEndree, Caryl

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to impress upon the reader the benefits and advantages of investing in rapid prototyping (additive manufacturing) technology thru the procurement of one or two new rapid prototyping machines and the creation of a new Prototype and Model Lab at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). This new resource will be available to all of United Space Alliance, LLC (USA), enabling engineers from around the company to pursue a more effective means of communication and design with our co-workers, and our customer, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The Rapid Protoyping/3D printing industry mirrors the transition the CAD industry made several years ago, when companies were trying to justify the expenditure of converting to a 3D based system from a 2D based system. The advantages of using a 3D system seemed to be outweighed by the cost it would take to convert not only legacy 2D drawings into 3D models but the training of personnel to use the 3D CAD software. But the reality was that when a 3D CAD system is employed, it gives engineers a much greater ability to conceive new designs and the ability to engineer new tools and products much more effectively. Rapid Prototyping (RP) is the name given to a host of related technologies that are used to fabricate physical objects directly from Computer Aided Design (CAD) data sources. These methods are generally similar to each other in that they add and bond materials in a layer wise-fashion to form objects, instead of machining away material. The machines used in Rapid Prototyping are also sometimes referred to as Rapid Manufacturing machines due to the fact that some of the parts fabricated in a RP machine can be used as the finished product. The name "Rapid Prototyping" is really a misnomer. It is much more than prototypes and it is not always rapid.

  10. Rapid prototyping--when virtual meets reality.

    PubMed

    Beguma, Zubeda; Chhedat, Pratik

    2014-01-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) describes the customized production of solid models using 3D computer data. Over the past decade, advances in RP have continued to evolve, resulting in the development of new techniques that have been applied to the fabrication of various prostheses. RP fabrication technologies include stereolithography (SLA), fused deposition modeling (FDM), computer numerical controlled (CNC) milling, and, more recently, selective laser sintering (SLS). The applications of RP techniques for dentistry include wax pattern fabrication for dental prostheses, dental (facial) prostheses mold (shell) fabrication, and removable dental prostheses framework fabrication. In the past, a physical plastic shape of the removable partial denture (RPD) framework was produced using an RP machine, and then used as a sacrificial pattern. Yet with the advent of the selective laser melting (SLM) technique, RPD metal frameworks can be directly fabricated, thereby omitting the casting stage. This new approach can also generate the wax pattern for facial prostheses directly, thereby reducing labor-intensive laboratory procedures. Many people stand to benefit from these new RP techniques for producing various forms of dental prostheses, which in the near future could transform traditional prosthodontic practices. PMID:25643461

  11. Relatively Inexpensive Rapid Prototyping of Small Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swan, Scott A.

    2003-01-01

    Parts with complex three-dimensional shapes and with dimensions up to 8 by 8 by 10 in. (20.3 by 20.3 by 25.4 cm) can be made as unitary pieces of a room-temperature-curing polymer, with relatively little investment in time and money, by a process now in use at Johnson Space Center. The process is one of a growing number of processes and techniques that are known collectively as the art of rapid prototyping. The main advantages of this process over other rapid-prototyping processes are greater speed and lower cost: There is no need to make paper drawings and take them to a shop for fabrication, and thus no need for the attendant paperwork and organizational delays. Instead, molds for desired parts are made automatically on a machine that is guided by data from a computer-aided design (CAD) system and can reside in an engineering office.

  12. Rapid Prototyping of Distributed User Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massó, José Pascual Molina; Vanderdonckt, Jean; López, Pascual González; Fernández-Caballero, Antonio; Pérez, María Dolores Lozano

    This paper introduces a software tool for rapid prototyping of interactive systems whose user interfaces could be distributed according to four axes defined in a design space: type of computing platform, amount of interaction surfaces, type of interaction surface, and type of user interface. This software is based on a virtual toolkit for rendering the user interfaces in a virtual world depicting the real world in which the distribution occurs. The virtual toolkit consists of a layer for rendering a concrete user interface specified in a user interface description language. This paper presents its extension to modeling the external environment in terms of the design space so as to render the context of use in which the user interfaces are distributed. For each axis, a pair of functions enables exploring the axis in decreasing and increasing order so as to explore various situations of distribution, axis by axis, or in a combined way. As the interfaces resulting from this rendering are truly executable ones, this system provides designers with an acceptable means for generating ideas about how a user interface can be distributed in a context of use, and helps to evaluate the quality of a solution at an early design stage. Four representative situations located on the design space are implemented and discussed: distribution in a multi-platform context, distribution of the workplace, ubiquitous computing, and ambient intelligence, thus proving the coverage of the design space and the capabilities of the whole system

  13. Rapid Prototyping in Orthopaedic Surgery: A User's Guide

    PubMed Central

    Frame, Mark; Huntley, James S.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) is applicable to orthopaedic problems involving three dimensions, particularly fractures, deformities, and reconstruction. In the past, RP has been hampered by cost and difficulties accessing the appropriate expertise. Here we outline the history of rapid prototyping and furthermore a process using open-source software to produce a high fidelity physical model from CT data. This greatly mitigates the expense associated with the technique, allowing surgeons to produce precise models for preoperative planning and procedure rehearsal. We describe the method with an illustrative case. PMID:22666160

  14. Rapid Prototyping Integrated With Nondestructive Evaluation and Finite Element Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Baaklini, George Y.

    2001-01-01

    Most reverse engineering approaches involve imaging or digitizing an object then creating a computerized reconstruction that can be integrated, in three dimensions, into a particular design environment. Rapid prototyping (RP) refers to the practical ability to build high-quality physical prototypes directly from computer aided design (CAD) files. Using rapid prototyping, full-scale models or patterns can be built using a variety of materials in a fraction of the time required by more traditional prototyping techniques (refs. 1 and 2). Many software packages have been developed and are being designed to tackle the reverse engineering and rapid prototyping issues just mentioned. For example, image processing and three-dimensional reconstruction visualization software such as Velocity2 (ref. 3) are being used to carry out the construction process of three-dimensional volume models and the subsequent generation of a stereolithography file that is suitable for CAD applications. Producing three-dimensional models of objects from computed tomography (CT) scans is becoming a valuable nondestructive evaluation methodology (ref. 4). Real components can be rendered and subjected to temperature and stress tests using structural engineering software codes. For this to be achieved, accurate high-resolution images have to be obtained via CT scans and then processed, converted into a traditional file format, and translated into finite element models. Prototyping a three-dimensional volume of a composite structure by reading in a series of two-dimensional images generated via CT and by using and integrating commercial software (e.g. Velocity2, MSC/PATRAN (ref. 5), and Hypermesh (ref. 6)) is being applied successfully at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The building process from structural modeling to the analysis level is outlined in reference 7. Subsequently, a stress analysis of a composite cooling panel under combined thermomechanical loading conditions was performed to validate

  15. Integration of rapid prototyping into design and manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, C.L.; McCarty, G.D.; Pardo, B.T.; Bryce, E.A.

    1993-10-01

    The introduction of rapid prototyping machines into the marketplace promises to revolutionize the process of producing prototype parts with production-like quality. In the age of concurrent engineering and agile manufacturing, it is necessary to exploit applicable new technologies as soon as they become available. The driving force behind integrating these evolutionary processes into the design and manufacture of prototype parts is the need to reduce lead times and fabrication costs, improve efficiency, and increase flexibility without sacrificing quality. Sandia utilizes Stereolithography (SL) and Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) capabilities to support internal design and manufacturing efforts. SL is used in the design iteration process to produce proof-of-concept models, hands-on models for design reviews, fit-check models, visual aids for manufacturing, and functional parts in assemblies. SLS is used to produce wax patterns for the lost wax process of investment casting in support of an internal Sandia National Laboratories program called FASTCAST which integrates experimental and computational technologies into the investment casting process. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the SL and SLS processes and address our experiences with these technologies from the standpoints of application, accuracy, surface finish, and feature definition. Also presented will be several examples of prototype parts manufactured by the Stereolithography and Selective Laser Sintering rapid prototyping machines.

  16. Integration of rapid prototyping into design and manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, C.L.; McCarty, G.D.; Pardo, B.T.

    1993-04-01

    The introduction of rapid prototyping machines into the market place promises to revolutionize the process of producing prototype parts with production-like quality. In the age of concurrent engineering and agile manufacturing, it is necessary to exploit applicable new technologies as soon as they become available. The driving force behind integrating these evolutionary processes into the design and manufacture of prototype parts is the need to reduce lead times and fabrication costs improve efficiency, and increase flexibility without sacrificing quality. Sandia Utilizes stereolithography and selective laser sintering capabilities to support internal design and manufacturing efforts. Stereolithography (SLA) is used in the design iteration process to produce proof-of-concept models, hands-on models for design reviews, fit check models, visual aids for manufacturing, and functional parts in assemblies. Selective laser sintering (SLS) is used to produce wax patterns for the lost wax process of investment casting in support of an internal Sandia National Laboratories program called FASTCAST which integrates experimental and computational technologies into the investment casting process. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the SLA and SLS processes and address our experiences with these technologies from the standpoints of application, accuracy, surface finish, and feature definition. Also presented will be several examples of prototype parts manufactured by the stereolithography and selective laser sintering rapid prototyping machines.

  17. Rapid prototyping of ossicular replacement prostheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovsianikov, A.; Chichkov, B.; Adunka, O.; Pillsbury, H.; Doraiswamy, A.; Narayan, R. J.

    2007-05-01

    Materials used in ossicular replacement prostheses must demonstrate appropriate biological compatibility, acoustic transmission, stability, and stiffness properties. Prostheses prepared using Teflon ®, titanium, Ceravital and other conventional materials have demonstrated several problems, including migration, perforation of the tympanic membrane, difficulty in shaping the prostheses, and reactivity with the surrounding tissues. We have used two-photon polymerization for rapid prototyping of Ormocer ® middle-ear bone replacement prostheses. Ormocer ® surfaces fabricated using two-photon polymerization exhibited acceptable cell viability and cell growth profiles. The Ormocer ® prosthesis was able to be inserted and removed from the site of use in the frozen human head without fracture. Our results demonstrate that two-photon polymerization is able to create ossicular replacement prostheses and other medical devices with a larger range of sizes, shapes and materials than other microfabrication techniques.

  18. Rapid prototyping-assisted maxillofacial reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Peng, Qian; Tang, Zhangui; Liu, Ousheng; Peng, Zhiwei

    2015-05-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) technologies have found many uses in dentistry, and especially oral and maxillofacial surgery, due to its ability to promote product development while at the same time reducing cost and depositing a part of any degree of complexity theoretically. This paper provides an overview of RP technologies for maxillofacial reconstruction covering both fundamentals and applications of the technologies. Key fundamentals of RP technologies involving the history, characteristics, and principles are reviewed. A number of RP applications to the main fields of oral and maxillofacial surgery, including restoration of maxillofacial deformities and defects, reduction of functional bone tissues, correction of dento-maxillofacial deformities, and fabrication of maxillofacial prostheses, are discussed. The most remarkable challenges for development of RP-assisted maxillofacial surgery and promising solutions are also elaborated. PMID:25873231

  19. Rapid prototyping and the human factors engineering process.

    PubMed

    Beevis, D; Denis, G S

    1992-06-01

    Rapid prototyping or 'virtual prototyping' of human-machine interfaces offers the possibility of putting the human operator 'in the loop' without the effort and cost associated with conventional man-in-the-loop simulation. Advocates suggest that rapid prototyping is compatible with conventional systems development techniques. It is not clear, however, exactly how rapid prototyping could be used in relation to conventional human factors engineering analyses. Therefore, an investigation of the use of the VAPS virtual prototyping system was carried out in five organizations. The results show that a variety of task analysis approaches can be used to initiate rapid prototyping. Overall, it appears that rapid prototyping facilitates an iterative approach to the development of the human-machine interface, and that is most applicable to the early stages of systems development, rather than to detailed design. PMID:15676861

  20. Rapid Prototyping of Patterned Multifunctional Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    FAN,HONGYOU; LU,YUNFENG; LOPEZ,GABRIEL P.; BRINKER,C. JEFFREY

    2000-07-18

    The ability to engineer ordered arrays of objects on multiple length scales has potential for applications such as microelectronics, sensors, wave guides, and photonic lattices with tunable band gaps. Since the invention of surfactant templated mesoporous sieves in 1992, great progress has been made in controlling different mesophases in the form of powders, particles, fibers, and films. To date, although there have been several reports of patterned mesostructures, materials prepared have been limited to metal oxides with no specific functionality. For many of the envisioned applications of hierarchical materials in micro-systems, sensors, waveguides, photonics, and electronics, it is necessary to define both form and function on several length scales. In addition, the patterning strategies utilized so far require hours or even days for completion. Such slow processes are inherently difficult to implement in commercial environments. The authors present a series of new methods of producing patterns within seconds. Combining sol-gel chemistry, Evaporation-Induced Self-Assembly (EISA), and rapid prototyping techniques like pen lithography, ink-jet printing, and dip-coating on micro-contact printed substrates, they form hierarchically organized silica structures that exhibit order and function on multiple scales: on the molecular scale, functional organic moieties are positioned on pore surfaces, on the mesoscale, mono-sized pores are organized into 1-, 2-, or 3-dimensional networks, providing size-selective accessibility from the gas or liquid phase, and on the macroscale, 2-dimensional arrays and fluidic or photonic systems may be defined. These rapid patterning techniques establish for the first time a link between computer-aided design and rapid processing of self-assembled nanostructures.

  1. The Mississippi Research Consortium Rapid Prototyping Capability Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorhead, R.; Haupt, T.; Anantharaj, V.; O'Hara, C.; Aanstoos, J.

    2006-12-01

    Mississippi State University and the University of Mississippi, along with several partners, are exploiting a systems engineering approach to develop and deploy a computational Rapid Prototyping Capability (RPC). This RPC will be used to evaluate research results, predominantly measurements and models, to determine appropriate capabilities by which societal benefits can be obtained via routine operational utilization. This RPC will facilitate science experiments that access, process, and assimilate terascale data from distributed and heterogeneous sources by using numerical models that scale from the desktop to high- performance platforms. The science experiments can be rapidly prototyped in order to evaluate the suitability of data, algorithms and models. The RPC experiments are designed to characterize uncertainties involved in the data, models, and decision making process while maintaining scientific rigor through the entire process. This approach helps identify scientific and logistical risks earlier in the process so that they can be appropriately addressed in a timely manner to minimize risk. This talk or poster will focus on (a) the architecture and cyber-infrastructure we are deploying under NASA, NOAA, and Navy funding for rapid prototyping capabilities to support applied research; (b) the integration of model and data frameworks; and (c) RPC concepts for the design and execution of science experiments.

  2. Rapid prototyping fabrication of focused ultrasound transducers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yohan; Maxwell, Adam D; Hall, Timothy L; Xu, Zhen; Lin, Kuang-Wei; Cain, Charles A

    2014-09-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) fabrication techniques are currently widely used in diverse industrial and medical fields, providing substantial advantages in development time and costs in comparison to more traditional manufacturing processes. This paper presents a new method for the fabrication of high-intensity focused ultrasound transducers using RP technology. The construction of a large-aperture hemispherical transducer designed by computer software is described to demonstrate the process. The transducer was conceived as a modular design consisting of 32 individually focused 50.8-mm (2-in) PZT-8 element modules distributed in a 300-mm hemispherical scaffold with a geometric focus of 150 mm. The entire structure of the array, including the module housings and the hemispherical scaffold was fabricated through a stereolithography (SLA) system using a proprietary photopolymer. The PZT elements were bonded to the lenses through a quarter-wave tungsten-epoxy matching layer developed in-house specifically for this purpose. Modules constructed in this manner displayed a high degree of electroacoustic consistency, with an electrical impedance mean and standard deviation of 109 ± 10.2 Ω for the 32 elements. Time-of-flight measurements for individually pulsed modules mounted on the hemispherical scaffold showed that all pulses arrived at the focus within a 350 ns range, indicating a good degree of element alignment. Pressure profile measurements of the fully assembled transducer also showed close agreement with simulated results. The measured focal beam FWHM dimensions were 1.9 × 4.0 mm (1.9 × 3.9 mm simulated) in the transversal and axial directions respectively. Total material expenses associated with the construction of the transducer were approximately 5000 USD (as of 2011). The versatility and lower fabrication costs afforded by RP methods may be beneficial in the development of complex transducer geometries suitable for a variety of research and clinical applications

  3. Implementation of Additive Rapid Prototyping on Retrofit CNC Mill

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Freeform fabrication techniques are gaining popularity as a means of making parts. Layered additive methods are associated with rapid prototyping. Many rapid prototyping methods are commercially proprietary and may cost thousands of dollars. Using a retrofit CNC mill for layered fabrication and C...

  4. Rapid Production of Composite Prototype Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, T. K.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this research was to provide a mechanism to cost-effectively produce composite hardware prototypes. The task was to take a hands-on approach to developing new technologies that could benefit multiple future programs.

  5. Rapid prototyping of patterned functional nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    FAN,HONGYOU; LU,YUNFENG; STUMP,AARON; REED,SCOTT T.; BAER,THOMAS A.; SCHUNK,P. RANDALL; PEREZ-LUNA,VICTOR; LOPEZ,GABRIEL P.; BRINKER,C. JEFFREY

    2000-02-09

    Living systems exhibit form and function on multiple length scales, and the prospect of imparting life-like qualities to man-made materials has inspired many recent efforts to devise hierarchical materials assembly strategies. For example, Yang et al. grew surfactant-templated mesoporous silica on hydrophobic patterns prepared by micro-contact printing {micro}CP{sup 3}. Trau et al. formed oriented mesoporous silica patterns, using a micro-molding in capillaries MIMIC technique, and Yang et al. combined MIMIC, polystyrene sphere templating, and surfactant-templating to create oxides with three levels of structural order. Overall, great progress has been made to date in controlling structure on scales ranging from several nanometers to several micrometers. However, materials prepared have been limited to oxides with no specific functionality, whereas for many of the envisioned applications of hierarchical materials in micro-systems, sensors, waveguides, photonics, and electronics, it is necessary to define both form and function on several length scales. In addition, the patterning strategies employed thus far require hours or even days for completion. Such slow processes are inherently difficult to implement in commercial environments. The authors have combined evaporation-induced (silica/surfactant) self-assembly EISA with rapid prototyping techniques like pen lithography, ink-jet printing, and dip-coating on micro-contact printed substrates to form hierarchically organized structures in seconds. In addition, by co-condensation of tetrafunctional silanes (Si(OR){sub 4}) with tri-functional organosilanes ((RO){sub 3}SiR{prime}){sup 12--14} or by inclusion of organic additives, the authors have selectively derivatized the silica framework with functional R{prime} ligands or molecules. The resulting materials exhibit form and function on multiple length scales: on the molecular scale, functional organic moieties are positioned on pore surfaces, on the mesoscale

  6. An Open-Book Modular Watershed Modeling Framework for Rapid Prototyping of GPM- based Flood Forecasting in International River Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katiyar, N.; Hossain, F.

    2006-05-01

    accuracy. Through assessment of our proposed modular modeling framework, we present our initial understanding in resolving the fundamental question - Can a parsimonious open-book watershed modeling framework be a physically consistent proxy for rapid and global identification of IRBs in greater need of a GPM-based flood forecasting system?

  7. 3D Rapid Prototyping for Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery: Applications in Image-Guidance, Surgical Simulation and Patient-Specific Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Harley H. L.; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.; Vescan, Allan; Daly, Michael J.; Prisman, Eitan; Irish, Jonathan C.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the role of advanced fabrication technology across a broad spectrum of head and neck surgical procedures, including applications in endoscopic sinus surgery, skull base surgery, and maxillofacial reconstruction. The initial case studies demonstrated three applications of rapid prototyping technology are in head and neck surgery: i) a mono-material paranasal sinus phantom for endoscopy training ii) a multi-material skull base simulator and iii) 3D patient-specific mandible templates. Digital processing of these phantoms is based on real patient or cadaveric 3D images such as CT or MRI data. Three endoscopic sinus surgeons examined the realism of the endoscopist training phantom. One experienced endoscopic skull base surgeon conducted advanced sinus procedures on the high-fidelity multi-material skull base simulator. Ten patients participated in a prospective clinical study examining patient-specific modeling for mandibular reconstructive surgery. Qualitative feedback to assess the realism of the endoscopy training phantom and high-fidelity multi-material phantom was acquired. Conformance comparisons using assessments from the blinded reconstructive surgeons measured the geometric performance between intra-operative and pre-operative reconstruction mandible plates. Both the endoscopy training phantom and the high-fidelity multi-material phantom received positive feedback on the realistic structure of the phantom models. Results suggested further improvement on the soft tissue structure of the phantom models is necessary. In the patient-specific mandible template study, the pre-operative plates were judged by two blinded surgeons as providing optimal conformance in 7 out of 10 cases. No statistical differences were found in plate fabrication time and conformance, with pre-operative plating providing the advantage of reducing time spent in the operation room. The applicability of common model design and fabrication techniques

  8. 3D Rapid Prototyping for Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery: Applications in Image-Guidance, Surgical Simulation and Patient-Specific Modeling.

    PubMed

    Chan, Harley H L; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H; Vescan, Allan; Daly, Michael J; Prisman, Eitan; Irish, Jonathan C

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the role of advanced fabrication technology across a broad spectrum of head and neck surgical procedures, including applications in endoscopic sinus surgery, skull base surgery, and maxillofacial reconstruction. The initial case studies demonstrated three applications of rapid prototyping technology are in head and neck surgery: i) a mono-material paranasal sinus phantom for endoscopy training ii) a multi-material skull base simulator and iii) 3D patient-specific mandible templates. Digital processing of these phantoms is based on real patient or cadaveric 3D images such as CT or MRI data. Three endoscopic sinus surgeons examined the realism of the endoscopist training phantom. One experienced endoscopic skull base surgeon conducted advanced sinus procedures on the high-fidelity multi-material skull base simulator. Ten patients participated in a prospective clinical study examining patient-specific modeling for mandibular reconstructive surgery. Qualitative feedback to assess the realism of the endoscopy training phantom and high-fidelity multi-material phantom was acquired. Conformance comparisons using assessments from the blinded reconstructive surgeons measured the geometric performance between intra-operative and pre-operative reconstruction mandible plates. Both the endoscopy training phantom and the high-fidelity multi-material phantom received positive feedback on the realistic structure of the phantom models. Results suggested further improvement on the soft tissue structure of the phantom models is necessary. In the patient-specific mandible template study, the pre-operative plates were judged by two blinded surgeons as providing optimal conformance in 7 out of 10 cases. No statistical differences were found in plate fabrication time and conformance, with pre-operative plating providing the advantage of reducing time spent in the operation room. The applicability of common model design and fabrication techniques

  9. Rapid Tooling via Investment Casting and Rapid Prototype Patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, Michael D.

    1999-06-01

    The objective of this work to develop the materials processing and design technologies required to reduce the die development time for metal mold processes from 12 months to 3 months, using die casting of Al and Mg as the example process. Sandia demonstrated that investment casting, using rapid prototype patterns produced from Stereo lithography or Selective laser Sintering, was a viable alternative/supplement to the current technology of machining form wrought stock. A demonstration die insert (ejector halt) was investment cast and subsequently tested in the die casting environment. The stationary half of the die insert was machined from wrought material to benchmark the cast half. The two inserts were run in a die casting machine for 3,100 shots of aluminum and at the end of the run no visible difference could be detected between the cast and machined inserts. Inspection concluded that the cast insert performed identically to the machined insert. Both inserts had no indications of heat checking or degradation.

  10. Validation of transgenic mice carrying the human prototype c-Ha-ras gene as a bioassay model for rapid carcinogenicity testing.

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, S; Urano, K; Koizumi, H; Wakana, S; Hioki, K; Mitsumori, K; Kurokawa, Y; Hayashi, Y; Nomura, T

    1998-01-01

    Carcinogenicity testing is indispensable for identifying environmental carcinogens and for evaluating the safety of drugs in the process of development. Conventional 2-year rodent bioassays are one of the most resource-consuming tests in terms of animals, time, and costs. Development of rapid carcinogenicity testing systems that can assess carcinogenicity within a short period has become a social demand and is essential to improve efficacy in the identification of environmental carcinogens as well as in the development of new drugs. In this review we introduce the rapid carcinogenicity testing system using transgenic (Tg) mice carrying the human prototype c-Ha-ras gene, namely rasH2 mouse (CB6F1-TgHras2 mouse is the same mouse). The studies have been conducted to validate the rasH2 mouse as a model for the rapid carcinogenicity testing system. Our current validation studies revealed that rasH2 mice are able to detect various types of mutagenic carcinogens within 6 months. The rasH2 mice may also be able to detect various nonmutagenic carcinogens. The validation studies also revealed that rasH2 mice are generally much more susceptible to both mutagenic and nonmutagenic carcinogens than control non-Tg mice. No significant tumor induction has been observed in rasH2 mice with either mutagenic or nonmutagenic noncarcinogens. More rapid onset and higher incidence of more malignant tumors can be expected with a high probability after treatment with various carcinogens in the rasH2 mice than in control non-Tg mice. The rasH2 mouse appears to be a promising candidate as an animal model for development of a rapid carcinogenicity testing system. PMID:9539005

  11. Materials Selection and Their Characteristics as Used in Rapid Prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, K.; Salvail, P.; Vesely, E.; Wells, D.

    1999-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) conducted a program to evaluate six technologies used in Rapid Prototyping (RP) to produce investment casting patterns. In this paper, RP refers to the collective additive fabrication technologies known as Solid Free-Form Fabrication. Such technologies are being used with increasing frequency in manufacturing applications, due in part to their rapidly expanding capabilities to fabricate models from many types of materials. This study used ABS plastic, polycarbonate, TrueForm PM6, epoxy resin, paper, starch, and wax. The baseline model was a semi-complex prototype fuel pump housing, intended for use in the X-33 reusable launch vehicle. All models were shelled in a production- grade colloidal silica ceramic. Primary coats were zircon-base flour with zircon backup, while secondary coats were silica grains with a tabular alumina backup. Each model was shelled in an identical manner, using the same atmospheric conditions and drying times, as well as the same number of layers. Bake-outs and firing cycles were consistent with the leach ability of each material. Preheat and bath temperatures were also kept consistent. All molds were cast in vacuum using a hydrogen-resistant superalloy (NASA- 23) that was developed in-house. The final technical evaluation included detailed measurements of the model and the final casting, in order to determine any dimensional changes caused by different pattern materials, as well as documentation of all defects and any obvious refractory/model reactions. Prototype production costs were estimated for each method and taken into consideration during trade-off analysis.

  12. Automated Rapid Prototyping of 3D Ceramic Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMillin, Scott G.; Griffin, Eugene A.; Griffin, Curtis W.; Coles, Peter W. H.; Engle, James D.

    2005-01-01

    An automated system of manufacturing equipment produces three-dimensional (3D) ceramic parts specified by computational models of the parts. The system implements an advanced, automated version of a generic rapid-prototyping process in which the fabrication of an object having a possibly complex 3D shape includes stacking of thin sheets, the outlines of which closely approximate the horizontal cross sections of the object at their respective heights. In this process, the thin sheets are made of a ceramic precursor material, and the stack is subsequently heated to transform it into a unitary ceramic object. In addition to the computer used to generate the computational model of the part to be fabricated, the equipment used in this process includes: 1) A commercially available laminated-object-manufacturing machine that was originally designed for building woodlike 3D objects from paper and was modified to accept sheets of ceramic precursor material, and 2) A machine designed specifically to feed single sheets of ceramic precursor material to the laminated-object-manufacturing machine. Like other rapid-prototyping processes that utilize stacking of thin sheets, this process begins with generation of the computational model of the part to be fabricated, followed by computational sectioning of the part into layers of predetermined thickness that collectively define the shape of the part. Information about each layer is transmitted to rapid-prototyping equipment, where the part is built layer by layer. What distinguishes this process from other rapid-prototyping processes that utilize stacking of thin sheets are the details of the machines and the actions that they perform. In this process, flexible sheets of ceramic precursor material (called "green" ceramic sheets) suitable for lamination are produced by tape casting. The binder used in the tape casting is specially formulated to enable lamination of layers with little or no applied heat or pressure. The tape is cut

  13. Characteristics of products generated by selective sintering and stereolithography rapid prototyping processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cariapa, Vikram

    1993-01-01

    The trend in the modern global economy towards free market policies has motivated companies to use rapid prototyping technologies to not only reduce product development cycle time but also to maintain their competitive edge. A rapid prototyping technology is one which combines computer aided design with computer controlled tracking of focussed high energy source (eg. lasers, heat) on modern ceramic powders, metallic powders, plastics or photosensitive liquid resins in order to produce prototypes or models. At present, except for the process of shape melting, most rapid prototyping processes generate products that are only dimensionally similar to those of the desired end product. There is an urgent need, therefore, to enhance the understanding of the characteristics of these processes in order to realize their potential for production. Currently, the commercial market is dominated by four rapid prototyping processes, namely selective laser sintering, stereolithography, fused deposition modelling and laminated object manufacturing. This phase of the research has focussed on the selective laser sintering and stereolithography rapid prototyping processes. A theoretical model for these processes is under development. Different rapid prototyping sites supplied test specimens (based on ASTM 638-84, Type I) that have been measured and tested to provide a data base on surface finish, dimensional variation and ultimate tensile strength. Further plans call for developing and verifying the theoretical models by carefully designed experiments. This will be a joint effort between NASA and other prototyping centers to generate a larger database, thus encouraging more widespread usage by product designers.

  14. Rapid prototyping of database systems in human genetics data collection.

    PubMed

    Gersting, J M

    1987-06-01

    This work examines some of the problems encountered in developing small and large database application systems involving human genetics data collection efforts that include data on individuals as well as family pedigree data. Rapid prototyping of a database application requires software tools to produce the application with little or no programming. Features of MEGADATS-4 that provide for rapid prototyping and for producing stand-alone applications are examined. PMID:3668405

  15. FROM REQUIREMENTS CAPTURE TO SILICON: A MODEL-DRIVEN SYSTEMS ENGINEERING APPROACH TO RAPID DESIGN, PROTOTYPING AND DEVELOPMENT USED IN THE OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY'S COGNITIVE RADIO PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Buckner, Mark A; Kaldenbach, Brian J; Nory, Nakhaee; Moore, Michael Roy; Bouldin, Donald; Mills, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    The performance and complexity of the signal processing hardware accessible to SDR/CR/RADAR designers has quickly out-paced the available design tools. The advances in Digital Signal Processors (DSP) both fixed- and floating-point, Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA), and multicore processors have enabled rapid prototyping and deployment of platforms that can be dynamically reconfigured in the field to implement a variety of SDR/CR/RADAR waveforms. Until recently the process of creating waveforms meant starting with high-level mathematical models and simulations and then creating production quality code that can operate on this variety of specialized hardware using either hand coding or vendor specific tools, which are typically limited to single processor solutions. This paper discusses an integrated model-driven design process and tool-flow used in ORNL's Cognitive Radio Program. It describes how the process and tool-flow are used on a variety of SDR and CR projects and in the development of a software-defined RADAR environment simulator. It describes how, from a single Simulink model, a single deadlock free real-time multiprocessor application is created and executed on a network of heterogeneous processors. We also describe recent progress on extending the process/tool-flow to design digital ASICs and our plans for future extensions. We close by highlighting the benefits being realized from applying this design flow to SDR/CR/RADAR projects at ORNL: (1) a significant reduction in the time required to develop, prototype, implement and test SDR/CR/RADAR waveforms, (2) increased reusability/retargetabilty of SDR/CR/RADAR designs and signal processing library components, (3) the ability to quickly port SDR/CR/RADAR waveforms to different hardware systems and processor types, (4) improvements in documentation, and (5) traceability of system components back to original requirements.

  16. Accuracy and precision of polyurethane dental arch models fabricated using a three-dimensional subtractive rapid prototyping method with an intraoral scanning technique

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Hong; Kim, Ki-Baek; Kim, Woong-Chul; Kim, Ji-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy and precision of polyurethane (PUT) dental arch models fabricated using a three-dimensional (3D) subtractive rapid prototyping (RP) method with an intraoral scanning technique by comparing linear measurements obtained from PUT models and conventional plaster models. Methods Ten plaster models were duplicated using a selected standard master model and conventional impression, and 10 PUT models were duplicated using the 3D subtractive RP technique with an oral scanner. Six linear measurements were evaluated in terms of x, y, and z-axes using a non-contact white light scanner. Accuracy was assessed using mean differences between two measurements, and precision was examined using four quantitative methods and the Bland-Altman graphical method. Repeatability was evaluated in terms of intra-examiner variability, and reproducibility was assessed in terms of inter-examiner and inter-method variability. Results The mean difference between plaster models and PUT models ranged from 0.07 mm to 0.33 mm. Relative measurement errors ranged from 2.2% to 7.6% and intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.93 to 0.96, when comparing plaster models and PUT models. The Bland-Altman plot showed good agreement. Conclusions The accuracy and precision of PUT dental models for evaluating the performance of oral scanner and subtractive RP technology was acceptable. Because of the recent improvements in block material and computerized numeric control milling machines, the subtractive RP method may be a good choice for dental arch models. PMID:24696823

  17. Rapid prototyping: A paradigm shift in investment casting

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, C.L.; Maguire, M.C.; Baldwin, M.D.; Pardo, B.T.

    1996-09-01

    The quest for fabricating complex metal parts rapidly and with minimal cost has brought rapid prototyping (RP) processes to the forefront of the investment casting industry. Relatively recent advances in DTM Corporation`s selective laser sintering (SLS) and 3D Systems stereolithography (SL) processes have had a significant impact on the overall quality of patterns produced using these rapid prototyping processes. Sandia National Laboratories uses patterns generated from rapid prototyping processes to reduce the cycle time and cost of fabricating prototype and small lot production parts in support of a program called FASTCAST. The SLS process is used to fabricate patterns from materials such as investment casting wax, polycarbonate, and a new material called TrueForm PM{trademark}. With the timely introduction of each of these materials, the quality of patterns fabricated has improved. The development and implementation of SL QuickCast{trademark} software has enabled this process to produce highly accurate patterns for use in investment casting. This paper focuses on the successes with these new pattern materials and the infrastructure required to cast rapid prototyping patterns successfully. In addition, a brief overview of other applications of rapid prototyping at Sandia will be discussed.

  18. Free-form surface reconstruction for machine vision rapid prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Colin; Vickers, Geoffrey W.

    1993-09-01

    Prototyping is an essential step in the manufacture of many objects, both consumer and industrial. A fundamental step in this process is the definition of the 3-D form of the object shape, for example, a designer's models created in clay or wood. A 3-D vision system (range sensor) offers the advantage of speed in defining shapes compared to a traditional tactile sensor. The viability of using range sensors is demonstrated by the development of a rapid prototyping system comprised of a laser-based range sensor and software that creates a computer model of the object. One particularly important area of application is the reverse engineering of models comprised of free-form surfaces. This is important in mold and die manufacture for aerodynamic and ergonomic object surfaces. Several methods of modeling free-form surfaces from irregular data are examined and a radial basis function approach is used in developing a self-contained, interactive software package utilizing the laser-generated range data.

  19. Thermal Modeling and Simulation of Electron Beam Melting for Rapid Prototyping on Ti6Al4V Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neira Arce, Alderson

    To be a viable solution for contemporary engineering challenges, the use of titanium alloys in a wider range of applications requires the development of new techniques and processes that are able to decrease production cost and delivery times. As a result, the use of material consolidation in a near-net-shape fashion, using dynamic techniques like additive manufacturing by electron beam selective melting EBSM represents a promising method for part manufacturing. However, a new product material development can be cost prohibitive, requiring the use of computer modeling and simulation as a way to decrease turnaround time. To ensure a proper representation of the EBSM process, a thermophysical material characterization and comparison was first performed on two Ti6Al4V powder feedstock materials prepared by plasma (PREP) and gas atomized (GA) processes. This evaluation comprises an evaluation on particle size distribution, density and powder surface area, collectively with the temperature dependence on properties such as heat capacity, thermal diffusivity, thermal conductivity and surface emissivity. Multiple techniques were employed in this evaluation, including high temperature differential scanning calorimetry (HT-DSC), laser flash analysis (LFA), infrared remote temperature analysis (IR-Thermography), laser diffraction, liquid and gas pycnometry using mercury and krypton adsorption respectively. This study was followed by the review of complementary strategies to simulate the temperature evolution during the EBSM process, using a finite element analysis package called COMSOL Multiphysics. Two alternatives dedicated to representing a moving heat source (electron beam) and the powder bed were developed using a step-by-step approximation initiative. The first method consisted of the depiction of a powder bed discretized on an array of domains, each one representing a static melt pool, where the moving heat source was illustrated by a series of time dependant selective

  20. TOPAZ II Anti-Criticality Device Rapid Prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Donald R.; Otting, William D.

    1994-07-01

    The Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) has been working on a Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Project (NEPSTP) using an existing Russian Topaz II reactor system to power the NEPSTP satellite. Safety investigations have shown that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the United States with some modification to preclude water flooded criticality. A ``fuel-out'' water subcriticality concept was selected by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as the baseline concept. A fuel-out anti-criticality device (ACD) conceptual design was developed by Rockwell. The concept functions to hold the fuel from the four centermost thermionic fuel elements (TFEs) outside the reactor during launch and reliably inserts the fuel into the reactor once the operational orbit is achieved. A four-tenths scale ACD rapid prototype model, fabricated from the CATIA solids design model, clearly shows in three dimensions the relative size and spatial relationship of the ACD components.

  1. Microgravity Manufacturing: Extending Rapid Prototyping Past the Horizon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Ken

    2003-01-01

    Over the last decade, rapid prototyping (RP) technologies have continued to advance in all aspects of operation and application. From continuously advanced materials and processes development to more hard-core manufacturing uses, the RP realm has stretched considerably past its original expectations as a prototyping capability. This paper discusses the unique applications for which NASA has chosen these manufacturing techniques to be utilized in outer space.

  2. Evaluation of single-board microcontroller suitable for rapid prototyping

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, R.

    1987-02-01

    This report presents an evaluation of a single-board microcontroller suitable for rapid prototyping. The work was conducted for the National Association of Home Builders Smart House Project. The Project will help manufacturers use advanced technology in the development of new products for communications, energy distribution, and appliance control. Testing Smart House hardware prototypes will require a general-purpose microcontroller. To provide this adaptability, a prototyping controller must offer a broad spectrum of functions that are easily used by a laboratory technician. Because it is optimized for laboratory use, a prototyping microcontroller may not be suitable for commercially-available Smart House products. The report presents a set of rapid-prototyping requirements based on past ORNL experience with laboratory testing and experimentation. The evaluation showed tht a Zilog Z8 microcomputer with a FORTH development system in internal ROM meets most of the ORNL-developed rapid-prototyping requirements. Suggestions are provided for improving the understandability of FORTH programs and in using machine language routines to compensate for lack of execution speed.

  3. Methods and systems for rapid prototyping of high density circuits

    DOEpatents

    Palmer, Jeremy A.; Davis, Donald W.; Chavez, Bart D.; Gallegos, Phillip L.; Wicker, Ryan B.; Medina, Francisco R.

    2008-09-02

    A preferred embodiment provides, for example, a system and method of integrating fluid media dispensing technology such as direct-write (DW) technologies with rapid prototyping (RP) technologies such as stereolithography (SL) to provide increased micro-fabrication and micro-stereolithography. A preferred embodiment of the present invention also provides, for example, a system and method for Rapid Prototyping High Density Circuit (RPHDC) manufacturing of solderless connectors and pilot devices with terminal geometries that are compatible with DW mechanisms and reduce contact resistance where the electrical system is encapsulated within structural members and manual electrical connections are eliminated in favor of automated DW traces. A preferred embodiment further provides, for example, a method of rapid prototyping comprising: fabricating a part layer using stereolithography and depositing thermally curable media onto the part layer using a fluid dispensing apparatus.

  4. Additive Manufacturing: From Rapid Prototyping to Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prater, Tracie

    2015-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) offers tremendous promise for the rocket propulsion community. Foundational work must be performed to ensure the safe performance of AM parts. Government, industry, and academia must collaborate in the characterization, design, modeling, and process control to accelerate the certification of AM parts for human-rated flight.

  5. Rapid algorithm prototyping and implementation for power quality measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kołek, Krzysztof; Piątek, Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    This article presents a Model-Based Design (MBD) approach to rapidly implement power quality (PQ) metering algorithms. Power supply quality is a very important aspect of modern power systems and will become even more important in future smart grids. In this case, maintaining the PQ parameters at the desired level will require efficient implementation methods of the metering algorithms. Currently, the development of new, advanced PQ metering algorithms requires new hardware with adequate computational capability and time intensive, cost-ineffective manual implementations. An alternative, considered here, is an MBD approach. The MBD approach focuses on the modelling and validation of the model by simulation, which is well-supported by a Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) packages. This paper presents two algorithms utilized in modern PQ meters: a phase-locked loop based on an Enhanced Phase Locked Loop (EPLL), and the flicker measurement according to the IEC 61000-4-15 standard. The algorithms were chosen because of their complexity and non-trivial development. They were first modelled in the MATLAB/Simulink package, then tested and validated in a simulation environment. The models, in the form of Simulink diagrams, were next used to automatically generate C code. The code was compiled and executed in real-time on the Zynq Xilinx platform that combines a reconfigurable Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) with a dual-core processor. The MBD development of PQ algorithms, automatic code generation, and compilation form a rapid algorithm prototyping and implementation path for PQ measurements. The main advantage of this approach is the ability to focus on the design, validation, and testing stages while skipping over implementation issues. The code generation process renders production-ready code that can be easily used on the target hardware. This is especially important when standards for PQ measurement are in constant development, and the PQ issues in emerging smart

  6. Can MODIS Data Calibrate and Validate Coastal Sediment Transport Models? Rapid Prototyping Using 250 m Data and the ECOMSED Model for Lake Pontchartrain, LA USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Richard L.; Georgiou, Ioannis; Glorioso, Mark V.; McCorquodale, J. Alex; Crowder, Keely

    2006-01-01

    Field measurements from small boats and sparse arrays of instrumented buoys often do not provide sufficient data to capture the dynamic nature of biogeophysical parameters in may coastal aquatic environments. Several investigators have shown the MODIS 250 m images can provide daily synoptic views of suspended sediment concentration in coastal waters to determine sediment transport and fate. However, the use of MODIS for coastal environments can be limited due to a lack of cloud-free images. Sediment transport models are not constrained by sky conditions but often suffer from a lack of in situ observations for model calibration or validation. We demonstrate here the utility of MODIS 250 m to calibrate (set model parameters), validate output, and set or reset initial conditions of a hydrodynamic and sediment transport model (ECOMSED) developed for Lake Pontchartrain, LA USA. We present our approach in the context of how to quickly assess of 'prototype' an application of NASA data to support environmental managers and decision makers. The combination of daily MODIS imagery and model simulations offer a more robust monitoring and prediction system of suspended sediments than available from either system alone.

  7. Patient specific ankle-foot orthoses using rapid prototyping

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Prefabricated orthotic devices are currently designed to fit a range of patients and therefore they do not provide individualized comfort and function. Custom-fit orthoses are superior to prefabricated orthotic devices from both of the above-mentioned standpoints. However, creating a custom-fit orthosis is a laborious and time-intensive manual process performed by skilled orthotists. Besides, adjustments made to both prefabricated and custom-fit orthoses are carried out in a qualitative manner. So both comfort and function can potentially suffer considerably. A computerized technique for fabricating patient-specific orthotic devices has the potential to provide excellent comfort and allow for changes in the standard design to meet the specific needs of each patient. Methods In this paper, 3D laser scanning is combined with rapid prototyping to create patient-specific orthoses. A novel process was engineered to utilize patient-specific surface data of the patient anatomy as a digital input, manipulate the surface data to an optimal form using Computer Aided Design (CAD) software, and then download the digital output from the CAD software to a rapid prototyping machine for fabrication. Results Two AFOs were rapidly prototyped to demonstrate the proposed process. Gait analysis data of a subject wearing the AFOs indicated that the rapid prototyped AFOs performed comparably to the prefabricated polypropylene design. Conclusions The rapidly prototyped orthoses fabricated in this study provided good fit of the subject's anatomy compared to a prefabricated AFO while delivering comparable function (i.e. mechanical effect on the biomechanics of gait). The rapid fabrication capability is of interest because it has potential for decreasing fabrication time and cost especially when a replacement of the orthosis is required. PMID:21226898

  8. Software wrappers for rapid prototyping JAUS-based systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smuda, Bill

    2005-05-01

    Recent experiences with robots in Iraq have proven that robotic technology is useful to the warfighter, but tools are needed to rapidly respond to evolving missions. This paper details a methodology for generation of software wrappers using JAUS to simplify prototyping and development of robotic systems (distributed, embedded and real-time system software modules). Software wrappers will allow insertion of modules into a visual prototyping environment. The wrappers will intercept module functions and bind them with functions needed to exercise the modules outside of the native environment. Generation of JAUS wrappers will enhance the development environment by reducing rote work and producing consistently behaving module interfaces. The resulting methodology will provide a rapid prototyping environment for use in sensor integration, Operator Control Unit (OCU) development and autonomous vehicle control.

  9. Rapid Prototyping of High Performance Signal Processing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sane, Nimish

    Advances in embedded systems for digital signal processing (DSP) are enabling many scientific projects and commercial applications. At the same time, these applications are key to driving advances in many important kinds of computing platforms. In this region of high performance DSP, rapid prototyping is critical for faster time-to-market (e.g., in the wireless communications industry) or time-to-science (e.g., in radio astronomy). DSP system architectures have evolved from being based on application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) to incorporate reconfigurable off-the-shelf field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), the latest multiprocessors such as graphics processing units (GPUs), or heterogeneous combinations of such devices. We, thus, have a vast design space to explore based on performance trade-offs, and expanded by the multitude of possibilities for target platforms. In order to allow systematic design space exploration, and develop scalable and portable prototypes, model based design tools are increasingly used in design and implementation of embedded systems. These tools allow scalable high-level representations, model based semantics for analysis and optimization, and portable implementations that can be verified at higher levels of abstractions and targeted toward multiple platforms for implementation. The designer can experiment using such tools at an early stage in the design cycle, and employ the latest hardware at later stages. In this thesis, we have focused on dataflow-based approaches for rapid DSP system prototyping. This thesis contributes to various aspects of dataflow-based design flows and tools as follows: 1. We have introduced the concept of topological patterns, which exploits commonly found repetitive patterns in DSP algorithms to allow scalable, concise, and parameterizable representations of large scale dataflow graphs in high-level languages. We have shown how an underlying design tool can systematically exploit a high

  10. Rapid Prototyping of NASA's Solar and Meteorological Data For Regional Level Modeling of Agricultural and Bio-fuel Crop Phenology and Yield Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoell, J. M.; Stackhouse, P. W.; Eckman, R. S.

    2006-12-01

    fluxes (4 to 7 day lag) produced via the NASA FLASHFlux (Fast Longwave and SHortwave radiative Fluxes) project. We will also discuss a Rapid Prototype Project designed to demonstrate the viability of using the resulting 1-degree resolution regional-to-global meteorological and solar radiation data products as inputs to agricultural based Decision Support Systems for improved production of food, feedstock and bio- fuel crops. The data requirements of these DSS's are discussed including the requirements for timeliness and spatial resolution. These have ramifications for future remote sensing, data analysis and modeling systems to support agricultural applications.

  11. The Requirements and Design of the Rapid Prototyping Capabilities System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haupt, T. A.; Moorhead, R.; O'Hara, C.; Anantharaj, V.

    2006-12-01

    The Rapid Prototyping Capabilities (RPC) system will provide the capability to rapidly evaluate innovative methods of linking science observations. To this end, the RPC will provide the capability to integrate the software components and tools needed to evaluate the use of a wide variety of current and future NASA sensors, numerical models, and research results, model outputs, and knowledge, collectively referred to as "resources". It is assumed that the resources are geographically distributed, and thus RPC will provide the support for the location transparency of the resources. The RPC system requires providing support for: (1) discovery, semantic understanding, secure access and transport mechanisms for data products available from the known data provides; (2) data assimilation and geo- processing tools for all data transformations needed to match given data products to the model input requirements; (3) model management including catalogs of models and model metadata, and mechanisms for creation environments for model execution; and (4) tools for model output analysis and model benchmarking. The challenge involves developing a cyberinfrastructure for a coordinated aggregate of software, hardware and other technologies, necessary to facilitate RPC experiments, as well as human expertise to provide an integrated, "end-to-end" platform to support the RPC objectives. Such aggregation is to be achieved through a horizontal integration of loosely coupled services. The cyberinfrastructure comprises several software layers. At the bottom, the Grid fabric encompasses network protocols, optical networks, computational resources, storage devices, and sensors. At the top, applications use workload managers to coordinate their access to physical resources. Applications are not tightly bounded to a single physical resource. Instead, they bind dynamically to resources (i.e., they are provisioned) via a common grid infrastructure layer. For the RPC system, the

  12. Rapid prototyping: practical approach to enabling reverse engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onuh, Spencer; Bennett, Nick; Baker, Jim

    2001-10-01

    It has been reported that Rapid Prototyping (RP) is one of the enablers of Reverse Engineering (RE). Two separate studies have been carried out to verify the degree of the activities of RP as an enabler of RE. These studies which, are both experimental and theoretical in nature, considered two different components that were reversed engineered using CMM, 3D-laser Scanner and ProEngineer CAD package for final model in Stereolithography system. This involves the redesigning of parts using the original component as a template to retrieve the dimensional information required to rebuild the component on a Computer Aided Design (CAD) based program before the alterations can be made to improve it. The main area of studies is concerned with the interlinking of the two processes stated above. More accurately the computer data transfer of the dimensions of the component straight from the CMM or laser scanning machine on to the CAD based program considered, ProEngineer was used for this application. This would produce the model directly from the data transfer without any necessary physical drawing onto ProEngineer. The model production is generated at a considerable speed at minimal cost to ensure the components suitability for its specific use, giving the designer a physical model of the part. The purpose of doing this is to find a way of transferring data from the CMM or Laser Scanner to the RP system without the use of any other software and to cut down on the time and cost of Product development cycle. In this study these have been achieved.

  13. Rapid prototyping for patient-specific surgical orthopaedics guides: A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Diana; Laptoiu, Dan

    2016-06-01

    There has been a lot of hype surrounding the advantages to be gained from rapid prototyping processes in a number of fields, including medicine. Our literature review aims objectively to assess how effective patient-specific surgical guides manufactured using rapid prototyping are in a number of orthopaedic surgical applications. To this end, we carried out a systematic review to identify and analyse clinical and experimental literature studies in which rapid prototyping patient-specific surgical guides are used, focusing especially on those that entail quantifiable outcomes and, at the same time, providing details on the guides' design and type of manufacturing process. Here, it should be mentioned that in this field there are not yet medium- or long-term data, and no information on revisions. In the reviewed studies, the reported positive opinions on the use of rapid prototyping patient-specific surgical guides relate to the following main advantages: reduction in operating times, low costs and improvements in the accuracy of surgical interventions thanks to guides' personalisation. However, disadvantages and sources of errors which can cause patient-specific surgical guide failures are as well discussed by authors. Stereolithography is the main rapid prototyping process employed in these applications although fused deposition modelling or selective laser sintering processes can also satisfy the requirements of these applications in terms of material properties, manufacturing accuracy and construction time. Another of our findings was that individualised drill guides for spinal surgery are currently the favourite candidates for manufacture using rapid prototyping. Other emerging applications relate to complex orthopaedic surgery of the extremities: the forearm and foot. Several procedures such as osteotomies for radius malunions or tarsal coalition could become standard, thanks to the significant assistance provided by rapid prototyping patient-specific surgical

  14. NASA Applied Sciences Program Rapid Prototyping Results and Conclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, E. L.

    2007-12-01

    NASA's Applied Sciences Program seeks to expand the use of Earth science research results to benefit current and future operational systems tasked with making policy and management decisions. The Earth Science Division within the Science Mission Directorate sponsors over 1000 research projects annually to answer the fundamental research question: How is the Earth changing and what are the consequences for life on Earth? As research results become available, largely from satellite observations and Earth system model outputs, the Applied Sciences Program works diligently with scientists and researchers (internal and external to NASA) , and other government agency officials (USDA, EPA, CDC, DOE, US Forest Service, US Fish and Wildlife Service, DHS, USAID) to determine useful applications for these results in decision-making, ultimately benefiting society. The complexity of Earth science research results and the breadth of the Applied Sciences Program national priority areas dictate a broad scope and multiple approaches available to implement their use in decision-making. Over the past five years, the Applied Sciences Program has examined scientific and engineering practices and solicited the community for methods and steps that can lead to the enhancement of operational systems (Decision Support Systems - DSS) required for decision-making. In November 2006, the Applied Sciences Program launched an initiative aimed at demonstrating the applicability of NASA data (satellite observations, models, geophysical parameters from data archive centers) being incorporated into decision support systems and their related environments at a low cost and quick turnaround of results., i.e. designed rapid prototyping. Conceptually, an understanding of Earth science research (and results) coupled with decision-making requirements and needs leads to a demonstration (experiment) depicting enhancements or improvements to an operational decisions process through the use of NASA data. Five

  15. Optimizing the Zilog Z8 FORTH microcontroller for rapid prototyping

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, R.

    1987-09-01

    This report presents techniques for modifying and extending Zilog Z8 FORTH microcontroller system software to improve its suitability for rapid prototyping, an increasingly popular method of developing new products and services. Rapid prototyping requires special product development methods and tools because it often mandates short term, radical changes in the concept being developed. Use of a high-performance, easily adaptable microcontroller can greatly facilitate a laboratory evaluation of Smart House product prototypes. Such a device can meet numerous sensing and testing needs, including the important function of simulating the operation of Smart House components associated with the one being tested. The techniques described in this report improve Z8 execution rates up to 300% by replacing selected parts of the vendor-supplied FORTH software with routines optimized for speed rather than program size. Also, the report shows how to exploit an unusual Z8 FORTH system feature to simulate a multitasking environment (concurrent execution of several tasks). This information is provided to project participants to help them select development and test equipment for Smart House products. The material is technical in nature and assumes considerable experience in microcontroller technology and microcomputer programming. 6 refs.

  16. Rapid prototyping of extrusion dies using layer-based techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Misiolek, W.Z.; Winther, K.T.; Prats, A.E.; Rock, S.J.

    1999-02-01

    Extrusion die design and development often requires significant craftsman skill and iterative improvement to arrive at a production-ready die geometry. Constructing the dies used during this iterative process from layers, rather than from one solid block of material, offers unique opportunities to improve die development efficiency when coupled with concepts drawn from the rapid prototyping field. This article presents a proof-of-concept illustrating the potential utility of layer-based extrusion dies for the die design and fabrication process. The major benefits include greater flexibility in the design process, a more efficient, automated fabrication technique, and a means for performing localized die modifications and repairs.

  17. Uranus: a rapid prototyping tool for FPGA embedded computer vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosales-Hernández, Victor; Castillo-Jimenez, Liz; Viveros-Velez, Gilberto; Zuñiga-Grajeda, Virgilio; Treviño Torres, Abel; Arias-Estrada, M.

    2007-01-01

    The starting point for all successful system development is the simulation. Performing high level simulation of a system can help to identify, insolate and fix design problems. This work presents Uranus, a software tool for simulation and evaluation of image processing algorithms with support to migrate them to an FPGA environment for algorithm acceleration and embedded processes purposes. The tool includes an integrated library of previous coded operators in software and provides the necessary support to read and display image sequences as well as video files. The user can use the previous compiled soft-operators in a high level process chain, and code his own operators. Additional to the prototyping tool, Uranus offers FPGA-based hardware architecture with the same organization as the software prototyping part. The hardware architecture contains a library of FPGA IP cores for image processing that are connected with a PowerPC based system. The Uranus environment is intended for rapid prototyping of machine vision and the migration to FPGA accelerator platform, and it is distributed for academic purposes.

  18. Extending NASA Research Results to Benefit Society: Rapid Prototyping for Coastal Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glorioso, Mark V.; Miller, Richard L.; Hall, Callie M.; McPherson, Terry R.

    2006-01-01

    The mission of the NASA Applied Sciences Program is to expand and accelerate the use of NASA research results to benefit society in 12 application areas of national priority. ONe of the program's major challenges is to perform a quick, efficient, and detailed review (i.e., prototyping) of the large number of combinations of NASA observations and results from Earth system models that may be used by a wide range of decision support tools. A Rapid Prototyping Capacity (RPC) is being developed to accelerate the use of NASA research results. Here, we present the conceptual framework of the Rapid Prototyping Capacity within the context of quickly assessing the efficacy of NASA research results and technologies to support the Coastal Management application. An initial RPC project designed to quickly evaluate the utility of moderate-resolution MODIS products for calibrating/validating coastal sediment transport models is also presented.

  19. Rapid Prototyping of Nanofluidic Slits in a Silicone Bilayer

    PubMed Central

    Kole, Thomas P.; Liao, Kuo-Tang; Schiffels, Daniel; Ilic, B. Robert; Strychalski, Elizabeth A.; Kralj, Jason G.; Liddle, J. Alexander; Dritschilo, Anatoly; Stavis, Samuel M.

    2015-01-01

    This article reports a process for rapidly prototyping nanofluidic devices, particularly those comprising slits with microscale widths and nanoscale depths, in silicone. This process consists of designing a nanofluidic device, fabricating a photomask, fabricating a device mold in epoxy photoresist, molding a device in silicone, cutting and punching a molded silicone device, bonding a silicone device to a glass substrate, and filling the device with aqueous solution. By using a bilayer of hard and soft silicone, we have formed and filled nanofluidic slits with depths of less than 400 nm and aspect ratios of width to depth exceeding 250 without collapse of the slits. An important attribute of this article is that the description of this rapid prototyping process is very comprehensive, presenting context and details which are highly relevant to the rational implementation and reliable repetition of the process. Moreover, this process makes use of equipment commonly found in nanofabrication facilities and research laboratories, facilitating the broad adaptation and application of the process. Therefore, while this article specifically informs users of the Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology (CNST) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), we anticipate that this information will be generally useful for the nanofabrication and nanofluidics research communities at large, and particularly useful for neophyte nanofabricators and nanofluidicists. PMID:26958449

  20. Rapid Prototyping of Nanofluidic Slits in a Silicone Bilayer.

    PubMed

    Kole, Thomas P; Liao, Kuo-Tang; Schiffels, Daniel; Ilic, B Robert; Strychalski, Elizabeth A; Kralj, Jason G; Liddle, J Alexander; Dritschilo, Anatoly; Stavis, Samuel M

    2015-01-01

    This article reports a process for rapidly prototyping nanofluidic devices, particularly those comprising slits with microscale widths and nanoscale depths, in silicone. This process consists of designing a nanofluidic device, fabricating a photomask, fabricating a device mold in epoxy photoresist, molding a device in silicone, cutting and punching a molded silicone device, bonding a silicone device to a glass substrate, and filling the device with aqueous solution. By using a bilayer of hard and soft silicone, we have formed and filled nanofluidic slits with depths of less than 400 nm and aspect ratios of width to depth exceeding 250 without collapse of the slits. An important attribute of this article is that the description of this rapid prototyping process is very comprehensive, presenting context and details which are highly relevant to the rational implementation and reliable repetition of the process. Moreover, this process makes use of equipment commonly found in nanofabrication facilities and research laboratories, facilitating the broad adaptation and application of the process. Therefore, while this article specifically informs users of the Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology (CNST) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), we anticipate that this information will be generally useful for the nanofabrication and nanofluidics research communities at large, and particularly useful for neophyte nanofabricators and nanofluidicists. PMID:26958449

  1. Producing a full-scale model from computed tomographic data with the rapid prototyping technique using the binder jet method: a comparison with the laser lithography method using a dry skull.

    PubMed

    Ono, I; Abe, K; Shiotani, S; Hirayama, Y

    2000-11-01

    Rapid prototyping using the binder jet method has recently been established and has already produced excellent results in industrial applications. The authors recently developed a technique for producing a full-scale model from computed tomographic (CT) data with the binder jet method as an approach to overcome the shortcomings of the laser lithography method, which is already widely used in medicine. They conducted a comparative investigation of full-scale models made with both techniques using a dry skull to determine the accuracy of the models. It was clearly demonstrated that the accuracy of the binder jet method was high enough to be used in craniomaxillofacial surgery because it was the same as the laser lithography method. This study employed data from the latest helical volume scan computed tomography device using a multidetector. The study showed that the new rapid prototyping technique was satisfactory in terms of speed, cost, installation environment, and accuracy of models, and that detailed shapes and structures can be reproduced well. Because this technique has many advantages over the laser lithography method, it should play a major role in craniomaxillofacial surgery and in other medical fields in combination with advances in CT devices. Although plaster is a more suitable fixation material when the emphasis is on the reproducibility of detailed structures, the binder jet method using starch is extremely useful for simulating operations and determining implant shapes because it allows for the prompt production of models. PMID:11314492

  2. Rapid development of auricular prosthesis using CAD and rapid prototyping technologies.

    PubMed

    Subburaj, K; Nair, C; Rajesh, S; Meshram, S M; Ravi, B

    2007-10-01

    External ear defects can be corrected by surgery, but this may not be feasible for personal or medical reasons. Reconstructive solutions are a good alternative, but rely on the artistry and availability of the anaplastologist. A semi-automated methodology using computer-aided design (CAD) and rapid prototyping (RP) technologies was developed for auricular prosthesis development, and demonstrated in a real-life case. The correct geometry and position of the prosthesis were ensured by stacking the computed tomography scan images of the contralateral normal ear in reverse order, and joining them using a medical modelling software program. The CAD model of the remnant portion of the defective ear was subtracted from the model of the mirrored contralateral ear, using a haptic CAD system, to obtain the final geometry of the prosthesis. Polymer models were fabricated in RP systems, and used for making a corresponding mould. Medical grade silicone rubber of the appropriate colour was packed into the mould to fabricate the final ear prosthesis and fitted to the deficient side of the patient using medical grade adhesive. The computer-aided methodology gave a high level of accuracy in terms of shape, size and position of the prosthesis, and a significantly shorter lead time compared to the conventional (manual) technique. PMID:17822875

  3. Application of Rapid Prototyping Methods to High-Speed Wind Tunnel Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springer, A. M.

    1998-01-01

    This study was undertaken in MSFC's 14-Inch Trisonic Wind Tunnel to determine if rapid prototyping methods could be used in the design and manufacturing of high speed wind tunnel models in direct testing applications, and if these methods would reduce model design/fabrication time and cost while providing models of high enough fidelity to provide adequate aerodynamic data, and of sufficient strength to survive the test environment. Rapid prototyping methods utilized to construct wind tunnel models in a wing-body-tail configuration were: fused deposition method using both ABS plastic and PEEK as building materials, stereolithography using the photopolymer SL-5170, selective laser sintering using glass reinforced nylon, and laminated object manufacturing using plastic reinforced with glass and 'paper'. This study revealed good agreement between the SLA model, the metal model with an FDM-ABS nose, an SLA nose, and the metal model for most operating conditions, while the FDM-ABS data diverged at higher loading conditions. Data from the initial SLS model showed poor agreement due to problems in post-processing, resulting in a different configuration. A second SLS model was tested and showed relatively good agreement. It can be concluded that rapid prototyping models show promise in preliminary aerodynamic development studies at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds.

  4. Rapid laser prototyping of valves for microfluidic autonomous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, M. I.; Abraham, E.; Y Desmulliez, M. P.

    2013-03-01

    Capillary forces in microfluidics provide a simple yet elegant means to direct liquids through flow channel networks. The ability to manipulate the flow in a truly automated manner has proven more problematic. The majority of valves require some form of flow control devices, which are manually, mechanically or electrically driven. Most demonstrated capillary systems have been manufactured by photolithography, which, despite its high precision and repeatability, can be labour intensive, requires a clean room environment and the use of fixed photomasks, limiting thereby the agility of the manufacturing process to readily examine alternative designs. In this paper, we describe a robust and rapid CO2 laser manufacturing process and demonstrate a range of capillary-driven microfluidic valve structures embedded within a microfluidic network. The manufacturing process described allows for advanced control and manipulation of fluids such that flow can be halted, triggered and delayed based on simple geometrical alterations to a given microchannel. The rapid prototyping methodology has been employed with PMMA substrates and a complete device has been created, ready for use, within 2-3 h. We believe that this agile manufacturing process can be applied to produce a range of complex autonomous fluidic platforms and allows subsequent designs to be rapidly explored.

  5. Micromachining Lithium Niobate for Rapid Prototyping of Resonant Biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdoon Al-Shibaany, Zeyad Yousif; Hedley, John; Huo, Dehong; Hu, Zhongxu

    2014-07-01

    Lithium niobate material is widely used in MEMS application due to its piezoelectric properties. This paper presents the micromachining process of lithium niobate to rapid prototype a resonant biosensor design. A high precision CNC machine was used to machine a sample of lithium niobate material at 5 different spindle speeds to find out the best conditions to machine this brittle material. A qualitative visual check of the surface was performed by using scanning electron microscopy, surface roughness was quantitatively investigated using an optical surface profiler and Raman spectroscopy to check the strain of the surface. Results show that the surface quality of the lithium niobate was significantly affected by the spindle speed with optimum conditions at 70k rpm giving a strained surface with 500 nm rms roughness.

  6. Advanced rapid prototyping by laser beam sintering of metal prototypes: design and development of an optimized laser beam delivery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiger, Manfred; Coremans, A.; Neubauer, Norbert; Niebling, F.

    1996-08-01

    Fast technological advances and steadily increasing severe worldwide competition force industry to respond all the time faster to new and chanced customer wishes. Some of the recently emerged processes, commonly referred to as 'rapid prototyping' (RP), have proved to be powerful tools for accelerating product and process development. Early approaches aimed at the automated production of plastic models. These techniques achieved industrial maturity extremely fast and are meanwhile established as standard utilities in the field of development/design processes. So far, their applicability to metal working industry was limited to design studies because the mechanical properties of the prototypes, e.g. modulus of elasticity and mechanical strength were not comparable to the final products they represented. Therefore, RP-processes aimed at the direct production of metallic prototypes gained more and more importance during recent years. A technique belonging to this group is manufacturing of prototypes by using a laser beam sintering machine capable of directly processing metal powders. This so called laser beam sintering process showed a great potential for direct manufacturing of functional tools and prototypes in early feasibility studies. Detailed examinations were performed at several research centers to determine the attainable quality of the parts concerning roughness, dimensional accuracy and mechanical strength. These examinations showed, that there still is a considerable demand for quality improvements of the previously mentioned parameters. The practical application and the potential for improvement of the geometrical accuracy of laser beam sintered parts by using a dual beam concept was proven. An innovative beam guiding and forming concept, similar to the previously mentioned patented beam guiding system, was developed and built with the goal to improve the process parameters governing mechanical properties as well as geometrical accuracy. Further reaching

  7. Modeling mechanical signals on the surface of µCT and CAD based rapid prototype scaffold models to predict (early stage) tissue development.

    PubMed

    Hendrikson, W J; van Blitterswijk, C A; Verdonschot, N; Moroni, L; Rouwkema, J

    2014-09-01

    In the field of tissue engineering, mechano-regulation theories have been applied to help predict tissue development in tissue engineering scaffolds in the past. For this, finite element models (FEMs) were used to predict the distribution of strains within a scaffold. However, the strains reported in these studies are volumetric strains of the material or strains developed in the extracellular matrix occupying the pore space. The initial phase of cell attachment and growth on the biomaterial surface has thus far been neglected. In this study, we present a model that determines the magnitude of biomechanical signals on the biomaterial surface, enabling us to predict cell differentiation stimulus values at this initial stage. Results showed that magnitudes of the 2D strain--termed surface strain--were lower when compared to the 3D volumetric strain or the conventional octahedral shear strain as used in current mechano-regulation theories. Results of both µCT and CAD derived FEMs from the same scaffold were compared. Strain and fluid shear stress distributions, and subsequently the cell differentiation stimulus, were highly dependent on the pore shape. CAD models were not able to capture the distributions seen in the µCT FEM. The calculated mechanical stimuli could be combined with current mechanobiological models resulting in a tool to predict cell differentiation in the initial phase of tissue engineering. Although experimental data is still necessary to properly link mechanical signals to cell behavior in this specific setting, this model is an important step towards optimizing scaffold architecture and/or stimulation regimes. PMID:24824318

  8. Performance of a Micro-UAV lifting system built with the usage of rapid prototyping methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalewski, R. T.; Gumowski, K.; Barczak, T.; Godek, J.

    2014-08-01

    This article presents results of the aerodynamic testing of a micro unmanned aerial vehicle rotor efficiency. The rotors were prepared as a set of two rotors in a counter-rotating ducted drive. Prototypes of the drives were made using two rapid prototyping techniques - FDM - fused deposition modelling method and SLS - selective laser sintering. Rotors were made then treated by introducing additional finishing cyanoacrylate coating and abrasive processing. Main differences between those models were observed in fan shape, porosity, surface roughness and mechanical properties - stiffness. An influence of these factors was observed on an aerodynamic efficiency. For the obtained prototypes both simulations and experimental testing were conducted with thrust, power, torque measurements, as well as the measurement of velocity and pressure distribution at the outlet of the duct. The results show the possibility of using rapid prototyping techniques to produce prototypes of drives operating in the low and medium Reynolds numbers (6000-60000), and the aerodynamic shape relevant factors affecting the preparation and performance of such drives. In addition, simulation studies were performed using the Fluent environment where experimental results were confronted with the results of simulation studies.

  9. Rapid Prototyping of Continuous Fiber Reinforced Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaidyanathan, R.; Green, C.; Phillips, T.; Cipriani, R.; Yarlagadda, S.; Gillespie, J. W., Jr.; Effinger, M.; Cooper, K. C.

    2003-01-01

    For ceramics to be used as structural components in high temperature applications, their fracture toughness is improved by embedding continuous ceramic fibers. Ceramic matrix composite (CMC) materials allow increasing the overall operating temperature, raising the temperature safety margins, avoiding the need for cooling, and improving the damping capacity, while reducing the weight at the same time. They also need to be reliable and available in large quantities as well. In this paper, an innovative rapid prototyping technique to fabricate continuous fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites is described. The process is simple, robust and will be widely applicable to a number of high temperature material systems. This technique was originally developed at the University of Delaware Center for Composite Materials (UD-CCM) for rapid fabrication of polymer matrix composites by a technique called automated tow placement or ATP. The results of mechanical properties and microstructural characterization are presented, together with examples of complex shapes and parts. It is believed that the process will be able to create complex shaped parts at an order of magnitude lower cost than current chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) and polymer impregnation and pyrolysis (PIP) processes.

  10. Rapid Prototyping of Continuous Fiber Reinforced Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaidyanathan, R.; Green, C.; Phillips, T.; Cipriani, R.; Yarlagadda, S.; Gillespie, J.; Effinger, M.; Cooper, K. C.; Gordon, Gail (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    For ceramics to be used as structural components in high temperature applications, their fracture toughness is improved by embedding continuous ceramic fibers. Ceramic matrix composite (CMC) materials allow increasing the overall operating temperature, raising the temperature safety margins, avoiding the need for cooling, and improving the damping capacity, while reducing the weight at the same time. They also need to be reliable and available in large quantities as well. In this paper, an innovative rapid prototyping technique to fabricate continuous fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites is described. The process is simple, robust and will be widely applicable to a number of high temperature material systems. This technique was originally developed at the University of Delaware Center for Composite Materials (UD-CCM) for rapid fabrication of polymer matrix composites by a technique called automated tow placement or ATP. The results of mechanical properties and microstructural characterization are presented, together with examples of complex shapes and parts. It is believed that the process will be able to create complex shaped parts at an order of magnitude lower cost than current CVI and PIP processes.

  11. An Example of Economic Value in Rapid Prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauer, R. L.; Braunscheidel, E. P.

    2001-01-01

    Today's modern machining projects are composed more and more of complicated and intricate structure due to a variety of reasons including the ability to computer model complex surfaces and forms. The cost of producing these forms can be extremely high not only in dollars but in time to complete. Changes are even more difficult to incorporate. The subject blade shown is an excellent example. Its complex form would have required hundreds of hours in fabrication for just a simple prototype. The procurement would have taken in the neighborhood of six weeks to complete. The actual fabrication would have been an equal amount of time to complete. An alternative to this process would have been a wood model. Although cheaper than a metal fabrication, it would be extremely time intensive and require in the neighborhood of a month to produce in-house.

  12. Preliminary work toward the development of a dimensional tolerance standard for rapid prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, W. J.

    1996-01-01

    Rapid prototyping is a new technology for building parts quickly from CAD models. It works by slicing a CAD model into layers, then by building a model of the part one layer at a time. Since most parts can be sliced, most parts can be modeled using rapid prototyping. The layers themselves are created in a number of different ways - by using a laser to cure a layer of an epoxy or a resin, by depositing a layer of plastic or wax upon a surface, by using a laser to sinter a layer of powder, or by using a laser to cut a layer of paper. Rapid prototyping (RP) is new, and a standard part for use in comparing dimensional tolerances has not yet been chosen and accepted by ASTM (the American Society for Testing Materials). Such a part is needed when RP is used to build parts for investment casting or for direct use. The objective of this project was to start the development of a standard part by using statistical techniques to choose the features of the part which show curl - the vertical deviation of a part from its intended horizontal plane.

  13. Rapid Prototyping Technology in Orbital Floor Reconstruction: Application in Three Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Christopher G. T.; Campbell, Duncan I.; Clucas, Don M.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid prototyping entails the fabrication of three-dimensional anatomical models which provide an accurate and cost-effective method to visualize complex anatomical structures. Our unit has been using this to assist in the diagnosis, planning, and preoperative titanium plate adaptation for orbital reconstruction surgery following traumatic injury. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the potential clinical and cost-saving benefits of this technology. PMID:25050149

  14. Risk D&D Rapid Prototype: Scenario Documentation and Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Unwin, Stephen D.; Seiple, Timothy E.

    2009-05-28

    Report describes process and methodology associated with a rapid prototype tool for integrating project risk analysis and health & safety risk analysis for decontamination and decommissioning projects.

  15. Rapid prototyping for radio-frequency geolocation applications

    SciTech Connect

    Briles, S. C.; Arrowood, J. L.; Braun, T. R.; Turcotte, D.; Fiset, E.

    2004-01-01

    Previous space-to-ground, single-platform geolocation experiments exploiting time-difference-of arrival (TDOA) via interferometry were successful at separating and quantitatively characterizing interfering radio frequency (RF) signals from expected RF transmissions. Much of the success of these experiments rested on the use of embedded processors to perform the required signal processing. The experiments handled data in a 'snapshot' fashion: digitized data was collected, the data was processed via a digital signal processing (DSP) microprocessor to yield differential phase measurements, and these measurements were transmitted to the Earth for geolocation processing. With the utilization of FPGAs (field programmable gate arrays) for the intensive number-crunching algorithms, the processing of streaming real-time data is feasible for bandwidths on the order of 20 MHz. By partitioning the signal processing algorithm so there is a significant reduction in the data rate as data flows through the FPGA, a DSP microprocessor can now be employed to perform further decision-oriented processing on the FPGA output. This hybrid architecture, employing both FPGAs and DSPs, typically requires an expensive and lengthy development cycle. However, the use of graphical development environments with auto-code generation and hardware-in-the-loop testing can result in rapid prototyping for geolocation experiments, which enables adaptation to emerging signals of interest in a cost and time effective manner.

  16. Inorganic polymers: morphogenic inorganic biopolymers for rapid prototyping chain.

    PubMed

    Müller, Werner E G; Schröder, Heinz C; Shen, Zhijian; Feng, Qingling; Wang, Xiaohong

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, considerable progress has been achieved towards the development of customized scaffold materials, in particular for bone tissue engineering and repair, by the introduction of rapid prototyping or solid freeform fabrication techniques. These new fabrication techniques allow to overcome many problems associated with conventional bone implants, such as inadequate external morphology and internal architecture, porosity and interconnectivity, and low reproducibility. However, the applicability of these new techniques is still hampered by the fact that high processing temperature or a postsintering is often required to increase the mechanical stability of the generated scaffold, as well as a post-processing, i.e., surface modification/functionalization to enhance the biocompatibility of the scaffold or to bind some bioactive component. A solution might be provided by the introduction of novel inorganic biopolymers, biosilica and polyphosphate, which resist harsh conditions applied in the RP chain and are morphogenetically active and do not need supplementation by growth factors/cytokines to stimulate the growth and the differentiation of bone-forming cells. PMID:24420716

  17. Polymeric rapid prototyping for inexpensive and portable medical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Tianchi; Northrup, Victoria; Fung, Andrew O.; Glerum, D. Moira; Backhouse, Christopher J.

    2012-10-01

    The advent of inexpensive CO2 laser systems has led to a wide range of demonstrations of microfabricated lab on chip systems built of acrylic. However, there has been little application of these systems to building microfluidics for DNA analysis. In this work we explore the use of CO2 laser systems for building microfluidics for DNA analysis and relate the artifacts of the fabrication technology to the performance of the system. We show that surface roughness that leads to significant constrictions in the separation channel provides an upper limit of the size of DNA that can be analysed. Below that upper limit, the resolution of the chip is strongly affected by the degree to which the separation channel is exposed to redeposited by-products of the ablation process. We show that by controlling these effects we are reliably able to discern two types of PCR product as a test representative of a real application. By being able to do this is in microfluidic devices the size of a postage stamp we have shown that we can now use CO2 laser systems for the development of extremely inexpensive diagnostic systems using a rapid prototyping approach.

  18. Rapid prototyping of biomimetic vascular phantoms for hyperspectral reflectance imaging.

    PubMed

    Ghassemi, Pejhman; Wang, Jianting; Melchiorri, Anthony J; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C; Mathews, Scott A; Coburn, James C; Sorg, Brian S; Chen, Yu; Pfefer, T Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The emerging technique of rapid prototyping with three-dimensional (3-D) printers provides a simple yet revolutionary method for fabricating objects with arbitrary geometry. The use of 3-D printing for generating morphologically biomimetic tissue phantoms based on medical images represents a potentially major advance over existing phantom approaches. Toward the goal of image-defined phantoms, we converted a segmented fundus image of the human retina into a matrix format and edited it to achieve a geometry suitable for printing. Phantoms with vessel-simulating channels were then printed using a photoreactive resin providing biologically relevant turbidity, as determined by spectrophotometry. The morphology of printed vessels was validated by x-ray microcomputed tomography. Channels were filled with hemoglobin (Hb) solutions undergoing desaturation, and phantoms were imaged with a near-infrared hyperspectral reflectance imaging system. Additionally, a phantom was printed incorporating two disjoint vascular networks at different depths, each filled with Hb solutions at different saturation levels. Light propagation effects noted during these measurements—including the influence of vessel density and depth on Hb concentration and saturation estimates, and the effect of wavelength on vessel visualization depth—were evaluated. Overall, our findings indicated that 3-D-printed biomimetic phantoms hold significant potential as realistic and practical tools for elucidating light–tissue interactions and characterizing biophotonic system performance. PMID:26662064

  19. Rapid prototyping of biomimetic vascular phantoms for hyperspectral reflectance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghassemi, Pejhman; Wang, Jianting; Melchiorri, Anthony J.; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.; Mathews, Scott A.; Coburn, James C.; Sorg, Brian S.; Chen, Yu; Joshua Pfefer, T.

    2015-12-01

    The emerging technique of rapid prototyping with three-dimensional (3-D) printers provides a simple yet revolutionary method for fabricating objects with arbitrary geometry. The use of 3-D printing for generating morphologically biomimetic tissue phantoms based on medical images represents a potentially major advance over existing phantom approaches. Toward the goal of image-defined phantoms, we converted a segmented fundus image of the human retina into a matrix format and edited it to achieve a geometry suitable for printing. Phantoms with vessel-simulating channels were then printed using a photoreactive resin providing biologically relevant turbidity, as determined by spectrophotometry. The morphology of printed vessels was validated by x-ray microcomputed tomography. Channels were filled with hemoglobin (Hb) solutions undergoing desaturation, and phantoms were imaged with a near-infrared hyperspectral reflectance imaging system. Additionally, a phantom was printed incorporating two disjoint vascular networks at different depths, each filled with Hb solutions at different saturation levels. Light propagation effects noted during these measurements-including the influence of vessel density and depth on Hb concentration and saturation estimates, and the effect of wavelength on vessel visualization depth-were evaluated. Overall, our findings indicated that 3-D-printed biomimetic phantoms hold significant potential as realistic and practical tools for elucidating light-tissue interactions and characterizing biophotonic system performance.

  20. Integrated flexible manufacturing program for manufacturing automation and rapid prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, S. L.; Brown, C. W.; King, M. S.; Simons, W. R.; Zimmerman, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    The Kansas City Division of Allied Signal Inc., as part of the Integrated Flexible Manufacturing Program (IFMP), is developing an integrated manufacturing environment. Several systems are being developed to produce standards and automation tools for specific activities within the manufacturing environment. The Advanced Manufacturing Development System (AMDS) is concentrating on information standards (STEP) and product data transfer; the Expert Cut Planner system (XCUT) is concentrating on machining operation process planning standards and automation capabilities; the Advanced Numerical Control system (ANC) is concentrating on NC data preparation standards and NC data generation tools; the Inspection Planning and Programming Expert system (IPPEX) is concentrating on inspection process planning, coordinate measuring machine (CMM) inspection standards and CMM part program generation tools; and the Intelligent Scheduling and Planning System (ISAPS) is concentrating on planning and scheduling tools for a flexible manufacturing system environment. All of these projects are working together to address information exchange, standardization, and information sharing to support rapid prototyping in a Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) environment.

  1. Numerical and experimental investigation of molten metal droplet deposition applied to rapid prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, SuLi; Wei, ZhengYing; Du, Jun; Zhao, Guangxi; Wang, Xin; Lu, BingHeng

    2016-08-01

    Rapid prototyping based on molten metal droplets deposition is an additive process in which parts are produced from molten materials in a single operation without the use of any mold or other tooling. Near-net shaped parts are fabricated by sequentially depositing molten droplets layer by layer. This paper presents a systematic numerical and experimental investigation of the transient transport phenomenon during the droplets impinging onto a substrate surface. The 3D models based on a volume of fluid (VOF) method were developed to investigate the deposition of molten metal droplets on a horizontally aluminum substrate surface. Based on the above research, a semiquantitative relationship between external morphology and internal microstructure was proposed, which was further certified by investigating the piled vertical columns and the three-dimensional parts. The works should be helpful for the process optimization and non-destructive detection of drop-based rapid prototyping techniques.

  2. Rapid optimization and prototyping for therapeutic antibody-like molecules.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lihui; Kohli, Neeraj; Rennard, Rachel; Jiao, Yang; Razlog, Maja; Zhang, Kathy; Baum, Jason; Johnson, Bryan; Tang, Jian; Schoeberl, Birgit; Fitzgerald, Jonathan; Nielsen, Ulrik; Lugovskoy, Alexey A

    2013-01-01

    Multispecific antibody-like molecules have the potential to advance the standard-of-care in many human diseases. The design of therapeutic molecules in this class, however, has proven to be difficult and, despite significant successes in preclinical research, only one trivalent antibody, catumaxomab, has demonstrated clinical utility. The challenge originates from the complexity of the design space where multiple parameters such as affinity, avidity, effector functions, and pharmaceutical properties need to be engineered in concurrent fashion to achieve the desired therapeutic efficacy. Here, we present a rapid prototyping approach that allows us to successfully optimize these parameters within one campaign cycle that includes modular design, yeast display of structure focused antibody libraries and high throughput biophysical profiling. We delineate this approach by presenting a design case study of MM-141, a tetravalent bispecific antibody targeting two compensatory signaling growth factor receptors: insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) and v-erb-b2 erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 3 (ErbB3). A MM-141 proof-of-concept (POC) parent molecule did not meet initial design criteria due to modest bioactivity and poor stability properties. Using a combination of yeast display, structured-guided antibody design and library-scale thermal challenge assay, we discovered a diverse set of stable and active anti-IGF-1R and anti-ErbB3 single-chain variable fragments (scFvs). These optimized modules were reformatted to create a diverse set of full-length tetravalent bispecific antibodies. These re-engineered molecules achieved complete blockade of growth factor induced pro-survival signaling, were stable in serum, and had adequate activity and pharmaceutical properties for clinical development. We believe this approach can be readily applied to the optimization of other classes of bispecific or even multispecific antibody-like molecules. PMID:23392215

  3. An application generator for rapid prototyping of Ada real-time control software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Jim; Biglari, Haik; Lehman, Larry

    1990-01-01

    The need to increase engineering productivity and decrease software life cycle costs in real-time system development establishes a motivation for a method of rapid prototyping. The design by iterative rapid prototyping technique is described. A tool which facilitates such a design methodology for the generation of embedded control software is described.

  4. Modeling rapidly rotating stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieutord, M.

    2006-06-01

    We review the quest of modeling rapidly rotating stars during the past 40 years and detail the challenges to be taken up by models facing new data from interferometry, seismology, spectroscopy... We then present the progress of the ESTER project aimed at giving a physically self-consistent model for the structure and evolution of rapidly rotating stars.

  5. Concept of using a benchmark part to evaluate rapid prototype processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cariapa, Vikram

    1994-01-01

    A conceptual benchmark part for guiding manufacturers and users of rapid prototyping technologies is proposed. This is based on a need to have some tool to evaluate the development of this technology and to assist the user in judiciously selecting a process. The benchmark part is designed to have unique product details and features. The extent to which a rapid prototyping process can reproduce these features becomes a measure of the capability of the process. Since rapid prototyping is a dynamic technology, this benchmark part should be used to continuously monitor process capability of existing and developing technologies. Development of this benchmark part is, therefore, based on an understanding of the properties required from prototypes and characteristics of various rapid prototyping processes and measuring equipment that is used for evaluation.

  6. A pilot biomedical engineering course in rapid prototyping for mobile health.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Todd H; Venugopalan, Janani; Hubbard, Elena N; Wang, May D

    2013-01-01

    Rapid prototyping of medically assistive mobile devices promises to fuel innovation and provides opportunity for hands-on engineering training in biomedical engineering curricula. This paper presents the design and outcomes of a course offered during a 16-week semester in Fall 2011 with 11 students enrolled. The syllabus covered a mobile health design process from end-to-end, including storyboarding, non-functional prototypes, integrated circuit programming, 3D modeling, 3D printing, cloud computing database programming, and developing patient engagement through animated videos describing the benefits of a new device. Most technologies presented in this class are open source and thus provide unlimited "hackability". They are also cost-effective and easily transferrable to other departments. PMID:24110238

  7. On the Application of Rapid Prototyping Technology for the Fabrication of Flapping Wings for Micro Air Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraemer, Kurtis Leigh

    Micro air vehicles (MAV) are a class of small uninhabited aircraft with dimensions less than 15 cm (6 in) and mass less than 500g (1.1 lbs). The aim of this research was to develop a fast, accurate, low-cost, and repeatable fabrication process for flapping MAV wings. Through the use of the RepRap Mendel open-source fused-deposition modeling (FDM) rapid prototyping machine ("3-D printer"), various wing prototypes were designed and fabricated using a bio-inspired approach. Testing of the aerodynamic performance of both real locust wings and the 3-D printed wing prototypes was performed through axial spin testing. Bending stiffness measurements were also performed on the 3-D printed wings. Through the use of open-source rapid prototyping technology, a fast and low-cost fabrication process for flapping MAV wings has been developed, out of which further understanding of flapping wing design and fabrication has been gained.

  8. Rapid Prototyping Technologies and their Applications in Prosthodontics, a Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Torabi, Kianoosh; Farjood, Ehsan; Hamedani, Shahram

    2015-03-01

    The early computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems were relied exclusively on subtractive methods. In recent years, additive methods by employing rapid prototyping (RP) have progressed rapidly in various fields of dentistry as they have the potential to overcome known drawbacks of subtractive techniques such as fit problems. RP techniques have been exploited to build complex 3D models in medicine since the 1990s. RP has recently proposed successful applications in various dental fields, such as fabrication of implant surgical guides, frameworks for fixed and removable partial dentures, wax patterns for the dental prosthesis, zirconia prosthesis and molds for metal castings, and maxillofacial prosthesis and finally, complete dentures. This paper aimed to offer a comprehensive literature review of various RP methods, particularly in dentistry, that are expected to bring many improvements to the field. A search was made through MEDLINE database and Google scholar search engine. The keywords; 'rapid prototyping' and 'dentistry' were searched in title/abstract of publications; limited to 2003 to 2013, concerning past decade. The inclusion criterion was the technical researches that predominately included laboratory procedures. The exclusion criterion was meticulous clinical and excessive technical procedures. A total of 106 articles were retrieved, recited by authors and only 50 met the specified inclusion criteria for this review. Selected articles had used rapid prototyping techniques in various fields in dentistry through different techniques. This review depicted the different laboratory procedures employed in this method and confirmed that RP technique have been substantially feasible in dentistry. With advancement in various RP systems, it is possible to benefit from this technique in different dental practices, particularly in implementing dental prostheses for different applications. PMID:25759851

  9. Novel Applications of Rapid Prototyping in Gamma-ray and X-ray Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Brian W.; Moore, Jared W.; Gehm, Michael E.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Barrett, Harrison H.

    2010-01-01

    Advances in 3D rapid-prototyping printers, 3D modeling software, and casting techniques allow for the fabrication of cost-effective, custom components in gamma-ray and x-ray imaging systems. Applications extend to new fabrication methods for custom collimators, pinholes, calibration and resolution phantoms, mounting and shielding components, and imaging apertures. Details of the fabrication process for these components are presented, specifically the 3D printing process, cold casting with a tungsten epoxy, and lost-wax casting in platinum. PMID:22984341

  10. Rapid prototyping of electrochemical lateral flow devices: stencilled electrodes.

    PubMed

    Aller Pellitero, Miguel; Kitsara, Maria; Eibensteiner, Friedrich; del Campo, F Javier

    2016-04-21

    A straightforward and very cost effective method is proposed to prototype electrodes using pressure sensitive adhesives (PSA) and a simple cutting technique. Two cutting methods, namely blade cutting and CO2 laser ablation, are compared and their respective merits are discussed. The proposed method consists of turning the protective liner on the adhesive into a stencil to apply screen-printing pastes. After the electrodes have been printed, the liner is removed and the PSA can be used as a backing material for standard lateral flow membranes. We present the fabrication of band electrodes down to 250 μm wide, and their characterization using microscopy techniques and cyclic voltammetry. The prototyping approach presented here facilitates the development of new electrochemical devices even if very limited fabrication resources are available. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of a simple lateral-flow device capable of determining glucose in blood. The prototyping approach presented here is highly suitable for the development of novel electroanalytical tools. PMID:26998899

  11. Creation of bioactive glass (13-93) scaffolds for structural bone repair using a combined finite element modeling and rapid prototyping approach.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wei; Zaeem, Mohsen Asle; Bal, B Sonny; Rahaman, Mohamed N

    2016-11-01

    There is a clinical need for synthetic bioactive materials that can reliably repair intercalary skeletal tissue loss in load-bearing bones. Bioactive glasses have been investigated as one such material but their mechanical response has been a concern. Previously, we created bioactive silicate glass (13-93) scaffolds with a uniform grid-like microstructure which showed a compressive strength comparable to human cortical bone but a much lower flexural strength. In the present study, finite element modeling (FEM) was used to re-design the scaffold microstructure to improve its flexural strength without significantly lowering its compressive strength and ability to support bone infiltration in vivo. Then scaffolds with the requisite microstructures were created by a robotic deposition method and tested in four-point bending and compression to validate the FEM simulations. In general, the data validated the predictions of the FEM simulations. Scaffolds with a porosity gradient, composed of a less porous outer region and a more porous inner region, showed a flexural strength (34±5MPa) that was more than twice the value for the uniform grid-like microstructure (15±5MPa) and a higher compressive strength (88±20MPa) than the grid-like microstructure (72±10MPa). Upon implantation of the scaffolds for 12weeks in rat calvarial defects in vivo, the amount of new bone that infiltrated the pore space of the scaffolds with the porosity gradient (37±16%) was similar to that for the grid-like scaffolds (35±6%). These scaffolds with a porosity gradient that better mimics the microstructure of human long bone could provide more reliable implants for structural bone repair. PMID:27524065

  12. Object-oriented framework for rapid game prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passos, Alexandre; Simpson, Richard P.

    2002-05-01

    Small game development groups and companies are faced with two important challenges in today's economy: creating a good game prototype as showcase for game publishers and meeting the time to market deadlines. These two challenges are sometimes the factors that will separate a successful group from one that is not. The learning curve in design and implementation is a significant component of these two challenges. If the learning curve is too steep then deadlines may not be met and the overall quality of the software is lowered. This study presents a new game- programming library called PGL that addresses the timing and learning factors that exist in game development.

  13. Deposition, patterning, and utility of conductive materials for the rapid prototyping of chemical and bioanalytical devices.

    PubMed

    Gabardo, C M; Soleymani, L

    2016-06-21

    Rapid prototyping is a critical step in the product development cycle of miniaturized chemical and bioanalytical devices, often categorized as lab-on-a-chip devices, biosensors, and micro-total analysis systems. While high throughput manufacturing methods are often preferred for large-volume production, rapid prototyping is necessary for demonstrating and predicting the performance of a device and performing field testing and validation before translating a product from research and development to large volume production. Choosing a specific rapid prototyping method involves considering device design requirements in terms of minimum feature sizes, mechanical stability, thermal and chemical resistance, and optical and electrical properties. A rapid prototyping method is then selected by making engineering trade-off decisions between the suitability of the method in meeting the design specifications and manufacturing metrics such as speed, cost, precision, and potential for scale up. In this review article, we review four categories of rapid prototyping methods that are applicable to developing miniaturized bioanalytical devices, single step, mask and deposit, mask and etch, and mask-free assembly, and we will focus on the trade-offs that need to be made when selecting a particular rapid prototyping method. The focus of the review article will be on the development of systems having a specific arrangement of conductive or semiconductive materials. PMID:27001624

  14. The development of an autonomous rendezvous and docking simulation using rapid integration and prototyping technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shackelford, John H.; Saugen, John D.; Wurst, Michael J.; Adler, James

    1991-01-01

    A generic planar 3 degree of freedom simulation was developed that supports hardware in the loop simulations, guidance and control analysis, and can directly generate flight software. This simulation was developed in a small amount of time utilizing rapid prototyping techniques. The approach taken to develop this simulation tool, the benefits seen using this approach to development, and on-going efforts to improve and extend this capability are described. The simulation is composed of 3 major elements: (1) Docker dynamics model, (2) Dockee dynamics model, and (3) Docker Control System. The docker and dockee models are based on simple planar orbital dynamics equations using a spherical earth gravity model. The docker control system is based on a phase plane approach to error correction.

  15. Rapid and cheap prototyping of a microfluidic cell sorter.

    PubMed

    Islam, M Z; McMullin, J N; Tsui, Y Y

    2011-05-01

    Development of a microfluidic device is generally based on fabrication-design-fabrication loop, as, unlike the microelectronics design, there is no rigorous simulation-based verification of the chip before fabrication. This usually results in extremely long, and hence expensive, product development cycle if micro/nano fabrication facilities are used from the beginning of the cycle. Here, we illustrate a novel approach of device prototyping that is fast, cheap, reliable, and most importantly, this technique can be adopted even if no state-of-the-art microfabrication facility is available. A water-jet machine is used to cut the desired microfluidic channels into a thin steel plate which is then used as a template to cut the channels into a thin sheet of a transparent and cheap polymer material named Surlyn® by using a Hot Knife™. The feature-inscribed Surlyn sheet is bonded in between two microscope glass slides by utilizing the techniques which has been being used in curing polymer film between dual layer automotive glasses for years. Optical fibers are inserted from the sides of chip and are bonded by UV epoxy. To study the applicability of this prototyping approach, we made a basic microfluidic sorter and tested its functionalities. Sample containing microparticles is injected into the chip. Light from a 532-nm diode laser is coupled into the optical fiber that delivers light to the interrogation region in the channel. The emitted light from the particle is collected by a photodiode (PD) placed over the detection window. The device sorts the particles into the sorted or waste outlets depending on the level of the PD signal. We used fluorescent latex beads to test the detection and sorting functionalities of the device. We found that the system could detect all the beads that passed through its geometric observation region and could sort almost all the beads it detected. PMID:21491584

  16. A novel 3D template for mandible and maxilla reconstruction: Rapid prototyping using stereolithography

    PubMed Central

    Kumta, Samir; Kumta, Monica; Jain, Leena; Purohit, Shrirang; Ummul, Rani

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Replication of the exact three-dimensional (3D) structure of the maxilla and mandible is now a priority whilst attempting reconstruction of these bones to attain a complete functional and aesthetic rehabilitation. We hereby present the process of rapid prototyping using stereolithography to produce templates for modelling bone grafts and implants for maxilla/mandible reconstructions, its applications in tumour/trauma, and outcomes for primary and secondary reconstruction. Materials and Methods: Stereolithographic template-assisted reconstruction was used on 11 patients for the reconstruction of the mandible/maxilla primarily following tumour excision and secondarily for the realignment of post-traumatic malunited fractures or deformity corrections. Data obtained from the computed tomography (CT) scans with 1-mm resolution were converted into a computer-aided design (CAD) using the CT Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) data. Once a CAD model was constructed, it was converted into a stereolithographic format and then processed by the rapid prototyping technology to produce the physical anatomical model using a resin. This resin model replicates the native mandible, which can be thus used off table as a guide for modelling the bone grafts. Discussion: This conversion of two-dimensional (2D) data from CT scan into 3D models is a very precise guide to shaping the bone grafts. Further, this CAD can reconstruct the defective half of the mandible using the mirror image principle, and the normal anatomical model can be created to aid secondary reconstructions. Conclusion: This novel approach allows a precise translation of the treatment plan directly to the surgical field. It is also an important teaching tool for implant moulding and fixation, and helps in patient counselling. PMID:26933279

  17. Rapid Prototyping Technologies and their Applications in Prosthodontics, a Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Torabi, Kianoosh; Farjood, Ehsan; Hamedani, Shahram

    2015-01-01

    The early computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems were relied exclusively on subtractive methods. In recent years, additive methods by employing rapid prototyping (RP) have progressed rapidly in various fields of dentistry as they have the potential to overcome known drawbacks of subtractive techniques such as fit problems. RP techniques have been exploited to build complex 3D models in medicine since the 1990s. RP has recently proposed successful applications in various dental fields, such as fabrication of implant surgical guides, frameworks for fixed and removable partial dentures, wax patterns for the dental prosthesis, zirconia prosthesis and molds for metal castings, and maxillofacial prosthesis and finally, complete dentures. This paper aimed to offer a comprehensive literature review of various RP methods, particularly in dentistry, that are expected to bring many improvements to the field. A search was made through MEDLINE database and Google scholar search engine. The keywords; ‘rapid prototyping’ and ‘dentistry’ were searched in title/abstract of publications; limited to 2003 to 2013, concerning past decade. The inclusion criterion was the technical researches that predominately included laboratory procedures. The exclusion criterion was meticulous clinical and excessive technical procedures. A total of 106 articles were retrieved, recited by authors and only 50 met the specified inclusion criteria for this review. Selected articles had used rapid prototyping techniques in various fields in dentistry through different techniques. This review depicted the different laboratory procedures employed in this method and confirmed that RP technique have been substantially feasible in dentistry. With advancement in various RP systems, it is possible to benefit from this technique in different dental practices, particularly in implementing dental prostheses for different applications. PMID:25759851

  18. Rapid prototyping of multiphase microfluidics with robotic cutters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zidong; Zhao, Zhengtuo; Lo, Joe Fu-jiou

    2014-03-01

    Microfluidic devices offer novel techniques to address biological and biomedical issues. Standard microfluidic fabrication uses photolithography to pattern channels on silicon wafers with high resolution. Even the relatively straightforward SU8 and soft lithography in microfluidics require investing and training in photolithography, which is also time consuming due to complicated thick resist procedures, including sensitive substrate pretreatment, coating, soft bake, expose, post-exposure bake, and developing steps. However, for applications where low resolution (>200 μm) and high turn-around (> 4 designs/day) prototyping are met with little or no lithography infrastructure, robotic cutters [1] offer flexible options for making glass and PDMS microfluidics. We describe the use of robotics cutters for designing microfluidic geometries, and compliment it with safe glass etching, with depths down to 60 μm. Soft lithography patterning of 200 μm thick PDMS membrane was also explored. Without high equipment investment and lengthy student training, both glass and PDMS microfluidics can be achieved in small facilities using this technique.

  19. Prototype-based models in machine learning.

    PubMed

    Biehl, Michael; Hammer, Barbara; Villmann, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    An overview is given of prototype-based models in machine learning. In this framework, observations, i.e., data, are stored in terms of typical representatives. Together with a suitable measure of similarity, the systems can be employed in the context of unsupervised and supervised analysis of potentially high-dimensional, complex datasets. We discuss basic schemes of competitive vector quantization as well as the so-called neural gas approach and Kohonen's topology-preserving self-organizing map. Supervised learning in prototype systems is exemplified in terms of learning vector quantization. Most frequently, the familiar Euclidean distance serves as a dissimilarity measure. We present extensions of the framework to nonstandard measures and give an introduction to the use of adaptive distances in relevance learning. PMID:26800334

  20. RETRACTED: Auricular prosthesis fabrication using computer-aided design and rapid prototyping technologies.

    PubMed

    Shah, Mayank

    2016-06-01

    At the request of the editorMayank Shah 'Auricular prosthesis fabrication using computer-aided design and rapid prototyping technologies' Prosthetics and Orthotics International, published online before print on October 8, 2013 as doi:10.1177/0309364613504779has been retracted. This is because it contains unattributed overlap withK. Subburaj, C. Nair, S. Rajesh, S. M. Meshram, B. Ravi 'Rapid development of auricular prosthesis using CAD and rapid prototyping technologies' International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery 2007; 36: 938-943 doi:10.1016/j.ijom.2007.07.013. PMID:24104058

  1. Test Structures Applied to the Rapid Prototyping of Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, M.; Chang, L-J.; Martin, D.

    1997-01-01

    Recently, test structures were used to aid in the rapid development of a gas sensor and pressure sensor. These sensors were fabricated using co-fired ceramic technology and a multiproject approach. This talk will describe results obtained from a ceramic substrate which contained 36 chips with six variants including the sensors, process control monitors, and an interconnect chip. As far as the authors know, this is the first implementation of multi-projects in co-fired ceramic substrate. The gas sensor is being developed for the Space Shuttle and the pressure gage is being developed as a Martian barometer.

  2. Motion Planning for a Direct Metal Deposition Rapid Prototyping System

    SciTech Connect

    AMES,ARLO L.; HENSINGER,DAVID M.; KUHLMANN,JOEL L.

    1999-10-18

    A motion planning strategy was developed and implemented to generate motion control instructions from solid model data for controlling a robotically driven solid free-form fabrication process. The planning strategy was tested using a PUMA type robot arm integrated into a LENS{trademark} (Laser Engineered Net Shape) system. Previous systems relied on a series of x, y, and z stages, to provide a minimal coordinated motion control capability. This limited the complexity of geometries that could be constructed. With the coordinated motion provided by a robotic arm, the system can produce three dimensional parts by ''writing'' material onto any face of existing material. The motion planning strategy relied on solid model geometry evaluation and exploited robotic positioning flexibility to allow the construction of geometrically complex parts. The integration of the robotic manipulator into the LENS{trademark} system was tested by producing metal parts directly from CAD models.

  3. A Case Series of Rapid Prototyping and Intraoperative Imaging in Orbital Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Christopher G.T.; Campbell, Duncan I.; Cook, Nicholas; Erasmus, Jason

    2014-01-01

    In Christchurch Hospital, rapid prototyping (RP) and intraoperative imaging are the standard of care in orbital trauma and has been used since February 2013. RP allows the fabrication of an anatomical model to visualize complex anatomical structures which is dimensionally accurate and cost effective. This assists diagnosis, planning, and preoperative implant adaptation for orbital reconstruction. Intraoperative imaging involves a computed tomography scan during surgery to evaluate surgical implants and restored anatomy and allows the clinician to correct errors in implant positioning that may occur during the same procedure. This article aims to demonstrate the potential clinical and cost saving benefits when both these technologies are used in orbital reconstruction which minimize the need for revision surgery. PMID:26000080

  4. Fabrication of a Cranial Prosthesis Combined with an Ocular Prosthesis Using Rapid Prototyping: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Shankaran, Gayatri; Dhirawani, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) is a technique of manufacturing parts by the additive layer manufacturing technology; where, a three-dimensional (3D) model created in a computer aided design (CAD) system is sectioned into 2D profiles, which are further constructed by RP layer by layer. Its use is not limited to industrial or engineering fields and has extended to the medical field for the manufacturing of custom implants and prostheses, the study of anatomy and surgical planning. Nowadays, dentists are more frequently encountered with the individuals affected with craniofacial defects due to trauma. In such cases, the craniomaxillofacial rehabilitation is a real challenge to bring the patients back to society and promote their well-being. The conventional impression technique for facial prosthesis fabrication has the disadvantage of deforming the soft tissue and causing discomfort for the patient. Herein, we describe the fabrication of a cranial prosthesis combined with an ocular prosthesis with RP and stereolithography. PMID:27536331

  5. Fabrication of a Cranial Prosthesis Combined with an Ocular Prosthesis Using Rapid Prototyping: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Shankaran, Gayatri; Deogade, Suryakant Chhagan; Dhirawani, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) is a technique of manufacturing parts by the additive layer manufacturing technology; where, a three-dimensional (3D) model created in a computer aided design (CAD) system is sectioned into 2D profiles, which are further constructed by RP layer by layer. Its use is not limited to industrial or engineering fields and has extended to the medical field for the manufacturing of custom implants and prostheses, the study of anatomy and surgical planning. Nowadays, dentists are more frequently encountered with the individuals affected with craniofacial defects due to trauma. In such cases, the craniomaxillofacial rehabilitation is a real challenge to bring the patients back to society and promote their well-being. The conventional impression technique for facial prosthesis fabrication has the disadvantage of deforming the soft tissue and causing discomfort for the patient. Herein, we describe the fabrication of a cranial prosthesis combined with an ocular prosthesis with RP and stereolithography. PMID:27536331

  6. A cell-free framework for rapid biosynthetic pathway prototyping and enzyme discovery.

    PubMed

    Karim, Ashty S; Jewett, Michael C

    2016-07-01

    Speeding up design-build-test (DBT) cycles is a fundamental challenge facing biochemical engineering. To address this challenge, we report a new cell-free protein synthesis driven metabolic engineering (CFPS-ME) framework for rapid biosynthetic pathway prototyping. In our framework, cell-free cocktails for synthesizing target small molecules are assembled in a mix-and-match fashion from crude cell lysates either containing selectively enriched pathway enzymes from heterologous overexpression or directly producing pathway enzymes in lysates by CFPS. As a model, we apply our approach to n-butanol biosynthesis showing that Escherichia coli lysates support a highly active 17-step CoA-dependent n-butanol pathway in vitro. The elevated degree of flexibility in the cell-free environment allows us to manipulate physiochemical conditions, access enzymatic nodes, discover new enzymes, and prototype enzyme sets with linear DNA templates to study pathway performance. We anticipate that CFPS-ME will facilitate efforts to define, manipulate, and understand metabolic pathways for accelerated DBT cycles without the need to reengineer organisms. PMID:26996382

  7. A rapid prototyping/artificial intelligence approach to space station-era information management and access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnahan, Richard S., Jr.; Corey, Stephen M.; Snow, John B.

    1989-01-01

    Applications of rapid prototyping and Artificial Intelligence techniques to problems associated with Space Station-era information management systems are described. In particular, the work is centered on issues related to: (1) intelligent man-machine interfaces applied to scientific data user support, and (2) the requirement that intelligent information management systems (IIMS) be able to efficiently process metadata updates concerning types of data handled. The advanced IIMS represents functional capabilities driven almost entirely by the needs of potential users. Space Station-era scientific data projected to be generated is likely to be significantly greater than data currently processed and analyzed. Information about scientific data must be presented clearly, concisely, and with support features to allow users at all levels of expertise efficient and cost-effective data access. Additionally, mechanisms for allowing more efficient IIMS metadata update processes must be addressed. The work reported covers the following IIMS design aspects: IIMS data and metadata modeling, including the automatic updating of IIMS-contained metadata, IIMS user-system interface considerations, including significant problems associated with remote access, user profiles, and on-line tutorial capabilities, and development of an IIMS query and browse facility, including the capability to deal with spatial information. A working prototype has been developed and is being enhanced.

  8. Technical Note: Rapid prototyping of 3D grid arrays for image guided therapy quality assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Kittle, David; Holshouser, Barbara; Slater, James M.; Guenther, Bob D.; Pitsianis, Nikos P.; Pearlstein, Robert D.

    2008-12-15

    Three dimensional grid phantoms offer a number of advantages for measuring imaging related spatial inaccuracies for image guided surgery and radiotherapy. The authors examined the use of rapid prototyping technology for directly fabricating 3D grid phantoms from CAD drawings. We tested three different fabrication process materials, photopolymer jet with acrylic resin (PJ/AR), selective laser sintering with polyamide (SLS/P), and fused deposition modeling with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (FDM/ABS). The test objects consisted of rectangular arrays of control points formed by the intersections of posts and struts (2 mm rectangular cross section) and spaced 8 mm apart in the x, y, and z directions. The PJ/AR phantom expanded after immersion in water which resulted in permanent warping of the structure. The surface of the FDM/ABS grid exhibited a regular pattern of depressions and ridges from the extrusion process. SLS/P showed the best combination of build accuracy, surface finish, and stability. Based on these findings, a grid phantom for assessing machine-dependent and frame-induced MR spatial distortions was fabricated to be used for quality assurance in stereotactic neurosurgical and radiotherapy procedures. The spatial uniformity of the SLS/P grid control point array was determined by CT imaging (0.6x0.6x0.625 mm{sup 3} resolution) and found suitable for the application, with over 97.5% of the control points located within 0.3 mm of the position specified in CAD drawing and none of the points off by more than 0.4 mm. Rapid prototyping is a flexible and cost effective alternative for development of customized grid phantoms for medical physics quality assurance.

  9. Reverse engineering and rapid prototyping techniques to innovate prosthesis socket design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, Giorgio; Bertetti, Massimiliano; Bonacini, Daniele; Magrassi, Grazia

    2006-02-01

    The paper presents an innovative approach totally based on digital data to optimize lower limb socket prosthesis design. This approach is based on a stump's detailed geometric model and provides a substitute to plaster cast obtained through the traditional manual methodology with a physical model, realized with Rapid Prototyping technologies; this physical model will be used for the socket lamination. The paper discusses a methodology to reconstruct a 3D geometric model of the stump able to describe with high accuracy and detail the complete structure subdivided into bones, soft tissues, muscular masses and dermis. Some different technologies are used for stump acquisition: non contact laser technique for external geometry, CT and MRI imaging technologies for the internal structure, the first one dedicated to bones geometrical model, the last for soft tissues and muscles. We discuss problems related to 3D geometric reconstruction: the patient and stump positioning for the different acquisitions, markers' definition on the stump to identify landmarks, alignment's strategies for the different digital models, in order to define a protocol procedure with a requested accuracy for socket's realization. Some case-studies illustrate the methodology and the results obtained.

  10. A Method to Represent Heterogeneous Materials for Rapid Prototyping: The Matryoshka Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Shuangyan; Frank, Matthew C.; Anderson, Donald D.; Brown, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present a new method for representing heterogeneous materials using nested STL shells, based, in particular, on the density distributions of human bones. Design/methodology/approach Nested STL shells, called Matryoshka models, are described, based on their namesake Russian nesting dolls. In this approach, polygonal models, such as STL shells, are “stacked” inside one another to represent different material regions. The Matryoshka model addresses the challenge of representing different densities and different types of bone when reverse engineering from medical images. The Matryoshka model is generated via an iterative process of thresholding the Hounsfield Unit (HU) data using computed tomography (CT), thereby delineating regions of progressively increasing bone density. These nested shells can represent regions starting with the medullary (bone marrow) canal, up through and including the outer surface of the bone. Findings The Matryoshka approach introduced can be used to generate accurate models of heterogeneous materials in an automated fashion, avoiding the challenge of hand-creating an assembly model for input to multi-material additive or subtractive manufacturing. Originality/Value This paper presents a new method for describing heterogeneous materials: in this case, the density distribution in a human bone. The authors show how the Matryoshka model can be used to plan harvesting locations for creating custom rapid allograft bone implants from donor bone. An implementation of a proposed harvesting method is demonstrated, followed by a case study using subtractive rapid prototyping to harvest a bone implant from a human tibia surrogate. PMID:26120277

  11. Optimizing third molar autotransplantation: applications of reverse-engineered surgical templates and rapid prototyping of three-dimensional teeth.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Man; Tatad, Jacquiline Czar I; Landayan, Maria Erika A; Heo, Seong-Joo; Kim, Sun-Jong

    2014-09-01

    The success of autogenous tooth transplantation depends on the vitality of the periodontal ligament attached to the donor tooth, and its viability decreases when it is exposed extraorally. This report describes the case of a 16-year-old patient in whom a rapid prototyped tooth model was performed using cone-beam technology and a surgical template guide for autotransplantation as an effective technique for a critical time-based procedure. PMID:25043146

  12. Five factor model prototype matching scores: convergence within alternative methods.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Douglas B; Edmundson, Maryanne; Widiger, Thomas A

    2011-10-01

    The Five Factor Model of Personality (FFM) has been proposed as a potential alternative to the current DSM-IV-TR model, which conceptualizes personality disorders (PDs) as categorical constructs. While an extensive literature has pointed out the flaws of the diagnostic categories, they are quite familiar to clinicians and there may still be instances when identifying these constructs for clinical purposes, such as for rapidly communicating information about a patient, is warranted. From the perspective of the FFM, the PDs represent specific constellations of personality traits and research has demonstrated that the PDs can be recovered by assessing the degree to which an FFM profile matches the FFM description of a prototypic PD case. The current study builds upon that research by assessing the convergent and discriminant validity of prototype scores and DSM-IV PD measures using self-report, informant report, semi-structured interview, and clinician descriptions. The results suggest that the prototype matching scores are largely valid across these methods for all PDs, with perhaps the exception of obsessive-compulsive. These findings are related to previous research and the clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:22023296

  13. Utilizing a Rapid Prototyping Approach in the Building of a Hypermedia-Based Reference Station.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sell, Dan

    This paper discusses the building of a hypermedia-based reference station at the Wright Laboratory Technical Library, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. Following this, the paper focuses on an electronic user survey from which data is collected and analysis is made. The survey data is used in a rapid prototyping approach, which is defined as…

  14. Low-Cost Rapid Prototyping of Whole-Glass Microfluidic Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuen, Po Ki; Goral, Vasiliy N.

    2012-01-01

    A low-cost, straightforward, rapid prototyping of whole-glass microfluidic devices is presented using glass-etching cream that can be easily purchased in local stores. A self-adhered vinyl stencil cut out by a desktop digital craft cutter was used as an etching mask for patterning microstructures in glass using the glass-etching cream. A specific…

  15. Rapid Prototyping of Chemical Microsensors Based on Molecularly Imprinted Polymers Synthesized by Two-Photon Stereolithography.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Laura Piedad Chia; Spangenberg, Arnaud; Ton, Xuan-Anh; Fuchs, Yannick; Bokeloh, Frank; Malval, Jean-Pierre; Tse Sum Bui, Bernadette; Thuau, Damien; Ayela, Cédric; Haupt, Karsten; Soppera, Olivier

    2016-07-01

    Two-photon stereolithography is used for rapid prototyping of submicrometre molecularly imprinted polymer-based 3D structures. The structures are evaluated as chemical sensing elements and their specific recognition properties for target molecules are confirmed. The 3D design capability is exploited and highlighted through the fabrication of an all-organic molecularly imprinted polymeric microelectromechanical sensor. PMID:27145145

  16. A Rapidly Prototyped Vegetation Dryness Index Developed for Wildfire Risk Assessment at Stennis Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Kenton; Graham, William D.; Prados, Donald; Spruce, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    A remote sensing index was developed to allow improved monitoring of vegetation dryness conditions on a regional basis. This remote sensing index was rapidly prototyped at Stennis Space Center in response to drought conditions in the local area in spring 2006.

  17. Rapid Prototyping of Computer-Based Presentations Using NEAT, Version 1.1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muldner, Tomasz

    NEAT (iNtegrated Environment for Authoring in ToolBook) provides templates and various facilities for the rapid prototyping of computer-based presentations, a capability that is lacking in current authoring systems. NEAT is a specialized authoring system that can be used by authors who have a limited knowledge of computer systems and no…

  18. Plan to procedure: combining 3D templating with rapid prototyping to enhance pedicle screw placement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustine, Kurt E.; Stans, Anthony A.; Morris, Jonathan M.; Huddleston, Paul M.; Matsumoto, Jane M.; Holmes, David R., III; Robb, Richard A.

    2010-02-01

    Spinal fusion procedures involving the implantation of pedicle screws have steadily increased over the past decade because of demonstrated improvement in biomechanical stability of the spine. However, current methods of spinal fusion carries a risk of serious vascular, visceral, and neurological injury caused by inaccurate placement or inappropriately sized instrumentation, which may lead to patient paralysis or even fatality. 3D spine templating software developed by the Biomedical Imaging Resource (BIR) at Mayo Clinic allows the surgeon to virtually place pedicle screws using pre-operative 3D CT image data. With the template plan incorporated, a patient-specific 3D anatomic model is produced using a commercial rapid prototyping system. The pre-surgical plan and the patient-specific model then are used in the procedure room to provide real-time visualization and quantitative guidance for accurate placement of each pedicle screw, significantly reducing risk of injury. A pilot study was conducted at Mayo Clinic by the Department of Radiology, the Department of Orthopedics, and the BIR, involving seven complicated pediatric spine cases. In each case, pre-operative 3D templating was carried out and patient specific models were generated. The plans and the models were used intra-operatively, providing precise pedicle screw starting points and trajectories. Postoperative assessment by the surgeon confirmed all seven operations were successful. Results from the study suggest that patient-specific, 3D anatomic models successfully acquired from 3D templating tools are valuable for planning and conducting pedicle screw insertion procedures.

  19. Rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices for integrating with FT-IR spectroscopic imaging.

    PubMed

    Chan, K L Andrew; Niu, Xize; de Mello, Andrew J; Kazarian, Sergei G

    2010-08-21

    A versatile approach for the rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices suitable for use with FT-IR spectroscopic imaging is introduced. Device manufacture is based on the direct printing of paraffin onto the surface of an infrared transparent substrate, followed by encapsulation. Key features of this approach are low running costs, rapid production times, simplicity of design modifications and suitability for integration with FT-IR spectroscopic measurements. In the current experiments, the minimum width of channel walls was found to be approximately 120 mum and approximately 200 when a 25 mum and 12 mum spacer is used, respectively. Water and poly(ethylene glycol) are used as model fluids in a laminar flow regime, and are imaged in both transmission and attenuated total reflection (ATR) modes. It is established that adoption of transmission mode measurements yields superior sensitivity whilst the ATR mode is more suitable for quantitative analysis using strong spectral absorption bands. Results indicate that devices manufactured using this approach are suitable for use with in situ FT-IR spectroscopic imaging. PMID:20532270

  20. Rapid prototyping of microfluidic chips for dead-volume-free MS coupling.

    PubMed

    Dietze, Claudia; Scholl, Tobias; Ohla, Stefan; Appun, Johannes; Schneider, Christoph; Belder, Detlev

    2015-11-01

    A fast and straightforward method to prototype microfluidic chip systems for dead-volume-free hyphenation to electrospray-ionisation mass spectrometry is presented. The developed approach based on liquid-phase lithography provides an inexpensive and reliable access to microfluidic chips for MS coupling which can be manufactured in any laboratory with low technical demands. The rapid prototyping approach enables the seamless integration of capillaries serving as electrospray emitters with negligible dead volume. The high versatility of the presented prototyping method and the applicability of a variety of chip-based devices in different fields of lab-on-a-chip technology are established for analytical separations by means of chip-electrochromatography-MS and for continuous-flow synthesis using microreactor technology with MS detection. PMID:26391402

  1. Affective Robotics: Modelling and Testing Cultural Prototypes.

    PubMed

    A Wilson, Paul; Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    If robots are to successfully interact with humans, they need to measure, quantify and respond to the emotions we produce. Similar to humans, the perceptual cue inputs to any modelling that allows this will be based on behavioural expression and body activity features that are prototypical of each emotion. However, the likely employment of such robots in different cultures necessitates the tuning of the emotion feature recognition system to the specific feature profiles present in these cultures. The amount of tuning depends on the relative convergence of the cross-cultural mappings between the emotion feature profiles of the cultures where the robots will be used. The GRID instrument and the cognitive corpus linguistics methodology were used in a contrastive study analysing a selection of behavioural expression and body activity features to compare the feature profiles of joy, sadness, fear and anger within and between Polish and British English. The intra-linguistic differences that were found in the profile of emotion features suggest that weightings based on this profile can be used in robotic modelling to create emotion-sensitive socially interacting robots. Our cross-cultural results further indicate that this profile of features needs to be tuned in robots to make them emotionally competent in different cultures. PMID:25484993

  2. Justification of rapid prototyping in the development cycle of thermoplastic-based lab-on-a-chip.

    PubMed

    Preywisch, Regina; Ritzi-Lehnert, Marion; Drese, Klaus S; Röser, Tina

    2011-11-01

    During the developmental cycle of lab-on-a-chip devices, various microstructuring techniques are required. While in the designing and assay implementation phase direct structuring or so-called rapid-prototyping methods such as milling or laser ablation are applied, replication methods like hot embossing or injection moulding are favourable for large quantity manufacturing. This work investigated the applicability of rapid-prototyping techniques for thermoplastic chip development in general, and the reproducibility of performances in dependency of the structuring technique. A previously published chip for prenatal diagnosis that preconcentrates DNA via electrokinetic trapping and field-amplified-sample-stacking and afterwards separates it in CGE was chosen as a model. The impact of structuring, sealing, and the integration of membranes on the mobility of the EOF, DNA preconcentration, and DNA separation was studied. Structuring methods were found to significantly change the location where preconcentration of DNA occurs. However, effects on the mobility of the EOF and the separation quality of DNA were not observed. Exchange of the membrane has no effect on the chip performance, whereas the sealing method impairs the separation of DNA within the chip. The overall assay performance is not significantly influenced by different structuring methods; thus, the application of rapid-prototyping methods during a chip development cycle is well justified. PMID:22102495

  3. New Design for Rapid Prototyping of Digital Master Casts for Multiple Dental Implant Restorations

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Luis; Jiménez, Mariano; Espinosa, María del Mar; Domínguez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Aim This study proposes the replacement of all the physical devices used in the manufacturing of conventional prostheses through the use of digital tools, such as 3D scanners, CAD design software, 3D implants files, rapid prototyping machines or reverse engineering software, in order to develop laboratory work models from which to finish coatings for dental prostheses. Different types of dental prosthetic structures are used, which were adjusted by a non-rotatory threaded fixing system. Method From a digital process, the relative positions of dental implants, soft tissue and adjacent teeth of edentulous or partially edentulous patients has been captured, and a maser working model which accurately replicates data relating to the patients oral cavity has been through treatment of three-dimensional digital data. Results Compared with the conventional master cast, the results show a significant cost savings in attachments, as well as an increase in the quality of reproduction and accuracy of the master cast, with the consequent reduction in the number of patient consultation visits. The combination of software and hardware three-dimensional tools allows the optimization of the planning of dental implant-supported rehabilitations protocol, improving the predictability of clinical treatments and the production cost savings of master casts for restorations upon implants. PMID:26696528

  4. Rapid prototyping and evaluation of programmable SIMD SDR processors in LISA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ting; Liu, Hengzhu; Zhang, Botao; Liu, Dongpei

    2013-03-01

    With the development of international wireless communication standards, there is an increase in computational requirement for baseband signal processors. Time-to-market pressure makes it impossible to completely redesign new processors for the evolving standards. Due to its high flexibility and low power, software defined radio (SDR) digital signal processors have been proposed as promising technology to replace traditional ASIC and FPGA fashions. In addition, there are large numbers of parallel data processed in computation-intensive functions, which fosters the development of single instruction multiple data (SIMD) architecture in SDR platform. So a new way must be found to prototype the SDR processors efficiently. In this paper we present a bit-and-cycle accurate model of programmable SIMD SDR processors in a machine description language LISA. LISA is a language for instruction set architecture which can gain rapid model at architectural level. In order to evaluate the availability of our proposed processor, three common baseband functions, FFT, FIR digital filter and matrix multiplication have been mapped on the SDR platform. Analytical results showed that the SDR processor achieved the maximum of 47.1% performance boost relative to the opponent processor.

  5. Design Principles for Rapid Prototyping Forces Sensors using 3D Printing

    PubMed Central

    Kesner, Samuel B.; Howe, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    Force sensors provide critical information for robot manipulators, manufacturing processes, and haptic interfaces. Commercial force sensors, however, are generally not adapted to specific system requirements, resulting in sensors with excess size, cost, and fragility. To overcome these issues, 3D printers can be used to create components for the quick and inexpensive development of force sensors. Limitations of this rapid prototyping technology, however, require specialized design principles. In this paper, we discuss techniques for rapidly developing simple force sensors, including selecting and attaching metal flexures, using inexpensive and simple displacement transducers, and 3D printing features to aid in assembly. These design methods are illustrated through the design and fabrication of a miniature force sensor for the tip of a robotic catheter system. The resulting force sensor prototype can measure forces with an accuracy of as low as 2% of the 10 N measurement range. PMID:21874102

  6. Design Principles for Rapid Prototyping Forces Sensors using 3D Printing.

    PubMed

    Kesner, Samuel B; Howe, Robert D

    2011-07-21

    Force sensors provide critical information for robot manipulators, manufacturing processes, and haptic interfaces. Commercial force sensors, however, are generally not adapted to specific system requirements, resulting in sensors with excess size, cost, and fragility. To overcome these issues, 3D printers can be used to create components for the quick and inexpensive development of force sensors. Limitations of this rapid prototyping technology, however, require specialized design principles. In this paper, we discuss techniques for rapidly developing simple force sensors, including selecting and attaching metal flexures, using inexpensive and simple displacement transducers, and 3D printing features to aid in assembly. These design methods are illustrated through the design and fabrication of a miniature force sensor for the tip of a robotic catheter system. The resulting force sensor prototype can measure forces with an accuracy of as low as 2% of the 10 N measurement range. PMID:21874102

  7. Rapid prototyping of frequency selective surfaces by laser direct-write

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathews, Scott A.; Mirotznik, Mark; Good, Brandon L.; Piqué, Alberto

    2007-02-01

    In this work we describe the use of laser direct-write for the rapid prototyping of frequency selective surfaces. Frequency selective surfaces are generally described by a periodic array of conducting or dielectric features (i.e. crosses, loops, grids, etc.) that when properly designed can pass or reject specific frequency bands of incoming electromagnetic radiation. While simple frequency selective surfaces are relatively straight forward to design and fabricate, operational demands, particularly military, have motivated the design and fabrication of much more complicated patterns. These new designs combine features of significantly different length scales, randomly dithered patterns and combinations of passive and active elements. We will demonstrate how laser direct-write is an ideal tool for the rapid prototyping of these new more complicated frequency selective surface designs. We will present experimental results for devices fabricated using several different laser direct-write processes.

  8. Rapid prototyping facility for flight research in artificial-intelligence-based flight systems concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, E. L.; Regenie, V. A.; Deets, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    The Dryden Flight Research Facility of the NASA Ames Research Facility of the NASA Ames Research Center is developing a rapid prototyping facility for flight research in flight systems concepts that are based on artificial intelligence (AI). The facility will include real-time high-fidelity aircraft simulators, conventional and symbolic processors, and a high-performance research aircraft specially modified to accept commands from the ground-based AI computers. This facility is being developed as part of the NASA-DARPA automated wingman program. This document discusses the need for flight research and for a national flight research facility for the rapid prototyping of AI-based avionics systems and the NASA response to those needs.

  9. Reconstruction of Frontal Bone With Custom-Made Prosthesis Using Rapid Prototyping.

    PubMed

    Florentino, Vinícius Gabriel Barros; Mendonça, Diego Santiago de; Bezerra, Ariel Valente; Silva, Leonardo de Freitas; Pontes, Rafael Figueirêdo; Melo, Carlos Vinícius Mota de; Mello, Manoel de Jesus Rodrigues; de Aguiar, Andréa Silvia Walter

    2016-06-01

    Frontal bone fracture treatment is still an issue of research in craniofacial surgery and neurosurgery. The aims of the treatment are to reduce the complication risks and to keep the aesthetic of the face. Before the management of this fracture type, it is necessary to consider the permanence or not of the frontal sinus function. Rapid prototyping has been an aid tool on planning and simulation of the surgical procedure, improving the diagnostic quality and the implant manufacture, beyond reducing the operative time. Among the used materials on treatment of these fractures, titanium mesh shows large versatility and ease of handling. Poly(methyl methacrylate) has been used in defects of partial thickness or irregularities on cranial surface. The aim of this study is to report a case of a patient presenting sequelae of large fracture of anterior wall of frontal bone, treated by a titanium mesh associated with the customized poly(methyl methacrylate) implant from the rapid prototyping. It could be concluded that the use of this technique showed itself effective on patient treatment, and rapid prototyping demonstrated being a valuable tool showing predictable and satisfactory results. PMID:27285896

  10. Novel grinding stone used for polishing 3D plastic replica with rapid prototyping technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Wang; Niikura, Yoshihiro; Sato, Toshio; Kawashima, Norimichi

    2006-01-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) apparatus accepts a specific format translated from CAD data (patient's CT) and "slices" it into two-dimensional cross sections for laser photo curing. Surgeon can conduct safer surgery by reappearing on an actual model using 3D plastic replica in the preoperative. Polishing has to be used to eliminate the marks after removal of supports and the build layer pitches. Complicated and narrow areas of the 3D replica are difficult to be polished with the conventional grinding stone. This study proposes a novel grinding stone and introduces its producing process and characteristics. The novel grinding stone has many advantages as follows; (1) Preparation is possible of grinding stone that follows the complicated shape. (2) Grinding stone with uniformly dispersed abrasive grains can be prepared using magnetic particles and magnetic field. (3) Reshaping of grinding stone by heating is possible since the binder is made of a thermoplastic resin. (4) Every process can easily be carried out. We could polish to eliminate the marks after removal of supports and the build layer pitches on 3D plastic replica surface with the grinding stone.

  11. The development of a rapid prototyping prosthetic socket coated with a resin layer for transtibial amputees.

    PubMed

    Hsu, L H; Huang, G F; Lu, C T; Hong, D Y; Liu, S H

    2010-03-01

    This article proposes a type of transtibial socket composed of an inner layer fabricated by a rapid prototyping (RP) machine and an outer layer coated with unsaturated polyester resin. This work integrates contemporary technologies including a handheld scanner and CAD systems, to design a thin primary socket shape and then manufactures the socket using a fused deposition-modeling machine. To prevent breakage caused by the layer-based forming process and to reinforce flexural strength, the current research coats the preliminary RP socket with a layer of unsaturated polyester resin. After shaping the proximal brim of the resin-reinforced RP socket to match the specific stump, this study assembles and aligns a shank and a prosthetic foot to form a prosthesis set. After completing a trial safety walk wearing the prosthesis, which is satisfactory to the amputee and a registered prosthetist, this research measures interface pressures between the stump and the resin-reinforced RP socket. Experiment results demonstrate that the resin-reinforced RP socket is applicable for transtibial amputees. In addition to strengthening the FDM socket and producing consistent socket fit, this study also demonstrates a feasible procedure that employs current technologies to design and manufacture transtibial sockets without plaster moulds. PMID:19947824

  12. Programmatic Perspectives on Using `Rapid Prototyping Capability' for Water Management Applications Using NASA Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toll, D.; Friedl, L.; Entin, J.; Engman, E.

    2006-12-01

    The NASA Water Management Program addresses concerns and decision making related to water availability, water forecast and water quality. The goal of the Water Management Program Element is to encourage water management organizations to use NASA Earth science data, models products, technology and other capabilities in their decision support tools (DSTs) for problem solving. The goal of the NASA Rapid Prototyping Capability (RPC) is to speed the evaluation of these NASA products and technologies to improve current and future DSTs by reducing the time to access, configure, and assess the effectiveness of NASA products and technologies. The NASA Water Management Program Element partners with Federal agencies, academia, private firms, and may include international organizations. Currently, the NASA Water Management Program oversees eight application projects. However, water management is a very broad descriptor of a much larger number of activities that are carried out to insure safe and plentiful water supply for humans, industry and agriculture, promote environmental stewardship, and mitigate disaster such as floods and droughts. The goal of this presentation is to summarize how the RPC may further enhance the effectiveness of using NASA products for water management applications.

  13. Rapid tooling for functional prototyping of metal mold processes. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharia, T.; Ludtka, G.M.; Bjerke, M.A.; Gray, W.H.

    1997-12-01

    The overall scope of this endeavor was to develop an integrated computer system, running on a network of heterogeneous computers, that would allow the rapid development of tool designs, and then use process models to determine whether the initial tooling would have characteristics which produce the prototype parts. The major thrust of this program for ORNL was the definition of the requirements for the development of the integrated die design system with the functional purpose to link part design, tool design, and component fabrication through a seamless software environment. The principal product would be a system control program that would coordinate the various application programs and implement the data transfer so that any networked workstation would be useable. The overall system control architecture was to be required to easily facilitate any changes, upgrades, or replacements of the model from either the manufacturing end or the design criteria standpoint. The initial design of such a program is described in the section labeled ``Control Program Design``. A critical aspect of this research was the design of the system flow chart showing the exact system components and the data to be transferred. All of the major system components would have been configured to ensure data file compatibility and transferability across the Internet. The intent was to use commercially available packages to model the various manufacturing processes for creating the die and die inserts in addition to modeling the processes for which these parts were to be used. In order to meet all of these requirements, investigative research was conducted to determine the system flow features and software components within the various organizations contributing to this project. This research is summarized.

  14. Rapid Prototyping Amphiphilic Polymer/Hydroxyapatite Composite Scaffolds with Hydration-Induced Self-Fixation Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Kutikov, Artem B.; Gurijala, Anvesh

    2015-01-01

    Two major factors hampering the broad use of rapid prototyped biomaterials for tissue engineering applications are the requirement for custom-designed or expensive research-grade three-dimensional (3D) printers and the limited selection of suitable thermoplastic biomaterials exhibiting physical characteristics desired for facile surgical handling and biological properties encouraging tissue integration. Properly designed thermoplastic biodegradable amphiphilic polymers can exhibit hydration-dependent hydrophilicity changes and stiffening behavior, which may be exploited to facilitate the surgical delivery/self-fixation of the scaffold within a physiological tissue environment. Compared to conventional hydrophobic polyesters, they also present significant advantages in blending with hydrophilic osteoconductive minerals with improved interfacial adhesion for bone tissue engineering applications. Here, we demonstrated the excellent blending of biodegradable, amphiphilic poly(D,L-lactic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(D,L-lactic acid) (PLA-PEG-PLA) (PELA) triblock co-polymer with hydroxyapatite (HA) and the fabrication of high-quality rapid prototyped 3D macroporous composite scaffolds using an unmodified consumer-grade 3D printer. The rapid prototyped HA-PELA composite scaffolds and the PELA control (without HA) swelled (66% and 44% volume increases, respectively) and stiffened (1.38-fold and 4-fold increases in compressive modulus, respectively) in water. To test the hypothesis that the hydration-induced physical changes can translate into self-fixation properties of the scaffolds within a confined defect, a straightforward in vitro pull-out test was designed to quantify the peak force required to dislodge these scaffolds from a simulated cylindrical defect at dry versus wet states. Consistent with our hypothesis, the peak fixation force measured for the PELA and HA-PELA scaffolds increased 6-fold and 15-fold upon hydration, respectively. Furthermore, we showed that

  15. Office-based rapid prototyping in orthopedic surgery: a novel planning technique and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Adam; Money, Kyle; Spangehl, Mark; Hattrup, Steven; Claridge, Richard J; Beauchamp, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) prototyping, based on high-quality axial images, may allow for more accurate and extensive preoperative planning and may even allow surgeons to perform procedures as part of preoperative preparation. In this article, we describe 7 cases of complex orthopedic disorders that were surgically treated after preoperative planning that was based on both industry-provided models and use of our in-house 3-D printer. Commercially available 3-D printers allow for rapid in-office production of a high-quality realistic prototype at relatively low per-case cost. Using this technique, surgeons can assess the accuracy of their original surgical plans and, if necessary, correct them preoperatively. The ability to "perform surgery preoperatively" adds another element to surgeons' perceptions of the potential issues that may arise. PMID:25566552

  16. Habitat Demonstration Unit Project: Leadership and Management Strategies for a Rapid Prototyping Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.; Toup, Larry; Gill, Tracy; Tri, Terry; Howe, Scott; Smitherman, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) led multi-center Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) project leadership and management strategies being used by the NASA HDU team for a rapid prototyping project. The HDU project team constructed and tested an analog prototype lunar surface habitat/laboratory called the Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM) during 2010. The prototype unit subsystems were integrated in a short amount of time, utilizing a tiger team rapid prototyping approach that brought together over 20 habitation-related technologies and innovations from a variety of NASA centers. This paper describes the leadership and management strategies as well as lessons learned pertaining to leading and managing a multi-center diverse team in a rapid prototype environment. The PEM configuration went from a paper design to an operational surface habitat demonstration unit in less than 12 months. The HDU project is part of the strategic plan from the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) Directorate Integration Office (DIO) and the Exploration Mission Systems Office (EMSO) to test destination elements in analog environments. The 2011 HDU-Deep Space Habitat (DSH) configuration will build upon the PEM work, and emphasize validity of crew operations (remote working and living), EVA operations, mission operations, logistics operations, and science operations that might be required in a deep space context for Near Earth Object (NEO) exploration mission architectures. The 2011 HDU-DSH will be field-tested during the 2011 Desert Research and Technologies Studies (DRaTS) field tests. The HDU project is a "technology-pull" project that integrates technologies and innovations from multiple NASA centers. This project will repurpose the HDU 2010 demo unit that was field tested in the 2010 DRaTS, adding habitation functionality to the prototype unit. This paper will describe the strategy of establishing a multi-center project

  17. Enhancements to ASHRAE Standard 90.1 Prototype Building Models

    SciTech Connect

    Goel, Supriya; Athalye, Rahul A.; Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jian; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Xie, YuLong; Hart, Philip R.; Mendon, Vrushali V.

    2014-04-16

    This report focuses on enhancements to prototype building models used to determine the energy impact of various versions of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1. Since the last publication of the prototype building models, PNNL has made numerous enhancements to the original prototype models compliant with the 2004, 2007, and 2010 editions of Standard 90.1. Those enhancements are described here and were made for several reasons: (1) to change or improve prototype design assumptions; (2) to improve the simulation accuracy; (3) to improve the simulation infrastructure; and (4) to add additional detail to the models needed to capture certain energy impacts from Standard 90.1 improvements. These enhancements impact simulated prototype energy use, and consequently impact the savings estimated from edition to edition of Standard 90.1.

  18. SOAR telescope control system: a rapid prototype and development in LabVIEW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashe, Michael C.; Schumacher, German

    2000-06-01

    A Rapid Prototype and full development plan of the SOAR TCS is reviewed to show advances in: (1) Prototyping speed, which makes implementation and test of features faster than specification under older methods. This allows the development environment and prototype modules to become partners with and part of the specification documents. (2) Real-Time performance and reliability through use of RT Linux. (3) Visually Rich GUI development that allows an emphasis on `seeing' versus `reading'. (4) Long-Term DataLogging and Internet subscription service of all desired variables with instant recall of historical trend data. (5) A `plug-in' software architecture which enables rapid reconfiguration and reuse of the system and/or plug-ins utilizing LabVIEW graphical modules, a scripting language engine (in LabVIEW) and encapsulation of interfaces in `instrument-driver' style `plug-in' modules. (6) A platform- independent development environment and distributed architecture allowing secure internet observation and control via every major OS and hardware platform.

  19. Rapid and low-cost prototyping of medical devices using 3D printed molds for liquid injection molding.

    PubMed

    Chung, Philip; Heller, J Alex; Etemadi, Mozziyar; Ottoson, Paige E; Liu, Jonathan A; Rand, Larry; Roy, Shuvo

    2014-01-01

    Biologically inert elastomers such as silicone are favorable materials for medical device fabrication, but forming and curing these elastomers using traditional liquid injection molding processes can be an expensive process due to tooling and equipment costs. As a result, it has traditionally been impractical to use liquid injection molding for low-cost, rapid prototyping applications. We have devised a method for rapid and low-cost production of liquid elastomer injection molded devices that utilizes fused deposition modeling 3D printers for mold design and a modified desiccator as an injection system. Low costs and rapid turnaround time in this technique lower the barrier to iteratively designing and prototyping complex elastomer devices. Furthermore, CAD models developed in this process can be later adapted for metal mold tooling design, enabling an easy transition to a traditional injection molding process. We have used this technique to manufacture intravaginal probes involving complex geometries, as well as overmolding over metal parts, using tools commonly available within an academic research laboratory. However, this technique can be easily adapted to create liquid injection molded devices for many other applications. PMID:24998993

  20. Rapid and Low-cost Prototyping of Medical Devices Using 3D Printed Molds for Liquid Injection Molding

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Philip; Heller, J. Alex; Etemadi, Mozziyar; Ottoson, Paige E.; Liu, Jonathan A.; Rand, Larry; Roy, Shuvo

    2014-01-01

    Biologically inert elastomers such as silicone are favorable materials for medical device fabrication, but forming and curing these elastomers using traditional liquid injection molding processes can be an expensive process due to tooling and equipment costs. As a result, it has traditionally been impractical to use liquid injection molding for low-cost, rapid prototyping applications. We have devised a method for rapid and low-cost production of liquid elastomer injection molded devices that utilizes fused deposition modeling 3D printers for mold design and a modified desiccator as an injection system. Low costs and rapid turnaround time in this technique lower the barrier to iteratively designing and prototyping complex elastomer devices. Furthermore, CAD models developed in this process can be later adapted for metal mold tooling design, enabling an easy transition to a traditional injection molding process. We have used this technique to manufacture intravaginal probes involving complex geometries, as well as overmolding over metal parts, using tools commonly available within an academic research laboratory. However, this technique can be easily adapted to create liquid injection molded devices for many other applications. PMID:24998993

  1. Design of anthropomorphic flow phantoms based on rapid prototyping of compliant vessel geometries.

    PubMed

    Lai, Simon S M; Yiu, Billy Y S; Poon, Alexander K K; Yu, Alfred C H

    2013-09-01

    Anatomically realistic flow phantoms are essential experimental tools for vascular ultrasound. Here we describe how these flow phantoms can be efficiently developed via a rapid prototyping (RP) framework that involves direct fabrication of compliant vessel geometries. In this framework, anthropomorphic vessel models were drafted in computer-aided design software, and they were fabricated using stereolithography (one type of RP). To produce elastic vessels, a compliant photopolymer was used for stereolithography. We fabricated a series of compliant, diseased carotid bifurcation models with eccentric stenosis (50%) and plaque ulceration (types I and III), and they were used to form thin-walled flow phantoms by coupling the vessels to an agar-based tissue-mimicking material. These phantoms were found to yield Doppler spectrograms with significant spectral broadening and color flow images with mosaic patterns, as typical of disturbed flow under stenosed and ulcerated disease conditions. Also, their wall distension behavior was found to be similar to that observed in vivo, and this corresponded with the vessel wall's average elastic modulus (391 kPa), which was within the nominal range for human arteries. The vessel material's acoustic properties were found to be sub-optimal: the estimated average acoustic speed was 1801 m/s, and the attenuation coefficient was 1.58 dB/(mm·MHz(n)) with a power-law coefficient of 0.97. Such an acoustic mismatch nevertheless did not notably affect our Doppler spectrograms and color flow image results. These findings suggest that phantoms produced from our design framework have the potential to serve as ultrasound-compatible test beds that can simulate complex flow dynamics similar to those observed in real vasculature. PMID:23791354

  2. Rapid prototyping and inclined plane technique in the treatment of maxillofacial malformations in a fox

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Elisangela P.; Rahal, Sheila C.; Teixeira, Carlos R.; Silva, Jorge V.L.; Noritomi, Pedro Y.; Villela, Carlos H.S.; Yamashita, Seizo

    2010-01-01

    An approximately 9-month-old fox (Pseudalopex vetulus) was presented with malocclusion and deviation of the lower jaw to the right side. Orthodontic treatment was performed using the inclined plane technique. Virtual 3D models and prototypes of the head were based on computed tomography (CT) image data to assist in diagnosis and treatment. PMID:20514249

  3. Engineering Models Ease and Speed Prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA astronauts plan to return to the Moon as early as 2015 and establish a lunar base, from which 6-month flights to Mars would be launched by 2030. Essential to this plan is the Ares launch vehicle, NASA s next-generation spacecraft that will, in various iterations, be responsible for transporting all equipment and personnel to the Moon, Mars, and beyond for the foreseeable future. The Ares launch vehicle is powered by the J-2X propulsion system, with what will be the world s largest rocket nozzles. One of the conditions that engineers carefully consider in designing rocket nozzles particularly large ones is called separation phenomenon, which occurs when outside ambient air is sucked into the nozzle rim by the relatively low pressures of rapidly expanding exhaust gasses. This separation of exhaust gasses from the side-wall imparts large asymmetric transverse loads on the nozzle, deforming the shape and thus perturbing exhaust flow to cause even greater separation. The resulting interaction can potentially crack the nozzle or break actuator arms that control thrust direction. Side-wall loads are extremely difficult to measure directly, and, until now, techniques were not available for accurately predicting the magnitude and frequency of the loads. NASA researchers studied separation phenomenon in scale-model rocket nozzles, seeking to use measured vibration on these nozzle replicas to calculate the unknown force causing the vibrations. Key to this approach was the creation of a computer model accurately representing the nozzle as well as the test cell.

  4. Rapid prototyping of biodegradable microneedle arrays by integrating CO2 laser processing and polymer molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, K. T.; Chung, C. K.

    2016-06-01

    An integrated technology of CO2 laser processing and polymer molding has been demonstrated for the rapid prototyping of biodegradable poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microneedle arrays. Rapid and low-cost CO2 laser processing was used for the fabrication of a high-aspect-ratio microneedle master mold instead of conventional time-consuming and expensive photolithography and etching processes. It is crucial to use flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to detach PLGA. However, the direct CO2 laser-ablated PDMS could generate poor surfaces with bulges, scorches, re-solidification and shrinkage. Here, we have combined the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) ablation and two-step PDMS casting process to form a PDMS female microneedle mold to eliminate the problem of direct ablation. A self-assembled monolayer polyethylene glycol was coated to prevent stiction between the two PDMS layers during the peeling-off step in the PDMS-to-PDMS replication. Then the PLGA microneedle array was successfully released by bending the second-cast PDMS mold with flexibility and hydrophobic property. The depth of the polymer microneedles can range from hundreds of micrometers to millimeters. It is linked to the PMMA pattern profile and can be adjusted by CO2 laser power and scanning speed. The proposed integration process is maskless, simple and low-cost for rapid prototyping with a reusable mold.

  5. Rapid tooling for functional prototyping of metal mold processes: Literature review on cast tooling

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, M.D.; Hochanadel, P.W.

    1995-11-01

    This report is a literature review on cast tooling with the general focus on AISI H13 tool steel. The review includes processing of both wrought and cast H13 steel along with the accompanying microstructures. Also included is the incorporation of new rapid prototyping technologies, such as Stereolithography and Selective Laser Sintering, into the investment casting of tool steel. The limiting property of using wrought or cast tool steel for die casting is heat checking. Heat checking is addressed in terms of testing procedures, theories regarding the mechanism, and microstructural aspects related to the cracking.

  6. A Rapidly Prototyped Vegetation Dryness Index Evaluated for Wildfire Risk Assessment at Stennis Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Kenton; Graham, William; Prados, Don; Spruce, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    MVDI, which effectively involves the differencing of NDMI and NDVI, appears to display increased noise that is consistent with a differencing technique. This effect masks finer variations in vegetation moisture, preventing MVDI from fulfilling the requirement of giving decision makers insight into spatial variation of fire risk. MVDI shows dependencies on land cover and phenology which also argue against its use as a fire risk proxy in an area of diverse and fragmented land covers. The conclusion of the rapid prototyping effort is that MVDI should not be implemented for SSC decision support.

  7. Three-Dimensional Rapid Prototyping of Multidirectional Polymer Nanoprobes for Single Cell Insertion.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dasom; Hong, Hyeonaug; Seo, Yoon Ho; Kim, Lo Hyun; Ryu, WonHyoung

    2015-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) thermal drawing at nanoscale as a novel rapid prototyping method was demonstrated to create multidirectional polymer nanoprobes for single cell analysis. This 3D drawing enables simple and rapid fabrication of polymeric nanostructures with high aspect ratio. The effect of thermal drawing parameters, such as drawing speeds, dipping depths, and contact duration on the final geometry of polymer nanostructures was investigated. Vertically aligned and L-shaped nanoprobes were fabricated and their insertion into living single cells such as algal cells and human neural stem cells was demonstrated. This technique can be extended to create more complex 3D structures by controlling drawing steps and directions on any surface. PMID:26144221

  8. Effects of Hydrocarbon-Based Grease on Rapid Prototype Material Used for Grease Retention Shrouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakrajsek, Andrew J.; Valco, Daniel J.; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Effects of hydrocarbon-based greases on specific rapid prototype (RP) materials used to fabricate grease retention shrouds (GRS) were explored in this study. Grease retention shrouds are being considered as a way to maintain adequate grease lubrication at the gear mesh in a prototype research transmission system. Due to their design and manufacturing flexibility, rapid prototype materials were chosen for the grease retention shrouds. In order to gain a better understanding of the short and long term effects grease pose on RP materials, research was conducted on the interaction of hydrocarbon-based grease with RP materials. The materials used in this study were durable polyamide (nylon), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), and WaterClear 10120. Testing was conducted using Mobilgrease 28 and Syn-Tech 3913G grease (gear coupling grease). These greases were selected due to their regular use with mechanical components. To investigate the effect that grease has on RP materials, the following methods were used to obtain qualitative and quantitative data: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), interference profilometer measurements, digital camera imaging, physical shape measurement, and visual observations. To record the changes in the RP materials due to contact with the grease, data was taken before and after the grease application. Results showed that the WaterClear 10120 RP material provided the best resistance to grease penetration as compared to nylon and ABS RP materials. The manufacturing process, and thus resulting surface conditions of the RP material, played a key role in the grease penetration properties and resilience of these materials.

  9. Fastcast: Integration and application of rapid prototyping and computational simulation to investment casting

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, M.C.; Baldwin, M.D.; Atwood, C.L.

    1996-09-01

    The emergence of several rapid prototyping and manufacturing (RP and M) technologies is having a dramatic impact on investment casting. While the most successful of the rapid prototyping technologies are almost a decade old, relatively recent process advances in their application have produced some remarkable success in utilizing their products as patterns for investment castings. Sandia National Laboratories has been developed highly coupled experimental and computational capabilities to examine the investment casting process with the intention of reducing the amount of time required to manufacture castings, and to increase the quality of the finished product. This presentation will begin with process aspects of RP and M pattern production and handling, shell fabrication, burnout, and casting. The emphasis will be on how the use of Stereolithography (SL) or Selective Laser Sintered (SLS) patterns differs from more traditional wax pattern processes. Aspects of computational simulation to couple design, thermal analysis, and mold filling will be discussed. Integration of these topics is probably the greatest challenge to the use of concurrent engineering principles with investment casting. Sandia has conducted several experiments aimed at calibrating computer codes and providing data for input into these simulations. Studies involving materials as diverse as stainless steel and gold have been conducted to determine liquid metal behavior in molds via real time radiography. The application of these experiments to predictive simulations will be described.

  10. The Java Image Science Toolkit (JIST) for Rapid Prototyping and Publishing of Neuroimaging Software

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Blake C.; Bogovic, John A.; Carass, Aaron; Bazin, Pierre-Louis; Prince, Jerry L.; Pham, Dzung

    2010-01-01

    Non-invasive neuroimaging techniques enable extraordinarily sensitive and specific in vivo study of the structure, functional response and connectivity of biological mechanisms. With these advanced methods comes a heavy reliance on computer-based processing, analysis and interpretation. While the neuroimaging community has produced many excellent academic and commercial tool packages, new tools are often required to interpret new modalities and paradigms. Developing custom tools and ensuring interoperability with existing tools is a significant hurdle. To address these limitations, we present a new framework for algorithm development that implicitly ensures tool interoperability, generates graphical user interfaces, provides advanced batch processing tools, and, most importantly, requires minimal additional programming or computational overhead. Java-based rapid prototyping with this system is an efficient and practical approach to evaluate new algorithms since the proposed system ensures that rapidly constructed prototypes are actually fully-functional processing modules with support for multiple GUI's, a broad range of file formats, and distributed computation. Herein, we demonstrate MRI image processing with the proposed system for cortical surface extraction in large cross-sectional cohorts, provide a system for fully automated diffusion tensor image analysis, and illustrate how the system can be used as a simulation framework for the development of a new image analysis method. The system is released as open source under the Lesser GNU Public License (LGPL) through the Neuroimaging Informatics Tools and Resources Clearinghouse (NITRC). PMID:20077162

  11. A new UV-curing elastomeric substrate for rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvankarian, Jafar; Yeop Majlis, Burhanuddin

    2012-03-01

    Rapid prototyping in the design cycle of new microfluidic devices is very important for shortening time-to-market. Researchers are facing the challenge to explore new and suitable substrates with simple and efficient microfabrication techniques. In this paper, we introduce and characterize a UV-curing elastomeric polyurethane methacrylate (PUMA) for rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices. The swelling and solubility of PUMA in different chemicals is determined. Time-dependent measurements of water contact angle show that the native PUMA is hydrophilic without surface treatment. The current monitoring method is used for measurement of the electroosmotic flow mobility in the microchannels made from PUMA. The optical, physical, thermal and mechanical properties of PUMA are evaluated. The UV-lithography and molding process is used for making micropillars and deep channel microfluidic structures integrated to the supporting base layer. Spin coating is characterized for producing different layer thicknesses of PUMA resin. A device is fabricated and tested for examining the strength of different bonding techniques such as conformal, corona treating and semi-curing of two PUMA layers in microfluidic application and the results show that the bonding strengths are comparable to that of PDMS. We also report fabrication and testing of a three-layer multi inlet/outlet microfluidic device including a very effective fluidic interconnect for application demonstration of PUMA as a promising new substrate. A simple micro-device is developed and employed for observing the pressure deflection of membrane made from PUMA as a very effective elastomeric valve in microfluidic devices.

  12. FLASH: a rapid method for prototyping paper-based microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Andres W; Phillips, Scott T; Wiley, Benjamin J; Gupta, Malancha; Whitesides, George M

    2008-12-01

    This article describes FLASH (Fast Lithographic Activation of Sheets), a rapid method for laboratory prototyping of microfluidic devices in paper. Paper-based microfluidic devices are emerging as a new technology for applications in diagnostics for the developing world, where low cost and simplicity are essential. FLASH is based on photolithography, but requires only a UV lamp and a hotplate; no clean-room or special facilities are required (FLASH patterning can even be performed in sunlight if a UV lamp and hotplate are unavailable). The method provides channels in paper with dimensions as small as 200 microm in width and 70 microm in height; the height is defined by the thickness of the paper. Photomasks for patterning paper-based microfluidic devices can be printed using an ink-jet printer or photocopier, or drawn by hand using a waterproof black pen. FLASH provides a straightforward method for prototyping paper-based microfluidic devices in regions where the technological support for conventional photolithography is not available. PMID:19023478

  13. FLASH: A rapid method for prototyping paper-based microfluidic devices‡

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Andres W.; Phillips, Scott T.; Wiley, Benjamin J.; Gupta, Malancha

    2011-01-01

    This article describes FLASH (Fast Lithographic Activation of Sheets), a rapid method for laboratory prototyping of microfluidic devices in paper. Paper-based microfluidic devices are emerging as a new technology for applications in diagnostics for the developing world, where low cost and simplicity are essential. FLASH is based on photolithography, but requires only a UV lamp and a hotplate; no clean-room or special facilities are required (FLASH patterning can even be performed in sunlight if a UV lamp and hotplate are unavailable). The method provides channels in paper with dimensions as small as 200 μm in width and 70 μm in height; the height is defined by the thickness of the paper. Photomasks for patterning paper-based microfluidic devices can be printed using an ink-jet printer or photocopier, or drawn by hand using a waterproof black pen. FLASH provides a straightforward method for prototyping paper-based microfluidic devices in regions where the technological support for conventional photolithography is not available. PMID:19023478

  14. Lab on a Biomembrane: Rapid prototyping and manipulation of 2D fluidic lipid bilayers circuits

    PubMed Central

    Ainla, Alar; Gözen, Irep; Hakonen, Bodil; Jesorka, Aldo

    2013-01-01

    Lipid bilayer membranes are among the most ubiquitous structures in the living world, with intricate structural features and a multitude of biological functions. It is attractive to recreate these structures in the laboratory, as this allows mimicking and studying the properties of biomembranes and their constituents, and to specifically exploit the intrinsic two-dimensional fluidity. Even though diverse strategies for membrane fabrication have been reported, the development of related applications and technologies has been hindered by the unavailability of both versatile and simple methods. Here we report a rapid prototyping technology for two-dimensional fluidic devices, based on in-situ generated circuits of phospholipid films. In this “lab on a molecularly thin membrane”, various chemical and physical operations, such as writing, erasing, functionalization, and molecular transport, can be applied to user-defined regions of a membrane circuit. This concept is an enabling technology for research on molecular membranes and their technological use. PMID:24067786

  15. Advances in three-dimensional rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices for biological applications

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, P. F.; Ben Azouz, A.; Vázquez, M.; Liu, J.; Marczak, S.; Slouka, Z.; Chang, H. C.; Diamond, D.; Brabazon, D.

    2014-01-01

    The capability of 3D printing technologies for direct production of complex 3D structures in a single step has recently attracted an ever increasing interest within the field of microfluidics. Recently, ultrafast lasers have also allowed developing new methods for production of internal microfluidic channels within the bulk of glass and polymer materials by direct internal 3D laser writing. This review critically summarizes the latest advances in the production of microfluidic 3D structures by using 3D printing technologies and direct internal 3D laser writing fabrication methods. Current applications of these rapid prototyped microfluidic platforms in biology will be also discussed. These include imaging of cells and living organisms, electrochemical detection of viruses and neurotransmitters, and studies in drug transport and induced-release of adenosine triphosphate from erythrocytes. PMID:25538804

  16. Innovative Applications of Laser Scanning and Rapid Prototype Printing to Rock Breakdown Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourke, Mary; Viles, Heather; Nicoll, Joe; Lyew-Ayee, Parris; Ghent, Rebecca; Holmlund, James

    2008-01-01

    We present the novel application of two technologies for use in rock breakdown experiments, i.e. close-range, ground-based 3D triangulation scanning and rapid prototype printing. These techniques aid analyses of form-process interactions across the range of scales relevant to breakdown (micron-m). This is achieved through (a) the creation of DEMs (which permit quantitative description and analysis of rock surface morphology and morphological change) and (b) the production of more realistically-shaped experimental blocks. We illustrate the use of these techniques, alongside appropriate data analysis routines, in experiments designed to investigate the persistence of fluvially-derived features in the face of subsequent wind abrasion and weathering. These techniques have a range of potential applications in experimental field and lab-based geomorphic studies beyond those specifically outlined here.

  17. Advances in three-dimensional rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices for biological applications.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, P F; Ben Azouz, A; Vázquez, M; Liu, J; Marczak, S; Slouka, Z; Chang, H C; Diamond, D; Brabazon, D

    2014-09-01

    The capability of 3D printing technologies for direct production of complex 3D structures in a single step has recently attracted an ever increasing interest within the field of microfluidics. Recently, ultrafast lasers have also allowed developing new methods for production of internal microfluidic channels within the bulk of glass and polymer materials by direct internal 3D laser writing. This review critically summarizes the latest advances in the production of microfluidic 3D structures by using 3D printing technologies and direct internal 3D laser writing fabrication methods. Current applications of these rapid prototyped microfluidic platforms in biology will be also discussed. These include imaging of cells and living organisms, electrochemical detection of viruses and neurotransmitters, and studies in drug transport and induced-release of adenosine triphosphate from erythrocytes. PMID:25538804

  18. A system for rapid prototyping of hearts with congenital malformations based on the medical imaging interaction toolkit (MITK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Ivo; Böttger, Thomas; Rietdorf, Urte; Maleike, Daniel; Greil, Gerald; Sieverding, Ludger; Miller, Stephan; Mottl-Link, Sibylle; Meinzer, Hans-Peter

    2006-03-01

    Precise knowledge of the individual cardiac anatomy is essential for diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart disease. Complex malformations of the heart can best be comprehended not from images but from anatomic specimens. Physical models can be created from data using rapid prototyping techniques, e.g., lasersintering or 3D-printing. We have developed a system for obtaining data that show the relevant cardiac anatomy from high-resolution CT/MR images and are suitable for rapid prototyping. The challenge is to preserve all relevant details unaltered in the produced models. The main anatomical structures of interest are the four heart cavities (atria, ventricles), the valves and the septum separating the cavities, and the great vessels. These can be shown either by reproducing the morphology itself or by producing a model of the blood-pool, thus creating a negative of the morphology. Algorithmically the key issue is segmentation. Practically, possibilities allowing the cardiologist or cardiac surgeon to interactively check and correct the segmentation are even more important due to the complex, irregular anatomy and imaging artefacts. The paper presents the algorithmic and interactive processing steps implemented in the system, which is based on the open-source Medical Imaging Interaction Toolkit (MITK, www.mitk.org). It is shown how the principles used in MITK enable to assemble the system from modules (functionalities) developed independently from each other. The system allows to produce models of the heart (and other anatomic structures) of individual patients as well as to reproduce unique specimens from pathology collections for teaching purposes.

  19. Novel CAD/CAM rapid prototyping of next-generation biomedical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doraiswamy, Anand

    An aging population with growing healthcare needs demands multifaceted tools for diagnosis and treatment of health conditions. In the near-future, drug-administration devices, implantable devices/sensors, enhanced prosthesis, artificial and unique functional tissue constructs will become increasingly significant. Conventional technologies for mass-produced implants do not adequately take individual patient anatomy into consideration. Development of novel CAD/CAM rapid prototyping techniques may significantly accelerate progress of these devices for next-generation patient-care. In this dissertation, several novel rapid prototyping techniques have been introduced for next-generation biomedical applications. Two-photon polymerization was developed to microfabricate scaffolds for tissue engineering, microneedles for drug-delivery and ossicular replacement prostheses. Various photoplymers were evaluated for feasibility, mechanical properties, cytotoxicity, and surface properties. Laser direct write using MDW was utilized for developing microstructures of bioceramics such as hydroxyapatite, and viable mammalian osteosarcoma cells. CAD/CAM laser micromachining (CLM) was developed to engineer biointerfaces as surface recognition regions for differential adherence of cells and growth into tissue-like networks. CLM was also developed for engineering multi-cellular vascular networks. Cytotoxic evaluations and growth studies demonstrated VEGF-induced proliferation of HAAE-1 human aortic endothelial cells with inhibition of HA-VSMC human aortic smooth muscle cells. Finally, piiezoelectric inkjet printing was developed for controlled administration of natural and synthetic adhesives to overcome several problems associated with conventional tissue bonding materials, and greatly improve wound-repair in next generation eye repair, fracture fixation, organ fixation, wound closure, tissue engineering, and drug delivery devices.

  20. Quantitative assessment of biophotonic imaging system performance with phantoms fabricated by rapid prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianting; Coburn, James; Woolsey, Nicholas; Liang, Chia-Pin; Ramella-Roman, Jessica; Chen, Yu; Pfefer, Joshua

    2014-03-01

    In biophotonic imaging, turbid phantoms that are low-cost, biologically-relevant, and durable are desired for standardized performance assessment. Such phantoms often contain inclusions of varying depths and sizes in order to quantify key image quality characteristics such as penetration depth, sensitivity and contrast detectability. The emerging technique of rapid prototyping with three-dimensional (3D) printers provides a potentially revolutionary way to fabricate these structures. Towards this goal, we have characterized the optical properties and morphology of phantoms fabricated by two 3D printing approaches: thermosoftening and photopolymerization. Material optical properties were measured by spectrophotometry while the morphology of phantoms incorporating 0.2-1.0 mm diameter channels was studied by μCT, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical microscopy. A near-infrared absorbing dye and nanorods at several concentrations were injected into channels to evaluate detectability with a near-infrared hyperspectral reflectance imaging (HRI) system (650-1100 nm). Phantoms exhibited biologically-relevant scattering and low absorption across visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Although limitations in resolution were noted, channels with diameters of 0.4 mm or more could be reliably fabricated. The most significant problem noted was the porosity of phantoms generated with the thermosoftening-based printer. The aforementioned three imaging methods provided a valuable mix of insights into phantom morphology and may also be useful for detailed structural inspection of medical devices fabricated by rapid prototyping, such as customized implants. Overall, our findings indicate that 3D printing has significant potential as a method for fabricating well-characterized, standard phantoms for medical imaging modalities such as HRI.

  1. Rapid prototyping of carbon-based chemiresistive gas sensors on paper

    PubMed Central

    Mirica, Katherine A.; Azzarelli, Joseph M.; Weis, Jonathan G.; Schnorr, Jan M.; Swager, Timothy M.

    2013-01-01

    Chemically functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are promising materials for sensing of gases and volatile organic compounds. However, the poor solubility of carbon nanotubes hinders their chemical functionalization and the subsequent integration of these materials into devices. This manuscript describes a solvent-free procedure for rapid prototyping of selective chemiresistors from CNTs and graphite on the surface of paper. This procedure enables fabrication of functional gas sensors from commercially available starting materials in less than 15 min. The first step of this procedure involves the generation of solid composites of CNTs or graphite with small molecule selectors—designed to interact with specific classes of gaseous analytes—by solvent-free mechanical mixing in a ball mill and subsequent compression. The second step involves deposition of chemiresistive sensors by mechanical abrasion of these solid composites onto the surface of paper. Parallel fabrication of multiple chemiresistors from diverse composites rapidly generates cross-reactive arrays capable of sensing and differentiating gases and volatile organic compounds at part-per-million and part-per-thousand concentrations. PMID:23942132

  2. Assessment of Data Assimilation with the Prototype High Resolution Rapid Refresh for Alaska (HRRRAK)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, Kayla; Morton, Don; Zavodsky, Brad; Chou, Shih

    2012-01-01

    The Arctic Region Supercomputing Center has been running a quasi-operational prototype of a High Resolution Rapid Refresh for Alaska (HRRRAK) at 3km resolution, initialized by the 13km Rapid Refresh (RR). Although the RR assimilates a broad range of observations into its analyses, experiments with the HRRRAK suggest that there may be added value in assimilating observations into the 3km initial conditions, downscaled from the 13km RR analyses. The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) group has been using assimilated data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) in WRF and WRF-Var simulations since 2004 with promising results. The sounder is aboard NASA s Aqua satellite, and provides vertical profiles of temperature and humidity. The Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) system is then used to assimilate these vertical profiles into WRF forecasts. In this work, we assess the use of AIRS data in combination with other global data assimilation products on non-assimilated HRRRAK case studies. Two separate weather events will be assessed to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the impacts of AIRS data on HRRRAK forecasts.

  3. A microcontroller platform for the rapid prototyping of functional electrical stimulation-based gait neuroprostheses.

    PubMed

    Luzio de Melo, Paulo; da Silva, Miguel Tavares; Martins, Jorge; Newman, Dava

    2015-05-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) has been used over the last decades as a method to rehabilitate lost motor functions of individuals with spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, and post-stroke hemiparesis. Within this field, researchers in need of developing FES-based control solutions for specific disabilities often have to choose between either the acquisition and integration of high-performance industry-level systems, which are rather expensive and hardly portable, or develop custom-made portable solutions, which despite their lower cost, usually require expert-level electronic skills. Here, a flexible low-cost microcontroller-based platform for rapid prototyping of FES neuroprostheses is presented, designed for reduced execution complexity, development time, and production cost. For this reason, the Arduino open-source microcontroller platform was used, together with off-the-shelf components whenever possible. The developed system enables the rapid deployment of portable FES-based gait neuroprostheses, being flexible enough to allow simple open-loop strategies but also more complex closed-loop solutions. The system is based on a modular architecture that allows the development of optimized solutions depending on the desired FES applications, even though the design and testing of the platform were focused toward drop foot correction. The flexibility of the system was demonstrated using two algorithms targeting drop foot condition within different experimental setups. Successful bench testing of the device in healthy subjects demonstrated these neuroprosthesis platform capabilities to correct drop foot. PMID:25919579

  4. A frame-based domain-specific language for rapid prototyping of FPGA-based software-defined radios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouedraogo, Ganda Stephane; Gautier, Matthieu; Sentieys, Olivier

    2014-12-01

    The field-programmable gate array (FPGA) technology is expected to play a key role in the development of software-defined radio (SDR) platforms. As this technology evolves, low-level designing methods for prototyping FPGA-based applications did not change throughout the decades. In the outstanding context of SDR, it is important to rapidly implement new waveforms to fulfill such a stringent flexibility paradigm. At the current time, different proposals have defined, through software-based approaches, some efficient methods to prototype SDR waveforms in a processor-based running environment. This paper describes a novel design flow for FPGA-based SDR applications. This flow relies upon high-level synthesis (HLS) principles and leverages the nascent HLS tools. Its entry point is a domain-specific language (DSL) which handles the complexity of programming an FPGA and integrates some SDR features so as to enable automatic waveform control generation from a data frame model. Two waveforms (IEEE 802.15.4 and IEEE 802.11a) have been designed and explored via this new methodology, and the results are highlighted in this paper.

  5. Rapid prototyping of interfacing microcomponents for printed circuit board-level optical interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Erps, Jürgen; Vervaeke, Michael; Thienpont, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    One of the important challenges for the deployment of the emerging breed of nanotechnology components is interfacing them with the external world, preferably accomplished with low-cost micro-optical devices. For the fabrication of this kind of micro-optical components, we make use of deep proton writing (DPW) as a generic rapid prototyping technology. DPW consists of bombarding polymer samples with swift protons, which results after chemical processing steps in high quality micro-optical components. The strength of the DPW micro-machining technology is the ability to fabricate monolithic building blocks that include micro-optical and mechanical functionalities which can be precisely integrated into more complex photonic systems. In this paper we give an overview of the process steps of the technology and we present several examples of micro-optical and micro-mechanical components, fabricated through DPW, targeting applications in printed circuit baordlevel optical interconnections. These include: high-precision 2-D fiber connectors, discrete out-of-plane coupling structures featuring high-quality 45° and curved micro-mirrors, arrays of high aspect ratio micro-pillars and backplane connectors. While DPW is clearly not a mass fabrication technique as such, one of its assets is that once the master component has been prototyped, a metal mould can be generated from the DPW master by applying electroplating. After removal of the plastic master, this metal mould can be used as a shim in a final microinjection moulding or hot embossing step. This way, the master component can be mass-produced at low cost in a wide variety of high-tech plastics.

  6. Deep proton writing: a powerful rapid prototyping technology for various micro-optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Erps, Jürgen; Vervaeke, Michael; Debaes, Christof; Ottevaere, Heidi; Van Overmeire, Sara; Hermanne, Alex; Thienpont, Hugo

    2010-05-01

    One of the important challenges for the deployment of the emerging breed of nanotechnology components is interfacing them with the external world, preferably accomplished with low-cost micro-optical devices. For the fabrication of this kind of micro-optical modules, we make use of deep proton writing (DPW) as a generic rapid prototyping technology. DPW consists of bombarding polymer samples with swift protons, which results after chemical processing steps in high quality micro-optical components. The strength of the DPW micro-machining technology is the ability to fabricate monolithic building blocks that include micro-optical and mechanical functionalities which can be precisely integrated into more complex photonic systems. In this paper we give an overview of the process steps of the technology and we present several examples of micro-optical and micro-mechanical components, fabricated through DPW, targeting applications in optical interconnections and in bio-photonics. These include: high-precision 2-D fiber connectors, out-of-plane coupling structures featuring high-quality 45° and curved micro-mirrors, arrays of high aspect ratio micro-pillars, and fluorescence and absorption detection bio-photonics modules. While DPW is clearly not a mass fabrication technique as such, one of its assets is that once the master component has been prototyped, a metal mould can be generated from the DPW master by applying electroplating. After removal of the plastic master, this metal mould can be used as a shim in a final microinjection moulding or hot embossing step. This way, the master component can be mass-produced at low cost in a wide variety of high-tech plastics.

  7. From Prototypes to Caricatures: Geometrical Models for Concept Typicality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ameel, Eef; Storms, Gert

    2006-01-01

    In three studies, we investigated to what extent a geometrical representation in a psychological space succeeds in predicting typicality in animal, natural food and artifact concepts and whether contrast categories contribute to the prediction. In Study 1, we compared the predictive value of a family resemblance-based prototype model with a…

  8. Rapid world modelling for robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Littile, C.Q.; Wilson, C.W.

    1996-04-01

    The ability to use an interactive world model, whether it is for robotics simulation or most other virtual graphical environments, relies on the users ability to create an accurate world model. Typically this is a tedious process, requiring many hours to create 3-D CAD models of the surfaces within a workspace. The goal of this ongoing project is to develop usable methods to rapidly build world models of real world workspaces. This brings structure to an unstructured environment and allows graphical based robotics control to be accomplished in a reasonable time frame when traditional CAD modelling is not enough. To accomplish this, 3D range sensors are deployed to capture surface data within the workspace. This data is then transformed into surface maps, or models. A 3D world model of the workspace is built quickly and accurately, without ever having to put people in the environment.

  9. Rapid Model Fabrication and Testing for Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buck, Gregory M.

    2000-01-01

    Advanced methods for rapid fabrication and instrumentation of hypersonic wind tunnel models are being developed and evaluated at NASA Langley Research Center. Rapid aeroheating model fabrication and measurement techniques using investment casting of ceramic test models and thermographic phosphors are reviewed. More accurate model casting techniques for fabrication of benchmark metal and ceramic test models are being developed using a combination of rapid prototype patterns and investment casting. White light optical scanning is used for coordinate measurements to evaluate the fabrication process and verify model accuracy to +/- 0.002 inches. Higher-temperature (<210C) luminescent coatings are also being developed for simultaneous pressure and temperature mapping, providing global pressure as well as global aeroheating measurements. Together these techniques will provide a more rapid and complete experimental aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic database for future aerospace vehicles.

  10. Planar array stack design aided by rapid prototyping in development of air-breathing PEMFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chen-Yu; Lai, Wei-Hsiang; Weng, Biing-Jyh; Chuang, Huey-Jan; Hsieh, Ching-Yuan; Kung, Chien-Chih

    The polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is one of the most important research topics in the new and clean energy area. The middle or high power PEMFCs can be applied to the transportation or the distributed power system. But for the small power application, it is needed to match the power requirement of the product generally. On the other hand, the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is one of the most common type that researchers are interested in, but recently the miniature or the micro-PEMFCs attract more attention due to their advantages of high open circuit voltage and high power density. The objective of this study is to develop a new air-breathing planar array fuel cell stacked from 10 cells made by rapid prototyping technology which has potential for fast commercial design, low cost manufacturing, and even without converters/inverters for the system. In this paper, the main material of flow field plates is acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) which allows the fuel cell be mass-manufactured by plastic injection molding technology. The rapid prototyping technology is applied to construct the prototype and verify the practicability of the proposed stack design. A 10-cell air-breathing miniature PEMFC stack with a volume of 6 cm × 6 cm × 0.9 cm is developed and tested. Its segmented membrane electrode assembly (MEA) is designed with the active surface area of 1.3 cm × 1.3 cm in each individual MEA. The platinum loading at anode and cathode are 0.2 mg cm -2 and 0.4 mg cm -2, respectively. Results show that the peak power densities of the parallel connected and serial connected stack are 99 mW cm -2 at 0.425 V and 92 mW cm -2 at 4.25 V, respectively under the conditions of 70 °C relative saturated humidity (i.e., dew point temperature), ambient temperature and free convection air. Besides, the stack performance is increased under forced convection. If the cell surface air is blown by an electric fan, the peak power densities of parallel connected and

  11. A platform for rapid prototyping of synthetic gene networks in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Duportet, Xavier; Wroblewska, Liliana; Guye, Patrick; Li, Yinqing; Eyquem, Justin; Rieders, Julianne; Rimchala, Tharathorn; Batt, Gregory; Weiss, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian synthetic biology may provide novel therapeutic strategies, help decipher new paths for drug discovery and facilitate synthesis of valuable molecules. Yet, our capacity to genetically program cells is currently hampered by the lack of efficient approaches to streamline the design, construction and screening of synthetic gene networks. To address this problem, here we present a framework for modular and combinatorial assembly of functional (multi)gene expression vectors and their efficient and specific targeted integration into a well-defined chromosomal context in mammalian cells. We demonstrate the potential of this framework by assembling and integrating different functional mammalian regulatory networks including the largest gene circuit built and chromosomally integrated to date (6 transcription units, 27kb) encoding an inducible memory device. Using a library of 18 different circuits as a proof of concept, we also demonstrate that our method enables one-pot/single-flask chromosomal integration and screening of circuit libraries. This rapid and powerful prototyping platform is well suited for comparative studies of genetic regulatory elements, genes and multi-gene circuits as well as facile development of libraries of isogenic engineered cell lines. PMID:25378321

  12. Porous titanium scaffolds fabricated using a rapid prototyping and powder metallurgy technique.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Garrett E; Pandit, Abhay S; Apatsidis, Dimitrios P

    2008-09-01

    One of the main issues in orthopaedic implant design is the fabrication of scaffolds that closely mimic the biomechanical properties of the surrounding bone. This research reports on a multi-stage rapid prototyping technique that was successfully developed to produce porous titanium scaffolds with fully interconnected pore networks and reproducible porosity and pore size. The scaffolds' porous characteristics were governed by a sacrificial wax template, fabricated using a commercial 3D-printer. Powder metallurgy processes were employed to generate the titanium scaffolds by filling around the wax template with titanium slurry. In the attempt to optimise the powder metallurgy technique, variations in slurry concentration, compaction pressure and sintering temperature were investigated. By altering the wax design template, pore sizes ranging from 200 to 400 microm were achieved. Scaffolds with porosities of 66.8 +/- 3.6% revealed compression strengths of 104.4+/-22.5 MPa in the axial direction and 23.5 +/- 9.6 MPa in the transverse direction demonstrating their anisotropic nature. Scaffold topography was characterised using scanning electron microscopy and microcomputed tomography. Three-dimensional reconstruction enabled the main architectural parameters such as pore size, interconnecting porosity, level of anisotropy and level of structural disorder to be determined. The titanium scaffolds were compared to their intended designs, as governed by their sacrificial wax templates. Although discrepancies in architectural parameters existed between the intended and the actual scaffolds, overall the results indicate that the porous titanium scaffolds have the properties to be potentially employed in orthopaedic applications. PMID:18556060

  13. Rapid prototyping: porous titanium alloy scaffolds produced by selective laser melting for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Warnke, Patrick H; Douglas, Timothy; Wollny, Patrick; Sherry, Eugene; Steiner, Martin; Galonska, Sebastian; Becker, Stephan T; Springer, Ingo N; Wiltfang, Jörg; Sivananthan, Sureshan

    2009-06-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM), a method used in the nuclear, space, and racing industries, allows the creation of customized titanium alloy scaffolds with highly defined external shape and internal structure using rapid prototyping as supporting external structures within which bone tissue can grow. Human osteoblasts were cultured on SLM-produced Ti6Al4V mesh scaffolds to demonstrate biocompatibility using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fluorescence microscopy after cell vitality staining, and common biocompatibility tests (lactate dihydrogenase (LDH), 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU), and water soluble tetrazolium (WST)). Cell occlusion of pores of different widths (0.45-1.2 mm) was evaluated. Scaffolds were tested for resistance to compressive force. SEM investigations showed osteoblasts with well-spread morphology and multiple contact points. Cell vitality staining and biocompatibility tests confirmed osteoblast vitality and proliferation on the scaffolds. Pore overgrowth increased during 6 weeks' culture at pore widths of 0.45 and 0.5 mm, and in the course of 3 weeks for pore widths of 0.55, 0.6, and 0.7 mm. No pore occlusion was observed on pores of width 0.9-1.2 mm. Porosity and maximum compressive load at failure increased and decreased with increasing pore width, respectively. In summary, the scaffolds are biocompatible, and pore width influences pore overgrowth, resistance to compressive force, and porosity. PMID:19072196

  14. Rapid Prototyping of a High Sensitivity Graphene Based Glucose Sensor Strip

    PubMed Central

    Tehrani, Farshad; Reiner, Lisa; Bavarian, Behzad

    2015-01-01

    A rapid prototyping of an inexpensive, disposable graphene and copper nanocomposite sensor strip using polymeric flexible substrate for highly sensitive and selective nonenzymatic glucose detection has been developed and tested for direct oxidization of glucose. The CuNPs were electrochemically deposited on to the graphene sheets to improve electron transfer rates and to enhance electrocatalytic activity toward glucose. The graphene based electrode with CuNPs demonstrated a high degree of sensitivity (1101.3±56 μA/mM.cm2), excellent selectivity (without an interference with Ascorbic Acid, Uric Acid, Dopamine, and Acetaminophen), good stability with a linear response to glucose ranging from 0.1 mM to 0.6 mM concentration, and detection limits of 0.025 mM to 0.9 mM. Characterization of the electrodes was performed by scanning electron microscopy (FESEM and SEM). The electrochemical properties of the modified graphene electrodes were inspected by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and amperometry. PMID:26678700

  15. Rapid Prototyping of a High Sensitivity Graphene Based Glucose Sensor Strip.

    PubMed

    Tehrani, Farshad; Reiner, Lisa; Bavarian, Behzad

    2015-01-01

    A rapid prototyping of an inexpensive, disposable graphene and copper nanocomposite sensor strip using polymeric flexible substrate for highly sensitive and selective nonenzymatic glucose detection has been developed and tested for direct oxidization of glucose. The CuNPs were electrochemically deposited on to the graphene sheets to improve electron transfer rates and to enhance electrocatalytic activity toward glucose. The graphene based electrode with CuNPs demonstrated a high degree of sensitivity (1101.3 ± 56 μA/mM.cm2), excellent selectivity (without an interference with Ascorbic Acid, Uric Acid, Dopamine, and Acetaminophen), good stability with a linear response to glucose ranging from 0.1 mM to 0.6 mM concentration, and detection limits of 0.025 mM to 0.9 mM. Characterization of the electrodes was performed by scanning electron microscopy (FESEM and SEM). The electrochemical properties of the modified graphene electrodes were inspected by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and amperometry. PMID:26678700

  16. Rapid prototyping of electrochromatography chips for improved two-photon excited fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Hackl, Claudia; Beyreiss, Reinhild; Geissler, David; Jezierski, Stefan; Belder, Detlev

    2014-04-15

    In the present study, we introduce two-photon excitation at 532 nm for label-free fluorescence detection in chip electrochromatography. Two-photon excitation at 532 nm offers a promising alternative to one-photon excitation at 266 nm, as it enables the use of economic chip materials instead of fused silica. In order to demonstrate these benefits, one-photon and two-photon induced fluorescence detection are compared in different chip layouts and materials with respect to the achievable sensitivity in the detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Customized chromatography chips with cover or bottom slides of different material and thickness are produced by means of a rapid prototyping method based on liquid-phase lithography. The design of thin bottom chips (180 μm) enables the use of high-performance immersion objectives with low working distances, which allows one to exploit the full potential of two-photon excitation for a sensitive detection. The developed method is applied for label-free analysis of PAHs separated on a polymer monolith inside polymer glass sandwich chips made from fused silica or soda-lime glass. The obtained limits of detection range from 40 nM to 1.95 μM, with similar sensitivities in fused silica thin bottom chips for one-photon and two-photon excitation. In deep-UV non- or less-transparent devices two-photon excitation is mandatory for label-free detection of aromatics with high sensitivity. PMID:24666258

  17. Rapid prototyping of reflectors for vehicle lighting using laser activated remote phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachmayer, Roland; Kloppenburg, Gerolf; Wolf, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    Bright white light sources are of significant importance for automotive front lighting systems. Today's upper class vehicles mainly use HID or LED as light source. As a further step in this development laser diode based systems offer high luminance, efficiency and allow the realization of new styling concepts and new dynamic lighting functions. These white laser diode systems can either be realized by mixing different spectral sources or by combining diodes with specific phosphors. Based on the approach of generating light using a laser and remote phosphor, lighting modules are manufactured. Four blue laser diodes (450 nm) are used to activate a phosphor coating and thus to achieve white light. A segmented paraboloid reflector generates the desired light distribution for an additional car headlamp. We use high speed milling and selective laser melting to build the reflector system for this lighting module. We compare the spectral reflection grade of these materials. Furthermore the generated modules are analyzed regarding their efficiency and light distribution. The use of Rapid Prototyping technologies allows an early validation of the chosen concept and is supposed to reduce cost and time in the product development process significantly. Therefor we discuss costs and times of the applied manufacturing technologies.

  18. Using distributed genetic algorithms in three-dimensional bin packing for rapid prototyping machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, James E.; Ragade, Rammohan K.; Kumar, Anup; Biles, William E.; Ikonen, Ilkka T.

    1998-10-01

    Genetic algorithms (GAs) are excellent approaches to solving complex problems in optimization with difficult constraints, and in high state space dimensionality problems. The classic bin-packing optimization problem has been shown to be a NP- complete problem. There are GA applications to variations of the bin-packing problem for stock cutting, vehicle loading, air container loading, scheduling, and the knapsack problem. Mostly, these are based on a 1D or 2D considerations. Ikonen et. al. have developed a GA for rapid prototyping called GARP, which utilizes a 3D chromosome structure for the bin- packing of the Sinterstation 2000's build cylinder. GARP allows the Sinterstation to be used more productively. The GARP application was developed for a single CPU machine. Anticipating greater use of time compression technologies, this paper examines the framework necessary to reduce GARP's execution time. This framework is necessary to speed-up the bin-packing evaluation, by the use of distributed or parallel GAs. In this paper, a framework for distribution techniques to improve the efficiency of GARP, and to improve the quality of GARPis solutions is proposed.

  19. Using CamiTK for rapid prototyping of interactive Computer Assisted Medical Intervention applications

    PubMed Central

    Promayon, Emmanuel; Fouard, Celine; Bailet, Mathieu; Deram, Aurelien; Fiard, Gaelle; Hungr, Nikolai; Luboz, Vincent; Payan, Yohan; Sarrazin, Johan; Saubat, Nicolas; Selmi, Sonia Yuki; Voros, Sandrine; Cinquin, Philippe; Troccaz, Jocelyne

    2013-01-01

    Computer Assisted Medical Intervention (CAMI hereafter) is a complex multi-disciplinary field. CAMI research requires the collaboration of experts in several fields as diverse as medicine, computer science, mathematics, instrumentation, signal processing, mechanics, modeling, automatics, optics, etc. CamiTK1 is a modular framework that helps researchers and clinicians to collaborate together in order to prototype CAMI applications by regrouping the knowledge and expertise from each discipline. It is an open-source, cross-platform generic and modular tool written in C++ which can handle medical images, surgical navigation, biomedicals simulations and robot control. This paper presents the Computer Assisted Medical Intervention ToolKit (CamiTK) and how it is used in various applications in our research team. PMID:24110841

  20. Application of the rapid prototyping technique to design a customized temporomandibular joint used to treat temporomandibular ankylosis

    PubMed Central

    Chaware, Suresh M.; Bagaria, Vaibhav; Kuthe, Abhay

    2009-01-01

    Anthropometric variations in humans make it difficult to replace a temporomandibular joint (TMJ), successfully using a standard “one-size-fits-all” prosthesis. The case report presents a unique concept of total TMJ replacement with customized and modified TMJ prosthesis, which is cost-effective and provides the best fit for the patient. The process involved in designing and modifications over the existing prosthesis are also described. A 12-year- old female who presented for treatment of left unilateral TMJ ankylosis underwent the surgery for total TMJ replacement. A three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) scan suggested features of bony ankylosis of left TMJ. CT images were converted to a sterolithographic model using CAD software and a rapid prototyping machine. A process of rapid manufacturing was then used to manufacture the customized prosthesis. Postoperative recovery was uneventful, with an improvement in mouth opening of 3.5 cm and painless jaw movements. Three years postsurgery, the patient is pain-free, has a mouth opening of about 4.0 cm and enjoys a normal diet. The postoperative radiographs concur with the excellent clinical results. The use of CAD/CAM technique to design the custom-made prosthesis, using orthopaedically proven structural materials, significantly improves the predictability and success rates of TMJ replacement surgery. PMID:19881026

  1. Rapid world modelling from a mobile platform

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, R.E.; Jones, J.P.; Little, C.Q.; Wilson, C.W.

    1997-04-01

    The ability to successfully use and interact with a computerized world model is dependent on the ability to create an accurate world model. The goal of this project was to develop a prototype system to remotely deploy sensors into a workspace, collect surface information, and rapidly build an accurate world model of that workspace. A key consideration was that the workspace areas are typically hazardous environments, where it is difficult or impossible for humans to enter. Therefore, the system needed to be fully remote, with no external connections. To accomplish this goal, an electric, mobile platform with battery power sufficient for both the platform and sensor electronics was procured and 3D range sensors were deployed on the platform to capture surface data within the workspace. A radio Ethernet connection was used to provide communications to the vehicle and all on-board electronics. Video from on-board cameras was also transmitted to the base station and used to teleoperate the vehicle. Range data generated by the on-board 3D sensors was transformed into surface maps, or models. Registering the sensor location to a consistent reference frame as the platform moved through the workspace allowed construction of a detailed 3D world model of the extended workspace.

  2. Rapid prototyping 3D virtual world interfaces within a virtual factory environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosta, Charles Paul; Krolak, Patrick D.

    1993-01-01

    On-going work into user requirements analysis using CLIPS (NASA/JSC) expert systems as an intelligent event simulator has led to research into three-dimensional (3D) interfaces. Previous work involved CLIPS and two-dimensional (2D) models. Integral to this work was the development of the University of Massachusetts Lowell parallel version of CLIPS, called PCLIPS. This allowed us to create both a Software Bus and a group problem-solving environment for expert systems development. By shifting the PCLIPS paradigm to use the VEOS messaging protocol we have merged VEOS (HlTL/Seattle) and CLIPS into a distributed virtual worlds prototyping environment (VCLIPS). VCLIPS uses the VEOS protocol layer to allow multiple experts to cooperate on a single problem. We have begun to look at the control of a virtual factory. In the virtual factory there are actors and objects as found in our Lincoln Logs Factory of the Future project. In this artificial reality architecture there are three VCLIPS entities in action. One entity is responsible for display and user events in the 3D virtual world. Another is responsible for either simulating the virtual factory or communicating with the real factory. The third is a user interface expert. The interface expert maps user input levels, within the current prototype, to control information for the factory. The interface to the virtual factory is based on a camera paradigm. The graphics subsystem generates camera views of the factory on standard X-Window displays. The camera allows for view control and object control. Control or the factory is accomplished by the user reaching into the camera views to perform object interactions. All communication between the separate CLIPS expert systems is done through VEOS.

  3. Software design and operational model for the WCEDS prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Beiriger, J.I.; Moore, S.G.; Young, C.J.; Trujillo, J.R.

    1997-08-01

    To explore the potential of waveform correlation for CTBT, the Waveform Correlation Event Detection System (WCEDS) prototype was developed. The WCEDS software design followed the Object Modeling Technique process of analysis, system design, and detailed design and implementation. Several related executable programs are managed through a Graphical User Interface (GUI). The WCEDS prototype operates in an IDC/NDC-compatible environment. It employs a CSS 3.0 database as its primary input/output interface, reading in raw waveforms at the start, and storing origins, events, arrivals, and associations at the finish. Additional output includes correlation results and data for specified testcase origins, and correlation timelines for specified locations. During the software design process, the more general seismic monitoring functionality was extracted from WCEDS-specific requirements and developed into C++ object-oriented libraries. These include the master image, grid, basic seismic, and extended seismic libraries. Existing NDC and commercial libraries were incorporated into the prototype where appropriate, to focus development activities on new capability. The WCEDS-specific application code was built in a separate layer on top of the general seismic libraries. The general seismic libraries developed for the WCEDS prototype can provide a base for other algorithm development projects.

  4. Development of a prototype lateral flow immunoassay (LFI) for the rapid diagnosis of melioidosis.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Raymond L; Reed, Dana E; Hubbard, Mark A; Dillon, Michael J; Chen, Hongjing; Currie, Bart J; Mayo, Mark; Sarovich, Derek S; Theobald, Vanessa; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Wongsuvan, Gumphol; Chantratita, Narisara; Peacock, Sharon J; Hoffmaster, Alex R; Duval, Brea; Brett, Paul J; Burtnick, Mary N; Aucoin, David P

    2014-03-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a soil-dwelling bacterium and the causative agent of melioidosis. Isolation of B. pseudomallei from clinical samples is the "gold standard" for the diagnosis of melioidosis; results can take 3-7 days to produce. Alternatively, antibody-based tests have low specificity due to a high percentage of seropositive individuals in endemic areas. There is a clear need to develop a rapid point-of-care antigen detection assay for the diagnosis of melioidosis. Previously, we employed In vivo Microbial Antigen Discovery (InMAD) to identify potential B. pseudomallei diagnostic biomarkers. The B. pseudomallei capsular polysaccharide (CPS) and numerous protein antigens were identified as potential candidates. Here, we describe the development of a diagnostic immunoassay based on the detection of CPS. Following production of a CPS-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb), an antigen-capture immunoassay was developed to determine the concentration of CPS within a panel of melioidosis patient serum and urine samples. The same mAb was used to produce a prototype Active Melioidosis Detect Lateral Flow Immunoassay (AMD LFI); the limit of detection of the LFI for CPS is comparable to the antigen-capture immunoassay (∼0.2 ng/ml). The analytical reactivity (inclusivity) of the AMD LFI was 98.7% (76/77) when tested against a large panel of B. pseudomallei isolates. Analytical specificity (cross-reactivity) testing determined that 97.2% of B. pseudomallei near neighbor species (35/36) were not reactive. The non-reactive B. pseudomallei strain and the reactive near neighbor strain can be explained through genetic sequence analysis. Importantly, we show the AMD LFI is capable of detecting CPS in a variety of patient samples. The LFI is currently being evaluated in Thailand and Australia; the focus is to optimize and validate testing procedures on melioidosis patient samples prior to initiation of a large, multisite pre-clinical evaluation. PMID:24651568

  5. Application of Rapid Prototyping to the Investment Casting of Test Hardware (MSFC Center Director's Discretionary Fund Final Report, Project No. 98-08)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, K. G.; Wells, D.

    2000-01-01

    Investment casting masters of a selected propulsion hardware component, a fuel pump housing, were rapid prototyped on the several processes in-house, along with the new Z-Corp process acquired through this project. Also, tensile samples were prototyped and cast using the same significant parameters. The models were then shelled in-house using a commercial grade zircon-based slurry and stucco technique. Next, the shelled models were fired and cast by our in-house foundry contractor (IITRI), with NASA-23, a commonly used test hardware metal. The cast models are compared by their surface finish and overall appearance (i.e., the occurrence of pitting, warping, etc.), as well as dimensional accuracy.

  6. Validation of thermal models for a prototypical MEMS thermal actuator.

    SciTech Connect

    Gallis, Michail A.; Torczynski, John Robert; Piekos, Edward Stanley; Serrano, Justin Raymond; Gorby, Allen D.; Phinney, Leslie Mary

    2008-09-01

    This report documents technical work performed to complete the ASC Level 2 Milestone 2841: validation of thermal models for a prototypical MEMS thermal actuator. This effort requires completion of the following task: the comparison between calculated and measured temperature profiles of a heated stationary microbeam in air. Such heated microbeams are prototypical structures in virtually all electrically driven microscale thermal actuators. This task is divided into four major subtasks. (1) Perform validation experiments on prototypical heated stationary microbeams in which material properties such as thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity are measured if not known and temperature profiles along the beams are measured as a function of electrical power and gas pressure. (2) Develop a noncontinuum gas-phase heat-transfer model for typical MEMS situations including effects such as temperature discontinuities at gas-solid interfaces across which heat is flowing, and incorporate this model into the ASC FEM heat-conduction code Calore to enable it to simulate these effects with good accuracy. (3) Develop a noncontinuum solid-phase heat transfer model for typical MEMS situations including an effective thermal conductivity that depends on device geometry and grain size, and incorporate this model into the FEM heat-conduction code Calore to enable it to simulate these effects with good accuracy. (4) Perform combined gas-solid heat-transfer simulations using Calore with these models for the experimentally investigated devices, and compare simulation and experimental temperature profiles to assess model accuracy. These subtasks have been completed successfully, thereby completing the milestone task. Model and experimental temperature profiles are found to be in reasonable agreement for all cases examined. Modest systematic differences appear to be related to uncertainties in the geometric dimensions of the test structures and in the thermal conductivity of the

  7. Key elements to successful rapid prototyping and building of a Michelson interferometer for space-based sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Merritt; Cordray, David; Cronin, Shaun; Walker, Gary

    2004-02-01

    The Crosstrack Infrared Sounder (CrIS) is one of the sensors now under development for the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) program. In order to reduce program risk and verify instrument performance rapid prototyping of the sensor and critical subsystems has been utilized. Key among these was a prototype instrument and a prototype interferometer. This prototype instrument is referred to as the EDU1 (Engineering Development Unit). A second effort was the build of a prototype interferometer as a part of an internal ITT effort. This was an uncompensated version of the CrIS interferometer. This was referred to as the Aluminum Prototype Interferometer. The idea was to move rapidly to hardware while exploring new technologies. This was built in 4 months. There were key success factors for both efforts. A set of clear cardinal requirements was established. The layout and the cardinal requirements therefore provided a conceptual overview and a basis for deriving lower level requirements. These requirements remained basically unchanged throughout the effort. Vendors were closely worked with but; key to this was the GD&T dimensions and datum"s that were established. These enabled sub systems to be independently produced and "snapped together" to produce a final assembly in a minimum time. Essentially many of the critical optical alignments were built in to the individual parts so the subsequent shiming was not required. Electronics to control the porchswing and Dynamic Alignment Mechanism were developed in existing servo control test beds and designed to be FPGA based. This allowed a high degree of flexibility. Success was also based on continuity of the key engineering leadership and effective communications between the team and a clear understanding of the technical issues by the engineering leadership team.

  8. CartaBlanca-rapid prototyping development environment for non-linear systems on unstructured grids.

    SciTech Connect

    VanderHeyden, W. B.; Livescu, D.; Padial-Collins, N. T.

    2002-01-01

    This talk describes a component-based nonlinear physical system simulation prototyping package written entirely in Java using objectoriented design, The package provides scientists and engineers a 'developer-friendly' software environment for large-scale computational algorithm and physical model development, on the Jacobian-Free Newton-Krylov solution method surrounding a finite-volume treatment of conservation equations. This enables a clean component-like implementation. We first provide motivation for the development of the software and then discuss software structure. Discussion .includes a description of the use of Java's built-in thread facility that enables parallel, shared-memory computations on a wide variety of unstructured grids with triangular, quadrilateral, tetrahedral and hexahedral elements. We also discuss the use of Java's inheritance mechanism in the construction of a hierarchy of physics systems objects and linear and nonlinear solver objects that simplify development and foster software re-use. Following this, we show results from example calculations and then discuss plans including the extension of the software to distributed memory computer systems.

  9. The Effect of Jetting Parameters on the Performance of Droplet Formation for Ink-Jet Rapid Prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmer, Wayne

    1998-01-01

    Heinzl et al. (1985) reports that experiments in ink-jets to produce drawings or signals occurred as early as 1930. Various companies such as IBM and Pitney-Bowes have conducted extensive studies on these devices for many years. Many such reports are available in such journals as the IBM Journal of Research and Development. While numerous articles have been published on the jetting characteristics of ink and water, the literature is rather limited on fluids such as waxes (Gao & Sonin 1994) or non-water based fluids (Passow, et al. 1993). This present study extends the knowledge base to determine the performance of molten waxes in "ink-jet" type printers for rapid prototyping. The purpose of this research was to qualitatively and quantitatively study the droplet formation of a drop-on-demand ink-jet type nozzle system for rapid prototyping.

  10. The use of an automated flight test management system in the development of a rapid-prototyping flight research facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, Eugene L.; Hewett, Marle D.; Brumbaugh, Randal W.; Tartt, David M.; Antoniewicz, Robert F.; Agarwal, Arvind K.

    1988-01-01

    An automated flight test management system (ATMS) and its use to develop a rapid-prototyping flight research facility for artificial intelligence (AI) based flight systems concepts are described. The ATMS provides a flight test engineer with a set of tools that assist in flight planning and simulation. This system will be capable of controlling an aircraft during the flight test by performing closed-loop guidance functions, range management, and maneuver-quality monitoring. The rapid-prototyping flight research facility is being developed at the Dryden Flight Research Facility of the NASA Ames Research Center (Ames-Dryden) to provide early flight assessment of emerging AI technology. The facility is being developed as one element of the aircraft automation program which focuses on the qualification and validation of embedded real-time AI-based systems.

  11. Rapid prototyping and the ASME B5.54 standard for evaluation of machine tool performance

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, G.K.; Rhorer, D.

    1998-03-01

    The Directed Light Fabrication (DLF) process has shown feasibility for rapid fabrication of metal to full density. Structural properties equivalent to those of conventionally processed material have been achieved. The process is performed without the use of stereolithography files using a more conventional CNC approach to developing the motion path from the CAD solid model and using multi-axis positioning to deposit material in any plane, not just the horizontal plane used in many current processes. The important criteria for evaluating a solid free-form deposit were suggested and used to evaluate a part produced by DLF example presented here.

  12. Prototype of an in vitro model of the microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Shevkoplyas, Sergey S; Gifford, Sean C; Yoshida, Tatsuro; Bitensky, Mark W

    2003-03-01

    We have used microfabrication technology to construct a network of microchannels, patterned after the dimensions and architecture of the mammalian microcirculation. The network is cast in transparent silicone elastomer and the channels are coated with silanated mPEG to provide lubrication. Flow of red and white blood cells through the network is readily visualized by the use of high-speed digital image acquisition. The acquired sequences of high-quality images are used to calculate hematocrits and rates of red cell movement in the microchannels. Our prototype system has significant advantages over scaled-up room-size experimental systems in that it permits experimentation with actual human blood cells. Experiments can be carried out under well-controlled conditions in a network of microchannels with precisely known dimensions using cell suspensions of defined composition. Moreover, there is no need to counteract or anticipate the host's adaptive responses that may confound live animal experiments. Notwithstanding its limitations, the current prototype demonstrates certain features characteristic of the microcirculation, such as parachute and bullet shapes of red cells deformed in capillary channels, rouleaux formation, plasma skimming, and the utilization of collateral flow pathways due to flow obstruction caused by a white cell blocking a microchannel. We present this device as a prototype scale-to-scale model of the mammalian microcirculation. Limitations of the system as well as a variety of possible applications are described. PMID:12686171

  13. Development of Rapid, Continuous Calibration Techniques and Implementation as a Prototype System for Civil Engineering Materials Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, M. L.; Gagarin, N.; Mekemson, J. R.; Chintakunta, S. R.

    2011-06-01

    Until recently, civil engineering material calibration data could only be obtained from material sample cores or via time consuming, stationary calibration measurements in a limited number of locations. Calibration data are used to determine material propagation velocities of electromagnetic waves in test materials for use in layer thickness measurements and subsurface imaging. Limitations these calibration methods impose have been a significant impediment to broader use of nondestructive evaluation methods such as ground-penetrating radar (GPR). In 2006, a new rapid, continuous calibration approach was designed using simulation software to address these measurement limitations during a Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) research and development effort. This continuous calibration method combines a digitally-synthesized step-frequency (SF)-GPR array and a data collection protocol sequence for the common midpoint (CMP) method. Modeling and laboratory test results for various data collection protocols and materials are presented in this paper. The continuous-CMP concept was finally implemented for FHWA in a prototype demonstration system called the Advanced Pavement Evaluation (APE) system in 2009. Data from the continuous-CMP protocol is processed using a semblance/coherency analysis to determine material propagation velocities. Continuously calibrated pavement thicknesses measured with the APE system in 2009 are presented. This method is efficient, accurate, and cost-effective.

  14. Comparison of Conventional Methods and Laser-Assisted Rapid Prototyping for Manufacturing Fixed Dental Prostheses: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Pompa, Giorgio; Di Carlo, Stefano; De Angelis, Francesca; Cristalli, Maria Paola; Annibali, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed whether there are differences in marginal fit between laser-fusion and conventional techniques to produce fixed dental prostheses (FDPs). A master steel die with 2 abutments was produced to receive a posterior 4-unit FDPs and single copings. These experimental models were divided into three groups (n = 20/group) manufactured: group 1, Ni-Cr alloy, with a lost-wax casting technique; group 2, Co-Cr alloy, with selective laser melting (SLM); and group 3, yttria-tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP), with a milling system. All specimens were cut along the longitudinal axis and their adaptation was measured at the marginal and shoulder areas on the right and left sides of each abutment. Measurements were made using a stereomicroscope (×60 magnification) and a scanning electron microscope (×800 magnification). The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and the Bonferroni post hoc test, with a significance cutoff of 5%. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed between group 3 and the other groups. The marginal opening was smallest with Co-Cr alloy substructures, while the shoulder opening was smallest with Ni-Cr alloy substructures. Within the limitations of this study, the marginal fit of an FDP is better with rapid prototyping (RP) via SLM than conventional manufacturing systems. PMID:26576419

  15. Comparison of Conventional Methods and Laser-Assisted Rapid Prototyping for Manufacturing Fixed Dental Prostheses: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Pompa, Giorgio; Di Carlo, Stefano; De Angelis, Francesca; Cristalli, Maria Paola; Annibali, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed whether there are differences in marginal fit between laser-fusion and conventional techniques to produce fixed dental prostheses (FDPs). A master steel die with 2 abutments was produced to receive a posterior 4-unit FDPs and single copings. These experimental models were divided into three groups (n = 20/group) manufactured: group 1, Ni-Cr alloy, with a lost-wax casting technique; group 2, Co-Cr alloy, with selective laser melting (SLM); and group 3, yttria-tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP), with a milling system. All specimens were cut along the longitudinal axis and their adaptation was measured at the marginal and shoulder areas on the right and left sides of each abutment. Measurements were made using a stereomicroscope (×60 magnification) and a scanning electron microscope (×800 magnification). The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and the Bonferroni post hoc test, with a significance cutoff of 5%. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed between group 3 and the other groups. The marginal opening was smallest with Co-Cr alloy substructures, while the shoulder opening was smallest with Ni-Cr alloy substructures. Within the limitations of this study, the marginal fit of an FDP is better with rapid prototyping (RP) via SLM than conventional manufacturing systems. PMID:26576419

  16. Development of rapid, continuous calibration techniques and implementation as a prototype system for civil engineering materials evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, M. L.; Gagarin, N.; Mekemson, J. R.; Chintakunta, S. R.

    2011-06-23

    Until recently, civil engineering material calibration data could only be obtained from material sample cores or via time consuming, stationary calibration measurements in a limited number of locations. Calibration data are used to determine material propagation velocities of electromagnetic waves in test materials for use in layer thickness measurements and subsurface imaging. Limitations these calibration methods impose have been a significant impediment to broader use of nondestructive evaluation methods such as ground-penetrating radar (GPR). In 2006, a new rapid, continuous calibration approach was designed using simulation software to address these measurement limitations during a Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) research and development effort. This continuous calibration method combines a digitally-synthesized step-frequency (SF)-GPR array and a data collection protocol sequence for the common midpoint (CMP) method. Modeling and laboratory test results for various data collection protocols and materials are presented in this paper. The continuous-CMP concept was finally implemented for FHWA in a prototype demonstration system called the Advanced Pavement Evaluation (APE) system in 2009. Data from the continuous-CMP protocol is processed using a semblance/coherency analysis to determine material propagation velocities. Continuously calibrated pavement thicknesses measured with the APE system in 2009 are presented. This method is efficient, accurate, and cost-effective.

  17. Using INGRES as a rapid prototyping device during development of management information applications

    SciTech Connect

    Brice, L.; Connell, J.; Shafer, D.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents case studies from the Administrative Data Processing Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory where a prototyping too, the INGRES relational database system, has been used to develop management information systems. The tool has proved valuable in satisfying user requirements and expectations, and in aiding data processing in the analysis and specification phases of the system life cycle. The prototype approach helps enormously in bridging the developer-user communication gap and has been found to add a negligible amount of cost to the entire software development project. Presented here are four case studies of how INGRES has been employed in prototyping. Also presented are examples of specific INGRES features and how they were used in one of the case studies and further examples involving another similar case. Special considerations and cautions are required when using INGRES for prototyping, but the overall conclusion is that it is a tool which has tremendously benefited our organization. Whether the final implemented system is INGRES-based or not, prototyping greatly enhances the possibility of complete, correct and unambiguous specifications prior to final software product development.

  18. Fused Deposition Modelling as Rapid Prototyping for Structural Material Improvement: Analytical Solution / Ātrās Prototipēšanas Ar Kausēšanas Metodi Strukturālā Uzlabojuma Analītisks Risinājums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brensons, I.; Polukoshko, S.

    2013-10-01

    Fused deposition modelling (FDM) is one of the most effective rapid prototyping (RP) techniques due to its low cost, available materials and versatility. In FDM, a part of material (usually plastic) is made by heating this material to the molten state, and from the melt it is extruded through a nozzle and deposited on a surface. In the article, an alternative RP method is considered for improvement of the mechanical properties of a rapid prototype. The authors propose an analytical solution which allows for achievement of this purpose via advanced technologies. The base materials applied in RP technology can be combined with liquid resin which solidifies after a definite time. This makes it possible to create a channel through the prototype and fill it with another material having better mechanical properties. The optimal channel sizes can be chosen in order to raise the strength of material parts. Darbā tiek apskatīts ātrās prototipēšanas veids, kura pamatā ir detaļas veidošana, izmantojot kausētu materiālu parasti plastmasu. Šī detaļu veidošanas metode ir kļuvusi par vienu no visizplatītākajām tās zemo izmaksu, pieejamo materiālu un daudzpusības dēļ. Šī raksta mērķis ir izpētīt alternatīvu veidu, kā uzlabot prototipu mehāniskās īpašības, tādējādi palielinot printētu detaļu izmantošanu kā gala produktu. Raksts piedāvā analītisku risinājumu, kā uzlabot ātro prototipu mehāniskās īpašības, uzlabojot tehnoloģiskos procesus, kas iesaistīti detaļu izgatavošanā. Darba pamatā tiek izmantota 3D printēšanas tehnoloģijas iespēja veidot iekšējus kanālus bez ģeometriskiem ierobežojumiem, kā rezultātā ir iespējams izveidot iekšēju kanālu shēmu, ko pēc tam piepilda ar citu materiālu, kam ir labākas mehāniskās īpašības kā pamata materiālam. Pildīšanai izmantotais materiāls ir epoksīda sveķi, kas pieļauj vieglu iepildīšanu šķidrā fāzē, un sniedz labas mehāniskās īpašības p

  19. An Embedded Systems Laboratory to Support Rapid Prototyping of Robotics and the Internet of Things

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamblen, J. O.; van Bekkum, G. M. E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach for a course and laboratory designed to allow students to develop low-cost prototypes of robotic and other embedded devices that feature Internet connectivity, I/O, networking, a real-time operating system (RTOS), and object-oriented C/C++. The application programming interface (API) libraries provided permit…

  20. Rapid prototyping for in vitro knee rig investigations of prosthetized knee biomechanics: comparison with cobalt-chromium alloy implant material.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Christian; Steinbrück, Arnd; Müller, Tatjana; Woiczinski, Matthias; Chevalier, Yan; Weber, Patrick; Müller, Peter E; Jansson, Volkmar

    2015-01-01

    Retropatellar complications after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) such as anterior knee pain and subluxations might be related to altered patellofemoral biomechanics, in particular to trochlear design and femorotibial joint positioning. A method was developed to test femorotibial and patellofemoral joint modifications separately with 3D-rapid prototyped components for in vitro tests, but material differences may further influence results. This pilot study aims at validating the use of prostheses made of photopolymerized rapid prototype material (RPM) by measuring the sliding friction with a ring-on-disc setup as well as knee kinematics and retropatellar pressure on a knee rig. Cobalt-chromium alloy (standard prosthesis material, SPM) prostheses served as validation standard. Friction coefficients between these materials and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) were additionally tested as this latter material is commonly used to protect pressure sensors in experiments. No statistical differences were found between friction coefficients of both materials to PTFE. UHMWPE shows higher friction coefficient at low axial loads for RPM, a difference that disappears at higher load. No measurable statistical differences were found in knee kinematics and retropatellar pressure distribution. This suggests that using polymer prototypes may be a valid alternative to original components for in vitro TKA studies and future investigations on knee biomechanics. PMID:25879019

  1. Rapid Prototyping for In Vitro Knee Rig Investigations of Prosthetized Knee Biomechanics: Comparison with Cobalt-Chromium Alloy Implant Material

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Christian; Steinbrück, Arnd; Müller, Tatjana; Woiczinski, Matthias; Chevalier, Yan; Müller, Peter E.; Jansson, Volkmar

    2015-01-01

    Retropatellar complications after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) such as anterior knee pain and subluxations might be related to altered patellofemoral biomechanics, in particular to trochlear design and femorotibial joint positioning. A method was developed to test femorotibial and patellofemoral joint modifications separately with 3D-rapid prototyped components for in vitro tests, but material differences may further influence results. This pilot study aims at validating the use of prostheses made of photopolymerized rapid prototype material (RPM) by measuring the sliding friction with a ring-on-disc setup as well as knee kinematics and retropatellar pressure on a knee rig. Cobalt-chromium alloy (standard prosthesis material, SPM) prostheses served as validation standard. Friction coefficients between these materials and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) were additionally tested as this latter material is commonly used to protect pressure sensors in experiments. No statistical differences were found between friction coefficients of both materials to PTFE. UHMWPE shows higher friction coefficient at low axial loads for RPM, a difference that disappears at higher load. No measurable statistical differences were found in knee kinematics and retropatellar pressure distribution. This suggests that using polymer prototypes may be a valid alternative to original components for in vitro TKA studies and future investigations on knee biomechanics. PMID:25879019

  2. Prototype Software for a Federal Planning Model for Analysis of Accessibility to Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weldon, Kent; Huckfeldt, Vaughn

    This report presents the prototype software resulting from an initial research effort in the development of a comprehensive national planning model for higher education. The software for the prototype model requires as input existing or derivable institutional and student data and is designed to permit prototype planning studies to examine the…

  3. Rehabilitation of the nose using CAD/CAM and rapid prototyping technology after ablative surgery of squamous cell carcinoma: a pilot clinical report.

    PubMed

    Ciocca, Leonardo; De Crescenzio, Francesca; Fantini, Massimiliano; Scotti, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Restoration of a nasal defect after ablative surgery for squamous cell carcinoma necessitates replacing the missing volume and anchoring a prosthesis to the patient's face. This report describes the failure of plastic reconstructive surgery after ablation of a squamous cell cancer of the nose and the esthetic and functional restoration of the patient with a nasal prosthesis. The process of making an implant-supported prosthesis using digital technology, including digitized anatomic models from a "nose library," and the rapid prototyping of the mesiostructure for bar anchorage and of the mold for silicone processing are presented. PMID:20657878

  4. [Computer-aided method and rapid prototyping for the personalized fabrication of a silicone bandage digital prosthesis].

    PubMed

    Ventura Ferreira, Nuno; Leal, Nuno; Correia Sá, Inês; Reis, Ana; Marques, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    The fabrication of digital prostheses has acquired growing importance not only for the possibility for the patient to overcome psychosocial trauma but also to promote grip functionality. An application method of three dimensional-computer-aided design technologies for the production of passive prostheses is presented by means of a fifth finger amputee clinical case following bilateral hand replantation.Three-dimensional-computerized tomography was used for the collection of anthropometric images of the hands. Computer-aided design techniques were used to develop the digital file-based prosthesis from the reconstruction images by inversion and superimposing the contra-lateral finger images. The rapid prototyping manufacturing method was used for the production of a silicone bandage prosthesis prototype. This approach replaces the traditional manual method by a virtual method that is basis for the optimization of a high speed, accurate and innovative process. PMID:25641294

  5. A highly miniaturized electron and ion energy spectrometer prototype for the rapid analysis of space plasmas.

    PubMed

    Bedington, R; Kataria, D O; Smith, A

    2014-02-01

    MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems) plasma analyzers are a promising possibility for future space missions but conventional instrument designs are not necessarily well suited to micro-fabrication. Here, a candidate design for a MEMS-based instrument has been prototyped using electron-discharge machining. The device features 10 electrostatic analyzers that, with a single voltage applied to it, allow five different energies of electron and five different energies of positive ion to be simultaneously sampled. It has been simulated using SIMION and the electron response characteristics tested in an instrument calibration chamber. Small deviations found in the electrode spacing of the as-built prototype were found to have some effect on the electron response characteristics but do not significantly impede its performance. PMID:24593352

  6. A highly miniaturized electron and ion energy spectrometer prototype for the rapid analysis of space plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Bedington, R.; Kataria, D. O.; Smith, A.

    2014-02-15

    MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems) plasma analyzers are a promising possibility for future space missions but conventional instrument designs are not necessarily well suited to micro-fabrication. Here, a candidate design for a MEMS-based instrument has been prototyped using electron-discharge machining. The device features 10 electrostatic analyzers that, with a single voltage applied to it, allow five different energies of electron and five different energies of positive ion to be simultaneously sampled. It has been simulated using SIMION and the electron response characteristics tested in an instrument calibration chamber. Small deviations found in the electrode spacing of the as-built prototype were found to have some effect on the electron response characteristics but do not significantly impede its performance.

  7. Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells on Rapid Prototyped Three-Dimensional Hydroxyapatite/Beta-Tricalcium Phosphate Scaffold.

    PubMed

    Canciani, Elena; Dellavia, Claudia; Ferreira, Lorena Maria; Giannasi, Chiara; Carmagnola, Daniela; Carrassi, Antonio; Brini, Anna Teresa

    2016-05-01

    In the study, we assess a rapid prototyped scaffold composed of 30/70 hydroxyapatite (HA) and beta-tricalcium-phosphate (β-TCP) loaded with human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) to determine cell proliferation, differentiation toward osteogenic lineage, adhesion and penetration on/into the scaffold.In this in vitro study, hASCs isolated from fat tissue discarded after plastic surgery were expanded, characterized, and then loaded onto the scaffold. Cells were tested for: viability assay (Alamar Blue at days 3, 7 and Live/Dead at day 32), differentiation index (alkaline phosphatase activity at day 14), scaffold adhesion (standard error of the mean analysis at days 5 and 18), and penetration (ground sections at day 32).All the hASC populations displayed stemness markers and the ability to differentiate toward adipogenic and osteogenic lineages.Cellular vitality increased between 3 and 7 days, and no inhibitory effect by HA/β-TCP was observed. Under osteogenic stimuli, scaffold increased alkaline phosphatase activity of +243% compared with undifferentiated samples. Human adipose-derived stem cells adhered on HA/β-TCP surface through citoplasmatic extensions that occupied the macropores and built networks among them. Human adipose derived stem cells were observed in the core of HA/β-TCP. The current combination of hASCs and HA/β-TCP scaffold provided encouraging results. If authors' data will be confirmed in preclinical models, the present engineering approach could represent an interesting tool in treating large bone defects. PMID:27092915

  8. New layer-based imaging and rapid prototyping techniques for computer-aided design and manufacture of custom dental restoration.

    PubMed

    Lee, M-Y; Chang, C-C; Ku, Y C

    2008-01-01

    Fixed dental restoration by conventional methods greatly relies on the skill and experience of the dental technician. The quality and accuracy of the final product depends mostly on the technician's subjective judgment. In addition, the traditional manual operation involves many complex procedures, and is a time-consuming and labour-intensive job. Most importantly, no quantitative design and manufacturing information is preserved for future retrieval. In this paper, a new device for scanning the dental profile and reconstructing 3D digital information of a dental model based on a layer-based imaging technique, called abrasive computer tomography (ACT) was designed in-house and proposed for the design of custom dental restoration. The fixed partial dental restoration was then produced by rapid prototyping (RP) and computer numerical control (CNC) machining methods based on the ACT scanned digital information. A force feedback sculptor (FreeForm system, Sensible Technologies, Inc., Cambridge MA, USA), which comprises 3D Touch technology, was applied to modify the morphology and design of the fixed dental restoration. In addition, a comparison of conventional manual operation and digital manufacture using both RP and CNC machining technologies for fixed dental restoration production is presented. Finally, a digital custom fixed restoration manufacturing protocol integrating proposed layer-based dental profile scanning, computer-aided design, 3D force feedback feature modification and advanced fixed restoration manufacturing techniques is illustrated. The proposed method provides solid evidence that computer-aided design and manufacturing technologies may become a new avenue for custom-made fixed restoration design, analysis, and production in the 21st century. PMID:18183523

  9. Advanced product realization through model-based design and virtual prototyping

    SciTech Connect

    Andreas, R.D.

    1995-03-01

    Several government agencies and industrial sectors have recognized the need for, and payoff of, investing in the methodologies and associated technologies for improving the product realization process. Within the defense community as well as commercial industry, there are three major needs. First, they must reduce the cost of military products, of related manufacturing processes, and of the enterprises that have to be maintained. Second, they must reduce the time required to realize products while still applying the latest technologies. Finally, they must improve the predictability of process attributes, product performance, cost, schedule and quality. They must continue to advance technology, quickly incorporate their innovations in new products and in processes to produce them, and they need to capitalize on the raw computational power and communications bandwidth that continues to become available at decreasing cost. Sandia National Laboratories initiative is pursuing several interrelated, key concepts and technologies in order to enable such product realization process improvements: model-based design; intelligent manufacturing processes; rapid virtual and physical prototyping; and agile people/enterprises. While progress in each of these areas is necessary, this paper only addresses a portion of the overall initiative. First a vision of a desired future capability in model-based design and virtual prototyping is presented. This is followed by a discussion of two specific activities parametric design analysis of Synthetic Aperture Radars (SARs) and virtual prototyping of miniaturized high-density electronics -- that exemplify the vision as well as provide a status report on relevant work in progress.

  10. Application of Rapid Prototyping and Wire Arc Spray to the Fabrication of Injection Mold Tools (MSFC Center Director's Discretionary Fund)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, K. G.

    2000-01-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) is a layer-by-layer-based additive manufacturing process for constructing three-dimensional representations of a computer design from a wax, plastic, or similar material. Wire arc spray (WAS) is a metal spray forming technique, which deposits thin layers of metal onto a substrate or pattern. Marshall Space Flight Center currently has both capabilities in-house, and this project proposed merging the two processes into an innovative manufacturing technique, in which intermediate injection molding tool halves were to be fabricated with RP and WAS metal forming.