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Sample records for rapid radiometric method

  1. Radiometric method for the rapid detection of Leptospira organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Manca, N.; Verardi, R.; Colombrita, D.; Ravizzola, G.; Savoldi, E.; Turano, A.

    1986-02-01

    A rapid and sensitive radiometric method for detection of Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona and Leptospira interrogans serovar copenhageni is described. Stuart's medium and Middlebrook TB (12A) medium supplemented with bovine serum albumin, catalase, and casein hydrolysate and labeled with /sup 14/C-fatty acids were used. The radioactivity was measured in a BACTEC 460. With this system, Leptospira organisms were detected in human blood in 2 to 5 days, a notably shorter time period than that required for the majority of detection techniques.

  2. Susceptibility testing of filamentous fungi to amphotericin B by a rapid radiometric method

    SciTech Connect

    Merz, W.G.; Fay, D.; Thumar, B.; Dixon, D.

    1984-01-01

    A rapid, radiometric method was developed to determine the susceptibility of filamentous fungi to amphotericin B. The rapid, radiometric method depended on measurement of the inhibition of /sup 24/CO/sub 2/ production in the presence of amphotericin B. Thirty isolates of filamentous fungi were tested by the rapid, radiometric method and a reference agar dilution method. There was 93% agreement between the two methods when an 80% or greater decrease in CO/sub 2/ production was used to calculate the minimal inhibitory concentration with the rapid, radiometric method. Minimal inhibitory concentrations, based on 80% decrease of CO/sub 2/ production, were achieved within 24 h of incubation with all of the fungi tested.

  3. Rapid radiometric methods to detect and differentiate Mycobacterium tuberculosis/M. bovis from other mycobacterial species

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqi, S.H.; Hwangbo, C.C.; Silcox, V.; Good, R.C.; Snider, D.E. Jr.; Middlebrook, G.

    1984-10-01

    Rapid methods for the differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis/M. bovis (TB complex) from other mycobacteria (MOTT bacilli) were developed and evaluated in a three-phase study. In the first phase, techniques for identification of Mycobacterium species were developed by using radiometric technology and BACTEC Middlebrook 7H12 liquid medium. Based on /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ evolution, characteristic growth patterns were established for 13 commonly encountered mycobacterial species. Mycobacteria belonging to the TB complex were differentiated from other mycobacteria by cellular morphology and rate of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ evolution. For further differentiation, radiometric tests for niacin production and inhibition by Q-nitro-alpha-acetyl amino-beta-hydroxy-propiophenone (NAP) were developed. In the second phase, 100 coded specimens on Lowenstein-Jensen medium were identified as members of the TB complex, MOTT bacilli, bacteria other than mycobacteria, or ''no viable organisms'' within 3 to 12 (average 6.4) days of receipt from the Centers for Disease Control. Isolation and identification of mycobacteria from 20 simulated sputum specimens were carried out in phase III. Out of 20 sputum specimens, 16 contained culturable mycobacteria, and all of the positives were detected by the BACTEC method in an average of 7.3 days. The positive mycobacterial cultures were isolated and identified as TB complex or MOTT bacilli in an average of 12.8 days. The radiometric NAP test was found to be highly sensitive and specific for a rapid identification of TB complex, whereas the radiometric niacin test was found to have some inherent problems. Radiometric BACTEC and conventional methodologies were in complete agreement in Phase II as well as in Phase III.

  4. Absolute radiometric calibration of the RapidEye multispectral imager using the reflectance-based vicarious calibration method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naughton, Denis; Brunn, Andreas; Czapla-Myers, Jeff; Douglass, Scott; Thiele, Michael; Weichelt, Horst; Oxfort, Michael

    2011-01-01

    RapidEye AG is a commercial provider of geospatial information products and customized solutions derived from Earth observation image data. The source of the data is the RapidEye constellation consisting of five low-earth-orbit imaging satellites. We describe the rationale, methods, and results of a reflectance-based vicarious calibration campaign that was conducted between April 2009 and May 2010 at Railroad Valley Playa and Ivanpah Playa to determine the on-orbit radiometric accuracy of the RapidEye sensor. In situ surface spectral reflectance measurements of known ground targets and an assessment of the atmospheric conditions above the sites were taken during spacecraft overpasses. The ground data are used as input to a radiative transfer code to compute a band-specific top-of-atmosphere spectral radiance. A comparison of these predicted values based on absolute physical data to the measured at-sensor spectral radiance provide the absolute calibration of the sensor. Initial assessments show that the RapidEye sensor response is within 8% of the predicted values. Outcomes from this campaign are then used to update the calibration parameters in the ground segment processing system. Subsequent verification events confirmed that the measured RapidEye response improved to within 4% of the predictions based on the vicarious calibration method.

  5. Survey of emissivity measurement by radiometric methods.

    PubMed

    Honner, M; Honnerová, P

    2015-02-01

    A survey of the state of the art in the field of spectral directional emissivity measurements by using radiometric methods is presented. Individual quantity types such as spectral, band, or total emissivity are defined. Principles of emissivity measurement by various methods (direct and indirect, and calorimetric and radiometric) are discussed. The paper is focused on direct radiometric methods. An overview of experimental setups is provided, including the design of individual parts such as the applied reference sources of radiation, systems of sample clamping and heating, detection systems, methods for the determination of surface temperature, and procedures for emissivity evaluation. PMID:25967774

  6. RapidEye constellation relative radiometric accuracy measurement using lunar images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steyn, Joe; Tyc, George; Beckett, Keith; Hashida, Yoshi

    2009-09-01

    The RapidEye constellation includes five identical satellites in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Each satellite has a 5-band (blue, green, red, red-edge and near infrared (NIR)) multispectral imager at 6.5m GSD. A three-axes attitude control system allows pointing the imager of each satellite at the Moon during lunations. It is therefore possible to image the Moon from near identical viewing geometry within a span of 80 minutes with each one of the imagers. Comparing the radiometrically corrected images obtained from each band and each satellite allows a near instantaneous relative radiometric accuracy measurement and determination of relative gain changes between the five imagers. A more traditional terrestrial vicarious radiometric calibration program has also been completed by MDA on RapidEye. The two components of this program provide for spatial radiometric calibration ensuring that detector-to-detector response remains flat, while a temporal radiometric calibration approach has accumulated images of specific dry dessert calibration sites. These images are used to measure the constellation relative radiometric response and make on-ground gain and offset adjustments in order to maintain the relative accuracy of the constellation within +/-2.5%. A quantitative comparison between the gain changes measured by the lunar method and the terrestrial temporal radiometric calibration method is performed and will be presented.

  7. Detection of coliform organisms in drinking water by radiometric method.

    PubMed

    Khurshid, S J; Bibi, S

    1991-07-01

    The radiometric method has been used for detection of coliform bacteria in water. The method is based on measuring the released metabolic 14CO2 from 14C-lactose in growth media containing coliform organisms incubated at 37 degrees C under continuous shaking. This rapid and sensitive radiometric method permits the detection of even single coliform organisms within 6 hours of incubation. Using this automated method, a total of 102 samples (in duplicate) collected from different areas in and around Rawalpindi and Islamabad were assessed for coliform bacteria. Of these 102 samples, 50 were tap water samples, 40 from wells and 6 each were from Rawal and Simly dams. About 47% and 67% tap water samples, while 62% and 74% well water samples were found unsatisfactory from around Islamabad and Rawalpindi areas, respectively. About 83% and 66% water samples from Rawal dam and Simly dam respectively were found to be unsatisfactory. PMID:1920760

  8. Research radiometric calibration quantitative transfer methods between internal and external

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ju Guang; Ma, Yong hui; Zhang, Guang; Yang, Zhi hui

    2015-10-01

    This paper puts forward a method by realizing the internal and external radiation calibration transfer for infrared radiation characteristics quantitative measuring system. Through technological innovation and innovation application to establish a theoretical model of the corresponding radiated transfer method. This method can be well in engineering application for technology conversion process of radiometric calibration that with relatively simple and effective calibration in the half light path radiation instead of complex difficult whole optical path radiometric calibration. At the same time, it also will provide the basis of effective support to further carry out the target radiated characteristics quantitative measurement and application for ground type infrared radiated quantitative measuring system.

  9. Determination of in vitro susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to cephalosporins by radiometric and conventional methods

    SciTech Connect

    Heifets, L.B.; Iseman, M.D.; Cook, J.L.; Lindholm-Levy, P.J.; Drupa, I.

    1985-01-01

    Among eight cephalosporins and cephamycins tested in preliminary in vitro screening against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the most promising for further study was found to be ceforanide, followed by ceftizoxime, cephapirin, and cefotaxime. Moxalactam, cefoxitin, cefamandole, and cephalothin were found to be not active enough against M. tuberculosis to be considered for further in vitro studies. The antibacterial activity of various ceforanide concentrations was investigated by three methods: (i) the dynamics of radiometric readings (growth index) in 7H12 broth; (ii) the number of CFU in the same medium; and (iii) the proportion method on 7H11 agar plates. There was a good correlation among the results obtained with these methods. The MIC for most strains ranged from 6.0 to 25.0 micrograms/ml. The BACTEC radiometric method is a reliable, rapid, and convenient method for preliminary screening and determination of the level of antibacterial activity of drugs not commonly used against M. tuberculosis.

  10. MODIS Radiometric Calibration Program, Methods and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Guenther, Bruce; Angal, Amit; Barnes, William; Salomonson, Vincent; Sun, Junqiang; Wenny, Brian

    2012-01-01

    As a key instrument for NASA s Earth Observing System (EOS), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) has made significant contributions to the remote sensing community with its unprecedented amount of data products continuously generated from its observations and freely distributed to users worldwide. MODIS observations, covering spectral regions from visible (VIS) to long-wave infrared (LWIR), have enabled a broad range of research activities and applications for studies of the earth s interactive system of land, oceans, and atmosphere. In addition to extensive pre-launch measurements, developed to characterize sensor performance, MODIS carries a set of on-board calibrators (OBC) that can be used to track on-orbit changes of various sensor characteristics. Most importantly, dedicated and continuous calibration efforts have been made to maintain sensor data quality. This paper provides an overview of the MODIS calibration program, on-orbit calibration activities, methods, and performance. Key calibration results and lessons learned from the MODIS calibration effort are also presented in this paper.

  11. Site characterization for calibration of radiometric sensors using vicarious method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parihar, Shailesh; Rathore, L. S.; Mohapatra, M.; Sharma, A. K.; Mitra, A. K.; Bhatla, R.; Singh, R. S.; Desai, Yogdeep; Srivastava, Shailendra S.

    2016-05-01

    Radiometric performances of earth observation satellite/sensors vary from ground pre-launch calibration campaign to post launch period extended to lifetime of the satellite due to launching vibrations. Therefore calibration is carried out worldwide through various methods throughout satellite lifetime. In India Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) calibrates the sensor of Resourcesat-2 satellite by vicarious method. One of these vicarious calibration methods is the reflectance-based approach that is applied in this study for radiometric calibration of sensors on-board Resouresat-2 satellite. The results of ground-based measurement of atmospheric conditions and surface reflectance are made at Bap, Rajasthan Calibration/Validation (Cal/Val) site. Cal/Val observations at site were carried out with hyper-spectral Spectroradiometer covering spectral range of 350nm- 2500nm for radiometric characterization of the site. The Sunphotometer/Ozonometer for measuring the atmospheric parameters has also been used. The calibrated radiance is converted to absolute at-sensor spectral reflectance and Top-Of-Atmosphere (TOA) radiance. TOA radiance was computed using radiative transfer model `Second simulation of the satellite signal in the solar spectrum' (6S), which can accurately simulate the problems introduced by the presence of the atmosphere along the path from Sun to target (surface) to Sensor. The methodology for band averaged reflectance retrieval and spectral reflectance fitting process are described. Then the spectral reflectance and atmospheric parameters are put into 6S code to predict TOA radiance which compare with Resourcesat-2 radiance. Spectral signature and its reflectance ratio indicate the uniformity of the site. Thus the study proves that the selected site is suitable for vicarious calibration of sensor of Resourcesat-2. Further the study demonstrates the procedure for similar exercise for site selection for Cal/Val analysis of other satellite over India

  12. Improved Radiometric Based Method for Suppressing Impulse Noise from Corrupted Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Changcheng; Zhao, Chunyu; Chen, Dayue

    A novel filter is introduced in this paper to improve the ability of radiometric based method on suppressing impulse noise. Firstly, a new method is introduced to design the impulsive weight by measuring how impulsive a pixel is. Then, the impulsive weight is combined with the radiometric weight to obtain the evaluated values on each pixel in the whole corrupted image. The impulsive weight is mainly designed to suppress the impulse noise, while the radiometric weight is mainly designed to protect the noise-free pixel. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can perform much better than other filters in terms of the quantitative and qualitative aspects.

  13. Calibration method for radiometric and wavelength calibration of a spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granger, Edward M.

    1998-12-01

    A new calibration target or Certified Reference Material (CRM) has been designed that uses violet, orange, green and cyan dyes ont cotton paper. This paper type was chosen because it has a relatively flat spectral response from 400 nm to 700 nm and good keeping properties. These specific dyes were chosen because the difference signal between the orange, cyan, green and purple dyes have certain characteristics that then a low the calibration of an instrument. The ratio between the difference readings is a direct function of the center wavelength of a given spectral band. Therefore, the radiometric and spectral calibration can be determined simultaneously from the physical properties of the reference materials.

  14. A review of some radiometric calibration problems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.

    1984-01-01

    The in-flight radiometric calibration instrumentation and procedures of the Landsat Thematic Mapper and the high-resolution visible-range instruments of SPOT are illustrated with drawings and diagrams, characterized, and compared. Problems encountered in the laboratory calibration process, minimizing the temporal instability of the systems, identifying anomalies in the electronics in flight, and rechecking the calibration are examined, and it is pointed out that the stability of the calibration systems is less than that of the instruments themselves. The use of carefully measured ground-site data and atmospheric parameters in combination with radiative-transfer models for periodic calibration is recommended.

  15. Experimental methods of indoor millimeter-wave radiometric imaging for personnel concealed contraband detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Taiyang; Xiao, Zelong; Li, Hao; Lv, Rongchuan; Lu, Xuan

    2014-11-01

    The increasingly emerging terrorism attacks and violence crimes around the world have posed severe threats to public security, so carrying out relevant research on advanced experimental methods of personnel concealed contraband detection is crucial and meaningful. All of the advantages of imaging covertly, avoidance of interference with other systems, intrinsic property of being safe to persons under screening , and the superior ability of imaging through natural or manmade obscurants, have significantly combined to enable millimeter-wave (MMW) radiometric imaging to offer great potential in personnel concealed contraband detection. Based upon the current research status of MMW radiometric imaging and urgent demands of personnel security screening, this paper mainly focuses on the experimental methods of indoor MMW radiometric imaging. The reverse radiation noise resulting from super-heterodyne receivers seriously affects the image experiments carried out at short range, so both the generation mechanism and reducing methods of this noise are investigated. Then, the benefit of sky illumination no longer exists for the indoor radiometric imaging, and this leads to the decrease in radiometric temperature contrast between target and background. In order to enhance the radiometric temperature contrast for improving indoor imaging performance, the noise illumination technique is adopted in the indoor imaging scenario. In addition, the speed and accuracy of concealed contraband detection from acquired MMW radiometric images are usually restricted to the deficiencies in traditional artificial interpretation by security inspectors, thus an automatic recognition and location algorithm by integrating improved Fuzzy C-means clustering with moment invariants is put forward. A series of original results are also presented to demonstrate the significance and validity of these methods.

  16. Comparison of diverse methods for the correction of atmospheric effects on LANDSAT and SKYLAB images. [radiometric correction in Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Camara, G.; Dias, L. A. V.; Mascarenhas, N. D. D.; Desouza, R. C. M.; Pereira, A. E. C.

    1982-01-01

    Earth's atmosphere reduces a sensors ability in currently discriminating targets. Using radiometric correction to reduce the atmospheric effects may improve considerably the performance of an automatic image interpreter. Several methods for radiometric correction from the open literature are compared leading to the development of an atmospheric correction system.

  17. Multi-point radiometric calibration method based on complex spectrum of Fourier transform spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qian; Wang, Guangping; Wu, Jingli; Li, Junwei

    2014-11-01

    As the impact of the instrument internal error, external interference and other factors, the interferogram measured by Fourier transform spectrometer is asymmetric, result in the complex outcome after Fourier transform. Currently, most radiometric calibration method used for Fourier transform spectrometer is usually based on real spectrums, which is converted from the above complex spectrum by calculating magnitude value or make the phase correction first. Proceed from error sources and mechanisms of the Fourier transform spectrometer, we propose a multi-point radiometric calibration method based on complex spectral data to improve the processing efficiency and accuracy, which is obtained by the original interferogram via Fourier transform. We solving the instrument response function include linear gain and offset by complex spectrum above to calculate complex spectral radiance. Compared with the traditional method based on real spectrum, the present efficient method does not limited to real spectrum and the phase correction is not required. In this paper, we use BOMEM's MR304 Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and the DCN1000N3 blackbody made by HGH Infrared Systems to carry out the radiation calibration experiment in laboratory. The results show that, the amplitude of complex radiance spectrum obtained by this method has a high consistency with the theoretical value, while the extra imaginary spectrum is similar with the difference between results and theoretical value in absolute value and trends. It proved that, this multi-point radiometric calibration method by using the amplitude of complex spectral data is highly reliable; meanwhile, the imaginary spectrum can reflect the calibration error very well and offer a new technical approach for accuracy evaluation research.

  18. Radiometric calibration method for large aperture infrared system with broad dynamic range.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhiyuan; Chang, Songtao; Zhu, Wei

    2015-05-20

    Infrared radiometric measurements can acquire important data for missile defense systems. When observation is carried out by ground-based infrared systems, a missile is characterized by long distance, small size, and large variation of radiance. Therefore, the infrared systems should be manufactured with a larger aperture to enhance detection ability and calibrated at a broader dynamic range to extend measurable radiance. Nevertheless, the frequently used calibration methods demand an extended-area blackbody with broad dynamic range or a huge collimator for filling the system's field stop, which would greatly increase manufacturing costs and difficulties. To overcome this restriction, a calibration method based on amendment of inner and outer calibration is proposed. First, the principles and procedures of this method are introduced. Then, a shifting strategy of infrared systems for measuring targets with large fluctuations of infrared radiance is put forward. Finally, several experiments are performed on a shortwave infrared system with Φ400  mm aperture. The results indicate that the proposed method cannot only ensure accuracy of calibration but have the advantage of low cost, low power, and high motility. Hence, it is an effective radiometric calibration method in the outfield. PMID:26192499

  19. Thermal Return Reflection Method for Resolving Emissivity and Temperature in Radiometric Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Woskov, Paul P.; Sundaram, S. K.

    2002-11-15

    A radiometric method for resolving the emissivity, e, and temperature, T, in thermal emission measurements is presented. Thermal radiation from a viewed source is split by a beamsplitter between a radiometer and a mirror aligned to return a part of the thermal radiation back to the source. The ratio of the thermal signal with and without a return reflection provides a measurement of the emissivity without need of any other probing sources. The analytical expressions that establish this relationship are derived taking into account waveguide/optic losses and sources between the radiometer and viewed sample. The method is then applied to thermal measurements of several refractory materials at temperatures up to 1150 ?C. A 137 GHz radiometer is used to measure the emissivity and temperature of an alumina brick, an Inconel 690 plate, and two grades of silicon carbide. Reasonable temperature agreement is achieved with an independent thermocouple measurement. However, when the emissivity approaches zero, as in the case of the Inconel plate, radiometric temperature determinations are inaccurate, though an emissivity near zero is correctly measured. This method is expected to be of considerable value to non-contact thermal analysis applications of materials.

  20. The multi-temporal comparisons from high resolution KOMPSAT-2 image with dehaze and radiometric normalization methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeom, J.; Kim, H.; Kim, Y.; Kim, J.

    2011-12-01

    The KOrea MultiPurpose SAtellite-2 (KOMPSAT-2) satellite developed by Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) was launched on July 28, 2006 in northern Russia and has continued successful operations for almost 4 years past the initial mission. KOMPSAT-2 has been providing 1-m resolution of panchromatic images and 4-m resolution multi spectral images all over the world. In the case optical satellites, haze is considered as an unwanted obstacle when estimating surface information. Usually, it is masked with subjective threshold method to reduce contaminated area which may give wrong information to user. In this study, haze transformation is applied for determining haze area and inferring surface digital number of KOMPSAT-2 under haze condition. When comparing differently observed images, radiometric normalized is the essential process to interpret variations of surface phenomena, especially in land surface change detection. There are mainly two kinds of methods to correct the different radiometric values. One is the absolute radiometric normalization intending for trying to estimate the actual surface reflectance, and another is relative radiometric normalization, which is linearly rectifying the observed image at the specific time to the others at different time for common radiometric scale. In this study, relative radiometric normalization method is used for correcting differences among images caused by inconsistent observation condition. When normalizing multi-date images, BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function) also considered for reducing anisotropy effects caused by relative solar-sensor-target geometry. Processed surface reflectance based on dehazing and radiometric normalization show better results when comparing multi-date images than original reflectance images.

  1. Radiometric macrophage culture assay for rapid evaluation of antileprosy activity of rifampin

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, A.; Seshadri, P.S.; Prasad, H.K.; Sathish, M.; Nath, I.

    1983-10-01

    The antileprosy effect of rifampin was evaluated by a newly developed rapid in vitro assay wherein 31 human-derived strains and 1 armadillo-derived strain of Mycobacterium leprae were maintained for 2 and 3 weeks, respectively, in murine and human macrophages in the presence of (3H)thymidine. Of these strains, 27 showed significant incorporation of the radiolabel in cultures of live bacilli as compared with control cultures of heat-killed bacilli of the same strain. Consistent and significant inhibition of (3H)thymidine uptake was observed in M. leprae resident cultures with 3 to 200 ng of rifampin per ml as compared with similar cultures without the drug. In general, an increase in percent inhibition was seen from 3 to 20 ng/ml, with marginal increases at 40, 50, and 100 ng/ml. M. leprae strains appear to be remarkably susceptible to this drug in the in vitro assay.

  2. NASA IKONOS Radiometric Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagnutti, Mary; Frisbee, Troy; Zanoni, Vicki; Blonski, Slawek; Daehler, Erik; Grant, Brennan; Holekamp, Kara; Ryan, Robert; Sellers, Richard; Smith, Charles

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this program: Perform radiometric vicarious calibrations of IKQNOS imagery and compare with Space Imaging calibration coefficients The approach taken: utilize multiple well-characterized sites which are widely used by the NASA science community for radiometric characterization of airborne and spaceborne sensors; and to Perform independent characterizations with independent teams. Each team has slightly different measurement techniques and data processing methods.

  3. Photovoltaics radiometric issues and needs

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D.R.

    1995-11-01

    This paper presents a summary of issues discussed at the photovoltaic radiometric measurements workshop. Topics included radiometric measurements guides, the need for well-defined goals, documentation, calibration checks, accreditation of testing laboratories and methods, the need for less expensive radiometric instrumentation, data correlations, and quality assurance.

  4. PLEIADES-HR 1A&1B image quality commissioning: innovative radiometric calibration methods and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Vincent; Blanchet, Gwendoline; Kubik, Philippe; Lacherade, Sophie; Latry, Christophe; Lebegue, Laurent; Lenoir, Florie; Porez-Nadal, Florence

    2013-09-01

    PLEIADES is an earth observing system conducted by the French National Space Agency, CNES. It consists of two satellites launched on December 2011 (PHR-1A) and December 2012 (PHR-1B), both designed to provide optical pushbroom imagery on five spectral bands to civilian and defense users, with ground sample distance up to 70 cm. During inflight image quality commissioning, radiometric activities included inter-detector normalization coefficients computation, refocusing operations, MTF assessment and estimation of signal to noise ratios. This paper presents inflight results for both satellites. It focuses on several innovative methods that were implemented, taking advantage of the satellite platform great agility. These methods are based on processing images obtained through dedicated exotic guidance. In particular, slow-motion steering enables an efficient estimation of the instrumental noise model, since during acquisition each detector has been viewing a stable ground target along different time samples. Conversely, rotated retina guidance is used to guarantee that all different elementary detectors have successively viewed the same set of landscape samples during acquisition. Non-uniformity of detector sensitivities can then be characterized, and on-board coefficients used prior to compression can be calibrated in order to prevent vertical striping effects on operational images. Defocus control and Point Spread Function estimation can be easily obtained through processing acquisitions of stars associated to various spectral characteristics, for different adjustments of the refocusing system. All these methods allow an accurate estimation of radiometric performance on the whole range of specified spectral radiances, while drastically reducing the number of required acquisitions on natural targets.

  5. The Relationship between Balancing Reactions and Reaction Lifetimes: A Consideration of the Potassium-Argon Radiometric Method for Dating Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, William A.

    2005-01-01

    A detailed examination of a commonly accepted practice in geology offers an example of how to stimulate critical thinking, teaches students how to read reactions, and challenges students to formulate better experiments for determining mineral ages more accurately. A demonstration of a Potassium-Argon radiometric method for dating minerals is…

  6. Study on method of radiometric calibration for precision measurement of micro size damage site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Hao-yu; Peng, Zhi-tao; Wang, Wen-fang; Chen, Feng-dong; Tang, Jun; Feng, Bo; Liu, Guo-dong; Liu, Bing-guo

    2014-09-01

    Large aperture optical have high risk of damage when woke on high flux laser. For avoid lethal damages breakdown the expensive large aperture optical, replace the optical that damaged before damage site increase to can't repaired, we need precision measurement of optical surface damage sites size. The size of the optics which be detected is 400μm ×400μm, and the size of CCD array pixel is 4K×4K which we selected, so pixel resolution only 100μm of the Optical Damage Online Inspection system, it hard to measurement damage sites which size less than 100μm. This paper describes a method of radiometric calibration to measure online optical damage site that greater than 50μm by Optical Damage Online Inspection system. Numerical statement gray on CCD of different size damage sites by select a fixed variable of illumination intensity, shutter and numerical aperture of image-forming system. Fitting a curve with suitable function of gray and actual size, precision measure optical damage sites that greater than 50μm by the curve. Test results indicate that, the deviation less than 20% which measure size and actual size .This method settle problems of micro size damage site hard to measure online under the condition of long working distance and low optical resolution. At present, this method have used on Optical Damage Online Inspection system of high flux laser installation, it important significance for observation damage site size grown and accurately appraise the optical damage.

  7. Rapid actinide-separation methods

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.L. III

    1997-12-31

    New high-speed actinide-separation methods have been developed by the Savannah River Site Central Laboratory that can be applied to nuclear materials process samples, waste solutions and environmental samples. As part of a reengineering effort to improve efficiencies and reduce operating costs, solvent extraction methods (TTA, Hexone, TBP and TIOA) used for over thirty years in the SRS Central Laboratory were replaced with new rapid extraction column methods able to handle a variety of difficult sample matrices and actinide levels. Significant costs savings were realized and costly mixed-waste controls were avoided by using applied vacuum and 50-100 micron particle-size resins from Eichrom Industries. TEVA Resin{reg_sign}, UTEVA Resin{reg_sign}, and TRU Resin{reg_sign} columns are used with flow rates of approximately two to three milliliters per minute to minimize sample turnaround times. Single-column, dual-column and sequential-cartridge methods for plutonium, uranium, neptunium, americium and curium were developed that enable rapid, cost-effective separations prior to alpha-particle counting, thermal ionization and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and laser phosphorescence measurements.

  8. A simple and effective radiometric correction method to improve landscape change detection across sensors and across time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, X.; Vierling, Lee; Deering, D.

    2005-01-01

    Satellite data offer unrivaled utility in monitoring and quantifying large scale land cover change over time. Radiometric consistency among collocated multi-temporal imagery is difficult to maintain, however, due to variations in sensor characteristics, atmospheric conditions, solar angle, and sensor view angle that can obscure surface change detection. To detect accurate landscape change using multi-temporal images, we developed a variation of the pseudoinvariant feature (PIF) normalization scheme: the temporally invariant cluster (TIC) method. Image data were acquired on June 9, 1990 (Landsat 4), June 20, 2000 (Landsat 7), and August 26, 2001 (Landsat 7) to analyze boreal forests near the Siberian city of Krasnoyarsk using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), enhanced vegetation index (EVI), and reduced simple ratio (RSR). The temporally invariant cluster (TIC) centers were identified via a point density map of collocated pixel VIs from the base image and the target image, and a normalization regression line was created to intersect all TIC centers. Target image VI values were then recalculated using the regression function so that these two images could be compared using the resulting common radiometric scale. We found that EVI was very indicative of vegetation structure because of its sensitivity to shadowing effects and could thus be used to separate conifer forests from deciduous forests and grass/crop lands. Conversely, because NDVI reduced the radiometric influence of shadow, it did not allow for distinctions among these vegetation types. After normalization, correlations of NDVI and EVI with forest leaf area index (LAI) field measurements combined for 2000 and 2001 were significantly improved; the r 2 values in these regressions rose from 0.49 to 0.69 and from 0.46 to 0.61, respectively. An EVI "cancellation effect" where EVI was positively related to understory greenness but negatively related to forest canopy coverage was evident across a

  9. Validation of the onboard radiometric calibration of the GOES I-M visible channel by reflectance-based vicarious methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leisso, Nathan P.; Thome, Kurtis J.; Czapla-Myers, Jeffrey S.

    2007-09-01

    The current generation of the Geostationary Operations Environmental Satellite (GOES) platform employs a total of 5 sensors to monitor and record atmospheric conditions used in predictions of upcoming weather events. Included in this package is a 5-band imager that, from the 36,000-km geosynchronous orbit inhabited by GOES platform, enables multiple fixed full-disc surface images of the earth during the course of a 24-hour day. There is currently no on-board radiometric calibration for the visible bands of the imager and radiometric calibration relies on vicarious approaches. The Remote Sensing Group (RSG) at the University of Arizona uses a vicarious approach that relies on ground-based measurements to determine the radiometric calibration for multiple sun-synchronous and airborne visible and near-infrared sensors. The current work extends the approach to the GOES I-M series of sensor. The paper presents the methods and results of the reflectance-based method applied to the 1-km visible channel of GOES-11using large North American high-desert test sites. Modifications to the RSG's methods to take into account the location of the test sites at large zenith angles within the full-disk GOES image. The work provides an opportunity to evaluate uncertainties of the spectral BRF of the test sites at large view angles and resulting importance to the accurate radiometric calibration of a sensor. In addition, the impact of increased path length caused by the large view angle is evaluated with an emphasis on the increased effect of the atmospheric characterization.

  10. Correction to Method of Establishing the Absolute Radiometric Accuracy of Remote Sensing Systems While On-orbit Using Characterized Stellar Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Howard S.; Cunningham, Douglas M.

    2007-01-01

    The contents include: 1) Brief history of related events; 2) Overview of original method used to establish absolute radiometric accuracy of remote sensing instruments using stellar sources; and 3) Considerations to improve the stellar calibration approach.

  11. Radiometric Dating Does Work!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalrymple, G. Brent

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the accuracy of dating methods and creationist arguments that radiometric dating does not work. Explains the Manson meteorite impact and the Pierre shale, the ages of meteorites, the K-T tektites, and dating the Mount Vesuvius eruption. (Author/YDS)

  12. Critical comparison of radiometric and mass spectrometric methods for the determination of radionuclides in environmental, biological and nuclear waste samples.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiaolin; Roos, Per

    2008-02-11

    The radiometric methods, alpha (alpha)-, beta (beta)-, gamma (gamma)-spectrometry, and mass spectrometric methods, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, accelerator mass spectrometry, thermal ionization mass spectrometry, resonance ionization mass spectrometry, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and glow discharge mass spectrometry are reviewed for the determination of radionuclides. These methods are critically compared for the determination of long-lived radionuclides important for radiation protection, decommissioning of nuclear facilities, repository of nuclear waste, tracer application in the environmental and biological researches, these radionuclides include (3)H, (14)C, (36)Cl, (41)Ca, (59,63)Ni, (89,90)Sr, (99)Tc, (129)I, (135,137)Cs, (210)Pb, (226,228)Ra, (237)Np, (241)Am, and isotopes of thorium, uranium and plutonium. The application of on-line methods (flow injection/sequential injection) for separation of radionuclides and automated determination of radionuclides is also discussed. PMID:18215644

  13. A Method to Estimate Uncertainty in Radiometric Measurement Using the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) Method; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Reda, I.

    2015-03-01

    Radiometric data with known and traceable uncertainty is essential for climate change studies to better understand cloud radiation interactions and the earth radiation budget. Further, adopting a known and traceable method of estimating uncertainty with respect to SI ensures that the uncertainty quoted for radiometric measurements can be compared based on documented methods of derivation.Therefore, statements about the overall measurement uncertainty can only be made on an individual basis, taking all relevant factors into account. This poster provides guidelines and recommended procedures for estimating the uncertainty in calibrations and measurements from radiometers. The approach follows the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM). derivation.Therefore, statements about the overall measurement uncertainty can only be made on an individual basis, taking all relevant factors into account. This poster provides guidelines and recommended procedures for estimating the uncertainty in calibrations and measurements from radiometers. The approach follows the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM).

  14. Comparison of diffuse sky irradiance calculation methods and effect on surface reflectance retrieval from an automated radiometric calibration test site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leisso, Nathan; Czapla-Myers, Jeffrey

    2011-10-01

    The Remote Sensing Group (RSG) at the University of Arizona is currently refining an automated system for the absolute radiometric calibration of earth-observing sensors. The Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS) relies on semi-permanent instrumentation at the Railroad Valley (RRV) test site to collect data from which surface reflectance and an atmospheric characterization is determined. Multispectral surface reflectance is determined from calibrated ground viewing radiometers and assimilated to determine the hyperspectral reflectance used in radiative transfer calculations. The reflectance retrieval algorithm relies on an accurate determination of the diffuse sky irradiance for the time of interest. Currently, diffuse sky irradiance is modeled using the atmospheric characterization as input into MODTRAN5. This work investigates the accuracy of the diffuse sky modeling by comparing modeled results to measurements made at the test site. Diffuse sky irradiance from several alternative methods are also presented. Surface reflectance is computed and compared to in-situ measurements taken with a portable spectoradiometer.

  15. Rapid method to determine actinides and 89/90Sr in limestone and marble samples

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian; Hutchison, Jay B.; Utsey, Robin C.; Sudowe, Ralf; McAlister, Daniel R.

    2016-04-12

    A new method for the determination of actinides and radiostrontium in limestone and marble samples has been developed that utilizes a rapid sodium hydroxide fusion to digest the sample. Following rapid pre-concentration steps to remove sample matrix interferences, the actinides and 89/90Sr are separated using extraction chromatographic resins and measured radiometrically. The advantages of sodium hydroxide fusion versus other fusion techniques will be discussed. Lastly, this approach has a sample preparation time for limestone and marble samples of <4 hours.

  16. Rapid presumptive identification of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis-bovis complex by radiometric determination of heat stable urease

    SciTech Connect

    Gandy, J.H.; Pruden, E.L.; Cox, F.R.

    1983-12-01

    Simple and rapid Bactec methodologies for the determination of neat (unaltered) and heat stable urease activity of mycobacteria are presented. Clinical isolates (63) and stock cultures (32)--consisting of: M. tuberculosis (19), M. bovis (5), M. kansasii (15), M. marinum (4), M. simiae (3), M. scrofulaceum (16), M. gordonae (6), M. szulgai (6), M. flavescens (1), M. gastri (1), M. intracellulare (6), M. fortuitum-chelonei complex (12), and M. smegmatis (1)--were tested for neat urease activity by Bactec radiometry. Mycobacterial isolates (50-100 mg wet weight) were incubated at 35 degrees C for 30 minutes with microCi14C-urea. Urease-positive mycobacteria gave Bactec growth index (GI) values greater than 100 units, whereas urease-negative species gave values less than 10 GI units. Eighty-three isolates possessing neat urease activity were heated at 80 degrees C for 30 minutes followed by incubation at 35 degrees C for 30 minutes with 1 microCi14C-urea. Mycobacterium tuberculosis-bovis complex demonstrated heat-stable urease activity (GI more than 130 units) and could be distinguished from mycobacteria other than tuberculosis (MOTT), which gave GI values equal to or less than 40 units.

  17. SEARCHING FOR RAPID METHODS IN ENVIRONMENTAL BACTERIOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The search for rapid methods in sanitary bacteriology is more urgent today than ever before because of increased necessity for processing poorer quality source waters and controlling quality of sewage effluent discharges. Selection of criteria for rapid tests involving either mod...

  18. Rapid methods for identification of yeasts.

    PubMed Central

    Huppert, M; Harper, G; Sun, S H; Delanerolle, V

    1975-01-01

    Opportunistic infections by yeasts have been implicated as one of the major causes of complications in the compromised patient. Rapid recognition and identification of these yeasts is essential for patient management, but conventional liquid medium methods for completing identification tests are cumbersome and time consuming. Rapid tests have been devised based on modifications of methods commonly used in bacteriology. These rapid methods included tests for carbohydrate and nitrate assimilation, fermentation, and urease production. These were compared with several current methods for accuracy of results, for time to final identification, and for economy of time and reagents. In addition, the usual tests for pseudogerm tube formation, for production of hyphae or pseudohyphae, and for growth temperatures were included. The rapid tests achieved 96% or better accuracy compared with expected results, and 46 species of yeasts were identified in 1 to 2 days compared with the 10 to 14 days required by conventional liquid culture methods. Images PMID:1241586

  19. Simplified Vicarious Radiometric Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, Thomas; Ryan, Robert; Holekamp, Kara; Pagnutti, Mary

    2010-01-01

    A measurement-based radiance estimation approach for vicarious radiometric calibration of spaceborne multispectral remote sensing systems has been developed. This simplified process eliminates the use of radiative transfer codes and reduces the number of atmospheric assumptions required to perform sensor calibrations. Like prior approaches, the simplified method involves the collection of ground truth data coincident with the overpass of the remote sensing system being calibrated, but this approach differs from the prior techniques in both the nature of the data collected and the manner in which the data are processed. In traditional vicarious radiometric calibration, ground truth data are gathered using ground-viewing spectroradiometers and one or more sun photometer( s), among other instruments, located at a ground target area. The measured data from the ground-based instruments are used in radiative transfer models to estimate the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) target radiances at the time of satellite overpass. These TOA radiances are compared with the satellite sensor readings to radiometrically calibrate the sensor. Traditional vicarious radiometric calibration methods require that an atmospheric model be defined such that the ground-based observations of solar transmission and diffuse-to-global ratios are in close agreement with the radiative transfer code estimation of these parameters. This process is labor-intensive and complex, and can be prone to errors. The errors can be compounded because of approximations in the model and inaccurate assumptions about the radiative coupling between the atmosphere and the terrain. The errors can increase the uncertainty of the TOA radiance estimates used to perform the radiometric calibration. In comparison, the simplified approach does not use atmospheric radiative transfer models and involves fewer assumptions concerning the radiative transfer properties of the atmosphere. This new technique uses two neighboring uniform

  20. TES radiometric assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worden, H.; Sarkissian, E.; Bowman, K.; Fisher, B.; Rider, D.; Aumann, H. H.; Apolinski, M.; Debaca, R. C.; Gluck, S.; Madatyan, M.; McDuffie, J.; Tremblay, D.; Shephard, M.; Cady-Pereira, K.; Tobin, D.; Revercomb, H.

    2005-01-01

    TES is an infrared Fourier transform spectrometer on board the EOS-Aura spacecraft launched July 15, 2004. Improvements to the radiometric calibration and consequent assessment of radiometric accuracy have been on-going since launch.

  1. Detection of circulating immune complexes by Raji cell assay: comparison of flow cytometric and radiometric methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kingsmore, S.F.; Crockard, A.D.; Fay, A.C.; McNeill, T.A.; Roberts, S.D.; Thompson, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Several flow cytometric methods for the measurement of circulating immune complexes (CIC) have recently become available. We report a Raji cell flow cytometric assay (FCMA) that uses aggregated human globulin (AHG) as primary calibrator. Technical advantages of the Raji cell flow cytometric assay are discussed, and its clinical usefulness is evaluated in a method comparison study with the widely used Raji cell immunoradiometric assay. FCMA is more precise and has greater analytic sensitivity for AHG. Diagnostic sensitivity by the flow cytometric method is superior in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis, and vasculitis patients: however, diagnostic specificity is similar for both assays, but the reference interval of FCMA is narrower. Significant correlations were found between CIC levels obtained with both methods in SLE, rheumatoid arthritis, and vasculitis patients and in longitudinal studies of two patients with cerebral SLE. The Raji cell FCMA is recommended for measurement of CIC levels to clinical laboratories with access to a flow cytometer.

  2. Comparison of thiaminase activity in fish using the radiometric and 4-nitrothiophenol colorimetric methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Hanes, J.W.; Brown, L.; Kraft, C.E.; Begley, T.P.

    2010-01-01

    Thiaminase induced thiamine deficiency occurs in fish, humans, livestock and wild animals. A non-radioactive thiaminase assay was described in 2007, but a direct comparison with the radioactive 14C-thiamine method which has been in use for more than 30years has not been reported. The objective was to measure thiaminase activity in forage fish (alewife Alosa pseudoharengus, rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax, and slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus) consumed by predators that manifest thiamine deficiency using both methods. Modifications were made to the colorimetric assay to improve repeatability. Modification included a change in assay pH, enhanced sample clean-up, constant assay temperature (37??C), increase in the concentration of 4-nitrothiophenol (4NTP) and use of a spectrophotometer fitted with a 0.2cm cell. A strong relationship between the two assays was found for 51 alewife (R2=0.85), 36 smelt (R2=0.87) and 20 sculpin (R2=0.82). Thiaminase activity in the colorimetric assay was about 1000 times higher than activity measured by the radioactive method. Application of the assay to fish species from which no thiaminase activity has previously been reported resulted in no 4NTP thiaminase activity being found in bloater Coregonus hoyi, lake trout Salvelinus namaycusch, steelhead trout Oncorhynchus mykiss or Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. In species previously reported to contain thiaminase, 4NTP thiaminase activity was measured in bacteria Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus, gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum, bracken fern Pteridium aquilinum, quagga mussel Dreissena bugensis and zebra mussels D. polymorpha. ?? 2010.

  3. Rapid methods and automation in dairy microbiology.

    PubMed

    Vasavada, P C

    1993-10-01

    The importance of microbiology to the dairy industry has been demonstrated by recent outbreaks of foodborne illness associated with consumption of milk and dairy products that had been contaminated with pathogenic organisms or toxins. Undesirable microorganisms constitute the primary hazard to safety, quality, and wholesomeness of milk and dairy foods. Consequently, increased emphasis has been placed on the microbiological analysis of milk and dairy products designed to evaluate quality and to ensure safety and regulatory compliance. The focus of dairy microbiology, however, remains largely on conventional methods: plate counts, most probable numbers, and dye reduction tests. These methods are slow, tedious, intensive in their requirements for material and labor, and often not suitable for assessing the quality and shelf-life of perishable dairy foods. With the exception of coliforms, Salmonella, and Staphylococcus aureus, isolation and characterization of various organisms occurring in milk and milk products are seldom a part of the routine microbiological analysis in the dairy industry. Recent emphasis on the programs based on HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) for total quality management in the dairy industry and increased demand for microbiological surveillance of products, process, and environment have led to increased interest in rapid methods and automation in microbiology. Several methods for rapid detection, isolation, enumeration, and characterization of microorganisms are being adapted by the dairy industry. This presentation reviews rapid methods and automation in microbiology for microbiological analysis of milk and dairy products. PMID:8227634

  4. Radiometric method for determining concentration of naturally occurring isotopes and device therefor

    SciTech Connect

    Yakubovich, S.L.; Gerling, V.E.; Golubnichy, V.V.; Kotsen, M.E.; Stepanov, J.N.

    1984-10-09

    The proposed method essentially consists in that a sample of a substance is placed between two scintillators in immediate contact therewith whereupon said sample is hermetically sealed. Arranged in close proximity to each scintillator is a photomultiplier tube recording ionizing ..cap alpha..- and b-radiation. A selector is utilized to select pulses corresponding to ..cap alpha..- and b-particles, and delayed coincidence circuits of a recording element separate and record b-..cap alpha.. and ..cap alpha..-..cap alpha.. cascade pairs of delayed coincidences of RaC, ThC, and AcA radionuclides. Flows are measured twice at a predetermined time interval to account for emanation build-up tendency and concentration of isotopes of radium is determined from a formula.

  5. Methods of Recording Rapid Wind Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magnan, A

    1932-01-01

    The purpose of our research was to determine the rapid changes of air currents which impose varying stresses on the wings of airplanes. We attempted to express in figures the turbulence of the air, which perhaps plays some role in the behavior of airplanes in flight, as well as in the realization of certain methods of gliding flight. This is the reason which led us to conceive and develop the experimental equipment (hot-wire anemometer) described herein.

  6. Rapid Column Extraction method for SoilRapid Column Extraction method for Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, Sherrod, L. III; Culligan, Brian K.

    2005-11-07

    The analysis of actinides in environmental soil and sediment samples is very important for environmental monitoring as well as for emergency preparedness. A new, rapid actinide separation method has been developed and implemented that provides total dissolution of large soil samples, high chemical recoveries and effective removal of matrix interferences. This method uses stacked TEVA Resin{reg_sign}, TRU Resin{reg_sign} and DGA-Resin{reg_sign} cartridges from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA) that allows the rapid separation of plutonium (Pu) neptunium (Np), uranium (U), americium (Am), and curium (Cm) using a single multi-stage column combined with alpha spectrometry. The method combines a rapid fusion step for total dissolution to dissolve refractory analytes and matrix removal using cerium fluoride precipitation to remove the difficult soil matrix. By using vacuum box cartridge technology with rapid flow rates, sample preparation time is minimized.

  7. Rapid Column Extraction Methods for Urine

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.L. III

    2000-06-09

    A new fecal analysis method that dissolves plutonium oxide was developed at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site. Diphonix Resin (Eichrom Industries), is used to pre-concentrate the actinides from digested fecal samples. A rapid microwave digestion technique is used to remove the actinides from the Diphonix Resin, which effectively extracts plutonium and americium from acidic solutions containing hydrofluoric acid. After resin digestion, the plutonium and americium are recovered in a small volume of nitric acid that is loaded onto small extraction chromatography columns, TEVA Resin and TRU Resin (Eichrom Industries). The method enables complete dissolution of plutonium oxide and provides high recovery of plutonium and americium with good removal of thorium isotopes such as thorium-228.

  8. Simple rapid method for gene transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Cockburn, A.F.; Meier, H.

    1990-01-30

    The object of the present invention is to provide methods for gene transfer that reduce or eliminate cellular pretreatment steps, e.g., the removal of cell wall by chemical or enzymatic methods, is rapid and can be practiced without the need of additional expensive equipment. Cells, embryos or tissues selected for genetic manipulation are suspended in an Eppendorf tube in an aliquot of the desired genetic material to be transferred to which the resulting mixture is added and is agitated by vortexing from about 30 to about 90 seconds. The cells, embryos or tissue are sedimented and the DNA supernatant removed. After sedimentation, the injected material is resuspended in or on a growth medium to assay for expression.

  9. Patch Antenna for Measuring the Internal Temperature of Biological Objects Using the Near-Field Microwave Radiometric Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubaichin, A.; Bespalko, A.; Filatov, A.; Alexeev, E.; Zhuk, G.

    2016-01-01

    The near-field microwave antenna with central frequency of 2.23 GHz has been designed and manufactured to be used as a part of the medical microwave radiometric system. Experimental studies of the reflection coefficient in different parts of the human body were conducted using the developed antenna. The experimental studies were carried out in a group of volunteers with normal somatic growth. The results of the experiments were used to perform the analysis of the potential errors in the measurements obtained via the developed antenna.

  10. A rapid method for airborne tritium analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Wilson, H.T. )

    1991-11-01

    Tritium is one of the principal radionuclides released to the environment from nuclear fuel and target reprocessing, heavy-water production, and other nuclear industry operations. For example, the majority of the off-site dose to the public at the Savannah River site (SRS) in 1988 was from tritium oxide (HTO). The absorbed dose is highly dependent on chemical form; HTO is 10,000 more hazardous than the elemental form (HT). Commercially available tritium monitors do not discriminate between chemical form and have high detection limits. Consequently, tedious laboratory methods must be used to analyze HTO in air. Desiccants are used to remove all the water from an air sample. The tritiated water is then desorbed and analyzed by liquid scintillation spectrometry. The method is complex and takes several hours to complete. During an unplanned release, present-time atmospheric tritium concentrations are never available. To improve emergency response capabilities, a rapid sampling and analysis method was developed for measuring low-level HTO concentrations in air. Standard desiccant sampling and water desorption procedure was modified for use in the SRS mobile laboratory, which is equipped with a liquid scintillation counter. These tests indicate that an HTO concentration of 0.2% DCG (7 Bq/m{sup 3}) can be detected by this method with a 10-min sample collection time and a 10-min count.

  11. Effectiveness and cost of rapid and conventional laboratory methods for Mycobacterium tuberculosis screening.

    PubMed Central

    Heymann, S J; Brewer, T F; Ettling, M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Because delay in the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) contributes to the spread of disease and the associated mortality risk, the authors examined the effectiveness and cost of recent advances in methods of diagnosing TB and testing for drug susceptibility, comparing these rapid methods to traditional approaches. METHODS: Decision analysis was used to compare newer rapid and older nonrapid methods for diagnosing TB and testing for drug susceptibility. The average time to diagnosis, average time to treatment, average mortality, and cost of caring for patients evaluated for TB were compared. RESULTS: Using a combination of solid medium and broth cultures, nucleic acid probes for identification, and radiometric broth drug susceptibility testing would lead to diagnosis on average 15 days faster and to appropriate therapy on average five days sooner than methods currently employed by many U.S. laboratories. The average mortality would drop by five patients per 1000 patients evaluated (31%) and the average cost per patient would drop by $272 (18%). CONCLUSIONS: In this era of cost containment, it is important to incorporate test sensitivity and specificity when evaluating technologies. Tests with higher unit costs may lead to lower medical expenditures when diagnostic accuracy and speed are improved. U.S. laboratories should employ available rapid techniques for the diagnosis of TB. PMID:10822480

  12. Radiometric correction procedure study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colby, C.; Sands, R.; Murphrey, S.

    1978-01-01

    A comparison of MSS radiometric processing techniques identified as a preferred radiometric processing technique a procedure which equalizes the mean and standard deviation of detector-specific histograms of uncalibrated scene data. Evaluation of MSS calibration data demonstrated that the relationship between detector responses is essentially linear over the range of intensities typically observed in MSS data, and that the calibration wedge data possess a high degree of temporal stability. An analysis of the preferred radiometric processing technique showed that it could be incorporated into the MDP-MSS system without a major redesign of the system, and with minimal impact on system throughput.

  13. A Rapid Method for Isolating Glandular Trichomes

    PubMed Central

    Yerger, Ellen H.; Grazzini, Richard A.; Hesk, David; Cox-Foster, Diana L.; Craig, Richard; Mumma, Ralph O.

    1992-01-01

    A physical method is described for the rapid isolation of plant trichomes, with emphasis on stalked glandular types. The technique involved breaking frozen trichomes with powdered dry ice and collection of glandular heads by sieving from larger tissue fragments. This method was applied to several plants that bear similar stalked trichomes: geranium (Pelargonium), potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), squash (Cucurbita pepo), and velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti). The tissue preparation was of sufficient quality without further purification for biochemical and molecular studies. The preparation maintained the biochemical integrity of the trichomes for active enzymes and usable nucleic acids. A large quantity of tissue can be harvested; for example, 351 milligrams dry weight of glandular trichomes were harvested from geranium pedicels in 12 hours. The utility of the technique was demonstrated by examining the fatty acid composition of tall glandular trichomes of geraniums, Pelargonium ×hortorum L.H. Bailey. These purified cells contained high concentrations of unusual ω5-unsaturated fatty acids, proportionally 23.4% of total fatty acids in the trichomes. When the trichomes were removed, the supporting tissue contained no ω5-fatty acids, thereby unequivocally localizing ω5-fatty acids to the trichomes. Because ω5-fatty acids are unique precursors for the biosynthesis of ω5-anacardic acids, we conclude that anacardic acid synthesis must occur in the glandular trichomes. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:16668834

  14. Digital correction of geometric and radiometric errors in ERTS data.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakis, R.; Wesley, M. A.; Will, P. M.

    1971-01-01

    The sensor systems of the ERTS-A satellite are discussed and sources of geometric and radiometric errors in the received images are identified. Digital algorithms are presented for detection of reseau and ground control points, for rapid implementation of geometric corrections, and for radiometric correction of errors caused by shading, image motion, modulation transfer function, and quantum and systematic noise.

  15. Results of magnetic HGI and radiometric surveys in W. Canada

    SciTech Connect

    LeSchack, L.A.

    1997-05-19

    This article presents four case histories in which ground-based magnetic horizontal gradient intensity (HGI) and radiometric surveys were used in Western Canada for cost-effective geochemical exploration for hydrocarbons. The authors has developed these two surface exploration techniques from published studies and adapted them for use on the prairies the past 7 years. These surveys are used in conjunction with the usual geologic and seismic studies for: (1) evaluating prospects and land; (2) verifying seismic anomalies and inexpensively locating areas for conducting expensive 3D seismic surveys. Occasionally, as in two of the case histories discussed, these surveys were used successfully as stand-alone exploration methods where seismic exploration is not effective. The HGI and radiometric surveys measure, by geophysical methods, those effects associated with geochemical alterations due to vertical microseepage of hydrocarbons. The total cost, including permitting, data acquisition, data processing, and interpretation of the combination HGI and radiometric surveys is about 15% the total cost of a 3D seismic survey. Because of this, the author finds them an attractive and rapid survey adjunct to traditional exploration. They substantially reduce finding costs and significantly raise the probability of financial success.

  16. Radiometric assays for glycerol, glucose, and glycogen

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, D.C.; Kaslow, H.R. )

    1989-07-01

    We have developed radiometric assays for small quantities of glycerol, glucose and glycogen, based on a technique described by Thorner and Paulus for the measurement of glycerokinase activity. In the glycerol assay, glycerol is phosphorylated with (32P)ATP and glycerokinase, residual (32P)ATP is hydrolyzed by heating in acid, and free (32P)phosphate is removed by precipitation with ammonium molybdate and triethylamine. Standard dose-response curves were linear from 50 to 3000 pmol glycerol with less than 3% SD in triplicate measurements. Of the substances tested for interference, only dihydroxyacetone gave a slight false positive signal at high concentration. When used to measure glycerol concentrations in serum and in media from incubated adipose tissue, the radiometric glycerol assay correlated well with a commonly used spectrophotometric assay. The radiometric glucose assay is similar to the glycerol assay, except that glucokinase is used instead of glycerokinase. Dose response was linear from 5 to 3000 pmol glucose with less than 3% SD in triplicate measurements. Glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine gave false positive signals when equimolar to glucose. When glucose concentrations in serum were measured, the radiometric glucose assay agreed well with hexokinase/glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H/GDH)-based and glucose oxidase/H2O2-based glucose assays. The radiometric method for glycogen measurement incorporates previously described isolation and digestion techniques, followed by the radiometric assay of free glucose. When used to measure glycogen in mouse epididymal fat pads, the radiometric glycogen assay correlated well with the H/GDH-based glycogen assay. All three radiometric assays offer several practical advantages over spectral assays.

  17. Radiometric assays for glycerol, glucose, and glycogen.

    PubMed

    Bradley, D C; Kaslow, H R

    1989-07-01

    We have developed radiometric assays for small quantities of glycerol, glucose and glycogen, based on a technique described by Thorner and Paulus (1971, J. Biol. Chem. 246, 3885-3894) for the measurement of glycerokinase activity. In the glycerol assay, glycerol is phosphorylated with [32P]ATP and glycerokinase, residual [32P]ATP is hydrolyzed by heating in acid, and free [32P]phosphate is removed by precipitation with ammonium molybdate and triethylamine. Standard dose-response curves were linear from 50 to 3000 pmol glycerol with less than 3% SD in triplicate measurements. Of the substances tested for interference, only dihydroxyacetone gave a slight false positive signal at high concentration. When used to measure glycerol concentrations in serum and in media from incubated adipose tissue, the radiometric glycerol assay correlated well with a commonly used spectrophotometric assay. The radiometric glucose assay is similar to the glycerol assay, except that glucokinase is used instead of glycerokinase. Dose response was linear from 5 to 3000 pmol glucose with less than 3% SD in triplicate measurements. Glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine gave false positive signals when equimolar to glucose. When glucose concentrations in serum were measured, the radiometric glucose assay agreed well with hexokinase/glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H/GDH)-based and glucose oxidase/H2O2-based glucose assays. The radiometric method for glycogen measurement incorporates previously described isolation and digestion techniques, followed by the radiometric assay of free glucose. When used to measure glycogen in mouse epididymal fat pads, the radiometric glycogen assay correlated well with the H/GDH-based glycogen assay. All three radiometric assays offer several practical advantages over spectral assays. PMID:2817333

  18. Microwave radiometric systems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barath, F. T.

    1972-01-01

    Microwave radiometers measure thermal electromagnetic radiation at frequencies ranging over the entire radio spectrum, from audio to infrared. The temperatures of black-body radiators can be measured with sensitivities better than 0.01 K, and with absolute accuracies better than 0.5 K. Radiometric systems have been built with as many as 400 independent spectral channels. Frequency resolutions range from hertz to gigahertz; and integration times range from microseconds to hours. Radiometric systems have operated reliably on the ground, and in balloons, aircraft, and spacecraft, including the 1962 Mariner 2 planetary probe to Venus.

  19. Small satellite radiometric measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, P.G.

    1991-01-01

    A critical need for the Mission to Planet Earth is to provide continuous, well-calibrated radiometric data for the radiation budget. This paper describes a new, compact, flexible radiometer which will provide both spectrally integrated data and data in selected spectral bands. The radiometer design is suitable for use on small satellites, aircraft, or remotely piloted vehicles (RPVs). 12 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Methods and compositions for rapid thermal cycling

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Benett, William J.; Frank, James M.; Deotte, Joshua R.; Spadaccini, Christopher

    2015-10-27

    The rapid thermal cycling of a material is targeted. A microfluidic heat exchanger with an internal porous medium is coupled to tanks containing cold fluid and hot fluid. Fluid flows alternately from the cold tank and the hot tank into the porous medium, cooling and heating samples contained in the microfluidic heat exchanger's sample wells. A valve may be coupled to the tanks and a pump, and switching the position of the valve may switch the source and direction of fluid flowing through the porous medium. A controller may control the switching of valve positions based on the temperature of the samples and determined temperature thresholds. A sample tray for containing samples to be thermally cycled may be used in conjunction with the thermal cycling system. A surface or internal electrical heater may aid in heating the samples, or may replace the necessity for the hot tank.

  1. METHODS FOR RAPID IDENTIFICATION OF VIRUSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The progress made in the last few years in methods for direct detection of viruses in clinical samples, without the need for in vitro culture, suggests that they will be applicable to at least some types of environmental samples. The methods for detecting viral antigen include: r...

  2. Method for rapid isolation of sensitive mutants

    DOEpatents

    Freyer, James P.

    1997-01-01

    Sensitive mammalian cell mutants are rapidly isolated using flow cytometry. A first population of clonal spheroids is established to contain both normal and mutant cells. The population may be naturally occurring or may arise from mutagenized cells. The first population is then flow sorted by size to obtain a second population of clonal spheroids of a first uniform size. The second population is then exposed to a DNA-damaging agent that is being investigated. The exposed second population is placed in a growth medium to form a third population of clonal spheroids comprising spheroids of increased size from the mammalian cells that are resistant to the DNA-damaging agent and spheroids of substantially the first uniform size formed from the mammalian cells that are sensitive to the DNA-damaging agent. The third population is not flow sorted to differentiate the spheroids formed from resistant mammalian cells from spheroids formed from sensitive mammalian cells. The spheroids formed from sensitive mammalian cells are now treated to recover viable sensitive cells from which a sensitive cell line can be cloned.

  3. Method for rapid isolation of sensitive mutants

    DOEpatents

    Freyer, J.P.

    1997-07-29

    Sensitive mammalian cell mutants are rapidly isolated using flow cytometry. A first population of clonal spheroids is established to contain both normal and mutant cells. The population may be naturally occurring or may arise from mutagenized cells. The first population is then flow sorted by size to obtain a second population of clonal spheroids of a first uniform size. The second population is then exposed to a DNA-damaging agent that is being investigated. The exposed second population is placed in a growth medium to form a third population of clonal spheroids comprising spheroids of increased size from the mammalian cells that are resistant to the DNA-damaging agent and spheroids of substantially the first uniform size formed from the mammalian cells that are sensitive to the DNA-damaging agent. The third population is not flow sorted to differentiate the spheroids formed from resistant mammalian cells from spheroids formed from sensitive mammalian cells. The spheroids formed from sensitive mammalian cells are now treated to recover viable sensitive cells from which a sensitive cell line can be cloned. 15 figs.

  4. Rapid vegetative propagation method for carob

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many fruit species are propagated by vegetative methods such as budding, grafting, cutting, suckering, layering etc. to avoid heterozygosity. Carob trees (Ceratonia siliqua L.) are of highly economical value and it is among the most difficult-to-propagate fruit species. In this study, air-layering p...

  5. A method for sensible heat flux model parameterization based on radiometric surface temperature and environmental factors without involving the parameter KB-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Qifeng; Wu, Bingfang; Yan, Nana; Zhu, Weiwei; Xing, Qiang

    2016-05-01

    Sensible heat flux is a key component of land-atmosphere interaction. In most parameterizations it is calculated with surface-air temperature differences and total aerodynamic resistance to heat transfer (Rae) that is related to the KB-1 parameter. Suitable values are hard to obtain since KB-1 is related both to canopy characteristics and environmental conditions. In this paper, a parameterize method for sensible heat flux over vegetated surfaces (maize field and grass land in the Heihe river basin of northwest China) was proposed based on the radiometric surface temperature, surface resistance (Rs) and vapor pressures (saturated and actual) at the surface and the atmosphere above the canopy. A biophysics-based surface resistance model was revised to compute surface resistance with several environmental factors. The total aerodynamic resistance to heat transfer is directly calculated by combining the biophysics-based surface resistance and vapor pressures. One merit of this method is that the calculation of KB-1 can be avoided. The method provides a new way to estimate sensible heat flux over vegetated surfaces and its performance compares well to the LAS measured sensible heat and other empirical or semi-empirical KB-1 based estimations.

  6. Method and system rapid piece handling

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.

    1996-01-01

    The advent of high-speed fabric cutters has made necessary the development of automated techniques for the collection and sorting of garment pieces into collated piles of pieces ready for assembly. The present invention enables a new method for such handling and sorting of garment parts, and to apparatus capable of carrying out this new method. The common thread is the application of computer-controlled shuttling bins, capable of picking up a desired piece of fabric and dropping it in collated order for assembly. Such apparatus with appropriate computer control relieves the bottleneck now presented by the sorting and collation procedure, thus greatly increasing the overall rate at which garments can be assembled.

  7. Method for large and rapid terahertz imaging

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Gwyn P.; Neil, George R.

    2013-01-29

    A method of large-scale active THz imaging using a combination of a compact high power THz source (>1 watt), an optional optical system, and a camera for the detection of reflected or transmitted THz radiation, without the need for the burdensome power source or detector cooling systems required by similar prior art such devices. With such a system, one is able to image, for example, a whole person in seconds or less, whereas at present, using low power sources and scanning techniques, it takes several minutes or even hours to image even a 1 cm.times.1 cm area of skin.

  8. Relative radiometric calibration of LANDSAT TM reflective bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    A common scientific methodology and terminology is outlined for characterizing the radiometry of both TM sensors. The magnitude of the most significant sources of radiometric variability are discussed and methods are recommended for achieving the exceptional potential inherent in the radiometric precision and accuracy of the TM sensors.

  9. Expediting systematic reviews: methods and implications of rapid reviews

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Policy makers and others often require synthesis of knowledge in an area within six months or less. Traditional systematic reviews typically take at least 12 months to conduct. Rapid reviews streamline traditional systematic review methods in order to synthesize evidence within a shortened timeframe. There is great variation in the process of conducting rapid reviews. This review sought to examine methods used for rapid reviews, as well as implications of methodological streamlining in terms of rigour, bias, and results. Methods A comprehensive search strategy--including five electronic databases, grey literature, hand searching of relevant journals, and contacting key informants--was undertaken. All titles and abstracts (n = 1,989) were reviewed independently by two reviewers. Relevance criteria included articles published between 1995 and 2009 about conducting rapid reviews or addressing comparisons of rapid reviews versus traditional reviews. Full articles were retrieved for any titles deemed relevant by either reviewer (n = 70). Data were extracted from all relevant methodological articles (n = 45) and from exemplars of rapid review methods (n = 25). Results Rapid reviews varied from three weeks to six months; various methods for speeding up the process were employed. Some limited searching by years, databases, language, and sources beyond electronic searches. Several employed one reviewer for title and abstract reviewing, full text review, methodological quality assessment, and/or data extraction phases. Within rapid review studies, accelerating the data extraction process may lead to missing some relevant information. Biases may be introduced due to shortened timeframes for literature searching, article retrieval, and appraisal. Conclusions This review examined the continuum between diverse rapid review methods and traditional systematic reviews. It also examines potential implications of streamlined review methods. More of these rapid reviews need

  10. RADIOMETRIC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF URANIUM IN WATER: SINGLE-LABORATORY EVALUATION AND INTERLABORATORY COLLABORATIVE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The results of a single-laboratory evaluation and an inter-laboratory collaborative study of a method for determining uranium in water are reported. The method consists of coprecipitation of uranium with ferrous hydroxide, a nitric-hydrofluoric acid dissolution if the sample cont...

  11. RADIOMETRIC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF URANIUM IN SOIL AND AIR: SINGLE-LABORATORY EVALUATION AND INTERLABORATORY COLLABORATIVE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Results of a single-laboratory evaluation and an interlaboratory collaborative study of a method for determining uranium isotopes in soil and air samples are presented. The method is applicable to 10-gram soil samples and to both glass fiber and polystyrene air filter samples. Sa...

  12. Multicenter Laboratory Validation of Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis against Classical Second-Line and Newer Antimicrobial Drugs by Using the Radiometric BACTEC 460 Technique and the Proportion Method with Solid Media

    PubMed Central

    Pfyffer, Gaby E.; Bonato, Donald A.; Ebrahimzadeh, Adeleh; Gross, Wendy; Hotaling, Jacqueline; Kornblum, John; Laszlo, Adalbert; Roberts, Glenn; Salfinger, Max; Wittwer, Franziska; Siddiqi, Salman

    1999-01-01

    In a large multicenter study involving six major study sites in the United States, Canada, and Europe, the susceptibilities of 272 Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains to classical second-line antituberculosis (anti-TB) drugs (capreomycin, cycloserine, ethionamide, and kanamycin) and newer compounds (amikacin, clofazimine, ofloxacin, and rifabutin) were determined by the radiometric BACTEC 460 procedure and the conventional proportion method on Middlebrook 7H10 agar. Previously established critical concentrations for classical second-line anti-TB drugs were compared with several concentrations in liquid medium to establish equivalence. MICs of newer compounds determined in liquid medium were either the same or up to four times lower than those determined in agar medium. After establishing critical concentrations (breakpoints) in the extended testing of clinical isolates, we obtained an excellent overall correlation between the two systems, with no errors with amikacin, kanamycin, and ofloxacin and very few major or very major errors with the other drugs; however, for cycloserine, no breakpoint concentration could be recommended due to repeatedly inconsistent results by both methods. Based on these data we conclude that the BACTEC 460 procedure is a simple and rapid method requiring 4 to 8 days on average to generate accurate antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) results for eight anti-TB drugs other than those considered primary ones. These data not only fill a major gap of knowledge regarding the critical test concentrations of secondary anti-TB drugs but also provide a baseline for future evaluations of M. tuberculosis AST with the more recently developed, nonradiometric broth-based culture systems. PMID:10488174

  13. Radiometric sounding system

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, C.D.; Anderson, G.A.; Alzheimer, J.M.; Shaw, W.J.

    1995-04-01

    Vertical profiles of solar and terrestrial radiative fluxes are key research needs for global climate change research. These fluxes are expected to change as radiatively active trace gases are emitted to the earth`s atmosphere as a consequence of energy production and industrial and other human activities. Models suggest that changes in the concentration of such gases will lead to radiative flux divergences that will produce global warming of the earth`s atmosphere. Direct measurements of the vertical variation of solar and terrestrial radiative fluxes that lead to these flux divergences have been largely unavailable because of the expense of making such measurements from airplanes. These measurements are needed to improve existing atmospheric radiative transfer models, especially under the cloudy conditions where the models have not been adequately tested. A tethered-balloon-borne Radiometric Sounding System has been developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to provide an inexpensive means of making routine vertical soundings of radiative fluxes in the earth`s atmospheric boundary layer to altitudes up to 1500 m above ground level. Such vertical soundings would supplement measurements being made from aircraft and towers. The key technical challenge in the design of the Radiometric Sounding System is to develop a means of keeping the radiometers horizontal while the balloon ascends and descends in a turbulent atmospheric environment. This problem has been addressed by stabilizing a triangular radiometer-carrying platform that is carried on the tetherline of a balloon sounding system. The platform, carried 30 m or more below the balloon to reduce the balloon`s effect on the radiometric measurements, is leveled by two automatic control loops that activate motors, gears and pulleys when the platform is off-level. The sensitivity of the automatic control loops to oscillatory motions of various frequencies and amplitudes can be adjusted using filters.

  14. Kernel MAD Algorithm for Relative Radiometric Normalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yang; Tang, Ping; Hu, Changmiao

    2016-06-01

    The multivariate alteration detection (MAD) algorithm is commonly used in relative radiometric normalization. This algorithm is based on linear canonical correlation analysis (CCA) which can analyze only linear relationships among bands. Therefore, we first introduce a new version of MAD in this study based on the established method known as kernel canonical correlation analysis (KCCA). The proposed method effectively extracts the non-linear and complex relationships among variables. We then conduct relative radiometric normalization experiments on both the linear CCA and KCCA version of the MAD algorithm with the use of Landsat-8 data of Beijing, China, and Gaofen-1(GF-1) data derived from South China. Finally, we analyze the difference between the two methods. Results show that the KCCA-based MAD can be satisfactorily applied to relative radiometric normalization, this algorithm can well describe the nonlinear relationship between multi-temporal images. This work is the first attempt to apply a KCCA-based MAD algorithm to relative radiometric normalization.

  15. COMPARISON BETWEEN ELLMAN AND RADIOMETRIC METHODS FOR ASSESSING CHOLINESTERASE (CHE) INHIBITION IN RATS TREATED WITH N-METHYL CARBAMATE INSECTICIDES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbamylated ChE is unstable and readily reactivates. This reactivation, promoted by increasing temperature and dilution, could have an impact on ex vivo ChE assays by decreasing apparent ChE inhibition. To assess the best method for measuring ChE inhibition in brain and RBCs f...

  16. A Rapid Method for Assaying Thiaminase I Activity in Diverse Biological Samples

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, Clifford E.; Gordon, Eric R. L.; Angert, Esther R.

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiencies can lead to neurological disorders, reproductive failure and death in wild and domestic animal populations. In some cases, disease is brought about by the consumption of foods high in thiaminase I activity. Levels of thiaminase activity in these foods are highly variable and the factors leading to production of this enzyme are poorly understood. Here we describe improvements in a spectrophotometric thiaminase I activity assay that measures the disappearance of 4-nitrothiophenol, a favored nucleophile co-substrate that replaces the thiazole portion of thiamine during the inactivation of thiamine by the enzyme. Scalable sample processing protocols and a 96-well microtiter plate format are presented that allow the rapid evaluation of multiple, replicated samples in the course of only a few hours. Observed levels of activity in bacterial culture supernatant, fish, ferns and molluscs using this colorimetric assay were similar to previously published reports that employed a radiometric method. Organisms devoid of thiaminase I, based upon previous work, showed no activity with this assay. In addition, activity was found in a variety of fishes and one fern species from which this enzyme had not previously been reported. Overall, we demonstrate the suitability of this technique for measuring thiaminase I activity within small amounts of tissue and environmental samples with replication levels that were heretofore prohibitive. The assay provides a considerable improvement in the ability to examine and understand the properties of an enzyme that has a substantial influence on organism and ecosystem health. PMID:24675843

  17. Dating human skeletal remains using a radiometric method: biogenic versus diagenetic 90Sr and 210Pb in vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Schrag, Bettina; Uldin, Tanya; Mangin, Patrice; Froidevaux, Pascal

    2012-07-10

    In forensic science, there is a strong interest in determining the post-mortem interval (PMI) of human skeletal remains up to 50 years after death. Currently, there are no reliable methods to resolve PMI, the determination of which relies almost exclusively on the experience of the investigating expert. Here we measured (90)Sr and (210)Pb ((210)Po) incorporated into bones through a biogenic process as indicators of the time elapsed since death. We hypothesised that the activity of radionuclides incorporated into trabecular bone will more accurately match the activity in the environment and the food chain at the time of death than the activity in cortical bone because of a higher remodelling rate. We found that determining (90)Sr can yield reliable PMI estimates as long as a calibration curve exists for (90)Sr covering the studied area and the last 50 years. We also found that adding the activity of (210)Po, a proxy for naturally occurring (210)Pb incorporated through ingestion, to the (90)Sr dating increases the reliability of the PMI value. Our results also show that trabecular bone is subject to both (90)Sr and (210)Po diagenesis. Accordingly, we used a solubility profile method to determine the biogenic radionuclide only, and we are proposing a new method of bone decontamination to be used prior to (90)Sr and (210)Pb dating. PMID:22497702

  18. RAPID METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF RADIOSTRONTIUM IN EMERGENCY MILK SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.; Culligan, B.

    2008-07-17

    A new rapid separation method for radiostrontium in emergency milk samples was developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Environmental Bioassay Laboratory (Aiken, SC, USA) that will allow rapid separation and measurement of Sr-90 within 8 hours. The new method uses calcium phosphate precipitation, nitric acid dissolution of the precipitate to coagulate residual fat/proteins and a rapid strontium separation using Sr Resin (Eichrom Technologies, Darien, IL, USA) with vacuum-assisted flow rates. The method is much faster than previous method that use calcination or cation exchange pretreatment, has excellent chemical recovery, and effectively removes beta interferences. When a 100 ml sample aliquot is used, the method has a detection limit of 0.5 Bq/L, well below generic emergency action levels.

  19. An alternative method for the estimation of sedimentation rates using radiometric measurements in an intertidal region (sw of spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ligero, Rufino; Casas-Ruiz, Melquiades; Barrera, Manuel; Barbero, Luis

    2010-05-01

    The techniques for the direct measurement of the sedimentation rate are reliable but slow and imprecise, given that the time intervals of measurement cannot be very long. Consequently it is an extremely laborious task to obtain a representative map of the sedimentation rates and such maps are available for very few zones. However, for most environmental studies, it is very important to know the sedimentation rates. The high degree of accuracy of the gamma spectrometric techniques together with the application of the model describes in this work, has allowed the determination of the sedimentation rates in a wide spatial area such of the Bay of Cadiz to be obtained with precision and consuming considerably less time in comparison to the traditional techniques. Even so, the experimental conditions required for the sample cores are fairly restrictive, and although the radiological method provides a quantitative advance in measurement, the experimental difficulty in the execution of the study is not greatly diminished. For this reason, a second model has been derived based on the measurement of the inventory, which offers economies in time and financial cost, and which allows the sedimentation rate in a region to be determined with satisfactory accuracy. Furthermore, it has been shown that the application of this model requires a precise determination of 137Cs inventories. The sedimentation rates estimated by the 137Cs inventory method ranged from 0.26 cm/year to 1.72 cm/year. The average value of the sedimentation rate obtained is 0.59 cm/year, and this rate has been compared with those resulting from the application of the 210Pb dating technique. A good agreement between the two procedures has been found. From the study carried out, it has been possible for the first time, to draw a map of sedimentation rates for this zone where numerous physical-chemical, oceanographic and ecological studies converge, since it is situated in a region of great environmental interest

  20. Application of non-radiometric methods to the determination of plutonium. Literature review conducted for the Buried Waste Integrated Program

    SciTech Connect

    Edelson, M.C.

    1992-03-05

    This literature review was motivated by discussions that took place during a review of contamination control technologies proposed for INEL (buried waste). It should be a useful tool in identifying non-radiation measurement techniques for Pu and Am such as ICP-MS, which should fulfill the following criteria: apparatus must be field deployable; up to 100 samples per day; and lower levels of detection and required time must be listed. The sensitivity of ICP and RIMS is compared against that needed for contamination monitoring at INEL. Only Pu-241, with a required detection limit of 400 ppt, would challenge the sensitivity of ICP-MS; Pu-238 would be easily determined. The need to determine Pu-238 and Am-241 in the presence of U-238 and Pu-241 seems to preclude the possibility of using laser ablation ICP-MS for Pu monitoring. ICP-AES and -LEAFS methods may not have enough sensitivity to determine Pu-238 at 2 ppb level with confidence, but RIMS (resonance ionization mass spectroscopy) should be adequate. 47 refs, figs.

  1. PHOTOACTIVATED LUMINESCENCE METHOD FOR RAPID SCREENING OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency have a strong need for screening capabilities for hazardous materials. his paper describes a new method based on enhanced photoactivated luminescence (ELP) for rapid detection of PCBs. he EPL method descri...

  2. Radiometric Characterization of IKONOS Multispectral Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagnutti, Mary; Ryan, Robert E.; Kelly, Michelle; Holekamp, Kara; Zanoni, Vicki; Thome, Kurtis; Schiller, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    A radiometric characterization of Space Imaging's IKONOS 4-m multispectral imagery has been performed by a NASA funded team from the John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC), the University of Arizona Remote Sensing Group (UARSG), and South Dakota State University (SDSU). Both intrinsic radiometry and the effects of Space Imaging processing on radiometry were investigated. Relative radiometry was examined with uniform Antarctic and Saharan sites. Absolute radiometric calibration was performed using reflectance-based vicarious calibration methods on several uniform sites imaged by IKONOS, coincident with ground-based surface and atmospheric measurements. Ground-based data and the IKONOS spectral response function served as input to radiative transfer codes to generate a Top-of-Atmosphere radiance estimate. Calibration coefficients derived from each vicarious calibration were combined to generate an IKONOS radiometric gain coefficient for each multispectral band assuming a linear response over the full dynamic range of the instrument. These calibration coefficients were made available to Space Imaging, which subsequently adopted them by updating its initial set of calibration coefficients. IKONOS imagery procured through the NASA Scientific Data Purchase program is processed with or without a Modulation Transfer Function Compensation kernel. The radiometric effects of this kernel on various scene types was also investigated. All imagery characterized was procured through the NASA Scientific Data Purchase program.

  3. [Laser-based radiometric calibration].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-gang; Zheng, Yu-quan

    2014-12-01

    Increasingly higher demands are put forward to spectral radiometric calibration accuracy and the development of new tunable laser based spectral radiometric calibration technology is promoted, along with the development of studies of terrestrial remote sensing, aeronautical and astronautical remote sensing, plasma physics, quantitative spectroscopy, etc. Internationally a number of national metrology scientific research institutes have built tunable laser based spectral radiometric calibration facilities in succession, which are traceable to cryogenic radiometers and have low uncertainties for spectral responsivity calibration and characterization of detectors and remote sensing instruments in the UK, the USA, Germany, etc. Among them, the facility for spectral irradiance and radiance responsivity calibrations using uniform sources (SIRCCUS) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in the USA and the Tunable Lasers in Photometry (TULIP) facility at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany have more representatives. Compared with lamp-monochromator systems, laser based spectral radiometric calibrations have many advantages, such as narrow spectral bandwidth, high wavelength accuracy, low calibration uncertainty and so on for radiometric calibration applications. In this paper, the development of laser-based spectral radiometric calibration and structures and performances of laser-based radiometric calibration facilities represented by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in the UK, NIST and PTB are presented, technical advantages of laser-based spectral radiometric calibration are analyzed, and applications of this technology are further discussed. Laser-based spectral radiometric calibration facilities can be widely used in important system-level radiometric calibration measurements with high accuracy, including radiance temperature, radiance and irradiance calibrations for space remote sensing instruments, and promote the

  4. Methods and systems for rapid prototyping of high density circuits

    DOEpatents

    Palmer, Jeremy A.; Davis, Donald W.; Chavez, Bart D.; Gallegos, Phillip L.; Wicker, Ryan B.; Medina, Francisco R.

    2008-09-02

    A preferred embodiment provides, for example, a system and method of integrating fluid media dispensing technology such as direct-write (DW) technologies with rapid prototyping (RP) technologies such as stereolithography (SL) to provide increased micro-fabrication and micro-stereolithography. A preferred embodiment of the present invention also provides, for example, a system and method for Rapid Prototyping High Density Circuit (RPHDC) manufacturing of solderless connectors and pilot devices with terminal geometries that are compatible with DW mechanisms and reduce contact resistance where the electrical system is encapsulated within structural members and manual electrical connections are eliminated in favor of automated DW traces. A preferred embodiment further provides, for example, a method of rapid prototyping comprising: fabricating a part layer using stereolithography and depositing thermally curable media onto the part layer using a fluid dispensing apparatus.

  5. A new, rapid, method for preparation of dispersed pancreatic acini.

    PubMed Central

    Bruzzone, R; Halban, P A; Gjinovci, A; Trimble, E R

    1985-01-01

    A new method for the preparation of pancreatic acini is described. The method is simple and much more rapid than previously described techniques, the time required for preparation of pancreatic acini being 20 min from removal of the pancreas. Acini prepared with this method perform in a superior manner when stimulated by either caerulein or secretin. Thus this new technique would be ideal for use in binding and secretion studies. PMID:2581556

  6. Use of a novel radiometric method to assess the inhibitory effect of donepezil on acetylcholinesterase activity in minimally diluted tissue samples

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Okamura, Toshimitsu; Arai, Takuya; Obata, Takayuki; Fukushi, Kiyoshi; Irie, Toshiaki; Shiraishi, Tetsuya

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Cholinesterase inhibitors have been widely used for the treatment of patients with dementia. Monitoring of the cholinesterase activity in the blood is used as an indicator of the effect of the cholinesterase inhibitors in the brain. The selective measurement of cholinesterase with low tissue dilution is preferred for accurate monitoring; however, the methods have not been established. Here, we investigated the effect of tissue dilution on the action of cholinesterase inhibitors using a novel radiometric method with selective substrates, N-[14C]methylpiperidin-4-yl acetate ([14C]MP4A) and (R)-N-[14C]methylpiperidin-3-yl butyrate ([14C]MP3B_R), for AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) respectively. Experimental approach: We investigated the kinetics of hydrolysis of [14C]-MP4A and [14C]-MP3B_R by cholinesterases, and evaluated the selectivity of [14C]MP4A and [14C]MP3B_R for human AChE and BChE, respectively, compared with traditional substrates. Then, IC50 values of cholinesterase inhibitors in minimally diluted and highly diluted tissues were measured with [14C]MP4A and [14C]MP3B_R. Key results: AChE and BChE activities were selectively measured as the first-order hydrolysis rates of [14C]-MP4A and [14C]MP3B_R respectively. The AChE selectivity of [14C]MP4A was an order of magnitude higher than traditional substrates used for the AChE assay. The IC50 values of specific AChE and BChE inhibitors, donepezil and ethopropazine, in 1.2-fold diluted human whole blood were much higher than those in 120-fold diluted blood. In addition, the IC50 values of donepezil in monkey brain were dramatically decreased as the tissue was diluted. Conclusions and implications: This method would effectively monitor the activity of cholinesterase inhibitors used for therapeutics, pesticides and chemical warfare agents. PMID:20401964

  7. Rapid diagnosis of mumps virus infections by immunofluorescence methods.

    PubMed

    Lennette, D A; Emmons, R W; Lennette, E H

    1976-08-01

    Mumps and its complications, particularly meningoencephalitis, is an important disease problem, and more rapid diagnostic methods are desirable. A study was made of immunofluorescence methods for the early detection of mumps virus isolated in cell cultures, or adsorbed directly from clinical specimens onto guinea pig erythrocytes. A specific diagnosis could be made in hours to 2 or 3 days utilizing immunofluorescence methods, in contrast to about 6 days by standard methods. Details of the direct immunofluorescence methods are presented, to encourage wider application in clinical virology laboratories. PMID:787002

  8. Non-invasive hyperthermia apparatus including coaxial applicator having a non-invasive radiometric receiving antenna incorporated therein and method of use thereof

    DOEpatents

    Ross, Michael P.

    1996-01-01

    A coaxial hyperthermia applicator for applying non-invasively electromagnetic energy to a body against which it is placed. The coaxial applicator antenna has formed integrally within it a non-invasive radiometric antenna for receiving thermoelectromagnetic emissions. The coaxial-configured applicator produces a bell-shaped radiation pattern symmetric about the axis of symmetry of the coaxial applicator. Integrating the radiometric antenna within the coaxial applicator produces a single device that performs dual functions. The first function is to transmit non-invasively energy for heating a subcutaneous tumor. The second function is to receive non-invasively thermal electromagnetic radiation from the tumor by which temperature is sensed and fed back to control the output of the coaxial applicator.

  9. Non-invasive hyperthermia apparatus including coaxial applicator having a non-invasive radiometric receiving antenna incorporated therein and method of use thereof

    DOEpatents

    Ross, M.P.

    1996-08-27

    A coaxial hyperthermia applicator is disclosed for applying non-invasively electromagnetic energy to a body against which it is placed. The coaxial applicator antenna has formed integrally within it a non-invasive radiometric antenna for receiving thermoelectromagnetic emissions. The coaxial-configured applicator produces a bell-shaped radiation pattern symmetric about the axis of symmetry of the coaxial applicator. Integrating the radiometric antenna within the coaxial applicator produces a single device that performs dual functions. The first function is to transmit non-invasively energy for heating a subcutaneous tumor. The second function is to receive non-invasively thermal electromagnetic radiation from the tumor by which temperature is sensed and fed back to control the output of the coaxial applicator. 11 figs.

  10. Radiometric detection of yeasts in blood cultures of cancer patients

    SciTech Connect

    Hopfer, R.L.; Orengo, A.; Chesnut, S.; Wenglar, M.

    1980-09-01

    During a 12-month period, 19,457 blood cultures were collected. Yeasts were isolated from 193 cultures derived from 76 cancer patients. Candida albicans or Candida tropicalis accounted for 79% of isolates. Of the three methods compared, the radiometric method required 2.9 days to become positive, blind subculture required 2.6 days, and Gram stains required 1 day. However, the radiometric method was clearly superior in detecting positive cultures, since 73% of all cultures were first detected radiometrically, 22% were detected by subculture, and only 5% were detected by Gram stain. Although 93% of the isolates were detected by aerobic culture, five (7%) isolates were obtained only from anaerobic cultures. Seven days of incubation appear to be sufficient for the radiometric detection of yeasts.

  11. RAPID SEPARATION METHOD FOR ACTINIDES IN EMERGENCY SOIL SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.; Culligan, B.; Noyes, G.

    2009-11-09

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides in soil and sediment samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used for samples up to 2 grams in emergency response situations. The actinides in soil method utilizes a rapid sodium hydroxide fusion method, a lanthanum fluoride soil matrix removal step, and a streamlined column separation process with stacked TEVA, TRU and DGA Resin cartridges. Lanthanum was separated rapidly and effectively from Am and Cm on DGA Resin. Vacuum box technology and rapid flow rates are used to reduce analytical time. Alpha sources are prepared using cerium fluoride microprecipitation for counting by alpha spectrometry. The method showed high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. This new procedure was applied to emergency soil samples received in the NRIP Emergency Response exercise administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in April, 2009. The actinides in soil results were reported within 4-5 hours with excellent quality.

  12. Rapid Method for Measuring Extracellular Water in Yeast Preparations

    PubMed Central

    Watson, R. W.; Levinson, M. L.

    1967-01-01

    A rapid procedure for the quantitative determination of extracellular water in bulk bakers' yeast was developed on the basis of the solute dilution principle. A reagent is prepared by synthesizing the diazonium ion of p-aminobenzoic acid and coupling it to peptone. This “azopeptone reagent” permits direct colorimetric measurement, which accounts for the rapidity and simplicity of the test. Potential errors due to osmotic effects are avoided by supplementing the reagent with saline and, more importantly, minimizing the duration of contact between reagent and cells. The new method has acceptable accuracy and precision, and may also be suitable for use with other microorganisms. PMID:6043615

  13. Development of a rapid assimilable organic carbon method for water.

    PubMed

    Lechevallier, M W; Shaw, N E; Kaplan, L A; Bott, T L

    1993-05-01

    A rapid method for measurement of assimilable organic carbon (AOC) is proposed. The time needed to perform the assay is reduced by increasing the incubation temperature and increasing the inoculum density. The ATP luciferin-luciferase method quickly enumerates the test organisms without the need for plate count media or dilution bottles. There was no significant difference between AOC values determined with strain P17 for the ATP and plate count procedures. For strain NOX, the plate count procedure underestimated bacterial levels in some samples. Comparison of AOC values obtained by the Belleville laboratory (by the ATP technique) and the Stroud Water Research Center (by plate counts) showed that values were significantly correlated and not significantly different. The study concludes that the rapid AOC method can quickly determine the bacterial growth potential of water within 2 to 4 days. PMID:16348936

  14. Evaluation of a rapid method of determination of plasma fibrinogen.

    PubMed

    Thomson, G W; McSherry, B J; Valli, V E

    1974-07-01

    An evaluation was made of a rapid semiautomated method of determining fibrinogen levels in bovine plasma. This method, the fibrometer method of Morse, Panek and Menga (8), is based on the principle that when thrombin is added to suitably diluted plasma the time of clotting is linearly related to the fibrinogen concentration. A standard curve prepared using bovine plasma had an r value of .9987 and analysis of variance showed there was no significant deviation from regression. A comparison of the fibrometer method and the biuret method of Ware, Guest and Seegers done on 158 bovine plasma samples showed good correlation between the two methods. It was concluded that the fibrometer method does measure bovine fibrinogen and has considerable merit for use in clinical diseases of cattle. PMID:4277474

  15. RAPID SEPARATION METHOD FOR ACTINIDES IN EMERGENCY AIR FILTER SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.; Noyes, G.; Culligan, B.

    2010-02-03

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides and strontium in air filter samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used in emergency response situations. The actinides and strontium in air filter method utilizes a rapid acid digestion method and a streamlined column separation process with stacked TEVA, TRU and Sr Resin cartridges. Vacuum box technology and rapid flow rates are used to reduce analytical time. Alpha emitters are prepared using cerium fluoride microprecipitation for counting by alpha spectrometry. The purified {sup 90}Sr fractions are mounted directly on planchets and counted by gas flow proportional counting. The method showed high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. This new procedure was applied to emergency air filter samples received in the NRIP Emergency Response exercise administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in April, 2009. The actinide and {sup 90}Sr in air filter results were reported in {approx}4 hours with excellent quality.

  16. Climate Change and Sounder Radiometric Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Manning, Evan

    2009-01-01

    Satellite instrument radiometric stability is critical for climate studies. The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) radiances are of sufficient stability and accuracy to serve as a climate data record as evidenced by comparisons with the global network of buoys. In this paper we examine the sensitivity of derived geophysical products to potential instrument radiometric stability issues due to diurnal, orbital and seasonal variations. Our method is to perturb the AIRS radiances and examine the impact to retrieved parameters. Results show that instability in retrieved temperature products will be on the same order of the brightness temperature error in the radiances and follow the same time dependences. AIRS excellent stability makes it ideal for examining impacts of instabilities of future systems on geophysical parameter performance.

  17. Preparing Silica Aerogel Monoliths via a Rapid Supercritical Extraction Method

    PubMed Central

    Gorka, Caroline A.

    2014-01-01

    A procedure for the fabrication of monolithic silica aerogels in eight hours or less via a rapid supercritical extraction process is described. The procedure requires 15-20 min of preparation time, during which a liquid precursor mixture is prepared and poured into wells of a metal mold that is placed between the platens of a hydraulic hot press, followed by several hours of processing within the hot press. The precursor solution consists of a 1.0:12.0:3.6:3.5 x 10-3 molar ratio of tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS):methanol:water:ammonia. In each well of the mold, a porous silica sol-gel matrix forms. As the temperature of the mold and its contents is increased, the pressure within the mold rises. After the temperature/pressure conditions surpass the supercritical point for the solvent within the pores of the matrix (in this case, a methanol/water mixture), the supercritical fluid is released, and monolithic aerogel remains within the wells of the mold. With the mold used in this procedure, cylindrical monoliths of 2.2 cm diameter and 1.9 cm height are produced. Aerogels formed by this rapid method have comparable properties (low bulk and skeletal density, high surface area, mesoporous morphology) to those prepared by other methods that involve either additional reaction steps or solvent extractions (lengthier processes that generate more chemical waste).The rapid supercritical extraction method can also be applied to the fabrication of aerogels based on other precursor recipes. PMID:24637334

  18. Preparing silica aerogel monoliths via a rapid supercritical extraction method.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Mary K; Anderson, Ann M; Gorka, Caroline A

    2014-01-01

    A procedure for the fabrication of monolithic silica aerogels in eight hours or less via a rapid supercritical extraction process is described. The procedure requires 15-20 min of preparation time, during which a liquid precursor mixture is prepared and poured into wells of a metal mold that is placed between the platens of a hydraulic hot press, followed by several hours of processing within the hot press. The precursor solution consists of a 1.0:12.0:3.6:3.5 x 10(-3) molar ratio of tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS):methanol:water:ammonia. In each well of the mold, a porous silica sol-gel matrix forms. As the temperature of the mold and its contents is increased, the pressure within the mold rises. After the temperature/pressure conditions surpass the supercritical point for the solvent within the pores of the matrix (in this case, a methanol/water mixture), the supercritical fluid is released, and monolithic aerogel remains within the wells of the mold. With the mold used in this procedure, cylindrical monoliths of 2.2 cm diameter and 1.9 cm height are produced. Aerogels formed by this rapid method have comparable properties (low bulk and skeletal density, high surface area, mesoporous morphology) to those prepared by other methods that involve either additional reaction steps or solvent extractions (lengthier processes that generate more chemical waste).The rapid supercritical extraction method can also be applied to the fabrication of aerogels based on other precursor recipes. PMID:24637334

  19. Rapid Enzymatic Method for Pectin Methyl Esters Determination

    PubMed Central

    Łękawska-Andrinopoulou, Lucyna; Vasiliou, Efstathios G.; Georgakopoulos, Dimitrios G.; Yialouris, Constantinos P.; Georgiou, Constantinos A.

    2013-01-01

    Pectin is a natural polysaccharide used in food and pharma industries. Pectin degree of methylation is an important parameter having significant influence on pectin applications. A rapid, fully automated, kinetic flow method for determination of pectin methyl esters has been developed. The method is based on a lab-made analyzer using the reverse flow-injection/stopped flow principle. Methanol is released from pectin by pectin methylesterase in the first mixing coil. Enzyme working solution is injected further downstream and it is mixed with pectin/pectin methylesterase stream in the second mixing coil. Methanol is oxidized by alcohol oxidase releasing formaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide. This reaction is coupled to horse radish peroxidase catalyzed reaction, which gives the colored product 4-N-(p-benzoquinoneimine)-antipyrine. Reaction rate is proportional to methanol concentration and it is followed using Ocean Optics USB 2000+ spectrophotometer. The analyzer is fully regulated by a lab written LabVIEW program. The detection limit was 1.47 mM with an analysis rate of 7 samples h−1. A paired t-test with results from manual method showed that the automated method results are equivalent to the manual method at the 95% confidence interval. The developed method is rapid and sustainable and it is the first application of flow analysis in pectin analysis. PMID:24455426

  20. Rapid enzymatic method for pectin methyl esters determination.

    PubMed

    Lękawska-Andrinopoulou, Lucyna; Vasiliou, Efstathios G; Georgakopoulos, Dimitrios G; Yialouris, Constantinos P; Georgiou, Constantinos A

    2013-01-01

    Pectin is a natural polysaccharide used in food and pharma industries. Pectin degree of methylation is an important parameter having significant influence on pectin applications. A rapid, fully automated, kinetic flow method for determination of pectin methyl esters has been developed. The method is based on a lab-made analyzer using the reverse flow-injection/stopped flow principle. Methanol is released from pectin by pectin methylesterase in the first mixing coil. Enzyme working solution is injected further downstream and it is mixed with pectin/pectin methylesterase stream in the second mixing coil. Methanol is oxidized by alcohol oxidase releasing formaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide. This reaction is coupled to horse radish peroxidase catalyzed reaction, which gives the colored product 4-N-(p-benzoquinoneimine)-antipyrine. Reaction rate is proportional to methanol concentration and it is followed using Ocean Optics USB 2000+ spectrophotometer. The analyzer is fully regulated by a lab written LabVIEW program. The detection limit was 1.47 mM with an analysis rate of 7 samples h(-1). A paired t-test with results from manual method showed that the automated method results are equivalent to the manual method at the 95% confidence interval. The developed method is rapid and sustainable and it is the first application of flow analysis in pectin analysis. PMID:24455426

  1. Uncooled radiometric camera performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Bill; Hoelter, T.

    1998-07-01

    Thermal imaging equipment utilizing microbolometer detectors operating at room temperature has found widespread acceptance in both military and commercial applications. Uncooled camera products are becoming effective solutions to applications currently using traditional, photonic infrared sensors. The reduced power consumption and decreased mechanical complexity offered by uncooled cameras have realized highly reliable, low-cost, hand-held instruments. Initially these instruments displayed only relative temperature differences which limited their usefulness in applications such as Thermography. Radiometrically calibrated microbolometer instruments are now available. The ExplorIR Thermography camera leverages the technology developed for Raytheon Systems Company's first production microbolometer imaging camera, the Sentinel. The ExplorIR camera has a demonstrated temperature measurement accuracy of 4 degrees Celsius or 4% of the measured value (whichever is greater) over scene temperatures ranges of minus 20 degrees Celsius to 300 degrees Celsius (minus 20 degrees Celsius to 900 degrees Celsius for extended range models) and camera environmental temperatures of minus 10 degrees Celsius to 40 degrees Celsius. Direct temperature measurement with high resolution video imaging creates some unique challenges when using uncooled detectors. A temperature controlled, field-of-view limiting aperture (cold shield) is not typically included in the small volume dewars used for uncooled detector packages. The lack of a field-of-view shield allows a significant amount of extraneous radiation from the dewar walls and lens body to affect the sensor operation. In addition, the transmission of the Germanium lens elements is a function of ambient temperature. The ExplorIR camera design compensates for these environmental effects while maintaining the accuracy and dynamic range required by today's predictive maintenance and condition monitoring markets.

  2. Rapid quantification method for Legionella pneumophila in surface water.

    PubMed

    Wunderlich, Anika; Torggler, Carmen; Elsässer, Dennis; Lück, Christian; Niessner, Reinhard; Seidel, Michael

    2016-03-01

    World-wide legionellosis outbreaks caused by evaporative cooling systems have shown that there is a need for rapid screening methods for Legionella pneumophila in water. Antibody-based methods for the quantification of L. pneumophila are rapid, non-laborious, and relatively cheap but not sensitive enough for establishment as a screening method for surface and drinking water. Therefore, preconcentration methods have to be applied in advance to reach the needed sensitivity. In a basic test, monolithic adsorption filtration (MAF) was used as primary preconcentration method that adsorbs L. pneumophila with high efficiency. Ten-liter water samples were concentrated in 10 min and further reduced to 1 mL by centrifugal ultrafiltration (CeUF). The quantification of L. pneumophila strains belonging to the monoclonal subtype Bellingham was performed via flow-based chemiluminescence sandwich microarray immunoassays (CL-SMIA) in 36 min. The whole analysis process takes 90 min. A polyclonal antibody (pAb) against L. pneumophila serogroup 1-12 and a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against L. pneumophila SG 1 strain Bellingham were immobilized on a microarray chip. Without preconcentration, the detection limit was 4.0 × 10(3) and 2.8 × 10(3) CFU/mL determined by pAb and mAb 10/6, respectively. For samples processed by MAF-CeUF prior to SMIA detection, the limit of detection (LOD) could be decreased to 8.7 CFU/mL and 0.39 CFU/mL, respectively. A recovery of 99.8 ± 15.9% was achieved for concentrations between 1-1000 CFU/mL. The established combined analytical method is sensitive for rapid screening of surface and drinking water to allow fast hygiene control of L. pneumophila. PMID:26873217

  3. Method for rapidly producing microporous and mesoporous materials

    DOEpatents

    Coronado, P.R.; Poco, J.F.; Hrubesh, L.W.; Hopper, R.W.

    1997-11-11

    An improved, rapid process is provided for making microporous and mesoporous materials, including aerogels and pre-ceramics. A gel or gel precursor is confined in a sealed vessel to prevent structural expansion of the gel during the heating process. This confinement allows the gelation and drying processes to be greatly accelerated, and significantly reduces the time required to produce a dried aerogel compared to conventional methods. Drying may be performed either by subcritical drying with a pressurized fluid to expel the liquid from the gel pores or by supercritical drying. The rates of heating and decompression are significantly higher than for conventional methods. 3 figs.

  4. Method for rapidly producing microporous and mesoporous materials

    DOEpatents

    Coronado, Paul R.; Poco, John F.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Hopper, Robert W.

    1997-01-01

    An improved, rapid process is provided for making microporous and mesoporous materials, including aerogels and pre-ceramics. A gel or gel precursor is confined in a sealed vessel to prevent structural expansion of the gel during the heating process. This confinement allows the gelation and drying processes to be greatly accelerated, and significantly reduces the time required to produce a dried aerogel compared to conventional methods. Drying may be performed either by subcritical drying with a pressurized fluid to expel the liquid from the gel pores or by supercritical drying. The rates of heating and decompression are significantly higher than for conventional methods.

  5. Rapid surface enhanced Raman scattering detection method for chloramphenicol residues.

    PubMed

    Ji, Wei; Yao, Weirong

    2015-06-01

    Chloramphenicol (CAP) is a widely used amide alcohol antibiotics, which has been banned from using in food producing animals in many countries. In this study, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) coupled with gold colloidal nanoparticles was used for the rapid analysis of CAP. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were conducted with Gaussian 03 at the B3LYP level using the 3-21G(d) and 6-31G(d) basis sets to analyze the assignment of vibrations. Affirmatively, the theoretical Raman spectrum of CAP was in complete agreement with the experimental spectrum. They both exhibited three strong peaks characteristic of CAP at 1104 cm(-1), 1344 cm(-1), 1596 cm(-1), which were used for rapid qualitative analysis of CAP residues in food samples. The use of SERS as a method for the measurements of CAP was explored by comparing use of different solvents, gold colloidal nanoparticles concentration and absorption time. The method of the detection limit was determined as 0.1 μg/mL using optimum conditions. The Raman peak at 1344 cm(-1) was used as the index for quantitative analysis of CAP in food samples, with a linear correlation of R(2)=0.9802. Quantitative analysis of CAP residues in foods revealed that the SERS technique with gold colloidal nanoparticles was sensitive and of a good stability and linear correlation, and suited for rapid analysis of CAP residue in a variety of food samples. PMID:25754387

  6. Rapid surface enhanced Raman scattering detection method for chloramphenicol residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Wei; Yao, Weirong

    2015-06-01

    Chloramphenicol (CAP) is a widely used amide alcohol antibiotics, which has been banned from using in food producing animals in many countries. In this study, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) coupled with gold colloidal nanoparticles was used for the rapid analysis of CAP. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were conducted with Gaussian 03 at the B3LYP level using the 3-21G(d) and 6-31G(d) basis sets to analyze the assignment of vibrations. Affirmatively, the theoretical Raman spectrum of CAP was in complete agreement with the experimental spectrum. They both exhibited three strong peaks characteristic of CAP at 1104 cm-1, 1344 cm-1, 1596 cm-1, which were used for rapid qualitative analysis of CAP residues in food samples. The use of SERS as a method for the measurements of CAP was explored by comparing use of different solvents, gold colloidal nanoparticles concentration and absorption time. The method of the detection limit was determined as 0.1 μg/mL using optimum conditions. The Raman peak at 1344 cm-1 was used as the index for quantitative analysis of CAP in food samples, with a linear correlation of R2 = 0.9802. Quantitative analysis of CAP residues in foods revealed that the SERS technique with gold colloidal nanoparticles was sensitive and of a good stability and linear correlation, and suited for rapid analysis of CAP residue in a variety of food samples.

  7. SIMS: A Hybrid Method for Rapid Conformational Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gipson, Bryant; Moll, Mark; Kavraki, Lydia E.

    2013-01-01

    Proteins are at the root of many biological functions, often performing complex tasks as the result of large changes in their structure. Describing the exact details of these conformational changes, however, remains a central challenge for computational biology due the enormous computational requirements of the problem. This has engendered the development of a rich variety of useful methods designed to answer specific questions at different levels of spatial, temporal, and energetic resolution. These methods fall largely into two classes: physically accurate, but computationally demanding methods and fast, approximate methods. We introduce here a new hybrid modeling tool, the Structured Intuitive Move Selector (sims), designed to bridge the divide between these two classes, while allowing the benefits of both to be seamlessly integrated into a single framework. This is achieved by applying a modern motion planning algorithm, borrowed from the field of robotics, in tandem with a well-established protein modeling library. sims can combine precise energy calculations with approximate or specialized conformational sampling routines to produce rapid, yet accurate, analysis of the large-scale conformational variability of protein systems. Several key advancements are shown, including the abstract use of generically defined moves (conformational sampling methods) and an expansive probabilistic conformational exploration. We present three example problems that sims is applied to and demonstrate a rapid solution for each. These include the automatic determination of “active” residues for the hinge-based system Cyanovirin-N, exploring conformational changes involving long-range coordinated motion between non-sequential residues in Ribose-Binding Protein, and the rapid discovery of a transient conformational state of Maltose-Binding Protein, previously only determined by Molecular Dynamics. For all cases we provide energetic validations using well-established energy

  8. A novel method for rapid in vitro radiobioassay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Evan Bogert

    Rapid and accurate analysis of internal human exposure to radionuclides is essential to the effective triage and treatment of citizens who have possibly been exposed to radioactive materials in the environment. The two most likely scenarios in which a large number of citizens would be exposed are the detonation of a radiation dispersal device (RDD, "dirty bomb") or the accidental release of an isotope from an industrial source such as a radioisotopic thermal generator (RTG). In the event of the release and dispersion of radioactive materials into the environment in a large city, the entire population of the city -- including all commuting workers and tourists -- would have to be rapidly tested, both to satisfy the psychological needs of the citizens who were exposed to the mental trauma of a possible radiation dose, and to satisfy the immediate medical needs of those who received the highest doses and greatest levels of internal contamination -- those who would best benefit from rapid, intensive medical care. In this research a prototype rapid screening method to screen urine samples for the presence of up to five isotopes, both individually and in a mixture, has been developed. The isotopes used to develop this method are Co-60, Sr-90, Cs-137, Pu-238, and Am-241. This method avoids time-intensive chemical separations via the preparation and counting of a single sample on multiple detectors, and analyzing the spectra for isotope-specific markers. A rapid liquid-liquid separation using an organic extractive scintillator can be used to help quantify the activity of the alpha-emitting isotopes. The method provides quantifiable results in less than five minutes for the activity of beta/gamma-emitting isotopes when present in the sample at the intervention level as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and quantifiable results for the activity levels of alpha-emitting isotopes present at their respective intervention levels in approximately 30

  9. New Rapid Method of DNA Isolation from Milk Somatic Cells.

    PubMed

    Pokorska, Joanna; Kułaj, Dominika; Dusza, Magdalena; Żychlińska-Buczek, Justyna; Makulska, Joanna

    2016-04-01

    Isolation of genomic DNA is one of the basic steps in many different molecular analyses. There are a few reports on methods of DNA isolation from milk, but many of them are time consuming and expensive, and require relatively large volumes of raw milk. In this study a rapid, sensitive, and efficient method of DNA extraction from milk somatic cells of various mammals (cattle, sheep, goats, horses) is presented. It was found that milk is a good source of genomic DNA, and to obtain a sufficient amount and quality of DNA, suitable for molecular analysis such as PCR, 10 mL of raw milk is sufficient. Thanks to this method, stress in animals can be reduced during collection of researched material. Therefore, this method could be widely used in molecular analyses. PMID:26913552

  10. New Rapid Method of DNA Isolation from Milk Somatic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pokorska, Joanna; Kułaj, Dominika; Dusza, Magdalena; Żychlińska-Buczek, Justyna; Makulska, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Isolation of genomic DNA is one of the basic steps in many different molecular analyses. There are a few reports on methods of DNA isolation from milk, but many of them are time consuming and expensive, and require relatively large volumes of raw milk. In this study a rapid, sensitive, and efficient method of DNA extraction from milk somatic cells of various mammals (cattle, sheep, goats, horses) is presented. It was found that milk is a good source of genomic DNA, and to obtain a sufficient amount and quality of DNA, suitable for molecular analysis such as PCR, 10 mL of raw milk is sufficient. Thanks to this method, stress in animals can be reduced during collection of researched material. Therefore, this method could be widely used in molecular analyses. PMID:26913552

  11. Rapid Methods for High-Throughput Detection of Sulfoxides▿

    PubMed Central

    Shainsky, Janna; Derry, Netta-Lee; Leichtmann-Bardoogo, Yael; Wood, Thomas K.; Fishman, Ayelet

    2009-01-01

    Enantiopure sulfoxides are prevalent in drugs and are useful chiral auxiliaries in organic synthesis. The biocatalytic enantioselective oxidation of prochiral sulfides is a direct and economical approach for the synthesis of optically pure sulfoxides. The selection of suitable biocatalysts requires rapid and reliable high-throughput screening methods. Here we present four different methods for detecting sulfoxides produced via whole-cell biocatalysis, three of which were exploited for high-throughput screening. Fluorescence detection based on the acid activation of omeprazole was utilized for high-throughput screening of mutant libraries of toluene monooxygenases, but no active variants have been discovered yet. The second method is based on the reduction of sulfoxides to sulfides, with the coupled release and measurement of iodine. The availability of solvent-resistant microtiter plates enabled us to modify the method to a high-throughput format. The third method, selective inhibition of horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase, was used to rapidly screen highly active and/or enantioselective variants at position V106 of toluene ortho-monooxygenase in a saturation mutagenesis library, using methyl-p-tolyl sulfide as the substrate. A success rate of 89% (i.e., 11% false positives) was obtained, and two new mutants were selected. The fourth method is based on the colorimetric detection of adrenochrome, a back-titration procedure which measures the concentration of the periodate-sensitive sulfide. Due to low sensitivity during whole-cell screening, this method was found to be useful only for determining the presence or absence of sulfoxide in the reaction. The methods described in the present work are simple and inexpensive and do not require special equipment. PMID:19465532

  12. Rapid method for the quantification of hydroquinone concentration: chemiluminescent analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tung-Sheng; Liou, Show-Yih; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Wu, Hsi-Chin; Jong, Gwo-Ping; Wang, Hsueh-Fang; Shen, Chia-Yao; Padma, V Vijaya; Huang, Chih-Yang; Chang, Yen-Lin

    2015-11-01

    Topical hydroquinone serves as a skin whitener and is usually available in cosmetics or on prescription based on the hydroquinone concentration. Quantification of hydroquinone content therefore becomes an important issue in topical agents. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is the commonest method for determining hydroquinone content in topical agents, but this method is time-consuming and uses many solvents that can become an environmental issue. We report a rapid method for quantifying hydroquinone content by chemiluminescent analysis. Hydroquinone induces the production of hydrogen peroxide in the presence of basic compounds. Hydrogen peroxide induced by hydroquinone oxidized light-emitting materials such as lucigenin, resulted in the production of ultra-weak chemiluminescence that was detected by a chemiluminescence analyzer. The intensity of the chemiluminescence was found to be proportional to the hydroquinone concentration. We suggest that the rapid (measurement time, 60 s) and virtually solvent-free (solvent volume, <2 mL) chemiluminescent method described here for quantifying hydroquinone content may be an alternative to HPLC analysis. PMID:25693839

  13. Rapid screening methods for beta-emitters in food samples.

    PubMed

    Vos van Avezathe, A; Brandhoff, P N; van Bourgondiën, M J; Krijger, G C

    2015-03-01

    In case of a nuclear emergency, many samples need to be measured in a short time period. Therefore, it is of vital importance to have a quick and reliable (screening)method. Most methods to determine total beta activity are time-consuming because of extensive sample preparation, such as ashing. In this article three different rapid screening methods for beta emitting nuclides in agriculture, livestock and fishery products were tested and compared to each other, and to an accurate but more time consuming reference method. The goal was to find the method with the optimal trade-off between accuracy, speed and minimal detectable activity (MDA). All of the methods rely on liquid scintillation counting (LSC) or Cerenkov counting, and differ mainly in sample preparation. For matrices with little or no colour, the direct LSC-method is the most accurate and fastest option, while for darker coloured samples this method is not suitable because of high colour quenching. For such samples, two additional methods using a microwave digestion during sample preparation, produced good results. PMID:25577324

  14. Lessons Learned from the AIRS Pre-Flight Radiometric Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Weiler, Margie

    2013-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument flies on the NASA Aqua satellite and measures the upwelling hyperspectral earth radiance in the spectral range of 3.7-15.4 micron with a nominal ground resolution at nadir of 13.5 km. The AIRS spectra are achieved using a temperature controlled grating spectrometer and HgCdTe infrared linear arrays providing 2378 channels with a nominal spectral resolution of approximately 1200. The AIRS pre-flight tests that impact the radiometric calibration include a full system radiometric response (linearity), polarization response, and response vs scan angle (RVS). We re-derive the AIRS instrument radiometric calibration coefficients from the pre-flight polarization measurements, the response vs scan (RVS) angle tests as well as the linearity tests, and a recent lunar roll test that allowed the AIRS to view the moon. The data and method for deriving the coefficients is discussed in detail and the resulting values compared amongst the different tests. Finally, we examine the residual errors in the reconstruction of the external calibrator blackbody radiances and the efficacy of a new radiometric uncertainty model. Results show the radiometric calibration of AIRS to be excellent and the radiometric uncertainty model does a reasonable job of characterizing the errors.

  15. Development and qualification of an antibody rapid deglycosylation method.

    PubMed

    Cook, K Steven; Bullock, Kevin; Sullivan, Timothy

    2012-03-01

    N-linked glycosylation can influence the biological activity and safety of an antibody as well as be a measure of the consistency of the production process. The released N-glycans is an important part of the development of a therapeutic antibody. The traditional method for N-glycan analysis requires complex and laborious sample preparation and lengthy analysis time. Two preparation steps with limited control are removal of the antibody backbone by ice-cold ethanol precipitation and water removal before 2-AB fluorescent dye labeling. Simplification of the sample preparation and better control of key steps that allows for the characterization/quantitation of glycans during all stages of development of a therapeutic antibody is desired. Recently Prozyme introduced a rapid deglycosylation kit and a rapid tagging kit that address some of these issues. The deglycosylation kit immobilizes the antibody on a membrane, thereby eliminating the precipitation step. An instant fluorescent tag kit eliminates the water removal before the 2-AB labeling step. In addition use of a new chromatography column can improve the glycan resolution and shorten the analysis time. The evaluation and qualification of the Rapid Deglycosylation Kit (RDK) and instant 2-AB tagging with the improved chromatography are highlighted. PMID:22257749

  16. A Rapid Method for the Diagnosis of Equine Virus Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Correa, W. M.

    1970-01-01

    Smears and imprints were made from the liver of 27 equine fetuses, believed to have aborted as a result of Equine Virus Abortion (EVA) infection. Several different fixatives and staining techniques were employed for the demonstration of typical intra-nuclear inclusion bodies in these preparations, and the following conclusions were reached. Methanol proved to be the best fixative and Pappenheim's panoptic method was the best staining technique, giving good contrast and definition of the inclusion bodies. Cytological methods provided a simple and rapid means of diagnosis, but histological sections provided evidence of lesions which was most useful when inclusion bodies were very difficult to find. However, cytological methods proved better than histological sections for the demonstration of EVA intranuclear inclusion bodies. ImagesFig. 1. PMID:4192198

  17. A Rapid Method for Refolding Cell Surface Receptors and Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Lu; Wu, Ling; Li, Feng; Burnham, Robert S.; Pizarro, Juan C.; Xu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Production of membrane-associated cell surface receptors and their ligands is often a cumbersome, expensive, and time-consuming process that limits detailed structural and functional characterization of this important class of proteins. Here we report a rapid method for refolding inclusion-body-based, recombinant cell surface receptors and ligands in one day, a speed equivalent to that of soluble protein production. This method efficiently couples modular on-column immobilized metal ion affinity purification and solid-phase protein refolding. We demonstrated the general utility of this method for producing multiple functionally active immunoreceptors, ligands, and viral decoys, including challenging cell surface proteins that cannot be produced using typical dialysis- or dilution-based refolding approaches. PMID:27215173

  18. A method to rapidly create protein aggregates in living cells

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Yusuke; Mizumoto, Kota; Dey, Gautam; Kudo, Takamasa; Perrino, John; Chen, Ling-chun; Meyer, Tobias; Wandless, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    The accumulation of protein aggregates is a common pathological hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases. However, we do not fully understand how aggregates are formed or the complex network of chaperones, proteasomes and other regulatory factors involved in their clearance. Here, we report a chemically controllable fluorescent protein that enables us to rapidly produce small aggregates inside living cells on the order of seconds, as well as monitor the movement and coalescence of individual aggregates into larger structures. This method can be applied to diverse experimental systems, including live animals, and may prove valuable for understanding cellular responses and diseases associated with protein aggregates. PMID:27229621

  19. Method for producing rapid pH changes

    DOEpatents

    Clark, John H.; Campillo, Anthony J.; Shapiro, Stanley L.; Winn, Kenneth R.

    1981-01-01

    A method of initiating a rapid pH change in a solution by irradiating the solution with an intense flux of electromagnetic radiation of a frequency which produces a substantial pK change to a compound in solution. To optimize the resulting pH change, the compound being irradiated in solution should have an excited state lifetime substantially longer than the time required to establish an excited state acid-base equilibrium in the solution. Desired pH changes can be accomplished in nanoseconds or less by means of picosecond pulses of laser radiation.

  20. Method for producing rapid pH changes

    DOEpatents

    Clark, J.H.; Campillo, A.J.; Shapiro, S.L.; Winn, K.R.

    A method of initiating a rapid pH change in a solution comprises irradiating the solution with an intense flux of electromagnetic radiation of a frequency which produces a substantial pK change to a compound in solution. To optimize the resulting pH change, the compound being irradiated in solution should have an excited state lifetime substantially longer than the time required to establish an excited state acid-base equilibrium in the solution. Desired pH changes can be accomplished in nanoseconds or less by means of picosecond pulses of laser radiation.

  1. Method for rapidly determining a pulp kappa number using spectrophotometry

    DOEpatents

    Chai, Xin-Sheng; Zhu, Jun Yong

    2002-01-01

    A system and method for rapidly determining the pulp kappa number through direct measurement of the potassium permanganate concentration in a pulp-permanganate solution using spectrophotometry. Specifically, the present invention uses strong acidification to carry out the pulp-permanganate oxidation reaction in the pulp-permanganate solution to prevent the precipitation of manganese dioxide (MnO.sub.2). Consequently, spectral interference from the precipitated MnO.sub.2 is eliminated and the oxidation reaction becomes dominant. The spectral intensity of the oxidation reaction is then analyzed to determine the pulp kappa number.

  2. Radiometric surveys in underground environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochiolo, Massimo; Chiozzi, Paolo; Verdoya, Massimo; Pasquale, Vincenzo

    2010-05-01

    Due to their ability to travel through the air for several metres, gamma-rays emitted from natural radioactive elements can be successfully used in surveys carried out both with airborne and ground equipments. Besides the concentration of the radio-elements contained in rocks and soils and the intrinsic characteristics of the gamma-ray detector, the detected count rate depends on the solid angle around the spectrometer. On a flat outcrop, ground spectrometry detects the radiation ideally produced by a cylindrical mass of rock of about two metres in diameter and thickness of about half a meter. Under these geometrical conditions, the natural radioactivity can be easily evaluated. With operating conditions different from the standard ones, such as at the edge of an escarpment, the count rate halves because of the missing material, whereas in the vicinity of a rock wall the count rate will increase. In underground environment, the recorded count rate may even double and the in situ assessment of the concentration of radio-elements may be rather difficult, even if the ratios between the different radio-elements may not be affected. We tested the applicability of gamma-ray spectrometry for rapid assessment of the potential hazard levels related to radon and radiation dose rate in underground environment. A mine shaft, located in a zone of uranium enrichment in Liguria (Italy), has been investigated. A preliminary ground radiometric survey was carried out to define the extent of the ore deposit. Then, the radiometric investigation was focussed on the mine shaft. Due to rock mass above the shaft vault, the background gamma radiation can be considered of negligible influence on measurements. In underground surveys, besides deviations from a flat geometry, factors controlling radon exhalation, emanation and stagnation, such as fractures, water leakage and the presence of ventilation, should be carefully examined. We attempted to evaluate these control factors and collected

  3. Optical Imaging and Radiometric Modeling and Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ha, Kong Q.; Fitzmaurice, Michael W.; Moiser, Gary E.; Howard, Joseph M.; Le, Chi M.

    2010-01-01

    OPTOOL software is a general-purpose optical systems analysis tool that was developed to offer a solution to problems associated with computational programs written for the James Webb Space Telescope optical system. It integrates existing routines into coherent processes, and provides a structure with reusable capabilities that allow additional processes to be quickly developed and integrated. It has an extensive graphical user interface, which makes the tool more intuitive and friendly. OPTOOL is implemented using MATLAB with a Fourier optics-based approach for point spread function (PSF) calculations. It features parametric and Monte Carlo simulation capabilities, and uses a direct integration calculation to permit high spatial sampling of the PSF. Exit pupil optical path difference (OPD) maps can be generated using combinations of Zernike polynomials or shaped power spectral densities. The graphical user interface allows rapid creation of arbitrary pupil geometries, and entry of all other modeling parameters to support basic imaging and radiometric analyses. OPTOOL provides the capability to generate wavefront-error (WFE) maps for arbitrary grid sizes. These maps are 2D arrays containing digital sampled versions of functions ranging from Zernike polynomials to combination of sinusoidal wave functions in 2D, to functions generated from a spatial frequency power spectral distribution (PSD). It also can generate optical transfer functions (OTFs), which are incorporated into the PSF calculation. The user can specify radiometrics for the target and sky background, and key performance parameters for the instrument s focal plane array (FPA). This radiometric and detector model setup is fairly extensive, and includes parameters such as zodiacal background, thermal emission noise, read noise, and dark current. The setup also includes target spectral energy distribution as a function of wavelength for polychromatic sources, detector pixel size, and the FPA s charge

  4. Rapid Screening Method for Detection of Bacteria in Platelet Concentrates

    PubMed Central

    Ribault, S.; Harper, K.; Grave, L.; Lafontaine, C.; Nannini, P.; Raimondo, A.; Faure, I. Besson

    2004-01-01

    Public awareness has long focused on the risks of the transmission of viral agents through blood product transfusion. This risk, however, pales in comparison to the less publicized danger associated with the transfusion of blood products contaminated with bacteria, in particular, platelet concentrates. Up to 1,000 cases of clinical sepsis after the transfusion of platelet concentrates are reported annually in the United States. The condition is characterized by acute reaction symptoms and the rapid onset of septicemia and carries a 20 to 40% mortality rate. The urgent need for a method for the routine screening of platelet concentrates to improve patient safety has long been recognized. We describe the development of a rapid and highly sensitive method for screening for bacteria in platelet concentrates for transfusion. No culture period is required; and the entire procedure, from the time of sampling to the time that the final result is obtained, takes less than 90 min. The method involves three basic stages: the selective removal of platelets by filtration following activation with a monoclonal antibody, DNA-specific fluorescent labeling of bacteria, and concentration of the bacteria on a membrane surface for enumeration by solid-phase cytometry. The method offers a universal means of detection of live, nondividing, or dead gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria in complex cellular blood products. The sensitivity is higher than those of the culture-based methods available at present, with a detection limit of 10 to 102 CFU/ml, depending upon the bacterial strain. PMID:15131147

  5. Rapid screening method for detection of bacteria in platelet concentrates.

    PubMed

    Ribault, S; Harper, K; Grave, L; Lafontaine, C; Nannini, P; Raimondo, A; Faure, I Besson

    2004-05-01

    Public awareness has long focused on the risks of the transmission of viral agents through blood product transfusion. This risk, however, pales in comparison to the less publicized danger associated with the transfusion of blood products contaminated with bacteria, in particular, platelet concentrates. Up to 1,000 cases of clinical sepsis after the transfusion of platelet concentrates are reported annually in the United States. The condition is characterized by acute reaction symptoms and the rapid onset of septicemia and carries a 20 to 40% mortality rate. The urgent need for a method for the routine screening of platelet concentrates to improve patient safety has long been recognized. We describe the development of a rapid and highly sensitive method for screening for bacteria in platelet concentrates for transfusion. No culture period is required; and the entire procedure, from the time of sampling to the time that the final result is obtained, takes less than 90 min. The method involves three basic stages: the selective removal of platelets by filtration following activation with a monoclonal antibody, DNA-specific fluorescent labeling of bacteria, and concentration of the bacteria on a membrane surface for enumeration by solid-phase cytometry. The method offers a universal means of detection of live, nondividing, or dead gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria in complex cellular blood products. The sensitivity is higher than those of the culture-based methods available at present, with a detection limit of 10 to 10(2) CFU/ml, depending upon the bacterial strain. PMID:15131147

  6. A rapid method for the presurgical cleansing of hands.

    PubMed

    Decker, L A; Gross, A; Miller, F C; Read, J A; Cutright, D E; Devine, J

    1978-01-01

    A new rapid method of presurgical cleansing of the hands has been evaluated in a clinical setting. The effectiveness of a 90 second jet wash has been compared with a standard 10-minute presurgical scrub. Bacteriologic cultures were obtained from the fingertips of interns, residents, and staff of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the Walter Reed Army Medical Center before and after 90-second jet washings and 10-minute conventional scrubs. The results showed that the 90-second jet wash was more effective in degerming the hands than the 10-minute standard brush scrub. Other advantages of the new method, such as the amount of time saved, the standardization of cleansing, and reduced skin irritation are discussed. PMID:619330

  7. Rapid method for the examination of platelet morphology.

    PubMed

    Yamashiro, S; Bast, T; Basrur, P K

    1983-05-01

    A simple, rapid method is described for preparing platelets of domestic animals for light and electron microscopic examinations. The method involves the isolation of the platelet rich plasma (PRP) by centrifugation of the whole blood for five minutes followed by recentrifugation of PRP in a Wintrobe tube at 4500 rpm for 20 minutes to separate the blood components into four distinct layers composed exclusively of plasma, leucocytes, platelets and erythrocytes. A short fixation (20 minutes) by replacing the plasma layer with glutaraldehyde before breaking the bottom of the tube with a glass cutter allows the cellular contents to be gently pushed out of the tube in the form of a cylindrical semisolid pellet, with a wooden applicator stick. A further three hour fixation of the pellet in fresh glutaraldehyde before cutting out the middle layer for routine processing for light and electron microscopy provides pure preparation of platelets with a minimum of morphological distortion. PMID:6878891

  8. A rapid demodulation method for optical carrier based microwave interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhen; Hefferman, Gerald; Wei, Tao

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a rapid signal processing approach for OCMI system, which could significantly reduce the complexity of computations while maintaining decent performances. A direct phase demodulator can be pre-calibrated and applied to extract the absolute phase change to target reflectors at different locations, where the strain change can be found distributedly. Theoretical framework was conducted and to demo the concept, a strain test was performed with ultra-weak reflectors (-70 dB) under the OCMI system. The proposed method was applied to extract the distributed stain change along the fiber under test. Compared with the previous proposed method, no FIR filters and Fourier transform are involved. This algorithm holds the potential suitable for dynamic OCMI distributed sensing system.

  9. RAPID SEPARATION METHOD FOR EMERGENCY WATER AND URINE SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.; Culligan, B.

    2008-08-27

    The Savannah River Site Environmental Bioassay Lab participated in the 2008 NRIP Emergency Response program administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in May, 2008. A new rapid column separation method was used for analysis of actinides and {sup 90}Sr the NRIP 2008 emergency water and urine samples. Significant method improvements were applied to reduce analytical times. As a result, much faster analysis times were achieved, less than 3 hours for determination of {sup 90}Sr and 3-4 hours for actinides. This represents a 25%-33% improvement in analysis times from NRIP 2007 and a {approx}100% improvement compared to NRIP 2006 report times. Column flow rates were increased by a factor of two, with no significant adverse impact on the method performance. Larger sample aliquots, shorter count times, faster cerium fluoride microprecipitation and streamlined calcium phosphate precipitation were also employed. Based on initial feedback from NIST, the SRS Environmental Bioassay Lab had the most rapid analysis times for actinides and {sup 90}Sr analyses for NRIP 2008 emergency urine samples. High levels of potential matrix interferences may be present in emergency samples and rugged methods are essential. Extremely high levels of {sup 210}Po were found to have an adverse effect on the uranium results for the NRIP-08 urine samples, while uranium results for NRIP-08 water samples were not affected. This problem, which was not observed for NRIP-06 or NRIP-07 urine samples, was resolved by using an enhanced {sup 210}Po removal step, which will be described.

  10. Three rapid methods compared with a conventional method for detection of urease production in anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Mills, C K; Grimes, B Y; Gherna, R L

    1987-01-01

    Three rapid methods (spot test, disk, and tube) for detecting urease production in anaerobic bacteria yielded results faster than the conventional method. The results were more consistent with the disk and tube methods than with the spot test. Blood agar plate growth gave more consistent results than growth from chopped-meat slants. PMID:3320087

  11. Rapid sampling for rapid analysis: A new method for VOCs in drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, B.D.; Johnson, J.A.; Holland, J.F.

    1995-12-31

    Until recently, there has been only moderate emphasis placed on the time consumption of the sampling process in many gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analyses. Historically, the total analysis time has been primarily dependent upon the chromatographic separation and detection steps, and significant decreases in sample preparation time have had little impact on overall sample throughput. The recent maturation of gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC/TOFMS) using time array detection has decreased chromatographic separation and mass spectrometric detection times by factors of 10 or more, leaving the sampling process as a significant and often limiting factor in the total analysis time. Current methods for the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in drinking water utilize headspace or purge and trap techniques requiring 20-30 minute sampling times to extract these compounds for analysis by GC/MS. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) has recently been presented as a viable alternative to the above methods. Sampling and desorption times of less than 10 minutes have been reported for part-per-billion levels of volatile organics in aqueous solution. These rapid times suggest a potential for combining SPME and GC/TOFMS technologies to create a methodology for high sample throughput.

  12. Rapid assessment methods of resilience for natural and agricultural systems.

    PubMed

    Torrico, Juan C; Janssens, Marc J J

    2010-12-01

    The resilience, ecological function and quality of both agricultural and natural systems were evaluated in the mountainous region of the Atlantic Rain Forest of Rio de Janeiro through Rapid Assessment Methods. For this goal new indicators were proposed, such as eco-volume, eco-height, bio-volume, volume efficiency, and resilience index. The following agricultural and natural systems have been compared according: (i) vegetables (leaf, fruit and mixed); (ii) citrus; (iii) ecological system; (iv) cattle, (v) silvo-pastoral system, (vi) forest fragment and (vii) forest in regeneration stage (1, 2 and 3 years old). An alternative measure (index) of resilience was proposed by considering the actual bio-volume as a function of the potential eco-volume. The objectives and hypotheses were fulfilled; it is shown that there does exist a high positive correlation between resilience index, biomass, energy efficiency and biodiversity. Cattle and vegetable systems have lowest resilience, whilst ecological and silvo-pastoral systems have greatest resilience. This new approach offers a rapid, though valuable assessment tool for ecological studies, agricultural development and landscape planning, particularly in tropical countries. PMID:21152779

  13. Rapid method for the interconnection of single nano-objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della Torre, A.; Monteduro, A. G.; Maruccio, G.; Pugliese, M.; Ferrara, F.; Ercolani, D.; Roddaro, S.; Sorba, L.; Rinaldi, R.

    2015-05-01

    Increasing the ease and the rapidity of processing in micro and nanotechnology is an ongoing task, which is pursued in both the academic environment for investigation of novel systems and in industry for fabrication of complex circuits on a large scale. In the field of nanoelectronics, the major challenge is to demonstrate a feasible method for device implementation based on individual nanosize objects, such as nanowires, nanotubes and nanocrystals. However, integrating these small objects in a macroscopic circuit is a difficult task. So far, nanostructures have been wired by highly sophisticated techniques not suitable for large-scale integration in macroscopic circuits, such as electron-beam lithography or focused ion-beam deposition. Here we present a ‘one-pot’ and rapid approach to electrically interconnect individual nanowires from random spatial distribution, with high spatial and positioning resolution and a remarkable reduction in overall fabrication time with respect to the other expensive and laborious techniques. The reliability of such technique is demonstrated by implementing a single semiconductor nanowire device

  14. Rapid method for the isolation of mammalian sperm DNA

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Haotian; de Gannes, Matthew K.; Luchetti, Gianna; Pilsner, J. Richard

    2015-01-01

    The unique DNA packaging of spermatozoa renders them resistant to DNA isolation techniques used for somatic cells, requiring alternative methods that are slow and labor intensive. Here we present a rapid method for isolating high-quality sperm DNA. Isolated human sperm cells were homogenized with 0.2 mm steel beads for 5 min at room temperature in the presence of guanidine thiocyanate lysis buffer supplemented with 50 mM tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP). Our method yielded >90% high-quality DNA using 3 different commercially available silica-based spin columns. DNA yields did not differ between immediate isolation (2.84 ± 0.04 pg/cell) and isolation after 2 weeks of homogenate storage at room temperature (2.91 ± 0.13 pg/cell). DNA methylation analyses revealed similar methylation levels at both time points for three imprinted loci. Our protocol has many advantages: it is conducted at room temperature; lengthy proteinase K (ProK) digestions are eliminated; the reducing agent, TCEP, is odorless and stable at room temperature; nucleic acids are stabilized, allowing storage of homogenate; and it is adaptable for other mammalian species. Taken together, the benefits of our improved method have important implications for settings where sample processing constraints exist. PMID:26054765

  15. Rapid method for the isolation of mammalian sperm DNA.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haotian; de Gannes, Matthew K; Luchetti, Gianna; Pilsner, J Richard

    2015-06-01

    The unique DNA packaging of spermatozoa renders them resistant to DNA isolation techniques used for somatic cells, requiring alternative methods that are slow and labor intensive. Here we present a rapid method for isolating high-quality sperm DNA. Isolated human sperm cells were homogenized with 0.2 mm steel beads for 5 min at room temperature in the presence of guanidine thiocyanate lysis buffer supplemented with 50 mM tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP). Our method yielded >90% high-quality DNA using 3 different commercially available silica-based spin columns. DNA yields did not differ between immediate isolation (2.84 ± 0.04 pg/cell) and isolation after 2 weeks of homogenate storage at room temperature (2.91 ± 0.13 pg/cell). DNA methylation analyses revealed similar methylation levels at both time points for three imprinted loci. Our protocol has many advantages: it is conducted at room temperature; lengthy proteinase K (ProK) digestions are eliminated; the reducing agent, TCEP, is odorless and stable at room temperature; nucleic acids are stabilized, allowing storage of homogenate; and it is adaptable for other mammalian species. Taken together, the benefits of our improved method have important implications for settings where sample processing constraints exist. PMID:26054765

  16. Method for rapid base sequencing in DNA and RNA

    DOEpatents

    Jett, J.H.; Keller, R.A.; Martin, J.C.; Moyzis, R.K.; Ratliff, R.L.; Shera, E.B.; Stewart, C.C.

    1987-10-07

    A method is provided for the rapid base sequencing of DNA or RNA fragments wherein a single fragment of DNA or RNA is provided with identifiable bases and suspended in a moving flow stream. An exonuclease sequentially cleaves individual bases from the end of the suspended fragment. The moving flow stream maintains the cleaved bases in an orderly train for subsequent detection and identification. In a particular embodiment, individual bases forming the DNA or RNA fragments are individually tagged with a characteristic fluorescent dye. The train of bases is then excited to fluorescence with an output spectrum characteristic of the individual bases. Accordingly, the base sequence of the original DNA or RNA fragment can be reconstructed. 2 figs.

  17. Statistical Methods for Rapid Aerothermal Analysis and Design Technology: Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DePriest, Douglas; Morgan, Carolyn

    2003-01-01

    The cost and safety goals for NASA s next generation of reusable launch vehicle (RLV) will require that rapid high-fidelity aerothermodynamic design tools be used early in the design cycle. To meet these requirements, it is desirable to identify adequate statistical models that quantify and improve the accuracy, extend the applicability, and enable combined analyses using existing prediction tools. The initial research work focused on establishing suitable candidate models for these purposes. The second phase is focused on assessing the performance of these models to accurately predict the heat rate for a given candidate data set. This validation work compared models and methods that may be useful in predicting the heat rate.

  18. Rapid identification of cytokinins by an immunological method

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, R.O.; Jameson, P.E.; Morris, J.W. ); Laloue, M. )

    1991-04-01

    A method for rapid identification of bacterial cytokinins has been developed in which cultures are fed ({sup 3}H)adenine, the cytokinins (including, {sup 3}H-labeled cytokinins) are isolated by immunoaffinity chromatography, and analyzed by HPLC with on-line scintillation counting. Analysis of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains showed that some produced primarily trans-zeatin, whereas others produced primarily trans-zeatin riboside. Pseudomonas syringae pv savastanoi produced mixtures of transzeatin, dihydrozeatin, 1{double prime}-methyl-trans-zeatin riboside, and other unknown cytokinin-like substances. Corynebacterium fascians, produced cis-zeatin, isopentenyladenine and isopentenyladenosine. The technique is designed for qualitative rather than quantitative studies and allows ready identification of bacterial cytokinins. It may also have utility in the study of plant cytokinins if adequate incorporation of label into cytokinin precursor pools can be achieved.

  19. A simple method for rapidly processing HEU from weapons returns

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, W. II; Miller, P.E.

    1994-01-01

    A method based on the use of a high temperature fluidized bed for rapidly oxidizing, homogenizing and down-blending Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) from dismantled nuclear weapons is presented. This technology directly addresses many of the most important issues that inhibit progress in international commerce in HEU; viz., transaction verification, materials accountability, transportation and environmental safety. The equipment used to carry out the oxidation and blending is simple, inexpensive and highly portable. Mobile facilities to be used for point-of-sale blending and analysis of the product material are presented along with a phased implementation plan that addresses the conversion of HEU derived from domestic weapons and related waste streams as well as material from possible foreign sources such as South Africa or the former Soviet Union.

  20. Method for rapid, high sensitivity tritiated water extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Failor, R.; Belovodsky, L.; Gaevoy, V.; Golubev, A.

    1997-04-20

    We have developed a thermal vacuum desorption process to rapidly extract water from environmental samples for tritium analysis. Thermal vacuum desorption allows for extraction of the moisture from the sample within a few hours in a form and quantity suitable for liquid scintillation counting and allows detection of tritium at the levels of <2 Bq/L of milk, <0.5 Bq/gm of vegetation, and < 0.5 Bq/gin of soil. We developed a prototype unit that can process batches of twenty or more samples within 24 hours. Early data shows that a high percentage of water is extracted reproducibly without enrichment or depletion of the tritium content. The quench coefficient of the extracted water is low allowing for accurate, direct liquid scintillation counting. Excellent comparison has been observed with results using freeze-dry lypholization as the water extraction method.

  1. Method for rapid base sequencing in DNA and RNA

    DOEpatents

    Jett, James H.; Keller, Richard A.; Martin, John C.; Moyzis, Robert K.; Ratliff, Robert L.; Shera, E. Brooks; Stewart, Carleton C.

    1990-01-01

    A method is provided for the rapid base sequencing of DNA or RNA fragments wherein a single fragment of DNA or RNA is provided with identifiable bases and suspended in a moving flow stream. An exonuclease sequentially cleaves individual bases from the end of the suspended fragment. The moving flow stream maintains the cleaved bases in an orderly train for subsequent detection and identification. In a particular embodiment, individual bases forming the DNA or RNA fragments are individually tagged with a characteristic fluorescent dye. The train of bases is then excited to fluorescence with an output spectrum characteristic of the individual bases. Accordingly, the base sequence of the original DNA or RNA fragment can be reconstructed.

  2. Method for rapid base sequencing in DNA and RNA

    DOEpatents

    Jett, J.H.; Keller, R.A.; Martin, J.C.; Moyzis, R.K.; Ratliff, R.L.; Shera, E.B.; Stewart, C.C.

    1990-10-09

    A method is provided for the rapid base sequencing of DNA or RNA fragments wherein a single fragment of DNA or RNA is provided with identifiable bases and suspended in a moving flow stream. An exonuclease sequentially cleaves individual bases from the end of the suspended fragment. The moving flow stream maintains the cleaved bases in an orderly train for subsequent detection and identification. In a particular embodiment, individual bases forming the DNA or RNA fragments are individually tagged with a characteristic fluorescent dye. The train of bases is then excited to fluorescence with an output spectrum characteristic of the individual bases. Accordingly, the base sequence of the original DNA or RNA fragment can be reconstructed. 2 figs.

  3. A rapid protection switching method in carrier ethernet ring networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Liang; Ji, Meng

    2008-11-01

    Abstract: Ethernet is the most important Local Area Network (LAN) technology since more than 90% data traffic in access layer is carried on Ethernet. From 10M to 10G, the improving Ethernet technology can be not only used in LAN, but also a good choice for MAN even WAN. MAN are always constructed in ring topology because the ring network could provide resilient path protection by using less resource (fibre or cable) than other network topologies. In layer 2 data networks, spanning tree protocol (STP) is always used to protect transmit link and preventing the formation of logic loop in networks. However, STP cannot guarantee the efficiency of service convergence when link fault happened. In fact, convergent time of networks with STP is about several minutes. Though Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) and Multi-Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) improve the STP technology, they still need a couple of seconds to achieve convergence, and can not provide sub-50ms protection switching. This paper presents a novel rapid ring protection method (RRPM) for carrier Ethernet. Unlike other link-fault detection method, it adopts distributed algorithm to detect link fault rapidly (sub-50ms). When networks restore from link fault, it can revert to the original working state. RRPM can provide single ring protection and interconnected ring protection without the formation of super loop. In normal operation, the master node blocks the secondary port for all non-RRPM Ethernet frames belonging to the given RRPM Ring, thereby avoiding a loop in the ring. When link fault happens, the node on which the failure happens moves from the "ring normal" state to the "ring fault" state. It also sends "link down" frame immediately to other nodes and blocks broken port and flushes its forwarding database. Those who receive "link down" frame will flush forwarding database and master node should unblock its secondary port. When the failure restores, the whole ring will revert to the normal state. That is

  4. Rapid alkaline extraction method for the isolation of plasmid DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Birnboim, H.C.

    1983-01-01

    Plasmids are double-stranded circular DNA molecules that have the property of self-replication, independent of chromosomal DNA. Although the presence of a plasmid in a bacterial cell may be detected genetically as a change in phenotype, often it is necessary to isolate plasmid DNA for molecular studies, such as size determination, restriction enzyme mapping, and nucleotide sequencing, or for the construction of new hybrid plasmids. The degree of purification required will depend upon the intended use. Less purified plasmid DNA is often satisfactory for recombinant DNA studies, and a large number of shorter and simpler methods have been developed. This chapter describes one such method that uses an alkaline extraction step. It is rapid enough to be used as a screening method, permitting 50-100 or more samples to be extracted in a few hours. The DNA is sufficiently pure to be digestible by restriction enzymes, an important advantage for screening. A preparative version that allows isolation of larger quantities of more highly purified material is also described.

  5. Statistical synthesis of multiantenna ultrawideband radiometric complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volosyuk, V. K.; Kravchenko, V. F.; Pavlikov, V. V.; Pustovoit, V. I.

    2016-04-01

    An optimum signal processing algorithm of radiometric imaging has been synthesized for the first time using multiantenna ultrawideband (UWB) radiometric complexes (RMCs). Radiometric images (RMI) are interpreted physically as intensity depending on the angular coordinates or the spectral radio brightness averaged in the operation frequency band. In accordance with the synthesized algorithm, a structural scheme of ultrawideband radiometric complexes has been developed. An analytical expression for the ambiguity function of radiometric complexes has been obtained. The ambiguity function is modeled in the case of processing narrowband and ultrawideband radiometric signals. As follows from the analysis of the results, new elements of the theory of optimum processing of UWB radiometric signals with the involvement of multielement antenna systems are an important tool in creating highly accurate, biologically and ecologically safe complexes for studying various media and objects.

  6. Rapid tooling method for soft customized removable oral appliances.

    PubMed

    Salmi, Mika; Tuomi, Jukka; Sirkkanen, Rauno; Ingman, Tuula; Mäkitie, Antti

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally oral appliances i.e. removable orthodontic appliances, bite splints and snoring / sleep apnea appliances are made with alginate impressions and wax registrations. Our aim was to describe the process of manufacturing customized oral appliances with a new technique i.e. rapid tooling method. The appliance should ideally be custom made to match the teeth. An orthodontic patient, scheduled for conventional orthodontic treatment, served as a study subject. After a precise clinical and radiographic examination, the approach was to digitize the patient's dental arches and then to correct them virtually by computer. Additive manufacturing was then used to fabricate a mould for a soft customized appliance. The mould was manufactured using stereolithography from Somos ProtoGen O-XT 18420 material. Casting material for the mould to obtain the final appliance was silicone. As a result we managed to create a customized soft orthodontic appliance. Also, the accuracy of the method was found to be adequate. Two versions of the described device were manufactured: one with small and one with moderate orthodontic force. The study person also gave information on the subjective patient adaptation aspects of the oral appliance. PMID:22615719

  7. Rapid Tooling Method for Soft Customized Removable Oral Appliances

    PubMed Central

    Salmi, Mika; Tuomi, Jukka; Sirkkanen, Rauno; Ingman, Tuula; Mäkitie, Antti

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally oral appliances i.e. removable orthodontic appliances, bite splints and snoring / sleep apnea appliances are made with alginate impressions and wax registrations. Our aim was to describe the process of manufacturing customized oral appliances with a new technique i.e. rapid tooling method. The appliance should ideally be custom made to match the teeth. An orthodontic patient, scheduled for conventional orthodontic treatment, served as a study subject. After a precise clinical and radiographic examination, the approach was to digitize the patient’s dental arches and then to correct them virtually by computer. Additive manufacturing was then used to fabricate a mould for a soft customized appliance. The mould was manufactured using stereolithography from Somos ProtoGen O-XT 18420 material. Casting material for the mould to obtain the final appliance was silicone. As a result we managed to create a customized soft orthodontic appliance. Also, the accuracy of the method was found to be adequate. Two versions of the described device were manufactured: one with small and one with moderate orthodontic force. The study person also gave information on the subjective patient adaptation aspects of the oral appliance. PMID:22615719

  8. Method for Rapid Protein Identification in a Large Database

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenli; Zhao, Xiaofang

    2013-01-01

    Protein identification is an integral part of proteomics research. The available tools to identify proteins in tandem mass spectrometry experiments are not optimized to face current challenges in terms of identification scale and speed owing to the exponential growth of the protein database and the accelerated generation of mass spectrometry data, as well as the demand for nonspecific digestion and post-modifications in complex-sample identification. As a result, a rapid method is required to mitigate such complexity and computation challenges. This paper thus aims to present an open method to prevent enzyme and modification specificity on a large database. This paper designed and developed a distributed program to facilitate application to computer resources. With this optimization, nearly linear speedup and real-time support are achieved on a large database with nonspecific digestion, thus enabling testing with two classical large protein databases in a 20-blade cluster. This work aids in the discovery of more significant biological results, such as modification sites, and enables the identification of more complex samples, such as metaproteomics samples. PMID:24000323

  9. Rapid Method for Escherichia coli in the Cuyahoga River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brady, Amie M.G.

    2007-01-01

    This study is a continuation of a previous U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) project in cooperation with the National Park Service at Cuyahoga Valley National Park in Brecksville, Ohio. A rapid (1-hour) method for detecting Escherichia coli (E. coli) in water was tested and compared to the standard (24-hour) method for determining E. coli concentrations. Environmental data were collected to determine turbidity, rainfall, and streamflow at the time of sampling. In the previous study (2004-5), data collected were used to develop predictive models to determine recreational water quality in the river at two sites within the park. Data collected during this continued study (2006) were used to test these models. At Jaite, a centrally located site within the park, the model correctly predicted exceedances or nonexceedances of the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency maximum for recreational water quality in 80 percent of samples. At Old Portage, a site near the upstream boundary of the park, the model correctly predicted recreational water quality in 58 percent of samples. All of the data collected in 2004-6 will be used to develop more accurate models for use in future studies. Analysis and discussion of model results are scheduled to be included in an upcoming USGS Scientific Investigations Report.

  10. Fundus image change analysis: geometric and radiometric normalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, David S.; Kaiser, Richard S.; Lee, Michael S.; Berger, Jeffrey W.

    1999-06-01

    Image change analysis will potentiate fundus feature quantitation in natural history and intervention studies for major blinding diseases such as age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. Geometric and radiometric normalization of fundus images acquired at two points in time are required for accurate change detection, but existing methods are unsatisfactory for change analysis. We have developed and explored algorithms for correction of image misalignment (geometric) and inter- and intra-image brightness variation (radiometric) in order to facilitate highly accurate change detection. Thirty-five millimeter color fundus photographs were digitized at 500 to 1000 dpi. Custom-developed registration algorithms correcting for translation only; translation and rotation; translation, rotation, and scale; and polynomial based image-warping algorithms allowed for exploration of registration accuracy required for change detection. Registration accuracy beyond that offered by rigid body transformation is required for accurate change detection. Radiometric correction required shade-correction and normalization of inter-image statistical parameters. Precise geometric and radiometric normalization allows for highly accurate change detection. To our knowledge, these results are the first demonstration of the combination of geometric and radiometric normalization offering sufficient accuracy to allow for accurate fundus image change detection potentiating longitudinal study of retinal disease.

  11. Assessment of VIIRS radiometric performance using vicarious calibration sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uprety, Sirish; Cao, Changyong; Blonski, Slawomir; Wang, Wenhui

    2014-09-01

    Radiometric performance of satellite instruments needs to be regularly monitored to determine if there is any drift in the instrument response over time despite the calibration with the best effort. If a drift occurs, it needs to be characterized in order to keep the radiometric accuracy and stability well within the specification. Instrument gain change over time can be validated independently using many techniques such as using stable earth targets (desert, ocean, snow sites etc), inter-comparison with other well calibrated radiometers (using SNO, SNO-x), deep convective clouds (DCC), lunar observations or other methods. This study focus on using vicarious calibration sites for the assessment of radiometric performance of Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) reflective solar bands. The calibration stability is primarily analyzed by developing the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance time series over these sites. In addition, the radiometric bias relative to AQUA MODIS is estimated over these calibration sites and analyzed. The radiometric bias is quantified in terms of observed and spectral bias. The spectral characterization and bias analysis will be performed using hyperspectral measurements and radiative transfer models such as MODTRAN.

  12. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of KOMPSAT-3A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, H. Y.; Shin, D. Y.; Kim, J. S.; Seo, D. C.; Choi, C. U.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a vicarious radiometric calibration of the Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-3A (KOMPSAT-3A) performed by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) and the Pukyong National University Remote Sensing Group (PKNU RSG) in 2015.The primary stages of this study are summarized as follows: (1) A field campaign to determine radiometric calibrated target fields was undertaken in Mongolia and South Korea. Surface reflectance data obtained in the campaign were input to a radiative transfer code that predicted at-sensor radiance. Through this process, equations and parameters were derived for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor to enable the conversion of calibrated DN to physical units, such as at-sensor radiance or TOA reflectance. (2) To validate the absolute calibration coefficients for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor, we performed a radiometric validation with a comparison of KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 TOA reflectance using one of the six PICS (Libya 4). Correlations between top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances and the spectral band responses of the KOMPSAT-3A sensors at the Zuunmod, Mongolia and Goheung, South Korea sites were significant for multispectral bands. The average difference in TOA reflectance between KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 image over the Libya 4, Libya site in the red-green-blue (RGB) region was under 3%, whereas in the NIR band, the TOA reflectance of KOMPSAT-3A was lower than the that of Landsat-8 due to the difference in the band passes of two sensors. The KOMPSAT-3Aensor includes a band pass near 940 nm that can be strongly absorbed by water vapor and therefore displayed low reflectance. Toovercome this, we need to undertake a detailed analysis using rescale methods, such as the spectral bandwidth adjustment factor.

  13. Rapid simulation of spatial epidemics: a spectral method.

    PubMed

    Brand, Samuel P C; Tildesley, Michael J; Keeling, Matthew J

    2015-04-01

    Spatial structure and hence the spatial position of host populations plays a vital role in the spread of infection. In the majority of situations, it is only possible to predict the spatial spread of infection using simulation models, which can be computationally demanding especially for large population sizes. Here we develop an approximation method that vastly reduces this computational burden. We assume that the transmission rates between individuals or sub-populations are determined by a spatial transmission kernel. This kernel is assumed to be isotropic, such that the transmission rate is simply a function of the distance between susceptible and infectious individuals; as such this provides the ideal mechanism for modelling localised transmission in a spatial environment. We show that the spatial force of infection acting on all susceptibles can be represented as a spatial convolution between the transmission kernel and a spatially extended 'image' of the infection state. This representation allows the rapid calculation of stochastic rates of infection using fast-Fourier transform (FFT) routines, which greatly improves the computational efficiency of spatial simulations. We demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of this fast spectral rate recalculation (FSR) method with two examples: an idealised scenario simulating an SIR-type epidemic outbreak amongst N habitats distributed across a two-dimensional plane; the spread of infection between US cattle farms, illustrating that the FSR method makes continental-scale outbreak forecasting feasible with desktop processing power. The latter model demonstrates which areas of the US are at consistently high risk for cattle-infections, although predictions of epidemic size are highly dependent on assumptions about the tail of the transmission kernel. PMID:25659478

  14. Antimicrobial susceptibility of rapidly growing mycobacteria using the rapid colorimetric method.

    PubMed

    Ramis, I B; Cnockaert, M; von Groll, A; Nogueira, C L; Leão, S C; Andre, E; Simon, A; Palomino, J C; da Silva, P E A; Vandamme, P; Martin, A

    2015-07-01

    Drug susceptibility testing (DST) of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are recommended for guiding the antimicrobial therapy. We have evaluated the use of resazurin in Mueller-Hinton medium (MHR) for MIC determination of RGM and compared the results with those obtained with the reference standard broth microdilution in Mueller-Hinton (MH) and with the resazurin microtiter assay (REMA) in 7H9 broth. The MIC of eight drugs: amikacin (AMI), cefoxitin (FOX), ciprofloxacin (CIP), clarithromycin (CLA), doxycycline (DOX), linezolid (LZD), moxifloxacin (MXF) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) were evaluated against 76 RGM (18 species) using three methods (MH, MHR, and REMA) in a 96-well plate format incubated at 37 °C over 3-5 days. Results obtained in the MH plates were interpreted by the appearance of turbidity at the bottom of the well before adding the resazurin. MHR and 7H9-REMA plates were read by visual observation for a change in color from blue to pink. The majority of results were obtained at day 5 for MH and 1 day after for MHR and 7H9-REMA. However, the preliminary experiment on time to positivity results using the reference strain showed that the resazurin can be added to the MH at day 2 to produce the results at day 3, but future studies with large sets of strains are required to confirm this suggestion. A high level of agreement (kappa 1.000-0.884) was obtained between the MH and the MHR. Comparison of results obtained with 7H9-REMA, on the other hand, revealed several discrepancies and a lower level of agreement (kappa 1.000-0.111). The majority of the strains were resistant to DOX and TMP-SMX, and the most active antimicrobials for RGM were AMI and FOX. In the present study, MHR represented an excellent alternative for MIC determination of RGM. The results could be read reliably, more easily, and more quickly than with the classical MH method. PMID:25820290

  15. A Microwave Radiometric Method to Obtain the Average Path Profile of Atmospheric Temperature and Humidity Structure Parameters and Its Application to Optical Propagation System Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, Robert M.; Vyhnalek, Brian E.

    2015-01-01

    The values of the key atmospheric propagation parameters Ct2, Cq2, and Ctq are highly dependent upon the vertical height within the atmosphere thus making it necessary to specify profiles of these values along the atmospheric propagation path. The remote sensing method suggested and described in this work makes use of a rapidly integrating microwave profiling radiometer to capture profiles of temperature and humidity through the atmosphere. The integration times of currently available profiling radiometers are such that they are approaching the temporal intervals over which one can possibly make meaningful assessments of these key atmospheric parameters. Since these parameters are fundamental to all propagation conditions, they can be used to obtain Cn2 profiles for any frequency, including those for an optical propagation path. In this case the important performance parameters of the prevailing isoplanatic angle and Greenwood frequency can be obtained. The integration times are such that Kolmogorov turbulence theory and the Taylor frozen-flow hypothesis must be transcended. Appropriate modifications to these classical approaches are derived from first principles and an expression for the structure functions are obtained. The theory is then applied to an experimental scenario and shows very good results.

  16. Rapid and simple method for purification of nucleic acids.

    PubMed Central

    Boom, R; Sol, C J; Salimans, M M; Jansen, C L; Wertheim-van Dillen, P M; van der Noordaa, J

    1990-01-01

    We have developed a simple, rapid, and reliable protocol for the small-scale purification of DNA and RNA from, e.g., human serum and urine. The method is based on the lysing and nuclease-inactivating properties of the chaotropic agent guanidinium thiocyanate together with the nucleic acid-binding properties of silica particles or diatoms in the presence of this agent. By using size-fractionated silica particles, nucleic acids (covalently closed circular, relaxed circular, and linear double-stranded DNA; single-stranded DNA; and rRNA) could be purified from 12 different specimens in less than 1 h and were recovered in the initial reaction vessel. Purified DNA (although significantly sheared) was a good substrate for restriction endonucleases and DNA ligase and was recovered with high yields (usually over 50%) from the picogram to the microgram level. Copurified rRNA was recovered almost undegraded. Substituting size-fractionated silica particles for diatoms (the fossilized cell walls of unicellular algae) allowed for the purification of microgram amounts of genomic DNA, plasmid DNA, and rRNA from cell-rich sources, as exemplified for pathogenic gram-negative bacteria. In this paper, we show representative experiments illustrating some characteristics of the procedure which may have wide application in clinical microbiology. Images PMID:1691208

  17. Rapid evaluation methods (REM) of health services performance: methodological observations.

    PubMed

    Anker, M; Guidotti, R J; Orzeszyna, S; Sapirie, S A; Thuriaux, M C

    1993-01-01

    The rapid evaluation method (REM) was developed by WHO in order to assess the performance and quality of health care services, identify operational problems, and assist in taking managerial action. It was tested in five developing countries (Botswana, Madagascar, Papua New Guinea, Uganda and Zambia) between 1988 and 1991. REM consists of a set of observation- and survey-based diagnostic activities, carried out mainly in health care facilities. The article describes the various steps of REM, methodological issues such as setting objectives and using an issue-information matrix, preparation of survey instruments, use of computer software (Epi Info), data quality control, fieldwork, and the use of data to produce useful information for decision-makers. REM aims at bringing prompt and relevant information to planners and decision-makers who need it for a specific purpose. In the present examples, REM provided information for preparing a programme proposal for external funding, for establishing baseline data for a situation analysis, and for assessing staff performance after extensive training in order to improve the curriculum. PMID:8440033

  18. On-orbit radiometric calibration of Earth-observing sensors using the Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czapla-Myers, Jeffrey S.; Leisso, Nathan P.; Anderson, Nikolaus J.; Biggar, Stuart F.

    2012-06-01

    Vicarious techniques are used to provide supplemental radiometric calibration data for sensors with onboard calibration systems, and are increasingly important for sensors without onboard calibration systems. The Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS) is located at Railroad Valley, Nevada. It is a facility that was developed with the goal of increasing the amount of ground-based radiometric calibration data that are collected annually while maintaining the current level of radiometric accuracy produced by traditional manned field campaigns. RadCaTS is based on the reflectance-based approach, and currently consists of a Cimel sun photometer to measure the atmosphere, a weather station to monitor meteorological conditions, and ground-viewing radiometers (GVRs) that are used the determine the surface reflectance throughout the 1 × 1-km area. The data from these instruments are used in MODTRAN5 to determine the at-sensor spectral radiance at the time of overpass. This work describes the RadCaTS concept, the instruments used to obtain the data, and the processing method used to determine the surface reflectance and top-of-atmosphere spectral radiance. A discussion on the design and calibration of three new eight-channel GVRs is introduced, and the surface reflectance retrievals are compared to in situ measurements. Radiometric calibration results determined using RadCaTS are compared to Landsat 7 ETM+, MODIS, and MISR.

  19. Landsat-5 TM reflective-band absolute radiometric calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Helder, D.L.; Markham, B.L.; Dewald, J.D.; Kaita, E.; Thome, K.J.; Micijevic, E.; Ruggles, T.A.

    2004-01-01

    The Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor provides the longest running continuous dataset of moderate spatial resolution remote sensing imagery, dating back to its launch in March 1984. Historically, the radiometric calibration procedure for this imagery used the instrument's response to the Internal Calibrator (IC) on a scene-by-scene basis to determine the gain and offset of each detector. Due to observed degradations in the IC, a new procedure was implemented for U.S.-processed data in May 2003. This new calibration procedure is based on a lifetime radiometric calibration model for the instrument's reflective bands (1-5 and 7) and is derived, in part, from the IC response without the related degradation effects and is tied to the cross calibration with the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus. Reflective-band absolute radiometric accuracy of the instrument tends to be on the order of 7% to 10%, based on a variety of calibration methods.

  20. Radiometric Dating in Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankhurst, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Described are several aspects and methods of quantitatively measuring geologic time using a constant-rate natural process of radioactive decay. Topics include half lives and decay constants, radiogenic growth, potassium-argon dating, rubidium-strontium dating, and the role of geochronology in support of geological exploration. (DS)

  1. Radiometric Calibration of Earth-Observing Sensors Using the Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czapla-Myers, J.; Anderson, N. J.; Thome, K. J.; Biggar, S. F.

    2014-12-01

    The Remote Sensing Group (RSG) of the College of Optical Sciences at the University of Arizona uses the reflectance-based approach to perform the absolute radiometric calibration of such sensors as Landsat 5 TM, Landsat 7 ETM+, Landsat 8 OLI, Terra and Aqua MODIS, ASTER, RapidEye, and others. The reflectance-based approach requires that personnel be present at a test site during the sensor overpass, so the Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS) was developed in order to capture data during every possible overpass, which assists in the temporal trending of the radiometric calibration of earth-observing sensors. The number of earth-observing sensors is rapidly increasing in recent years, and RadCaTS provides the ability to radiometrically calibrate them without the requirement of frequent field campaigns. The 2013 launch of Landsat 8 provides a unique opportunity for RadCaTS in that it is being used to supplement the in situ measurements by RSG ground personnel, and it will be used throughout the lifetime of the Landsat 8 mission. This allows more data to be collected throughout the year, and it also allows the accuracy and uncertainty of RadCaTS to be analyzed. The current top-of-atmosphere (TOA) spectral radiance uncertainty of the reflectance-based approach is ~2.6% in the mid-visible region of the spectrum, and current work indicates that the uncertainty of RadCaTS in TOA spectral radiance is ~3-4%. This work presents the radiometric calibration results of RadCaTS for a variety of sensors such as Landsat 7 ETM+, Landsat 8 OLI, Terra and Aqua MODIS, MISR, ASTER, and Suomi NPP VIIRS.

  2. Sentinel-3 OLCI Radiometric and Spectral Performance Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourg, L.; Blanot, L.; Lamquin, N.; Bruniquel, V.; Meskini, N.; Nieke, J.; Bouvet, M.; Fougnie, B.

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents the activities to be undertaken by ACRI-ST under ESA/ESTEC coordination for the assessment of OLCI Radiometric and Spectral Performances during the SENTINEL-3 Commissioning Phase. As an introduction, it briefly describes the instrument concept and available on-board calibration hardware, the context and main objective of the work. Insisting on the fact that radiometric calibration of OLCI is based on in-flight measurements, as was for MERIS, it then describes the methodology and tools to be used during Commissioning. Finally, as in-flight based radiometry implies the need for independent validation, it describes the corresponding methods and tools.

  3. Compact radiometric microwave calibrator

    SciTech Connect

    Fixsen, D. J.; Wollack, E. J.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Mirel, P.; Singal, J.; Fixsen, S. M.

    2006-06-15

    The calibration methods for the ARCADE II instrument are described and the accuracy estimated. The Steelcast coated aluminum cones which comprise the calibrator have a low reflection while maintaining 94% of the absorber volume within 5 mK of the base temperature (modeled). The calibrator demonstrates an absorber with the active part less than one wavelength thick and only marginally larger than the mouth of the largest horn and yet black (less than -40 dB or 0.01% reflection) over five octaves in frequency.

  4. An overview of in-orbit radiometric calibration of typical satellite sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, G. Q.; Li, C. Y.; Yue, T.; Jiang, L. J.; Liu, N.; Sun, Y.; Li, M. Y.

    2015-06-01

    This paper reviews the development of in-orbit radiometric calibration methods in the past 40 years. It summarizes the development of in-orbit radiometric calibration technology of typical satellite sensors in the visible/near-infrared bands and the thermal infrared band. Focuses on the visible/near-infrared bands radiometric calibration method including: Lamp calibration and solar radiationbased calibration. Summarizes the calibration technology of Landsat series satellite sensors including MSS, TM, ETM+, OLI, TIRS; SPOT series satellite sensors including HRV, HRS. In addition to the above sensors, there are also summarizing ALI which was equipped on EO-1, IRMSS which was equipped on CBERS series satellite. Comparing the in-orbit radiometric calibration technology of different periods but the same type satellite sensors analyzes the similarities and differences of calibration technology. Meanwhile summarizes the in-orbit radiometric calibration technology in the same periods but different country satellite sensors advantages and disadvantages of calibration technology.

  5. A new rapid method for rockfall energies and distances estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacomini, Anna; Ferrari, Federica; Thoeni, Klaus; Lambert, Cedric

    2016-04-01

    and distances at the base to block and slope features. The validation of the proposed approach was conducted by comparing predictions to experimental data collected in the field and gathered from the scientific literature. The method can be used for both natural and constructed slopes and easily extended to more complicated and articulated slope geometries. The study shows its great potential for a quick qualitative hazard assessment providing indication about impact energy and horizontal distance of the first impact at the base of a rock cliff. Nevertheless, its application cannot substitute a more detailed quantitative analysis required for site-specific design of mitigation measures. Acknowledgements The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the Australian Coal Association Research Program (ACARP). References Dorren, L.K.A. (2003) A review of rockfall mechanics and modelling approaches, Progress in Physical Geography 27(1), 69-87. Agliardi, F., Crosta, G.B., Frattini, P. (2009) Integrating rockfall risk assessment and countermeasure design by 3D modelling techniques. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 9(4), 1059-1073. Ferrari, F., Thoeni, K., Giacomini, A., Lambert, C. (2016) A rapid approach to estimate the rockfall energies and distances at the base of rock cliffs. Georisk, DOI: 10.1080/17499518.2016.1139729.

  6. JACIE Radiometric Assessment of QuickBird Multispectral Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagnutti, Mary; Carver, David; Holekamp, Kara; Knowlton, Kelly; Ryan, Robert; Zanoni, Vicki; Thome, Kurtis; Aaron, David

    2004-01-01

    Radiometric calibration of commercial imaging satellite products is required to ensure that science and application communities can place confidence in the imagery they use and can fully understand its properties. Inaccurate radiometric calibrations can lead to erroneous decisions and invalid conclusions and can limit intercomparisons with other systems. To address this calibration need, the NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) Earth Science Applications (ESA) directorate,through the Joint Agency for Commercial Imagery Evaluation (JACIE) framework, established a commercial imaging satellite radiometric calibration team consisting of two groups: 1) NASA SSC ESA, supported by South Dakota State University, and 2) the University of Arizona Remote Sensing Group. The two groups determined the absolute radiometric calibration coefficients of the Digital Globe 4-band, 2.4-m QuickBird multispectral product covering the visible through near-infrared spectral region. For a 2-year period beginning in 2002, both groups employed some variant of a reflectance-based vicarious calibration approach, which required ground-based measurements coincident with QuickBird image acquisitions and radiative transfer calculations. The groups chose several study sites throughout the United States that covered nearly the entire dynamic range of the QuickBird sensor. QuickBird at-sensor radiance values were compared with those estimated by the two independent groups to determine the QuickBird sensor's radiometric accuracy. Approximately 20 at-sensor radiance estimates were vicariously determined each year. The estimates were combined to provide a high-precision radiometric gain calibration coefficient. The results of this evaluation provide the user community with an independent assessment of the QuickBird sensor's absolute calibration and stability over the 2-year period. While the techniques and method described reflect those developed at the NASA SSC, the results of both JACIE team groups are

  7. A RAPID METHOD FOR ESTIMATING LOG P FOR ORGANIC CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The logarithm of the retention time (log RT) of organic chemicals on a permanently bonded (C-18) reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography system is shown to be linearly related to the logarithm of the n-octanol/water partition coefficient (log P). A rapid, inexpensive te...

  8. A rapid method to improve protein detection by indirect ELISA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) is a rapid, high-throughput, quantitative immunoassay for the selective detection of target antigens. The general principle behind an ELISA is antibody mediated capture and detection of an antigen with a measureable substrate. Numerous incarnations of th...

  9. Statistical Methods for Rapid Aerothermal Analysis and Design Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Carolyn; DePriest, Douglas; Thompson, Richard (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The cost and safety goals for NASA's next generation of reusable launch vehicle (RLV) will require that rapid high-fidelity aerothermodynamic design tools be used early in the design cycle. To meet these requirements, it is desirable to establish statistical models that quantify and improve the accuracy, extend the applicability, and enable combined analyses using existing prediction tools. The research work was focused on establishing the suitable mathematical/statistical models for these purposes. It is anticipated that the resulting models can be incorporated into a software tool to provide rapid, variable-fidelity, aerothermal environments to predict heating along an arbitrary trajectory. This work will support development of an integrated design tool to perform automated thermal protection system (TPS) sizing and material selection.

  10. Radiometric Calibration of Osmi Imagery Using Solar Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong-Han; Kim, Yong-Seung

    2000-12-01

    OSMI (Ocean Scanning Multi-Spectral Imager) raw image data (Level 0) were acquired and radiometrically corrected. We have applied two methods, using solar & dark calibration data from OSMI sensor and comparing with the SeaWiFS data, to the radiometric correction of OSMI raw image data. First, we could get the values of the gain and the offset for each pixel and each band from comparing the solar & dark calibration data with the solar input radiance values, calculated from the transmittance, BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function) and the solar incidence angle (¥â,¥è) of OSMI sensor. Applying this calibration data to OSMI raw image data, we got the two odd results, the lower value of the radiometric corrected image data than the expected value, and the Venetian Blind Effect in the radiometric corrected image data. Second, we could get the reasonable results from comparing OSMI raw image data with the SeaWiFS data, and get a new problem of OSMI sensor.

  11. Rapid methods for biochemical testing of anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Schreckenberger, P C; Blazevic, D J

    1974-11-01

    Rapid biochemical tests for nitrate, indole, gelatin, starch, esculin, and o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside were performed on 112 strains of anaerobic bacteria. All tests were incubated under aerobic conditions, and results were recorded within 4 h. The tests for nitrate, indole, and starch showed a 95% or greater correlation when compared to the standard biochemical tests. Tests for esculin and gelatin showed an agreement of 86 and 77%, respectively. PathoTec test strips for nitrate, indole, esculin, o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside, Voges-Proskauer, and urease were also tested and showed encouraging results. PMID:4613268

  12. A rapid method for hydraulic profiling in unconsolidated formations.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Peter; Butler, James J; Faiss, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Information on vertical variations in hydraulic conductivity (K) can often shed much light on how a contaminant will move in the subsurface. The direct-push injection logger has been developed to rapidly obtain such information in shallow unconsolidated settings. This small-diameter tool consists of a short screen located just behind a drive point. The tool is advanced into the subsurface while water is injected through the screen to keep it clear. Upon reaching a depth at which information about K is desired, advancement ceases and the injection rate and pressure are measured on the land surface. The rate and pressure values are used in a ratio that serves as a proxy for K. A vertical profile of this ratio can be transformed into a K profile through regressions with K estimates determined using other techniques. The viability of the approach was assessed at an extensively studied field site in eastern Germany. The assessment demonstrated that this tool can rapidly identify zones that may serve as conduits for or barriers to contaminant movement. PMID:18307433

  13. A rapid method for hydraulic profiling in unconsolidated formations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dietrich, P.; Butler, J.J., Jr.; Faiss, K.

    2008-01-01

    Information on vertical variations in hydraulic conductivity (K) can often shed much light on how a contaminant will move in the subsurface. The direct-push injection logger has been developed to rapidly obtain such information in shallow unconsolidated settings. This small-diameter tool consists of a short screen located just behind a drive point. The tool is advanced into the subsurface while water is injected through the screen to keep it clear. Upon reaching a depth at which information about K is desired, advancement ceases and the injection rate and pressure are measured on the land surface. The rate and pressure values are used in a ratio that serves as a proxy for K. A vertical profile of this ratio can be transformed into a K profile through regressions with K estimates determined using other techniques. The viability of the approach was assessed at an extensively studied field site in eastern Germany. The assessment demonstrated that this tool can rapidly identify zones that may serve as conduits for or barriers to contaminant movement. ?? 2007 The Author(s).

  14. A rapid, small-scale sedimentation method to predict breadmaking quality of hard winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breeders and processors are always looking for rapid and accurate methods to evaluate wheat quality. A rapid small-scale hybrid sedimentation method was developed for predicting breadmaking quality of breeders samples by combining the sodium dodecyl-sulfate (SDS) sedimentation method (AACC 56-70) an...

  15. Small satellite radiometric measurement system

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, P.G.

    1992-01-01

    A critical need for the US Global Change Research Program is to provide continuous, well-calibrated radiometric data for the earth`s radiation budget. This paper describes a new, compact, relatively light-weight, adaptable radiometer which will provide both spectrally integrated measurements and data in selected spectral bands. The radiometer design is suitable for use on small satellites, aircraft, or remotely piloted aircraft (RPAs). An example of the implementation of this radiometer on a small satellite is given. Significant benefits derive from simultaneous measurements of specific narrow (in wavelength) spectral features; such data may be obtained by combining LARI with a compact spectrometer on the same platform. Well-chosen satellite orbits allow one to use data from other satellites (e.g. DMSP) to enhance the data product, or to provide superior coverage of specific locations. 23 refs.

  16. Microwave radiometric observations of snowpacks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T.; Stiles, W. H.

    1980-01-01

    Models for the microwave emission from snowpacks were generated on the basis of radiometric observations made at 10.7 GHz, 37 HGz, and 94 GHz at a test site near Steamboat Springs, Colorado. In addition to conducting measurements on an approximately daily basis over a six week observation period, measurements were made over several diurnal cycles during which the change in snow wetness was tracked by the microwave radiometers. Also, the variation in emissivity with snow water equivalent was examined, as was the sensitivity to changes in snow surface geometry. The microwave emissivity was observed to (1) decrease exponentially with snow water equivalent and (2) increase with snow wetness. Thus, the emission behavior is the reverse of the backscattering behavior observed by the radar. By fitting the models to the measured data, the variation of the optical depth with snow wetness was estimated.

  17. Electrical impedance measurements: rapid method for detecting and monitoring microorganisms.

    PubMed Central

    Cady, P; Dufour, S W; Shaw, J; Kraeger, S J

    1978-01-01

    A conceptually simple and east-to-use technique is described that uses continuous impedance measurements for automated monitoring of microbial growth and metabolism. The method has been applied to a wide range of microorganisms. Optical clarity is not required. The sensitivity and reproducibility of the method are demonstrated. The mechanism whereby microbial growth alters the impedance of the medium is discussed, as well as potential applications of the method to clinical microbiology. Images PMID:348718

  18. Evaluating an alternative method for rapid urinary creatinine determination

    EPA Science Inventory

    Creatinine (CR) is an endogenously-produced chemical routinely assayed in urine specimens to assess kidney function, sample dilution. The industry-standard method for CR determination, known as the kinetic Jaffe (KJ) method, relies on an exponential rate of a colorimetric change,...

  19. RAPID METHODS FOR MEASURING INDICATOR BACTERIA IN BATHING BEACH WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current methods for measuring the quality of recreational waters were developed in the 1970's and were recommended to the States by EPA in 1986. These methods detect and quantify Escherichia coli and enterococci, two bacteria that are consistently associated with fecal wast...

  20. Rapid method for sampling metals for materials identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higgins, L. E.

    1971-01-01

    Nondamaging process similar to electrochemical machining is useful in obtaining metal samples from places inaccessible to conventional sampling methods or where methods would be hazardous or contaminating to specimens. Process applies to industries where metals or metal alloys play a vital role.

  1. RAPID SEPARATION METHOD FOR 237NP AND PU ISOTOPES IN LARGE SOIL SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.; Culligan, B.; Noyes, G.

    2010-07-26

    A new rapid method for the determination of {sup 237}Np and Pu isotopes in soil and sediment samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used for large soil samples. The new soil method utilizes an acid leaching method, iron/titanium hydroxide precipitation, a lanthanum fluoride soil matrix removal step, and a rapid column separation process with TEVA Resin. The large soil matrix is removed easily and rapidly using this two simple precipitations with high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. Vacuum box technology and rapid flow rates are used to reduce analytical time.

  2. A radiometric assay for HIV-1 protease

    SciTech Connect

    Hyland, L.J.; Dayton, B.D.; Moore, M.L.; Shu, A.Y.; Heys, J.R.; Meek, T.D. )

    1990-08-01

    A rapid, high-throughput radiometric assay for HIV-1 protease has been developed using ion-exchange chromatography performed in 96-well filtration plates. The assay monitors the activity of the HIV-1 protease on the radiolabeled form of a heptapeptide substrate, (tyrosyl-3,5-3H)Ac-Ser-Gln-Asn-Tyr-Pro-Val-Val-NH2, which is based on the p17-p24 cleavage site found in the viral polyprotein substrate Pr55gag. Specific cleavage of this uncharged heptapeptide substrate by HIV-1 protease releases the anionic product (tyrosyl-3,5-3H)Ac-Ser-Gln-Asn-Tyr, which is retained upon minicolumns of the anion-exchange resin AG1-X8. Protease activity is determined from the recovery of this radiolabeled product following elution with formic acid. This facile and highly sensitive assay may be utilized for steady-state kinetic analysis of the protease, for measurements of enzyme activity during its purification, and as a routine assay for the evaluation of protease inhibitors from natural product or synthetic sources.

  3. A rapid wire-based sampling method for DNA profiling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tong; Catcheside, David E A; Stephenson, Alice; Hefford, Chris; Kirkbride, K Paul; Burgoyne, Leigh A

    2012-03-01

    This paper reports the results of a commission to develop a field deployable rapid short tandem repeat (STR)-based DNA profiling system to enable discrimination between tissues derived from a small number of individuals. Speed was achieved by truncation of sample preparation and field deployability by use of an Agilent 2100 Bioanalyser(TM). Human blood and tissues were stabbed with heated stainless steel wire and the resulting sample dehydrated with isopropanol prior to direct addition to a PCR. Choice of a polymerase tolerant of tissue residues and cycles of amplification appropriate for the amount of template expected yielded useful profiles with a custom-designed quintuplex primer set suitable for use with the Bioanalyser(TM). Samples stored on wires remained amplifiable for months, allowing their transportation unrefrigerated from remote locations to a laboratory for analysis using AmpFlSTR(®) Profiler Plus(®) without further processing. The field system meets the requirements for discrimination of samples from small sets and retains access to full STR profiling when required. PMID:22211864

  4. A rapid method for the determination of lithium transference numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Zawodzinski, T.A. Jr.; Dai, H.; Sanderson, S.; Davey, J.; Uribe, F.

    1997-05-01

    Lithium ion-conducting polymer electrolytes are of increasing interest for use in lithium-polymer batteries. Lithium transference numbers, the net fraction of current carried by lithium in a cell, are key figures of merit for potential lithium battery electrolytes. The authors describe the Electrophoretic NMR (ENMR) method for the determination of lithium ion transference numbers (T{sub Li}). The work presented is a proof-of-concept of the application of the ENMR method to lithium ion transference measurements for several different lithium salts in gelled electrolytes. The NMR method allows accurate determination of T{sub Li} values, as indicated by the similarity of T{sub Li} in the gelled electrolytes to those in aqueous electrolyte solutions at low salt concentration. Based on calculated tradeoffs of various experimental parameters, they also discuss some conclusions concerning the range of applicability of the method to other electrolytes with lower lithium mobility.

  5. Rapid Methods for the Detection of General Fecal Indicators

    EPA Science Inventory

    Specified that EPA should develop: appropriate and effective indicators for improving detection in a timely manner of pathogens in coastal waters appropriate, accurate, expeditious and cost-effective methods for the timely detection of pathogens in coastal waters

  6. Asymptotic and Numerical Methods for Rapidly Rotating Buoyant Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grooms, Ian G.

    This thesis documents three investigations carried out in pursuance of a doctoral degree in applied mathematics at the University of Colorado (Boulder). The first investigation concerns the properties of rotating Rayleigh-Benard convection -- thermal convection in a rotating infinite plane layer between two constant-temperature boundaries. It is noted that in certain parameter regimes convective Taylor columns appear which dominate the dynamics, and a semi-analytical model of these is presented. Investigation of the columns and of various other properties of the flow is ongoing. The second investigation concerns the interactions between planetary-scale and mesoscale dynamics in the oceans. Using multiple-scale asymptotics the possible connections between planetary geostrophic and quasigeostrophic dynamics are investigated, and three different systems of coupled equations are derived. Possible use of these equations in conjunction with the method of superparameterization, and extension of the asymptotic methods to the interactions between mesoscale and submesoscale dynamics is ongoing. The third investigation concerns the linear stability properties of semi-implicit methods for the numerical integration of ordinary differential equations, focusing in particular on the linear stability of IMEX (Implicit-Explicit) methods and exponential integrators applied to systems of ordinary differential equations arising in the numerical solution of spatially discretized nonlinear partial differential equations containing both dispersive and dissipative linear terms. While these investigations may seem unrelated at first glance, some reflection shows that they are in fact closely linked. The investigation of rotating convection makes use of single-space, multiple-time-scale asymptotics to deal with dynamics strongly constrained by rotation. Although the context of thermal convection in an infinite layer seems somewhat removed from large-scale ocean dynamics, the asymptotic

  7. High speed radiometric measurements of IED detonation fireballs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spidell, Matthew T.; Gordon, J. Motos; Pitz, Jeremey; Gross, Kevin C.; Perram, Glen P.

    2010-04-01

    Continuum emission is predominant in fireball spectral phenomena and in some demonstrated cases, fine detail in the temporal evolution of infrared spectral emissions can be used to estimate size and chemical composition of the device. Recent work indicates that a few narrow radiometric bands may reveal forensic information needed for the explosive discrimination and classification problem, representing an essential step in moving from "laboratory" measurements to a rugged, fieldable system. To explore phenomena not observable in previous experiments, a high speed (10μs resolution) radiometer with four channels spanning the infrared spectrum observed the detonation of nine home made explosive (HME) devices in the < 100lb class. Radiometric measurements indicate that the detonation fireball is well approximated as a single temperature blackbody at early time (0 < t <~ 3ms). The effective radius obtained from absolute intensity indicates fireball growth at supersonic velocity during this time. Peak fireball temperatures during this initial detonation range between 3000.3500K. The initial temperature decay with time (t <~ 10ms) can be described by a simple phenomenological model based on radiative cooling. After this rapid decay, temperature exhibits a small, steady increase with time (10 <~ t <~ 50ms) and peaking somewhere between 1000.1500K-likely the result of post-detonation combustion-before subsequent cooling back to ambient conditions . Radius derived from radiometric measurements can be described well (R2 > 0.98) using blast model functional forms, suggesting that energy release could be estimated from single-pixel radiometric detectors. Comparison of radiometer-derived fireball size with FLIR infrared imagery indicate the Planckian intensity size estimates are about a factor of two smaller than the physical extent of the fireball.

  8. Success of Rapid Continuous Thermal Demagnetization When Conventional Methods Failed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coe, R. S.; Le Goff, M.

    2014-12-01

    Conventional stepwise thermal demagnetization of samples spanning a basalt flow erupted during a polarity transition at Steens Mountain, Oregon yielded scattered directions of high-temperature remanence, whereas the results of continuous thermal demagnetization cluster convincingly among the characteristic directions of the next several flows below. The continuous demagnetization was performed using the Triaxe1, a 3-axis vibrating sample magnetometer in which the directions of ~1 cm3 sub-samples were measured repeatedly as temperature increased during heated from 20 to 500-550°C in only 12-13 minutes. The demagnetization trajectories suggest that normal-polarity secondary magnetization, acquired both at room temperature in today's polarity chron and during modest reheating in a normal field during cooling of the overlying flow, was responsible for the failure of conventional thermal demagnetization. Our favored explanation is that alteration during ordinary thermal demagnetization raised the blocking temperature while preserving the direction of the overprint, thereby masking the primary component. The rapid heating (~40°C/min) during continuous demagnetization appears to have been fast enough to demagnetize the normal overprint before this masking could happen. Thermomagnetic cycles exhibit significant irreversibility starting around 300°C, both in air and in argon. Changes in room-temperature hysteresis parameters after heating in air to temperature T also start to change around T=300°C. Titanomagnetite of composition TM65-70, partially oxidized to titanomaghemite, plus a minor low-Ti, oxyexsolved phase are observed in thin section and inferred from thermomagnetic curves. Thus, inversion of secondary titanomaghemite that carries a normal overprint could be the masking mechanism. The failure of AF demagnetization, on the other hand, we attribute to overlapping coercivity spectra of primary and secondary magnetization. 1Le Goff and Gallet, 2004, Earth Planet

  9. A method for rapid acquisition of data from dispersed individuals.

    PubMed

    Fetterolf, Donald E; Michael, Russ

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a data-collection system that we believe has wide applicability in dispersed organizations that have different local information systems infrastructures. A questionnaire was developed using commonly available software tools and was implemented several times across a dispersed network of individuals to rapidly collect, organize, and analyze information with a minimum of secretarial time and administrative cost. A common e-mail database was created identifying all of the medical directors and care management directors in the Blue Cross Blue Shield system. Initial polling of these individuals yielded specific questions of interest, and a final questionnaire was developed. The focus of the project centered on the evaluation of disease state management initiatives within each of the plans and on the ongoing use and future potential for various medical management initiatives. A questionnaire was developed using a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet with the ultimate development of a database in mind. All of the questions, whether single or multiple answers, were mapped from question response sections to a hidden specified range created to import the flat file answer block into a database. Individual cells containing answers to questions were each mapped to a hidden area of the spreadsheet arrayed as a series of rows. As each questionnaire was returned to the central site, data was imported from the hidden range name into a Microsoft Access database. The process of collecting extensive information on a questionnaire-by-questionnaire basis took approximately 20 seconds of time per questionnaire. A final report was ultimately created composed of some 24 pages of detailed information on managed care across the participants, representing some 90% of the member organizations. Secretarial costs were needed only for final transcription of the report. PMID:11941997

  10. Comparison of methods for rapid analysis of quercetin.

    PubMed

    Pardo-Barrela, Jessica; Lago-Crespo, Miguel; Lage-Yusty, María Asunción; López-Hernández, Julia

    2015-03-01

    Quercetin is a polyphenol of growing interest that is present in many foods. In this study, we compared two methods for its determination in samples of drinks made of juice and in dietary supplements, one chromatographic (HPLC) and other spectrofluorimetric (constant-wavelength synchronous spectrofluorimetry). To confirm the identification of the quercetin in the samples an HPLC-PDA-MS/MS system was used. It was concluded that both methods are suitable for dietary supplements and the choice of one or the other depends on the type of sample, time available for the analysis as well as the available resources. For juice beverages only HPLC is suitable. PMID:25488586

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF A RAPID ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR DETERMINING ASBESTOS IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of a rapid analytical method for determining chrysotile asbestos in water that requires substantially less time per analysis than electron microscopy methods is described. Based on the proposition that separation of chrysotile from other waterborne particulate wou...

  12. Development of a rapid detection method for Yellow Dwarf Viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley and Cereal yellow dwarf viruses (B/CYDVs), constitute the most economically important group of oat viruses. A multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction method was developed for the simultaneous detection and discrimination of five B/CYDVs viruses. The protocol uses specific pr...

  13. Gravity modes in rapidly rotating stars. Limits of perturbative methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballot, J.; Lignières, F.; Reese, D. R.; Rieutord, M.

    2010-07-01

    Context. CoRoT and Kepler missions are now providing high-quality asteroseismic data for a large number of stars. Among intermediate-mass and massive stars, fast rotators are common objects. Taking the rotation effects into account is needed to correctly understand, identify, and interpret the observed oscillation frequencies of these stars. A classical approach is to consider the rotation as a perturbation. Aims: In this paper, we focus on gravity modes, such as those occurring in γ Doradus, slowly pulsating B (SPB), or Be stars. We aim to define the suitability of perturbative methods. Methods: With the two-dimensional oscillation program (TOP), we performed complete computations of gravity modes - including the Coriolis force, the centrifugal distortion, and compressible effects - in 2D distorted polytropic models of stars. We started with the modes ℓ = 1, n = 1-14, and ℓ = 2-3, n = 1-5, 16-20 of a nonrotating star, and followed these modes by increasing the rotation rate up to 70% of the break-up rotation rate. We then derived perturbative coefficients and determined the domains of validity of the perturbative methods. Results: Second-order perturbative methods are suited to computing low-order, low-degree mode frequencies up to rotation speeds ~100 km s-1 for typical γ Dor stars or ~150 km s-1 for B stars. The domains of validity can be extended by a few tens of km s-1 thanks to the third-order terms. For higher order modes, the domains of validity are noticeably reduced. Moreover, perturbative methods are inefficient for modes with frequencies lower than the Coriolis frequency 2Ω. We interpret this failure as a consequence of a modification in the shape of the resonant cavity that is not taken into account in the perturbative approach.

  14. Rapid Mapping Method Based on Free Blocks of Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xianwen; Wang, Huiqing; Wang, Jinling

    2016-06-01

    While producing large-scale larger than 1:2000 maps in cities or towns, the obstruction from buildings leads to difficult and heavy tasks of measuring mapping control points. In order to avoid measuring the mapping control points and shorten the time of fieldwork, in this paper, a quick mapping method is proposed. This method adjusts many free blocks of surveys together, and transforms the points from all free blocks of surveys into the same coordinate system. The entire surveying area is divided into many free blocks, and connection points are set on the boundaries between free blocks. An independent coordinate system of every free block is established via completely free station technology, and the coordinates of the connection points, detail points and control points in every free block in the corresponding independent coordinate systems are obtained based on poly-directional open traverses. Error equations are established based on connection points, which are determined together to obtain the transformation parameters. All points are transformed from the independent coordinate systems to a transitional coordinate system via the transformation parameters. Several control points are then measured by GPS in a geodetic coordinate system. All the points can then be transformed from the transitional coordinate system to the geodetic coordinate system. In this paper, the implementation process and mathematical formulas of the new method are presented in detail, and the formula to estimate the precision of surveys is given. An example has demonstrated that the precision of using the new method could meet large-scale mapping needs.

  15. Ambient methods and apparatus for rapid laser trace constituent analysis

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, Stuart C.; Partin, Judy K.; Grandy, Jon D.; Jeffery, Charles L.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for measuring trace amounts of constituents in samples by using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser induced fluorescence under ambient conditions. The laser induced fluorescence is performed at a selected wavelength corresponding to an absorption state of a selected trace constituent. The intensity value of the emission decay signal which is generated by the trace constituent is compared to calibrated emission intensity decay values to determine the amount of trace constituent present.

  16. LANDSAT-4 multispectral scanner (MSS) subsystem radiometric characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alford, W. (Editor); Barker, J. (Editor); Clark, B. P.; Dasgupta, R.

    1983-01-01

    The multispectral band scanner (mass) and its spectral characteristics are described and methods are given for relating video digital levels on computer compatible tapes to radiance into the sensor. Topics covered include prelaunch calibration procedures and postlaunch radiometric processng. Examples of current data resident on the MSS image processing system are included. The MSS on LANDSAT 4 is compared with the scanners on earlier LANDSAT satellites.

  17. The Rapid-Heat LAMPellet Method: A Potential Diagnostic Method for Human Urogenital Schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Carranza-Rodríguez, Cristina; Pérez-Arellano, José Luis; Vicente, Belén; López-Abán, Julio; Muro, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background Urogenital schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma haematobium is a serious underestimated public health problem affecting 112 million people - particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Microscopic examination of urine samples to detect parasite eggs still remains as definitive diagnosis. This work was focussed on developing a novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for detection of S. haematobium DNA in human urine samples as a high-throughput, simple, accurate and affordable diagnostic tool to use in diagnosis of urogenital schistosomiasis. Methodology/Principal Findings A LAMP assay targeting a species specific sequence of S. haematobium ribosomal intergenic spacer was designed. The effectiveness of our LAMP was assessed in a number of patients´ urine samples with microscopy confirmed S. haematobium infection. For potentially large-scale application in field conditions, different DNA extraction methods, including a commercial kit, a modified NaOH extraction method and a rapid heating method were tested using small volumes of urine fractions (whole urine, supernatants and pellets). The heating of pellets from clinical samples was the most efficient method to obtain good-quality DNA detectable by LAMP. The detection limit of our LAMP was 1 fg/µL of S. haematobium DNA in urine samples. When testing all patients´ urine samples included in our study, diagnostic parameters for sensitivity and specificity were calculated for LAMP assay, 100% sensitivity (95% CI: 81.32%-100%) and 86.67% specificity (95% CI: 75.40%-94.05%), and also for microscopy detection of eggs in urine samples, 69.23% sensitivity (95% CI: 48.21% -85.63%) and 100% specificity (95% CI: 93.08%-100%). Conclusions/Significance We have developed and evaluated, for the first time, a LAMP assay for detection of S. haematobium DNA in heated pellets from patients´ urine samples using no complicated requirement procedure for DNA extraction. The procedure has been named the Rapid

  18. Rapid new methods for paint collection and lead extraction.

    PubMed

    Gutknecht, William F; Harper, Sharon L; Winstead, Wayne; Sorrell, Kristen; Binstock, David A; Salmons, Cynthia A; Haas, Curtis; McCombs, Michelle; Studabaker, William; Wall, Constance V; Moore, Curtis

    2009-01-01

    Chronic exposure of children to lead can result in permanent physiological impairment. In adults, it can cause irritability, poor muscle coordination, and nerve damage to the sense organs and nerves controlling the body. Surfaces coated with lead-containing paints are potential sources of exposure to lead. In April 2008, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized new requirements that would reduce exposure to lead hazards created by renovation, repair, and painting activities, which disturb lead-based paint. On-site, inexpensive identification of lead-based paint is required. Two steps have been taken to meet this challenge. First, this paper presents a new, highly efficient method for paint collection that is based on the use of a modified wood drill bit. Second, this paper presents a novel, one-step approach for quantitatively grinding and extracting lead from paint samples for subsequent lead determination. This latter method is based on the use of a high-revolutions per minute rotor with stator to break up the paint into approximately 50 micron-size particles. Nitric acid (25%, v/v) is used to extract the lead in <3 minutes. Recoveries are consistently >95% for real-world paints, National Institute of Standards and Technology's standard reference materials, and audit samples from the American Industrial Hygiene Association's Environmental Lead Proficiency Analytical Testing Program. This quantitative extraction procedure, when paired with quantitative paint sample collection and lead determination, may enable the development of a lead paint test kit that will meet the specifications of the final EPA rule. PMID:19137153

  19. Rapid microbiochemical method for presumptive identification of gastroenteritis-associated members of the family Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed Central

    Yong, D C; Thompson, J S; Prytula, A

    1985-01-01

    A method for rapid screening of isolates of pathogenic members of the family Enterobacteriaceae is described. Flow charts are used in conjunction with triple sugar iron agar, o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside-phenylalanine-motility sulfate screening media, oxidase test, and six rapid biochemical tests, namely, lysine decarboxylase, urease, indole, esculin hydrolysis, malonate, and xylose. This scheme is used to provide an inexpensive but rapid presumptive identification of Salmonella, Shigella, Edwardsiella, Aeromonas, Plesiomonas, Vibrio, and Yersinia isolates from stool cultures. PMID:4008622

  20. High Throughput Microfluidic Rapid and Low Cost Prototyping Packaging Methods

    PubMed Central

    Miled, Amine; Sawan, Mohamad

    2013-01-01

    In this work, 3 different packaging and assembly techniques are presented. They can be classified into two categories: one-time use and reusable packaging techniques. The one-time use packaging technique employs UV-based and temperature curing epoxies to connect microtubes to access holes, wire-bonding for integrated circuit connections, and silver epoxy for electrical connections. This method is based on a robust assembly technique that can support relatively high pressure close to 1 psi and does not need any support to strengthen the microfluidic architecture. Reusable packaging techniques consist of PDMS-based microtube interconnectors and anisotropic adhesive films for electrical connections. These devices are more sensitive and fragile. Consequently, Plexiglas support is added to the microfluidic structure to improve the electrical contact when anisotropic adhesive films are used, and also to strengthen the microfluidic architecture. In addition, a micromanipulator is needed to maintain tubes while using a thin PDMS layer to connect them to the access holes. Different PDMS layer thicknesses, ranging from 0.45-3 mm, are tested to compare the best adherence versus injection rates. Applied injection rates are varied from 50-300 μl/hr for 0.45-3 mm PDMS layers, respectively. These techniques are mainly applicable for low-pressure applications. However, they can be extended for high-pressure ones through plasma-oxygen process to permanently seal the PDMS to glass substrates. The main advantage of this technique, besides the fact that it is reusable, consists of keeping the device observable when the microchannel length is very short (in the range of 3 mm or lower). PMID:24378854

  1. Radiometric-microbiologic assay fo vitamin B-6: analysis of plasma samples

    SciTech Connect

    Guilarte, T.R.; McIntyre, P.A.

    1981-11-01

    A radiometric microbiologic assay for the analysis of vitamin B-6 in plasma was developed. The method is based on the measurement of 14CO2 generated from the metabolism of DL-l-14C-valine (L-l-14C-valine) by Kloeckera brevis. The assay is specific for the biologically active forms of the vitamin, that is, pyridoxine, pyridoxal and pyridoxamine, and their respective phosphorylated forms. The biologically inert vitamin B-6 metabolite (4-pyridoxic acid) did not generate a response at concentrations tested. The radiometric technique was shown to be sensitive to the 1 nanogram level. Reproducibility and recovery studies gave good results. Fifteen plasma samples were assayed using the radiometric and turbidimetric techniques. The correlation coefficient was r . 0.98. Turbid material or precipitated debris did not interfere with the radiometric microbiologic assay, thus allowing for simplification of assay procedure.

  2. Experimental Research on Passive Millimeter Wave Radiometric Stealth Technology of Metal Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guangfeng; Lou, Guowei; Li, Xingguo

    2012-12-01

    Working all day and all weather, a passive millimeter wave radiometer (PMMW) can be widely used in civil and military affairs. It can get some specific information about the material characteristics different from radar and infrared detectors. On basis of the radiometric operating range equation, the radiation cross section and stealth effect of metal objects are presented for the PMMW near-sensing application. The measurement experiments of metal solid models adopts 3 mm band Dicke radiometer with the outdoor calibration system. The sky temperature and other different surface metal objects are also measured as the contrastive experiments. The results show the radiometric temperature contrasts of solid models have remarkable difference in the bare and coated conditions, and the radiometric operating range can decrease to 60.8 %. In addition, the PMMW stealth methods through different surface treatment respectively reduce the radiometric antenna temperature contrast in some degree.

  3. Radiometric and Spatial Characterization of High-Spatial Resolution Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thome, Kurtis; Zanoni, Vicki (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The development and improvement of commercial hyperspatial sensors in recent years has increased the breadth of information that can be retrieved from spaceborne and airborne imagery. NASA, through it's Scientific Data Purchases, has successfully provided such data sets to its user community. A key element to the usefulness of these data are an understanding of the radiometric and spatial response quality of the imagery. This proposal seeks funding to examine the absolute radiometric calibration of the Ikonos sensor operated by Space Imaging and the recently-launched Quickbird sensor from DigitalGlobe. In addition, we propose to evaluate the spatial response of the two sensors. The proposed methods rely on well-understood, ground-based targets that have been used by the University of Arizona for more than a decade.

  4. Rapid methods for the detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens: principles, applications, advantages and limitations

    PubMed Central

    Law, Jodi Woan-Fei; Ab Mutalib, Nurul-Syakima; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lee, Learn-Han

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of foodborne diseases has increased over the years and resulted in major public health problem globally. Foodborne pathogens can be found in various foods and it is important to detect foodborne pathogens to provide safe food supply and to prevent foodborne diseases. The conventional methods used to detect foodborne pathogen are time consuming and laborious. Hence, a variety of methods have been developed for rapid detection of foodborne pathogens as it is required in many food analyses. Rapid detection methods can be categorized into nucleic acid-based, biosensor-based and immunological-based methods. This review emphasizes on the principles and application of recent rapid methods for the detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens. Detection methods included are simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR), multiplex PCR, real-time PCR, nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and oligonucleotide DNA microarray which classified as nucleic acid-based methods; optical, electrochemical and mass-based biosensors which classified as biosensor-based methods; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and lateral flow immunoassay which classified as immunological-based methods. In general, rapid detection methods are generally time-efficient, sensitive, specific and labor-saving. The developments of rapid detection methods are vital in prevention and treatment of foodborne diseases. PMID:25628612

  5. Rapid methods for the detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens: principles, applications, advantages and limitations.

    PubMed

    Law, Jodi Woan-Fei; Ab Mutalib, Nurul-Syakima; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lee, Learn-Han

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of foodborne diseases has increased over the years and resulted in major public health problem globally. Foodborne pathogens can be found in various foods and it is important to detect foodborne pathogens to provide safe food supply and to prevent foodborne diseases. The conventional methods used to detect foodborne pathogen are time consuming and laborious. Hence, a variety of methods have been developed for rapid detection of foodborne pathogens as it is required in many food analyses. Rapid detection methods can be categorized into nucleic acid-based, biosensor-based and immunological-based methods. This review emphasizes on the principles and application of recent rapid methods for the detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens. Detection methods included are simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR), multiplex PCR, real-time PCR, nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and oligonucleotide DNA microarray which classified as nucleic acid-based methods; optical, electrochemical and mass-based biosensors which classified as biosensor-based methods; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and lateral flow immunoassay which classified as immunological-based methods. In general, rapid detection methods are generally time-efficient, sensitive, specific and labor-saving. The developments of rapid detection methods are vital in prevention and treatment of foodborne diseases. PMID:25628612

  6. Sentinel-2 radiometric image quality commissioning: first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachérade, S.; Lonjou, V.; Farges, M.; Gamet, P.; Marcq, S.; Raynaud, J.-L.; Trémas, T.

    2015-10-01

    In partnership with the European Commission and in the frame of the Copernicus program, the European Space Agency (ESA) is developing the Sentinel-2 optical imaging mission devoted to the operational monitoring of land and coastal areas. The Sentinel-2 mission is based on a satellites constellation deployed in polar sun-synchronous orbit. Sentinel-2 offers a unique combination of global coverage with a wide field of view (290km), a high revisit (5 days with two satellites), a high spatial resolution (10m, 20m and 60m) and multi-spectral imagery (13 spectral bands in visible and shortwave infrared domains). The first satellite, Sentinel-2A, has been launched in June 2015. The Sentinel-2A Commissioning Phase starts immediately after the Launch and Early Orbit Phase and continues until the In-Orbit Commissioning Review which is planned three months after the launch. The Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) supports ESA/ESTEC to insure the Calibration/Validation commissioning phase during the first three months in flight. This paper provides first an overview of the Sentinel-2 system and a description of the products delivered by the ground segment associated to the main radiometric specifications to achieve. Then the paper focuses on the preliminary radiometric results obtained during the in-flight commissioning phase. The radiometric methods and calibration sites used in the CNES image quality center to reach the specifications of the sensor are described. A status of the Sentinel-2A radiometric performances at the end of the first three months after the launch is presented. We will particularly address in this paper the results in term of absolute calibration, pixel to pixel relative sensitivity and MTF estimation.

  7. Radiometric ash monitor with iron compensation

    SciTech Connect

    Bachmann, C.; Erken, M.; Fauth, G.; Kern, H.

    1996-12-31

    The recent development of special devices for the measurement of the coal preparation product`s quality makes it possible to design feed forward and feed back quality control systems. For the determination of the ash content in coal very reliable radiometric measuring devices using the dual energy transmission method are available and well tested since several years. While the devices of the fire generation, where the probes were mounted in the center of the belt, determine the composition of only a part of the material, multi channel systems were developed and installed in preparation plants of different German and foreign mines. These analyzers work with three to five pairs of detectors which are placed across the belt to overcome representativity problems at inhomogeneously loaded belts. Another attempt to overcome those problems is the measurement behind an automatic sampler in a bypass. Dual energy ash meters are well developed and available from different companies round the world. Different examples show that some applications give excellent results while other applications show only poor accuracies due to variations in the composition. A new development using radiation with lower energies to determine important ingredients of coal shows an improvement of the ash measurement. Installed behind a sampler, the system offers a representative measurement which is less dependent on variations of the composition. First results will be presented.

  8. Evaluation of the Fully Automated BACTEC MGIT 960 System for Testing Susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to Pyrazinamide, Streptomycin, Isoniazid, Rifampin, and Ethambutol and Comparison with the Radiometric BACTEC 460TB Method

    PubMed Central

    Scarparo, Claudio; Ricordi, Paolo; Ruggiero, Giuliana; Piccoli, Paola

    2004-01-01

    The performance of the fully automated BACTEC MGIT 960 (M960) system for the testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis susceptibility to streptomycin (SM), isoniazid (INH), rifampin (RMP), ethambutol (EMB), and pyrazinamide (PZA) was evaluated with 100 clinical isolates and compared to that of the radiometric BACTEC 460TB (B460) system. The agar proportion method and the B460 system were used as reference methods to resolve the discordant results for SM, INH, RMP, and EMB (a combination known as SIRE) and PZA, respectively. The overall agreements were 96.3% for SIRE and 92% for PZA. For SIRE, a total of 26 discrepancies were found and were resolved in favor of the M960 system in 8 cases and in favor of the B460 system in 18 cases. The M960 system produced 8 very major errors (VME) and 10 major errors (ME), while the B460 system showed 4 VME and 4 ME. No statistically significant differences were found. Both systems exhibited excellent performance, but a higher number of VME was observed with the M960 system at the critical concentrations of EMB and SM. For PZA, a total of eight discrepancies were observed and were resolved in favor of the M960 system in one case and in favor of the B460 system in seven cases; no statistically significant differences were found. The M960 system showed four VME and three ME. The mean times to report overall PZA results and resistant results were 8.2 and 9.8 days, respectively, for the M960 system and 7.4 and 8.1 days, respectively, for the B460 system. Statistically significant differences were found. The mean times to report SIRE results were 8.3 days for the M960 system and 8.2 days for the B460 system. No statistically significant differences were found. Twelve strains tested for SIRE susceptibility and seven strains tested for PZA susceptibility had been reprocessed because of contamination. In conclusion, the M960 system can represent a valid alternative to the B460 for M. tuberculosis susceptibility testing; however, the frequent

  9. Rapid identification of salmonella serotypes with stereo and hyperspectral microscope imaging Methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hyperspectral microscope imaging (HMI) method can reduce detection time within 8 hours including incubation process. The early and rapid detection with this method in conjunction with the high throughput capabilities makes HMI method a prime candidate for implementation for the food industry. Th...

  10. Rapid Identification of Salmonella Serotypes with Stereo and Hyperspectral Microscope Imaging Methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hyperspectral microscope imaging (HMI) method can reduce detection time within 8 hours including incubation process. The early and rapid detection with this method in conjunction with the high throughput capabilities makes HMI method a prime candidate for implementation for the food industry. Th...

  11. A simple and rapid method for the analysis of phenolic compounds in beverages and grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple, rapid and direct method for detection of phenolics in foods and beverages is needed. The current standard method (Folin-Ciocalteau) indirectly measures the “total phenolics” through the reducing capacity of components of food or beverages. A novel method was developed to quantify polypheno...

  12. A multi-channel radiometric profiler of temperature, humidity and cloud liquid.

    SciTech Connect

    Ware, R.; Carpenter, R.; Guldner, J.; Liljegren, J.; Nehrkorn, T.; Solheim, F.; Vandenberghe, F.; Environmental Research; Radiometrics Corp.; Univ. Corp. for Atmospheric Research; Weather Decision Technologies Inc.; Atmospheric and Environmental Research Inc.; National Center for Atmospheric Research

    2003-07-31

    A microwave radiometer is described that provides continuous thermodynamic (temperature, water vapor, and moisture) soundings during clear and cloudy conditions. The radiometric profiler observes radiation intensity at 12 microwave frequencies, along with zenith infrared and surface meteorological measurements. Historical radiosonde and neural network or regression methods are used for profile retrieval. We compare radiometric, radiosonde, and forecast soundings and evaluate the accuracy of radiometric temperature and water vapor soundings on the basis of statistical comparison with radiosonde soundings. We find that radiometric soundings are equivalent in accuracy to radiosonde soundings when used in numerical weather forecasting. A case study is described that demonstrates improved fog forecasting on the basis of variational assimilation of radiometric soundings. The accuracy of radiometric cloud liquid soundings is evaluated by comparison with cloud liquid sensors carried by radiosondes. Accurate high-resolution three-dimensional water vapor and wind analysis is described on the basis of assimilation of simulated thermodynamic and wind soundings along with GPS slant delays. Examples of mobile thermodynamic and wind profilers are shown. Thermodynamic profiling, particularly when combined with wind profiling and slant GPS, provides continuous atmospheric soundings for improved weather and dispersion forecasting.

  13. Field Evaluation of a Semiautomated Method for Rapid and Simple Analysis of Recreational Water Microbiological Quality

    PubMed Central

    Anglès d'Auriac, Marc B.; Roberts, Hildegarde; Shaw, Terri; Sirevåg, Reidun; Hermansen, Leonila Fajardo; Berg, James D.

    2000-01-01

    An early warning system using a rapid enzymatic semiautomated method suitable for fecal coliform detection in recreational waters within 8 h was developed further and evaluated in this study. This rapid method was compared to the standard method followed in the United Kingdom. We used 1,011 samples originating from 206 different locations in Wales. When we assessed the presence or absence of fecal coliforms, targeting very low levels of contamination, we obtained 83.9% agreement between the rapid method and the lauryl sulfate broth-membrane filtration technique, whereas direct confirmation of the samples processed by the rapid method showed 89.3% agreement. Environmental enzymatic background activity was found to be the main limiting factor for this method. Owing to a specific and integrated handling of the results by the software of the instrument, the percentage of false-positive results (a consequence of enzymatic background) was successfully limited to 2.9% by the direct confirmation evaluation. However, 7.8% false-negative results due to “late-growers” had to be accepted in order to produce results within a working day. At present, the method can be used in a more conservative way to assess the environmental threshold of 100 CFU of fecal coliforms per 100 ml in recreational waters. The implications of our findings with regard to the applicability of rapid enzymatic methods are discussed. PMID:11010890

  14. Azimuthal radiometric temperature measurements of wheat canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimes, D. S.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of azimuthal view angle on the radiometric temperature of wheat canopies at various stages of development are investigated. Measurements of plant height, total leaf area index, green leaf area index and Feeks growth stage together with infrared radiometric temperature measurements at 12 azimuth intervals with respect to solar azimuth and at different solar zenith angles were obtained for four wheat canopies at various heights. Results reveal a difference on the order of 2 C between the temperatures measured at azimuths of 0 and 180 deg under calm wind conditions, which is attributed to the time-dependent transfer of heat between canopy component surfaces. The azimuthal dependence must thus be taken into account in the determination of radiometric temperatures.

  15. Rapid detection of bacterial growth in blood samples by a continuous-monitoring electrical impedance apparatus.

    PubMed Central

    Specter, S; Throm, R; Strauss, R; Friedman, H

    1977-01-01

    A growth detection method utilizing an automated apparatus capable of rapidly detecting bacterial growth by measuring changes of electrical impedance in bacteriological medium was utilized with "mock" blood cultures containing various gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Measurement of changes of electrical impedance was found to ba as accurate and comparable for time of growth detection as the radiometric method for detection of the same bacteria using mock blood cultures. In a limited clinical trial the use of the electrical impedance apparatus detected in 1 positive specimen from 40 clinical blood specimens as rapidly as by radiometric measurement. Both methods were considerably faster for detecting bacterial growth as compared with conventional culture methods. The selected species of gram-positive and -negative organisms tested were all detected by the electrical impedance method, including aerobes and anerobes. However, addition of 5% CO2 to the incubation atmosphere enhanced detection of gram-positive organisms. PMID:336642

  16. AIRS radiometric calibration validation for climate research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aumann, Hartmut H.; Pagano, Thomas S.; Elliott, Denis; Gaiser, Steve; Gregorich, Dave; Broberg, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Climate research using data from satellite based radiometers makes extreme demands on the traceability and stability of the radiometric calibration. The selection of a cooled grating array spectrometer for the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder, AIRS, is key, but does not ensured that AIRS data will be of climate quality. Additional design features, plus additional pre-launch testing, and extensive on-orbit calibration subsystem monitoring beyond what would suffice for application of the data to weather forecasting were required to ensure the radiometric data quality required for climate research. Validation that climate data quality are being generated makes use of the sea surface skin temperatures (SST and (obs-calc).

  17. Radiometric calibration and noise estimation of acousto-optic tunable filter hyperspectral imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Katrašnik, Jaka; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2013-05-20

    The accuracy of the radiometric response of acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) hyperspectral imaging systems is crucial for obtaining reliable measurements. It is therefore important to know the radiometric response and noise characteristics of the hyperspectral imaging system used. A radiometric model of an AOTF hyperspectral imaging system composed of an imaging sensor radiometric model (CCD, CMOS, and sCMOS) and an AOTF light transmission model is proposed. Using the radiometric model, a method for obtaining the fixed pattern noise (FPN) of the imaging system by displacing and imaging an illuminated reference target is developed. Methods for estimating the temporal noise of the imaging system, using the photon transfer method, and for correcting FPN are also presented. Noise estimation and image restoration methods were tested on an AOTF hyperspectral imaging system. The results indicate that the developed methods can accurately calculate temporal and FPN, and can effectively correct the acquired images. After correction, the signal-to-noise ratio of the acquired images was shown to increase by 26%. PMID:23736239

  18. Method for the rapid synthesis of large quantities of metal oxide nanowires at low temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Vaddiraju, Sreeram; Mozetic, Miran; Cvelbar, Uros

    2009-09-22

    A process for the rapid synthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles at low temperatures and methods which facilitate the fabrication of long metal oxide nanowires. The method is based on treatment of metals with oxygen plasma. Using oxygen plasma at low temperatures allows for rapid growth unlike other synthesis methods where nanomaterials take a long time to grow. Density of neutral oxygen atoms in plasma is a controlling factor for the yield of nanowires. The oxygen atom density window differs for different materials. By selecting the optimal oxygen atom density for various materials the yield can be maximized for nanowire synthesis of the metal.

  19. Methods for separation/purification utilizing rapidly cycled thermal swing sorption

    DOEpatents

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y.; Monzyk, Bruce F.; Wang, Yong; VanderWiel, David P.; Perry, Steven T.; Fitzgerald, Sean P.; Simmons, Wayne W.; McDaniel, Jeffrey S.; Weller, Jr., Albert E.

    2004-11-09

    The present invention provides apparatus and methods for separating fluid components. In preferred embodiments, the apparatus and methods utilize microchannel devices with small distances for heat and mass transfer to achieve rapid cycle times and surprisingly large volumes of fluid components separated in short times using relatively compact hardware.

  20. A rapid method for determining salinomycin and monensin sensitivity in Eimeria tenella

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Standard methods of determining the ionophore sensitivity of Eimeria rely on infecting chickens with an isolate or a mixture of Eimeria spp. oocysts in the presence of different anti-coccidial drugs. The purpose of this study was to develop a rapid in vitro method for assessing salinomycin and mone...

  1. A rapid method to determine sterol, erythrodiol, and uvaol concentrations in olive oil.

    PubMed

    Mathison, Brian; Holstege, Dirk

    2013-05-15

    A rapid, accurate, and efficient method for determining the sterol, uvaol, and erythrodiol concentrations was developed to meet International Olive Council (IOC) certification criteria for extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). The unsaponifiable fraction of the sample (0.2 g) was separated with a diatomaceous earth column, and the sterol and triterpenic dialcohols were isolated with a novel base-activated silica solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge cleanup protocol. The improved method and the IOC method provided identical pass/fail results (n = 34) for each of the six sterol and erythrodiol/uvaol IOC criteria used to assess olive oil. This method was validated, and recoveries of stigmasterol (88%) and β-sitosterol (84%) were greater than previously published values obtained using the IOC method. This method requires approximately one-third the time required to complete the IOC method and has great utility for the rapid screening of EVOO to detect adulteration, false labeling, and an inferior product. PMID:23587059

  2. RAPID FUSION METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF PLUTONIUM ISOTOPES IN LARGE RICE SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.

    2013-03-01

    A new rapid fusion method for the determination of plutonium in large rice samples has been developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used to determine very low levels of plutonium isotopes in rice. The recent accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in March, 2011 reinforces the need to have rapid, reliable radiochemical analyses for radionuclides in environmental and food samples. Public concern regarding foods, particularly foods such as rice in Japan, highlights the need for analytical techniques that will allow very large sample aliquots of rice to be used for analysis so that very low levels of plutonium isotopes may be detected. The new method to determine plutonium isotopes in large rice samples utilizes a furnace ashing step, a rapid sodium hydroxide fusion method, a lanthanum fluoride matrix removal step, and a column separation process with TEVA Resin cartridges. The method can be applied to rice sample aliquots as large as 5 kg. Plutonium isotopes can be determined using alpha spectrometry or inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The method showed high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. The rapid fusion technique is a rugged sample digestion method that ensures that any refractory plutonium particles are effectively digested. The MDA for a 5 kg rice sample using alpha spectrometry is 7E-5 mBq g{sup -1}. The method can easily be adapted for use by ICP-MS to allow detection of plutonium isotopic ratios.

  3. Scalable Method to Produce Biodegradable Nanoparticles that Rapidly Penetrate Human Mucus

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qingguo; Boylan, Nicholas J.; Cai, Shutian; Miao, Bolong; Patel, Himatkumar; Hanes, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Mucus typically traps and rapidly removes foreign particles from the airways, gastrointestinal tract, nasopharynx, female reproductive tract and the surface of the eye. Nanoparticles capable of rapid penetration through mucus can potentially avoid rapid clearance, and open significant opportunities for controlled drug delivery at mucosal surfaces. Here, we report an industrially scalable emulsification method to produce biodegradable mucus-penetrating particles (MPP). The emulsification of diblock copolymers of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) and polyethylene glycol (PLGA-PEG) using low molecular weight (MW) emulsifiers forms dense brush PEG coatings on nanoparticles that allow rapid nanoparticle penetration through fresh undiluted human mucus. In comparison, conventional high MW emulsifiers, such as polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), interrupts the PEG coating on nanoparticles, resulting in their immobilization in mucus owing to adhesive interactions with mucus mesh elements. PLGA-PEG nanoparticles with a wide range of PEG MW (1, 2, 5, and 10 kDa), prepared by the emulsification method using low MW emulsifiers, all rapidly penetrated mucus. A range of drugs, from hydrophobic small molecules to hydrohilic large biologics, can be efficiently loaded into biodegradable MPP using the method described. This readily scalable method should facilitate the production of MPP products for mucosal drug delivery, as well as potentially longer-circulating particles following intravenous administration. PMID:23751567

  4. Radiometric infrared focal plane array imaging system for thermographic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esposito, B. J.; Mccafferty, N.; Brown, R.; Tower, J. R.; Kosonocky, W. F.

    1992-01-01

    This document describes research performed under the Radiometric Infrared Focal Plane Array Imaging System for Thermographic Applications contract. This research investigated the feasibility of using platinum silicide (PtSi) Schottky-barrier infrared focal plane arrays (IR FPAs) for NASA Langley's specific radiometric thermal imaging requirements. The initial goal of this design was to develop a high spatial resolution radiometer with an NETD of 1 percent of the temperature reading over the range of 0 to 250 C. The proposed camera design developed during this study and described in this report provides: (1) high spatial resolution (full-TV resolution); (2) high thermal dynamic range (0 to 250 C); (3) the ability to image rapid, large thermal transients utilizing electronic exposure control (commandable dynamic range of 2,500,000:1 with exposure control latency of 33 ms); (4) high uniformity (0.5 percent nonuniformity after correction); and (5) high thermal resolution (0.1 C at 25 C background and 0.5 C at 250 C background).

  5. Branching Ratios for The Radiometric Calibration of EUNIS-2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daw, Adrian N.; Bhatia, A. K.; Rabin, Douglas M.

    2012-01-01

    The Extreme Ultraviolet Normal Incidence Spectrograph (EUNIS) sounding rocket instrument is a two-channel imaging spectrograph that observes the solar corona and transition region with high spectral resolution and a rapid cadence made possible by unprecedented sensitivity. The upcoming flight will incorporate a new wavelength channel covering the range 524-630 Angstroms, the previously-flown 300-370 Angstroms channel, and the first flight demonstration of cooled active pixel sensor (APS) arrays. The new 524-630 Angstrom channel incorporates a Toroidal Varied Line Space (TVLS) grating coated with B4C/Ir, providing broad spectral coverage and a wide temperature range of 0.025 to 10 MK. Absolute radiometric calibration of the two channels is being performed using a hollow cathode discharge lamp and NIST-calibrated AXUV-100G photodiode. Laboratory observations of He I 584 Angstroms and He II 304 Angstroms provide absolute radiometric calibrations of the two channels at those two respective wavelengths by using the AXUV photodiode as a transfer standard. The spectral responsivity is being determined by observing line pairs with a common upper state in the spectra of Ne I-III and Ar II-III. Calculations of A-values for the observed branching ratios are in progress.

  6. Radiometric surface temperature components for row crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land surface temperature is a boundary condition often used in assessing soil moisture status and energy exchange from the soil-vegetation-atmosphere interface. For row crops having incomplete canopy cover, the radiometric surface temperature is a composite of sunlit and shaded vegetation and substr...

  7. Based on Narcissus of radiometric calibration technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Libing; Tang, Shaofan; Liu, Jianfeng; Peng, Honggang

    2015-08-01

    Thermal radiation is an inherent property of all objects. Generally, it is believed that the body, which temperature is above absolute zero, can keep generating infrared radiation. Infrared remote sensing, using of satellite-borne or airborne sensors, collects infrared information to identify the surface feature and inversion of surface parameters, temperature, etc. In order to get more accurately feature information, quantitative measurement is required. Infrared radiometric calibration is one of the key technologies of quantitative infrared remote sensing. Most high-resolution thermal imaging systems are cooling. For the infrared optical system which is having a cooled detector, there are some special phenomenons. Since the temperature of the detector's photosensitive surface is generally low, which is very different from system temperature, it is a very strong cold radiation source. Narcissus refers to the case that the cooled detector can "see" its own reflecting image, which may affect the image quality of infrared system seriously. But for radiometric calibration of satellite-borne infrared camera, it can sometimes take advantage of the narcissus instead of cold cryogenic radiometric calibration. In this paper, the use of narcissus to carry out radiometric calibration is summarized, and simulation results show the feasibility.

  8. Radiometric considerations for ocean color remote sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Howard R.

    1990-01-01

    A methodology for determination of the effects of radiometric noise on the performance of ocean color sensors is developed and applied to the Coastal Zone Color Scanner on Nimbus 7 and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer planned for the Earth Observing System.

  9. Radiometric terrain correction of SPOT5 image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xiuli; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Ke

    2007-06-01

    Remote sensing SPOT5 images have been widely applied to the surveying of agriculture and forest resources and to the monitoring of ecology environment of mountain areas. However, the accuracy of land-cover classification of mountain areas is often influenced by the topographical shadow effect. Radiometric terrain correction is important for this kind of application. In this study, a radiometric terrain correction model which based on the rationale of moment matching was made in ERDAS IMAGINE by using the Spatial Modeler Language. Lanxi city in China as the study area, a SPOT5 multispectral image with the spatial resolution of 10 m of that mountain area was corrected by the model. Furthermore, in order to present the advantage of this new model in radiometric terrain correction of remote sensing SPOT5 image, the traditional C correction approach was also applied to the same area to see its difference with the result of the radiometric terrain correction model. The results show that the C correction approach keeps the overall statistical characteristics of spectral bands. The mean and the standard deviation value of the corrected image are the same as original ones. However, the standard deviation value became smaller by using the radiometric terrain correction model and the mean value changed accordingly. The reason of these changes is that before the correction, the histogram of the original image is represented as the 'plus-skewness distribution' due to the relief-caused shade effect, after the correction of the model, the histogram of the image is represented as the normal distribution and the shade effect of the relief has been removed. But as for the result of the traditional C approach, the skewness of the histogram remains the same after the correction. Besides, some portions of the mountain area have been over-corrected. So in my study area, the C correction approach can't remove the shade effect of the relief ideally. The results show that the radiometric

  10. The Eurosdr Project "RADIOMETRIC Aspects of Digital Photogrammetric IMAGES" - Results of the Empirical Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honkavaara, E.; Arbiol, R.; Markelin, L.; Martínez, L.; Bovet, S.; Bredif, M.; Chandelier, L.; Heikkinen, V.; Korpela, I.; Lelegard, L.; Pérez, F.; Schläpfer, D.; Tokola, T.

    2011-09-01

    This article presents the empirical research carried out in the context of the multi-site EuroSDR project "Radiometric aspects of digital photogrammetric images" and provides highlights of the results. The investigations have considered the vicarious radiometric and spatial resolution validation and calibration of the sensor system, radiometric processing of the image blocks either by performing relative radiometric block equalization or into absolutely reflectance calibrated products, and finally aspects of practical applications on NDVI layer generation and tree species classification. The data sets were provided by Leica Geosystems ADS40 and Intergraph DMC and the participants represented stakeholders in National Mapping Authorities, software development and research. The investigations proved the stability and quality of evaluated imaging systems with respect to radiometry and optical system. The first new-generation methods for reflectance calibration and equalization of photogrammetric image block data provided promising accuracy and were also functional from the productivity and usability points of view. The reflectance calibration methods provided up to 5% accuracy without any ground reference. Application oriented results indicated that automatic interpretation methods will benefit from the optimal use of radiometrically accurate multi-view photogrammetric imagery.

  11. Commercially Available Rapid Methods for Detection of Selected Food-borne Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Valderrama, Wladir B; Dudley, Edward G; Doores, Stephanie; Cutter, Catherine N

    2016-07-01

    Generally, the enumeration and isolation of food-borne pathogens is performed using culture-dependent methods. These methods are sensitive, inexpensive, and provide both qualitative and quantitative assessment of the microorganisms present in a sample, but these are time-consuming. For this reason, researchers are developing new techniques that allow detection of food pathogens in shorter period of time. This review identifies commercially available methods for rapid detection and quantification of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in food samples. Three categories are discussed: immunologically based methods, nucleic acid-based assays, and biosensors. This review describes the basic mechanism and capabilities of each method, discusses the difficulties of choosing the most convenient method, and provides an overview of the future challenges for the technology for rapid detection of microorganisms. PMID:25749054

  12. Rapid high temperature field test method for evaluation of geothermal calcite scale inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Asperger, R.G.

    1982-08-01

    A test method is described which allows the rapid field testing of calcite scale inhibitors in high- temperature geothermal brines. Five commercial formulations, chosen on the basis of laboratory screening tests, were tested in brines with low total dissolved solids at ca 500 F. Four were found to be effective; of these, 2 were found to be capable of removing recently deposited scale. One chemical was tested in the full-flow brine line for 6 wks. It was shown to stop a severe surface scaling problem at the well's control valve, thus proving the viability of the rapid test method. (12 refs.)

  13. Rapid methods of determining cooling rates of iron and stony iron meteorites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Short, J.M.; Goldstein, J.I.

    1967-01-01

    Two rapid and simple methods have been developed for determining the approximate cooling rates of iron and stony-iron meteorites in which kamacite formed by diffusion-controlled growth along planar fronts. The first method requires only measurements of the mean kamacite bandwidth and the bulk nickel content. The second method requires the determination of the nickel composition near the taenite-kamacite interface with an electron microprobe.

  14. Radiometric calibration of Landsat Thematic Mapper multispectral images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chavez, P.S., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    A main problem encountered in radiometric calibration of satellite image data is correcting for atmospheric effects. Without this correction, an image digital number (DN) cannot be converted to a surface reflectance value. In this paper the accuracy of a calibration procedure, which includes a correction for atmospheric scattering, is tested. Two simple methods, a stand-alone and an in situ sky radiance measurement technique, were used to derive the HAZE DN values for each of the six reflectance Thematic Mapper (TM) bands. The DNs of two Landsat TM images of Phoenix, Arizona were converted to surface reflectances. -from Author

  15. Radiometric calibration to consider in quantitative clinical fluorescence imaging measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litorja, M.; Urbas, A.; Zong, Y.

    2015-03-01

    The fluorescent light detected by a clinical imager is assumed to be proportional only to the amount of fluorescent substance present in the sample and the level of excitation. Unfortunately, there are many factors that can add or subtract to the light signal directly attributable to the desired fluorescence emission, especially with fluorescence from inside the body imaged remotely. The quantification of fluorescence emission is feasible by calibrating the imager using international system of units (SI)-traceable physical and material calibration artifacts such that the detector's digital numbers (DN) can be converted to radiometric units. Here we discuss three calibration methods for quantitative clinical fluorescence imaging systems.

  16. Euthanasia Method for Mice in Rapid Time-Course Pulmonary Pharmacokinetic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Schoell, Adam R; Heyde, Bruce R; Weir, Dana E; Chiang, Po-Chang; Hu, Yiding; Tung, David K

    2009-01-01

    To develop a means of euthanasia to support rapid time-course pharmacokinetic studies in mice, we compared retroorbital and intravenous lateral tail vein injection of ketamine–xylazine with regard to preparation time, utility, tissue distribution, and time to onset of euthanasia. Tissue distribution and time to onset of euthanasia did not differ between administration methods. However, retroorbital injection could be performed more rapidly than intravenous injection and was considered to be a technically simple and superior alternative for mouse euthanasia. Retroorbital ketamine–xylazine, CO2 gas, and intraperitoneal pentobarbital then were compared as euthanasia agents in a rapid time-point pharmacokinetic study. Retroorbital ketamine–xylazine was the most efficient and consistent of the 3 methods, with an average time to death of approximately 5 s after injection. In addition, euthanasia by retroorbital ketamine–xylazine enabled accurate sample collection at closely spaced time points and satisfied established criteria for acceptable euthanasia technique. PMID:19807971

  17. Euthanasia method for mice in rapid time-course pulmonary pharmacokinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Schoell, Adam R; Heyde, Bruce R; Weir, Dana E; Chiang, Po-Chang; Hu, Yiding; Tung, David K

    2009-09-01

    To develop a means of euthanasia to support rapid time-course pharmacokinetic studies in mice, we compared retroorbital and intravenous lateral tail vein injection of ketamine-xylazine with regard to preparation time, utility, tissue distribution, and time to onset of euthanasia. Tissue distribution and time to onset of euthanasia did not differ between administration methods. However, retroorbital injection could be performed more rapidly than intravenous injection and was considered to be a technically simple and superior alternative for mouse euthanasia. Retroorbital ketamine-xylazine, CO(2) gas, and intraperitoneal pentobarbital then were compared as euthanasia agents in a rapid time-point pharmacokinetic study. Retroorbital ketamine-xylazine was the most efficient and consistent of the 3 methods, with an average time to death of approximately 5 s after injection. In addition, euthanasia by retroorbital ketamine-xylazine enabled accurate sample collection at closely spaced time points and satisfied established criteria for acceptable euthanasia technique. PMID:19807971

  18. A rapid and specific HPLC-electrochemical method for the determination of endogenous 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in plasma using solid phase sample preparation with internal standardization.

    PubMed

    Lucock, M D; Hartley, R; Smithells, R W

    1989-03-01

    A rapid and specific HPLC-electrochemical method for determining endogenous 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid (5MeTHF) in plasma is described. Quantitative solid phase extraction of 5MeTHF and internal standard, beta-hydroxyethyltheophylline, was carried out using proprietary phenyl bonded-silica columns (Bond Elut Phenyl cartridges, 1.0 mL capacity). Chromatographic separation was achieved using a mobile phase consisting of 15% (v/v) methanol in 0.05 M KH2PO4, pH 3.5 at a flow rate of 2.0 mL/min in conjunction with a Waters Assoc. radially compressed Nova-Pak phenyl column (10 cm x 8 mm, 4 microns bonded silica). The internal standard was measured by UV detection at 254 nm. A Bioanalytical Systems Inc. LC-17 glassy carbon oxidative flow cell with a potential held at +0.35 V vs Ag/AgCl using the LC-4A amperometric controller allowed levels of 1-2 ng/mL 5MeTHF to be measured in 500 microL of plasma. Daily appraisal of the ratio produced by authentic materials clearly demonstrated that quantitation using dual detection was not subject to problems of differential response. Inter-day variation of the differential detector response is cited. Comparison of the Lactobacillus casei bioassay with HPLC demonstrates good agreement between methods but at the same time highlights the drawback of using such non-specific methods to measure samples where more than one folylmonoglutamate may be present. Antoxidant free storage for three months at -70 degrees C in darkness resulted in no deterioration of 5MeTHF. A comparison of the means and range of values for plasma folate obtained using HPLC, L. casei bioassay and the radiometric binding assay is reported. PMID:2736319

  19. Rapid assessment method for prevalence and intensity of Loa loa infection.

    PubMed Central

    Takougang, Innocent; Meremikwu, Martin; Wandji, Samuel; Yenshu, Emmanuel V.; Aripko, Ben; Lamlenn, Samson B.; Eka, Braide L.; Enyong, Peter; Meli, Jean; Kale, Oladele; Remme, Jan H.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity of observations on eye worm and Calabar swellings for the rapid assessment of the prevalence and intensity of loiasis at the community level. METHOD: A total of 12895 individuals over the age of 15 years living in 102 communities in Cameroon and Nigeria took part in the study. A standardized questionnaire was administered to participants from whom finger-prick blood samples were collected and examined for Loa loa microfilariae. Rapid assessments of the prevalence and intensity of loiasis were made on the basis of a history of eye worm or Calabar swellings. FINDINGS: There was a strong correlation between the indices of the rapid assessment procedures and the parasitological indices of L. loa endemicity. The rapid assessment indices were effective in diagnosing high-risk communities (sensitivity 94-100%; specificity 66-92%). The highest sensitivity (100%) and specificity (92%) were obtained with a rapid assessment procedure based on a history of eye worm lasting 1-7 days together with confirmation by the guided recognition of a photograph of adult L. loa in the eye. CONCLUSION: Rapid assessment of the prevalence and intensity of loiasis at the community level can be achieved using a procedure based on the history of eye worm lasting 1-7 days together with confirmation by the guided recognition of a photograph of an adult L. loa in the eye. PMID:12481206

  20. Collision-induced fragmentation accurate mass spectrometric analysis methods to rapidly characterize phytochemicals in plant extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rapid advances in analytical chromatography equipment have made the reliable and reproducible measurement of a wide range of plant chemical components possible. Full chemical characterization of a given plant material is possible with the new mass spectrometers currently available. New methods a...

  1. A simple, rapid and inexpensive screening method for the identification of Pythium insidiosum.

    PubMed

    Tondolo, Juliana Simoni Moraes; Loreto, Erico Silva; Denardi, Laura Bedin; Mario, Débora Alves Nunes; Alves, Sydney Hartz; Santurio, Janio Morais

    2013-04-01

    Growth of Pythium insidiosum mycelia around minocycline disks (30μg) did not occur within 7days of incubation at 35°C when the isolates were grown on Sabouraud, corn meal, Muller-Hinton or RPMI agar. This technique offers a simple and rapid method for the differentiation of P. insidiosum from true filamentous fungi. PMID:23419825

  2. RAPID AND PRECISE METHOD FOR MEASURING STABLE CARBON ISOTOPE RATIOS OF DISSOLVED INORGANIC CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    We describe a method for rapid preparation, concentration and stable isotopic analysis of dissolved inorganic carbon (d13C-DIC). Liberation of CO2 was accomplished by placing 100 ?l phosphoric acid and 0.9 ml water in an evacuated 1.7-ml gas chromatography (GC) injection vial. Fo...

  3. A Rapid Method for BrdU Immunostaining in Bovine Mammary Cryosections that Retains RNA Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A rapid method of 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine (BrdU) immunostaining was developed in cryosections of bovine mammary tissue, while preserving RNA quality of the stained section. BrdU is a thymidine analog that is incorporated into DNA of proliferating cells and thus serves as a proliferation marker. Im...

  4. A COMPARISON OF TWO RAPID BIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT SAMPLING METHODS FOR MACROINVERTEBRATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2003, the Office of Research and Developments (ORD's) National Exposure Research Laboratory initiated a collaborative research effort with U.S. EPA Region 3 to conduct a study comparing two rapid biological assessment methods for collecting stream macroinvertebrates. One metho...

  5. A RAPID METHOD FOR PRODUCTION OF HIGH NUMBERS OF PURIFIED CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM OOCYSTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most procedures that have been described for purifying Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts are designed to either identify the parasites in clinical specimens or isolate oocysts from a small volume of feces from infected animals. The present study describes a rapid method for purifying high numbers of C...

  6. Rapid and simple method for serotyping of staphylocoagulase using polystyrene latex particles.

    PubMed

    Kouguchi, Yoshihiro; Fujiwara, Takako; Teramoto, Miki

    2009-01-01

    The serotyping of staphylocoagulase is widely used in Japan. However, the conventional immunoassay based on neutralization of the antisera is so laborious and time-consuming that it is not widely used in the other countries. In order to overcome these drawbacks we developed a novel staphylocoagulase serotyping method based on a microplate format using polystyrene latex particles. Addition of latex particles promotes the formation of fibrin complexes, which represents a more rapidly and easily detected endpoint. For 83 strains, 90% were classified into serotypes within 3 h, and there was no discrepancy in the results between our method and the conventional method. These results indicate that the present microplate method is rapid, simple, and interpretable. PMID:20528093

  7. Rapid HPLC-MS method for the simultaneous determination of tea catechins and folates.

    PubMed

    Araya-Farias, Monica; Gaudreau, Alain; Rozoy, Elodie; Bazinet, Laurent

    2014-05-14

    An effective and rapid HPLC-MS method for the simultaneous separation of the eight most abundant tea catechins, gallic acid, and caffeine was developed. These compounds were rapidly separated within 9 min by a linear gradient elution using a Zorbax SB-C18 packed with sub 2 μm particles. This methodology did not require preparative and semipreparative HPLC steps. In fact, diluted tea samples can be easily analyzed using HPLC-MS as described in this study. The use of mass spectrometry detection for quantification of catechins ensured a higher specificity of the method. The percent relative standard deviation was generally lower than 4 and 7% for most of the compounds tested in tea drinks and tea extracts, respectively. Furthermore, the method provided excellent resolution for folate determination alone or in combination with catechins. To date, no HPLC method able to discriminate catechins and folates in a quick analysis has been reported in the literature. PMID:24734959

  8. Apparatus and method for rapid separation and detection of hydrocarbon fractions in a fluid stream

    SciTech Connect

    Sluder, Charles S.; Storey, John M.; Lewis, Sr., Samuel A.

    2013-01-22

    An apparatus and method for rapid fractionation of hydrocarbon phases in a sample fluid stream are disclosed. Examples of the disclosed apparatus and method include an assembly of elements in fluid communication with one another including one or more valves and at least one sorbent chamber for removing certain classifications of hydrocarbons and detecting the remaining fractions using a detector. The respective ratios of hydrocarbons are determined by comparison with a non separated fluid stream.

  9. Rapid Method for Enumeration of Viable Legionella pneumophila and Other Legionella spp. in Water

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Viscogliosi, Pilar; Simonart, Tristan; Parent, Virginie; Marchand, Grégory; Dobbelaere, Marie; Pierlot, Eric; Pierzo, Véronique; Menard-Szczebara, Florence; Gaudard-Ferveur, Elisabeth; Delabre, Karine; Delattre, Jean Marie

    2005-01-01

    A sensitive and specific method has been developed to enumerate viable L. pneumophila and other Legionella spp. in water by epifluorescence microscopy in a short period of time (a few hours). This method allows the quantification of L. pneumophila or other Legionella spp. as well as the discrimination between viable and nonviable Legionella. It simultaneously combines the specific detection of Legionella cells using antibodies and a bacterial viability marker (ChemChrome V6), the enumeration being achieved by epifluorescence microscopy. The performance of this immunological double-staining (IDS) method was investigated in 38 natural filterable water samples from different aquatic sources, and the viable Legionella counts were compared with those obtained by the standard culture method. The recovery rate of the IDS method is similar to, or higher than, that of the conventional culture method. Under our experimental conditions, the limit of detection of the IDS method was <176 Legionella cells per liter. The examination of several samples in duplicates for the presence of L. pneumophila and other Legionella spp. indicated that the IDS method exhibits an excellent intralaboratory reproducibility, better than that of the standard culture method. This immunological approach allows rapid measurements in emergency situations, such as monitoring the efficacy of disinfection shock treatments. Although its field of application is as yet limited to filterable waters, the double-staining method may be an interesting alternative (not equivalent) to the conventional standard culture methods for enumerating viable Legionella when rapid detection is required. PMID:16000824

  10. Application of a rapid screening method to detect irradiated meat in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villavicencio, A. L. C. H. A. L. C. H.; Mancini-Filho, J. J.; Delincée, H.

    2000-03-01

    Based on the enormous potential for food irradiation in Brazil, and to ensure free consumer choice, there is a need to find a convenient and rapid method for detection of irradiated food. Since treatment with ionising radiation causes DNA fragmentation, the analysis of DNA damage might be promising. In this paper, the DNA Comet Assay was used to identify exotic meat (boar, jacaré and capybara), irradiated with 60Co gamma rays. The applied radiation doses were 0, 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 kGy. Analysis of the DNA migration enabled a rapid identification of the radiation treatment.