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Sample records for rapid response system

  1. Rapid Responses of Groundwater Systems in Reservoir Sediment Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnevskiy, M.; Freyberg, D. L.

    2012-12-01

    Phreatic aquifers that develop within reservoir sediment deposits contribute to the water and mass balances of reservoir systems and in turn strongly influence their ecology. As a case study, we examine the response of an aquifer formed within the sediment deposit of Searsville Reservoir (California, U.S.A.) using data from a set of 18 piezometers installed in the deposit and the adjacent native material. Searsville Reservoir is located in the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve of Stanford University in the low foothills of the Santa Cruz Mountains. As is typical of Mediterranean climates, almost all precipitation occurs as rain in the winters, and summers are dry. Approximately weekly data are available from the piezometers, in addition to high-frequency streamflow and meteorological data collected in the vicinity of the reservoir. High-frequency pressure head data at some of the piezometer locations are also available for portions of the record. We combine time series and spatial analysis to explore how the water table responds to precipitation and evaporation patterns. Analysis reveals that fluctuations in the water table are highly responsive to precipitation and evaporation stimuli, with more muted responses to reservoir water surface elevation and streamflow across the sediment surface. Spatially, we see distinct patterns across the sediment body, along with consistent, periodic reversals in direction of groundwater flow at some locations. Temporally, in addition to rapid responses during rainfall events, we observe diurnal fluctuations due to evapotranspiration and a seasonal signal tempered by water surface regulation at the dam. Taken together, our data reveal reservoir sediment deposits to be dynamic ecohydrologic environments over multiple scales.

  2. Nursing and Medical Perceptions of a Hospital Rapid Response System: New Process But Same Old Game?

    PubMed

    Douglas, Clint; Osborne, Sonya; Windsor, Carol; Fox, Robyn; Booker, Catriona; Jones, Lee; Gardner, Glenn

    2016-01-01

    Perhaps no other patient safety intervention depends so acutely on effective interprofessional teamwork for patient survival than the hospital rapid response system. Yet, little is known about nurse-physician relationships when rescuing at-risk patients. This study compared nursing and medical staff perceptions of a mature rapid response system at a large tertiary hospital. Findings indicate that the rapid response system may be failing to address a hierarchical culture and systems-level barriers to early recognition and response to patient deterioration. PMID:26132845

  3. Rapid response to systemic bevacizumab therapy in recurrent respiratory papillomatosis

    PubMed Central

    MOHR, MICHAEL; SCHLIEMANN, CHRISTOPH; BIERMANN, CHRISTOPH; SCHMIDT, LARS-HENNING; KESSLER, TORSTEN; SCHMIDT, JOACHIM; WIEBE, KARSTEN; MÜLLER, KLAUS-MICHAEL; HOFFMANN, THOMAS K.; GROLL, ANDREAS H.; WERNER, CLAUDIUS; KESSLER, CHRISTINA; WIEWRODT, RAINER; RUDACK, CLAUDIA; BERDEL, WOLFGANG E.

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a primary benign disease, which is characterized by papillomatous growth in the respiratory tract. Malignant transformation occurs in only 3–5% of cases, however, local growth of the benign papillomas is interpreted as clinically malignant in a markedly higher proportion of patients. Local surgical or endoscopic interventional debulking or excision is currently the commonly selected treatment method and antiviral therapy is a potential adjuvant approach. However, the long-term management of RRP patients, who commonly require multiple procedures over numerous years, is challenging and the overall therapeutic armamentarium remains unsatisfactory. The administration of systemic bevacizumab treatment in a series of five patients with long histories of RRP, who required repeated local interventions to control papilloma growth is evaluated. Treatment with the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibody bevacizumab was administered at a dose of 5 mg/kg (n=1), 10 mg/kg (n=3) or 15 mg/kg (n=1) intravenously to the five RRP patients, who were clinically classified as exhibiting progressive disease. Endoscopic evaluations were performed prior to the first infusion of bevacizumab and intermittently at variable time points during the course of therapy. Histopathological analyses were performed using pre- and post-treatment papilloma biopsies, including immunohistochemical analyses of VEGF and phosphorylated VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-2 expression. The patients received between three and 16 courses of bevacizumab (median, six courses). The first course was initiated when progression following the previous intervention was observed. An immediate response to bevacizumab treatment was demonstrated in all five RRP patients. While the cumulative number of interventions in the five patients was 18 throughout the 12 months prior to the initiation of bevacizumab treatment, only one patient required interventional treatment due to a

  4. Rapid response of a hydrologic system to volcanic activity: Masaya volcano, Nicaragua

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearson, S.C.P.; Connor, C.B.; Sanford, W.E.

    2008-01-01

    Hydrologic systems change in response to volcanic activity, and in turn may be sensitive indicators of volcanic activity. Here we investigate the coupled nature of magmatic and hydrologic systems using continuous multichannel time series of soil temperature collected on the flanks of Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, one of the most active volcanoes in Central America. The soil temperatures were measured in a low-temperature fumarole field located 3.5 km down the flanks of the volcano. Analysis of these time series reveals that they respond extremely rapidly, on a time scale of minutes, to changes in volcanic activity also manifested at the summit vent. These rapid temperature changes are caused by increased flow of water vapor through flank fumaroles during volcanism. The soil temperature response, ~5 °C, is repetitive and complex, with as many as 13 pulses during a single volcanic episode. Analysis of the frequency spectrum of these temperature time series shows that these anomalies are characterized by broad frequency content during volcanic activity. They are thus easily distinguished from seasonal trends, diurnal variations, or individual rainfall events, which triggered rapid transient increases in temperature during 5% of events. We suggest that the mechanism responsible for the distinctive temperature signals is rapid change in pore pressure in response to magmatism, a response that can be enhanced by meteoric water infiltration. Monitoring of distal fumaroles can therefore provide insight into coupled volcanic-hydrologic-meteorologic systems, and has potential as an inexpensive monitoring tool.

  5. The 6 "ws" of rapid response systems: best practices for improving development, implementation, and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lazzara, Elizabeth H; Benishek, Lauren E; Sonesh, Shirley C; Patzer, Brady; Robinson, Patricia; Wallace, Ruth; Salas, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Delays in care have been cited as one of the primary contributors of preventable mortality; thus, quality patient safety is often contingent upon the delivery of timely clinical care. Rapid response systems (RRSs) have been touted as one mechanism to improve the ability of suitable staff to respond to deteriorating patients quickly and appropriately. Rapid response systems are defined as highly skilled individual(s) who mobilize quickly to provide medical care in response to clinical deterioration. While there is mounting evidence that RRSs are a valid strategy for managing obstetric emergencies, reducing adverse events, and improving patient safety, there remains limited insight into the practices underlying the development and execution of these systems. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to synthesize the literature and answer the primary questions necessary for successfully developing, implementing, and evaluating RRSs within inpatient settings-the Who, What, When, Where, Why, and How of RRSs. PMID:24595258

  6. A nationwide web-based automated system for outbreak early detection and rapid response in China

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Yajia; Wang, Jinfeng; Ma, Jiaqi; Jin, Lianmei; Sun, Qiao; Lv, Wei; Lai, Shengjie; Liao, Yilan; Hu, Wenbiao

    2011-01-01

    Timely reporting, effective analyses and rapid distribution of surveillance data can assist in detecting the aberration of disease occurrence and further facilitate a timely response. In China, a new nationwide web-based automated system for outbreak detection and rapid response was developed in 2008. The China Infectious Disease Automated-alert and Response System (CIDARS) was developed by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention based on the surveillance data from the existing electronic National Notifiable Infectious Diseases Reporting Information System (NIDRIS) started in 2004. NIDRIS greatly improved the timeliness and completeness of data reporting with real-time reporting information via the Internet. CIDARS further facilitates the data analysis, aberration detection, signal dissemination, signal response and information communication needed by public health departments across the country. In CIDARS, three aberration detection methods are used to detect the unusual occurrence of 28 notifiable infectious diseases at the county level and transmit information either in real time or on a daily basis. The Internet, computers and mobile phones are used to accomplish rapid signal generation and dissemination, timely reporting and reviewing of the signal response results. CIDARS has been used nationwide since 2008; all Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in China at the county, prefecture, provincial and national levels are involved in the system. It assists with early outbreak detection at the local level and prompts reporting of unusual disease occurrences or potential outbreaks to CDCs throughout the country. PMID:23908878

  7. A volcano-seismic event spotting system for the use in rapid response systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Conny; Ohrnberger, Matthias

    2010-05-01

    The classification of seismic signals of volcanic origin is an important task in monitoring active volcanoes. The number and size of certain types of seismic events usually increase before periods of volcanic crisis and can be used to quantify the volcanic activity. Due to the advantage of providing consistent, objective and time-invariant results automatic classification systems are preferred. Most automatic classification systems are trained in a supervised fashion from a sufficiently large pre-classified data set. The setup of an automatic classification system thus requires the pre-existence of these training data. For a rapid volcano-response team, however, the situation is often different. In the worst case, no prior observations exist (e.g. re-awakening of a dormant volcano). More frequently, archive data exist for a particular observatory network, but no record of seismicity for a high volcanic activity level exists and new seismicity patterns occur. Usually, the networks are additionally sparse and new equipment will be installed for better surveillance during the actual crisis. For the new recording sites again no prior example data is available. Finally, due to the imminent crisis there might be no time for the time-consuming and tedious process of preparing a training data set. For all these reasons a classification system which allows a "learning-while-recording" approach would be very advantageous for use in rapid response systems. Within this study, we show a novel seismic event spotting approach in order to reduce the dependency on the existence of previously acquired data bases and classification schemes. One main goal is therefore to provide the observatory staff with a robust event classification system based on a minimum number of reference waveforms and thus allowing for a fast build-up of a volcanic signal classification scheme as early as interesting events have been identified. For implementation issues we make use of the Hidden Markov

  8. Rapid response manufacturing (RRM)

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, W.D.; Waddell, W.L.

    1997-02-18

    US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Today markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies, to survive, have to be able to respond with quick-to-market, improved, high quality, cost efficient products. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies. The RRM project was established to leverage the expertise and resources of US private industries and federal agencies to develop, integrate, and deploy new technologies that meet critical needs for effective product realization. The RRM program addressed a needed change in the US Manufacturing infrastructure that will ensure US competitiveness in world market typified by mass customization. This project provided the effort needed to define, develop and establish a customizable infrastructure for rapid response product development design and manufacturing. A major project achievement was the development of a broad-based framework for automating and integrating the product and process design and manufacturing activities involved with machined parts. This was accomplished by coordinating and extending the application of feature-based product modeling, knowledge-based systems, integrated data management, and direct manufacturing technologies in a cooperative integrated computing environment. Key technological advancements include a product model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering environment, knowledge-based software aids for design and process planning, and new production technologies to make products directly from design application software.

  9. The plant NADPH oxidase RBOHD mediates rapid systemic signaling in response to diverse stimuli.

    PubMed

    Miller, Gad; Schlauch, Karen; Tam, Rachel; Cortes, Diego; Torres, Miguel A; Shulaev, Vladimir; Dangl, Jeffery L; Mittler, Ron

    2009-01-01

    Cell-to-cell communication and long-distance signaling play a key role in the response of plants to pests, mechanical wounding, and extreme environmental conditions. Here, we report on a rapid systemic signal in Arabidopsis thaliana that traveled at a rate of 8.4 centimeters per minute and was dependent on the respiratory burst oxidase homolog D (RbohD) gene. Signal propagation was accompanied by the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the extracellular spaces between cells and was inhibited by the suppression of ROS accumulation at locations distant from the initiation site. The rapid systemic signal was triggered by wounding, heat, cold, high-intensity light, and salinity stresses. Our results reveal the profound role that ROS play in mediating rapid, long-distance, cell-to-cell propagating signals in plants. PMID:19690331

  10. Modular, Reconfigurable, and Rapid Response Space Systems: The Remote Sensing Advanced Technology Microsatellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esper, Jaime; Andary, Jim; Oberright, John; So, Maria; Wegner, Peter; Hauser, Joe

    2004-01-01

    Modular, Reconfigurable, and Rapid-response (MR(sup 2)) space systems represent a paradigm shift in the way space assets of all sizes are designed, manufactured, integrated, tested, and flown. This paper will describe the MR(sup 2) paradigm in detail, and will include guidelines for its implementation. The Remote Sensing Advanced Technology microsatellite (RSAT) is a proposed flight system test-bed used for developing and implementing principles and best practices for MR(sup 2) spacecraft, and their supporting infrastructure. The initial goal of this test-bed application is to produce a lightweight (approx. 100 kg), production-minded, cost-effective, and scalable remote sensing micro-satellite capable of high performance and broad applicability. Such applications range from future distributed space systems, to sensor-webs, and rapid-response satellite systems. Architectures will be explored that strike a balance between modularity and integration while preserving the MR(sup 2) paradigm. Modularity versus integration has always been a point of contention when approaching a design: whereas one-of-a-kind missions may require close integration resulting in performance optimization, multiple and flexible application spacecraft benefit &om modularity, resulting in maximum flexibility. The process of building spacecraft rapidly (< 7 days), requires a concerted and methodical look at system integration and test processes and pitfalls. Although the concept of modularity is not new and was first developed in the 1970s by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (Multi-Mission Modular Spacecraft), it was never modernized and was eventually abandoned. Such concepts as the Rapid Spacecraft Development Office (RSDO) became the preferred method for acquiring satellites. Notwithstanding, over the past 30 years technology has advanced considerably, and the time is ripe to reconsider modularity in its own right, as enabler of R(sup 2), and as a key element of transformational systems. The

  11. a Uav Based Close-Range Rapid Aerial Monitoring System for Emergency Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, K.; Lee, I.

    2011-09-01

    As the occurrences and scales of disasters and accidents have been increased due to the global warming, the terrorists' attacks, and many other reasons, the demand for rapid responses for the emergent situations also has been thus ever-increasing. These emergency responses are required to be customized to each individual site for more effective management of the emergent situations. These requirements can be satisfied with the decisions based on the spatial changes on the target area, which should be detected immediately or in real-time. Aerial monitoring without human operators is an appropriate means because the emergency areas are usually inaccessible. Therefore, a UAV is a strong candidate as the platform for the aerial monitoring. In addition, the sensory data from the UAV system usually have higher resolution than other system because the system can operate at a lower altitude. If the transmission and processing of the data could be performed in real-time, the spatial changes of the target area can be detected with high spatial and temporal resolution by the UAV rapid mapping systems. As a result, we aim to develop a rapid aerial mapping system based on a UAV, whose key features are the effective acquisition of the sensory data, real-time transmission and processing of the data. In this paper, we will introduce the general concept of our system, including the main features, intermediate results, and explain our real-time sensory data georeferencing algorithm which is a core for prompt generation of the spatial information from the sensory data.

  12. Rapid response calculation of LNG cargo containment system under sloshing load using wavelet transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yooil

    2013-06-01

    Reliable strength assessment of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) cargo containment system under the sloshing impact load is very difficult task due to the complexity of the physics involved in, both in terms of the hydrodynamics and structural mechanics. Out of all those complexities, the proper selection of the design sloshing load which is applied to the structural model of the LNG cargo containment system, is one of the most challenging one due to its inherent randomness as well as the statistical analysis which is tightly linked to the design sloshing load selection. In this study, the response based strength assessment procedure of LNG cargo containment system has been developed and proposed as an alternative design methodology. Sloshing pressure time history, measured from the model test, is decomposed into wavelet basis function targeting the minimization of the number of the basis function together with the maximization of the numerical efficiency. Then the response of the structure is obtained using the finite element method under each wavelet basis function of different scale. Finally, the response of the structure under entire sloshing impact time history is rapidly calculated by synthesizing the structural response under wavelet basis function. Through this analysis, more realistic response of the system under sloshing impact pressure can be obtained without missing the details of pressure time history such as rising pattern, oscillation due to air entrapment and decay pattern and so on. The strength assessment of the cargo containment system is then performed based on the statistical analysis of the stress peaks selected out of the obtained stress time history.

  13. A rapid response nowcast/forecast system using multiply nested ocean models and distributed data systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onken, Reiner; Robinson, Allan R.; Kantha, Lakshmi; Lozano, Carlos J.; Haley, Patrick J.; Carniel, Sandro

    2005-05-01

    Logistics and results of a real-time modeling effort, which took place in fall 2000 in the waters between Corsica and Italy in the Mediterranean Sea, are presented. The major objective was to nest a high-resolution local version of the Harvard Ocean Prediction System (HOPS) into a coarse resolution Colorado University Princeton Ocean Model (CUPOM) covering the northern part of the Western Mediterranean. Due to the different designs of CUPOM and HOPS, traditional nesting methods were not successful. Therefore, a new method was developed that assimilated the CUPOM prognostic fields into HOPS instead of prescribing them only along the open boundaries. Another objective of the effort was to set up and test a data distribution system, providing Internet-based rapid data transfer among the project partners being partly at sea and partly on land in different continents. It is shown that such a system works, enabling turnaround times of less than a day from the time when measurements are taken to the release of the model forecast.

  14. Utility and assessment of non-technical skills for rapid response systems and medical emergency teams.

    PubMed

    Chalwin, R P; Flabouris, A

    2013-09-01

    Efforts are ongoing to improve outcomes from cardiac arrest and medical emergencies. A promising quality improvement modality is use of non-technical skills (NTS) that aim to address human factors through improvements in performance of leadership, communication, situational awareness and decision-making. Originating in the airline industry, NTS training has been successfully introduced into anaesthesia, surgery, emergency medicine and other acute medical specialities. Some aspects of NTS have already achieved acceptance for cardiac arrest teams. Leadership skills are emphasised in advanced life support training and have shown favourable results when employed in simulated and clinical resuscitation scenarios. The application of NTS in medical emergency teams as part of a rapid response system attending medical emergencies is less certain; however, observations of simulations have also shown promise. This review highlights the potential benefits of NTS competency for cardiac arrest teams and, more importantly, medical emergency teams because of the diversity of clinical scenarios encountered. Discussion covers methods to assess and refine NTS and NTS training to optimise performance in the clinical environment. Increasing attention should be applied to yielding meaningful patient and organisational outcomes from use of NTS. Similarly, implementation of any training course should receive appropriate scrutiny to refine team and institutional performance. PMID:23611153

  15. Optical satellite data volcano monitoring: a multi-sensor rapid response system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duda, Kenneth A.; Ramsey, Michael; Wessels, Rick L.; Dehn, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter, the use of satellite remote sensing to monitor active geological processes is described. Specifically, threats posed by volcanic eruptions are briefly outlined, and essential monitoring requirements are discussed. As an application example, a collaborative, multi-agency operational volcano monitoring system in the north Pacific is highlighted with a focus on the 2007 eruption of Kliuchevskoi volcano, Russia. The data from this system have been used since 2004 to detect the onset of volcanic activity, support the emergency response to large eruptions, and assess the volcanic products produced following the eruption. The overall utility of such integrative assessments is also summarized. The work described in this chapter was originally funded through two National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth System Science research grants that focused on the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument. A skilled team of volcanologists, geologists, satellite tasking experts, satellite ground system experts, system engineers and software developers collaborated to accomplish the objectives. The first project, Automation of the ASTER Emergency Data Acquisition Protocol for Scientific Analysis, Disaster Monitoring, and Preparedness, established the original collaborative research and monitoring program between the University of Pittsburgh (UP), the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), the NASA Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center, and affiliates on the ASTER Science Team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) as well as associates at the Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center (ERSDAC) in Japan. This grant, completed in 2008, also allowed for detailed volcanic analyses and data validation during three separate summer field campaigns to Kamchatka Russia. The second project, Expansion and synergistic use

  16. Diurnal variation in the performance of rapid response systems: the role of critical care services-a review article.

    PubMed

    Sundararajan, Krishnaswamy; Flabouris, Arthas; Thompson, Campbell

    2016-01-01

    The type of medical review before an adverse event influences patient outcome. Delays in the up-transfer of patients requiring intensive care are associated with higher mortality rates. Timely detection and response to a deteriorating patient constitute an important function of the rapid response system (RRS). The activation of the RRS for at-risk patients constitutes the system's afferent limb. Afferent limb failure (ALF), an important performance measure of rapid response systems, constitutes a failure to activate a rapid response team (RRT) despite criteria for calling an RRT. There are diurnal variations in hospital staffing levels, the performance of rapid response systems and patient outcomes. Fewer ward-based nursing staff at night may contribute to ALF. The diurnal variability in RRS activity is greater in unmonitored units than it is in monitored units for events that should result in a call for an RRT. RRT events include a significant abnormality in either the pulse rate, blood pressure, conscious state or respiratory rate. There is also diurnal variation in RRT summoning rates, with most activations occurring during the day. The reasons for this variation are mostly speculative, but the failure of the afferent limb of RRT activation, particularly at night, may be a factor. The term "circadian variation/rhythm" applies to physiological variations over a 24-h cycle. In contrast, diurnal variation applies more accurately to extrinsic systems. Circadian rhythm has been demonstrated in a multitude of bodily functions and disease states. For example, there is an association between disrupted circadian rhythms and abnormal vital parameters such as anomalous blood pressure, irregular pulse rate, aberrant endothelial function, myocardial infarction, stroke, sleep-disordered breathing and its long-term consequences of hypertension, heart failure and cognitive impairment. Therefore, diurnal variation in patient outcomes may be extrinsic, and more easily modifiable

  17. AFRPL Rapid Indexing System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltran, Alfred A.

    A modified Keyword Out of Context (KWOC) system was developed to gain rapid control over more than 8,000 scattered, unindexed documents. This was the first step in providing the technical information support required by Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory scientists and engineers. Implementation of the KWOC system, computer routines, and…

  18. Automated Formosat Image Processing System for Rapid Response to International Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, M. C.; Chou, S. C.; Chen, Y. C.; Chen, B.; Liu, C.; Yu, S. J.

    2016-06-01

    FORMOSAT-2, Taiwan's first remote sensing satellite, was successfully launched in May of 2004 into the Sun-synchronous orbit at 891 kilometers of altitude. With the daily revisit feature, the 2-m panchromatic, 8-m multi-spectral resolution images captured have been used for researches and operations in various societal benefit areas. This paper details the orchestration of various tasks conducted in different institutions in Taiwan in the efforts responding to international disasters. The institutes involved including its space agency-National Space Organization (NSPO), Center for Satellite Remote Sensing Research of National Central University, GIS Center of Feng-Chia University, and the National Center for High-performance Computing. Since each institution has its own mandate, the coordinated tasks ranged from receiving emergency observation requests, scheduling and tasking of satellite operation, downlink to ground stations, images processing including data injection, ortho-rectification, to delivery of image products. With the lessons learned from working with international partners, the FORMOSAT Image Processing System has been extensively automated and streamlined with a goal to shorten the time between request and delivery in an efficient manner. The integrated team has developed an Application Interface to its system platform that provides functions of search in archive catalogue, request of data services, mission planning, inquiry of services status, and image download. This automated system enables timely image acquisition and substantially increases the value of data product. Example outcome of these efforts in recent response to support Sentinel Asia in Nepal Earthquake is demonstrated herein.

  19. Mixed stimuli-responsive magnetic and gold nanoparticle system for rapid purification, enrichment, and detection of biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Nash, Michael A; Yager, Paul; Hoffman, Allan S; Stayton, Patrick S

    2010-12-15

    A new diagnostic system for the enrichment and detection of protein biomarkers from human plasma is presented. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were surface-modified with a diblock copolymer synthesized using reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The diblock copolymer contained a thermally responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAAm) block, a cationic amine-containing block, and a semi-telechelic PEG₂-biotin end group. When a mixed suspension of 23 nm pNIPAAm-modified AuNPs was heated with pNIPAAm-coated 10 nm iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs) in human plasma, the thermally responsive pNIPAAm directed the formation of mixed AuNP/mNP aggregates that could be separated efficiently with a magnet. Model studies showed that this mixed nanoparticle system could efficiently purify and strongly enrich the model biomarker protein streptavidin in spiked human plasma. A 10 ng/mL streptavidin sample was mixed with the biotinylated pNIPAAm-modified AuNPs and magnetically separated in the mixed nanoparticle system with pNIPAAm mNPs. The aggregates were concentrated into a 50-fold smaller fluid volume at room temperature where the gold nanoparticle reagent redissolved with the streptavidin target still bound. The concentrated gold-labeled streptavidin could be subsequently analyzed directly using lateral flow immunochromatography. This rapid capture and enrichment module thus utilizes the mixed stimuli-responsive nanoparticle system to achieve concentration of a gold-labeled biomarker that can be directly analyzed using lateral flow or other rapid diagnostic strategies. PMID:21070026

  20. A Mixed Stimuli-Responsive Magnetic and Gold Nanoparticle System for Rapid Purification, Enrichment, and Detection of Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Nash, Michael A.; Yager, Paul; Hoffman, Allan S.; Stayton, Patrick S.

    2010-01-01

    A new diagnostic system for the enrichment and detection of protein biomarkers from human plasma is presented. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were surface-modified with a diblock copolymer synthesized using reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The diblock copolymer contained a thermally-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAAm) block, a cationic amine-containing block, and a semi-telechelic PEG2-biotin end group. When a mixed suspension of 23 nm pNIPAAm-modified AuNPs was heated with pNIPAAm-coated 10 nm iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs) in human plasma, the thermally-responsive pNIPAAm directed the formation of mixed AuNP/mNP aggregates that could be separated efficiently with a magnet. Model studies showed that this mixed nanoparticle system could efficiently purify and strongly enrich the model biomarker protein streptavidin in spiked human plasma. A 10 ng/mL streptavidin sample was mixed with the biotinylated and pNIPAAm modified AuNP and magnetically separated in the mixed nanoparticle system with pNIPAAm mNPs. The aggregates were concentrated into a 50-fold smaller fluid volume at room temperature where the gold nanoparticle reagent redissolved with the streptavidin target still bound. The concentrated gold-labeled streptavidin could be subsequently analyzed directly using lateral flow immunochromatography. This rapid capture and enrichment module thus utilizes the mixed stimuli-responsive nanoparticle system to achieve direct concentration of a gold-labeled biomarker that can be directly analyzed using lateral flow or other rapid diagnostic strategies. PMID:21070026

  1. A study of rapid engine response systems for an advanced high subsonic, long range commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, J. H.; Bennett, G. W.; Derosier, T. A.

    1973-01-01

    A dynamic model representing the characteristics of an advanced technology study engine (1985 certification time period) was constructed and programmed on an analogue/digital computer. This model was then exercised to study and evaluate a large number of techniques, singly and in combination, to improve engine response. Several effective methods to reduce engine accelerating time are identified.

  2. Rapid Cellular Identification by Dynamic Electromechanical Response

    SciTech Connect

    Nikiforov, Maxim; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V; Reukov, Vladimir V; Vertegel, Alexey; Thompson, Gary L

    2009-01-01

    Coupling between electrical and mechanical phenomena is ubiquitous in living systems. Here, we demonstrate rapid identification of cellular organisms using difference in electromechanical activity in a broad frequency range. Principal component analysis of the dynamic electromechanical response spectra bundled with neural network based recognition provides a robust identification algorithm based on their electromechanical signature, and allows unambiguous differentiation of model Micrococcus Lysodeikticus and Pseudomonas Fluorescens system. This methodology provides a universal pathway for biological identification obviating the need for well-defined analytical models of Scanning Probe Microscopy response.

  3. Rapid Assessment Response (RAR) study: drug use, health and systemic risks—Emthonjeni Correctional Centre, Pretoria, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Correctional centre populations are one of the populations most at risk of contracting HIV infection for many reasons, such as unprotected sex, violence, rape and tattooing with contaminated equipment. Specific data on drug users in correctional centres is not available for the majority of countries, including South Africa. The study aimed to identify the attitudes and knowledge of key informant (KI) offender and correctional centre staff regarding drug use, health and systemic-related problems so as to facilitate the long-term planning of activities in the field of drug-use prevention and systems strengthening in correctional centres, including suggestions for the development of appropriate intervention and rehabilitation programmes. Method A Rapid Assessment Response (RAR) methodology was adopted which included observation, mapping of service providers (SP), KI interviews (staff and offenders) and focus groups (FGs). The study was implemented in Emthonjeni Youth Correctional Centre, Pretoria, South Africa. Fifteen KI staff participants were interviewed and 45 KI offenders. Results Drug use is fairly prevalent in the centre, with tobacco most commonly smoked, followed by cannabis and heroin. The banning of tobacco has also led to black-market features such as transactional sex, violence, gangsterism and smuggling in order to obtain mainly prohibited tobacco products, as well as illicit substances. Conclusion HIV, health and systemic-related risk reduction within the Correctional Service sector needs to focus on measures such as improvement of staff capacity and security measures, deregulation of tobacco products and the development and implementation of comprehensive health promotion programmes. PMID:24708609

  4. Early detection and rapid response

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westbrooks, Randy G.; Eplee, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Prevention is the first line of defense against introduced invasive species - it is always preferable to prevent the introduction of new invaders into a region or country. However, it is not always possible to detect all alien hitchhikers imported in cargo, or to predict with any degree of certainty which introduced species will become invasive over time. Fortunately, the majority of introduced plants and animals don't become invasive. But, according to scientists at Cornell University, costs and losses due to species that do become invasive are now estimated to be over $137 billion/year in the United States. Early detection and rapid response (EDRR) is the second line of defense against introduced invasive species - EDRR is the preferred management strategy for preventing the establishment and spread of invasive species. Over the past 50 years, there has been a gradual shift away from large and medium scale federal/state single-agency-led weed eradication programs in the United States, to smaller interagency-led projects involving impacted and potential stakeholders. The importance of volunteer weed spotters in detecting and reporting suspected new invasive species has also been recognized in recent years.

  5. Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER): A System for Rapidly Determining the Impact of Earthquakes Worldwide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Earle, Paul; Wald, David J.; Jaiswal, Kishor S.; Allen, Trevor I.; Hearne, Michael G.; Marano, Kristin D.; Hotovec, Alicia J.; Fee, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    Within minutes of a significant earthquake anywhere on the globe, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system assesses its potential societal impact. PAGER automatically estimates the number of people exposed to severe ground shaking and the shaking intensity at affected cities. Accompanying maps of the epicentral region show the population distribution and estimated ground-shaking intensity. A regionally specific comment describes the inferred vulnerability of the regional building inventory and, when available, lists recent nearby earthquakes and their effects. PAGER's results are posted on the USGS Earthquake Program Web site (http://earthquake.usgs.gov/), consolidated in a concise one-page report, and sent in near real-time to emergency responders, government agencies, and the media. Both rapid and accurate results are obtained through manual and automatic updates of PAGER's content in the hours following significant earthquakes. These updates incorporate the most recent estimates of earthquake location, magnitude, faulting geometry, and first-hand accounts of shaking. PAGER relies on a rich set of earthquake analysis and assessment tools operated by the USGS and contributing Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) regional networks. A focused research effort is underway to extend PAGER's near real-time capabilities beyond population exposure to quantitative estimates of fatalities, injuries, and displaced population.

  6. Interagency partnering for weed prevention--progress on development of a National Early Detection and Rapid Response System for Invasive Plants in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westbrooks, R.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, experience has shown that interagency groups provide an effective forum for addressing various invasive species issues and challenges on multiple land units. However, more importantly, they can also provide a coordinated framework for early detection, reporting, identification and vouchering, rapid assessment, and rapid response to new and emerging invasive plants in the United States. Interagency collaboration maximizes the use of available expertise, resources, and authority for promoting early detection and rapid response (EDRR) as the preferred management option for addressing new and emerging invasive plants. Currently, an interagency effort is underway to develop a National EDRR System for Invasive Plants in the United States. The proposed system will include structural and informational elements. Structural elements of the system include a network of interagency partner groups to facilitate early detection and rapid response to new invasive plants, including the Federal Interagency Committee for the Management of Noxious and Exotic Weeds (FICMNEW), State Invasive Species Councils, State Early Detection and Rapid Response Coordinating Committees, State Volunteer Detection and Reporting Networks, Invasive Plant Task Forces, and Cooperative Weed Management Areas. Informational elements and products being developed include Regional Invasive Plant Atlases, and EDRR Guidelines for EDRR Volunteer Network Training, Rapid Assessment and Rapid Response, and Criteria for Selection of EDRR Species. System science and technical support elements which are provided by cooperating state and federal scientists, include EDRR guidelines, training curriculum for EDRR volunteers and agency field personnel, plant identification and vouchering, rapid assessments, as well as predictive modeling and ecological range studies for invasive plant species.

  7. The habitus of 'rescue' and its significance for implementation of rapid response systems in acute health care.

    PubMed

    Mackintosh, Nicola; Humphrey, Charlotte; Sandall, Jane

    2014-11-01

    The need to focus on patient safety and improve the quality and consistency of medical care in acute hospital settings has been highlighted in a number of UK and international reports. When patients on a hospital ward become acutely unwell there is often a window of opportunity for staff, patients and relatives to contribute to the 'rescue' process by intervening in the trajectory of clinical deterioration. This paper explores the social and institutional processes associated with the practice of rescue, and implications for the implementation and effectiveness of rapid response systems (RRSs) within acute health care. An ethnographic case study was conducted in 2009 in two UK hospitals (focussing on the medical directorates in each organisation). Data collection involved 180 h of observation, 35 staff interviews (doctors, nurses, health care assistants and managers) and documentary review. Analysis was informed by Bourdieu's logic of practice and his relational concept of the 'field' of the general medical ward. Three themes illustrated the nature of rescue work within the field and collective rules which guided associated occupational distinction practices: (1) the 'dirty work' of vital sign recording and its distinction from diagnostic (higher order) interpretive work; (2) the moral order of legitimacy claims for additional help; and (3) professional deference and the selective managerial control of rescue work. The discourse of rescue provided a means of exercising greater control over clinical uncertainty. The acquisition of 'rescue capital' enabled the social positioning of health care assistants, nurses and doctors, and shaped use of the RRS on the wards. Boundary work, professional legitimation and jurisdictional claims defined the social practice of rescue, as clinical staff had to balance safety, professional and organisational concerns within the field. This paper offers a nuanced understanding of patient safety on the front-line, challenging notions of

  8. A Spatial Correlation Model of Peak Ground Acceleration and Response Spectra Based on Data of the Istanbul Earthquake Rapid Response and Early Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagener, Thomas; Goda, Katsuichiro; Erdik, Mustafa; Daniell, James; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2016-04-01

    Ground motion intensity measures such as the peak ground acceleration (PGA) and the pseudo spectral acceleration (PSA) at two sites due to the same seismic event are correlated. The spatial correlation needs to be considered when modelling ground-motion fields for seismic loss assessments, since it can have a significant influence on the statistical moments and probability distribution of aggregated seismic loss of a building portfolio. Empirical models of spatial correlation of ground motion intensity measures exist only for a few seismic regions in the world such as Japan, Taiwan and California, since for this purpose a dense observation network of earthquake ground motion is required. The Istanbul Earthquake Rapid Response and Early Warning System (IERREWS) provides one such dense array with station spacing of typically 2 km in the urban area of Istanbul. Based on the records of eight small to moderate (Mw3.5 - Mw5.1) events, which occurred since 2003 in the Marmara region, we establish a model of intra-event spatial correlation for PGA and PSA up to the natural period of 1.0 s. The results indicate that the correlation coefficients of PGA and short-period PSA decay rapidly with increasing interstation distance, resulting in correlation lengths of approximately 2-3 km, while correlation lengths at longer natural periods (above 0.5 s) exceed 5 km. Finally, we implement the correlation model in a Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate economic loss in Istanbul's district Zeytinburnu due to an Mw7.2 scenario earthquake.

  9. Rapid Response Flood Water Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Policelli, Fritz; Brakenridge, G. R.; Coplin, A.; Bunnell, M.; Wu, L.; Habib, Shahid; Farah, H.

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of operation of the MODIS instrument on the NASA Terra satellite at the end of 1999, an exceptionally useful sensor and public data stream have been available for many applications including the rapid and precise characterization of terrestrial surface water changes. One practical application of such capability is the near-real time mapping of river flood inundation. We have developed a surface water mapping methodology based on using only bands 1 (620-672 nm) and 2 (841-890 nm). These are the two bands at 250 m, and the use of only these bands maximizes the resulting map detail. In this regard, most water bodies are strong absorbers of incoming solar radiation at the band 2 wavelength: it could be used alone, via a thresholding procedure, to separate water (dark, low radiance or reflectance pixels) from land (much brighter pixels) (1, 2). Some previous water mapping procedures have in fact used such single band data from this and other sensors that include similar wavelength channels. Adding the second channel of data (band 1), however, allows a band ratio approach which permits sediment-laden water, often relatively light at band 2 wavelengths, to still be discriminated, and, as well, provides some removal of error by reducing the number of cloud shadow pixels that would otherwise be misclassified as water.

  10. Rapidly Deployed Modular Telemetry System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varnavas, Kosta A. (Inventor); Sims, William Herbert, III (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention is a telemetry system, and more specifically is a rapidly deployed modular telemetry apparatus which utilizes of SDR technology and the FPGA programming capability to reduce the number of hardware components and programming required to deploy a telemetry system.

  11. Precise autofocusing microscope with rapid response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chien-Sheng; Jiang, Sheng-Hong

    2015-03-01

    The rapid on-line or off-line automated vision inspection is a critical operation in the manufacturing fields. Accordingly, this present study designs and characterizes a novel precise optics-based autofocusing microscope with a rapid response and no reduction in the focusing accuracy. In contrast to conventional optics-based autofocusing microscopes with centroid method, the proposed microscope comprises a high-speed rotating optical diffuser in which the variation of the image centroid position is reduced and consequently the focusing response is improved. The proposed microscope is characterized and verified experimentally using a laboratory-built prototype. The experimental results show that compared to conventional optics-based autofocusing microscopes, the proposed microscope achieves a more rapid response with no reduction in the focusing accuracy. Consequently, the proposed microscope represents another solution for both existing and emerging industrial applications of automated vision inspection.

  12. Rapid GRB Afterglow Response With SARA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garimella, K. V.; Homewood, A. L.; Hartmann, D. H.; Riddle, C.; Fuller, S.; Manning, A.; McIntyre, T.; Henson, G.

    2006-05-01

    The Clemson GRB Follow-Up program utilizes the SARA 0.9-m telescope to observe optical afterglows of Gamma Ray Bursts. SARA is not yet robotic; it operates under direct and Target-of-Opportunity (ToO) interrupt modes. To facilitate rapid response and timely reporting of data analysis results, we developed a software suite that operates in two phases: first, to notify observers of a burst and assist in data collection, and second, to quickly analyze the images.

  13. Dansgaard-Oeschger Cycles and the California Current System: Planktonic foraminiferal response to rapid climate change in Santa Barbara Basin, Ocean Drilling Program Hole 893A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendy, Ingrid L.; Kennett, James P.

    2000-02-01

    High-resolution planktonic foraminiferal census data from Santa Barbara Basin (Ocean Drilling Program hole 893A) demonstrate major assemblage switches between 25 and 60 ka that were associated with Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles. Stadials dominated by Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sinistral), and Globigerinoides glutinata suggest a strong subpolar California Current influence, while interstadials marked by abundant N. pachyderma (dextral) and G. bulloides indicate a relative increase in subtropical countercurrent influence. Modern analog technique and transfer function (F-20RSC) temperature reconstructions support δ18O evidence of large rapid (70 years or less) sea surface temperature shifts (3° to 5°C) between stadials and interstadials. Changes in the vertical temperature gradient and water column structure (thermocline depth) are recorded by planktonic faunal oscillations suggest bimodal stability in the organization of North Pacific surface ocean circulation. Santa Barbara Basin surface water demonstrates the rapid response of the California Current System to reorganization of North Pacific atmospheric circulation during rapid climate change. Supporting assemblage data are, available on diskette or via Anonymous FTP from Kosmos.agu.org, Directory APEND (username = anonymous, Password = guest). Diskette may be ordered from American Geophysical Union, 2000 Florida Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20009 or by phone at 800-966-2481; $5.00. Payment must accompany order.

  14. Rapid cooling after acute hyperthermia alters intestinal tissue morphology and increases the systemic inflammatory response in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acute hyperthermia can result in mortality if recovery is not appropriately managed. The study objective was to determine the effects of heatstroke recovery methods on the physiological response in pigs. In four repetitions, 36 male pigs (88.7 ± 1.6 kg BW) were exposed to thermoneutral conditions (T...

  15. Rapid starting methanol reactor system

    DOEpatents

    Chludzinski, Paul J.; Dantowitz, Philip; McElroy, James F.

    1984-01-01

    The invention relates to a methanol-to-hydrogen cracking reactor for use with a fuel cell vehicular power plant. The system is particularly designed for rapid start-up of the catalytic methanol cracking reactor after an extended shut-down period, i.e., after the vehicular fuel cell power plant has been inoperative overnight. Rapid system start-up is accomplished by a combination of direct and indirect heating of the cracking catalyst. Initially, liquid methanol is burned with a stoichiometric or slightly lean air mixture in the combustion chamber of the reactor assembly. The hot combustion gas travels down a flue gas chamber in heat exchange relationship with the catalytic cracking chamber transferring heat across the catalyst chamber wall to heat the catalyst indirectly. The combustion gas is then diverted back through the catalyst bed to heat the catalyst pellets directly. When the cracking reactor temperature reaches operating temperature, methanol combustion is stopped and a hot gas valve is switched to route the flue gas overboard, with methanol being fed directly to the catalytic cracking reactor. Thereafter, the burner operates on excess hydrogen from the fuel cells.

  16. Tailor-Made pH-Responsive Poly(choline phosphate) Prodrug as a Drug Delivery System for Rapid Cellular Internalization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenliang; Wang, Bo; Ma, Xiaojing; Liu, Sanrong; Shang, Xudong; Yu, Xifei

    2016-06-13

    Rapid cellular uptake and efficient drug release in tumor cells are two of the major challenges for cancer therapy. Herein, we designed and synthesized a novel pH-responsive polymer-drug conjugate system poly(2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl choline phosphate)-b-poly(2-methoxy-2-oxoethyl methacrylate-hydrazide-doxorubicin) (PCP-Dox) to overcome these two challenges simultaneously. It has been proved that PCP-Dox can be easily and rapidly internalized by various cancer cells due to the strong interaction between multivalent choline phosphate (CP) groups and cell membranes. Furthermore, Dox, linked to the polymer carrier via acid-labile hydrazone bond, can be released from carriers due to the increased acidity in lysosome/endosome (pH 5.0-5.5) after the polymer prodrug was internalized into the cancer cells. The cell viability assay demonstrated that this novel polymer prodrug has shown enhanced cytotoxicity in various cancer cells, indicating its great potential as a new drug delivery system for cancer therapy. PMID:27151282

  17. Rapid response team for behavioral emergencies.

    PubMed

    Loucks, Jeannine; Rutledge, Dana N; Hatch, Beverly; Morrison, Victoria

    2010-03-01

    Behaviors of patients with psychiatric illness who are hospitalized on nonbehavioral health units can be difficult to address by staff members. Instituting a rapid response team to proactively de-escalate potential volatile situations on nonpsychiatric units in a hospital allows earlier treatment of behavioral issues with these patients. The behavioral emergency response team (BERT) consists of staff members (registered nurses, social workers) from behavioral health services who have experience in caring for patients with acute psychiatric disorders as well as competence in management of assaultive behavior. BERT services were trialed on a medical pulmonary unit; gradual housewide implementation occurred over 2 years. Tools developed for BERT include an activation algorithm, educational cue cards for staff, and a staff survey. Results of a performance improvement survey reveal that staff nurses have had positive experiences with BERT but that many nurses are still not comfortable caring for psychiatric patients on their units. PMID:21659266

  18. A rapid DNA digestion system.

    PubMed

    Fu, Lung-Ming; Lin, Che-Hsin

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents a novel microfluidic DNA digestion system incorporating a high performance micro-mixer. Through the appropriate control of fixed and periodic switching DC electric fields, electrokinetic forces are established to mix the DNA and restriction enzyme samples and to drive them through the reaction column of the device. The experimental and numerical results show that a mixing performance of 98% can be achieved within a mixing channel of length 1.6 mm when a 150 V/cm driving voltage and a 5 Hz switching frequency are applied. The relationship between the mixing performance, switching frequency, and main applied electric field is derived. It is found that the optimal switching frequency depends upon the magnitude of the main applied electric field. The successful digestion of lambda-DNA using Eco RI restriction enzyme is demonstrated. The DNA-enzyme reaction is completed within 15 min in the proposed microfluidic system, compared to 50 min in a conventional large-scale system. Hence, the current device provides a valuable tool for rapid lambda-DNA digestion, while its mixer system delivers a simple yet effective solution for mixing problems in the micro-total-analysis-systems field. PMID:17195107

  19. Response of a coastal hydrogeological system to a rapid decline in sea level; the case of Zuqim springs - The largest discharge area along the Dead Sea coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burg, Avihu; Yechieli, Yoseph; Galili, Udi

    2016-05-01

    The almost instantaneous response of a natural on-shore groundwater system to an extremely rapid drop in the level of an adjacent lake is described in this study. The study is focused on the Zuqim (Feshcha) spring complex located on the northwestern shore of the Dead Sea, which exhibits a drop of tens of meters in its water level over the last few decades. In this exceptional "field lab", fluctuations and trends in the flow regime are recognized, as well as the contemporaneous geochemical variations. Lithological facies variations have a pronounced effect on the underground flow regime. The following main processes were recognized: (a) slight shifting of the long-standing springs eastward, following the retreating shore; (b) extension of the hydrologic system southward without significant change in the total discharge of the entire spring complex. The new seepages are characterized by high variability in salinity; and (c) continuous refreshing of the spring water as a result of prolonged flushing of old trapped brines. The water of the Zuqim springs lie on mixing lines between two local brine types and diluted brine of the Lisan Lake - the precursor of the Dead Sea. Based on our findings, future development processes in the spring complex are predicted, which is essential because of their impact on the endemic ecosystem that relies on this water. In addition, continuation of the rapid drop in lake level is expected to cause intensification of erosional processes, such as deepening of flow gullies. Shifting of the entire hydrological system southward and migration along with the retreating shore is also expected to continue, as well as the continuous decrease in the water salinity.

  20. Integration of Palliative Care in the Context of Rapid Response

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Judith E.; Mathews, Kusum S.; Weissman, David E.; Brasel, Karen J.; Campbell, Margaret; Curtis, J. Randall; Frontera, Jennifer A.; Gabriel, Michelle; Hays, Ross M.; Mosenthal, Anne C.; Mulkerin, Colleen; Puntillo, Kathleen A.; Ray, Daniel E.; Weiss, Stefanie P.; Bassett, Rick; Boss, Renee D.; Lustbader, Dana R.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid response teams (RRTs) can effectively foster discussions about appropriate goals of care and address other emergent palliative care needs of patients and families facing life-threatening illness on hospital wards. In this article, The Improving Palliative Care in the ICU (IPAL-ICU) Project brings together interdisciplinary expertise and existing data to address the following: special challenges for providing palliative care in the rapid response setting, knowledge and skills needed by RRTs for delivery of high-quality palliative care, and strategies for improving the integration of palliative care with rapid response critical care. We discuss key components of communication with patients, families, and primary clinicians to develop a goal-directed treatment approach during a rapid response event. We also highlight the need for RRT expertise to initiate symptom relief. Strategies including specific clinician training and system initiatives are then recommended for RRT care improvement. We conclude by suggesting that as evaluation of their impact on other outcomes continues, performance by RRTs in meeting palliative care needs of patients and families should also be measured and improved. PMID:25644909

  1. 3D printed rapid disaster response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacaze, Alberto; Murphy, Karl; Mottern, Edward; Corley, Katrina; Chu, Kai-Dee

    2014-05-01

    Under the Department of Homeland Security-sponsored Sensor-smart Affordable Autonomous Robotic Platforms (SAARP) project, Robotic Research, LLC is developing an affordable and adaptable method to provide disaster response robots developed with 3D printer technology. The SAARP Store contains a library of robots, a developer storefront, and a user storefront. The SAARP Store allows the user to select, print, assemble, and operate the robot. In addition to the SAARP Store, two platforms are currently being developed. They use a set of common non-printed components that will allow the later design of other platforms that share non-printed components. During disasters, new challenges are faced that require customized tools or platforms. Instead of prebuilt and prepositioned supplies, a library of validated robots will be catalogued to satisfy various challenges at the scene. 3D printing components will allow these customized tools to be deployed in a fraction of the time that would normally be required. While the current system is focused on supporting disaster response personnel, this system will be expandable to a range of customers, including domestic law enforcement, the armed services, universities, and research facilities.

  2. Hospitalized Patients at High Risk for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Have More Rapid Response System Events and Intervention Is Associated with Reduced Events

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sunil; Chowdhury, Anindita; Tang, Lili; Willes, Leslee; Glynn, Brian; Quan, Stuart F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Rapid response system (RRS) is a safety tool designed for early detection and intervention of a deteriorating patient on the general floor in the hospital. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been associated with significant cardiovascular complications. We hypothesized that patients with high-risk of OSA have higher rate of RRS events and intervention with positive airway pressure therapy in these patients can mitigate the RRS events. Methods As part of a clinical pathway, during a 15 month period, patients with BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 in select medical services were screened with a validated sleep questionnaire. Patients were characterized as high or low risk based on the screening questionnaire. RRS rates were compared between the groups. Subsequently the impact of PAP therapy on RRS events was evaluated. Results Out of the 2,590 patients screened, 1,973 (76%) were identified as high-risk. RRS rates calculated per 1,000 admissions, were 43.60 in the High-Risk OSA group versus 25.91 in the Low-Risk OSA Group. The PAP therapy compliant group had significantly reduced RRS event rates compared to non-compliant group and group with no PAP therapy (16.99 vs. 53.40 vs. 56.21) (p < 0.01). Conclusion In a large cohort of patients at a tertiary care hospital, we show an association of increased rate of RRS events in high-risk OSA patients and reduction of the risk with PAP intervention in the compliant group. PMID:27168330

  3. Rapid response radiation sensors for homeland security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Maurer, Richard; Guss, Paul

    2014-09-01

    The National Security Technologies, LLC, Remote Sensing Laboratory is developing a rapid response radiation detection system for homeland security field applications. The intelligence-driven system is deployed only when non-radiological information about the target is verifiable. The survey area is often limited, so the detection range is small; in most cases covering a distance of 10 meters or less suffices. Definitive response is required in no more than 3 seconds and should minimize false negative alarms, but can err on the side of positive false alarms. The detection system is rapidly reconfigurable in terms of size, shape, and outer appearance; it is a plug-and-play system. Multiple radiation detection components (viz., two or more sodium iodide scintillators) are used to independently "over-determine" the existence of the threat object. Rapid response electronic dose rate meters are also included in the equipment suite. Carefully studied threat signatures are the basis of the decision making. The use of Rad-Detect predictive modeling provides information on the nature of the threat object. Rad-Detect provides accurate dose rate from heavily shielded large sources; for example those lost in Mexico were Category 1 radiation sources (~3,000 Ci of 60Co), the most dangerous of five categories defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Taken out of their shielding containers, Category 1 sources can kill anyone who is exposed to them at close range for a few minutes to an hour. Whenever possible sub-second data acquisition will be attempted, and, when deployed, the system will be characterized for false alarm rates. Although the radiation detection materials selected are fast (viz., faster scintillators), their speed is secondary to sensitivity, which is of primary importance. Results from these efforts will be discussed and demonstrated.

  4. Sensitivity and rapidity of vegetational response to abrupt climate change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peteet, D.

    2000-01-01

    Rapid climate change characterizes numerous terrestrial sediment records during and since the last glaciation. Vegetational response is best expressed in terrestrial records near ecotones, where sensitivity to climate change is greatest, and response times are as short as decades.

  5. Rapid Response to Treatment for Binge Eating Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Wilson, Terence G.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined rapid response among 108 patients with binge eating disorder (BED) who were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 16-week treatments: fluoxetine, placebo, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) plus fluoxetine, or CBT plus placebo. Rapid response, defined as 65% or greater reduction in binge eating by the 4th treatment week, was determined…

  6. Rapidly deployable emergency communication system

    DOEpatents

    Gladden, Charles A.; Parelman, Martin H.

    1979-01-01

    A highly versatile, highly portable emergency communication system which permits deployment in a very short time to cover both wide areas and distant isolated areas depending upon mission requirements. The system employs a plurality of lightweight, fully self-contained repeaters which are deployed within the mission area to provide communication between field teams, and between each field team and a mobile communication control center. Each repeater contains a microcomputer controller, the program for which may be changed from the control center by the transmission of digital data within the audible range (300-3,000 Hz). Repeaters are accessed by portable/mobile transceivers, other repeaters, and the control center through the transmission and recognition of digital data code words in the subaudible range.

  7. A rapid-deployable imaging system for environmental system studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steidley, Carl; Bachnak, Ray; Sadovski, Alexey; Mayfield, Chad; Kulkarni, Rahul

    2005-03-01

    This paper describes an Airborne Multi-Spectral Imaging System (AMIS) and the development of its system software. This system has been developed so as to be rapidly deployed in response to episodic events such as hurricanes and tropical storms which may occur year round in coastal zones. The system uses digital video cameras to provide high resolution images at a very high collection rate. The system is software controlled so as to provide a minimum distraction for the aircraft pilot by providing for the remote manipulation of the camera and the GPS receiver. The system is viable for many applications that require good resolution at low cost. Such applications include vegetation detection, oceanography, marine biology, and environmental coastal science analysis.

  8. A rapid-deployable imaging system for environmental system studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steidley, Carl W.; Bachnak, Rafic; Dannelly, R. Stephen; Mayfield, Chad; Kulkarni, Rahul

    2004-10-01

    This paper describes an Airborne Multi-Spectral Imaging System (AMIS) and the development of its system software. This system has been developed so as to be rapidly deployed in response to episodic events such as hurricanes and tropical storms which may occur year round in coastal zones. The system uses digital video cameras to provide high resolution images at a very high collection rate. The system is software controlled so as to provide a minimum distraction for the aircraft pilot by providing for the remote manipulation of the camera and the GPS receiver. The system is viable for many applications that require good resolution at low cost. Such applications include vegetation detection, oceanography, marine biology, and environmental coastal science analysis.

  9. Guatemala's ministry of health rapid response team manuals.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Luis; Hanson, Kimberly M; Martel, Lise D

    2014-01-01

    The function of public health rapid response teams (RRTs) is to quickly identify, investigate, and control an outbreak before it can spread. The Central America Regional Office in Guatemala provided assistance to the Guatemalan Ministry of Health and Social Assistance (MSPAS) to develop RRT manuals at the district and regional levels. The manuals are divided into 4 sections: background, activity lists, standard operating procedures, and annexes. The manuals outline Guatemala's RRT members' responsibilities and will be tested in the near future through tabletop exercises. The development of the manuals is a concrete and significant step toward the attainment of Guatemala's IHR goals and should be integrated into a larger emergency management system to promote "a world safe and secure from global health threats posed by infectious diseases." PMID:25254918

  10. Rapid Response Small Machining NNR Project 703025

    SciTech Connect

    Kanies, Tim

    2008-12-05

    This project was an effort to develop a machining area for small sized parts that is capable of delivering product with a quick response time. This entailed focusing efforts on leaning out specific work cells that would result in overall improvement to the entire machining area. This effort involved securing the most efficient available technologies for these areas. In the end, this incorporated preparing the small machining area for transformation to a new facility.

  11. A rapid-learning health system.

    PubMed

    Etheredge, Lynn M

    2007-01-01

    Private- and public-sector initiatives, using electronic health record (EHR) databases from millions of people, could rapidly advance the U.S. evidence base for clinical care. Rapid learning could fill major knowledge gaps about health care costs, the benefits and risks of drugs and procedures, geographic variations, environmental health influences, the health of special populations, and personalized medicine. Policymakers could use rapid learning to revitalize value-based competition, redesign Medicare's payments, advance Medicaid into national health care leadership, foster national collaborative research initiatives, and design a national technology assessment system. PMID:17259191

  12. Power Supply Systems for Rapid Cycling Synchrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yasuhiro; Adachi, Toshikazu; Someya, Hirohiko; Koseki, Shoichiro; Ogawa, Shinichi

    JAEA and KEK are jointly constructing a high intensity proton accelerator project J-PARC. Its main accelerator is 3GeV rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS). Two types of resonant excitation systems, parallel and cascade, are introduced to excite DC biased 25Hz AC currents through its main magnets. The parallel excitation is adopted for dipole magnets power supply system, and the cascade excitations are adopted for seven family quadrupole magnets systems. In this paper, two systems are investigated and analyzed, and it is explained why different types are adopted to each system. Authors believe that such hybrid exciting systems are most suitable for high power RCS.

  13. Recognition system rapid application prototyping tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Stuart A.; Karins, James P.; Dydyk, Robert B.

    1997-03-01

    The recognition system rapid application prototyping tool (RSRAPT) was developed to evaluate various potential configurations of miniature ruggedized optical correlator (MROC) modules and to rapidly assess the feasibility of their use within systems such as missile seekers. RSRAPT is a simulation environment for rapidly prototyping, developing, and evaluating recognition systems that incorporate MROC technology. It is designed to interface to OLE compliant Windows applications using standard OLE interfaces. The system consists of nine key functional elements: sensor, detection, segmentation, pre-processor, filter selection, correlator, post-processor, identifier, and controller. The RSRAPT is a collection of object oriented server components, a client user interface and a recognitions system image and image sensor database. The server components are implemented to encapsulate processes that are typical to any optical-correlator based pattern recognition system. All the servers are implemented as Microsoft component object model objects. In addition to the system servers there are two key 'helper servers.' The first is the image server, which encapsulates all 'images'. This includes gray scale images and even complex images. The other supporting server is the filter generation server. This server trains the system on user data by calculating filters for user selected image types. The system hosts a library of standard image processing routines such as convolution, edge operators, clustering algorithms, median filtering, morphological operators such as erosion and dilation, connected components, region growing, and adaptive thresholding. In this paper we describe the simulator and show sample results from diverse applications.

  14. Rapid evolutionary response to a transmissible cancer in Tasmanian devils.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Brendan; Jones, Menna; Hamede, Rodrigo; Hendricks, Sarah; McCallum, Hamish; Murchison, Elizabeth P; Schönfeld, Barbara; Wiench, Cody; Hohenlohe, Paul; Storfer, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Although cancer rarely acts as an infectious disease, a recently emerged transmissible cancer in Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) is virtually 100% fatal. Devil facial tumour disease (DFTD) has swept across nearly the entire species' range, resulting in localized declines exceeding 90% and an overall species decline of more than 80% in less than 20 years. Despite epidemiological models that predict extinction, populations in long-diseased sites persist. Here we report rare genomic evidence of a rapid, parallel evolutionary response to strong selection imposed by a wildlife disease. We identify two genomic regions that contain genes related to immune function or cancer risk in humans that exhibit concordant signatures of selection across three populations. DFTD spreads between hosts by suppressing and evading the immune system, and our results suggest that hosts are evolving immune-modulated resistance that could aid in species persistence in the face of this devastating disease. PMID:27575253

  15. Applying Bayesian belief networks in rapid response situations

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, William L; Deborah, Leishman, A.; Van Eeckhout, Edward

    2008-01-01

    The authors have developed an enhanced Bayesian analysis tool called the Integrated Knowledge Engine (IKE) for monitoring and surveillance. The enhancements are suited for Rapid Response Situations where decisions must be made based on uncertain and incomplete evidence from many diverse and heterogeneous sources. The enhancements extend the probabilistic results of the traditional Bayesian analysis by (1) better quantifying uncertainty arising from model parameter uncertainty and uncertain evidence, (2) optimizing the collection of evidence to reach conclusions more quickly, and (3) allowing the analyst to determine the influence of the remaining evidence that cannot be obtained in the time allowed. These extended features give the analyst and decision maker a better comprehension of the adequacy of the acquired evidence and hence the quality of the hurried decisions. They also describe two example systems where the above features are highlighted.

  16. Employment Threat, Equality of Opportunities and Educators' Response to the Rapid Feminization of School Principalship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Michael; Addi, Audrey

    This paper examines the responses of men and women in the Israeli educational system toward the rapid feminization of school administration. Two theoretical perspectives--the "enlightened" approach and conflict theory--provide a framework for understanding the responses. Data were obtained from the responses to a questionnaire of 156 graduates of…

  17. DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM FOR RAPID KINETIC EXPERIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A data acquisition system has been developed to collect, analyze and store large volumes of rapid kinetic data measured from a stopped-flow spectrophotometer. A digital minicomputer, with an A/D converter, tape drive unit and formatter, analog recorder, oscilloscope, and input/ou...

  18. Rapid response strategies to announced small asteroid impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenniskens, P.

    2014-07-01

    Asteroids 2008 TC_3 and 2014 AA were detected in space a similar 20 and 21 hours prior to impacting the Earth, respectively. While 2008 TC_3 was well observed prior to impact on October 7, 2008, and meteorites were recovered on the ground in the Nubian desert of Sudan [1], asteroid 2014 AA was lost soon after the initial detection on January 1, 2014. Shortly after impact, two infrasound stations detected a faint rumble from a direction over the Atlantic ocean, north of Brazil. That rumble signaled a lost science opportunity to forge links between meteorite types and asteroid classes. Now, a program is being established to prepare for, and help execute, a rapid and effective response to a predicted Earth impactor. By developing an effective alert system, the program brings together the asteroid survey projects that can detect such an asteroid and the astronomers that can respond. Strategies to respond rapidly to an announced small asteroid impact are being developed. Goal is to facilitate the astronomical observations of small asteroids on their way in, to measure the meteoroid kinetic energy, internal structure and composition during impact in the Earth's atmosphere, even if the impact is over water, and to increase the likelihood that meteorites are recovered pristinely for laboratory investigations. For that purpose, an international consortium was formed to further these goals.

  19. Changes in Sensory Evoked Responses Coincide with Rapid Improvement in Speech Identification Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alain, Claude; Campeanu, Sandra; Tremblay, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    Perceptual learning is sometimes characterized by rapid improvements in performance within the first hour of training (fast perceptual learning), which may be accompanied by changes in sensory and/or response pathways. Here, we report rapid physiological changes in the human auditory system that coincide with learning during a 1-hour test session…

  20. MSFC Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) Rapid Quench System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Craven, Paul D.; Rogers, Jan R.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) Laboratory is a unique facility for investigators studying high-temperature materials. The laboratory boasts two levitators in which samples can be levitated, heated, melted, undercooled, and resolidified, all without the interference of a container or data-gathering instrument. The ESL main chamber has been upgraded with the addition of a rapid quench system. This system allows samples to be dropped into a quench vessel that can be filled with a low melting point material, such as a gallium or indium alloy. Thereby allowing rapid quenching of undercooled liquid metals. Up to 8 quench vessels can be loaded into the quench wheel, which is indexed with LabVIEW control software. This allows up to 8 samples to be rapidly quenched before having to open the chamber. The system has been tested successfully on several zirconium samples. Future work will be done with other materials using different quench mediums. Microstructural analysis will also be done on successfully quench samples.

  1. RAPID ASSAYS OF PLANT RESPONSES TO HERBICIDE TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a search for rapid responses to chemical stress, uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation and photosynthetic inhibitors were tested on nitrite and nitrate assimilation. In addition, three herbicides--Atrazine, 2,4-D and Dinoseb--were tested for their effectiveness on affecting ...

  2. Energy-beam-driven rapid fabrication system

    DOEpatents

    Keicher, David M.; Atwood, Clinton L.; Greene, Donald L.; Griffith, Michelle L.; Harwell, Lane D.; Jeantette, Francisco P.; Romero, Joseph A.; Schanwald, Lee P.; Schmale, David T.

    2002-01-01

    An energy beam driven rapid fabrication system, in which an energy beam strikes a growth surface to form a molten puddle thereon. Feed powder is then injected into the molten puddle from a converging flow of feed powder. A portion of the feed powder becomes incorporated into the molten puddle, forcing some of the puddle contents to freeze on the growth surface, thereby adding an additional layer of material. By scanning the energy beam and the converging flow of feed powder across the growth surface, complex three-dimensional shapes can be formed, ready or nearly ready for use. Nearly any class of material can be fabricated using this system.

  3. Hydraulic Response of Colorado River Rapids to a Reworking Flood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magirl, C. S.; Webb, R. H.

    2005-12-01

    Rapids on the Colorado River in Grand Canyon are formed primarily by the accumulation of coarse sediment from tributaries. Frequent debris-flow events in these tributaries contribute alluvium that constricts the river, accelerates local fluid velocities, increases the water-surface fall through the rapids, and raises the water-surface elevation in the upper pool. In turn, large main-stem floods rework fresh debris-fan deposits by removing the smaller coarse sediment and repositioning the largest particles into a stable matrix on the bed of the rapid. While morphologic changes to debris-fan surfaces in response to main-stem floods are widely studied in Grand Canyon, relatively little is known of the specific changes to the hydraulics of a given rapid. The turbulent and dangerous nature of rapids makes in-situ measurements challenging. The current study, however, successfully measured hydraulics within the core of several rapids. These rapids had been steepened by debris-flow event within the previous seven years. Using a boat-mounted fathometer and acoustic doppler velocimeter (ADV), point measurements of water-surface elevation, bathymetry, three-dimensional velocity, and turbulence were made at a collection of moderately-sized rapids in Grand Canyon. The boat was a 19-foot J-snout with a 50-hp Mercury outboard motor capable of maneuvering to nearly any location within each rapid. A three-person crew onboard operated the instrumentation. Two crewmembers on shore operated a survey instrument to continually record the boat position on the river. To characterize hydraulic changes in response to a main-stem flood, repeat measurements were made at each site both before and after the 1,200 m3/s controlled flood of November 2004. While this exercise is only a first step in quantifying the fluid dynamics within a rapid, the hydraulic data collected offers a unique insight into the response of coarse-grained alluvial deposits to floods in fast-moving bedrock

  4. Role of vestibular information in initiation of rapid postural responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runge, C. F.; Shupert, C. L.; Horak, F. B.; Zajac, F. E.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    the sensorimotor consequences of the system alterations imposed by the postural tasks used in those studies. Preliminary results from two younger patients who lost vestibular function as infants indicate that age, duration of vestibular loss, and/or the timing of the loss may also be factors that can influence the use of hip strategy as a rapid postural response.

  5. A new system for rapid measurement of ATP.

    PubMed

    Shu, B; Zhou, Y; Ren, S

    1997-01-01

    The paper introduces a new type instrument for rapid measuring ATP. The system consists of a micromodule ATP sensor and an instrument for measuring weak light transmitted by optic fiber. The micromodule ATP sensor mainly is composed of enzyme membrane, a probe and a bundle of optic fiber. The instrument measuring weak light consists of photomultiplier, high voltage power, pulse amplifier and counter. The instrument was characterized by simple structure, small size, rapid response time (< 5s), high sensitivity (10(-12) mol/L), stable performance (measuring the same sample for 50 times, CV < 5%), long enzyme storage time (> 3 months). PMID:9812776

  6. Science Partnerships Enabling Rapid Response: Designing a Strategy for Improving Scientific Collaboration during Crisis Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mease, L.; Gibbs, T.; Adiseshan, T.

    2014-12-01

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon disaster required unprecedented engagement and collaboration with scientists from multiple disciplines across government, academia, and industry. Although this spurred the rapid advancement of valuable new scientific knowledge and tools, it also exposed weaknesses in the system of information dissemination and exchange among the scientists from those three sectors. Limited government communication with the broader scientific community complicated the rapid mobilization of the scientific community to assist with spill response, evaluation of impact, and public perceptions of the crisis. The lessons and new laws produced from prior spills such as Exxon Valdez were helpful, but ultimately did not lead to the actions necessary to prepare a suitable infrastructure that would support collaboration with non-governmental scientists. As oil demand pushes drilling into increasingly extreme environments, addressing the challenge of effective, science-based disaster response is an imperative. Our study employs a user-centered design process to 1) understand the obstacles to and opportunity spaces for effective scientific collaboration during environmental crises such as large oil spills, 2) identify possible tools and strategies to enable rapid information exchange between government responders and non-governmental scientists from multiple relevant disciplines, and 3) build a network of key influencers to secure sufficient buy-in for scaled implementation of appropriate tools and strategies. Our methods include user ethnography, complex system mapping, individual and system behavioral analysis, and large-scale system design to identify and prototype a solution to this crisis collaboration challenge. In this talk, we will present out insights gleaned from existing analogs of successful scientific collaboration during crises and our initial findings from the 60 targeted interviews we conducted that highlight key collaboration challenges that government

  7. RAPID MANUFACTURING SYSTEM OF ORTHOPEDIC IMPLANTS

    PubMed Central

    Relvas, Carlos; Reis, Joana; Potes, José Alberto Caeiro; Fonseca, Fernando Manuel Ferreira; Simões, José Antonio Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    This study, aimed the development of a methodology for rapid manufacture of orthopedic implants simultaneously with the surgical intervention, considering two potential applications in the fields of orthopedics: the manufacture of anatomically adapted implants and implants for bone loss replacement. This work innovation consists on the capitation of the in situ geometry of the implant by direct capture of the shape using an elastomeric material (polyvinylsiloxane) which allows fine detail and great accuracy of the geometry. After scanning the elastomeric specimen, the implant is obtained by machining using a CNC milling machine programmed with a dedicated CAD/CAM system. After sterilization, the implant is able to be placed on the patient. The concept was developed using low cost technology and commercially available. The system has been tested in an in vivo hip arthroplasty performed on a sheep. The time increase of surgery was 80 minutes being 40 minutes the time of implant manufacturing. The system developed has been tested and the goals defined of the study achieved enabling the rapid manufacture of an implant in a time period compatible with the surgery time. PMID:27004181

  8. RAPID MANUFACTURING SYSTEM OF ORTHOPEDIC IMPLANTS.

    PubMed

    Relvas, Carlos; Reis, Joana; Potes, José Alberto Caeiro; Fonseca, Fernando Manuel Ferreira; Simões, José Antonio Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    This study, aimed the development of a methodology for rapid manufacture of orthopedic implants simultaneously with the surgical intervention, considering two potential applications in the fields of orthopedics: the manufacture of anatomically adapted implants and implants for bone loss replacement. This work innovation consists on the capitation of the in situ geometry of the implant by direct capture of the shape using an elastomeric material (polyvinylsiloxane) which allows fine detail and great accuracy of the geometry. After scanning the elastomeric specimen, the implant is obtained by machining using a CNC milling machine programmed with a dedicated CAD/CAM system. After sterilization, the implant is able to be placed on the patient. The concept was developed using low cost technology and commercially available. The system has been tested in an in vivo hip arthroplasty performed on a sheep. The time increase of surgery was 80 minutes being 40 minutes the time of implant manufacturing. The system developed has been tested and the goals defined of the study achieved enabling the rapid manufacture of an implant in a time period compatible with the surgery time. PMID:27004181

  9. Rapid deployable global sensing hazard alert system

    DOEpatents

    Cordaro, Joseph V; Tibrea, Steven L; Shull, Davis J; Coleman, Jerry T; Shuler, James M

    2015-04-28

    A rapid deployable global sensing hazard alert system and associated methods of operation are provided. An exemplary system includes a central command, a wireless backhaul network, and a remote monitoring unit. The remote monitoring unit can include a positioning system configured to determine a position of the remote monitoring unit based on one or more signals received from one or more satellites located in Low Earth Orbit. The wireless backhaul network can provide bidirectional communication capability independent of cellular telecommunication networks and the Internet. An exemplary method includes instructing at least one of a plurality of remote monitoring units to provide an alert based at least in part on a location of a hazard and a plurality of positions respectively associated with the plurality of remote monitoring units.

  10. Heliopause Electrostatic Rapid Transit System (HERTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegmann, Bruce M.

    2015-01-01

    A recent six month investigation focused on: "Determining the benefits of propelling a scientific spacecraft by an 'Electric Sail' propulsion system to the edge of our solar system (the Heliopause), a distance of 100 to 120 AU, in ten years or less" has recently been completed by the Advance Concepts Office at NASA's MSFC. The concept investigated has been named the Heliopause Electrostatic Rapid Transit System (HERTS) by the MSFC team. The HERTS is a revolutionary propellant-less propulsion concept that is ideal for deep space missions to the Outer Planets, Heliopause, and beyond. It is unique in that it uses momentum exchange from naturally occurring solar wind protons to propel a spacecraft within the heliosphere. The propulsion system consists of an array of electrically positively-biased wires that extend outward 20 km from a rotating (one revolution per hour) spacecraft. It was determined that the HERTS system can accelerate a spacecraft to velocities as much as two to three times that possible by any realistic extrapolation of current state-of-the-art propulsion technologies- including solar electric and solar sail propulsion systems. The data produced show that a scientific spacecraft could reach distances of 100AU in less than 10 years. Moreover, it can be reasonably expected that this system could be developed within a decade and provide meaningful Heliophysics Science and Outer Planetary Science returns in the 2025-2035 timeframe.

  11. The Rapid Geodetic Survey System (RGSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huddle, J. R.

    1989-06-01

    The Rapid Geodetic Survey System (RGSS) is a system employing a high-accuracy gimbaled inertial platform. It provides a cost-effective capability for accurate direct measurement of the change in position, elevation, gravity intensity and deflection of the vertical from an initial point. The RGSS is an adaptation of the production version of the U.S. Army Position and Azimuth Determining System (PADS). Several hardware and software enhancements to improve the performance of the system, primarily for gravity vector survey, have occurred over the last few years. The basic principles for the control of error in the survey measurements due to noise and systematic error are discussed below. Actual acceptance test results for the RGSS which indicate an inherent capability of the system to measure change in the deflection of the vertical to a few-tenths of an arcsecond over survey periods of one to two hours using careful survey techniques are also presented. Finally a simple method to extend the capability of the system for longer duration surveys is indicated.

  12. The Rapid Geodetic Survey System (RGSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huddle, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    The Rapid Geodetic Survey System (RGSS) is a system employing a high-accuracy gimbaled inertial platform. It provides a cost-effective capability for accurate direct measurement of the change in position, elevation, gravity intensity and deflection of the vertical from an initial point. The RGSS is an adaptation of the production version of the U.S. Army Position and Azimuth Determining System (PADS). Several hardware and software enhancements to improve the performance of the system, primarily for gravity vector survey, have occurred over the last few years. The basic principles for the control of error in the survey measurements due to noise and systematic error are discussed below. Actual acceptance test results for the RGSS which indicate an inherent capability of the system to measure change in the deflection of the vertical to a few-tenths of an arcsecond over survey periods of one to two hours using careful survey techniques are also presented. Finally a simple method to extend the capability of the system for longer duration surveys is indicated.

  13. Onboard Radar Processing Development for Rapid Response Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lou, Yunling; Chien, Steve; Clark, Duane; Doubleday, Josh; Muellerschoen, Ron; Wang, Charles C.

    2011-01-01

    We are developing onboard processor (OBP) technology to streamline data acquisition on-demand and explore the potential of the L-band SAR instrument onboard the proposed DESDynI mission and UAVSAR for rapid response applications. The technology would enable the observation and use of surface change data over rapidly evolving natural hazards, both as an aid to scientific understanding and to provide timely data to agencies responsible for the management and mitigation of natural disasters. We are adapting complex science algorithms for surface water extent to detect flooding, snow/water/ice classification to assist in transportation/ shipping forecasts, and repeat-pass change detection to detect disturbances. We are near completion of the development of a custom FPGA board to meet the specific memory and processing needs of L-band SAR processor algorithms and high speed interfaces to reformat and route raw radar data to/from the FPGA processor board. We have also developed a high fidelity Matlab model of the SAR processor that is modularized and parameterized for ease to prototype various SAR processor algorithms targeted for the FPGA. We will be testing the OBP and rapid response algorithms with UAVSAR data to determine the fidelity of the products.

  14. Storey building early monitoring based on rapid seismic response analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julius, Musa, Admiral; Sunardi, Bambang; Rudyanto, Ariska

    2016-05-01

    Within the last decade, advances in the acquisition, processing and transmission of data from seismic monitoring has contributed to the growth in the number structures instrumented with such systems. An equally important factor for such growth can be attributed to the demands by stakeholders to find rapid answers to important questions related to the functionality or state of "health" of structures during and immediately of a seismic events. Consequently, this study aims to monitor the storey building based on seismic response i. e. earthquake and tremor analysis at short time lapse using accelerographs data. This study used one of storey building (X) in Jakarta city that suffered the effects of Kebumen earthquake January 25th 2014, Pandeglang earthquake July 9th 2014, and Lebak earthquake November 8th 2014. Tremors used in this study are tremors after the three following earthquakes. Data processing used to determine peak ground acceleration (PGA), peak ground velocity (PGV), peak ground displacement (PGD), spectral acceleration (SA), spectral velocity (SV), spectral displacement (SD), A/V ratio, acceleration amplification and effective duration (te). Then determine the natural frequency (f0) and peak of H/V ratio using H/V ratio method.The earthquakes data processing result shows the value of peak ground motion, spectrum response, A/V ratio and acceleration amplification increases with height, while the value of the effective duration give a different viewpoint of building dynamic because duration of Kebumen earthquake shows the highest energy in the highest floor but Pandeglang and Lebak earthquake in the lowest floor. Then, tremors data processing result one month after each earthquakes shows the natural frequency of building in constant value. Increasing of peak ground motion, spectrum response, A/V ratio, acceleration amplification, then decrease of effective duration following the increase of building floors shows that the building construction supports the

  15. The Wallops Flight Facility Rapid Response Range Operations Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underwood, Bruce E.; Kremer, Steven E.

    2004-01-01

    becomes how can a launch site provide acceptably responsive mission services to a particular customer without dedicating extensive resources and while continuing to serve other projects? NASA's Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) is pursuing solutions to exactly this challenge. NASA, in partnership with the Virginia Commercial Space Flight Authority, has initiated the Rapid Response Range Operations Initiative (R3Ops). R3Ops is a multi-phased effort to incrementally establish and demonstrate increasingly responsive launch operations, with an ultimate goal of providing ELV-class services in a maximum of 7-10 days from initial notification routinely, and shorter schedules possible with committed resources. This target will be pursued within the reality of simultaneous concurrent programs, and ideally, largely independent of specialized flight system configurations. WFF has recently completed Phase 1 of R3Ops, an in-depth collection (through extensive expert interviews) and software modeling of individual steps by various range disciplines. This modeling is now being used to identify existing inefficiencies in current procedures, to identify bottlenecks, and show interdependencies. Existing practices are being tracked to provide a baseline to benchmark against as new procedures are implemented. This paper will describe in detail the philosophies behind WFF's R3Ops, the data collected and modeled in Phase 1, and strategies for meeting responsive launch requirements in a multi-user range environment planned for subsequent phases of this initiative.

  16. Forecasting wildlife response to rapid warming in the Alaskan Arctic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Flint, Paul L.; Udevitz, Mark S.; Koch, Joshua C.; Atwood, Todd C.; Oakley, Karen L.; Pearce, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Arctic wildlife species face a dynamic and increasingly novel environment because of climate warming and the associated increase in human activity. Both marine and terrestrial environments are undergoing rapid environmental shifts, including loss of sea ice, permafrost degradation, and altered biogeochemical fluxes. Forecasting wildlife responses to climate change can facilitate proactive decisions that balance stewardship with resource development. In this article, we discuss the primary and secondary responses to physical climate-related drivers in the Arctic, associated wildlife responses, and additional sources of complexity in forecasting wildlife population outcomes. Although the effects of warming on wildlife populations are becoming increasingly well documented in the scientific literature, clear mechanistic links are often difficult to establish. An integrated science approach and robust modeling tools are necessary to make predictions and determine resiliency to change. We provide a conceptual framework and introduce examples relevant for developing wildlife forecasts useful to management decisions.

  17. A Rapid Turnaround Cryogenic Detector Characterization System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic j.; Dipirro, Michael J.; Forgione, Joshua B.; Jackson, Clifton E.; Jackson, Michael L.; Kogut, Al; Moseley, S. Harvey; Shirron, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    Upcoming major NASA missions such as the Einstein Inflation Probe and the Single Aperture Far-Infrared Observatory require arrays of detectors with thousands of elements, operating at temperatures near l00 mK and sensitive to wavelengths from approx. 100 microns to approx. 3 mm. Such detectors represent a substantial enabling technology for these missions, and must be demonstrated soon in order for them to proceed. In order to make rapid progress on detector development, the cryogenic testing cycle must be made convenient and quick. We have developed a cryogenic detector characterization system capable of testing superconducting detector arrays in formats up to 8 x 32, read out by SQUID multiplexers. The system relies on the cooling of a two-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator immersed in a liquid helium bath. This approach permits a detector to be cooled from 300K to 50 mK in about 4 hours, so that a test cycle begun in the morning will be over by the end of the day. Tine system is modular, with two identical immersible units, so that while one unit is cooling, the second can be reconfigured for the next battery of tests. We describe the design, construction, and performance of this cryogenic detector testing facility.

  18. RAPID DYNAMICAL CHAOS IN AN EXOPLANETARY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Deck, Katherine M.; Winn, Joshua N.; Holman, Matthew J.; Carter, Joshua A.; Ragozzine, Darin; Agol, Eric; Lissauer, Jack J.

    2012-08-10

    We report on the long-term dynamical evolution of the two-planet Kepler-36 system, which consists of a super-Earth and a sub-Neptune in a tightly packed orbital configuration. The orbits of the planets, which we studied through numerical integrations of initial conditions that are consistent with observations of the system, are chaotic with a Lyapunov time of only {approx}10 years. The chaos is a consequence of a particular set of orbital resonances, with the inner planet orbiting 34 times for every 29 orbits of the outer planet. The rapidity of the chaos is due to the interaction of the 29:34 resonance with the nearby first-order 6:7 resonance, in contrast to the usual case in which secular terms in the Hamiltonian play a dominant role. Only one contiguous region of phase space, accounting for {approx}4.5% of the sample of initial conditions studied, corresponds to planetary orbits that do not show large-scale orbital instabilities on the timescale of our integrations ({approx}200 million years). Restricting the orbits to this long-lived region allows a refinement of estimates of the masses and radii of the planets. We find that the long-lived region consists of the initial conditions that satisfy the Hill stability criterion by the largest margin. Any successful theory for the formation of this system will need to account for why its current state is so close to unstable regions of phase space.

  19. A new, rapid in vivo method to evaluate allergic responses through distinctive distribution of a fluorescent-labeled immune complex: Potential to investigate anti-allergic effects of compounds administered either systemically or topically to the skin.

    PubMed

    Yamaki, Kouya; Yoshino, Shin

    2016-01-01

    We herein established a new method to evaluate allergic responses in mice rapidly and easily with ethical improvement by reducing the number of animals used. A single intravenous injection of a mixture of anti-OVA monoclonal IgE and fluorescein-ovalbumin (FITC-OVA) induced the distinctive spotted distribution of FITC-OVA in skin, named "ASDIS (Anaphylaxis-dependent Spotted Distribution of a fluorescent-labeled Immune complex in Skin)", and this was easily detected by in vivo imaging. The parallel induction of hypothermia, scratching, serum histamine increases, and ASDIS as well as the inhibition of ASDIS by either the systemic administration of a histamine H1 receptor antagonist or mast cell-depleting antibody suggested that our method, which only required 15 min, induced these allergic responses including ASDIS. Relatively mild but significant ASDIS was induced also in mice with passive systemic anaphylaxis by the method, requiring 2 separate days. The painting of anti-histamines on the skin markedly reduced ASDIS in the painted area only, suggesting the potential of this model to simultaneously compare the anti-allergic effects of several candidate compounds with control drugs in the same mice. ASDIS was suggested to originate from extravasated FITC-OVA/OE-1 immune complexes from blood to skin tissues other than mast cells. Our new method has the advantages of rapidity, easy method, and lower animal numbers to evaluate anti-allergic compounds as well as the characteristics of the used antibody, antigen, labeling molecules, additives, and other formulations. Our model for inducing ASDIS may contribute to the development of anti-allergic drugs, especially those intended for application to the skin. PMID:26643682

  20. Acute incident rapid response at a mass-gathering event through comprehensive planning systems: a case report from the 2013 Shamrock Shuffle.

    PubMed

    Başdere, Mehmet; Ross, Colleen; Chan, Jennifer L; Mehrotra, Sanjay; Smilowitz, Karen; Chiampas, George

    2014-06-01

    Planning and execution of mass-gathering events involves various challenges. In this case report, the Chicago Model (CM), which was designed to organize and operate such events and to maintain the health and wellbeing of both runners and the public in a more effective way, is described. The Chicago Model also was designed to prepare for unexpected incidents, including disasters, during the marathon event. The model has been used successfully in the planning and execution stages of the Bank of America Shamrock Shuffle and the Bank of America Chicago Marathon since 2008. The key components of the CM are organizational structure, information systems, and communication. This case report describes how the organizers at the 2013 Shamrock Shuffle used the key components of the CM approach in order to respond to an acute incident caused by a man who was threatening to jump off the State Street Bridge. The course route was changed to accommodate this unexpected event, while maintaining access to key health care facilities. The lessons learned from the incident are presented and further improvements to the existing model are proposed. PMID:24820906

  1. Rapid flow-induced responses in endothelial cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stamatas, G. N.; McIntire, L. V.

    2001-01-01

    Endothelial cells alter their morphology, growth rate, and metabolism in response to fluid shear stress. To study rapid flow-induced responses in the 3D endothelial cell morphology and calcium distribution, coupled fluorescence microscopy with optical sectioning, digital imaging, and numerical deconvolution techniques have been utilized. Results demonstrate that within the first minutes of flow application nuclear calcium is increasing. In the same time frame whole cell height and nuclear height are reduced by about 1 microm. Whole cell height changes may facilitate reduction of shear stress gradients on the luminal surface, whereas nuclear structural changes may be important for modulating endothelial growth rate and metabolism. To study the role of the cytoskeleton in these responses, endothelial cells have been treated with specific disrupters (acrylamide, cytochalasin D, and colchicine) of each of the cytoskeleton elements (intermediate filaments, microfilaments, and microtubules, respectively). None of these compounds had any effect on the shear-induced calcium response. Cytochalasin D and acrylamide did not affect the shear-induced nuclear morphology changes. Colchicine, however, completely abrogated the response, indicating that microtubules may be implicated in force transmission from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. A pedagogical model based on tensegrity theory principles is presented that is consistent with the results on the 3D endothelial morphology.

  2. Caring for our own: deploying a systemwide second victim rapid response team.

    PubMed

    Scott, Susan D; Hirschinger, Laura E; Cox, Karen R; McCoig, Myra; Hahn-Cover, Kristin; Epperly, Kerri M; Phillips, Eileen C; Hall, Leslie W

    2010-05-01

    A unique rapid response system was designed to provide social, psychological, emotional, and professional support for health care providers who are "second victims"--traumatized as a result of their involvement in an unanticipated adverse event, medical error, or patient-related injury. PMID:20480757

  3. Automated emergency meteorological response system

    SciTech Connect

    Pepper, D W

    1980-01-01

    A sophisticated emergency response system was developed to aid in the evaluation of accidental releases of hazardous materials from the Savannah River Plant to the environment. A minicomputer system collects and archives data from both onsite meteorological towers and the National Weather Service. In the event of an accidental release, the computer rapidly calculates the trajectory and dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere. Computer codes have been developed which provide a graphic display of predicted concentration profiles downwind from the source, as functions of time and distance.

  4. Rapid Response to the Howard Hanson Dam Crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralph, F. M.; Carter, G.; White, A.; Neiman, P. J.; King, C.; Jankov, I.; Colman, B.; Cook, K.; Buehner, T.

    2010-12-01

    Dedicated in 1962, the Howard A. Hanson Dam (HHD) brought necessary flood relief to the Green River Valley in the Metropolitan Area of Seattle, Washington, and opened the way for increased valley development. For example, the flood damage prevented by HHD during the extreme precipitation event in early January 2009 is estimated to be about $4 billion. However, following the record high level of water behind HHD caused by this event, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (ACE) became concerned about the Dam’s safety. Despite short-term measures to improve HHD during 2009, the chance for a significant Green River Valley flood event was estimated by the ACE to be 1 in 25 for the 2009/10 winter season. In response to this elevated risk, NOAA organized a coordinated effort across research and forecast operations to implement new observations, modeling and dissemination tools, and knowledge of the role of atmospheric rivers (ARs) in producing extreme precipitation, prototyped in California within NOAA’s Hydrometeorology Testbed (HMT; hmt.noaa.gov). Fortunately, although seasonal observed precipitation (October 2009 through March 2010) in the Seattle area was slightly greater than normal (e.g., 112% of normal at the Seattle National Weather Service Forecast Office), there were no threatening floods observed along the Green River. This outcome was influenced by a synoptic pattern that was progressive, i.e., storms did not stall over this vulnerable watershed, which reduced the chance for an extensive (time and space) extreme event. More than a decade of West Coast winter storm research conducted primarily in California by NOAA’s Earth System Research Laboratory/Physical Sciences Division (ESRL/PSD) has identified atmospheric rivers (ARs), narrow regions of enhanced water vapor transport, as the culprits that cause extreme precipitation events, such as the January 2009 event that stressed HHD. ESRL/PSD extended this AR research to the coast of Washington by deploying a

  5. Device for rapid quantification of human carotid baroreceptor-cardiac reflex responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprenkle, J. M.; Eckberg, D. L.; Goble, R. L.; Schelhorn, J. J.; Halliday, H. C.

    1986-01-01

    A new device has been designed, constructed, and evaluated to characterize the human carotid baroreceptor-cardiac reflex response relation rapidly. This system was designed for study of reflex responses of astronauts before, during, and after space travel. The system comprises a new tightly sealing silicon rubber neck chamber, a stepping motor-driven electrodeposited nickel bellows pressure system, capable of delivering sequential R-wave-triggered neck chamber pressure changes between +40 and -65 mmHg, and a microprocessor-based electronics system for control of pressure steps and analysis and display of responses. This new system provokes classic sigmoid baroreceptor-cardiac reflex responses with threshold, linear, and saturation ranges in most human volunteers during one held expiration.

  6. Designing light responsive bistable arches for rapid, remotely triggered actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Matthew L.; Shankar, M. Ravi; Backman, Ryan; Tondiglia, Vincent P.; Lee, Kyung Min; McConney, Michael E.; Wang, David H.; Tan, Loon-Seng; White, Timothy J.

    2014-03-01

    Light responsive azobenzene functionalized polymer networks enjoy several advantages as actuator candidates including the ability to be remotely triggered and the capacity for highly tunable control via light intensity, polarization, wavelength and material alignments. One signi cant challenge hindering these materials from being employed in applications is their often relatively slow actuation rates and low power densities, especially in the absence of photo-thermal e ects. One well known strategy employed in nature for increasing actuation rate and power output is the storage and quick release of elastic energy (e.g., the Venus ytrap). Using nature as inspiration we have conducted a series of experiments and developed an equilibrium mechanics model for investigating remotely triggered snap-through of bistable light responsive arches made from glassy azobenzene functionalized polymers. After brie y discussing experimental observations we consider in detail a geometrically exact, planar rod model of photomechanical snap-through. Theoretical energy release characteristics and unique strain eld pro les provide insight toward design strategies for improved actuator performance. The bistable light responsive arches presented here are potentially a powerful option for remotely triggered, rapid motion from apparently passive structures in applications such as binary optical switches and positioners, surfaces with morphing topologies, and impulse locomotion in micro or millimeter scale robotics.

  7. Distributed control system for rapid astronomical transient detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wren, James A.; Borozdin, Konstantin N.; Brumby, Steven P.; Casperson, Donald E.; Galassi, Mark C.; McGowan, Katherine; Starr, Daniel; Vestrand, W. T.; White, Robert; Wozniak, Przemek

    2002-11-01

    The Rapid Telescope for Optical Response (RAPTOR) program consists of a network of robotic telescopes dedicated to the search for fast optical transients. The pilot project is composed of three observatories separated by approximately 38 kilometers located near Los Alamos, New Mexico. Each of these observatories is composed of a telescope, mount, enclosure, and weather station, all operating robotically to perform individual or coordinated transient searches. The telescopes employ rapidly slewing mounts capable of slewing a 250 pound load 180 degrees in under 2 seconds with arcsecond precision. Each telescope consists of wide-field cameras for transient detection and a narrow-field camera with greater resolution and sensitivity. The telescopes work together by employing a closed-loop system for transient detection and follow-up. Using the combined data from simultaneous observations, transient alerts are generated and distributed via the Internet. Each RAPTOR telescope also has the capability of rapidly responding to external transient alerts received over the Internet from a variety of ground-based and satellite sources. Each observatory may be controlled directly, remotely, or robotically while providing state-of-health and observational results to the client and the other RAPTOR observatories. We discuss the design and implementation of the spatially distributed RAPTOR system.

  8. Rapid amygdala responses during trace fear conditioning without awareness.

    PubMed

    Balderston, Nicholas L; Schultz, Douglas H; Baillet, Sylvain; Helmstetter, Fred J

    2014-01-01

    The role of consciousness in learning has been debated for nearly 50 years. Recent studies suggest that conscious awareness is needed to bridge the gap when learning about two events that are separated in time, as is true for trace fear conditioning. This has been repeatedly shown and seems to apply to other forms of classical conditioning as well. In contrast to these findings, we show that individuals can learn to associate a face with the later occurrence of a shock, even if they are unable to perceive the face. We used a novel application of magnetoencephalography (MEG) to non-invasively record neural activity from the amygdala, which is known to be important for fear learning. We demonstrate rapid (∼ 170-200 ms) amygdala responses during the stimulus free period between the face and the shock. These results suggest that unperceived faces can serve as signals for impending threat, and that rapid, automatic activation of the amygdala contributes to this process. In addition, we describe a methodology that can be applied in the future to study neural activity with MEG in other subcortical structures. PMID:24823365

  9. A perspective on multisensory integration and rapid perturbation responses.

    PubMed

    Cluff, Tyler; Crevecoeur, Frédéric; Scott, Stephen H

    2015-05-01

    In order to perform accurate movements, the nervous system must transform sensory feedback into motor commands that compensate for errors caused by motor variability and external disturbances. Recent studies focusing on the importance of sensory feedback in motor control have illustrated that the brain generates highly flexible responses to visual perturbations (hand-cursor or target jumps), or following mechanical loads applied to the limb. These parallel approaches have emphasized sophisticated, goal-directed feedback control, but also reveal that flexible perturbation responses are expressed at different latencies depending on what sensory system is engaged by the perturbation. Across studies, goal-directed visuomotor responses consistently emerge in muscle activity ∼100ms after a perturbation, while mechanical perturbations evoke goal-directed muscle responses in as little as ∼60ms (long-latency responses). We discuss the limitation of current models of multisensory integration in light of these asynchronous processing delays, and suggest that understanding how the brain performs real-time multisensory integration is an open question for future studies. PMID:25014401

  10. Rapid scanning system for fuel drawers

    DOEpatents

    Caldwell, John T.; Fehlau, Paul E.; France, Stephen W.

    1981-01-01

    A nondestructive method for uniqely distinguishing among and quantifying the mass of individual fuel plates in situ in fuel drawers utilized in nuclear reactors is described. The method is both rapid and passive, eliminating the personnel hazard of the commonly used irradiation techniques which require that the analysis be performed in proximity to an intense neutron source such as a reactor. In the present technique, only normally decaying nuclei are observed. This allows the analysis to be performed anywhere. This feature, combined with rapid scanning of a given fuel drawer (in approximately 30 s), and the computer data analysis allows the processing of large numbers of fuel drawers efficiently in the event of a loss alert.

  11. Rapid scanning system for fuel drawers

    DOEpatents

    Caldwell, J.T.; Fehlau, P.E.; France, S.W.

    A nondestructive method for uniquely distinguishing among and quantifying the mass of individual fuel plates in situ in fuel drawers utilized in nuclear reactors is described. The method is both rapid and passive, eliminating the personnel hazard of the commonly used irradiation techniques which require that the analysis be performed in proximity to an intense neutron source such as a reactor. In the present technique, only normally decaying nuclei are observed. This allows the analysis to be performed anywhere. This feature, combined with rapid scanning of a given fuel drawer (in approximately 30 s), and the computer data analysis allows the processing of large numbers of fuel drawers efficiently in the event of a loss alert.

  12. Rapid E-Learning Simulation Training and User Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rackler, Angeline

    2011-01-01

    A new trend in e-learning development is to have subject matter experts use rapid development tools to create training simulations. This type of training is called rapid e-learning simulation training. Though companies are using rapid development tools to create training quickly and cost effectively, there is little empirical research to indicate…

  13. Environmentally responsive graphene systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Song, Long; Zhang, Zhipan; Chen, Nan; Qu, Liangti

    2014-06-12

    Graphene materials have been attracting significant research interest in the past few years, with the recent focuses on graphene-based electronic devices and smart stimulus-responsive systems that have a certain degree of automatism. Owing to its huge specific surface area, large room-temperature electron mobility, excellent mechanical flexibility, exceptionally high thermal conductivity and environmental stability, graphene is identified as a beneficial additive or an effective responding component by itself to improve the conductivity, flexibility, mechanical strength and/or the overall responsive performance of smart systems. In this review article, we aim to present the recent advances in graphene systems that are of spontaneous responses to external stimulations, such as environmental variation in pH, temperature, electric current, light, moisture and even gas ambient. These smart stimulus-responsive graphene systems are believed to have great theoretical and practical interests to a wide range of device applications including actuators, switches, robots, sensors, drug/gene deliveries, etc. PMID:24376152

  14. Collaborative Intervention of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome: Rapid Response Team

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    On May 20th 2015, a 68 year old man was the first to be diagnosed with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-Corona Virus (MERS-CoV) in Korea. He travelled to Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, and Qatar for 16 days. On May 4th 2015, the patient entered Korea, with febrile sense and respiratory symptoms that appeared on May 11th. The MERS-CoV Outbreak became worse and several patients had to be admitted throughout various hospitals starting at the beginning of June. This situation led to a nationwide chaos. The Rapid Response Team (RRT) was organized after the Korean government's calling for specialists that were composed of 15 Infectious disease Doctors and 2 Infection Control professionals on the 8th of June 2015. The main purpose of the RRT were: 1) consultation to the Government controlling MERS-CoV outbreak. 2) Visit hospitals that were exposed to MERS-CoV infected patients, and to provide advice regarding infection control strategy for rehabilitating of the exposed hospitals. Since June 8th, the RRT visited more than 10 hospitals and an effective consultation was carried out. Most of the hospitals were recovering from the MERS outbreak since early July. Cooperation between the government and private sector experts was very effective. The efforts of government and private sector experts overcame the initial chaos situation. It could prevent further deterioration of the MERS outbreak. PMID:27433376

  15. Fast and Furious: Rapid Response to Young Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yi; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Nugent, Peter E.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.

    2016-01-01

    Observations of supernovae within a few days of their explosion provide entirely diagnostics to probe the nature of supernova progenitors. Since 2013, I have used the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) to systematically study extraordinarily young supernovae. In this talk, I will give an overview of iPTF survey design, summarize the design and implementation of the near real-time discovery pipeline and then describe the rapid-response follow-up. The highlights from my thesis are: 1) We observed a strong declining UV emission from a low-velocity Type Ia supernova which is consistent with the expected emission from a supernova slamming into a companion star. Evidently some Type Ia supernovae arise from the so-called "single degenerate" channel. 2) We identified the first progenitor candidate of a Type Ib supernova in the pre-explosion HST images. Our multi-wavelength observations of this young Type Ib supernova constrain its progenitor to be smaller than several solar radii and with strong mass loss, consistent with our current ideas that the progenitor should be a Wolf-Rayet star. I will end my talk with prospects for this field with the upcoming Zwicky Transient Facility.

  16. Swift: a Multi-frequency Rapid Response Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swift Team

    2006-01-01

    Swift is a rapid-response, multi-wavelength space observatory dedicated to gamma-ray burst astronomy. The mission, an international collaboration between USA, Italy and UK, is scheduled for launch in October 2004. Swift will carry on-board a wide-field coded-mask gamma-ray camera, a X-ray telescope and a UV-Optical telescope, providing wide and narrow field-of-view instruments capability. The gamma ray camera is expected to detect and image ≈100 150 GRBs per year with a few arcminutes position accuracy. Following a GRB detection the Swift spacecraft will autonomously point its narrow-field telescopes towards the sources within 20-70 seconds to determine arcsec and subarcsec positions accuracy together with detailed spectral and timing information. The accurate positions will be quickly transmitted to the ground thus enabling the timely use of the most advanced ground- and space-based telescopes to gather high quality spectra during the early, brightest phases of the afterglow.

  17. Sensor Webs: Autonomous Rapid Response to Monitor Transient Science Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandl, Dan; Grosvenor, Sandra; Frye, Stu; Sherwood, Robert; Chien, Steve; Davies, Ashley; Cichy, Ben; Ingram, Mary Ann; Langley, John; Miranda, Felix

    2005-01-01

    To better understand how physical phenomena, such as volcanic eruptions, evolve over time, multiple sensor observations over the duration of the event are required. Using sensor web approaches that integrate original detections by in-situ sensors and global-coverage, lower-resolution, on-orbit assets with automated rapid response observations from high resolution sensors, more observations of significant events can be made with increased temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution. This paper describes experiments using Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) along with other space and ground assets to implement progressive mission autonomy to identify, locate and image with high resolution instruments phenomena such as wildfires, volcanoes, floods and ice breakup. The software that plans, schedules and controls the various satellite assets are used to form ad hoc constellations which enable collaborative autonomous image collections triggered by transient phenomena. This software is both flight and ground based and works in concert to run all of the required assets cohesively and includes software that is model-based, artificial intelligence software.

  18. Medical Rapid Response in Psychiatry: Reasons for Activation and Immediate Outcome.

    PubMed

    Manu, Peter; Loewenstein, Kristy; Girshman, Yankel J; Bhatia, Padam; Barnes, Maira; Whelan, Joseph; Solderitch, Victoria A; Rogozea, Liliana; McManus, Marybeth

    2015-12-01

    Rapid response teams are used to improve the recognition of acute deteriorations in medical and surgical settings. They are activated by abnormal physiological parameters, symptoms or clinical concern, and are believed to decrease hospital mortality rates. We evaluated the reasons for activation and the outcome of rapid response interventions in a 222-bed psychiatric hospital in New York City using data obtained at the time of all activations from January through November, 2012. The primary outcome was the admission rate to a medical or surgical unit for each of the main reasons for activation. The 169 activations were initiated by nursing staff (78.7 %) and psychiatrists (13 %) for acute changes in condition (64.5 %), abnormal physiological parameters (27.2 %) and non-specified concern (8.3 %). The most common reasons for activation were chest pain (14.2 %), fluctuating level of consciousness (9.5 %), hypertension (9.5 %), syncope or fall (8.9 %), hypotension (8.3 %), dyspnea (7.7 %) and seizures (5.9 %). The rapid response team transferred 127 (75.2 %) patients to the Emergency Department and 46 (27.2 %) were admitted to a medical or surgical unit. The admission rates were statistically similar for acute changes in condition, abnormal physiological parameters, and clinicians' concern. In conclusion, a majority of rapid response activations in a self-standing psychiatric hospital were initiated by nursing staff for changes in condition, rather than for policy-specified abnormal physiological parameters. The findings suggest that a rapid response system may empower psychiatric nurses to use their clinical skills to identify patients requiring urgent transfer to a general hospital. PMID:25796608

  19. Rapid Response Risk Assessment in New Project Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graber, Robert R.

    2010-01-01

    A capability for rapidly performing quantitative risk assessments has been developed by JSC Safety and Mission Assurance for use on project design trade studies early in the project life cycle, i.e., concept development through preliminary design phases. A risk assessment tool set has been developed consisting of interactive and integrated software modules that allow a user/project designer to assess the impact of alternative design or programmatic options on the probability of mission success or other risk metrics. The risk and design trade space includes interactive options for selecting parameters and/or metrics for numerous design characteristics including component reliability characteristics, functional redundancy levels, item or system technology readiness levels, and mission event characteristics. This capability is intended for use on any project or system development with a defined mission, and an example project will used for demonstration and descriptive purposes, e.g., landing a robot on the moon. The effects of various alternative design considerations and their impact of these decisions on mission success (or failure) can be measured in real time on a personal computer. This capability provides a high degree of efficiency for quickly providing information in NASA s evolving risk-based decision environment

  20. Rapid surface sampling and archival record system

    SciTech Connect

    Barren, E.; Penney, C.M.; Sheldon, R.B.

    1995-10-01

    A number of contamination sites exist in this country where the area and volume of material to be remediated is very large, approaching or exceeding 10{sup 6} m{sup 2} and 10{sup 6} m{sup 3}. Typically, only a small fraction of this material is actually contaminated. In such cases there is a strong economic motivation to test the material with a sufficient density of measurements to identify which portions are uncontaminated, so extensively they be left in place or be disposed of as uncontaminated waste. Unfortunately, since contamination often varies rapidly from position to position, this procedure can involve upwards of one million measurements per site. The situation is complicated further in many cases by the difficulties of sampling porous surfaces, such as concrete. This report describes a method for sampling concretes in which an immediate distinction can be made between contaminated and uncontaminated surfaces. Sample acquisition and analysis will be automated.

  1. In vivo relevance for photoprotection by the vitamin D rapid response pathway.

    PubMed

    Dixon, K M; Deo, S S; Norman, A W; Bishop, J E; Halliday, G M; Reeve, V E; Mason, R S

    2007-03-01

    Vitamin D is produced by exposure of 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin to UV irradiation (UVR) and further converted in the skin to the biologically active metabolite, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) and other compounds. UVR also results in DNA damage producing cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD). We previously reported that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) at picomolar concentrations, protects human skin cells from UVR-induced apoptosis, and decreases CPD in surviving cells. 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) has been shown to generate biological responses via two pathways-the classical steroid receptor/genomic pathway or a rapid, non-genomic pathway mediated by a putative membrane receptor. Whether the rapid response pathway is physiologically relevant is unclear. A cis-locked, rapid-acting agonist 1,25(OH)(2)lumisterol(3) (JN), entirely mimicked the actions of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) to reduce fibroblast and keratinocyte loss and CPD damage after UVR. The effects of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) were abolished by a rapid-acting antagonist, but not by a genomic antagonist. Skh:hr1 mice exposed to three times the minimal erythemal dose of solar-simulated UVR and treated topically with 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) or JN immediately after UVR showed reduction in UVR-induced UVR-induced sunburn cells (p<0.01 and <0.05, respectively), CPD (p<0.01 for both) and immunosuppression (p<0.001 for both) compared with vehicle-treated mice. These results show for the first time an in vivo biological response mediated by a rapid-acting analog of the vitamin D system. The data support the hypothesis that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) exerts its photoprotective effects via the rapid pathway and raise the possibility that other D compounds produced in skin may contribute to the photoprotective effects. PMID:17223553

  2. Rapid phenotyping of alfalfa root system architecture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root system architecture (RSA) influences the capacity of an alfalfa plant for symbiotic nitrogen fixation, nutrient uptake and water use efficiency, resistance to frost heaving, winterhardiness, and some pest and pathogen resistance. However, we currently lack a basic understanding of root system d...

  3. Estradiol rapidly modulates odor responses in mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Cherian, S; Wai Lam, Y; McDaniels, I; Struziak, M; Delay, R J

    2014-06-01

    In rodents, many social behaviors are driven by the sense of smell. The vomeronasal organ (VNO), part of the accessory olfactory system mediates many of these chemically driven behaviors. The VNO is heavily vascularized, and is readily accessible to circulating peptide or steroid hormones. Potentially, this allows circulating hormones to alter behavior through modulating the output of the primary sensory neurons in the VNO, the vomeronasal sensory neurons (VSNs). Based on this, we hypothesized that steroid hormones, in particular 17β-estradiol, would modulate activity of VSNs. In this paper, we show that the estrogen receptors, GPR30 and ERα, were present in VSNs and that estradiol may be synthesized locally in the VNO. Our results also showed that 17β-estradiol decreased responses of isolated VSNs to dilute urine, a potent natural stimulus, with respect to current amplitudes and depolarization. Further, 17β-estradiol increased the latency of the first action potential (AP) and the AP amplitude. Additionally, calcium responses to sulfated steroids (present in the low molecular weight fraction of urine) that act as ligands for apical vomeronasal receptors were decreased by 17β-estradiol. In conclusion, we show that estradiol modulates odorant responses mediated by VSNs and hence paves the way for future studies to better understand the mechanisms by which odorant mediated behavior is altered by endocrine status of the animal. PMID:24680884

  4. Rapid-Response Impulsivity: Definitions, Measurement Issues, and Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Kristen R.; Littlefield, Andrew K.; Anastasio, Noelle C.; Cunningham, Kathryn A.; Fink, Latham H.; Wing, Victoria C.; Mathias, Charles W.; Lane, Scott D.; Schutz, Christian; Swann, Alan C.; Lejuez, C.W.; Clark, Luke; Moeller, F. Gerard; Potenza, Marc N.

    2015-01-01

    Impulsivity is a multi-faceted construct that is a core feature of multiple psychiatric conditions and personality disorders. However, progress in understanding and treating impulsivity in the context of these conditions is limited by a lack of precision and consistency in its definition and assessment. Rapid-response-impulsivity (RRI) represents a tendency toward immediate action that occurs with diminished forethought and is out of context with the present demands of the environment. Experts from the International Society for Research on Impulsivity (InSRI) met to discuss and evaluate RRI-measures in terms of reliability, sensitivity, and validity with the goal of helping researchers and clinicians make informed decisions about the use and interpretation of findings from RRI-measures. Their recommendations are described in this manuscript. Commonly-used clinical and preclinical RRI-tasks are described, and considerations are provided to guide task selection. Tasks measuring two conceptually and neurobiologically distinct types of RRI, “refraining from action initiation” (RAI) and “stopping an ongoing action” (SOA) are described. RAI and SOA-tasks capture distinct aspects of RRI that may relate to distinct clinical outcomes. The InSRI group recommends that: 1) selection of RRI-measures should be informed by careful consideration of the strengths, limitations, and practical considerations of the available measures; 2) researchers use both RAI and SOA tasks in RRI studies to allow for direct comparison of RRI types and examination of their associations with clinically relevant measures; and, 3) similar considerations should be made for human and non-human studies in an effort to harmonize and integrate pre-clinical and clinical research. PMID:25867840

  5. Spectrophotometric Rapid-Response Classification of Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mommert, Michael; Trilling, David; Butler, Nat; Axelrod, Tim; Moskovitz, Nick; Jedicke, Robert; Pichardo, Barbara; Reyes-Ruiz, Mauricio

    2015-08-01

    Small NEOs are, as a whole, poorly characterized, and we know nothing about the physical properties of the majority of all NEOs. The rate of NEO discoveries is increasing each year, and projects to determine the physical properties of NEOs are lagging behind. NEOs are faint, and generally even fainter by the time that follow-up characterizations can be made days or weeks after their discovery. There is a need for a high-throughput, high-efficiency physical characterization strategy in which hundreds of faint NEOs can be characterized each year. Broadband photometry in the near-infrared is sufficiently diagnostic to assign taxonomic types, and hence constrain both the individual and ensemble properties of NEOs.We present results from our rapid response near-infrared spectrophotometric characterization program of NEOs. We are using UKIRT (on Mauna Kea) and the RATIR instrument on the 1.5m telescope at the San Pedro Martir Observatory (Mexico) to allow us to make observations most nights of the year in robotic/queue mode. We derive taxonomic classifications for our targets using machine-learning techniques that are trained on a large sample of measured asteroid spectra. For each target we assign a probability for it to belong to a number of different taxa. Target selection, observation, data reduction, and analysis are highly automated, requiring only a minimum of user interaction, making this technique powerful and fast. Our targets are NEOs that are generally too faint for other characterization techniques, or would require many hours of large telescope time.

  6. A rapid response 64-channel photomultiplier tube camera for high-speed flow velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ecker, Tobias; Lowe, K. Todd; Ng, Wing F.

    2015-02-01

    In this technical design note, the development of a rapid response photomultiplier tube camera, leveraging field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA) for high-speed flow velocimetry at up to 10 MHz is described. Technically relevant flows, for example, supersonic inlets and exhaust jets, have time scales on the order of microseconds, and their experimental study requires resolution of these timescales for fundamental insight. The inherent rapid response time attributes of a 64-channel photomultiplier array were coupled with two-stage amplifiers on each anode, and were acquired using a FPGA-based system. Application of FPGA allows high data acquisition rates with many channels as well as on-the-fly preprocessing techniques. Results are presented for optical velocimetry in supersonic free jet flows, demonstrating the value of the technique in the chosen application example for determining supersonic shear layer velocity correlation maps.

  7. A rapid, precise, reciprocating-movement color filter system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillipps, P. G.; Epstein, P.; Donovan, G.; Lawhite, E.

    1972-01-01

    Unit was designed for moving color filters in and out of position in less than 46 ms. System may be used to record previously derived colors on photorecorder or to scan different color or wavelength components of rapidly passing scene, as in aerial reconnaissance. Rapid, precise reciprocating movement may be useful in purely mechanical and chemical applications.

  8. Nanostructured microfluidic digestion system for rapid high-performance proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Gong; Hao, Si-Jie; Yu, Xu

    2014-01-01

    A novel microfluidic protein digestion system with nanostructured and bioactive inner surface was constructed by an easy biomimetic self-assembly strategy for rapid and effective proteolysis in 2 minutes, which is faster than the conventional overnight digestion methods. It is expected that this work would contribute to rapid online digestion in future high-throughput proteomics. PMID:25511010

  9. [Rapid identification of Enterobacteriaceae: evaluation of 3 commercial systems].

    PubMed

    Sala, A; Dore, R; Raffaele, L; Cappello, P

    1985-06-01

    We have compared three rapid systems for the identification of Enterobacteriaceae: MS-2, Rapid 20E, Micro-ID. These methods allows to identifications of bacteria within 4-5 hours. We have chosen API 20E as reference system; because it is normally used in the clinical microbiology laboratories. We have noted good agreement of concordance for MS-2, Micro-ID and Rapid 20E towards API 20E, respectively 95, 90, 84%. We have, moreover, analysed significative difference about three systems biochemical tests in comparison with the same of API 20E. PMID:4080964

  10. Rapid Visuomotor Corrective Responses during Transport of Hand-Held Objects Incorporate Novel Object Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Jonathan S; Nashed, Joseph Y; Johansson, Roland S; Wolpert, Daniel M; Flanagan, J Randall

    2015-07-22

    Numerous studies have shown that people are adept at learning novel object dynamics, linking applied force and motion, when performing reaching movements with hand-held objects. Here we investigated whether the control of rapid corrective arm responses, elicited in response to visual perturbations, has access to such newly acquired knowledge of object dynamics. Participants first learned to make reaching movements while grasping an object subjected to complex load forces that depended on the distance and angle of the hand from the start position. During a subsequent test phase, we examined grip and load force coordination during corrective arm movements elicited (within ∼150 ms) in response to viewed sudden lateral shifts (1.5 cm) in target or object position. We hypothesized that, if knowledge of object dynamics is incorporated in the control of the corrective responses, grip force changes would anticipate the unusual load force changes associated with the corrective arm movements so as to support grasp stability. Indeed, we found that the participants generated grip force adjustments tightly coupled, both spatially and temporally, to the load force changes associated with the arm movement corrections. We submit that recently learned novel object dynamics are effectively integrated into sensorimotor control policies that support rapid visually driven arm corrective actions during transport of hand held objects. Significance statement: Previous studies have demonstrated that the motor system can learn, and make use of, internal models of object dynamics to generate feedforward motor commands. However, it is not known whether such internal models are incorporated into rapid, automatic arm movement corrections that compensate for errors that arise during movement. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, that internal models of novel object dynamics are integrated into rapid corrective arm movements made in response to visuomotor perturbations that, importantly, do

  11. Rapid Training System Self-Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flesher, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    A systematic self-assessment mirrors quality system and certification models, thus making a strong argument for high-quality design, control, and management of the training function. Accomplished for the ongoing betterment of the function, not as a summative judgment of conformance, it discovers strengths and weaknesses and results in a common…

  12. Camera Systems Rapidly Scan Large Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    Needing a method to quickly scan large structures like an aircraft wing, Langley Research Center developed the line scanning thermography (LST) system. LST works in tandem with a moving infrared camera to capture how a material responds to changes in temperature. Princeton Junction, New Jersey-based MISTRAS Group Inc. now licenses the technology and uses it in power stations and industrial plants.

  13. Rapid response predicts treatment outcomes in binge eating disorder: implications for stepped care.

    PubMed

    Masheb, Robin M; Grilo, Carlos M

    2007-08-01

    The authors examined rapid response in 75 overweight patients with binge eating disorder (BED) who participated in a randomized clinical trial of guided self-help treatments (cognitive-behavioral therapy [CBTgsh] and behavioral weight loss [BWLgsh]). Rapid response, defined as a 65% or greater reduction in binge eating by the 4th treatment week, occurred in 62% of CBTgsh and 47% of BWLgsh participants. Rapid response was unrelated to most patient characteristics except for eating psychopathology and depressive symptoms. Participants with rapid response were more likely to achieve binge remission and had greater improvements in overall eating pathology and depressive symptomatology than participants without rapid response. Rapid response had different prognostic significance for the 2 treatments. In terms of binge eating, participants receiving CBTgsh, but not BWLgsh, did equally well regardless of whether they experienced rapid response. In terms of increasing restraint and weight loss, participants with rapid response receiving BWLgsh had greater restraint and weight loss than participants receiving CBTgsh. Rapid response has utility for predicting outcomes, provides evidence for specificity of treatment effects, and has implications for stepped care treatment models of BED. PMID:17663617

  14. Rapid Response Measurements of Hurricane Waves and Storm Surge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravois, U.

    2010-12-01

    Andrew (1992), Katrina (2005), and Ike (2008) are recent examples of extensive damage that resulted from direct hurricane landfall. Some of the worst damages from these hurricanes are caused by wind driven waves and storm surge flooding. The potential for more hurricane disasters like these continues to increase as a result of population growth and real estate development in low elevation coastal regions. Observational measurements of hurricane waves and storm surge play an important role in future mitigation efforts, yet permanent wave buoy moorings and tide stations are more sparse than desired. This research has developed a rapid response method using helicopters to install temporary wave and surge gauges ahead of hurricane landfall. These temporary installations, with target depths from 10-15 m and 1-7 km offshore depending on the local shelf slope, increase the density of measurement points where the worst conditions are expected. The method has progressed to an operational state and has successfully responded to storms Ernesto (2006), Noel (2007), Fay (2008), Gustav (2008), Hanna (2008) and Ike (2008). The temporary gauges are pressure data loggers that measure at 1 Hz continuously for 12 days and are post-processed to extract surge and wave information. For the six storms studied, 45 out of 49 sensors were recovered by boat led scuba diver search teams, with 43 providing useful data for an 88 percent success rate. As part of the 20 sensor Hurricane Gustav response, sensors were also deployed in lakes and bays inLouisiana, east of the Mississippi river delta. Gustav was the largest deployment to date. Generally efforts were scaled back for storms that were not anticipated to be highly destructive. For example, the cumulative total of sensors deployed for Ernesto, Noel, Fay and Hanna was only 20. Measurement locations for Gustav spanned over 800 km of exposed coastline from Louisiana to Florida with sensors in close proximity to landfall near Cocodrie

  15. Rapid micro-PCR system for hepatitis C virus amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu-Cheng; Huang, Ming-Yuan; Young, Kung-Chia; Chang, Ting-Tsung; Wu, Ching-Yi

    2000-08-01

    A rapid micro-polymerase chain reaction ((mu) -PCR) system was integrated to amplify the complementary DNA (cDNA) molecules of hepatitis C virus (HCV). This system consists of a rapid thermal cycling system and a (mu) PCR chip fabricated by MEMS fabrication techniques. This rapid (mu) PCR system is verified by using serum samples from patients with chronic hepatitis C. The HCV amplicon of the rapid (mu) PCR system was analyzed by slab gel electrophoresis with separation of DNA marker in parallel. The (mu) PCR chip was fabricated on silicon wafer and Pyrex glass using photolithography, wet etching, and anodic bonding methods. Using silicon material to fabricate the raction well improves the temperature uniformity of sample and helps to reach the desired temperature faster. The rapid close loop thermal cycling system comprises power supplies, a thermal generator, a computer control PID controller, and a data acquisition subsystem. The thermoelectric (T.E.) cooler is used to work as the thermal generator and a heat sink by controlling the polarity of supplied power. The (mu) PCR system was verified with traditional PCR equipment by loading the same PCR mixture with HCV cDNA and running the same cycle numbers, then comparing both HCV amplicon slab gel electrophoresis. The HCV amplicon from the (mu) PCR system shows a DNA fragment with an expected size of 145 base pairs. The background is lower with the (mu) PCR system than that with the tradional PCR equipment. Comparing the traditional PCR equipment which spends 5.5 hours for 30 cycles to gain the detectable amount of HCV amplicon in slab gel separation, this (mu) PCR system takes 30 minutes to finish the 30 thermal cycles. This work has demonstrated that this rapid (mu) PCR system can provide rapid heat generation and dissipation, improved temperature uniformity in DNA amplification.

  16. Application of NASA technology to a rapid transit system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preston, E. R.; Beck, P. E.

    1978-01-01

    NASA has established a new technology utilization program which involves full time, on-site contact with the user and is currently being applied in the development of the Metropolitan Dade County (Florida) Rapid Transit System. The NASA representative identifies technical problems while participating in daily activities and then draws on the agency's expertise to assist in solutions. NASA expertise assists in the construction of the rapid transit system in the areas of corrosion, solar energy utilization, quality assurance, and fire retardation.

  17. Light-Activated Rapid-Response Polyvinylidene-Fluoride-Based Flexible Films.

    PubMed

    Tai, Yanlong; Lubineau, Gilles; Yang, Zhenguo

    2016-06-01

    The design strategy and mechanical response mechanism of light-activated, rapid-response, flexible films are presented. Practical applications as a microrobot and a smart spring are demonstrated. PMID:27061392

  18. NASA MSFC Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) Rapid Quench System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Craven, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Electrostatic levitation, a form of containerless processing, is an important tool in materials research. Levitated specimens are free from contact with a container; therefore, heterogeneous nucleation on container walls is not possible. This allows studies of deeply undercooled melts. Furthermore, studies of high-temperature, highly reactive materials are also possible. Studies of the solidification and crystallization of undercooled melts is vital to the understanding of microstructure development, particularly the formation of alloys with unique properties by rapid solidification. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) lab has recently been upgraded to allow for rapid quenching of levitated materials. The ESL Rapid Quench System uses a small crucible-like vessel that can be partially filled with a low melting point material, such as a Gallium alloy, as a quench medium. An undercooled sample can be dropped into the vessel to rapidly quench the sample. A carousel with nine vessels sits below the bottom electrode assembly. This system allows up to nine rapid quenches before having to break vacuum and remove the vessels. This new Rapid Quench System will allow materials science studies of undercooled materials and new materials development. In this presentation, the system is described and initial results are presented.

  19. Rapid Response Predicts Treatment Outcomes in Binge Eating Disorder: Implications for Stepped Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masheb, Robin M.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined rapid response in 75 overweight patients with binge eating disorder (BED) who participated in a randomized clinical trial of guided self-help treatments (cognitive-behavioral therapy [CBTgsh] and behavioral weight loss [BWLgsh]). Rapid response, defined as a 65% or greater reduction in binge eating by the 4th treatment week,…

  20. 20 CFR 665.320 - May other activities be undertaken as part of rapid response?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May other activities be undertaken as part of rapid response? 665.320 Section 665.320 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEWIDE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Rapid Response Activities § 665.320...

  1. Rapid prototyping of database systems in human genetics data collection.

    PubMed

    Gersting, J M

    1987-06-01

    This work examines some of the problems encountered in developing small and large database application systems involving human genetics data collection efforts that include data on individuals as well as family pedigree data. Rapid prototyping of a database application requires software tools to produce the application with little or no programming. Features of MEGADATS-4 that provide for rapid prototyping and for producing stand-alone applications are examined. PMID:3668405

  2. Hyperspectral Cubesat Constellation for Rapid Natural Hazard Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandl, D.; Huemmrich, K. F.; Ly, V. T.; Handy, M.; Ong, L.; Crum, G.

    2015-12-01

    With the advent of high performance space networks that provide total coverage for Cubesats, the paradigm for low cost, high temporal coverage with hyperspectral instruments becomes more feasible. The combination of ground cloud computing resources, high performance with low power consumption onboard processing, total coverage for the cubesats and social media provide an opprotunity for an architecture that provides cost-effective hyperspectral data products for natural hazard response and decision support. This paper provides a series of pathfinder efforts to create a scalable Intelligent Payload Module(IPM) that has flown on a variety of airborne vehicles including Cessna airplanes, Citation jets and a helicopter and will fly on an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) hexacopter to monitor natural phenomena. The IPM's developed thus far were developed on platforms that emulate a satellite environment which use real satellite flight software, real ground software. In addition, science processing software has been developed that perform hyperspectral processing onboard using various parallel processing techniques to enable creation of onboard hyperspectral data products while consuming low power. A cubesat design was developed that is low cost and that is scalable to larger consteallations and thus can provide daily hyperspectral observations for any spot on earth. The design was based on the existing IPM prototypes and metrics that were developed over the past few years and a shrunken IPM that can perform up to 800 Mbps throughput. Thus this constellation of hyperspectral cubesats could be constantly monitoring spectra with spectral angle mappers after Level 0, Level 1 Radiometric Correction, Atmospheric Correction processing. This provides the opportunity daily monitoring of any spot on earth on a daily basis at 30 meter resolution which is not available today.

  3. Research and Development of Rapid Design Systems for Aerospace Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaeffer, Harry G.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the results of research activities associated with the development of rapid design systems for aerospace structures in support of the Intelligent Synthesis Environment (ISE). The specific subsystems investigated were the interface between model assembly and analysis; and, the high performance NASA GPS equation solver software system in the Windows NT environment on low cost high-performance PCs.

  4. Caspase-11 stimulates rapid flagellin-independent pyroptosis in response to Legionella pneumophila.

    PubMed

    Case, Christopher L; Kohler, Lara J; Lima, Jonilson B; Strowig, Till; de Zoete, Marcel R; Flavell, Richard A; Zamboni, Dario S; Roy, Craig R

    2013-01-29

    A flagellin-independent caspase-1 activation pathway that does not require NAIP5 or NRLC4 is induced by the intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila. Here we demonstrate that this pathway requires caspase-11. Treatment of macrophages with LPS up-regulated the host components required for this caspase-11 activation pathway. Activation by Legionella differed from caspase-11 activation using previously described agonists in that Legionella caspase-11 activation was rapid and required bacteria with a functional type IV secretion system called Dot/Icm. Legionella activation of caspase-11 induced pyroptosis by a mechanism independent of the NAIP/NLRC4 and caspase-1 axis. Legionella activation of caspase-11 stimulated activation of caspase-1 through NLRP3 and ASC. Induction of caspase-11-dependent responses occurred in macrophages deficient in the adapter proteins TRIF or MyD88 but not in macrophages deficient in both signaling factors. Although caspase-11 was produced in macrophages deficient in the type-I IFN receptor, there was a severe defect in caspase-11-dependent pyroptosis in these cells. These data indicate that macrophages respond to microbial signatures to produce proteins that mediate a capsase-11 response and that the caspase-11 system provides an alternative pathway for rapid detection of an intracellular pathogen capable of evading the canonical caspase-1 activation system that responds to bacterial flagellin. PMID:23307811

  5. Methods and systems for rapid prototyping of high density circuits

    DOEpatents

    Palmer, Jeremy A.; Davis, Donald W.; Chavez, Bart D.; Gallegos, Phillip L.; Wicker, Ryan B.; Medina, Francisco R.

    2008-09-02

    A preferred embodiment provides, for example, a system and method of integrating fluid media dispensing technology such as direct-write (DW) technologies with rapid prototyping (RP) technologies such as stereolithography (SL) to provide increased micro-fabrication and micro-stereolithography. A preferred embodiment of the present invention also provides, for example, a system and method for Rapid Prototyping High Density Circuit (RPHDC) manufacturing of solderless connectors and pilot devices with terminal geometries that are compatible with DW mechanisms and reduce contact resistance where the electrical system is encapsulated within structural members and manual electrical connections are eliminated in favor of automated DW traces. A preferred embodiment further provides, for example, a method of rapid prototyping comprising: fabricating a part layer using stereolithography and depositing thermally curable media onto the part layer using a fluid dispensing apparatus.

  6. The Requirements and Design of the Rapid Prototyping Capabilities System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haupt, T. A.; Moorhead, R.; O'Hara, C.; Anantharaj, V.

    2006-12-01

    cyberinfrastructure must support organizing computations (or "data transformations" in general) into complex workflows with resource discovery, automatic resource allocation, monitoring, preserving provenance as well as to aggregate heterogeneous, distributed data into knowledge databases. Such service orchestration is the responsibility of the "collective services" layer. For RPC, this layer will be based on Java Business Integration (JBI, [JSR-208]) specification which is a standards-based integration platform that combines messaging, web services, data transformation, and intelligent routing to reliably connect and coordinate the interaction of significant numbers of diverse applications (plug-in components) across organizational boundaries. JBI concept is a new approach to integration that can provide the underpinnings for loosely coupled, highly distributed integration network that can scale beyond the limits of currently used hub-and-spoke brokers. This presentation discusses the requirements, design and early prototype of the NASA-sponsored RPC system under development at Mississippi State University, demonstrating the integration of data provisioning mechanisms, data transformation tools and computational models into a single interoperable system enabling rapid execution of RPC experiments.

  7. [Responses of tomato leaf photosynthesis to rapid water stress].

    PubMed

    Han, Guo-Jun; Chen, Nian-lai; Huang, Hai-xia; Zhang, Ping; Zhang, Kai; Guo, Yan-hong

    2013-04-01

    By using polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000) solution to regulate the water potential of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) rhizosphere to simulate water stress, this paper studied the dynamic changes of net photosynthetic rate, dark respiratory rate and CO2 compensatory concentration of detached tomato leaves in the process of photosynthetic induction. Under 1000 micromol m-2 s-1 of light induction, the time required to reach the maximum net photosynthetic rate of water-stressed tomato leaves was shortened by 1/3, while the stomatal conductance was increased by 1.5 times, as compared to the non-stress control. Also, the light saturation point (LSP) of water-stressed tomato leaves was lowered by 65% to 85%, and the light compensation point (LCP) was increased by 75% to 100%, suggesting that the effective range of light utilized by tomato leaves was reduced. Furthermore, water stress decreased the maximum photosynthetic capacity of tomato leaves by 40%, but increased the dark respiration rate by about 45% . It was suggested that rapid water stress made the stomata of tomato leaves quickly opened, without initial photosynthetic induction stage. In conclusion, water stress could induce the decrease of plant light-energy use efficiency and potential, being the main reason for the decrease of plant productivity, and stomatal regulation could be the main physiological mechanism of tomato plants to adapt to rapid water stress. PMID:23898660

  8. Rapid eco-evolutionary responses in perturbed phytoplankton communities.

    PubMed

    Thibodeau, Geneviève; Walsh, David A; Beisner, Beatrix E

    2015-09-01

    Biodiversity currently faces unprecedented threats owing to species extinctions. Ecologically, compensatory dynamics can ensure stable community biomass following perturbation. However, whether there is a contribution of genetic diversity to community responses is an outstanding question. To date, the contribution of evolutionary processes through genotype shifts has not been assessed in naturally co-occurring multi-species communities in the field. We examined the mechanisms contributing to the response of a lake phytoplankton community exposed to either a press or pulse acidification perturbation in lake mesocosms. To assess community shifts in the ecological response of morphospecies, we identified taxa microscopically. We also assessed genotype shifts by sequencing the ITS2 region of ribosomal DNA. We observed ecological and genetic contributions to community responses. The ecological response was attributed to compensatory morphospecies dynamics and occurred primarily in the Pulse perturbation treatment. In the Press treatments, in addition to compensatory dynamics, we observed evidence for genotype selection in two species of chlorophytes, Desmodesmus cuneatus and an unidentified Chlamydomonas. Our study demonstrates that while genotype selection may be rare, it is detectable and occurs especially when new environmental conditions are maintained for long enough to force selection processes on standing variation. PMID:26311667

  9. Structure Design and Realization of Rapid Medicine Dispensing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiangquan

    In this paper, the main components and function of rapid medicine dispensing system is analyzed, structure design of automatic feeding device, sloping storeroom, automatic dispensing device and automatic sorting device is completed. The system adopts medicine conveyer working in with manipulator to realize automatic batch supply of the boxed medicine, adopts sloping storeroom as warehouse of medicine to realize dense depositing, adopts dispensing mechanism which includes elevator, turning panel and electric magnet to realize rapid medicine dispensing, adopts sorting conveyor belt and sorting device to send medicine to designated outlet.

  10. Rapid transcriptional response of Malus to Erwinia amylovora infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Suppression subtractive cDNA hybridization (SSH) was used to identify genes that are differentially up- and down-regulated in apple (Malus X domestica) in response to challenge with Erwinia amylovora (Ea). cDNA libraries were constructed from Ea- and mock-challenged 'Gale Gala' apple leaf tissue at...

  11. 77 FR 11517 - Rapid Response Team for Transmission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... Response Team for Transmission AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, Department of Energy, DoE. ACTION: Request for information. SUMMARY: The Department of Energy's Office of Electricity... be addressed to: Lamont Jackson, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, Mail Code:...

  12. Robust Research and Rapid Response: The Plum Pox Virus Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alter, Theodore R.; Bridger, Jeffrey C.; Travis, James W.

    2004-01-01

    Universities are frequently criticized for being unresponsive to the needs of their stakeholders. In response to this perception, many institutions of higher learning have taken steps to become more productively engaged with the people, organizations, and communities they serve. In this article, we analyze the process of engagement by focusing on…

  13. Rapid Genome Response of Malus to Infection by Erwinia amylovora

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is a destructive disease of apple, pear, and other plants in the subfamily Maloideae of the Rosaceae. The goal of this study was to use a global analysis of gene expression to characterize the temporal response of apple to infection by E. amyl...

  14. Parasite predators exhibit a rapid numerical response to increased parasite abundance and reduce transmission to hosts

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Skylar R; Wyderko, Jennie A; Sheehy, Robert R; Belden, Lisa K; Wojdak, Jeremy M

    2013-01-01

    Predators of parasites have recently gained attention as important parts of food webs and ecosystems. In aquatic systems, many taxa consume free-living stages of parasites, and can thus reduce parasite transmission to hosts. However, the importance of the functional and numerical responses of parasite predators to disease dynamics is not well understood. We collected host–parasite–predator cooccurrence data from the field, and then experimentally manipulated predator abundance, parasite abundance, and the presence of alternative prey to determine the consequences for parasite transmission. The parasite predator of interest was a ubiquitous symbiotic oligochaete of mollusks, Chaetogaster limnaei limnaei, which inhabits host shells and consumes larval trematode parasites. Predators exhibited a rapid numerical response, where predator populations increased or decreased by as much as 60% in just 5 days, depending on the parasite:predator ratio. Furthermore, snail infection decreased substantially with increasing parasite predator densities, where the highest predator densities reduced infection by up to 89%. Predators of parasites can play an important role in regulating parasite transmission, even when infection risk is high, and especially when predators can rapidly respond numerically to resource pulses. We suggest that these types of interactions might have cascading effects on entire disease systems, and emphasize the importance of considering disease dynamics at the community level. PMID:24340184

  15. Staged venting of fuel cell system during rapid shutdown

    DOEpatents

    Keskula, Donald H.; Doan, Tien M.; Clingerman, Bruce J.

    2004-09-14

    A venting methodology and system for rapid shutdown of a fuel cell apparatus of the type used in a vehicle propulsion system. H.sub.2 and air flows to the fuel cell stack are slowly bypassed to the combustor upon receipt of a rapid shutdown command. The bypass occurs over a period of time (for example one to five seconds) using conveniently-sized bypass valves. Upon receipt of the rapid shutdown command, the anode inlet of the fuel cell stack is instantaneously vented to a remote vent to remove all H.sub.2 from the stack. Airflow to the cathode inlet of the fuel cell stack gradually diminishes over the bypass period, and when the airflow bypass is complete the cathode inlet is also instantaneously vented to a remote vent to eliminate pressure differentials across the stack.

  16. Staged venting of fuel cell system during rapid shutdown

    DOEpatents

    Clingerman, Bruce J.; Doan, Tien M.; Keskula, Donald H.

    2002-01-01

    A venting methodology and system for rapid shutdown of a fuel cell apparatus of the type used in a vehicle propulsion system. H.sub.2 and air flows to the fuel cell stack are slowly bypassed to the combustor upon receipt of a rapid shutdown command. The bypass occurs over a period of time (for example one to five seconds) using conveniently-sized bypass valves. Upon receipt of the rapid shutdown command, the anode inlet of the fuel cell stack is instantaneously vented to a remote vent to remove all H.sub.2 from the stack. Airflow to the cathode inlet of the fuel cell stack gradually diminishes over the bypass period, and when the airflow bypass is complete the cathode inlet is also instantaneously vented to a remote vent to eliminate pressure differentials across the stack.

  17. Automating Hyperspectral Data for Rapid Response in Volcanic Emergencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Ashley G.; Doubleday, Joshua R.; Chien, Steve A.

    2013-01-01

    In a volcanic emergency, time is of the essence. It is vital to quantify eruption parameters (thermal emission, effusion rate, location of activity) and distribute this information as quickly as possible to decision-makers in order to enable effective evaluation of eruption-related risk and hazard. The goal of this work was to automate and streamline processing of spacecraft hyperspectral data, automate product generation, and automate distribution of products. Visible and Short-Wave Infrared Images of volcanic eruption in Iceland in May 2010." class="caption" align="right">The software rapidly processes hyperspectral data, correcting for incident sunlight where necessary, and atmospheric transmission; detects thermally anomalous pixels; fits data with model black-body thermal emission spectra to determine radiant flux; calculates atmospheric convection thermal removal; and then calculates total heat loss. From these results, an estimation of effusion rate is made. Maps are generated of thermal emission and location (see figure). Products are posted online, and relevant parties notified. Effusion rate data are added to historical record and plotted to identify spikes in activity for persistently active eruptions. The entire process from start to end is autonomous. Future spacecraft, especially those in deep space, can react to detection of transient processes without the need to communicate with Earth, thus increasing science return. Terrestrially, this removes the need for human intervention.

  18. Data bases for rapid response to power reactor problems

    SciTech Connect

    Maskewitz, B.F.

    1980-01-01

    The urgency of the TMI-2 incident demanded prompt answers to an imperious situation. In responding to these challenging circumstances, both government and industry recognized deficiencies in both availability of essential retrievable data and calculational capabilities designed to respond immediately to actual abnormal events. Each responded by initiating new programs to provide a remedy for the deficiencies and to generally improve all safety measures in the nuclear power industry. Many data bases and information centers offer generic data and other technology resources which are generally useful in support of nuclear safety programs. A few centers can offer rapid access to calculational methods and associated data and more will make an effort to do so. As a beneficial spin-off from the lessons learned from TMI-2, more technical effort and financial resources will be devoted to the prevention of accidents, and to improvement of safety measures in the immediate future and for long term R and D programs by both government and the nuclear power industry.

  19. Rapid response sensor for analyzing Special Nuclear Material

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mitra, S. S.; Doron, O.; Chen, A. X.; Antolak, A. J.

    2015-06-18

    Rapid in-situ analytical techniques are attractive for characterizing Special Nuclear Material (SNM). Present techniques are time consuming, and require sample dissolution. Proof-of-principal studies are performed to demonstrate the utility of employing low energy neutrons from a portable pulsed neutron generator for non-destructive isotopic analysis of nuclear material. In particular, time-sequenced data acquisition, operating synchronously with the pulsing of a neutron generator, partitions the characteristic elemental prompt gamma-rays according to the type of the reaction; inelastic neutron scattering reactions during the ON state and thermal neutron capture reactions during the OFF state of the generator. Thus, the key challenge is isolatingmore » these signature gamma- rays from the prompt fission and β-delayed gamma-rays that are also produced during the neutron interrogation. A commercial digital multi-channel analyzer has been specially customized to enable time-resolved gamma-ray spectral data to be acquired in multiple user-defined time bins within each of the ON/OFF gate periods of the neutron generator. Preliminary results on new signatures from depleted uranium as well as modeling and benchmarking of the concept are presented, however this approach should should be applicable for virtually all forms of SNM.« less

  20. Rapid response sensor for analyzing Special Nuclear Material

    SciTech Connect

    Mitra, S. S.; Doron, O.; Chen, A. X.; Antolak, A. J.

    2015-06-18

    Rapid in-situ analytical techniques are attractive for characterizing Special Nuclear Material (SNM). Present techniques are time consuming, and require sample dissolution. Proof-of-principal studies are performed to demonstrate the utility of employing low energy neutrons from a portable pulsed neutron generator for non-destructive isotopic analysis of nuclear material. In particular, time-sequenced data acquisition, operating synchronously with the pulsing of a neutron generator, partitions the characteristic elemental prompt gamma-rays according to the type of the reaction; inelastic neutron scattering reactions during the ON state and thermal neutron capture reactions during the OFF state of the generator. Thus, the key challenge is isolating these signature gamma- rays from the prompt fission and β-delayed gamma-rays that are also produced during the neutron interrogation. A commercial digital multi-channel analyzer has been specially customized to enable time-resolved gamma-ray spectral data to be acquired in multiple user-defined time bins within each of the ON/OFF gate periods of the neutron generator. Preliminary results on new signatures from depleted uranium as well as modeling and benchmarking of the concept are presented, however this approach should should be applicable for virtually all forms of SNM.

  1. Rapid Response Sensor for Analyzing Special Nuclear Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, S. S.; Doron, O.; Chen, A. X.; Antolak, A. J.

    Rapid in-situ analytical techniques are attractive for characterizing Special Nuclear Material (SNM). Present techniques are time consuming, and require sample dissolution. Proof-of-principal studies are performed to demonstrate the utility of employing low energy neutrons from a portable pulsed neutron generator for non-destructive isotopic analysis of nuclear material. In particular, time-sequenced data acquisition, operating synchronously with the pulsing of a neutron generator, partitions the characteristic elemental prompt gamma-rays according to the type of the reaction; inelastic neutron scattering reactions during the ON state and thermal neutron capture reactions during the OFF state of the generator. The key challenge is isolating these signature gamma- rays from the prompt fission and β-delayed gamma-rays that are also produced during the neutron interrogation. A commercial digital multi-channel analyzer has been specially customized to enable time-resolved gamma-ray spectral data to be acquired in multiple user-defined time bins within each of the ON/OFF gate periods of the neutron generator. Preliminary results on new signatures from depleted uranium as well as modeling and benchmarking of the concept are presented, but this approach should should be applicable for virtually all forms of SNM

  2. Real-time earthquake monitoring: Early warning and rapid response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A panel was established to investigate the subject of real-time earthquake monitoring (RTEM) and suggest recommendations on the feasibility of using a real-time earthquake warning system to mitigate earthquake damage in regions of the United States. The findings of the investigation and the related recommendations are described in this report. A brief review of existing real-time seismic systems is presented with particular emphasis given to the current California seismic networks. Specific applications of a real-time monitoring system are discussed along with issues related to system deployment and technical feasibility. In addition, several non-technical considerations are addressed including cost-benefit analysis, public perceptions, safety, and liability.

  3. Response of TGS ferroelectric samples to rapid temperature impulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trybus, M.; Proszak, W.; Woś, B.

    2013-11-01

    Tryglicine sulphate (TGS) is one of the most extensively studied ferroelectric materials, which undergoes second order phase transition and shows the pyroelectric effect. In our present experiments we study the electric properties of TGS, in relation to domain switching, observing the samples' response to controlled temperature pulses. The charge released in the processes of domain switching was previously studied under constant temperature growth. Our method allows us to observe the released pyroelectric charge in both the ferroelectric and paraelectric phases. To perform our experiment we designed new measurement software and constructed a novel thermostatic sample holder containing Peltier's cells as heating/cooling elements.

  4. Modular, Rapid Propellant Loading System/Cryogenic Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, Walter, Sr.; Jumper, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    The Cryogenic Test Laboratory (CTL) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has designed, fabricated, and installed a modular, rapid propellant-loading system to simulate rapid loading of a launch-vehicle composite or standard cryogenic tank. The system will also function as a cryogenic testbed for testing and validating cryogenic innovations and ground support equipment (GSE) components. The modular skid-mounted system is capable of flow rates of liquid nitrogen from 1 to 900 gpm (approx equals 3.8 to 3,400 L/min), of pressures from ambient to 225 psig (approx equals 1.5 MPa), and of temperatures to -320 F (approx equals -195 C). The system can be easily validated to flow liquid oxygen at a different location, and could be easily scaled to any particular vehicle interface requirements

  5. Designation of rapid detection system for chlorophyll fluorescence parameters based on LED irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhengming; Ji, Jianwei; Xu, Minghu

    2013-03-01

    Adopting high-power light-emitting diode (LED) as excitation light source, the study designed a rapid detection system for fluorescence parameters based on MINIPAM. The system uses a microcomputer as the core of the programmable power supply to provide constant current drive of the LED array, and the LED array as a fluorescence excitation light source produces light photochemical system needed. It also uses MINIPAM to detect the fluorescence, analyzing the fluorescence parameters of the mathematical model, studying the plant photosystem& light response curve. The System is of great significance in the evaluation of chlorophyll photosynthesis ability and the plant physiological stress response and the appropriate mechanism.

  6. Olfactory receptor neuron responses coding for rapid odour sampling

    PubMed Central

    Ghatpande, Ambarish S; Reisert, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Vertebrate olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) are stimulated in a rhythmic manner in vivo, driven by delivery of odorants to the nasal cavity carried by the inhaled air, making olfaction a sense where animals can control the frequency of stimulus delivery. How ORNs encode repeated stimulation at resting, low breathing frequencies and at increased sniffing frequencies is not known, nor is it known if the olfactory transduction cascade is accurate and fast enough to follow high frequency stimulation. We investigated mouse olfactory responses to stimulus frequencies mimicking odorant exposure during low (2 Hz) and high (5 Hz) frequency sniffing. ORNs reliably follow low frequency stimulations with high fidelity by generating bursts of action potentials at each stimulation at intermediate odorant concentrations, but fail to do so at high odorant concentrations. Higher stimulus frequencies across all odorant concentrations reduced the likelihood of action potential generation, increased the latency of response, and decreased the reliability of encoding the onset of stimulation. Thus an increase in stimulus frequency degrades and at high odorant concentrations entirely prevents action potential generation in individual ORNs, causing reduced signalling to the olfactory bulb. These results demonstrate that ORNs do not simply relay timing and concentration of an odorous stimulus, but also process and modulate the stimulus in a frequency-dependent manner which is controlled by the chosen sniffing rate. PMID:21486768

  7. RAPID: A random access picture digitizer, display, and memory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yakimovsky, Y.; Rayfield, M.; Eskenazi, R.

    1976-01-01

    RAPID is a system capable of providing convenient digital analysis of video data in real-time. It has two modes of operation. The first allows for continuous digitization of an EIA RS-170 video signal. Each frame in the video signal is digitized and written in 1/30 of a second into RAPID's internal memory. The second mode leaves the content of the internal memory independent of the current input video. In both modes of operation the image contained in the memory is used to generate an EIA RS-170 composite video output signal representing the digitized image in the memory so that it can be displayed on a monitor.

  8. 77 FR 35962 - Utilizing Rapidly Deployable Aerial Communications Architecture in Response to an Emergency

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... COMMISSION Utilizing Rapidly Deployable Aerial Communications Architecture in Response to an Emergency AGENCY... seeks comment on the role of deployable aerial communications architecture (DACA) in facilitating... on the role of DACA, the communication service architecture and various DACA platform...

  9. Rapid behavioral and genomic responses to social opportunity.

    PubMed

    Burmeister, Sabrina S; Jarvis, Erich D; Fernald, Russell D

    2005-11-01

    From primates to bees, social status regulates reproduction. In the cichlid fish Astatotilapia (Haplochromis) burtoni, subordinate males have reduced fertility and must become dominant to reproduce. This increase in sexual capacity is orchestrated by neurons in the preoptic area, which enlarge in response to dominance and increase expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GnRH1), a peptide critical for reproduction. Using a novel behavioral paradigm, we show for the first time that subordinate males can become dominant within minutes of an opportunity to do so, displaying dramatic changes in body coloration and behavior. We also found that social opportunity induced expression of the immediate-early gene egr-1 in the anterior preoptic area, peaking in regions with high densities of GnRH1 neurons, and not in brain regions that express the related peptides GnRH2 and GnRH3. This genomic response did not occur in stable subordinate or stable dominant males even though stable dominants, like ascending males, displayed dominance behaviors. Moreover, egr-1 in the optic tectum and the cerebellum was similarly induced in all experimental groups, showing that egr-1 induction in the anterior preoptic area of ascending males was specific to this brain region. Because egr-1 codes for a transcription factor important in neural plasticity, induction of egr-1 in the anterior preoptic area by social opportunity could be an early trigger in the molecular cascade that culminates in enhanced fertility and other long-term physiological changes associated with dominance. PMID:16216088

  10. Rapid Behavioral and Genomic Responses to Social Opportunity

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    From primates to bees, social status regulates reproduction. In the cichlid fish Astatotilapia (Haplochromis) burtoni, subordinate males have reduced fertility and must become dominant to reproduce. This increase in sexual capacity is orchestrated by neurons in the preoptic area, which enlarge in response to dominance and increase expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GnRH1), a peptide critical for reproduction. Using a novel behavioral paradigm, we show for the first time that subordinate males can become dominant within minutes of an opportunity to do so, displaying dramatic changes in body coloration and behavior. We also found that social opportunity induced expression of the immediate-early gene egr-1 in the anterior preoptic area, peaking in regions with high densities of GnRH1 neurons, and not in brain regions that express the related peptides GnRH2 and GnRH3. This genomic response did not occur in stable subordinate or stable dominant males even though stable dominants, like ascending males, displayed dominance behaviors. Moreover, egr-1 in the optic tectum and the cerebellum was similarly induced in all experimental groups, showing that egr-1 induction in the anterior preoptic area of ascending males was specific to this brain region. Because egr-1 codes for a transcription factor important in neural plasticity, induction of egr-1 in the anterior preoptic area by social opportunity could be an early trigger in the molecular cascade that culminates in enhanced fertility and other long-term physiological changes associated with dominance. PMID:16216088

  11. The second messenger system(s) mediating the secretion of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) from the isolated rat heart during rapid cardiac pacing.

    PubMed

    Doubell, A F

    1989-01-01

    This study demonstrates that rapid cardiac pacing elevates Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP) levels, independently from atrial stretch. The second messenger system mediating this response was examined. The phosphoinositide system, generally regarded to be important in mediating ANP release, was shown to play only a modulating role during rapid cardiac pacing. The main mediator would appear to be calcium, and a non-calmodulin dependent, calcium mediated system controlling ANP release during rapid cardiac pacing is suggested. PMID:2532285

  12. Non-Critical-Care Nurses' Perceptions of Facilitators and Barriers to Rapid Response Team Activation.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Sheryl Henry; Astroth, Kim Schafer; Woith, Wendy Mann

    2015-01-01

    Rapid response teams can save lives but are only effective when activated. We surveyed 50 nurses for their perceptions of facilitators and barriers to activation. Findings showed that participants need more education on their role and when to activate the rapid response team. Nurses who comprise the team need help building their communication skills. We recommend nursing professional development specialists increase the frequency of offerings and expand the focus on roles, activation criteria, and communication skills. PMID:26381336

  13. Rapid alpha spectroscopy of evaporated liquid residues for emergency response.

    PubMed

    Semkow, T M; Khan, A J; Haines, D K; Bari, A

    2009-04-01

    A new method for alpha spectroscopy of evaporated water residues was developed, consisting of evaporation of drinking water, flaming of the planchets, and alpha-spectroscopic measurements using a grid ionization chamber. The method can identify and quantify radioactivity concentrations > or =3 mBq L-1 in a matter of several hours, whereas determination of sub-mBq L-1 levels is achievable in 1 day. Detailed investigations of flaming of the planchets, the humidity effect, and alpha spectroscopy of thick sources are described. A three-dimensional calibration of the method was performed using standards containing 238U, 230Th, 239Pu, 241Am, and 244Cm radionuclides. In addition to its application to evaporated drinking water, this calibration is common for any environmental sample that can be prepared as a uniform layer, such as the residues from surface water, acidic washing or leaching from materials, as well as biological fluids such as urine. The developed method serves as a fast identifying or screening technique for emergency response involving alpha radioactivity. PMID:19276703

  14. Temporal Feasibility of Rapid Joint Inversions in Response to Tsunamis Triggered by Megathrust Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, A.; Newman, A. V.

    2014-12-01

    Joint inversions of sub-areal surface deformation and tsunami waves generated by seafloor ground motions, while still in their infancy, have the opportunity for realistic representations of megathrust earthquake slip responsible, which occurs primarily offshore. Such joint inversions, including Gusman, et al. [JGR, 2010] and Wei et al. [PAGEOPH, 2014], highlight fault slip unobservable with on land measurements alone. Careful detection of possible slip patterns can affect how nearby communities prepare for future events, therefore their discovery is important for hazard mitigation. Joint inversions could also prove invaluable during a large even through a rapid inversion of real time data. This study looks at the availability and accessibility of land-based GPS and deep-ocean pressure sensor data for rapid join inversions, and the latency between such solutions and both local and global tsunami wave arrivals. We consider GPS rather than other ground-based deformation techniques because of its ability to provide rapid and continuous translations of the ground surface. For tsunami observations, we focus on deep-ocean pressure sensors such as those used in DART systems, because of similarly rapid and continues data availability. Similarly tsunami waves traveling through the deep-ocean have negligible non-linear components, making them ideal for inversion methods. We create a source event in a zone with an elevated seismic risk and then track tsunami travel times to the coast and the nearest deep-ocean pressure sensors to determine a temporal limit to warnings that can be issued to nearby regions. By assessing this latency, focus can be given to areas where an inversion of this type has the potential to improve warning information. This study also identifies regions that lack necessary on and offshore instrumentation to warn coastal communities at risk for tsunamigenic earthquakes. By assessing the feasibility of joint inversions, it becomes easier to move forward with

  15. The Hydrologic Cycle Response to Rapid Arctic Vegetation Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, P. K.

    2008-12-01

    Over the last fifty years, the Northern Hemisphere high latitude land areas have warmed at rates well in excess of what can be explained by the atmospheric rise in greenhouse gases alone. Changes in the albedo of the ocean and land, whether from the loss of Arctic Ocean sea ice, changes in land cover, or changes in winter precipitation patterns account for much of the amplified warming. Although the loss of sea ice is directly related to greenhouse gas warming and low-level winds, changes in the discharge of freshwater from Arctic river basins are also responsible. While changes in river discharge can be related to precipitation, snow and ice melt, and human modification of the landscape, natural vegetation changes due to warming may also be altering the land surface hydrologic cycle and contributing to changes in the flux of freshwater to the Arctic Ocean. Satellite imagery has shown that the Arctic is becoming greener, which not only affects the surface and lower-tropospheric energy budget, but also modifies the hydrologic cycle through altering the partitioning of transpiration and plant-soil evaporation. This leads to changes in precipitation recycling and runoff, which can ultimately affect the discharge of freshwater. To illustrate this mechanism, results of a land cover change and precipitation-recycling analysis using North American Regional Reanalysis data will be presented for the Mackenzie Basin in North America. Additionally, results from a dynamic global vegetation model will be presented to evaluate the potential consequences of continued extreme warming and land cover changes to the discharge of freshwater to the Arctic Ocean.

  16. An FPGA-based rapid wheezing detection system.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bor-Shing; Yen, Tian-Shiue

    2014-02-01

    Wheezing is often treated as a crucial indicator in the diagnosis of obstructive pulmonary diseases. A rapid wheezing detection system may help physicians to monitor patients over the long-term. In this study, a portable wheezing detection system based on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is proposed. This system accelerates wheezing detection, and can be used as either a single-process system, or as an integrated part of another biomedical signal detection system. The system segments sound signals into 2-second units. A short-time Fourier transform was used to determine the relationship between the time and frequency components of wheezing sound data. A spectrogram was processed using 2D bilateral filtering, edge detection, multithreshold image segmentation, morphological image processing, and image labeling, to extract wheezing features according to computerized respiratory sound analysis (CORSA) standards. These features were then used to train the support vector machine (SVM) and build the classification models. The trained model was used to analyze sound data to detect wheezing. The system runs on a Xilinx Virtex-6 FPGA ML605 platform. The experimental results revealed that the system offered excellent wheezing recognition performance (0.912). The detection process can be used with a clock frequency of 51.97 MHz, and is able to perform rapid wheezing classification. PMID:24481034

  17. Software wrappers for rapid prototyping JAUS-based systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smuda, Bill

    2005-05-01

    Recent experiences with robots in Iraq have proven that robotic technology is useful to the warfighter, but tools are needed to rapidly respond to evolving missions. This paper details a methodology for generation of software wrappers using JAUS to simplify prototyping and development of robotic systems (distributed, embedded and real-time system software modules). Software wrappers will allow insertion of modules into a visual prototyping environment. The wrappers will intercept module functions and bind them with functions needed to exercise the modules outside of the native environment. Generation of JAUS wrappers will enhance the development environment by reducing rote work and producing consistently behaving module interfaces. The resulting methodology will provide a rapid prototyping environment for use in sensor integration, Operator Control Unit (OCU) development and autonomous vehicle control.

  18. Rapid preparation of functional polysaccharides from Pyropia yezoensis by microwave-assistant rapid enzyme digest system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-Hyeok; Kim, Hyung-Ho; Ko, Ju-Young; Jang, Jun-Ho; Kim, Gwang-Hoon; Lee, Jung-Suck; Nah, Jae-Woon; Jeon, You-Jin

    2016-11-20

    This study describes a simple preparation of functional polysaccharides from Pyropia yezoensis using a microwave-assistant rapid enzyme digest system (MAREDS) with various carbohydrases, and evaluates their antioxidative effects. Polysaccharide hydrolysates were prepared using MAREDS under different hydrolytic conditions of the carbohydrases and microwave powers. Polysaccharides less than 10kDa (Low molecular weight polysaccharides, LMWP, ≤10kDa) were efficiently obtained using an ultrafiltration (molecular weight cut-off of 10kDa). MAREDS increases AMG activation via an increased degree of hydrolysis; the best AMG hydrolysate was prepared using a 10:1 ratio of substrate to enzyme for 2h in MAREDS with 400W. LMWP consisted of galactose (27.3%), glucose (64.5%), and mannose (8.3%) from the AMG hydrolysate had stronger antioxidant effects than the high molecular weight polysaccharides (>10kDa). We rapidly prepared functional LMWPs by using MAREDS with carbohydrases, and suggest that LMWP might be potentially a valuable algal polysaccharide antioxidant. PMID:27561523

  19. System Composer: Technology for rapid system integration and remote collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, B.R.; Palmquist, R.D.

    1996-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed an approach to the design, evaluation, deployment and operation of intelligent systems which is called System Composer. This toolkit provides an infrastructure and architecture for robot and automation system users to readily integrate system components and share mechatronic, sensor, and information resources over networks. The technology described in this paper provides a framework for real-time collaboration between researchers, manufacturing entities, design entities, and others without regard to relative location. An overview of the toolkit including its elements and architecture is provided along with examples of its use.

  20. Rapid assessment methods of resilience for natural and agricultural systems.

    PubMed

    Torrico, Juan C; Janssens, Marc J J

    2010-12-01

    The resilience, ecological function and quality of both agricultural and natural systems were evaluated in the mountainous region of the Atlantic Rain Forest of Rio de Janeiro through Rapid Assessment Methods. For this goal new indicators were proposed, such as eco-volume, eco-height, bio-volume, volume efficiency, and resilience index. The following agricultural and natural systems have been compared according: (i) vegetables (leaf, fruit and mixed); (ii) citrus; (iii) ecological system; (iv) cattle, (v) silvo-pastoral system, (vi) forest fragment and (vii) forest in regeneration stage (1, 2 and 3 years old). An alternative measure (index) of resilience was proposed by considering the actual bio-volume as a function of the potential eco-volume. The objectives and hypotheses were fulfilled; it is shown that there does exist a high positive correlation between resilience index, biomass, energy efficiency and biodiversity. Cattle and vegetable systems have lowest resilience, whilst ecological and silvo-pastoral systems have greatest resilience. This new approach offers a rapid, though valuable assessment tool for ecological studies, agricultural development and landscape planning, particularly in tropical countries. PMID:21152779

  1. Autonomous Robotic Refueling System (ARRS) for rapid aircraft turnaround

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, O. R.; Jackson, E.; Rueb, K.; Thompson, B.; Powell, K.

    An autonomous robotic refuelling system is being developed to achieve rapid aircraft turnaround, notably during combat operations. The proposed system includes a gantry positioner with sufficient reach to position a robotic arm that performs the refuelling tasks; a six degree of freedom manipulator equipped with a remote center of compliance, torque sensor, and a gripper that can handle standard tools; a computer vision system to locate and guide the refuelling nozzle, inspect the nozzle, and avoid collisions; and an operator interface with video and graphics display. The control system software will include components designed for trajectory planning and generation, collision detection, sensor interfacing, sensory processing, and human interfacing. The robotic system will be designed so that upgrading to perform additional tasks will be relatively straightforward.

  2. Moving closer to a rapid-learning health care system.

    PubMed

    Slutsky, Jean R

    2007-01-01

    This Perspective discusses activities that are necessary for developing a rapid-learning health system. Recognition of the central role that patients play in the successful evolution of such a system will help ensure that the goals of the transformation are met. Understanding the trade-offs of using a less controlled form of research to inform health care decision making and making necessary investments in methodology and translation will help secure the success of continuous-learning research. Major public policy interest in promoting health information technology and in getting more value for health care spending creates a framework for moving ahead. PMID:17259193

  3. Strong Motion Networks - Rapid Response and Early Warning Applications in Istanbul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulfikar, C.; Alcik, H.; Ozel, O.; Erdik, M.

    2009-04-01

    In recent years several strong motion networks have been established in Istanbul with a preparation purpose for future probable earthquake. This study addresses the introduction of current seismic networks and presentation of some recent results recorded in these networks. Istanbul Earthquake Early Warning System Istanbul Earthquake Early Warning System has ten strong motion stations which were installed as close as possible to Marmara Sea main fault zone. Continuous on-line data from these stations via digital radio modem provide early warning for potentially disastrous earthquakes. Considering the complexity of fault rupture and the short fault distances involved, a simple and robust Early Warning algorithm, based on the exceedance of specified threshold time domain amplitude levels is implemented. The current algorithm compares the band-pass filtered accelerations and the cumulative absolute velocity (CAV) with specified threshold levels. Istanbul Earthquake Rapid Response System Istanbul Earthquake Rapid Response System has one hundred 18 bit-resolution strong motion accelerometers which were placed in quasi-free field locations (basement of small buildings) in the populated areas of the city, within an area of approximately 50x30km, to constitute a network that will enable early damage assessment and rapid response information after a damaging earthquake. Early response information is achieved through fast acquisition and analysis of processed data obtained from the network. The stations are routinely interrogated on regular basis by the main data center. After triggered by an earthquake, each station processes the streaming strong motion data to yield the spectral accelerations at specific periods and sends these parameters in the form of SMS messages at every 20s directly to the main data center through a designated GSM network and through a microwave system. A shake map and damage distribution map (using aggregate building inventories and fragility curves

  4. A new VLSI compatible rapid thermal processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aitken, D.; Mehta, S.; Parisi, N.; Russo, C. J.; Schwartz, V.

    Rapid thermal processing (RTP) is increasingly becoming a significant tool to meet the challenge of fabricating miniaturized MOS and bipolar devices. The primary advantages of RTP over conventional furnace annealing include the shorter heat cycle, well-controlled soak times at peak temperatures and the capability to rapidly change anneal ambients, thereby enhancing its flexibility as a process tool. The major applications of RTP in VLSI technology that are presently being pursued include: (i) implant-damage annealing/dopant activation, (ii) silicide formation, (iii) glass reflow, (iv) thin film growth/deposition (oxides, nitrides, oxy-nitrides) and (v) contact alloying. This paper discusses a new rapid thermal processor, RTP-800/8000, recently introduced by Varian. The discussion will include mechanical and electrical design, software, heating process compatibility, process uniformity and repeatability, process setup and noncontact temperature measurement. The heating system consists of a tungsten lamp array surrounded by a highly reflective mirror system designed to provide good temperature uniformity for wafer sizes up to 200 mm. The RTP-8000 has a serial cassette-to-cassette automatic wafer handling system. The RTP-800 possesses a single wafer, operator-assisted wafer handling system. The RTP-800/8000 has an automated multiple gas flow control and also has the optional capability of processing wafers in vacuum. An infrared optical pyrometer measures the wafer temperature from the backside of the wafer. In the RTP-8000, touch screen operation of the menu-driven recipes is easy with user-friendly software. A separate electroluminescent flat panel display provides information for maintenance and servicing and reports the system status. Process information is provided on this display in the RTP-800.

  5. The ARIA project: Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis for Natural Hazard Monitoring and Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, S. E.; Webb, F.; Simons, M.; Rosen, P. A.; Cruz, J.; Yun, S.; Fielding, E. J.; Moore, A. W.; Hua, H.; Agram, P.; Lundgren, P.

    2012-12-01

    ARIA is a joint JPL/Caltech coordinated effort to automate geodetic imaging capabilities for hazard response and societal benefit. Over the past decade, space-based geodetic measurements such as InSAR and GPS have provided new assessment capabilities and situational awareness on the size and location of earthquakes following seismic disasters and on volcanic eruptions following magmatic events. Geodetic imaging's unique ability to capture surface deformation in high spatial and temporal resolution allow us to resolve the fault geometry and distribution of slip associated with any given earthquake in correspondingly high spatial & temporal detail. In addition, remote sensing with radar provides change detection and damage assessment capabilities for earthquakes, floods and other disasters that can image even at night or through clouds. These data sets are still essentially hand-crafted, and thus are not generated rapidly and reliably enough for informing decision-making agencies and the public following an earthquake. We are building an end-to-end prototype geodetic imaging data system that would form the foundation for an envisioned operational hazard response center integrating InSAR, GPS, seismology, and modeling to deliver monitoring, actionable science, and situational awareness products. This prototype exploits state-of-the-art analysis algorithms from technologists and scientists, These algorithms enable the delivery of actionable products from larger data sets with enhanced modeling and interpretation, and the development of next generation techniques. We are collaborating with USGS scientists in both the earthquake and volcano science program for our initial data product infusion. We present our progress to date on development of prototype data system and demonstration data products, and example responses we have run such as generating products for the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-oki, M6.3 Christchurch earthquakes, the 2011 M7.1 Van earthquake, and several simulated

  6. Synthetic generation of influenza vaccine viruses for rapid response to pandemics.

    PubMed

    Dormitzer, Philip R; Suphaphiphat, Pirada; Gibson, Daniel G; Wentworth, David E; Stockwell, Timothy B; Algire, Mikkel A; Alperovich, Nina; Barro, Mario; Brown, David M; Craig, Stewart; Dattilo, Brian M; Denisova, Evgeniya A; De Souza, Ivna; Eickmann, Markus; Dugan, Vivien G; Ferrari, Annette; Gomila, Raul C; Han, Liqun; Judge, Casey; Mane, Sarthak; Matrosovich, Mikhail; Merryman, Chuck; Palladino, Giuseppe; Palmer, Gene A; Spencer, Terika; Strecker, Thomas; Trusheim, Heidi; Uhlendorff, Jennifer; Wen, Yingxia; Yee, Anthony C; Zaveri, Jayshree; Zhou, Bin; Becker, Stephan; Donabedian, Armen; Mason, Peter W; Glass, John I; Rappuoli, Rino; Venter, J Craig

    2013-05-15

    During the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, vaccines for the virus became available in large quantities only after human infections peaked. To accelerate vaccine availability for future pandemics, we developed a synthetic approach that very rapidly generated vaccine viruses from sequence data. Beginning with hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) gene sequences, we combined an enzymatic, cell-free gene assembly technique with enzymatic error correction to allow rapid, accurate gene synthesis. We then used these synthetic HA and NA genes to transfect Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells that were qualified for vaccine manufacture with viral RNA expression constructs encoding HA and NA and plasmid DNAs encoding viral backbone genes. Viruses for use in vaccines were rescued from these MDCK cells. We performed this rescue with improved vaccine virus backbones, increasing the yield of the essential vaccine antigen, HA. Generation of synthetic vaccine seeds, together with more efficient vaccine release assays, would accelerate responses to influenza pandemics through a system of instantaneous electronic data exchange followed by real-time, geographically dispersed vaccine production. PMID:23677594

  7. Rapid cycling medical synchrotron and beam delivery system

    DOEpatents

    Peggs, Stephen G.; Brennan, J. Michael; Tuozzolo, Joseph E.; Zaltsman, Alexander

    2008-10-07

    A medical synchrotron which cycles rapidly in order to accelerate particles for delivery in a beam therapy system. The synchrotron generally includes a radiofrequency (RF) cavity for accelerating the particles as a beam and a plurality of combined function magnets arranged in a ring. Each of the combined function magnets performs two functions. The first function of the combined function magnet is to bend the particle beam along an orbital path around the ring. The second function of the combined function magnet is to focus or defocus the particle beam as it travels around the path. The radiofrequency (RF) cavity is a ferrite loaded cavity adapted for high speed frequency swings for rapid cycling acceleration of the particles.

  8. Innate lymphoid cells: models of plasticity for immune homeostasis and rapid responsiveness in protection.

    PubMed

    Almeida, F F; Belz, G T

    2016-09-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have stormed onto the immune landscape as "newly discovered" cell types. These tissue-resident sentinels are enriched at mucosal surfaces and engage in complex cross talk with elements of the adaptive immune system and microenvironment to orchestrate immune homeostasis. Many parallels exist between innate cells and T cells leading to the initial partitioning of ILCs into rather rigid subsets that reflect their "adaptive-like" effector cytokines profiles. ILCs themselves, however, have unique attributes that are only just beginning to be elucidated. These features result in complementarity with, rather than complete duplication of, functions of the adaptive immune system. Key transcription factors determine the pathway of differentiation of progenitors towards an ILC1, ILC2, or ILC3 subset. Once formed, flexibility in the responses of these subsets to stimuli unexpectedly allows transdifferentation between the different subsets and the acquisition of altered phenotypes and function. This provides a mechanism for rapid innate immune responsiveness. Here, we discuss the models of differentiation for maintenance and activation of tissue-resident ILCs in maintaining immune homeostasis and protection. PMID:27484190

  9. EMERGENCY RESPONSE NOTIFICATION SYSTEM (ERNS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Emergency Response Notification System (ERNS) is a database used to store information on notifications of oil discharges and hazardous substances releases. The ERNS program is a cooperative data sharing effort among the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Headquarters, the ...

  10. NOAA Atmospheric, Marine and Arctic Monitoring Using UASs (including Rapid Response)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffey, J. J.; Jacobs, T.

    2015-12-01

    Unmanned systems have the potential to efficiently, effectively, economically, and safely bridge critical observation requirements in an environmentally friendly manner. As the United States' Atmospheric, Marine and Arctic areas of interest expand and include hard-to-reach regions of the Earth (such as the Arctic and remote oceanic areas) optimizing unmanned capabilities will be needed to advance the United States' science, technology and security efforts. Through increased multi-mission and multi-agency operations using improved inter-operable and autonomous unmanned systems, the research and operations communities will better collect environmental intelligence and better protect our Country against hazardous weather, environmental, marine and polar hazards. This presentation will examine NOAA's Atmospheric, Marine and Arctic Monitoring Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) strategies which includes developing a coordinated effort to maximize the efficiency and capabilities of unmanned systems across the federal government and research partners. Numerous intra- and inter-agency operational demonstrations and assessments have been made to verify and validated these strategies. This includes the introduction of the Targeted Autonomous Insitu Sensing and Rapid Response (TAISRR) with UAS concept of operations. The presentation will also discuss the requisite UAS capabilities and our experience in using them.

  11. Rapid identification of Listeria spp.: an AOAC performance test of the MIT 1000 rapid microbial identification system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods that rapidly confirm the identification of foodborne pathogens are highly desired. The Micro Imaging Technology (MIT) 1000 Rapid Microbial Identification (RMID) System is a benchtop instrument that detects laser light scattered from individual bacterial cells in solution with an array of 35 ...

  12. Nano-structured smart hydrogels with rapid response and high elasticity

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Lie-Wen; Xie, Rui; Ju, Xiao-Jie; Wang, Wei; Chen, Qianming; Chu, Liang-Yin

    2013-01-01

    Smart hydrogels, or stimuli-responsive hydrogels, are three-dimensional networks composed of crosslinked hydrophilic polymer chains that are able to dramatically change their volume and other properties in response to environmental stimuli such as temperature, pH and certain chemicals. Rapid and significant response to environmental stimuli and high elasticity are critical for the versatility of such smart hydrogels. Here we report the synthesis of smart hydrogels which are rapidly responsive, highly swellable and stretchable, by constructing a nano-structured architecture with activated nanogels as nano-crosslinkers. The nano-structured smart hydrogels show very significant and rapid stimuli-responsive characteristics, as well as highly elastic properties to sustain high compressions, resist slicing and withstand high level of deformation, such as bending, twisting and extensive stretching. Because of the concurrent rapid and significant stimuli-response and high elasticity, these nano-structured smart hydrogels may expand the scope of hydrogel applications, and provide enhanced performance in their applications. PMID:23900497

  13. Rapid laser prototyping of valves for microfluidic autonomous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, M. I.; Abraham, E.; Y Desmulliez, M. P.

    2013-03-01

    Capillary forces in microfluidics provide a simple yet elegant means to direct liquids through flow channel networks. The ability to manipulate the flow in a truly automated manner has proven more problematic. The majority of valves require some form of flow control devices, which are manually, mechanically or electrically driven. Most demonstrated capillary systems have been manufactured by photolithography, which, despite its high precision and repeatability, can be labour intensive, requires a clean room environment and the use of fixed photomasks, limiting thereby the agility of the manufacturing process to readily examine alternative designs. In this paper, we describe a robust and rapid CO2 laser manufacturing process and demonstrate a range of capillary-driven microfluidic valve structures embedded within a microfluidic network. The manufacturing process described allows for advanced control and manipulation of fluids such that flow can be halted, triggered and delayed based on simple geometrical alterations to a given microchannel. The rapid prototyping methodology has been employed with PMMA substrates and a complete device has been created, ready for use, within 2-3 h. We believe that this agile manufacturing process can be applied to produce a range of complex autonomous fluidic platforms and allows subsequent designs to be rapidly explored.

  14. Seismogeodesy for Rapid Response: The 2014 Mw 6 South Napa Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melgar, D.; Geng, J.; Bock, Y.; Haase, J. S.; Goldberg, D.; Saunders, J. K.

    2014-12-01

    Rapid assessment of medium to large events with finite source models at regional scales has traditionally been delayed by limitations in seismic-only monitoring systems. Broadband and short period sensors saturate and strong motion sensors are affected by baseline offsets. In practice, this means that strong motion data must be high pass filtered. This approximation breaks down as the earthquakes get larger since the long period band of the spectrum best characterizes these events. In contrast geodetic data record long period motions down to the coseismic offset. They are however less sensitive, with single-epoch noise levels of the order of 1cm. With data from 34 collocated GPS/strong motion stations around the South Napa earthquake, we demonstrate a seismogeodetic algorithm that produces broadband strong motion velocity and displacements. We further show that these data can be ingested into source modeling algorithms with minimal operator interaction. Through retrospective analysis off the South Napa data, we show that one can produce a full suite of models from rapid moment tensors to kinematic slip inversions. While displacement amplitudes are small, often below GPS noise levels, the seismogeodetic solution provides an objective constraint on the accelerometer integration. The rapid inversion to find shallow slip can provide an indication of surface rupture and indicate that enhanced response is likely for road repairs and such. We quantify the improvements and advantages to using 5Hz GPS over 1Hz data.There are over 600 real-time monitoring GPS stations in the western US maintained by several operators; the NASA-sponsored READI project aims to unify these into a network of networks for prototyping earthquake and tsunami warning systems. We argue that the results shown here demonstrate the need for full integration of geodetic networks into seismic monitoring systems and that with current deployed stations this is within reach. However, only a small number of

  15. Recent Ground Hold and Rapid Depressurization Testing of Multilayer Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wesley L.

    2014-01-01

    In the development of flight insulation systems for large cryogenic orbital storage (spray on foam and multilayer insulation), testing need include all environments that are experienced during flight. While large efforts have been expended on studying, bounding, and modeling the orbital performance of the insulation systems, little effort has been expended on the ground hold and ascent phases of a mission. Historical cryogenic in-space systems that have flown have been able to ignore these phases of flight due to the insulation system being within a vacuum jacket. In the development phase of the Nuclear Mars Vehicle and the Shuttle Nuclear Vehicle, several insulation systems were evaluated for the full mission cycle. Since that time there had been minimal work on these phases of flight until the Constellation program began investigating cryogenic service modules and long duration upper stages. With the inception of the Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer Technology Demonstration Mission, a specific need was seen for the data and as such, several tests were added to the Cryogenic Boil-off Reduction System liquid hydrogen test matrix to provide more data on a insulation system. Testing was attempted with both gaseous nitrogen (GN2) and gaseous helium (GHe) backfills. The initial tests with nitrogen backfill were not successfully completed due to nitrogen liquefaction and solidification preventing the rapid pumpdown of the vacuum chamber. Subsequent helium backfill tests were successful and showed minimal degradation. The results are compared to the historical data.

  16. [Detection of rapid eye movement with rapidly adapting neuronal fuzzy systems in imprecise REM syntax].

    PubMed

    Wallner, F

    1996-04-01

    Both living beings and artificial neuronal networks are capable of 'learning' and behavioural adaptation. But also the fuzzy program designed to detect rapid eye movements (REM) during sleep and described here, can be provided with a self-learning option that provides important information about REM sleep. The algorithm computes REM on the basis of horizontal and vertical EOG. EEG, EMG and actiography signals are employed to optimize the method and eliminate artefacts. In a second step, the fuzzy system learns to detect REM with the aid of a sample data set and a minimal set of syntax rules. From sample data and the actions and reactions of visual scorers, the program extracts additional rules and information, which are then used to build a complete fuzzy structure. Thereafter, the REM detection program optimizes the fuzzy logic structure, independently of visual monitoring, on its own. A direct comparison of the results of the algorithm in a 10-night analysis with those of two experienced visual scorers revealed a better than 95% agreement. Re-analysis with the algorithm showed a 100% concurrence. Complete visual measurement of the eye movements occurring in a single night requires several hours; this compares with only 15 minutes required by the algorithm. PMID:8679911

  17. Providing Real-Time Response, State Recency and Temporal Consistency in Databases for Rapidly Changing Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datta, Anindya; Viguier, Igor R.

    1997-01-01

    In environments where the state of the system changes rapidly, such as stock trading, air traffic control, network management, and process control, databases have been proposed as the platform to develop automated control systems. Information in such systems consists of "updates," reporting on the state of the environment and "transactions,"…

  18. UMTS rapid response real-time seismic networks: implementation and strategies at INGV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govoni, Aladino; Margheriti, Lucia; Moretti, Milena; Lauciani, Valentino; Sensale, Gianpaolo; Bucci, Augusto; Criscuoli, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    The benefits of portable real-time seismic networks are several and well known. During the management of a temporary experiment from the real-time data it is possible to detect and fix rapidly problems with power supply, time synchronization, disk failures and, most important, seismic signal quality degradation due to unexpected noise sources or sensor alignment/tampering. This usually minimizes field maintenance trips and maximizes both the quantity and the quality of the acquired data. When the area of the temporary experiment is not well monitored by the local permanent network, the real-time data from the temporary experiment can be fed to the permanent network monitoring system improving greatly both the real-time hypocentral locations and the final revised bulletin. All these benefits apply also in case of seismic crises when rapid deployment stations can significantly contribute to the aftershock analysis. Nowadays data transmission using meshed radio networks or satellite systems is not a big technological problem for a permanent seismic network where each site is optimized for the device power consumption and is usually installed by properly specialized technicians that can configure transmission devices and align antennas. This is not usually practical for temporary networks and especially for rapid response networks where the installation time is the main concern. These difficulties are substantially lowered using the now widespread UMTS technology for data transmission. A small (but sometimes power hungry) properly configured device with an omnidirectional antenna must be added to the station assembly. All setups are usually configured before deployment and this allows for an easy installation also by untrained personnel. We describe here the implementation of a UMTS based portable seismic network for both temporary experiments and rapid response applications developed at INGV. The first field experimentation of this approach dates back to the 2009 L

  19. Active Response Gravity Offload System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valle, Paul; Dungan, Larry; Cunningham, Thomas; Lieberman, Asher; Poncia, Dina

    2011-01-01

    The Active Response Gravity Offload System (ARGOS) provides the ability to simulate with one system the gravity effect of planets, moons, comets, asteroids, and microgravity, where the gravity is less than Earth fs gravity. The system works by providing a constant force offload through an overhead hoist system and horizontal motion through a rail and trolley system. The facility covers a 20 by 40-ft (approximately equals 6.1 by 12.2m) horizontal area with 15 ft (approximately equals4.6 m) of lifting vertical range.

  20. Rapid solution of large-scale systems of equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storaasli, Olaf O.

    1994-01-01

    The analysis and design of complex aerospace structures requires the rapid solution of large systems of linear and nonlinear equations, eigenvalue extraction for buckling, vibration and flutter modes, structural optimization and design sensitivity calculation. Computers with multiple processors and vector capabilities can offer substantial computational advantages over traditional scalar computer for these analyses. These computers fall into two categories: shared memory computers and distributed memory computers. This presentation covers general-purpose, highly efficient algorithms for generation/assembly or element matrices, solution of systems of linear and nonlinear equations, eigenvalue and design sensitivity analysis and optimization. All algorithms are coded in FORTRAN for shared memory computers and many are adapted to distributed memory computers. The capability and numerical performance of these algorithms will be addressed.

  1. A versatile modular vector system for rapid combinatorial mammalian genetics.

    PubMed

    Albers, Joachim; Danzer, Claudia; Rechsteiner, Markus; Lehmann, Holger; Brandt, Laura P; Hejhal, Tomas; Catalano, Antonella; Busenhart, Philipp; Gonçalves, Ana Filipa; Brandt, Simone; Bode, Peter K; Bode-Lesniewska, Beata; Wild, Peter J; Frew, Ian J

    2015-04-01

    Here, we describe the multiple lentiviral expression (MuLE) system that allows multiple genetic alterations to be introduced simultaneously into mammalian cells. We created a toolbox of MuLE vectors that constitute a flexible, modular system for the rapid engineering of complex polycistronic lentiviruses, allowing combinatorial gene overexpression, gene knockdown, Cre-mediated gene deletion, or CRISPR/Cas9-mediated (where CRISPR indicates clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) gene mutation, together with expression of fluorescent or enzymatic reporters for cellular assays and animal imaging. Examples of tumor engineering were used to illustrate the speed and versatility of performing combinatorial genetics using the MuLE system. By transducing cultured primary mouse cells with single MuLE lentiviruses, we engineered tumors containing up to 5 different genetic alterations, identified genetic dependencies of molecularly defined tumors, conducted genetic interaction screens, and induced the simultaneous CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of 3 tumor-suppressor genes. Intramuscular injection of MuLE viruses expressing oncogenic H-RasG12V together with combinations of knockdowns of the tumor suppressors cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (Cdkn2a), transformation-related protein 53 (Trp53), and phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten) allowed the generation of 3 murine sarcoma models, demonstrating that genetically defined autochthonous tumors can be rapidly generated and quantitatively monitored via direct injection of polycistronic MuLE lentiviruses into mouse tissues. Together, our results demonstrate that the MuLE system provides genetic power for the systematic investigation of the molecular mechanisms that underlie human diseases. PMID:25751063

  2. Habituation of rapid sympathetic response to aversive timbre eliminated by change in basal sympathovagal balance.

    PubMed

    Ooishi, Yuuki; Kashino, Makio

    2012-08-01

    We studied the difference in the habituation of the rapid sympathetic response to slightly and highly aversive timbres in 68 males. We measured the decrease in the blood volume pulse amplitude (BVP response) as the rapid sympathetic response and the low- (0.04-0.15 Hz) to high- (0.15-0.40 Hz) frequency (LF/HF) ratio of heart rate variability as the sympathovagal balance. The BVP response was suppressed for slightly aversive timbres that had been presented once before, but not for a highly aversive timbre. In contrast, the prior presentation of a highly aversive timbre enhanced the BVP response to a slightly aversive timbre. Only a highly aversive timbre reduced the LF/HF ratio. We suggest that the lack of habituation of the rapid sympathetic response to an aversive timbre is the result of the balance between the effects of the increase caused by the change in sympathovagal balance to vagal dominance and the decrease caused by classical habituation. PMID:22646525

  3. 20 CFR 665.320 - May other activities be undertaken as part of rapid response?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... permanent closure or mass layoff, or a natural or other disaster resulting in a mass job dislocation, the... labor organizations: (1) Develop prospective strategies for addressing dislocation events, that ensure... potential dislocations, available adjustment assistance, and the effectiveness of rapid response...

  4. Early Detection Rapid Response Program Targets New Noxious Weed Species in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreas, Jennifer E.; Halpern, Alison D.; DesCamp, Wendy C.; Miller, Timothy W.

    2015-01-01

    Early detection, rapid response is a critical component of invasive plant management. It can be challenging, however, to detect new invaders before they become established if landowners cannot identify species of concern. In order to increase awareness, eye-catching postcards were developed in Washington State as part of a noxious weed educational…

  5. Time Lapse Storey Building Early Monitoring Based on Rapid Seismic Response Analysis in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julius, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Within the last decade, advances in the acquisition, processing and transmission of data from seismic monitoring has contributed to the growth in the number structures instrumented with such systems. An equally important factor for such growth can be attributed to the demands by stakeholders to find rapid answers to important questions related to the functionality or state of "health" of structures during and immediately of a seismic events. Consequently, this study aims to monitor the storey building based on seismic response i. e. earthquake and tremor analysis at short time lapse using accelerographs data. This study used one of storey building (X) in Jakarta city that suffered the effects of Kebumen earthquake January 25th 2014, Pandeglang earthquake July 9th 2014, and Lebak earthquake November 8th 2014. Tremors used in this study are tremors after the three following earthquakes. Data processing used to determine peak ground acceleration (PGA), peak ground velocity (PGV), peak ground displacement (PGD), spectral acceleration (SA), spectral velocity (SV), spectral displacement (SD), A/V ratio, acceleration amplification and effective duration (te). Then determine the natural frequency (f0) and peak of H/V ratio using H/V ratio method. The earthquakes data processing result shows the value of peak ground motion, spectrum response, A/V ratio and acceleration amplification increases with height, while the value of the effective duration decreases. Then, tremors data processing result one month after each earthquakes shows the natural frequency of building in constant value. Increasing of peak ground motion, spectrum response, A/V ratio, acceleration amplification, then decrease of effective duration following the increase of building floors shows that the building construction supports the increasing of shaking and strongly influenced by local site effect. The constant value of building natural frequency shows the building still in good performance. This

  6. Neural correlates of rapid antidepressant response to ketamine in bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Nugent, Allison C; Diazgranados, Nancy; Carlson, Paul J; Ibrahim, Lobna; Luckenbaugh, David A; Brutsche, Nancy; Herscovitch, Peter; Drevets, Wayne C; Zarate, Carlos A

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Ketamine, an N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist, has rapid antidepressant effects in depressed subjects with bipolar disorder (BD). Evidence supports a role for the glutamatergic system in the pathophysiology of BD. This double-blind, randomized, cross-over study sought to determine cerebral metabolic correlates of antidepressant response to ketamine. Methods Twenty-one subjects with BD currently in a depressed state underwent [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging after receiving a placebo infusion as well as after receiving a ketamine infusion. Metabolism was compared between ketamine and placebo infusions, and correlated with clinical response. Regional metabolic rate of glucose (rMRGlu) in regions-of-interest (ROIs) and Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) scores were the main outcome measures. Results The study found that change in metabolism between sessions was significantly correlated with percentage change in MADRS scores in the right ventral striatum; subjects who showed the greatest improvement had the largest metabolic increase after ketamine infusion compared to placebo. In a voxel-wise analysis, subjects with BD had significantly lower glucose metabolism in the left hippocampus following the ketamine infusion than the placebo infusion. In addition, metabolism in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) following the placebo infusion was positively correlated with percentage improvement in MADRS score following the ketamine infusion. Conclusions Taken together, the results suggest that higher activity in the subgenual ACC may predict antidepressant response to ketamine. Ketamine administration altered glucose metabolism in areas known to be involved in mood disorders; these alterations may partially underlie ketamine’s mechanism of action. PMID:24103187

  7. Design review report for the SY-101 RAPID mitigation system

    SciTech Connect

    SCHLOSSER, R.L.

    1999-05-24

    This report documents design reviews conducted of the SY-101 Respond And Pump In Days (RAPID) Mitigation System. As part of the SY-101 Surface-Level-Rise Remediation Project, the SY-101 WID Mitigation System will reduce the potential unacceptable consequences of crust growth in Tank 241-SY-101 (SY-101). Projections of the crust growth rate indicate that the waste level in the tank may reach the juncture of the primary and secondary confinement structures of the tank late in 1999. Because of this time constraint, many design activities are being conducted in parallel and design reviews were conducted for system adequacy as well as design implementation throughout the process. Design implementation, as used in this design review report, is the final component selection (e.g., which circuit breaker, valve, or thermocouple) that meets the approved design requirements, system design, and design and procurement specifications. Design implementation includes the necessary analysis, testing, verification, and qualification to demonstrate compliance with the system design and design requirements. Design implementation is outside the scope of this design review. The design activities performed prior to detailed design implementation (i.e., system mission requirements, functional design requirements, technical criteria, system conceptual design, and where design and build contracts were placed, the procurement specification) have been reviewed and are within the scope of this design review report. Detailed design implementation will be controlled, reviewed, and where appropriate, approved in accordance with Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) engineering procedures. Review of detailed design implementation will continue until all components necessary to perform the transfer function are installed and tested.

  8. Neurogenic mechanisms underlying the rapid onset of sympathetic responses to intermittent hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Mifflin, Steve; Cunningham, J Thomas; Toney, Glenn M

    2015-12-15

    Sleep apnea (SA) leads to metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular dysfunction. Rodent models of nocturnal intermittent hypoxia (IH) are used to mimic arterial hypoxemias that occur during SA. This mini-review focuses on our work examining central nervous system (CNS) mechanisms whereby nocturnal IH results in increased sympathetic nerve discharge (SND) and hypertension (HTN) that persist throughout the 24-h diurnal period. Within the first 1-2 days of IH, arterial pressure (AP) increases even during non-IH periods of the day. Exposure to IH for 7 days biases nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) neurons receiving arterial chemoreceptor inputs toward increased discharge, providing a substrate for persistent activation of sympathetic outflow. IH HTN is blunted by manipulations that reduce angiotensin II (ANG II) signaling within the forebrain lamina terminalis suggesting that central ANG II supports persistent IH HTN. Inhibition of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) reduces ongoing SND and acutely lowers AP in IH-conditioned animals. These findings support a role for the PVN, which integrates information ascending from NTS and descending from the lamina terminalis, in sustaining IH HTN. In summary, our findings indicate that IH rapidly and persistently activates a central circuit that includes the NTS, forebrain lamina terminalis, and the PVN. Our working model holds that NTS neuromodulation increases transmission of arterial chemoreceptor inputs, increasing SND via connections with PVN and rostral ventrolateral medulla. Increased circulating ANG II sensed by the lamina terminalis generates yet another excitatory drive to PVN. Together with adaptations intrinsic to the PVN, these responses to IH support rapid onset neurogenic HTN. PMID:25997944

  9. Tissue mechanics govern the rapidly adapting and symmetrical response to touch

    PubMed Central

    Eastwood, Amy L.; Sanzeni, Alessandro; Petzold, Bryan C.; Park, Sung-Jin; Vergassola, Massimo; Pruitt, Beth L.

    2015-01-01

    Interactions with the physical world are deeply rooted in our sense of touch and depend on ensembles of somatosensory neurons that invade and innervate the skin. Somatosensory neurons convert the mechanical energy delivered in each touch into excitatory membrane currents carried by mechanoelectrical transduction (MeT) channels. Pacinian corpuscles in mammals and touch receptor neurons (TRNs) in Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes are embedded in distinctive specialized accessory structures, have low thresholds for activation, and adapt rapidly to the application and removal of mechanical loads. Recently, many of the protein partners that form native MeT channels in these and other somatosensory neurons have been identified. However, the biophysical mechanism of symmetric responses to the onset and offset of mechanical stimulation has eluded understanding for decades. Moreover, it is not known whether applied force or the resulting indentation activate MeT channels. Here, we introduce a system for simultaneously recording membrane current, applied force, and the resulting indentation in living C. elegans (Feedback-controlled Application of mechanical Loads Combined with in vivo Neurophysiology, FALCON) and use it, together with modeling, to study these questions. We show that current amplitude increases with indentation, not force, and that fast stimuli evoke larger currents than slower stimuli producing the same or smaller indentation. A model linking body indentation to MeT channel activation through an embedded viscoelastic element reproduces the experimental findings, predicts that the TRNs function as a band-pass mechanical filter, and provides a general mechanism for symmetrical and rapidly adapting MeT channel activation relevant to somatosensory neurons across phyla and submodalities. PMID:26627717

  10. Tissue mechanics govern the rapidly adapting and symmetrical response to touch.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, Amy L; Sanzeni, Alessandro; Petzold, Bryan C; Park, Sung-Jin; Vergassola, Massimo; Pruitt, Beth L; Goodman, Miriam B

    2015-12-15

    Interactions with the physical world are deeply rooted in our sense of touch and depend on ensembles of somatosensory neurons that invade and innervate the skin. Somatosensory neurons convert the mechanical energy delivered in each touch into excitatory membrane currents carried by mechanoelectrical transduction (MeT) channels. Pacinian corpuscles in mammals and touch receptor neurons (TRNs) in Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes are embedded in distinctive specialized accessory structures, have low thresholds for activation, and adapt rapidly to the application and removal of mechanical loads. Recently, many of the protein partners that form native MeT channels in these and other somatosensory neurons have been identified. However, the biophysical mechanism of symmetric responses to the onset and offset of mechanical stimulation has eluded understanding for decades. Moreover, it is not known whether applied force or the resulting indentation activate MeT channels. Here, we introduce a system for simultaneously recording membrane current, applied force, and the resulting indentation in living C. elegans (Feedback-controlled Application of mechanical Loads Combined with in vivo Neurophysiology, FALCON) and use it, together with modeling, to study these questions. We show that current amplitude increases with indentation, not force, and that fast stimuli evoke larger currents than slower stimuli producing the same or smaller indentation. A model linking body indentation to MeT channel activation through an embedded viscoelastic element reproduces the experimental findings, predicts that the TRNs function as a band-pass mechanical filter, and provides a general mechanism for symmetrical and rapidly adapting MeT channel activation relevant to somatosensory neurons across phyla and submodalities. PMID:26627717

  11. Biofilm streamers cause rapid clogging of flow systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yi; Drescher, Knut; Wingreen, Ned; Bassler, Bonnie; Stone, Howard

    2012-11-01

    Biofilms are antibiotic-resistant, sessile bacterial communities that are found on most surfaces on Earth. In addition to constituting the most abundant form of bacterial life, biofilms also cause chronic and medical device-associated infections. Despite their importance, basic information about how biofilms behave in common ecological environments is lacking. Here we demonstrate that flow through soil-like porous materials, industrial filters, and medical stents dramatically modifies the morphology of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms to form streamers which over time bridge the space between obstacles and corners in non-uniform environments. Using a microfluidic model system we find that, contrary to the accepted paradigm, the accumulation of surface-attached bacterial biofilm has little effect on flow resistance whereas the formation of biofilm streamers causes sudden and rapid clogging. The time at which clogging happens depends on bacterial growth, while the duration of the clogging transition is driven by flow-mediated transport of bacteria to the clogging site. Flow-induced shedding of extracellular matrix from the resident biofilm generates a sieve-like network that catches bacteria flowing by, which add to the network of extracellular matrix, to cause exponentially rapid clogging. We expect these biofilm streamers to be ubiquitous in nature, and to have profound effects on flow through porous materials in environmental, industrial, and medical environments.

  12. Controlled Rapid Adiabatic Passage in a V-Type System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yunheung; Lee, Han-Gyeol; Jo, Hanlae; Ahn, Jaewook

    2016-05-01

    In chirped rapid adiabatic passage (RAP), chirp sign determines the final state to which the complete population transfer (CPT) occurs in a three-level V-type system. In this study, we show that laser intensity can be alternatively used as a control means in RAP, when the laser pulse is chirped and of a spectral hole resonant to one of the excited states. We verified such excitation selectivity in the experiment performed as-shaped femtosecond laser pulses interacting with the lowest three levels (5S, 5 P1/2, and 5 P3/2) of atomic rubidium. The successful demonstration implies that this intensity-dependent RAP in conjunction with laser beam profile programming may allow excitation selectivity for atoms or ions arranged in space.

  13. Rapid, reliable geodetic data analysis for hazard response: Results from the Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis (ARIA) project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, S. E.; Simons, M.; Hua, H.; Yun, S.; Cruz, J.; Webb, F.; Rosen, P. A.; Fielding, E. J.; Moore, A. W.; Polet, J.; Liu, Z.; Agram, P. S.; Lundgren, P.

    2013-12-01

    ARIA is a joint JPL/Caltech coordinated project to automate InSAR and GPS imaging capabilities for scientific understanding, hazard response, and societal benefit. Geodetic imaging's unique ability to capture surface deformation in high spatial and temporal resolution allows us to resolve the fault geometry and distribution of slip associated with earthquakes in high spatial & temporal detail. In certain cases, it can be complementary to seismic data, providing constraints on location, geometry, or magnitude that is difficult to determine with seismic data alone. In addition, remote sensing with SAR provides change detection and damage assessment capabilities for earthquakes, floods and other disasters that can image even at night or through clouds. We have built an end-to-end prototype geodetic imaging data system that forms the foundation for a hazard response and science analysis capability that integrates InSAR, high-rate GPS, seismology, and modeling to deliver monitoring, science, and situational awareness products. This prototype incorporates state-of-the-art InSAR and GPS analysis algorithms from technologists and scientists. The products have been designed and a feasibility study conducted in collaboration with USGS scientists in the earthquake and volcano science programs. We will present results that show the capabilities of this data system in terms of latency, data processing capacity, quality of automated products, and feasibility of use for analysis of large SAR and GPS data sets and for earthquake response activities.

  14. 75 FR 11938 - Meridian Automotive Systems, Grand Rapids, MI; Notice of Termination of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Meridian Automotive Systems, Grand Rapids, MI; Notice of Termination... Meridian Automotive Systems, Grand Rapids, Michigan (Meridian Automotive). The petitioning group of...

  15. Understanding the Rapid Precipitation Response to CO2 and Aerosol Forcing on a Regional Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Thomas; Forster, Piers; Parker, Doug; Andrews, Tim

    2015-04-01

    Regional precipitation change is one of the most uncertain aspects of climate change prediction, and can have major societal implications. On a global scale, precipitation is tightly constrained by the radiative cooling of the troposphere. As a result, precipitation exhibits a significant rapid adjustment in response to certain forcing agents, which is important for understanding long term climate change. However, the mechanisms which drive the spatial pattern of rapid adjustment are not well understood. In this study we analyze the spatial pattern of rapid precipitation change using simulations with fixed sea surface temperature. Using data obtained from sixteen models participating in the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5), we investigate the response to three different forcing scenarios; an abrupt quadrupling of CO2, an increase in all aerosols, and an increase in sulphate aerosol from pre-industrial to present day levels. Analysis of the local atmospheric energy budget is used to understand the observed changes. We find that the spatial pattern of rapid precipitation adjustment due to forcing is primarily driven by the rapid land surface response. As a result, the spatial pattern due to quadrupling CO2 opposes that due to increased sulphate and increased all aerosols. Increasing CO2 levels causes warming of the land surface, due to enhanced downwelling longwave radiation. This destabilizes the atmosphere by warming the lower troposphere, producing an overall shift of convection and precipitation to over land. The reverse is observed for increased sulphate and increased all aerosols. Changes in tropospheric cooling are important in determining the magnitude of regional precipitation change, thereby satisfying global energy budget constraints. We find the spatial pattern of rapid precipitation change due to quadrupling CO2 levels is robust between models. The most significant precipitation changes occur in the tropics, with significant

  16. Bioluminescence-based system for rapid detection of natural transformation.

    PubMed

    Santala, Ville; Karp, Matti; Santala, Suvi

    2016-07-01

    Horizontal gene transfer plays a significant role in bacterial evolution and has major clinical importance. Thus, it is vital to understand the mechanisms and kinetics of genetic transformations. Natural transformation is the driving mechanism for horizontal gene transfer in diverse genera of bacteria. Our study introduces a simple and rapid method for the investigation of natural transformation. This highly sensitive system allows the detection of a transformation event directly from a bacterial population without any separation step or selection of cells. The system is based on the bacterial luciferase operon from Photorhabdus luminescens The studied molecular tools consist of the functional modules luxCDE and luxAB, which involve a replicative plasmid and an integrative gene cassette. A well-established host for bacterial genetic investigations, Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1, is used as the model bacterium. We show that natural transformation followed by homologous recombination or plasmid recircularization can be readily detected in both actively growing and static biofilm-like cultures, including very rare transformation events. The system allows the detection of natural transformation within 1 h of introducing sample DNA into the culture. The introduced method provides a convenient means to study the kinetics of natural transformation under variable conditions and perturbations. PMID:27190150

  17. Switched reluctance motor systems poised for rapid growth

    SciTech Connect

    Lovins, A.B.; Howe, B.

    1992-12-31

    The emergence of a rugged, versatile, and highly efficient alternative to conventional electric motors promises to have a major impact on drivepower markets over the next decade. Although switched reluctance drives are not yet available ``off the shelf`` from major motor manufacturers, they are likely to compete favorably across a broad range of applications, due to their superior performance characteristics. Switched reluctance drives maintain higher torque and efficiency over broader speed ranges than can be achieved with other advanced variable-speed systems, can be programmed to precisely match the loads they serve and, in high-volume production, are likely to be less expensive than competing systems. The principal obstacle to rapid commercialization of switched reluctance motors is the fact that few engineers are trained to perform the exacting and specialized design that this technology requires. This hurdle is gradually being overcome as over two dozen firms now design or manufacture switched reluctance drives, and several are moving into mass production applications. As these and other firms gain experience with the technology, new opportunities will arise for utilities, energy users, and original equipment manufacturers to capture the benefits of switched reluctance motor systems. This report appraises recent progress toward moving switched reluctance drives to mass production and provides an inventory of major manufacturers.

  18. Responsive etalon based on PNIPAM@SiO2 composite spacer with rapid response rate and excellent repeatability for sensing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tieqiang; Wang, Shuli; Zhang, Xun; Song, Guoshuai; Yu, Ye; Chen, Xinyang; Fu, Yu; Zhang, Junhu; Yang, Bai

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a responsive etalon fabricated through combining colloidal lithography and surface-initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). The responsive etalon is simply constructed with one responsive spacer sandwiched by two reflective layers, and the middle responsive spacer is constructed by grafting thermo-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) brushes on a SiO2 nanosphere array. The etalon possesses one single interference peak in the visible region, and the interference peak changes sensitively against the concentration of the external stimulant (water vapor) or the temperature of the system, owing to the responsiveness of the PNIPAM brush. Importantly, the as-prepared etalon shows a rapid response rate and excellent stability, and it is also handy to realize the miniaturization and integration of the responsive etalon based on a conventional micro-fabrication method. These features all make the as-prepared responsive etalon an attractive candidate for future sensing applications. We believe such responsive etalons are promising for the fabrication of smart photonic materials and optical sensors that may be useful in tissue engineering, medical diagnosis, public security, and biochip areas.

  19. Rapid prototyping facility for flight research in artificial-intelligence-based flight systems concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, E. L.; Regenie, V. A.; Deets, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    The Dryden Flight Research Facility of the NASA Ames Research Facility of the NASA Ames Research Center is developing a rapid prototyping facility for flight research in flight systems concepts that are based on artificial intelligence (AI). The facility will include real-time high-fidelity aircraft simulators, conventional and symbolic processors, and a high-performance research aircraft specially modified to accept commands from the ground-based AI computers. This facility is being developed as part of the NASA-DARPA automated wingman program. This document discusses the need for flight research and for a national flight research facility for the rapid prototyping of AI-based avionics systems and the NASA response to those needs.

  20. A High-performance Service-Oriented Geospatial Cyberinfrastructure for Rapid Disaster Response and Decision Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W.; Ren, Y.

    2013-12-01

    High population growth, urbanization and global climate change have resulted in more frequent occurrences of disasters, affecting people's life and property safety all over the world. Worse than the disaster it is the vulnerability of existing disaster management systems that are failed to realize timely collection of disaster-related data, estimation of damage, evacuation planning, resource scheduling and to make other decisions in the disastrous situation. The emerging geospatial cyberinfrastructure (GCI) provides a promising solution to address these issues. This paper reports our efforts in establishing a high-performance cyberinfrastructure for rapid disaster response and decision-making. This GCI is built upon a service-oriented architecture, with improved performance supported by a distributed computing cluster for efficient data transmission and rendering. Different from most works in literature in improving the client-side performance of geospatial web services, this cluster solves the fundamental performance issue on the server side. A web portal is also developed to integrate the real-time geospatial web services reporting disaster related information for integral analysis and collaborative decision-making. We expect this work to contribute to effective disaster management and geospatial interoperability.

  1. The Deployment of Rapid Response Teams in U.S. Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Stolldorf, Deonni P.; Jones, Cheryl B.

    2015-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine (IOM) report, To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health system (1999), highlighted the need for improvements in the quality of health care, advocating for improvements in patient safety, preventing avoidable harm, and providing the necessary care to patients who could benefit from it. Rapid Response Teams (RRTs) are one crucial aspect of a hospital's RRS, providing hospitals with a mechanism to respond and care for patients experiencing an avoidable medical crisis. RRTs became imbedded in US hospitals following the launch of the 100 000 Lives Campaign in 2004 by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement and the introduction of RRTs as one of six initiatives to improve the quality of patient care. RRT adoption also provides hospitals the opportunity to meet a Joint Commission requirement for hospitals to implement a mechanism that enabled staff members to obtain help from experts when their patient's condition is worsening. Despite the proliferation of RRTs in hospitals, descriptive reports of these teams across groups of hospitals have been relatively few and provided limited descriptive information on RRTs. Therefore, using data we collected as part of a larger mixed-methods study of RRTs to examine their sustainability, we describe RRTs in a group of hospitals that were part of a collaborative to facilitate RRT adoption and implementation. PMID:25977203

  2. 49 CFR 37.47 - Key stations in light and rapid rail systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Key stations in light and rapid rail systems. 37... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Transportation Facilities § 37.47 Key stations in light and rapid rail... rapid rail system shall make key stations on its system readily accessible to and usable by...

  3. 49 CFR 37.47 - Key stations in light and rapid rail systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Key stations in light and rapid rail systems. 37... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Transportation Facilities § 37.47 Key stations in light and rapid rail... rapid rail system shall make key stations on its system readily accessible to and usable by...

  4. 49 CFR 37.47 - Key stations in light and rapid rail systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Key stations in light and rapid rail systems. 37... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Transportation Facilities § 37.47 Key stations in light and rapid rail... rapid rail system shall make key stations on its system readily accessible to and usable by...

  5. Rapid olfactory processing implicates subcortical control of an olfactomotor system.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Bradley N; Mainland, Joel D; Sobel, Noam

    2003-08-01

    Sniffs are modulated in response to odor content. Higher concentrations of odor induce lesser-volume sniffs. This phenomenon implicates a neural feedback mechanism that measures sensory input (odor concentration) and modulates motor output (sniffing) accordingly. Here we used air-dilution olfactometry to probe the time course of this olfactomotor mechanism. A stainless-steel computer-controlled olfactometer, equipped with mass flow controllers, temperature and humidity control, and on-line photo-ionization detection, was coupled to a highly sensitive pneumatotachograph that measured nasal flow. The olfactometer was used to generate four ascending concentrations of the odorants propionic acid and phenethyl alcohol. Sniff volume was inversely related to odor concentration (P > 0.0001). Sniffs were uniform and concentration independent for the initial 150 ms but acquired a concentration-dependent flowrate as early as 160 ms following sniff onset for propionic acid (P > 0.05) and 260 ms for phenethyl alcohol (P > 0.05). Considering that odorant transduction takes around 150 ms and odorant-induced cortical evoked potentials have latencies of around 300 ms, the rapid motor adjustments measured here suggest that olfactomotor sniff feedback control is subcortical and may rely on neural mechanisms similar to those that modulate eye movements to accommodate vision and ear movements to accommodate audition. PMID:12711718

  6. An optogenetic gene expression system with rapid activation and deactivation kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Motta-Mena, Laura B.; Reade, Anna; Mallory, Michael J.; Glantz, Spencer; Weiner, Orion D.; Lynch, Kristen W.; Gardner, Kevin H.

    2013-01-01

    Optogenetic gene expression systems can control transcription with spatial and temporal detail unequaled with traditional inducible promoter systems. However, current eukaryotic light-gated transcription systems are limited by toxicity, dynamic range, or slow activation/deactivation. Here we present an optogenetic gene expression system that addresses these shortcomings and demonstrate its broad utility. Our approach utilizes an engineered version of EL222, a bacterial Light-Oxygen-Voltage (LOV) protein that binds DNA when illuminated with blue light. The system has a large (>100-fold) dynamic range of protein expression, rapid activation (< 10 s) and deactivation kinetics (< 50 s), and a highly linear response to light. With this system, we achieve light-gated transcription in several mammalian cell lines and intact zebrafish embryos with minimal basal gene activation and toxicity. Our approach provides a powerful new tool for optogenetic control of gene expression in space and time. PMID:24413462

  7. Rapid onset pressor and sympathetic responses to static handgrip in older hypertensive adults.

    PubMed

    Greaney, J L; Edwards, D G; Fadel, P J; Farquhar, W B

    2015-07-01

    Exaggerated pressor and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) responses have been reported during static handgrip in hypertensive (HTN) adults. Recent work suggests that such responses may occur much more rapidly in HTN patients; however, this has not been extensively studied. Thus, we examined the blood pressure (BP) and MSNA responses at the immediate onset of muscle contraction and tested the hypothesis that older HTN adults would exhibit rapid onset pressor and sympathetic responses compared with normotensive (NTN) adults. Heart rate (HR), BP (Finometer) and MSNA (peroneal microneurography) were retrospectively analyzed in 15 HTN (62 ± 1 years; resting BP 153 ± 3/91 ± 5 mm Hg) and 23 age-matched NTN (60 ± 1 years; resting BP 112 ± 1/67 ± 2 mm Hg) subjects during the first 30 s of static handgrip at 30 and 40% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). HTN adults demonstrated exaggerated increases in mean BP during the first 10 s of both 30% (NTN: Δ1 ± 1 vs HTN: Δ7 ± 2 mm Hg; P < 0.05) and 40% (NTN: Δ2 ± 1 vs HTN: Δ8 ± 2 mm Hg; P < 0.05) intensity handgrip. Likewise, HTN adults exhibited atypical increases in MSNA within 10 s. Increases in HR were also greater in HTN adults at 10 s of 30% MVC handgrip, although not at 40% MVC. There were no group differences in 10 s pressor or sympathetic responses to a cold pressor test, suggesting no differences in generalized sympathetic responsiveness. Thus, static handgrip evokes rapid onset pressor and sympathetic responses in older HTN adults. These findings suggest that older HTN adults likely have greater cardiovascular risk even during short duration activities of daily living that contain an isometric component. PMID:25471615

  8. Searching for Rapid Optical Transients with Both Eyes Open: The RAPTOR Stereoscopic Sky Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vestrand, W. T.; Borozdin, K.; Brumby, S.; Casperson, D.; Fenimore, E.; Galassi, M.; McGowan, K.; Priedhorsky, W.; Starr, D.; Wozniak, P.; White, R.; Wren, J.

    2003-03-01

    A largely unexplored area in astronomy is the study of explosive optical transients with durations of minutes or less.The existence of spectacular rapid optical transients was clearly demonstrated by the detections of bright optical transients associated with gamma ray bursts 990123 and 021211. Those detections were only possible because they occurred in the field-of-view of a high-energy satellite that was able to identify them in real time and cue robotic optical telescopes to slew to the correct position. But there are reasons to suspect the existence of explosive optical transients that cannot be detected by high-energy satellites---the optical emission might have a broader beaming pattern or could be a precursor to the high-energy emission. The RAPid Telescopes for Optical Response (RAPTOR) experiment is an autonomous closed-loop monitoring system that identifies and makes follow-up observations of rapid optical transients in real time. The system is composed of two telescope arrays, separated by 38 kilometers, that stereoscopically monitor a field of about 1300 square degrees for celestial transients down to about 12th magnitude in 30 seconds. The absence of measurable parallax is used to distinguish celestial transients from the "forest" non-celestial transients. Each array also contains a sensitive, higher resolution "fovea" telescope, capable of imaging at a faster cadence and providing color information. In a manner analogous to human vision, both arrays are mounted on rapidly slewing mounts so that the "fovea" of the array can be rapidly directed for follow-up observations of any interesting transient identified by the wide-field system. We discuss the initial results from this new wide-field optical monitoring system.

  9. Rapid detection of microbial cell abundance in aquatic systems.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Andrea M; Yuan, Quan; Close, Dan M; O'Dell, Kaela B; Fortney, Julian L; Wu, Jayne; Hazen, Terry C

    2016-11-15

    The detection and quantification of naturally occurring microbial cellular densities is an essential component of environmental systems monitoring. While there are a number of commonly utilized approaches for monitoring microbial abundance, capacitance-based biosensors represent a promising approach because of their low-cost and label-free detection of microbial cells, but are not as well characterized as more traditional methods. Here, we investigate the applicability of enhanced alternating current electrokinetics (ACEK) capacitive sensing as a new application for rapidly detecting and quantifying microbial cellular densities in cultured and environmentally sourced aquatic samples. ACEK capacitive sensor performance was evaluated using two distinct and dynamic systems - the Great Australian Bight and groundwater from the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, TN. Results demonstrate that ACEK capacitance-based sensing can accurately determine microbial cell counts throughout cellular concentrations typically encountered in naturally occurring microbial communities (10(3)-10(6) cells/mL). A linear relationship was observed between cellular density and capacitance change correlations, allowing a simple linear curve fitting equation to be used for determining microbial abundances in unknown samples. This work provides a foundation for understanding the limits of capacitance-based sensing in natural environmental samples and supports future efforts focusing on evaluating the robustness ACEK capacitance-based within aquatic environments. PMID:27315516

  10. Rapid Stress System Drives Chemical Transfer of Fear from Sender to Receiver

    PubMed Central

    de Groot, Jasper H. B.; Smeets, Monique A. M.; Semin, Gün R.

    2015-01-01

    Humans can register another person’s fear not only with their eyes and ears, but also with their nose. Previous research has demonstrated that exposure to body odors from fearful individuals elicited implicit fear in others. The odor of fearful individuals appears to have a distinctive signature that can be produced relatively rapidly, driven by a physiological mechanism that has remained unexplored in earlier research. The apocrine sweat glands in the armpit that are responsible for chemosignal production contain receptors for adrenalin. We therefore expected that the release of adrenalin through activation of the rapid stress response system (i.e., the sympathetic-adrenal medullary system) is what drives the release of fear sweat, as opposed to activation of the slower stress response system (i.e., hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis). To test this assumption, sweat was sampled while eight participants prepared for a speech. Participants had higher heart rates and produced more armpit sweat in the fast stress condition, compared to baseline and the slow stress condition. Importantly, exposure to sweat from participants in the fast stress condition induced in receivers (N = 31) a simulacrum of the state of the sender, evidenced by the emergence of a fearful facial expression (facial electromyography) and vigilant behavior (i.e., faster classification of emotional facial expressions). PMID:25723720

  11. Drought-induced shift of a forest-woodland ecotone: Rapid landscape response to climate variation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, C.D.; Breshears, D.D.

    1998-01-01

    In coming decades, global climate changes are expected to produce large shifts in vegetation distributions at unprecedented rates. These shifts are expected to be most rapid and extreme at ecotones, the boundaries between ecosystems, particularly those in semiarid landscapes. However, current models do not adequately provide for such rapid effects - particularly those caused by mortality - largely because of the lack of data from field studies. Here we report the most rapid landscape-scale shift of a woody ecotone ever documented: in northern New Mexico in the 1950s, the ecotone between semiarid ponderosa pine forest and pinon-juniper woodland shifted extensively (2 km or more) and rapidly (<5 years) through mortality of ponderosa pines in response to a severe drought. This shift has persisted for 40 years. Forest patches within the shift zone became much more fragmented, and soil erosion greatly accelerated. The rapidity and the complex dynamics of the persistent shift point to the need to represent more accurately these dynamics, especially the mortality factor, in assessments of the effects of climate change.

  12. Drought-induced shift of a forest–woodland ecotone: Rapid landscape response to climate variation

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Craig D.; Breshears, David D.

    1998-01-01

    In coming decades, global climate changes are expected to produce large shifts in vegetation distributions at unprecedented rates. These shifts are expected to be most rapid and extreme at ecotones, the boundaries between ecosystems, particularly those in semiarid landscapes. However, current models do not adequately provide for such rapid effects—particularly those caused by mortality—largely because of the lack of data from field studies. Here we report the most rapid landscape-scale shift of a woody ecotone ever documented: in northern New Mexico in the 1950s, the ecotone between semiarid ponderosa pine forest and piñon–juniper woodland shifted extensively (2 km or more) and rapidly (<5 years) through mortality of ponderosa pines in response to a severe drought. This shift has persisted for 40 years. Forest patches within the shift zone became much more fragmented, and soil erosion greatly accelerated. The rapidity and the complex dynamics of the persistent shift point to the need to represent more accurately these dynamics, especially the mortality factor, in assessments of the effects of climate change. PMID:9843976

  13. Use of nutrient response techniques to assess the effectiveness of chlorination of rapid sand filter gravel.

    PubMed Central

    Lytle, M S; Adams, J C; Dickman, D G; Bressler, W R

    1989-01-01

    A direct viable counting method was used to rapidly assess the effectiveness of chlorination of biofilms on rapid sand filter gravel. A total of 50% of the cells were nutrient responsive after exposure to 0.5 mg of chlorine per liter, while this value was 25% after exposure to 25 mg of chlorine per liter. A large variation was seen in the numbers of nutrient-responsive cells on different rocks. More cells attached to the sandblasted side of marbles than to the smooth side, but there was no difference in eight of nine cases in the proportion of survival to chlorination between the two different sides. The effectiveness of chlorination appeared to be influenced by the species of bacterium in the biofilm. PMID:2705772

  14. Firefighters Integrated Response Equipment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, H.; Abeles, F.

    1978-01-01

    The Firefighters Integrated Response Equipment System (Project FIRES) is a joint National Fire Prevention and Control Administration (NFPCA)/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) program for the development of an 'ultimate' firefighter's protective ensemble. The overall aim of Project FIRES is to improve firefighter protection against hazards, such as heat, flame, smoke, toxic fumes, moisture, impact penetration, and electricity and, at the same time, improve firefighter performance by increasing maneuverability, lowering weight, and improving human engineering design of his protective ensemble.

  15. Physically flexible, rapid-response gas sensor based on colloidal quantum dot solids.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Li, Min; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Hu, Long; Fu, Qiuyun; Zhou, Dongxiang; Xia, Zhe; Sargent, Edward H; Tang, Jiang

    2014-05-01

    A gas sensor based on PbS colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) is constructed on a paper substrate, yielding flexible, rapid-response NO₂ gas sensors, fabricated from the solution phase. The devices are highly sensitive and fully recoverable at room temperature, which is attributed to the excellent access of gas molecules to the CQD surface, realized by surface ligand removal, combined with the desirable binding energy of NO₂ with the PbS CQDs. PMID:24452852

  16. Observed and self-perceived teamwork in a rapid response team.

    PubMed

    Beebe, Pattie; Bawel-Brinkley, Karen; O'Leary-Kelley, Colleen

    2012-07-01

    Teamwork and communication between healthcare workers are vital for patient safety in the high-risk environment of health care. The purpose of this descriptive study was to measure the teamwork among members of the rapid response team (RRT) to design teamwork communication training for team members. Data were collected via live observation of RRT events and from RRT team member ratings of teamwork during events. PMID:22821023

  17. BlueSky Cloud - rapid infrastructure capacity using Amazon's Cloud for wildfire emergency response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haderman, M.; Larkin, N. K.; Beach, M.; Cavallaro, A. M.; Stilley, J. C.; DeWinter, J. L.; Craig, K. J.; Raffuse, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    During peak fire season in the United States, many large wildfires often burn simultaneously across the country. Smoke from these fires can produce air quality emergencies. It is vital that incident commanders, air quality agencies, and public health officials have smoke impact information at their fingertips for evaluating where fires and smoke are and where the smoke will go next. To address the need for this kind of information, the U.S. Forest Service AirFire Team created the BlueSky Framework, a modeling system that predicts concentrations of particle pollution from wildfires. During emergency response, decision makers use BlueSky predictions to make public outreach and evacuation decisions. The models used in BlueSky predictions are computationally intensive, and the peak fire season requires significantly more computer resources than off-peak times. Purchasing enough hardware to run the number of BlueSky Framework runs that are needed during fire season is expensive and leaves idle servers running the majority of the year. The AirFire Team and STI developed BlueSky Cloud to take advantage of Amazon's virtual servers hosted in the cloud. With BlueSky Cloud, as demand increases and decreases, servers can be easily spun up and spun down at a minimal cost. Moving standard BlueSky Framework runs into the Amazon Cloud made it possible for the AirFire Team to rapidly increase the number of BlueSky Framework instances that could be run simultaneously without the costs associated with purchasing and managing servers. In this presentation, we provide an overview of the features of BlueSky Cloud, describe how the system uses Amazon Cloud, and discuss the costs and benefits of moving from privately hosted servers to a cloud-based infrastructure.

  18. Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA 2.0) System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papale, William; O'Coin, James; Wichowski, Robert; Chullen, Cinda; Campbell, Colin

    2013-01-01

    The Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) system is a low-power assembly capable of simultaneously removing carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity from an influent air steam and subsequent regeneration when exposed to a vacuum source. Two solid amine sorbent beds are alternated between an uptake mode and a regeneration mode. During the uptake mode, the sorbent is exposed to an air steam (ventilation loop) to adsorb CO2 and water (H2O) vapor, whereas during the regeneration mode, the sorbent rejects the adsorbed CO2 and H2O vapor to a vacuum source. The two beds operate such that while one bed is in the uptake mode, the other is in the regeneration mode, thus continuously providing an on-service sorbent bed by which CO2 and humidity may be removed. A novel valve assembly provides a simple means of diverting the process air flow through the uptake bed while simultaneously directing the vacuum source to the regeneration bed. Additionally, the valve assembly is designed to allow for switching between uptake and regeneration modes with only one moving part while minimizing gas volume losses to the vacuum source by means of an internal pressure equalization step during actuation. The process can be controlled by a compact, low-power controller design with several modes of operation available to the user. Together with NASA Johnson Space Center, Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems International, Inc. has been developing RCA 2.0 based on performance and design feedback on several sorbent bed test articles and valve design concepts. A final design of RCA 2.0 was selected in November 2011 and fabricated and assembled between March and August 2012, with delivery to NASA Johnson Space Center in September 2012. This paper provides an overview of the RCA system design and results of pre-delivery testing.

  19. Rapid density-measurement system with vibrating-tube densimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayukawa, Yohei; Hasumoto, Masaya; Watanabe, Koichi

    2003-09-01

    Concerning an increasing demand for environmentally friendly refrigerants including hydrocarbons, thermodynamic properties of such new refrigerants, especially densities, are essential information for refrigeration engineering. A rapid density-measurement system with vibrating-tube densimeter was developed in the present study with an aim to supply large numbers of high-quality PVT property data in a short period. The present system needs only a few minutes to obtain a single datum, and requires less than 20 cm3 sample fluid. PVT properties in the entire fluid-phase, vapor-pressures, saturated-liquid densities for pure fluid are available. Liquid densities, bubble-point pressures and saturated-liquid densities for mixture can be obtained. The measurement range is from 240 to 380 K for temperature and up to 7 MPa for pressure. By employing a new calibration function, density can be precisely obtained even at lower densities. The densimeter is calibrated with pure water and iso-octane which is one of the density-standard fluids, and then measurement uncertainty was evaluated to be 0.1 kg m-3 or 0.024% whichever greater in density, 0.26 kPa or 0.022% whichever greater in pressure and 3 mK for temperature, respectively. The performance of the present measurement system was examined by measuring thermodynamic properties for refrigerant R134a. The experimental results were compared with available equation of state and confirmed to agree with it within ±0.05% for liquid densities while ±0.5% in pressure for the gas phase.

  20. Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA 2.0) System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papale, William; O'Coin, James; Wichowski, Robert; Chullen, Cinda; Campbell, Colin

    2012-01-01

    The Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) system is a low power assembly capable of simultaneously removing carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity from an influent air steam and subsequent regeneration when exposed to a vacuum source. Two solid amine sorbent beds are alternated between an uptake mode and a regeneration mode. During the uptake mode, the sorbent is exposed to an air steam (ventilation loop) to adsorb CO2 and water vapor, while during the regeneration mode, the sorbent rejects the adsorbed CO2 and water vapor to a vacuum source. The two beds operate such that while one bed is in the uptake mode, the other is in the regeneration mode, thus continuously providing an on-service sorbent bed by which CO2 and humidity may be removed. A novel valve assembly provides a simple means of diverting the process air flow through the uptake bed while simultaneously directing the vacuum source to the regeneration bed. Additionally, the valve assembly is designed to allow for switching between uptake and regeneration modes with only one moving part while minimizing gas volume losses to the vacuum source by means of an internal pressure equalization step during actuation. The process can be controlled by a compact, low power controller design with several modes of operation available to the user. Together with NASA, United Technologies Corporation Aerospace Systems has been developing RCA 2.0 based on performance and design feedback on several sorbent bed test articles and valve design concepts. A final design was selected in November 2011 and fabricated and assembled between March and August 2012, with delivery to NASA-JSC in September 2012. This paper will provide an overview on the RCA system design and results of pre-delivery testing.

  1. Rapid estimation of frequency response functions by close-range photogrammetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripp, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    The accuracy of a rapid method which estimates the frequency response function from stereoscopic dynamic data is computed. It is shown that reversal of the order of the operations of coordinate transformation and Fourier transformation, which provides a significant increase in computational speed, introduces error. A portion of the error, proportional to the perturbation components normal to the camera focal planes, cannot be eliminated. The remaining error may be eliminated by proper scaling of frequency data prior to coordinate transformation. Methods are developed for least squares estimation of the full 3x3 frequency response matrix for a three dimensional structure.

  2. MODIS Rapid Response: On-the-ground, real time applications of scientific satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmaltz, J. E.; Riebeek, H.; Kendall, J. D.

    2009-12-01

    Since 2001, NASA’s MODIS Rapid Response Project has been providing fire detections and imagery in near real time for a wide variety of application users. The project web site provides MODIS imagery in true color and false color band combinations, a vegetation index, and land surface temperature - in both uncorrected swath format and geographically corrected subset regions within a few hours of data acquisition. The uncorrected swath format data is available worldwide. Geographically corrected subset images cover the world's land areas and adjoining waters, as well as the entire Arctic and Antarctic. Images are available twice daily, in the morning from the Terra satellite and in the afternoon from the Aqua satellite. A wide range of user communities access this information to get a rapid, 250 meter-resolution overview of ground conditions for fire management, crop and famine monitoring and forecasting, disaster response (floods, storms), dust and aerosol monitoring, aviation (tracking volcanic ash), monitoring sea ice conditions, environmental monitoring, and more. The scientific community uses imagery to locate phenomena of interest prior to ordering and processing data and to support the day-to-day planning of field campaigns. Rapid Response imagery is used extensively to support education and public outreach, both by NASA and other organizations, and is frequently found in newspapers, books, TV, and the web. California wildfires, 26 October 2003, Terra MODIS

  3. Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) 3.0 System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Campbell, Colin; Papale, William; Hawes, Kevin; Wichowski, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) 3.0 system is currently under development by NASA, the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) in conjunction with United Technologies Corporation Aerospace Systems (UTAS). The RCA technology is a new carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity removal system that has been baselined for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support System. The evolution of the RCA development has progressed through several iterations of technology readiness levels including RCA 1.0, RCA 2.0, and RCA 3.0 test articles. The RCA is an advancement over currently technologies due to its unique regeneration capability. The RCA is capable of simultaneously removing CO2 and humidity from an influent air steam and subsequent regeneration when exposed to a vacuum source. The RCA technology uses two solid amine sorbent beds in an alternating fashion to adsorb CO2 and water (uptake mode) and desorb CO2 and water (regeneration mode) at the same time. The two beds operate in an efficient manner so that while one bed is in the uptake mode, the other is in the regeneration mode, thus continuously providing an on-service sorbent bed by which CO2 and humidity may be removed. The RCA 2.0 and 3.0 test articles were designed with a novel valve assembly which allows for switching between uptake and regeneration modes with only one moving part while minimizing gas volume losses to the vacuum source by means of an internal pressure equalization step during actuation. The RCA technology also is low power, small, and has performed extremely well in all development testing thus far. A final design was selected for the RCA 3.0, fabricated, assembled, and performance tested in 2014 with delivery to NASAJSC in January 2015. This paper will provide an overview on the RCA 3.0 system design and results of pre-delivery testing with references to the development of RCA 1.0 and RCA 2.0.

  4. 20 CFR 665.330 - Are the NAFTA-TAA program requirements for rapid response also required activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are the NAFTA-TAA program requirements for rapid response also required activities? 665.330 Section 665.330 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND... WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Rapid Response Activities § 665.330 Are the NAFTA-TAA program requirements...

  5. 20 CFR 671.160 - What rapid response activities are required before a national emergency grant application is...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... out by the State or its designee in collaboration with the Local Board(s) and chief elected official(s). Under 20 CFR 665.310, rapid response encompasses, among other activities, an assessment of the general...) The rapid response activities described in 20 CFR 665.310 have been initiated and carried out, or...

  6. 20 CFR 671.160 - What rapid response activities are required before a national emergency grant application is...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...), to be carried out by the State or its designee in collaboration with the Local Board(s) and chief elected official(s). Under 20 CFR 665.310, rapid response encompasses, among other activities, an... must demonstrate that: (1) The rapid response activities described in 20 CFR 665.310 have...

  7. 20 CFR 671.160 - What rapid response activities are required before a national emergency grant application is...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...), to be carried out by the State or its designee in collaboration with the Local Board(s) and chief elected official(s). Under 20 CFR 665.310, rapid response encompasses, among other activities, an... must demonstrate that: (1) The rapid response activities described in 20 CFR 665.310 have...

  8. 20 CFR 671.160 - What rapid response activities are required before a national emergency grant application is...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... out by the State or its designee in collaboration with the Local Board(s) and chief elected official(s). Under 20 CFR 665.310, rapid response encompasses, among other activities, an assessment of the general...) The rapid response activities described in 20 CFR 665.310 have been initiated and carried out, or...

  9. E-DECIDER Rapid Response to the M 6.0 South Napa Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasscoe, M. T.; Parker, J. W.; Pierce, M. E.; Wang, J.; Eguchi, R. T.; Huyck, C. K.; Hu, Z.; Chen, Z.; Yoder, M. R.; Rundle, J. B.; Rosinski, A.

    2014-12-01

    E-DECIDER initiated rapid response mode when the California Earthquake Clearinghouse was activated the morning following the M6 Napa earthquake. Data products, including: 1) rapid damage and loss estimates, 2) deformation magnitude and slope change maps, and 3) aftershock forecasts were provided to the Clearinghouse partners within 24 hours of the event via XchangeCore Web Service Data Orchestration sharing. NASA data products were provided to end-users via XchangeCore, EERI and Clearinghouse websites, and ArcGIS online for Napa response, reaching a wide response audience. The E-DECIDER team helped facilitate rapid delivery of NASA products to stakeholders and participated in Clearinghouse Napa earthquake briefings to update stakeholders on product information. Rapid response products from E-DECIDER can be used to help prioritize response efforts shortly after the event has occurred. InLET (Internet Loss Estimation Tool) post-event damage and casualty estimates were generated quickly after the Napa earthquake. InLET provides immediate post-event estimates of casualties and building damage by performing loss/impact simulations using USGS ground motion data and FEMA HAZUS damage estimation technology. These results were provided to E-DECIDER by their collaborators, ImageCat, Inc. and the Community Stakeholder Network (CSN). Strain magnitude and slope change maps were automatically generated when the Napa earthquake appeared on the USGS feed. These maps provide an early estimate of where the deformation has occurred and where damage may be localized. Using E-DECIDER critical infrastructure overlays with damage estimates, decision makers can direct response effort that can be verified later with field reconnaissance and remote sensing-based observations. Earthquake aftershock forecast maps were produced within hours of the event. These maps highlight areas where aftershocks are likely to occur and can also be coupled with infrastructure overlays to help direct response

  10. Rapid Detection of Neutrophil Oxidative Burst Capacity is Predictive of Whole Blood Cytokine Responses

    PubMed Central

    Vernon, Philip J.; Schaub, Leasha J.; Dallelucca, Jurandir J.; Pusateri, Anthony E.; Sheppard, Forest R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Maladaptive immune responses, particularly cytokine and chemokine-driven, are a significant contributor to the deleterious inflammation present in many types of injury and infection. Widely available applications to rapidly assess individual inflammatory capacity could permit identification of patients at risk for exacerbated immune responses and guide therapy. Here we evaluate neutrophil oxidative burst (NOX) capacity measured by plate reader to immuno-type Rhesus Macaques as an acute strategy to rapidly detect inflammatory capacity and predict maladaptive immune responses as assayed by cytokine array. Methods Whole blood was collected from anesthetized Rhesus Macaques (n = 25) and analyzed for plasma cytokine secretion (23-plex Luminex assay) and NOX capacity. For cytokine secretion, paired samples were either unstimulated or ex-vivo lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated (100μg/mL/24h). NOX capacity was measured in dihydrorhodamine-123 loaded samples following phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)/ionomycin treatment. Pearson’s test was utilized to correlate NOX capacity with cytokine secretion, p<0.05 considered significant. Results LPS stimulation induced secretion of the inflammatory molecules G-CSF, IL-1β, IL-1RA, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12/23(p40), IL-18, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and TNFα. Although values were variable, several cytokines correlated with NOX capacity, p-values≤0.0001. Specifically, IL-1β (r = 0.66), IL-6 (r = 0.74), the Th1-polarizing cytokine IL-12/23(p40) (r = 0.78), and TNFα (r = 0.76) were strongly associated with NOX. Conclusion NOX capacity correlated with Th1-polarizing cytokine secretion, indicating its ability to rapidly predict inflammatory responses. These data suggest that NOX capacity may quickly identify patients at risk for maladaptive immune responses and who may benefit from immuno-modulatory therapies. Future studies will assess the in-vivo predictive value of NOX in animal models of immune-mediated pathologies. PMID

  11. A Data System for a Rapid Evaluation Class of Subscale Aerial Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogge, Edward F.; Quach, Cuong C.; Vazquez, Sixto L.; Hill, Boyd L.

    2011-01-01

    A low cost, rapid evaluation, test aircraft is used to develop and test airframe damage diagnosis algorithms at Langley Research Center as part of NASA's Aviation Safety Program. The remotely operated subscale aircraft is instrumented with sensors to monitor structural response during flight. Data is collected for good and compromised airframe configurations to develop data driven models for diagnosing airframe state. This paper describes the data acquisition system (DAS) of the rapid evaluation test aircraft. A PC/104 form factor DAS was developed to allow use of Matlab, Simulink simulation code in Langley's existing subscale aircraft flight test infrastructure. The small scale of the test aircraft permitted laboratory testing of the actual flight article under controlled conditions. The low cost and modularity of the DAS permitted adaptation to various flight experiment requirements.

  12. Comparison of Rapid NFT system and conventional methods for identification of nonsaccharolytic gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Martin, R; Siavoshi, F; McDougal, D L

    1986-12-01

    This study examined the Rapid NFT system (Analytab Products, Plainview, N.Y.) to determine its ability to accurately identify 229 clinical isolates of mostly nonsaccharolytic gram-negative rods. Identifications were classified by the following scheme: correct (corresponding to excellent, very good, good, or acceptable identification as listed in the code book); low discrimination (correct identification among a range of listed possibilities, with additional tests necessary for accurate identification); incorrect. Correct identification was considered correct to species and subspecies for all organisms except Alcaligenes faecalis and "Alcaligenes odorans"; "A. faecalis/odorans" was considered a correct response. By using these criteria, 71.6% of the strains were correctly identified, 17.9% were identified with low discrimination, and 10.5% were incorrectly identified. When consideration was made for incorrect identification resulting from taxonomic problems (e.g., Alcaligenes and Moraxella spp.), incorrect identifications fell to 5.2%. The Rapid NFT system was truly rapid and was easy to use and interpret. Its use of carbon substrate assimilation enables it to provide more accurate identification of medically important nonsaccharolytic bacteria than do other commercially available systems. PMID:3536999

  13. Rapid Process to Generate Beam Envelopes for Optical System Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Joseph; Seals, Lenward

    2012-01-01

    The task of evaluating obstructions in the optical throughput of an optical system requires the use of two disciplines, and hence, two models: optical models for the details of optical propagation, and mechanical models for determining the actual structure that exists in the optical system. Previous analysis methods for creating beam envelopes (or cones of light) for use in this obstruction analysis were found to be cumbersome to calculate and take significant time and resources to complete. A new process was developed that takes less time to complete beam envelope analysis, is more accurate and less dependent upon manual node tracking to create the beam envelopes, and eases the burden on the mechanical CAD (computer-aided design) designers to form the beam solids. This algorithm allows rapid generation of beam envelopes for optical system obstruction analysis. Ray trace information is taken from optical design software and used to generate CAD objects that represent the boundary of the beam envelopes for detailed analysis in mechanical CAD software. Matlab is used to call ray trace data from the optical model for all fields and entrance pupil points of interest. These are chosen to be the edge of each space, so that these rays produce the bounding volume for the beam. The x and y global coordinate data is collected on the surface planes of interest, typically an image of the field and entrance pupil internal of the optical system. This x and y coordinate data is then evaluated using a convex hull algorithm, which removes any internal points, which are unnecessary to produce the bounding volume of interest. At this point, tolerances can be applied to expand the size of either the field or aperture, depending on the allocations. Once this minimum set of coordinates on the pupil and field is obtained, a new set of rays is generated between the field plane and aperture plane (or vice-versa). These rays are then evaluated at planes between the aperture and field, at a

  14. An Inducible System for Rapid Degradation of Specific Cellular Proteins Using Proteasome Adaptors

    PubMed Central

    Wilmington, Shameika R.; Matouschek, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    A common way to study protein function is to deplete the protein of interest from cells and observe the response. Traditional methods involve disrupting gene expression but these techniques are only effective against newly synthesized proteins and leave previously existing and stable proteins untouched. Here, we introduce a technique that induces the rapid degradation of specific proteins in mammalian cells by shuttling the proteins to the proteasome for degradation in a ubiquitin-independent manner. We present two implementations of the system in human culture cells that can be used individually to control protein concentration. Our study presents a simple, robust, and flexible technology platform for manipulating intracellular protein levels. PMID:27043013

  15. Biotic response to late Quaternary rapid climate switches in Santa Barbara Basin: Ecological and evolutionary implications

    SciTech Connect

    Cannariato, K.G.; Kennett, J.P.; Behl, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Benthic foraminiferal assemblages from Santa Barbara Basin exhibit major faunal and ecological switches associated with late Quaternary millennial- to decadal-scale global climate oscillations. Repeated turnovers of entire faunas occurred rapidly (<40--400 yr) without extinction or speciation in conjunction with Dansgaard-Oeschger shifts in thermohaline circulation, ventilation, and climate, confirming evolutionary model predictions of Roy et al. Consistent faunal successions of dysoxic taxa during successive interstadials reflect the extreme sensitivity and adaptation of the benthic ecosystem to the rapid environmental changes that marked the late Quaternary and possibly other transitional intervals in the history of the Earth`s ocean-atmosphere-cryosphere system. These data support the hypothesis that broad segments of the biosphere are well adapted to rapid climate change.

  16. Rapid Prototyping and Evaluation of Control System Designs for Manned and Unmanned Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansur, M. Hossein; Frye, Michael; Montegut, Michael; Rutkowski, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The development and optimization of flight control systems for modem fixed- and rotary- wing aircraft consume significant time and cost during aircraft development. Similarly, as unmanned aerial vehicles perform more complex tasks, sometimes autonomously, the control system design requirements for this class of vehicles, and the corresponding time and cost requirements, are also becoming significant. Therefore, for both manned and unmanned vehicles, substantial program savings can be achieved if integrated design and optimization tools are employed to shorten the design and flight-test cycle for new or upgraded,pontrol systems. To bring about this reduction in the length of the design-cycle, and therefore its cost, Madab and Simulink are being used to implement block diagrams and to rapidly evaluate the expected responses of the completed systems. In conjunction, CONDUIT (CONtrol Designer's Unified InTerface) is being used to enable the controls engineers to optimize their control laws and ensure that all the relevant quantitative criteria are satisfied.

  17. Rapid assembly and use of robotic systems: Saving time and money in new applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, P.C.

    1995-10-01

    High costs and low productivity of manual operations in radiation, chemical, explosive and other hazardous environments have mandated the use of remote means to accomplish many tasks. However, traditional remote operations have proven to have very low productivity when compared with unencumbered humans. To improve the performance of these systems, computer models augmented by sensors, and modular computing environments are being utilized to automate many unstructured hazardous tasks. Establishment of a common structure for developments of modules such as the Generic Intelligent System Controller (GISC), have allowed many independent groups to develop specialized components that can be rapidly integrated into purpose-built robotic systems. The drawback in using this systems is that the equipment investments for such robotic systems can be substantial. In a resource-competitive environment, the ability to readily and reliably reconfigure and reuse assets operated by other industries, universities, research labs, government entities, etc., is proving to be a crucial advantage. Timely and efficient collaboration between entities has become increasingly important as monetary resources of government programs and entire industries expand or contract in response to rapid changes in production demand, dissolution of political barriers, and adoption of stringent environmental and commercial legislation. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed the System Composer, Virtual Collaborative Environment (VCE) and A{sup primed} technologies described in this paper that demonstrate an environment for flexible and efficient integration, interaction, and information exchange between disparate entities.

  18. The effect of rapid response teams on end-of-life care: A retrospective chart review

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Benjamin; Salib, Mary; Fox-Robichaud, Alison

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A subset of critically ill patients have end-of-life (EOL) goals that are unclear. Rapid response teams (RRTs) may aid in the identification of these patients and the delivery of their EOL care. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the impact of RRT discussion on EOL care, and to examine how a preprinted order (PPO) set for EOL care influenced EOL discussions and outcomes. METHODS: A single-centre retrospective chart review of all RRT calls (January 2009 to December 2010) was performed. The effect of RRT EOL discussions and the effect of a hospital-wide PPO set on EOL care was examined. Charts were from the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care Critical Care Information Systemic database, and were interrogated by two reviewers. RESULTS: In patients whose EOL status changed following RRT EOL discussion, there were fewer intensive care unit (ICU) transfers (8.4% versus 17%; P<0.001), decreased ICU length of stay (5.8 days versus 20 days; P=0.08), increased palliative care consultations (34% versus 5.3%; P<0.001) and an increased proportion who died within 24 h of consultation (25% versus 8.3%; P<0.001). More patients experienced a change in EOL status following the introduction of an EOL PPO, from 20% (before) to 31% (after) (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: A change in EOL status following RRT-led EOL discussion was associated with reduced ICU transfers and enhanced access to palliative care services. Further study is required to identify and deconstruct barriers impairing timely and appropriate EOL discussions. PMID:25299222

  19. Urgent Need to Orient Public Health Response to Rapid Nutrition Transition

    PubMed Central

    Kapil, Umesh; Sachdev, Harsh Pal Singh

    2012-01-01

    India is currently undergoing a rapid transition on economic, demographic, epidemiologic, nutrition, and sociological fronts. There is evidence of a decline in undernutrition with a simultaneous escalation in overnutrition and associated non-communicable diseases (NCDs). However, the current concern and national policy response for tackling malnutrition in India is still primarily restricted to undernutrition diagnosed on the basis of body size (anthropometry). A complex range of interacting factors have been linked to the rising trend of overnutrition and associated NCDs from a global perspective. The burden of overnutrition and associated morbidities is rapidly escalating to alarming proportions, particularly in urban areas and high socio-economic status groups. The poor are not spared from this transition. It is predicted that a more rapid transition may occur amongst poor populations in future with higher economic development. The need of the hour is to launch an integrated public health response to the dual burden beginning from pregnancy and early life. This will obviously require careful deliberation of the strategy and interventions, and a multi-sectoral approach, especially involving the health, women and child development, nutrition, education, agriculture, food processing, trade, architecture, water supply and sanitation, community and non-governmental organizations. PMID:23293431

  20. Rapid building damage assessment system using mobile phone technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimellaro, Gian Paolo; Scura, G.; Renschler, C. S.; Reinhorn, A. M.; Kim, H. U.

    2014-09-01

    One common scenario during disasters such as earthquakes is that the activity of damage field reconnaissance on site is not well-coordinated. For example in Italy the damage assessment of structures after an earthquake is managed from the Italian Emergency Authority, using printed forms (AeDES) which are filled by experts on site generating a lot of confusion in filling and transferring the forms to the Disaster Management Operative Center. Because of this, the paper explores the viability of using mobile communication technologies (smart phones) and the Web to develop response systems that would aid communities after a major disaster, providing channels for allowing residents and responders of uploading and distributing information, related to structural damages coordinating the damage field reconnaissance. A mobile application that can be run by residents on smart phones has been developed, to give an initial damage evaluation of the area, which is going to be very useful when resources (e.g. the number of experts is limited). The mobile application has been tested for the first time during 2012 Emilia earthquake to enhance the emergency response, showing the efficiency of the proposed method in statistical terms comparing the proposed procedure with the standard procedure.

  1. Induction of heme oxygenase is a rapid, protective response in rhabdomyolysis in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Nath, K A; Balla, G; Vercellotti, G M; Balla, J; Jacob, H S; Levitt, M D; Rosenberg, M E

    1992-01-01

    Heme proteins such as myoglobin or hemoglobin, when released into the extracellular space, can instigate tissue toxicity. Myoglobin is directly implicated in the pathogenesis of renal failure in rhabdomyolysis. In the glycerol model of this syndrome, we demonstrate that the kidney responds to such inordinate amounts of heme proteins by inducing the heme-degradative enzyme, heme oxygenase, as well as increasing the synthesis of ferritin, the major cellular repository for iron. Prior recruitment of this response with a single preinfusion of hemoglobin prevents kidney failure and drastically reduces mortality (from 100% to 14%). Conversely, ablating this response with a competitive inhibitor of heme oxygenase exacerbates kidney dysfunction. We provide the first in vivo evidence that induction of heme oxygenase coupled to ferritin synthesis is a rapid, protective antioxidant response. Our findings suggest a therapeutic strategy for populations at a high risk for rhabdomyolysis. Images PMID:1634613

  2. Model evaluation of denitrification under rapid infiltration basin systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhavan, Maryam; Imhoff, Paul T.; Andres, A. Scott; Finsterle, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    Rapid Infiltration Basin Systems (RIBS) are used for disposing reclaimed wastewater into soil to achieve additional treatment before it recharges groundwater. Effluent from most new sequenced batch reactor wastewater treatment plants is completely nitrified, and denitrification (DNF) is the main reaction for N removal. To characterize effects of complex surface and subsurface flow patterns caused by non-uniform flooding on DNF, a coupled overland flow-vadose zone model is implemented in the multiphase flow and reactive transport simulator TOUGHREACT. DNF is simulated in two representative soils varying the application cycle, hydraulic loading rate, wastewater quality, water table depth, and subsurface heterogeneity. Simulations using the conventional specified flux boundary condition under-predict DNF by as much as 450% in sand and 230% in loamy sand compared to predictions from the coupled overland flow-vadose zone model, indicating that simulating coupled flow is critical for predicting DNF in cases where hydraulic loading rates are not sufficient to spread the wastewater over the whole basin. Smaller ratios of wetting to drying time and larger hydraulic loading rates result in greater water saturations, more anoxic conditions, and faster water transport in the vadose zone, leading to greater DNF. These results in combination with those from different water table depths explain why reported DNF varied with soil type and water table depth in previous field investigations. Across all simulations, cumulative percent DNF varies between 2 and 49%, indicating that NO3 removal in RIBS may vary widely depending on operational procedures and subsurface conditions. These modeling results improve understanding of DNF in RIBS and suggest operational procedures that may improve NO3 removal.

  3. Model evaluation of denitrification under rapid infiltration basin systems.

    PubMed

    Akhavan, Maryam; Imhoff, Paul T; Andres, A Scott; Finsterle, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    Rapid Infiltration Basin Systems (RIBS) are used for disposing reclaimed wastewater into soil to achieve additional treatment before it recharges groundwater. Effluent from most new sequenced batch reactor wastewater treatment plants is completely nitrified, and denitrification (DNF) is the main reaction for N removal. To characterize effects of complex surface and subsurface flow patterns caused by non-uniform flooding on DNF, a coupled overland flow-vadose zone model is implemented in the multiphase flow and reactive transport simulator TOUGHREACT. DNF is simulated in two representative soils varying the application cycle, hydraulic loading rate, wastewater quality, water table depth, and subsurface heterogeneity. Simulations using the conventional specified flux boundary condition under-predict DNF by as much as 450% in sand and 230% in loamy sand compared to predictions from the coupled overland flow-vadose zone model, indicating that simulating coupled flow is critical for predicting DNF in cases where hydraulic loading rates are not sufficient to spread the wastewater over the whole basin. Smaller ratios of wetting to drying time and larger hydraulic loading rates result in greater water saturations, more anoxic conditions, and faster water transport in the vadose zone, leading to greater DNF. These results in combination with those from different water table depths explain why reported DNF varied with soil type and water table depth in previous field investigations. Across all simulations, cumulative percent DNF varies between 2 and 49%, indicating that NO₃ removal in RIBS may vary widely depending on operational procedures and subsurface conditions. These modeling results improve understanding of DNF in RIBS and suggest operational procedures that may improve NO₃ removal. PMID:23835290

  4. A rapid transcriptome response is associated with desiccation resistance in aerially-exposed killifish embryos.

    PubMed

    Tingaud-Sequeira, Angèle; Lozano, Juan-José; Zapater, Cinta; Otero, David; Kube, Michael; Reinhardt, Richard; Cerdà, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Delayed hatching is a form of dormancy evolved in some amphibian and fish embryos to cope with environmental conditions transiently hostile to the survival of hatchlings or larvae. While diapause and cryptobiosis have been extensively studied in several animals, very little is known concerning the molecular mechanisms involved in the sensing and response of fish embryos to environmental cues. Embryos of the euryhaline killifish Fundulus heteroclitus advance dvelopment when exposed to air but hatching is suspended until flooding with seawater. Here, we investigated how transcriptome regulation underpins this adaptive response by examining changes in gene expression profiles of aerially incubated killifish embryos at ∼100% relative humidity, compared to embryos continuously flooded in water. The results confirm that mid-gastrula embryos are able to stimulate development in response to aerial incubation, which is accompanied by the differential expression of at least 806 distinct genes during a 24 h period. Most of these genes (∼70%) appear to be differentially expressed within 3 h of aerial exposure, suggesting a broad and rapid transcriptomic response. This response seems to include an early sensing phase, which overlaps with a tissue remodeling and activation of embryonic development phase involving many regulatory and metabolic pathways. Interestingly, we found fast (0.5-1 h) transcriptional differences in representatives of classical "stress" proteins, such as some molecular chaperones, members of signalling pathways typically involved in the transduction of sensor signals to stress response genes, and oxidative stress-related proteins, similar to that described in other animals undergoing dormancy, diapause or desiccation. To our knowledge, these data represent the first transcriptional profiling of molecular processes associated with desiccation resistance during delayed hatching in non-mammalian vertebrates. The exceptional transcriptomic plasticity

  5. A Rapid Transcriptome Response Is Associated with Desiccation Resistance in Aerially-Exposed Killifish Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Tingaud-Sequeira, Angèle; Lozano, Juan-José; Zapater, Cinta; Otero, David; Kube, Michael; Reinhardt, Richard; Cerdà, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Delayed hatching is a form of dormancy evolved in some amphibian and fish embryos to cope with environmental conditions transiently hostile to the survival of hatchlings or larvae. While diapause and cryptobiosis have been extensively studied in several animals, very little is known concerning the molecular mechanisms involved in the sensing and response of fish embryos to environmental cues. Embryos of the euryhaline killifish Fundulus heteroclitus advance dvelopment when exposed to air but hatching is suspended until flooding with seawater. Here, we investigated how transcriptome regulation underpins this adaptive response by examining changes in gene expression profiles of aerially incubated killifish embryos at ∼100% relative humidity, compared to embryos continuously flooded in water. The results confirm that mid-gastrula embryos are able to stimulate development in response to aerial incubation, which is accompanied by the differential expression of at least 806 distinct genes during a 24 h period. Most of these genes (∼70%) appear to be differentially expressed within 3 h of aerial exposure, suggesting a broad and rapid transcriptomic response. This response seems to include an early sensing phase, which overlaps with a tissue remodeling and activation of embryonic development phase involving many regulatory and metabolic pathways. Interestingly, we found fast (0.5–1 h) transcriptional differences in representatives of classical “stress” proteins, such as some molecular chaperones, members of signalling pathways typically involved in the transduction of sensor signals to stress response genes, and oxidative stress-related proteins, similar to that described in other animals undergoing dormancy, diapause or desiccation. To our knowledge, these data represent the first transcriptional profiling of molecular processes associated with desiccation resistance during delayed hatching in non-mammalian vertebrates. The exceptional transcriptomic plasticity

  6. Contrasting ice sheet response to early and late summer rapid supraglacial lake drainage events on the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, L. A.; Behn, M. D.; Das, S. B.; Joughin, I. R.; Herring, T.; King, M. A.; McGuire, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    Across much of the ablation region of the western Greenland Ice Sheet, hydro-fracture events related to supraglacial lake drainages rapidly deliver large volumes of meltwater to the bed and create conduits providing efficient surface-to-bed drainage networks for the remainder of the summer melt season. Using a network of 20 GPS stations installed in 2011, and supplemented with a smaller network operating back to 2006, we observe ice surface motion during a series of lake draining hydro-fracture events. These data are used to investigate (1) the location and propagation geometry of the fracture opening and (2) the acceleration of ice in response to the rapid input of surface meltwater to the bed. Observations at the same location show varying surface motion following early versus late summer rapid lake drainage events from multiple years. During a late-season (July 29) rapid drainage in 2006, results from a single GPS station show velocity in the direction of mean ice flow and surface uplift returned to pre-drainage values within ~24 hours (Das et al., 2008), indicating the large subglacial meltwater pulse was efficiently dissipated into the subglacial hydrologic network. In contrast, an early-season (June 11) rapid drainage at the same lake in 2011 induced uplift that persisted for much longer. Specifically, we find that elevations at stations nearest the moulin did not return to pre-drainage elevations for 4 to 8 days post-drainage, suggesting a more inefficient subglacial hydrologic system during the early summer season. These results indicate that the ice-sheet response is modulated, at least in part, by the seasonal evolution of the subglacial hydrological system. We also plan to investigate new GPS data from 2 rapid drainage events in the early portion of the melt season in 2012 and 2013. Findings from these events will ultimately improve our understanding of the mechanics of ice-sheet hydro-fracture and the influence of surface meltwater on ice-sheet flow.

  7. VAPI: low-cost, rapid automated visual inspection system for Petri plate analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatburn, L. T.; Kirkup, B. C.; Polz, M. F.

    2007-09-01

    Most culture-based microbiology tasks utilize a petri plate during processing, but rarely do the scientists capture the full information available from the plate. In particular, visual analysis of plates is an under-developed rich source of data that can be rapid and non-invasive. However, collecting this data has been limited by the difficulties of standardizing and quantifying human observations, by the limits of a scientists' fatigue, and by the cost of automating the process. The availability of specialized counting equipment and intelligent camera systems has not changed this - they are prohibitively expensive for many laboratories, only process a limited number of plate types, are often destructive to the sample, and have limited accuracy. This paper describes an automated visual inspection solution, VAPI, that employs inexpensive consumer computing hardware and digital cameras along with custom cross-platform open-source software written in C++, combining Trolltech's Qt GUI toolkit with Intel's OpenCV computer vision library. The system is more accurate than common commercial systems costing many times as much, while being flexible in use and offering comparable responsiveness. VAPI not only counts colonies but also sorts and enumerates colonies by morphology, tracks colony growth by time series analysis, and provides other analytical resources. Output to XML files or directly to a database provides data that can be easily maintained and manipulated by the end user, offering ready access for system enhancement, interaction with other software systems, and rapid development of advanced analysis applications.

  8. Rapid NKT cell responses are self-terminating during the course of microbial infection.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Asako; Dascher, Christopher C; Besra, Gurdal S; Brenner, Michael B

    2008-08-15

    NKT cells play a protective role in immune responses against infectious pathogens. However, when the NKT cell response to infection is initiated and terminated is unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that NKT cells become activated, proliferate, and exert their effector function before MHC-restricted T cells during infection with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin in mice. After a cell expansion phase, NKT cells underwent cell death, which contracts their numbers back to baseline. Surprisingly, despite ongoing infection, the remaining NKT cells were profoundly unresponsive to TCR stimulation, while MHC-restricted T cells were vigorously proliferating and producing IFN-gamma. Similarly, we show that NKT cells became unresponsive in uninfected mice after receiving a single exposure to a TLR agonist LPS, suggesting that NKT cell unresponsiveness may be a major mechanism of terminating their response in many infectious conditions. This characterization of the NKT cell response in antimicrobial immunity indicates that rapid NKT cell activation contributes to the innate phase of the response to the infectious pathogen, but then, the NKT cell response is shut down by two mechanisms; apoptotic contraction and marked unresponsiveness to TCR stimulation, as a synchronized hand off to MHC-restricted T cells occurs. PMID:18684918

  9. Transient Response in LMFBR System.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-04-26

    SSC-L (the Super System Code) calculates the thermohydraulic response of loop-type liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) systems during operational, incidental, and accidental transients, especially natural circulation events. Modules simulated and parameters calculated include: core flow rates and temperatures, loop flow rates and temperatures, pump performance, and heat exchanger operation. Additionally, SSC-L accounts for all plant protection and plant control systems. Although the primary emphasis is on transients for safety analysis, SSC-L can be usedmore » for many other applications, such as scoping analysis for plant design and specification of various components. Any number of user-specified loops, pipes, and nodes are permitted. Both single- and two-phase thermal-hydraulics are used in a multi-channel core representation. Inter-assembly flow redistribution is accounted for using a detailed fuel pin model. The heat transport system geometry is user-specified. SSC-L provides steady-state and transient options and a restart capability. Input is free format in a modular structure that makes use of abstract data management techniques.« less

  10. Rapid three-dimensional functional magnetic resonance imaging of the initial negative BOLD response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindquist, Martin A.; Zhang, Cun-Hui; Glover, Gary; Shepp, Lawrence

    2008-03-01

    Functional MRI is most commonly used to study the local changes in blood flow that accompanies neuronal activity. In this work we introduce a new approach towards acquiring and analyzing fMRI data that instead provides the potential to study the initial oxygen consumption in the brain that accompanies activation. As the oxygen consumption is closer in timing to the underlying neuronal activity than the subsequent blood flow, this approach promises to provide more precise information about the location and timing of activity. Our approach is based on using a new single shot 3D echo-volumar imaging sequence which samples a small central region of 3D k-space every 100 ms, thereby giving a low spatial resolution snapshot of the brain with extremely high temporal resolution. Explicit and simple rules for implementing the trajectory are provided, together with a straightforward reconstruction algorithm. Using our approach allows us to effectively study the behavior of the brain in the time immediately following activation through the initial negative BOLD response, and we discuss new techniques for detecting the presence of the negative response across the brain. The feasibility and efficiency of the approach is confirmed using data from a visual-motor task and an auditory-motor-visual task. The results of these experiments provide a proof of concept of our methodology, and indicate that rapid imaging of the initial negative BOLD response can serve an important role in studying cognition tasks involving rapid mental processing in more than one region.

  11. Rapid response to Ebola outbreaks in remote areas - Liberia, July-November 2014.

    PubMed

    Kateh, Francis; Nagbe, Thomas; Kieta, Abraham; Barskey, Albert; Gasasira, Alex Ntale; Driscoll, Anne; Tucker, Anthony; Christie, Athalia; Karmo, Ben; Scott, Colleen; Bowah, Collin; Barradas, Danielle; Blackley, David; Dweh, Emmanuel; Warren, Felicia; Mahoney, Frank; Kassay, Gabriel; Calvert, Geoffrey M; Castro, Georgina; Logan, Gorbee; Appiah, Grace; Kirking, Hannah; Koon, Hawa; Papowitz, Heather; Walke, Henry; Cole, Isaac B; Montgomery, Joel; Neatherlin, John; Tappero, Jordan W; Hagan, Jose E; Forrester, Joseph; Woodring, Joseph; Mott, Joshua; Attfield, Kathleen; DeCock, Kevin; Lindblade, Kim A; Powell, Krista; Yeoman, Kristin; Adams, Laura; Broyles, Laura N; Slutsker, Laurence; Larway, Lawrence; Belcher, Lisa; Cooper, Lorraine; Santos, Marjorie; Westercamp, Matthew; Weinberg, Meghan Pearce; Massoudi, Mehran; Dea, Monica; Patel, Monita; Hennessey, Morgan; Fomba, Moses; Lubogo, Mutaawe; Maxwell, Nikki; Moonan, Patrick; Arzoaquoi, Sampson; Gee, Samuel; Zayzay, Samuel; Pillai, Satish; Williams, Seymour; Zarecki, Shauna Mettee; Yett, Sheldon; James, Stephen; Grube, Steven; Gupta, Sundeep; Nelson, Thelma; Malibiche, Theophil; Frank, Wilmont; Smith, Wilmot; Nyenswah, Tolbert

    2015-02-27

    West Africa is experiencing its first epidemic of Ebola virus disease (Ebola). As of February 9, Liberia has reported 8,864 Ebola cases, of which 3,147 were laboratory-confirmed. Beginning in August 2014, the Liberia Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW), supported by CDC, the World Health Organization (WHO), and others, began systematically investigating and responding to Ebola outbreaks in remote areas. Because many of these areas lacked mobile telephone service, easy road access, and basic infrastructure, flexible and targeted interventions often were required. Development of a national strategy for the Rapid Isolation and Treatment of Ebola (RITE) began in early October. The strategy focuses on enhancing capacity of county health teams (CHT) to investigate outbreaks in remote areas and lead tailored responses through effective and efficient coordination of technical and operational assistance from the MOHSW central level and international partners. To measure improvements in response indicators and outcomes over time, data from investigations of 12 of 15 outbreaks in remote areas with illness onset dates of index cases during July 16-November 20, 2014, were analyzed. The times to initial outbreak alerts and durations of the outbreaks declined over that period while the proportions of patients who were isolated and treated increased. At the same time, the case-fatality rate in each outbreak declined. Implementation of strategies, such as RITE, to rapidly respond to rural outbreaks of Ebola through coordinated and tailored responses can successfully reduce transmission and improve outcomes. PMID:25719682

  12. The FIBRO System: A Rapid Strategy for Assessment and Management of Fibromyalgia Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Boomershine, Chad S

    2010-08-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a complex disorder of widespread pain and tenderness associated with numerous other symptoms including fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, nonrestorative sleep, depression, anxiety, and stiffness. While new diagnostic criteria and previous management guidelines require quantitation of the severity of associated FMS symptoms experienced by individual patients, no system for rapid patient assessment has been made available to provide a basis for diagnosis, treatment selection and follow-up for clinicians in busy practices who have limited time. This review presents the FIBRO System, an easily remembered system for FMS symptom quantitation using the FIBRO mnemonic along with verbal questions on simple 0-10 scales to assess symptom severity (the FIBRO Problem Scale) and response to treatment (the FIBRO Change Scale) along with recommendations for pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic therapies to address individual FIBRO symptoms. This symptom-based approach can improve the care of FMS patients by providing a comprehensive, focused assessment in limited time. PMID:22870447

  13. The FIBRO System: A Rapid Strategy for Assessment and Management of Fibromyalgia Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Boomershine, Chad S.

    2010-01-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a complex disorder of widespread pain and tenderness associated with numerous other symptoms including fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, nonrestorative sleep, depression, anxiety, and stiffness. While new diagnostic criteria and previous management guidelines require quantitation of the severity of associated FMS symptoms experienced by individual patients, no system for rapid patient assessment has been made available to provide a basis for diagnosis, treatment selection and follow-up for clinicians in busy practices who have limited time. This review presents the FIBRO System, an easily remembered system for FMS symptom quantitation using the FIBRO mnemonic along with verbal questions on simple 0–10 scales to assess symptom severity (the FIBRO Problem Scale) and response to treatment (the FIBRO Change Scale) along with recommendations for pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic therapies to address individual FIBRO symptoms. This symptom-based approach can improve the care of FMS patients by providing a comprehensive, focused assessment in limited time. PMID:22870447

  14. Workstation-Based Simulation for Rapid Prototyping and Piloted Evaluation of Control System Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansur, M. Hossein; Colbourne, Jason D.; Chang, Yu-Kuang; Aiken, Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The development and optimization of flight control systems for modem fixed- and rotary-. wing aircraft consume a significant portion of the overall time and cost of aircraft development. Substantial savings can be achieved if the time required to develop and flight test the control system, and the cost, is reduced. To bring about such reductions, software tools such as Matlab/Simulink are being used to readily implement block diagrams and rapidly evaluate the expected responses of the completed system. Moreover, tools such as CONDUIT (CONtrol Designer's Unified InTerface) have been developed that enable the controls engineers to optimize their control laws and ensure that all the relevant quantitative criteria are satisfied, all within a fully interactive, user friendly, unified software environment.

  15. How a rapid response team is supporting people to remain at home.

    PubMed

    Clift, Esther

    2015-12-01

    This article explores the work of a rapid response team (RRT) in an English city. The RRT is a multiprofessional intermediate care team that is able to support patients to remain at home during clinical crises and changes to their social care needs. The service is popular with patients and cost effective. The National Audit of Intermediate Care is in its fourth year and benchmarks how intermediate care services are delivered across England. RRT data are compared with the national data, and show that keeping the team as a crisis intervention service has enabled it to maintain capacity to support patients at home without requiring hospital admission. PMID:26607624

  16. Functional recognition imaging using artificial neural networks: applications to rapid cellular identification via broadband electromechanical response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikiforov, M. P.; Reukov, V. V.; Thompson, G. L.; Vertegel, A. A.; Guo, S.; Kalinin, S. V.; Jesse, S.

    2009-10-01

    Functional recognition imaging in scanning probe microscopy (SPM) using artificial neural network identification is demonstrated. This approach utilizes statistical analysis of complex SPM responses at a single spatial location to identify the target behavior, which is reminiscent of associative thinking in the human brain, obviating the need for analytical models. We demonstrate, as an example of recognition imaging, rapid identification of cellular organisms using the difference in electromechanical activity over a broad frequency range. Single-pixel identification of model Micrococcus lysodeikticus and Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteria is achieved, demonstrating the viability of the method.

  17. UMTS rapid response real-time seismic networks: implementation and strategies at INGV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govoni, A.; Margheriti, L.; Moretti, M.; Lauciani, V.; Sensale, G.; Bucci, A.; Criscuoli, F.

    2015-12-01

    Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) and its evolutions are nowadays the most affordable and widespread data communication infrastructure available almost world wide. Moreover the always growing cellular phone market is pushing the development of new devices with higher performances and lower power consumption. All these characteristics make UMTS really useful for the implementation of an "easy to deploy" temporary real-time seismic station. Despite these remarkable features, there are many drawbacks that must be properly taken in account to effectively transmit the seismic data: Internet security, signal and service availability, power consumption. - Internet security: exposing seismological data services and seismic stations to the Internet is dangerous, attack prone and can lead to downtimes in the services, so we setup a dedicated Virtual Private Network (VPN) service to protect all the connected devices. - Signal and service availability: while for temporary experiment a carefull planning and an accurate site selection can minimize the problem, this is not always the case with rapid response networks. Moreover, as with any other leased line, the availability of the UMTS service during a seismic crisis is basically unpredictable. Nowadays in Italy during a major national emergency a Committee of the Italian Civil Defense ensures unified management and coordination of emergency activities. Inside it the telecom companies are committed to give support to the crisis management improving the standards in their communication networks. - Power consumption: it is at least of the order of that of the seismic station and, being related to data flow and signal quality is largely unpredictable. While the most secure option consists in adding a second independent solar power supply to the seismic station, this is not always a very convenient solution since it doubles the cost and doubles the equipment on site. We found that an acceptable trade-off is to add an

  18. Rapid fluvial aggradation in response to climate change in northwestern Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickert, Andrew; Schildgen, Taylor; Strecker, Manfred

    2015-04-01

    River channels near the edge of the northwestern Argentine Andes are rapidly aggrading at present, with preliminary estimates suggesting rates of ~20 cm yr-1. This mirrors cycles of extensive aggradation over the past 100,000 years that formed pronounced fill terraces along regional valley networks and record periods in which in which climate-driven sediment supply overcame uplift-driven river incision (Robinson et al, 2005). Here we use the new SedFlow model (Heimann et al., 2014) to help us understand the causes and spread of aggradation across these basins in the modern system, with the additional eventual goal to better interpret the geologic record. We provide field-derived grain-size distributions, field-measured and remotely-sensed channel widths and valley slopes, and a variety of possible sediment source locations and amounts as inputs to SedFlow, which routes sediment through the fluvial channel network to produce time-evolving predictions of aggradation and incision. We compare these predictions against changes in topography measured by IceSAT (Zwally et al., 2014) and field surveys. We initially test the system response to a series of isolated sediment inputs to observe interactions between tributary systems and the mainstem river. Recent observations indicate that debris-flow induced landslides are important contributors to aggradation in these rivers (Cencetti and Rivelli, 2011). These and other sediment production and transport processes are likely driven by variations in the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) (Bookhagen and Strecker, 2009). Therefore, we then run SedFlow with sediment inputs distributed across the landscape based on locations where ENSO influences may trigger enhanced landsliding. These model experiments help us towards our end goal of providing a more quantitative basis to interpret field observations of landscape response to changing patterns of precipitation. References: Bookhagen, B. and Strecker, M.: Amazonia: Landscape and

  19. Noninvasive forward-scattering system for rapid detection, characterization, and identification of bacterial colonies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajwa, Bartek; Bayraktar, Bulent; Banada, Padmapriya P.; Huff, Karleigh; Bae, Euiwon; Hirleman, E. Daniel; Bhunia, Arun K.; Robinson, J. Paul

    2007-04-01

    Bacterial contamination of food products puts the public at risk and also generates a substantial cost for the food-processing industry. One of the greatest challenges in the response to these incidents is rapid recognition of the bacterial agents involved. Only a few currently available technologies allow testing to be performed outside of specialized microbiological laboratories. Most current systems are based on the use of expensive PCR or antibody-based techniques, and require complicated sample preparation for reliable results. Herein, we report our efforts to develop a noninvasive optical forward-scattering system for rapid, automated identification of bacterial colonies grown on solid surfaces. The presented system employs computer-vision and pattern-recognition techniques to classify scatter patterns produced by bacterial colonies irradiated with laser light. Application of Zernike and Chebyshev moments, as well as Haralick texture descriptors for image feature extraction, allows for a very high recognition rate. An SVM algorithm was used for classification of patterns. Low error rates determined by cross-validation, reproducibility of the measurements, and robustness of the system prove that the proposed technology can be implemented in automated devices for bacterial detection.

  20. Ceramide mediates the rapid phase of febrile response to IL-1β

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Alavez, Manuel; Tabarean, Iustin V.; Behrens, M. Margarita; Bartfai, Tamas

    2006-01-01

    IL-1β was identified after a long search for the endogenous pyrogen. It acts by inducing synthesis of prostaglandin E2, which mediates the late phase of IL-1β-induced fever. Here we show by radiotelemetry that the early phase of the fever response to IL-1β is mediated by ceramide. Hypothalamic application of the cell-penetrating C2-ceramide mimics the rapid phase of the IL-1β-induced fever. Inhibition of ceramide synthesis blocks the rapid phase of fever but does not affect the slower prostaglandin E2-dependent phase, which is blocked by indomethacin or by null mutation of the EP3 prostanoid receptor. Electrophysiological experiments on preoptic area/anterior hypothalamic neurons show that C2-ceramide, but not dihydroceramide, mimics the rapid hyperpolarizing effects of IL-1β on the activity of warm-sensitive hypothalamic neurons. IL-1β-mediated hyperpolarization is blocked by PP2, the selective inhibitor of the protein tyrosine kinase Src, which is known to be activated by ceramide. These in vivo and in vitro data suggest that ceramide fulfills the criteria for an endogenous pyrogen. PMID:16477014

  1. Ceramide mediates the rapid phase of febrile response to IL-1beta.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Alavez, Manuel; Tabarean, Iustin V; Behrens, M Margarita; Bartfai, Tamas

    2006-02-21

    IL-1beta was identified after a long search for the endogenous pyrogen. It acts by inducing synthesis of prostaglandin E2, which mediates the late phase of IL-1beta-induced fever. Here we show by radiotelemetry that the early phase of the fever response to IL-1beta is mediated by ceramide. Hypothalamic application of the cell-penetrating C2-ceramide mimics the rapid phase of the IL-1beta-induced fever. Inhibition of ceramide synthesis blocks the rapid phase of fever but does not affect the slower prostaglandin E2-dependent phase, which is blocked by indomethacin or by null mutation of the EP3 prostanoid receptor. Electrophysiological experiments on preoptic area/anterior hypothalamic neurons show that C2-ceramide, but not dihydroceramide, mimics the rapid hyperpolarizing effects of IL-1beta on the activity of warm-sensitive hypothalamic neurons. IL-1beta-mediated hyperpolarization is blocked by PP2, the selective inhibitor of the protein tyrosine kinase Src, which is known to be activated by ceramide. These in vivo and in vitro data suggest that ceramide fulfills the criteria for an endogenous pyrogen. PMID:16477014

  2. Whole-ecosystem study shows rapid fish-mercury response to changes in mercury deposition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, R.C.; Rudd, J.W.M.; Amyot, M.; Babiarz, C.L.; Beaty, K.G.; Blanchfield, P.J.; Bodaly, R.A.; Branfireun, B.A.; Gilmour, C.C.; Graydon, J.A.; Heyes, A.; Hintelmann, H.; Hurley, J.P.; Kelly, C.A.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Lindberg, S.E.; Mason, R.P.; Paterson, M.J.; Podemski, C.L.; Robinson, A.; Sandilands, K.A.; Southworthn, G.R.; St. Louis, V.L.; Tate, M.T.

    2007-01-01

    Methylmercury contamination of fisheries from centuries of industrial atmospheric emissions negatively impacts humans and wild-life worldwide. The response of fish methylmercury concentrations to changes in mercury deposition has been difficult to establish because sediments/soils contain large pools of historical contamination, and many factors in addition to deposition affect fish mercury. To test directly the response of fish contamination to changing mercury deposition, we conducted a whole-ecosystem experiment, increasing the mercury load to a lake and its watershed by the addition of enriched stable mercury isotopes. The isotopes allowed us to distinguish between experimentally applied mercury and mercury already present in the ecosystem and to examine bioaccumulation of mercury deposited to different parts of the watershed. Fish methylmercury concentrations responded rapidly to changes in mercury deposition over the first 3 years of study. Essentially all of the increase in fish methylmercury concentrations came from mercury deposited directly to the lake surface. In contrast, <1% of the mercury isotope deposited to the watershed was exported to the lake. Steady state was not reached within 3 years. Lake mercury isotope concentrations were still rising in lake biota, and watershed mercury isotope exports to the lake were increasing slowly. Therefore, we predict that mercury emissions reductions will yield rapid (years) reductions in fish methylmercury concentrations and will yield concomitant reductions in risk. However, a full response will be delayed by the gradual export of mercury stored in watersheds. The rate of response will vary among lakes depending on the relative surface areas of water and watershed. ?? 2007 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.

  3. Development of the Counselor Response Observation System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rantanen, Antti P.; Soini, Hannu S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the measures included in the Counselor Response Observation System. The Counselor Response Observation System consists of the Counselor Response Coding System and the Skilled Verbal Responding Scale. Detailed results of their validity and reliability are presented.

  4. Mechanosensitivity of a Rapid Bioluminescence Reporter System Assessed by Atomic Force Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tesson, Benoit; Latz, Michael I.

    2015-01-01

    Cells are sophisticated integrators of mechanical stimuli that lead to physiological, biochemical, and genetic responses. The bioluminescence of dinoflagellates, alveolate protists that use light emission for predator defense, serves as a rapid noninvasive whole-cell reporter of mechanosensitivity. In this study, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to explore the relationship between cell mechanical properties and mechanosensitivity in live cells of the dinoflagellate Pyrocystis lunula. Cell stiffness was 0.56 MPa, consistent with cells possessing a cell wall. Cell response depended on both the magnitude and velocity of the applied force. At the maximum stimulation velocity of 390 μm s−1, the threshold response occurred at a force of 7.2 μN, resulting in a contact time of 6.1 ms and indentation of 2.1 μm. Cells did not respond to a low stimulation velocity of 20 μm s−1, indicating a velocity dependent response that, based on stress relaxation experiments, was explained by the cell viscoelastic properties. This study demonstrates the use of AFM to study mechanosensitivity in a cell system that responds at fast timescales, and provides insights into how viscoelastic properties affect mechanosensitivity. It also provides a comparison with previous studies using hydrodynamic stimulation, showing the discrepancy in cell response between direct compressive forces using AFM and those within flow fields based on average flow properties. PMID:25809248

  5. Rapid advance of two mountain glaciers in response to mine-related debris loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamieson, Stewart S. R.; Ewertowski, Marek W.; Evans, David J. A.

    2015-07-01

    Rapid glacier advance is known to occur by a range of mechanisms. However, although large-scale debris loading has been proposed as a process for causing rapid terminus advance, it has rarely been observed. We use satellite remote sensing data to observe accelerated glacier terminus advance in response to massive supraglacial loading on two glaciers in Kyrgyzstan. Over a 15 year period, mining activity has led to the dumping of spoil of up to 180 m thick on large parts of these valley glaciers. We find that the termini of these glaciers advance by 1.2 and 3.2 km, respectively, at a rate of up to 350 m yr-1. Our analysis suggests that although enhanced basal sliding could be an important process, massive supraglacial loads have also caused enhanced internal ice deformation that would account for most, or all, of the glacier terminus advance. In addition, narrowing of the glacier valley and mining and dumping of ice alter the mass balance and flow regime of the glaciers. Although the scale of supraglacial loading is massive, this full-scale experiment provides insight into glacier flow acceleration response where small valley glaciers are impacted by very large volumes of landslide debris.

  6. The elongation factor Spt5 facilitates transcription initiation for rapid induction of inflammatory-response genes

    PubMed Central

    Diamant, Gil; Bahat, Anat; Dikstein, Rivka

    2016-01-01

    A subset of inflammatory-response NF-κB target genes is activated immediately following pro-inflammatory signal. Here we followed the kinetics of primary transcript accumulation after NF-κB activation when the elongation factor Spt5 is knocked down. While elongation rate is unchanged, the transcript synthesis at the 5′-end and at the earliest time points is delayed and reduced, suggesting an unexpected role in early transcription. Investigating the underlying mechanism reveals that the induced TFIID–promoter association is practically abolished by Spt5 depletion. This effect is associated with a decrease in promoter-proximal H3K4me3 and H4K5Ac histone modifications that are differentially required for rapid transcriptional induction. In contrast, the displacement of TFIIE and Mediator, which occurs during promoter escape, is attenuated in the absence of Spt5. Our findings are consistent with a central role of Spt5 in maintenance of TFIID–promoter association and promoter escape to support rapid transcriptional induction and re-initiation of inflammatory-response genes. PMID:27180651

  7. Rapid-response process reduces mortality, facilitates speedy treatment for patients with sepsis.

    PubMed

    2013-08-01

    To reduce mortality and improve the care of patients with sepsis, Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center in Winston-Salem, NC, created a new rapid-response protocol aimed at facilitating earlier diagnosis and treatment. In this approach, clinicians who suspect a patient may have sepsis can call a Code Sepsis, which will fast-track the series of tests and evaluations that are needed to confirm the diagnosis and get appropriate patients on IV antibiotics quickly. Administrators say the approach fits in with the culture of the ED, and it has quickly slashed time-to-treatment in this environment. In just one year, the hospital has been able to reduce its risk-adjusted mortality index from 1.8 to less than 1.25. In the ED, where a modified version of the approach has been in place since April 1 of this year, the percentage of patients with sepsis receiving antibiotics within one hour of diagnosis has increased from 25% to 85%. Key to the success of the approach are specially trained rapid-response nurses who are called in on a case whenever a diagnosis of sepsis is suspected and a series of policy changes designed to facilitate needed diagnostic tests to confirm a diagnosis. A mandated online education module helped to bring all clinicians and staff up to speed on the new process quickly. PMID:23923521

  8. The mesolimbic dopamine system as a target for rapid antidepressant action.

    PubMed

    Willner, P

    1997-07-01

    Chronic treatment with antidepressant drugs produces a variety of changes in dopaminergic neurotransmission, most notably a sensitization of behavioural responses to agonists acting at dopamine D2/D3 receptors within the nucleus accumbens. Evidence from animal models of depression (the forced swim test and the chronic mild stress procedure) indicates that these effects are crucial for the therapeutic effect of antidepressants in these models. Antidepressant-like effects in animal models are also seen with drugs that act directly on the dopaminergic system. Because of its prolonged time-course, the chronic mild stress procedure can be used to examine onset latencies. Some dopamine-active drugs (e.g. the catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitor tolcapone; D2/D3 agonists administered intermittently) are active in this procedure but have a time-course comparable to that of conventional antidepressants. Other dopamine-active drugs may have a more rapid onset; the evidence to date suggests this possibility for the D2/D3 agonist pramipexole and the preferential presynaptic antagonist amisulpride. In clinical studies, rapid-onset latencies have been claimed for the D2/D3 agonist roxindole, the preferential presynaptic antagonist sulpiride and the relatively selective dopamine-uptake inhibitor amineptine. The mechanisms that might give rise to a rapid onset of dopamine-mediated antidepressant effects are discussed. PMID:9347387

  9. Human Visual Cortex Responses to Rapid Cone and Melanopsin-Directed Flicker

    PubMed Central

    Spitschan, Manuel; Datta, Ritobrato; Stern, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    Signals from cones are recombined in postreceptoral channels [luminance, L + M; red-green, L − M; blue-yellow, S − (L + M)]. The melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells are also active at daytime light levels and recent psychophysical results suggest that melanopsin contributes to conscious vision in humans. Here, we measured BOLD fMRI responses to spectral modulations that separately targeted the postreceptoral cone channels and melanopsin. Responses to spatially uniform (27.5° field size, central 5° obscured) flicker at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 Hz were recorded from areas V1, V2/V3, motion-sensitive area MT, and the lateral occipital complex. In V1 and V2/V3, higher temporal sensitivity was observed to L + M + S (16 Hz) compared with L − M flicker (8 Hz), consistent with psychophysical findings. Area MT was most sensitive to rapid (32 Hz) flicker of either L + M + S or L − M. We found S cone responses only in areas V1 and V2/V3 (peak frequency: 4–8 Hz). In addition, we studied an L + M modulation and found responses that were effectively identical at all temporal frequencies to those recorded for the L + M + S modulation. Finally, we measured the cortical response to melanopsin-directed flicker and compared this response with control modulations that addressed stimulus imprecision and the possibility of stimulation of cones in the shadow of retinal blood vessels (penumbral cones). For our stimulus conditions, melanopsin flicker did not elicit a cortical response exceeding that of the control modulations. We note that failure to control for penumbral cone stimulation could be mistaken for a melanopsin response. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The retina contains cone photoreceptors and ganglion cells that contain the photopigment melanopsin. Cones provide brightness and color signals to visual cortex. Melanopsin influences circadian rhythm and the pupil, but its contribution to cortex and perception is less clear. We measured the response of human

  10. M-dwarf rapid rotators and the detection of relatively young multiple M-star systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rappaport, S.; Joss, M.; Sanchis-Ojeda, R. E-mail: mattjoss@mit.edu; and others

    2014-06-20

    We have searched the Kepler light curves of ∼3900 M-star targets for evidence of periodicities that indicate, by means of the effects of starspots, rapid stellar rotation. Several analysis techniques, including Fourier transforms, inspection of folded light curves, 'sonograms', and phase tracking of individual modulation cycles, were applied in order to distinguish the periodicities due to rapid rotation from those due to stellar pulsations, eclipsing binaries, or transiting planets. We find 178 Kepler M-star targets with rotation periods, P {sub rot}, of <2 days, and 110 with P {sub rot} < 1 day. Some 30 of the 178 systems exhibit two or more independent short periods within the same Kepler photometric aperture, while several have 3 or more short periods. Adaptive optics imaging and modeling of the Kepler pixel response function for a subset of our sample support the conclusion that the targets with multiple periods are highly likely to be relatively young physical binary, triple, and even quadruple M star systems. We explore in detail the one object with four incommensurate periods all less than 1.2 days, and show that two of the periods arise from one of a close pair of stars, while the other two arise from the second star, which itself is probably a visual binary. If most of these M-star systems with multiple periods turn out to be bound M stars, this could prove a valuable way discovering young hierarchical M-star systems; the same approach may also be applicable to G and K stars. The ∼5% occurrence rate of rapid rotation among the ∼3900 M star targets is consistent with spin evolution models that include an initial contraction phase followed by magnetic braking, wherein a typical M star can spend several hundred Myr before spinning down to periods longer than 2 days.

  11. Transient Response to Rapid Cooling of a Stainless Steel Sodium Heat Pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mireles, Omar R.; Houts, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Compact fission power systems are under consideration for use in long duration space exploration missions. Power demands on the order of 500 W, to 5 kW, will be required for up to 15 years of continuous service. One such small reactor design consists of a fast spectrum reactor cooled with an array of in-core alkali metal heat pipes coupled to thermoelectric or Stirling power conversion systems. Heat pipes advantageous attributes include a simplistic design, lack of moving parts, and well understood behavior. Concerns over reactor transients induced by heat pipe instability as a function of extreme thermal transients require experimental investigations. One particular concern is rapid cooling of the heat pipe condenser that would propagate to cool the evaporator. Rapid cooling of the reactor core beyond acceptable design limits could possibly induce unintended reactor control issues. This paper discusses a series of experimental demonstrations where a heat pipe operating at near prototypic conditions experienced rapid cooling of the condenser. The condenser section of a stainless steel sodium heat pipe was enclosed within a heat exchanger. The heat pipe - heat exchanger assembly was housed within a vacuum chamber held at a pressure of 50 Torr of helium. The heat pipe was brought to steady state operating conditions using graphite resistance heaters then cooled by a high flow of gaseous nitrogen through the heat exchanger. Subsequent thermal transient behavior was characterized by performing an energy balance using temperature, pressure and flow rate data obtained throughout the tests. Results indicate the degree of temperature change that results from a rapid cooling scenario will not significantly influence thermal stability of an operating heat pipe, even under extreme condenser cooling conditions.

  12. Phosphodiesterase 1C is dispensable for rapid response termination of olfactory sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Cygnar, Katherine D.; Zhao, Haiqing

    2009-01-01

    In the nose, odorants are detected on the cilia of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), where a cAMP-mediated signaling pathway transforms odor stimulation into electrical responses. Phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity in OSN cilia was long thought to account for rapid response termination by degrading odor-induced cAMP. Two PDEs with distinct cellular localization have been found in OSNs: PDE1C in cilia; PDE4A throughout the cell but absent from cilia. We disrupted both genes in mice and performed electroolfactogram analysis. Unexpectedly, eliminating PDE1C did not prolong response termination. Prolonged termination occurred only in mice lacking both PDEs, suggesting that cAMP degradation by PDE1C in cilia is not a rate-limiting factor for response termination in wildtype. Pde1c−/− OSNs instead displayed reduced sensitivity and attenuated adaptation to repeated stimulation, suggesting potential roles for PDE1C in regulating sensitivity and adaptation. These observations provide new perspectives in regulation of olfactory transduction. PMID:19305400

  13. Low Cost Rapid Response Spacecraft, (LCRRS): A Research Project in Low Cost Spacecraft Design and Fabrication in a Rapid Prototyping Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spremo, Stevan; Bregman, Jesse; Dallara, Christopher D.; Ghassemieh, Shakib M.; Hanratty, James; Jackson, Evan; Kitts, Christopher; Klupar, Pete; Lindsay, Michael; Ignacio, Mas; Mayer, David; Quigley, Emmett; Rasay, Mike; Swank, Aaron; Vandersteen, Jeroen

    2009-01-01

    The Low Cost Rapid Response Spacecraft (LCRRS) is an ongoing research development project at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC), Moffett Field, California. The prototype spacecraft, called Cost Optimized Test for Spacecraft Avionics and Technologies (COTSAT) is the first of what could potentially be a series of rapidly produced low-cost satellites. COTSAT has a target launch date of March 2009 on a SpaceX Falcon 9 launch vehicle. The LCRRS research system design incorporates use of COTS (Commercial Off The Shelf), MOTS (Modified Off The Shelf), and GOTS (Government Off The Shelf) hardware for a remote sensing satellite. The design concept was baselined to support a 0.5 meter Ritchey-Chretien telescope payload. This telescope and camera system is expected to achieve 1.5 meter/pixel resolution. The COTSAT team is investigating the possibility of building a fully functional spacecraft for $500,000 parts and $2,000,000 labor. Cost is dramatically reduced by using a sealed container, housing the bus and payload subsystems. Some electrical and RF designs were improved/upgraded from GeneSat-1 heritage systems. The project began in January 2007 and has yielded two functional test platforms. It is expected that a flight-qualified unit will be finished in December 2008. Flight quality controls are in place on the parts and materials used in this development with the aim of using them to finish a proto-flight satellite. For LEO missions the team is targeting a mission class requiring a minimum of six months lifetime or more. The system architecture incorporates several design features required by high reliability missions. This allows for a true skunk works environment to rapidly progress toward a flight design. Engineering and fabrication is primarily done in-house at NASA Ames with flight certifications on materials. The team currently employs seven Full Time Equivalent employees. The success of COTSATs small team in this effort can be attributed to highly cross trained

  14. Appendix C: Rapid development approaches for system engineering and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Conventional system architectures, development processes, and tool environments often produce systems which exceed cost expectations and are obsolete before they are fielded. This paper explores some of the reasons for this and provides recommendations for how we can do better. These recommendations are based on DoD and NASA system developments and on our exploration and development of system/software engineering tools.

  15. Rapid wave and storm surge warning system for tropical cyclones in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appendini, C. M.; Rosengaus, M.; Meza, R.; Camacho, V.

    2015-12-01

    The National Hurricane Center (NHC) in Miami, is responsible for the forecast of tropical cyclones in the North Atlantic and Eastern North Pacific basins. As such, Mexico, Central America and Caribbean countries depend on the information issued by the NHC related to the characteristics of a particular tropical cyclone and associated watch and warning areas. Despite waves and storm surge are important hazards for marine operations and coastal dwellings, their forecast is not part of the NHC responsibilities. This work presents a rapid wave and storm surge warning system based on 3100 synthetic tropical cyclones doing landfall in Mexico. Hydrodynamic and wave models were driven by the synthetic events to create a robust database composed of maximum envelops of wind speed, significant wave height and storm surge for each event. The results were incorporated into a forecast system that uses the NHC advisory to locate the synthetic events passing inside specified radiuses for the present and forecast position of the real event. Using limited computer resources, the system displays the information meeting the search criteria, and the forecaster can select specific events to generate the desired hazard map (i.e. wind, waves, and storm surge) based on the maximum envelop maps. This system was developed in a limited time frame to be operational in 2015 by the National Hurricane and Severe Storms Unit of the Mexican National Weather Service, and represents a pilot project for other countries in the region not covered by detailed storm surge and waves forecasts.

  16. Sunlight Responsive Thermochromic Window System

    SciTech Connect

    Millett, F,A; Byker,H, J

    2006-10-27

    Pleotint has embarked on a novel approach with our Sunlight Responsive Thermochromic, SRT™, windows. We are integrating dynamic sunlight control, high insulation values and low solar heat gain together in a high performance window. The Pleotint SRT window is dynamic because it reversibly changes light transmission based on thermochromics activated directly by the heating effect of sunlight. We can achieve a window package with low solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC), a low U value and high insulation. At the same time our windows provide good daylighting. Our innovative window design offers architects and building designers the opportunity to choose their desired energy performance, excellent sound reduction, external pane can be self-cleaning, or a resistance to wind load, blasts, bullets or hurricanes. SRT windows would provide energy savings that are estimated at up to 30% over traditional window systems. Glass fabricators will be able to use existing equipment to make the SRT window while adding value and flexibility to the basic design. Glazing installers will have the ability to fit the windows with traditional methods without wires, power supplies and controllers. SRT windows can be retrofit into existing buildings,

  17. 49 CFR 37.47 - Key stations in light and rapid rail systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Key stations in light and rapid rail systems. 37... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Transportation Facilities § 37.47 Key stations in light and rapid rail systems. (a) Each public entity that provides designated public transportation by means of a light...

  18. 49 CFR 37.47 - Key stations in light and rapid rail systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Key stations in light and rapid rail systems. 37... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Transportation Facilities § 37.47 Key stations in light and rapid rail systems. (a) Each public entity that provides designated public transportation by means of a light...

  19. Rapid Ecological Change in Two Contrasting Lake Ecosystems: Evidence of Threshold Responses, Altered Species Dynamics, and Perturbed Patterns of Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, G. L.

    2015-12-01

    Studying threshold responses to environmental change is often made difficult due to the paucity of monitoring data prior to and during change. Progress has been made via theoretical models of regime shifts or experimental manipulation but natural, real world, examples of threshold change are limited and in many cases inconclusive. Lake sediments provide the potential to examine abrupt ecological change by directly observing how species, communities, and biogeochemical proxies responded to environmental perturbation or recorded ecosystem change. These records are not problem-free; age uncertainties, uneven and variable temporal resolution, and time-consuming taxonomic work all act to limit the scope and scale of the data or complicate its analysis. Here I use two annually laminated records 1. Kassjön, a seasonally anoxic mesotrophic lake in N Sweden, and2. Baldeggersee, a nutrient rich, hardwater lake on the central Swiss Plateau to investigate lake ecosystem responses to abrupt environmental change using ideal paleoecological time series. Rapid cooling 2.2kyr ago in northern Sweden significantly perturbed the diatom community of Kassjön. Using wavelet analysis, this amelioration in climate also fundamentally altered patterns of variance in diatom abundances, suppressing cyclicity in species composition that required several hundred years to reestablish. Multivariate wavelet analysis of the record showed marked switching between synchronous and asynchronous species dynamics in response to rapid climatic cooling and subsequent warming. Baldeggersee has experienced a long history of eutrophication and the diatom record has been used as a classic illustration of a regime shift in response to nutrient loading. Time series analysis of the record identified some evidence of a threshold-like response in the diatoms. A stochastic volatility model identified increasing variance in composition prior to the threshold, as predicted from theory, and a switch from compensatory

  20. Rapid and widely disseminated acute phase protein response after experimental bacterial infection of pigs

    PubMed Central

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Mortensen, Shila; Boye, Mette; Poulsen, Karin T.; Campbell, Fiona M.; Eckersall, P. David; Heegaard, Peter M.H.

    2009-01-01

    The acute phase protein response is a well-described generalized early host response to tissue injury, inflammation and infection, observed as pronounced changes in the concentrations of a number of circulating serum proteins. The biological function of this response and its interplay with other parts of innate host defence reactions remain somewhat elusive. In order to gain new insight into this early host defence response in the context of bacterial infection we studied gene expression changes in peripheral lymphoid tissues as compared to hepatic expression changes, 14–18 h after lung infection in pigs. The lung infection was established with the pig specific respiratory pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Quantitative real-time PCR based expression analysis were performed on samples from liver, tracheobronchial lymph node, tonsils, spleen and on blood leukocytes, supplemented with measurements of interleukin-6 and selected acute phase proteins in serum. C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A were clearly induced 14–18 h after infection. Extrahepatic expression of acute phase proteins was found to be dramatically altered as a result of the lung infection with an extrahepatic acute phase protein response occurring concomitantly with the hepatic response. This suggests that the acute phase protein response is a more disseminated systemic response than previously thought. The current study provides to our knowledge the first example of porcine extrahepatic expression and regulation of C-reactive protein, haptoglobin, fibrinogen, pig major acute phase protein, and transferrin in peripheral lymphoid tissues. PMID:19236838

  1. Rapid and systemic accumulation of chloroplast mRNA-binding protein transcripts after flame stimulus in tomato

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vian, A.; Henry-Vian, C.; Davies, E.

    1999-01-01

    It has been shown that tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants respond to flame wounding and electrical stimulation by a rapid (15 min) and systemic up-regulation of proteinase inhibitor (pin) genes. To find other genes having a similar expression pattern, we used subtractive cDNA screening between flamed and control plants to select clones up-regulated by flame wounding. We report the characterization of one of them, a chloroplast mRNA-binding protein encoded by a single gene and expressed preferentially in the leaves. Systemic gene expression in response to flaming in the youngest terminal leaf exhibited three distinct phases: a rapid and transient increase (5-15 min) in transcript accumulation, a decline to basal levels (15-45 min), and then a second, more prolonged increase (60-90 min). In contrast, after a mechanical wound the rapid, transient increase (5 min) was followed by a rapid decline to basal levels but no later, prolonged accumulation. In the petiole, the initial flame-wound-evoked transient increase (15 min) was followed by a continuous decline for 3 h. The nature of the wound signal(s) causing such rapid changes in transcript abundance is discussed in relation to electrical signaling, which has recently been implicated in plant responses to wounding.

  2. Consciousness and cortical responsiveness: a within-state study during non-rapid eye movement sleep.

    PubMed

    Nieminen, Jaakko O; Gosseries, Olivia; Massimini, Marcello; Saad, Elyana; Sheldon, Andrew D; Boly, Melanie; Siclari, Francesca; Postle, Bradley R; Tononi, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    When subjects become unconscious, there is a characteristic change in the way the cerebral cortex responds to perturbations, as can be assessed using transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography (TMS-EEG). For instance, compared to wakefulness, during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep TMS elicits a larger positive-negative wave, fewer phase-locked oscillations, and an overall simpler response. However, many physiological variables also change when subjects go from wake to sleep, anesthesia, or coma. To avoid these confounding factors, we focused on NREM sleep only and measured TMS-evoked EEG responses before awakening the subjects and asking them if they had been conscious (dreaming) or not. As shown here, when subjects reported no conscious experience upon awakening, TMS evoked a larger negative deflection and a shorter phase-locked response compared to when they reported a dream. Moreover, the amplitude of the negative deflection-a hallmark of neuronal bistability according to intracranial studies-was inversely correlated with the length of the dream report (i.e., total word count). These findings suggest that variations in the level of consciousness within the same physiological state are associated with changes in the underlying bistability in cortical circuits. PMID:27491799

  3. Intact Rapid Facial Mimicry as well as Generally Reduced Mimic Responses in Stable Schizophrenia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chechko, Natalya; Pagel, Alena; Otte, Ellen; Koch, Iring; Habel, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous emotional expressions (rapid facial mimicry) perform both emotional and social functions. In the current study, we sought to test whether there were deficits in automatic mimic responses to emotional facial expressions in patients (15 of them) with stable schizophrenia compared to 15 controls. In a perception-action interference paradigm (the Simon task; first experiment), and in the context of a dual-task paradigm (second experiment), the task-relevant stimulus feature was the gender of a face, which, however, displayed a smiling or frowning expression (task-irrelevant stimulus feature). We measured the electromyographical activity in the corrugator supercilii and zygomaticus major muscle regions in response to either compatible or incompatible stimuli (i.e., when the required response did or did not correspond to the depicted facial expression). The compatibility effect based on interactions between the implicit processing of a task-irrelevant emotional facial expression and the conscious production of an emotional facial expression did not differ between the groups. In stable patients (in spite of a reduced mimic reaction), we observed an intact capacity to respond spontaneously to facial emotional stimuli. PMID:27303335

  4. Optical molecular imaging approach for rapid assessment of response of individual cancer cells to chemotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zhen; Tikekar, Rohan Vijay; Samadzadeh, Kiana Michelle; Nitin, Nitin

    2012-10-01

    Predicting the response of individual patients to cytotoxic chemotherapy drugs is critical for developing individualized therapies. With this motivation, an optical molecular imaging approach was developed to detect cisplatin induced changes in the uptake and intracellular retention of choline. Intracellular uptake of choline was characterized using a click chemistry reaction between propargyl choline and Alexa-488 azide. Cisplatin induced changes in the uptake of propargyl choline in cells and tumor spheroids were compared with similar measurements using a fluorescent analogue of deoxyglucose and conventional cell viability assays. Uptake and intracellular retention of propargyl choline decreased with an increase in concentration of cisplatin. Intracellular uptake of propargyl choline was significantly reduced within 3 h of incubation with a sub-lethal dose of cisplatin. Results demonstrate that the imaging approach based on propargyl choline was more sensitive in detecting the early response of cancer cells to cisplatin as compared to the imaging based on fluorescent analogue of deoxyglucose and cell viability assays. Imaging measurements in tumor spheroids show a significant decrease in the uptake of propargyl choline following treatment with cisplatin. Overall, the results demonstrate a novel optical molecular imaging approach for rapid measurement of the response of individual cancer cells to cisplatin treatment.

  5. Consciousness and cortical responsiveness: a within-state study during non-rapid eye movement sleep

    PubMed Central

    Nieminen, Jaakko O.; Gosseries, Olivia; Massimini, Marcello; Saad, Elyana; Sheldon, Andrew D.; Boly, Melanie; Siclari, Francesca; Postle, Bradley R.; Tononi, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    When subjects become unconscious, there is a characteristic change in the way the cerebral cortex responds to perturbations, as can be assessed using transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography (TMS–EEG). For instance, compared to wakefulness, during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep TMS elicits a larger positive–negative wave, fewer phase-locked oscillations, and an overall simpler response. However, many physiological variables also change when subjects go from wake to sleep, anesthesia, or coma. To avoid these confounding factors, we focused on NREM sleep only and measured TMS-evoked EEG responses before awakening the subjects and asking them if they had been conscious (dreaming) or not. As shown here, when subjects reported no conscious experience upon awakening, TMS evoked a larger negative deflection and a shorter phase-locked response compared to when they reported a dream. Moreover, the amplitude of the negative deflection—a hallmark of neuronal bistability according to intracranial studies—was inversely correlated with the length of the dream report (i.e., total word count). These findings suggest that variations in the level of consciousness within the same physiological state are associated with changes in the underlying bistability in cortical circuits. PMID:27491799

  6. Optical molecular imaging approach for rapid assessment of response of individual cancer cells to chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Zhen; Tikekar, Rohan Vijay; Samadzadeh, Kiana Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. Predicting the response of individual patients to cytotoxic chemotherapy drugs is critical for developing individualized therapies. With this motivation, an optical molecular imaging approach was developed to detect cisplatin induced changes in the uptake and intracellular retention of choline. Intracellular uptake of choline was characterized using a click chemistry reaction between propargyl choline and Alexa-488 azide. Cisplatin induced changes in the uptake of propargyl choline in cells and tumor spheroids were compared with similar measurements using a fluorescent analogue of deoxyglucose and conventional cell viability assays. Uptake and intracellular retention of propargyl choline decreased with an increase in concentration of cisplatin. Intracellular uptake of propargyl choline was significantly reduced within 3 h of incubation with a sub-lethal dose of cisplatin. Results demonstrate that the imaging approach based on propargyl choline was more sensitive in detecting the early response of cancer cells to cisplatin as compared to the imaging based on fluorescent analogue of deoxyglucose and cell viability assays. Imaging measurements in tumor spheroids show a significant decrease in the uptake of propargyl choline following treatment with cisplatin. Overall, the results demonstrate a novel optical molecular imaging approach for rapid measurement of the response of individual cancer cells to cisplatin treatment. PMID:23224005

  7. Apoplastic mesophyll signals induce rapid stomatal responses to CO2 in Commelina communis.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Takashi; Noguchi, Ko; Terashima, Ichiro

    2013-07-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the mesophyll contributes to stomatal CO(2) responses. The effects of changes in CO(2) concentration (100 or 700 ppm) on stomatal responses in red or white light were examined microscopically in a leaf segment, an epidermal strip and an epidermal strip placed on a mesophyll segment of Commelina communis, all mounted on a buffer-containing gel. In both red and white light, stomata of the leaf segment opened/closed rapidly at low/high CO(2). In red light, epidermal strip stomata barely responded to CO(2). In white light, they opened at low CO(2), but hardly closed at high CO(2). Stomata of the epidermal strip placed on the mesophyll responded in the same manner as those on the leaf segment. Insertion of a doughnut-shaped cellophane spacer (but not polyethylene spacer) between the epidermal strip and the mesophyll hardly altered these responses. Stomata in leaf segments treated with 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU), a photosynthesis inhibitor, did not open in red light, but opened/closed at low/high CO(2) in white light. These results indicate that the apoplast transfer of 'mesophyll signals' and the stomatal opening at low CO(2) are dependent on photosynthesis, whereas the stomatal closure at high CO(2) is independent of photosynthesis. PMID:23560389

  8. Metagenomic analysis of a permafrost microbial community reveals a rapid response to thaw

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacKelprang, R.; Waldrop, M.P.; Deangelis, K.M.; David, M.M.; Chavarria, K.L.; Blazewicz, S.J.; Rubin, E.M.; Jansson, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    Permafrost contains an estimated 1672????????Pg carbon (C), an amount roughly equivalent to the total currently contained within land plants and the atmosphere. This reservoir of C is vulnerable to decomposition as rising global temperatures cause the permafrost to thaw. During thaw, trapped organic matter may become more accessible for microbial degradation and result in greenhouse gas emissions. Despite recent advances in the use of molecular tools to study permafrost microbial communities, their response to thaw remains unclear. Here we use deep metagenomic sequencing to determine the impact of thaw on microbial phylogenetic and functional genes, and relate these data to measurements of methane emissions. Metagenomics, the direct sequencing of DNA from the environment, allows the examination of whole biochemical pathways and associated processes, as opposed to individual pieces of the metabolic puzzle. Our metagenome analyses reveal that during transition from a frozen to a thawed state there are rapid shifts in many microbial, phylogenetic and functional gene abundances and pathways. After one week of incubation at 5 ??C, permafrost metagenomes converge to be more similar to each other than while they are frozen. We find that multiple genes involved in cycling of C and nitrogen shift rapidly during thaw. We also construct the first draft genome from a complex soil metagenome, which corresponds to a novel methanogen. Methane previously accumulated in permafrost is released during thaw and subsequently consumed by methanotrophic bacteria. Together these data point towards the importance of rapid cycling of methane and nitrogen in thawing permafrost. ?? 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  9. Three-year-olds' rapid facial electromyographic responses to emotional facial expressions and body postures.

    PubMed

    Geangu, Elena; Quadrelli, Ermanno; Conte, Stefania; Croci, Emanuela; Turati, Chiara

    2016-04-01

    Rapid facial reactions (RFRs) to observed emotional expressions are proposed to be involved in a wide array of socioemotional skills, from empathy to social communication. Two of the most persuasive theoretical accounts propose RFRs to rely either on motor resonance mechanisms or on more complex mechanisms involving affective processes. Previous studies demonstrated that presentation of facial and bodily expressions can generate rapid changes in adult and school-age children's muscle activity. However, to date there is little to no evidence to suggest the existence of emotional RFRs from infancy to preschool age. To investigate whether RFRs are driven by motor mimicry or could also be a result of emotional appraisal processes, we recorded facial electromyographic (EMG) activation from the zygomaticus major and frontalis medialis muscles to presentation of static facial and bodily expressions of emotions (i.e., happiness, anger, fear, and neutral) in 3-year-old children. Results showed no specific EMG activation in response to bodily emotion expressions. However, observing others' happy faces led to increased activation of the zygomaticus major and decreased activation of the frontalis medialis, whereas observing others' angry faces elicited the opposite pattern of activation. This study suggests that RFRs are the result of complex mechanisms in which both affective processes and motor resonance may play an important role. PMID:26687335

  10. ATM is required for rapid degradation of cyclin D1 in response to {gamma}-irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Choo, Dong Wan; Baek, Hye Jung; Motoyama, Noboru; Cho, Kwan Ho; Kim, Hye Sun; Kim, Sang Soo

    2009-01-23

    The cellular response to DNA damage induced by {gamma}-irradiation activates cell-cycle arrest to permit DNA repair and to prevent replication. Cyclin D1 is the key molecule for transition between the G1 and S phases of the cell-cycle, and amplification or overexpression of cyclin D1 plays pivotal roles in the development of several human cancers. To study the regulation of cyclin D1 in the DNA-damaged condition, we analyzed the proteolytic regulation of cyclin D1 expression upon {gamma}-irradiation. Upon {gamma}-irradiation, a rapid reduction in cyclin D1 levels was observed prior to p53 stabilization, indicating that the stability of cyclin D1 is controlled in a p53-independent manner. Further analysis revealed that irradiation facilitated ubiquitination of cyclin D1 and that a proteasome inhibitor blocked cyclin D1 degradation under the same conditions. Interestingly, after mutation of threonine residue 286 of cyclin D1, which is reported to be the GSK-3{beta} phosphorylation site, the mutant protein showed resistance to irradiation-induced proteolysis although inhibitors of GSK-3{beta} failed to prevent cyclin D1 degradation. Rather, ATM inhibition markedly prevented cyclin D1 degradation induced by {gamma}-irradiation. Our data indicate that communication between ATM and cyclin D1 may be required for maintenance of genomic integrity achieved by rapid arrest of the cell-cycle, and that disruption of this crosstalk may increase susceptibility to cancer.

  11. Response Time Distributions in Rapid Chess: A Large-Scale Decision Making Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Sigman, Mariano; Etchemendy, Pablo; Slezak, Diego Fernández; Cecchi, Guillermo A.

    2010-01-01

    Rapid chess provides an unparalleled laboratory to understand decision making in a natural environment. In a chess game, players choose consecutively around 40 moves in a finite time budget. The goodness of each choice can be determined quantitatively since current chess algorithms estimate precisely the value of a position. Web-based chess produces vast amounts of data, millions of decisions per day, incommensurable with traditional psychological experiments. We generated a database of response times (RTs) and position value in rapid chess games. We measured robust emergent statistical observables: (1) RT distributions are long-tailed and show qualitatively distinct forms at different stages of the game, (2) RT of successive moves are highly correlated both for intra- and inter-player moves. These findings have theoretical implications since they deny two basic assumptions of sequential decision making algorithms: RTs are not stationary and can not be generated by a state-function. Our results also have practical implications. First, we characterized the capacity of blunders and score fluctuations to predict a player strength, which is yet an open problem in chess softwares. Second, we show that the winning likelihood can be reliably estimated from a weighted combination of remaining times and position evaluation. PMID:21031032

  12. Rapid health response, assessment, and surveillance after a tsunami--Thailand, 2004-2005.

    PubMed

    2005-01-28

    On December 26, 2004, an earthquake triggered a devastating tsunami that caused an estimated 225,000 deaths in eight countries (India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Maldives, Seychelles, Somalia, Sri Lanka, and Thailand) on two continents. In Thailand, six provinces (Krabi, Phang-Nga, Phuket, Ranong, Satun, and Trang) were impacted, including prominent international tourist destinations. The Thai Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) responded with rapid mobilization of local and nonlocal clinicians, public health practitioners, and medical supplies; assessment of health-care needs; identification of the dead, injured, and missing; and active surveillance of syndromic illness. The MOPH response was augmented by technical assistance from the Thai MOPH-U.S. CDC Collaboration (TUC) and the Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences (AFRIMS), with support from the office of the World Health Organization (WHO) representative to Thailand. This report summarizes these activities. The experiences in Thailand underscore the value of written and rehearsed disaster plans, capacity for rapid mobilization, local coordination of relief activities, and active public health surveillance. PMID:15674183

  13. Rapid Scientific Response as an Educational Opportunity Integrating Geoscience and Advanced Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oskin, M. E.; Kellogg, L. H.; Team, K.

    2014-12-01

    Natural disasters provide important opportunities to conduct original scientific research. We present the results of a graduate course at the University of California, Davis centered on rapid scientific response to the 24 August magnitude 6.0 South Napa earthquake. Students from both geoscience and computer visualization formed collaborative teams to conduct original research, choosing from diverse research topics including mapping of the surface rupture, both in the field and remotely, production and analysis of three-dimensional scans of offset features, topographic point-cloud differencing, identification and mapping of pre-historic earthquake scarps, analysis of geodetic data for pre-earthquake fault loading rate and modeling of finite fault offset, aftershock distribution, construction and 3D visualization of earth structure and seismic velocity models, shaking intensity from empirical models, and earthquake rupture simulation.

  14. Plaque-Like Sclerodermiform Localized Mucinosis Rapidly Responsive to Topical Tacrolimus

    PubMed Central

    Schmaltz, R.; Vogt, T.; Müller, C.S.L.

    2010-01-01

    We report the successful treatment of plaque-like sclerodermiform mucinosis using tacrolimus ointment topically. We present a 70-year-old male with a large chronic erythema and hardening of the nuchal skin and shoulder area. Subjective symptoms were a moderate pruritus and a rather disabling stiffness. A biopsy specimen revealed typical features of lichen myxedematosus. In a subsequent clinical examination, no associated illnesses such as hypothyroidism or gammopathy were found. Since no established therapy exists for this condition, and as there was a lack of response to potent topical glucocorticosteroids, tacrolimus 0.03% ointment was used off-label twice daily. Surprisingly, this resulted in a rapid, almost complete clearance of the skin within three weeks of treatment. PMID:21060774

  15. Rapid Characterization of Shorelines using a Georeferenced Video Mapping System

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael G.; Judd, Chaeli; Marcoe, K.

    2012-09-01

    Increased understanding of shoreline conditions is needed, yet current approaches are limited in ability to characterize remote areas or document features at a finer resolution. Documentation using video mapping may provide a rapid and repeatable method for assessing the current state of the environment and determining changes to the shoreline over time. In this study, we compare two studies using boat-based, georeferenced video mapping in coastal Washington and the Columbia River Estuary to map and characterize coastal stressors and functional data. In both areas, mapping multiple features along the shoreline required approximation of the coastline. However, characterization of vertically oriented features such as shoreline armoring and small features such as pilings and large woody debris was possible. In addition, end users noted that geovideo provides a permanent record to allow a user to examine recorded video anywhere along a transect or at discrete points.

  16. Doxorubicin loaded pH-responsive micelles capable of rapid intracellular drug release for potential tumor therapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuai; Wu, Wei; Xiu, Kemao; Xu, Fujian; Li, Zhongming; Li, Jianshu

    2014-08-01

    Amphiphilic copolymers have been paid much attention for controlled drug release for many years due to their obvious advantages. In this study, an acid-triggered drug carrier system capable of rapid intracellular drug release is investigated for potential tumor therapy. The amphiphilic diblock copolymer poly(2-diisopropylaminoethyl methacrylate)-b-poly(2-aminoethyl methacrylate hydrochloride) (PDPA-b-PAMA) is prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The molecular structure of the copolymer is confirmed by 1H NMR and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The critical micelle concentration (CMC) value of the PDPA-b-PAMA is 0.005 mg/mL, which can ensure the thermodynamical stability of micelles even after significant dilution. The drug loading and encapsulation efficiencies of doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded micelles are 9.96% and 55.31%, respectively. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) show that the amphiphilic block copolymers self-assemble into spherical micelles with narrow polydispersity indexes (PDLs) at pH 7.4 and 6.8, but disassemble into random chain aggregations at pH 5.0. The DOX-loaded PDPA-b-PAMA shows obvious pH-responsive drug release profile when the pH value changes from 7.4 to 5.0, since it transforms from amphiphilicity to double hydrophilicity through the protonation of PDPA block (pK(a) - 6.2) in a relatively low pH condition, thus the loaded DOX can be rapidly released from the disassembling micelles. In addition, the micellar system also exhibits relatively low cytotoxicity and rapid drug release behaviour in tumor cells, which make it promising for tumor therapy. PMID:25016648

  17. Enabling rapid behavioral ecotoxicity studies using an integrated lab-on-a-chip systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yushi; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2015-12-01

    Behavioral ecotoxicity tests are gaining an increasing recognition in environmental toxicology. Behavior of sensitive bioindicator species can change rapidly in response to an acute exposure to contaminants and thus has a much higher sensitivity as compared to conventional LC50 mortality tests. Furthermore, behavioral endpoints seems to be very good candidates to develop early-warning biomonitoring systems needed for rapid chemical risk assessment. Behavioral tests are non-invasive, fast, do not harm indicator organisms (behavioural changes are very rapid) and are thus fully compatible with 3R (Replacement - Reduction - Refinement) principle encouraging alternatives to conventional animal testing. These characteristics are essential when designing improved ecotoxicity tests for chemical risk assessment. In this work, we present a pilot development of miniaturized Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) devices for studying toxin avoidance behaviors of small aquatic crustaceans. As an investigative tool, LOCs represent a new direction that may miniaturize and revolutionize behavioral ecotoxicology. Specifically our innovative microfluidic prototype: (i) enables convening "caging" of specimens for real-time videomicroscopy; (ii) eliminates the evaporative water loss thus providing an opportunity for long-term behavioral studies; (iii) exploits laminar fluid flow under low Reynolds numbers to generate discrete domains and gradients enabling for the first time toxin avoidance studies on small aquatic crustaceans; (iv) integrates off-the-chip mechatronic interfaces and video analysis algorithms for single animal movement analysis. We provide evidence that by merging innovative bioelectronic and biomicrofluidic technologies we can deploy inexpensive and reliable systems for culture, electronic tracking and complex computational analysis of behavior of bioindicator organisms.

  18. pH-Responsive Poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) Nanoparticles with Rapid Antigen Release Behavior Promote Immune Response.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi; Chen, Xiaoming; Jia, Jilei; Zhang, Weifeng; Yang, Tingyuan; Wang, Lianyan; Ma, Guanghui

    2015-05-26

    In the quest to treat intracellular infectious diseases and virus infection, nanoparticles (NPs) have been considered to be efficient tools for inducing potent immune responses, specifically cellular immunity. Antigen processing and presenting by antigen presenting cells (APCs) could influence immune response, especially the priming of T-cell-mediated cellular immunity. Here, we fabricated pH-responsive poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) NPs with rapid antigen intracellular release behavior in APCs. The NPs, which had thin shells and large inner space, contain ammonium bicarbonate (NH4HCO3), which could regulate release in endosomes and lysosomes, acting as an antigen release promoter in dendritic cells (DCs), and were coencapsulated with antigen (ovalbumin, OVA). Hydrogen ions (H(+)) in DC endosomes and lysosomes (pH ∼5.0 and 6.5) could react with NH4HCO3 to generate NH3 and CO2, which broke NPs and released antigens. After uptake by DCs, antigens encapsulated in pH-responsive PLGA NPs could escape from lysosomes into the cytoplasm and be cross-presented. Moreover, the NPs induced up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules and stimulated cytokine production. Mouse immunization with pH-responsive PLGA NPs induced greater lymphocyte activation, more antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells, stronger cytotoxic capacity (IFN-γ and granzyme B), enhanced antigen-specific IgG antibodies, and higher serum IgG2a/IgG1, indicating cellular immunity. The NPs also improved generation of memory T cells to protect against reinfection. Thus, pH-responsive PLGA NPs, which induced strong cellular immune responses and offered antibody protection, could be potentially useful as effective vaccine delivery and adjuvant systems for the therapy of intracellular infectious diseases and virus infection. PMID:25898266

  19. Throwing a glance at the neural code: rapid information transmission in the visual system

    PubMed Central

    Gollisch, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Our visual system can operate at fascinating speeds. Psychophysical experiments teach us that the processing of complex natural images and visual object recognition require a mere split second. Even in everyday life, our gaze seldom rests for long on any particular spot of the visual scene before a sudden movement of the eyes or the head shifts it to a new location. These observations challenge our understanding of how neurons in the visual system of the brain represent, process, and transmit the relevant visual information quickly enough. This article argues that the speed of visual processing provides an adjuvant framework for studying the neural code in the visual system. In the retina, which constitutes the first stage of visual processing, recent experiments have highlighted response features that allow for particularly rapid information transmission. This sets the stage for discussing some of the fundamental questions in the research of neural coding. How do downstream brain regions read out signals from the retina and combine them with intrinsic signals that accompany eye movements? And, how do the neural response features ultimately affect perception and behavior? PMID:19649155

  20. The Climate Science Rapid Response Team - A Model for Science Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandia, S. A.; Abraham, J. A.; Weymann, R.; Ashley, M.

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, there have been many independent initiatives which have commenced with the goal of improving communication between scientists and the larger public. These initiatives have often been motivated by the recognition that concerns amongst scientists related to the pending threats of climate change are not universally shared by the general public. Multiple studies have conclusively demonstrated that while the vast majority of climate scientists are in broad agreement that human-emitted greenhouse gases are causing increases in the Earth's temperature, the larger public is divided. Often, this divide mirrors divides on other political, societal, economic, or scientific issues. One unique approach to improve the conveyance of the state of climate-change science to the public is reflected by a self-organized effort of scientists themselves. This approach has lead to the formation of the Climate Science Rapid Response Team (CSRRT). The mission of this organization is to provide accurate and rapid information on any climate-science topic to general media and governmental inquirers. The CSRRT currently consists of approximately 135 world-class climate scientists whose members cover the sub-disciplines of climate change and include not only the natural sciences but also economics and policy. Since its formation, the CSRRT has fielded approximately four inquires each week from institutions that include The Associated Press, ABC, CBS, CNN, BBC, New York Times, Time of London, National Public Radio, The Guardian, The Washington Post, the Los Angeles Times, the Chicago Tribune, and the U.S. Congress, among others. Members of the CSRRT have been asked to provide quotations for news stories; they have also been asked to give radio, television, or print-media interviews. Some members of the CSRRT have undergone media training to help encourage the use of jargon-free language so that clear communication with the broader public can be more successful. The response from

  1. Rapid Response of Volcanism to Deglaciation in Southeast Alaska and Evidence for Attendant Climate Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praetorius, S. K.; Mix, A. C.; Jensen, B. J. L.; Froese, D. G.; Milne, G. A.; Wolhowe, M. D.; Prahl, F. G.

    2015-12-01

    Evidence for increased subaerial volcanism during the last deglaciation has been hypothesized to result from depressurization of magma chambers in response to glacial unloading. However, the direct link between isostatic changes and the initiation of volcanism is obscured by different regional climate histories and timescales of isostatic adjustment. Likewise, the regional and global response to this volcanic forcing is poorly constrained due to the difficulty of obtaining high-resolution records that can capture short-term climate variability. Marine sediment records from the Southeast Alaska margin have exceptionally high sedimentation rates (up to 1 cm/yr across the last deglacial transition), along with excellent age control (28 14C dates), and thus provide a decadal-scale record of 23 tephra layers paired with foraminiferal oxygen isotopes and alkenone temperature reconstructions that record the timing and climate impacts of these eruptions. Major element compositions of eight discrete tephra layers are consistent with a source from the Mt. Edgecumbe Volcanic Field (MEVF). The onset of the MEVF eruptive sequence is concurrent with the onset of Bølling-Allerød interstadial warmth, the disappearance of ice-rafted detritus, and a period of rapid vertical land motion associated with modeled isostatic rebound in response to glacier retreat. These data support the hypothesis that regional deglaciation can trigger volcanic activity. A series of short-term cooling and surface ocean freshening events are associated with the interval of intense volcanic activity. The Southeast Alaska record thus supports a two-way interaction between climate and volcanism, in which nearly instantaneous volcanic response to ice unloading may enhance climate variability during deglaciation.

  2. Very rapid virologic response and early HCV response kinetics, as quick measures to compare efficacy and guide a personalized response-guided therapy

    PubMed Central

    Yakoot, Mostafa; Abdo, Alaa M; Yousry, Ahmed; Helmy, Sherine

    2016-01-01

    Background This is the second and final report for our study designed to compare two generic sofosbuvir products for the degree and speed of virologic response to a dual anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment protocol. We aimed to test the applicability of the early virus response kinetics and the very rapid virologic response (vRVR) rate as quick outcome measures for accelerated comparative efficacy studies and as a foundation for a personalized response-guided therapy. Methods Fifty eligible chronic HCV patients were randomized to either one of two generic sofosbuvir products (Gratisovir or Grateziano) at a daily dose of one 400 mg tablet plus a weight-based ribavirin dose. Data were compared between the groups for early virus response kinetics and vRVR rates in relation to the rates of final sustained virologic response at week 12 posttreatment (SVR12). Results The Log10 transformed virus load (Log polymerase chain reaction) curves showed fairly similar rapid decline during the first 2 weeks, with no significant difference between the groups at four analysis points throughout the study by repeated-measures factorial analysis of variance test (P=0.48). The SVR12 rates were 96% (95% confidence interval, 79.6%–99.9%) in Gratisovir group (24/25) and 95.7% (95% confidence interval, 78%–99.9%) in Grateziano group (22/23). There was no statistically significant difference found by exact test (P>0.999). There was a significant association between the vRVR and the SVR12, with 100% positive predictive value (38/38 of those who had vRVR, achieved a final SVR12) and 82.6% sensitivity (among the total 46 with SVR12, 38 were having vRVR). Conclusion We can conclude from our study that the early HCV response kinetics and the vRVR rates could be used as sensitive quick markers for efficacy (with a very high positive predictive value for SVR12), based on our accelerated comparative efficacy research model. This might open the way for new models of accelerated equivalence

  3. The Reading Proficiency Interview (RPI): A Rapid Response Test Development Model for Assessing Reading Proficiency on the ILR Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Lauren; Stansfeld, Charles W.

    2010-01-01

    The Reading Proficiency Interview (RPI) is a new reading proficiency test format that was created in response to the US government's need to rapidly produce a cost effective and credible reading proficiency assessment format for small-population languages. The RPI was developed in response to a requirement by the National Language Service Corps…

  4. Appendix B: Rapid development approaches for system engineering and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Conventional processes often produce systems which are obsolete before they are fielded. This paper explores some of the reasons for this, and provides a vision of how we can do better. This vision is based on our explorations in improved processes and system/software engineering tools.

  5. IconiCase: A visual System for Rapid Case Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltenbach, M.; Preiss, B.

    A computer system, IconiCase, is currently being developed to assist users in the task of classifying and memorizing medical cases. The system uses assemblies of icons, called Concept Graphics (CG), as pointers to medical cases, leading to a form of electronic document delivery in which information is accessed at various levels, with a gradual…

  6. Rapid morphological divergence of a stream fish in response to changes in water flow

    PubMed Central

    Cureton, James C.; Broughton, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that evolution can occur on a contemporary time scale. However, the precise timing and patterns of phenotypic change are not well known. Reservoir construction severely alters selective regimes in aquatic habitats due to abrupt cessation of water flow. We examined the spatial and temporal patterns of evolution of a widespread North American stream fish (Pimephales vigilax) in response to stream impoundment. Gross morphological changes occurred in P. vigilax populations following dam construction in each of seven different rivers. Significant changes in body depth, head shape and fin placement were observed relative to fish populations that occupied the rivers prior to dam construction. These changes occurred over a very small number of generations and independent populations exhibited common responses to similar selective pressures. The magnitude of change was observed to be greatest in the first 15 generations post-impoundment, followed by continued but more gradual change thereafter. This pattern suggests early directional selection facilitated by phenotypic plasticity in the first 10–20 years, followed by potential stabilizing selection as populations reached a new adaptive peak (or variation became exhausted). This study provides evidence for rapid, apparently adaptive, phenotypic divergence of natural populations due to major environmental perturbations in a changing world.

  7. Detector photon response and absorbed dose and their applications to rapid triage techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, Shannon Prentice

    As radiation specialists, one of our primary objectives in the Navy is protecting people and the environment from the effects of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. Focusing on radiological dispersal devices (RDD) will provide increased personnel protection as well as optimize emergency response assets for the general public. An attack involving an RDD has been of particular concern because it is intended to spread contamination over a wide area and cause massive panic within the general population. A rapid method of triage will be necessary to segregate the unexposed and slightly exposed from those needing immediate medical treatment. Because of the aerosol dispersal of the radioactive material, inhalation of the radioactive material may be the primary exposure route. The primary radionuclides likely to be used in a RDD attack are Co-60, Cs-137, Ir-192, Sr-90 and Am-241. Through the use of a MAX phantom along with a few Simulink MATLAB programs, a good anthropomorphic phantom was created for use in MCNPX simulations that would provide organ doses from internally deposited radionuclides. Ludlum model 44-9 and 44-2 detectors were used to verify the simulated dose from the MCNPX code. Based on the results, acute dose rate limits were developed for emergency response personnel that would assist in patient triage.

  8. Rapid-Response Low Infrared Emission Broadband Ultrathin Plasmonic Light Absorber

    PubMed Central

    Tagliabue, Giulia; Eghlidi, Hadi; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonic nanostructures can significantly advance broadband visible-light absorption, with absorber thicknesses in the sub-wavelength regime, much thinner than conventional broadband coatings. Such absorbers have inherently very small heat capacity, hence a very rapid response time, and high light power-to-temperature sensitivity. Additionally, their surface emissivity can be spectrally tuned to suppress infrared thermal radiation. These capabilities make plasmonic absorbers promising candidates for fast light-to-heat applications, such as radiation sensors. Here we investigate the light-to-heat conversion properties of a metal-insulator-metal broadband plasmonic absorber, fabricated as a free-standing membrane. Using a fast IR camera, we show that the transient response of the absorber has a characteristic time below 13 ms, nearly one order of magnitude lower than a similar membrane coated with a commercial black spray. Concurrently, despite the small thickness, due to the large absorption capability, the achieved absorbed light power-to-temperature sensitivity is maintained at the level of a standard black spray. Finally, we show that while black spray has emissivity similar to a black body, the plasmonic absorber features a very low infra-red emissivity of almost 0.16, demonstrating its capability as selective coating for applications with operating temperatures up to 400°C, above which the nano-structure starts to deform. PMID:25418040

  9. Communication and relationship skills for rapid response teams at hamilton health sciences.

    PubMed

    Cziraki, Karen; Lucas, Janie; Rogers, Toni; Page, Laura; Zimmerman, Rosanne; Hauer, Lois Ann; Daniels, Charlotte; Gregoroff, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Rapid response teams (RRT) are an important safety strategy in the prevention of deaths in patients who are progressively failing outside of the intensive care unit. The goal is to intervene before a critical event occurs. Effective teamwork and communication skills are frequently cited as critical success factors in the implementation of these teams. However, there is very little literature that clearly provides an education strategy for the development of these skills. Training in simulation labs offers an opportunity to assess and build on current team skills; however, this approach does not address how to meet the gaps in team communication and relationship skill management. At Hamilton Health Sciences (HHS) a two-day program was developed in collaboration with the RRT Team Leads, Organizational Effectiveness and Patient Safety Leaders. Participants reflected on their conflict management styles and considered how their personality traits may contribute to team function. Communication and relationship theories were reviewed and applied in simulated sessions in the relative safety of off-site team sessions. The overwhelming positive response to this training has been demonstrated in the incredible success of these teams from the perspective of the satisfaction surveys of the care units that call the team, and in the multi-phased team evaluation of their application to practice. These sessions offer a useful approach to the development of the soft skills required for successful RRT implementation. PMID:18382164

  10. A Molecular Imaging Paradigm to Rapidly Profile Response to Angiogenesis-directed Therapy in Small Animals

    PubMed Central

    Virostko, John; Xie, Jingping; Hallahan, Dennis E.; Arteaga, Carlos L.; Gore, John C.; Manning, H. Charles

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The development of novel angiogenesis-directed therapeutics is hampered by the lack of non-invasive imaging metrics capable of assessing treatment response. We report the development and validation of a novel molecular imaging paradigm to rapidly assess response to angiogenesis-directed therapeutics in preclinical animal models. Procedures A monoclonal antibody-based optical imaging probe targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2) expression was synthesized and evaluated in vitro and in vivo via multispectral fluorescence imaging. Results The optical imaging agent demonstrated specificity for the target receptor in cultured endothelial cells and in vivo. The agent exhibited significant accumulation within 4T1 xenograft tumors. Mice bearing 4T1 xenografts and treated with sunitinib exhibited both tumor growth arrest and decreased accumulation of NIR800-αVEGFR2ab compared to untreated cohorts (p=0.0021). Conclusions Molecular imaging of VEGFR2 expression is a promising non-invasive biomarker for assessing angiogenesis and evaluating the efficacy of angiogenesis-directed therapies. PMID:19130143

  11. Rapid Induction of Distinct Stress Responses after the Release of Singlet Oxygen in ArabidopsisW⃞

    PubMed Central

    op den Camp, Roel G. L.; Przybyla, Dominika; Ochsenbein, Christian; Laloi, Christophe; Kim, Chanhong; Danon, Antoine; Wagner, Daniela; Hideg, Éva; Göbel, Cornelia; Feussner, Ivo; Nater, Mena; Apel, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    The conditional fluorescent (flu) mutant of Arabidopsis accumulates the photosensitizer protochlorophyllide in the dark. After a dark-to-light shift, the generation of singlet oxygen, a nonradical reactive oxygen species, starts within the first minute of illumination and was shown to be confined to plastids. Immediately after the shift, plants stopped growing and developed necrotic lesions. These early stress responses of the flu mutant do not seem to result merely from physicochemical damage. Peroxidation of chloroplast membrane lipids in these plants started rapidly and led to the transient and selective accumulation of a stereospecific and regiospecific isomer of hydroxyoctadecatrieonic acid, free (13S)-HOTE, that could be attributed almost exclusively to the enzymatic oxidation of linolenic acid. Within the first 15 min of reillumination, distinct sets of genes were activated that were different from those induced by superoxide/hydrogen peroxide. Collectively, these results demonstrate that singlet oxygen does not act primarily as a toxin but rather as a signal that activates several stress-response pathways. Its biological activity in Arabidopsis exhibits a high degree of specificity that seems to be derived from the chemical identity of this reactive oxygen species and/or the intracellular location at which it is generated. PMID:14508004

  12. Rapid-response low infrared emission broadband ultrathin plasmonic light absorber.

    PubMed

    Tagliabue, Giulia; Eghlidi, Hadi; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonic nanostructures can significantly advance broadband visible-light absorption, with absorber thicknesses in the sub-wavelength regime, much thinner than conventional broadband coatings. Such absorbers have inherently very small heat capacity, hence a very rapid response time, and high light power-to-temperature sensitivity. Additionally, their surface emissivity can be spectrally tuned to suppress infrared thermal radiation. These capabilities make plasmonic absorbers promising candidates for fast light-to-heat applications, such as radiation sensors. Here we investigate the light-to-heat conversion properties of a metal-insulator-metal broadband plasmonic absorber, fabricated as a free-standing membrane. Using a fast IR camera, we show that the transient response of the absorber has a characteristic time below 13 ms, nearly one order of magnitude lower than a similar membrane coated with a commercial black spray. Concurrently, despite the small thickness, due to the large absorption capability, the achieved absorbed light power-to-temperature sensitivity is maintained at the level of a standard black spray. Finally, we show that while black spray has emissivity similar to a black body, the plasmonic absorber features a very low infra-red emissivity of almost 0.16, demonstrating its capability as selective coating for applications with operating temperatures up to 400°C, above which the nano-structure starts to deform. PMID:25418040

  13. Rapid-Response Low Infrared Emission Broadband Ultrathin Plasmonic Light Absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagliabue, Giulia; Eghlidi, Hadi; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2014-11-01

    Plasmonic nanostructures can significantly advance broadband visible-light absorption, with absorber thicknesses in the sub-wavelength regime, much thinner than conventional broadband coatings. Such absorbers have inherently very small heat capacity, hence a very rapid response time, and high light power-to-temperature sensitivity. Additionally, their surface emissivity can be spectrally tuned to suppress infrared thermal radiation. These capabilities make plasmonic absorbers promising candidates for fast light-to-heat applications, such as radiation sensors. Here we investigate the light-to-heat conversion properties of a metal-insulator-metal broadband plasmonic absorber, fabricated as a free-standing membrane. Using a fast IR camera, we show that the transient response of the absorber has a characteristic time below 13 ms, nearly one order of magnitude lower than a similar membrane coated with a commercial black spray. Concurrently, despite the small thickness, due to the large absorption capability, the achieved absorbed light power-to-temperature sensitivity is maintained at the level of a standard black spray. Finally, we show that while black spray has emissivity similar to a black body, the plasmonic absorber features a very low infra-red emissivity of almost 0.16, demonstrating its capability as selective coating for applications with operating temperatures up to 400°C, above which the nano-structure starts to deform.

  14. On-line DNA analysis system with rapid thermal cycling

    DOEpatents

    Swerdlow, H.P.; Wittwer, C.T.

    1999-08-10

    This application describes an apparatus particularly suited for subjecting biological samples to any necessary sample preparation tasks, subjecting the sample to rapid thermal cycling, and then subjecting the sample to subsequent on-line analysis using one or more of a number of analytical techniques. The apparatus includes a chromatography device including an injection means, a chromatography pump, and a chromatography column. In addition, the apparatus also contains a capillary electrophoresis device consisting of a capillary electrophoresis column with an inlet and outlet end, a means of injection, and means of applying a high voltage to cause the differential migration of species of interest through the capillary column. Effluent from the liquid chromatography column passes over the inlet end of the capillary electrophoresis column through a tee structure and when the loading of the capillary electrophoresis column is desired, a voltage supply is activated at a precise voltage and polarity over a specific duration to cause sample species to be diverted from the flowing stream to the capillary electrophoresis column. A laser induced fluorescence detector preferably is used to analyze the products separated while in the electrophoresis column. 6 figs.

  15. On-line DNA analysis system with rapid thermal cycling

    DOEpatents

    Swerdlow, Harold P.; Wittwer, Carl T.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus particularly suited for subjecting biological samples to any necessary sample preparation tasks, subjecting the sample to rapid thermal cycling, and then subjecting the sample to subsequent on-line analysis using one or more of a number of analytical techniques. The apparatus includes a chromatography device including an injection means, a chromatography pump, and a chromatography column. In addition, the apparatus also contains a capillary electrophoresis device consisting of a capillary electrophoresis column with an inlet and outlet end, a means of injection, and means of applying a high voltage to cause the differential migration of species of interest through the capillary column. Effluent from the liquid chromatography column passes over the inlet end of the capillary electrophoresis column through a tee structure and when the loading of the capillary electrophoresis column is desired, a voltage supply is activated at a precise voltage and polarity over a specific duration to cause sample species to be diverted from the flowing stream to the capillary electrophoresis column. A laser induced fluorescence detector preferably is used to analyze the products separated while in the electrophoresis column.

  16. Rapid correction of electron microprobe data for multicomponent metallic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, K. P.; Sivakumar, R.

    1973-01-01

    This paper describes an empirical relation for the correction of electron microprobe data for multicomponent metallic systems. It evaluates the empirical correction parameter, a for each element in a binary alloy system using a modification of Colby's MAGIC III computer program and outlines a simple and quick way of correcting the probe data. This technique has been tested on a number of multicomponent metallic systems and the agreement with the results using theoretical expressions is found to be excellent. Limitations and suitability of this relation are discussed and a model calculation is also presented in the Appendix.

  17. High power rapidly tunable system for laser cooling.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, V M; Hernández, L; Gomez, E

    2012-01-01

    We present a laser configuration capable of fast frequency changes with a high power output and a large tuning range. The system integrates frequency tuning with an acousto-optic modulator with a double pass tapered amplifier. A compensation circuit keeps the seed power constant and prevents damage to the amplifier. A single mode fiber decouples the modulation and amplification sections and keeps the alignment fixed. The small power required to saturate the amplifier makes the system very reliable. We use the system to obtain a dipole trap that we image using a beam derived from the same configuration. PMID:22299990

  18. Global genomic analysis reveals rapid control of a robust innate response in SIV-infected sooty mangabeys

    PubMed Central

    Bosinger, Steven E.; Li, Qingsheng; Gordon, Shari N.; Klatt, Nichole R.; Duan, Lijie; Xu, Luoling; Francella, Nicholas; Sidahmed, Abubaker; Smith, Anthony J.; Cramer, Elizabeth M.; Zeng, Ming; Masopust, David; Carlis, John V.; Ran, Longsi; Vanderford, Thomas H.; Paiardini, Mirko; Isett, R. Benjamin; Baldwin, Don A.; Else, James G.; Staprans, Silvija I.; Silvestri, Guido; Haase, Ashley T.; Kelvin, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Natural SIV infection of sooty mangabeys (SMs) is nonprogressive despite chronic virus replication. Strikingly, it is characterized by low levels of immune activation, while pathogenic SIV infection of rhesus macaques (RMs) is associated with chronic immune activation. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying this intriguing phenotype, we used high-density oligonucleotide microarrays to longitudinally assess host gene expression in SIV-infected SMs and RMs. We found that acute SIV infection of SMs was consistently associated with a robust innate immune response, including widespread upregulation of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) in blood and lymph nodes. While SMs exhibited a rapid resolution of ISG expression and immune activation, both responses were observed chronically in RMs. Systems biology analysis indicated that expression of the lymphocyte inhibitory receptor LAG3, a marker of T cell exhaustion, correlated with immune activation in SIV-infected RMs but not SMs. Our findings suggest that active immune regulatory mechanisms, rather than intrinsically attenuated innate immune responses, underlie the low levels of immune activation characteristic of SMs chronically infected with SIV. PMID:19959874

  19. Motion Planning for a Direct Metal Deposition Rapid Prototyping System

    SciTech Connect

    AMES,ARLO L.; HENSINGER,DAVID M.; KUHLMANN,JOEL L.

    1999-10-18

    A motion planning strategy was developed and implemented to generate motion control instructions from solid model data for controlling a robotically driven solid free-form fabrication process. The planning strategy was tested using a PUMA type robot arm integrated into a LENS{trademark} (Laser Engineered Net Shape) system. Previous systems relied on a series of x, y, and z stages, to provide a minimal coordinated motion control capability. This limited the complexity of geometries that could be constructed. With the coordinated motion provided by a robotic arm, the system can produce three dimensional parts by ''writing'' material onto any face of existing material. The motion planning strategy relied on solid model geometry evaluation and exploited robotic positioning flexibility to allow the construction of geometrically complex parts. The integration of the robotic manipulator into the LENS{trademark} system was tested by producing metal parts directly from CAD models.

  20. Pyrame, a rapid-prototyping framework for online systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magniette, Frédéric; Rubio-Roy, Miguel; Thiant, Floris

    2015-12-01

    The present work reports on the software Pyrame, an open-source online framework designed with high-energy physics applications in mind and providing a light-weight, distributed, stable, performant and easy-to-deploy solution. Pyrame is a data-acquisition chain, a data- exchange network protocol and a wide set of drivers allowing the control of hardware components. Data-acquisition throughput is on the order of 4 Gb/s for memory to memory acquisitions and Pyrame protocol overhead is about 50 µs per command/response using the stock tools.

  1. Advantages of utilizing DMD based rapid manufacturing systems in mass customization applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Siblani, A.

    2010-02-01

    The Use of DMD based Rapid Manufacturing Systems has proven to be very advantageous in the production of highly accurate plastic based components for use in mass customization market such as hearing aids, and dental markets. The voxelization process currently afforded with the DLP technology eliminates any layering effect associated with all existing additive Rapid Manufacturing technologies. The smooth accurate surfaces produced in an additive process utilizing DLP technology, through the voxelization approach, allow for the production of custom finished products. The implementation of DLP technology in rapid prototyping and rapid manufacturing systems allow for the usage of highly viscous photopolymer based liquid and paste composites for rapid manufacturing that could not be used in any other additive process prior to implementation of DLP technology in RP and RM systems. It also allowed for the greater throughput in production without sacrificing quality and accuracy.

  2. Rapid Etiological Classification of Meningitis by NMR Spectroscopy Based on Metabolite Profiles and Host Response

    PubMed Central

    Himmelreich, Uwe; Malik, Richard; Kühn, Till; Daniel, Heide-Marie; Somorjai, Ray L.; Dolenko, Brion; Sorrell, Tania C.

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is an acute disease with high mortality that is reduced by early treatment. Identification of the causative microorganism by culture is sensitive but slow. Large volumes of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are required to maximise sensitivity and establish a provisional diagnosis. We have utilised nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to rapidly characterise the biochemical profile of CSF from normal rats and animals with pneumococcal or cryptococcal meningitis. Use of a miniaturised capillary NMR system overcame limitations caused by small CSF volumes and low metabolite concentrations. The analysis of the complex NMR spectroscopic data by a supervised statistical classification strategy included major, minor and unidentified metabolites. Reproducible spectral profiles were generated within less than three minutes, and revealed differences in the relative amounts of glucose, lactate, citrate, amino acid residues, acetate and polyols in the three groups. Contributions from microbial metabolism and inflammatory cells were evident. The computerised statistical classification strategy is based on both major metabolites and minor, partially unidentified metabolites. This data analysis proved highly specific for diagnosis (100% specificity in the final validation set), provided those with visible blood contamination were excluded from analysis; 6–8% of samples were classified as indeterminate. This proof of principle study suggests that a rapid etiologic diagnosis of meningitis is possible without prior culture. The method can be fully automated and avoids delays due to processing and selective identification of specific pathogens that are inherent in DNA-based techniques. PMID:19390697

  3. Rapid assessment and response to injecting drug use in Madras, south India.

    PubMed

    Kumar; Mudaliar; Thyagarajan; Kumar; Selvanayagam; Daniels

    2000-03-01

    HIV infection among injecting drug users (IDUs) is preventable, and in order to develop appropriate interventions, an assessment was carried out at Madras, South India using the Rapid Assessment and Response Guide on Injecting Drug Use developed by WHO. Data were collected with multiple methods from multiple sources using the principles of triangulation and induction. A total of 100 IDUs were interviewed. These interviews were complemented by focus groups and observations. A community advisory board ensured community ownership and participation. Findings showed that heroin, buprenorphine, diazepam and avil were the drugs most commonly injected. The use of pharmaceutical preparations as a 'cocktail' was also prevalent. Drug injectors interviewed were males, and most (81%) were from low-income groups living in slums. Direct (69%) as well as indirect sharing (94%) was common. Such unhygienic injecting practices, and the lack of access to sterile water, contribute to the high incidence of adverse health consequences. Compared with the buprenorphine injectors, heroin injectors were more likely to share injecting equipment (P=0.0022), inject more frequently (P=0.0013), have more drug using network members (P=0.0104), frequent 'shooting' locations (P=0.002), use the dealer's place to inject (P=0.0317), and face threats of arrest (P=0.0023). Many buprenorphine injectors managed their life without serious crises, and seemed to adopt a 'natural' harm reduction response. Sexual risk behaviour was prevalent among opioid users, and a history of commercial sex was associated with daily alcohol use (P=0.0221). The assessment led to an action plan which was presented and endorsed in an advocacy meeting by key stake-holders and decision-makers. The critical importance of implementing quality, accessible, community-oriented, and effective HIV interventions with the capacity to reach the majority of IDUs is discussed. Public health responses to injecting drug use must target changes

  4. Rapid assessment response (RAR) study: drug use and health risk - Pretoria, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Within a ten year period South Africa has developed a substantial illicit drug market. Data on HIV risk among drug using populations clearly indicate high levels of HIV risk behaviour due to the sharing of injecting equipment and/or drug-related unprotected sex. While there is international evidence on and experience with adequate responses, limited responses addressing drug use and drug-use-related HIV and other health risks are witnessed in South Africa. This study aimed to explore the emerging problem of drug-related HIV transmission and to stimulate the development of adequate health services for the drug users, by linking international expertise and local research. Methods A Rapid Assessment and Response (RAR) methodology was adopted for the study. For individual and focus group interviews a semi-structured questionnaire was utilised that addressed key issues. Interviews were conducted with a total of 84 key informant (KI) participants, 63 drug user KI participants (49 males, 14 females) and 21 KI service providers (8 male, 13 female). Results and Discussion Adverse living conditions and poor education levels were cited as making access to treatment harder, especially for those living in disadvantaged areas. Heroin was found to be the substance most available and used in a problematic way within the Pretoria area. Participants were not fully aware of the concrete health risks involved in drug use, and the vague ideas held appear not to allow for concrete measures to protect themselves. Knowledge with regards to substance related HIV/AIDS transmission is not yet widespread, with some information sources disseminating incorrect or unspecific information. Conclusions The implementation of pragmatic harm-reduction and other evidence-based public health care policies that are designed to reduce the harmful consequences associated with substance use and HIV/AIDS should be considered. HIV testing and treatment services also need to be made available in

  5. Rapid genetic restoration of a keystone species exhibiting delayed demographic response.

    PubMed

    Cosentino, Bradley J; Schooley, Robert L; Bestelmeyer, Brandon T; McCarthy, Alison J; Sierzega, Kevin

    2015-12-01

    Genetic founder effects are often expected when animals colonize restored habitat in fragmented landscapes, but empirical data on genetic responses to restoration are limited. We examined the genetic response of banner-tailed kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spectabilis) to landscape-scale grassland restoration in the Chihuahuan Desert of New Mexico, USA. Dipodomys spectabilis is a grassland specialist and keystone species. At sites treated with herbicide to remove shrubs, colonization by D. spectabilis is slow and populations persist at low density for ≥10 years (≥6 generations). Persistence at low density and low gene flow may cause strong founder effects. We compared genetic structure of D. spectabilis populations between treated sites and remnant grasslands, and we examined how the genetic response to restoration depended on treatment age, area, and connectivity to source populations. Allelic richness and heterozygosity were similar between treated sites and remnant grasslands. Allelic richness at treated sites was greatest early in the restoration trajectory, and genetic divergence did not differ between recently colonized and established populations. These results indicated that founder effects during colonization of treated sites were weak or absent. Moreover, our results suggested founder effects were not mitigated by treatment area or connectivity. Dispersal is negatively density-dependent in D. spectabilis, and we hypothesize that high gene flow may occur early in the restoration trajectory when density is low. Our study shows genetic diversity can be recovered more rapidly than demographic components of populations after habitat restoration and that founder effects are not inevitable for animals colonizing restored habitat in fragmented landscapes. PMID:26577599

  6. Rapid plasticity of motor corticospinal system with robotic reach training.

    PubMed

    Kantak, S S; Jones-Lush, L M; Narayanan, P; Judkins, T N; Wittenberg, G F

    2013-09-01

    Goal-directed reaching is important for the activities of daily living. Populations of neurons in the primary motor cortex that project to spinal motor circuits are known to represent the kinematics of reaching movements. We investigated whether repetitive practice of goal-directed reaching movements induces use-dependent plasticity of those kinematic characteristics, in a manner similar to finger movements, as had been shown previously. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to evoke upper extremity movements while the forearm was resting in a robotic cradle. Plasticity was measured by the change in kinematics of these evoked movements following goal-directed reaching practice. Baseline direction of TMS-evoked arm movements was determined for each subject. Subjects then practiced three blocks of 160 goal-directed reaching movements in a direction opposite to the baseline direction (14 cm reach 180° from baseline direction) against a 75-Nm spring field. Changes in TMS-evoked whole arm movements were assessed after each practice block and after 5 min following the end of practice. Direction and the position of the point of peak velocity of TMS-evoked movements were significantly altered following training and at a 5-min interval following training, while amplitude did not show significant changes. This was accompanied by changes in the motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) of the shoulder and elbow agonist muscles that partly explained the change in direction, mainly by increase in agonist MEP, without significant changes in antagonists. These findings demonstrate that the arm representation accessible by motor cortical stimulation under goes rapid plasticity induced by goal-directed robotic reach training in healthy subjects. PMID:23669007

  7. Rapid Plasticity of Motor Corticospinal system with Robotic Reach Training

    PubMed Central

    Kantak, Shailesh S.; Jones-Lush, Lauren M.; Narayanan, Priya; Judkins, Timothy N.; Wittenberg, George F.

    2013-01-01

    Goal-directed reaching is important for activities of daily living. Populations of neurons in the primary motor cortex (M1) that project to spinal motor circuits are known to represent kinematics of reaching movements. We investigated whether repetitive practice of goal-directed reaching movements induces use-dependent plasticity of those kinematic characteristics, in a manner similar to finger movements, as had been shown previously. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used over the scalp to evoke upper extremity movements while the forearm was resting in a robotic cradle. Plasticity was measured by the change in kinematics of these evoked movements following goal-directed reaching practice. Baseline direction of TMS-evoked arm movements was determined for each subject. Subjects then practiced 3 blocks of 160 goal-directed reaching movements in a direction opposite to the baseline direction (14 cm reach 180° from baseline direction) against a 75 N·m spring field. Changes in TMS-evoked whole arm movements were assessed after each practice block and after 5 minutes following the end of practice. Direction and the position of the point of peak velocity of TMS-evoked movements were significantly altered following training and at a 5-minute interval following training, while amplitude did not show significant changes. This was accompanied by changes in the motor evoked potentials (MEPs) of the shoulder and elbow agonist muscles that partly explained the change in direction, mainly by increase in agonist MEP, without significant changes in antagonists. These findings demonstrate that the arm representation accessible by motor cortical stimulation demonstrates rapid plasticity induced by goal-directed robotic reach training in healthy subjects. PMID:23669007

  8. Using Rapid-Response Scenario-Building Methodology for Climate Change Adaptation Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, K. A.; Stoepler, T. M.; Schuster, R.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid-response scenario-building methodology can be modified to develop scenarios for slow-onset disasters associated with climate change such as drought. Results of a collaboration between the Department of the Interior (DOI) Strategic Sciences Group (SSG) and the Southwest Colorado Social-Ecological Climate Resilience Project are presented in which SSG scenario-building methods were revised and applied to climate change adaptation planning in Colorado's Gunnison Basin, United States. The SSG provides the DOI with the capacity to rapidly assemble multidisciplinary teams of experts to develop scenarios of the potential environmental, social, and economic cascading consequences of environmental crises, and to analyze these chains to determine actionable intervention points. By design, the SSG responds to acute events of a relatively defined duration. As a capacity-building exercise, the SSG explored how its scenario-building methodology could be applied to outlining the cascading consequences of slow-onset events related to climate change. SSG staff facilitated two workshops to analyze the impacts of drought, wildfire, and insect outbreak in the sagebrush and spruce-fir ecosystems. Participants included local land managers, natural and social scientists, ranchers, and other stakeholders. Key findings were: 1) scenario framing must be adjusted to accommodate the multiple, synergistic components and longer time frames of slow-onset events; 2) the development of slow-onset event scenarios is likely influenced by participants having had more time to consider potential consequences, relative to acute events; 3) participants who are from the affected area may have a more vested interest in the outcome and/or may be able to directly implement interventions.

  9. Rapidly eroding piñon-juniper woodlands in New Mexico: response to slash treatment.

    PubMed

    Hastings, Brian K; Smith, Freeman M; Jacobs, Brian F

    2003-01-01

    The piñon (Pinus edulis Engelm.)-juniper [Juniperus monosperma (Engelm.) Sarg.] woodlands of Bandelier National Monument are experiencing accelerated erosion. Earlier studies suggest that causes of these rapidly eroding woodlands are related to an unprecedented rapid transition of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa C. Lawson) savanna to piñon-juniper woodlands as a result of cumulative historical effects of overgrazing, fire suppression, and severe drought. To study the effectiveness of slash treatment in reducing accelerated erosion, we used sediment check dams to quantify sediment yield from twelve paired microwatersheds (300-1100 m2) within an existing paired water-shed study. Six of the twelve microwatersheds were located in a 41-ha (treatment) watershed with scattered slash treatment, whereas six microwatersheds were located in an adjacent 35-ha untreated (control) watershed. The primary purpose of our research was to quantify the rates of sediment yield between the treated and control microwatersheds. Sediment yield was measured from 15 individual storms during the months of June-September (2000 and 2001). In response to slash treatment, mean seasonal sediment yield for 2000 equaled 2.99 Mg/ha in the control vs. 0.03 Mg/ha in the treatment and 2.07 Mg/ha in the control vs. 0.07 Mg/ha in the treatment in 2001. The practice of slash treatment demonstrates efficacy in reducing erosion in degraded piñon-juniper woodlands by encouraging herbaceous recovery. Our data show that slash treatment increases total ground cover (slash and herbaceous growth) beyond a potential erosion threshold. Restored piñon-juniper woodlands, as the result of slash treatment, provide a forest structure similar to pre-grazing and pre-fire suppression conditions and decrease catastrophic fire hazard. PMID:12931884

  10. Integration of palliative care in the context of rapid response: a report from the Improving Palliative Care in the ICU advisory board.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Judith E; Mathews, Kusum S; Weissman, David E; Brasel, Karen J; Campbell, Margaret; Curtis, J Randall; Frontera, Jennifer A; Gabriel, Michelle; Hays, Ross M; Mosenthal, Anne C; Mulkerin, Colleen; Puntillo, Kathleen A; Ray, Daniel E; Weiss, Stefanie P; Bassett, Rick; Boss, Renee D; Lustbader, Dana R

    2015-02-01

    Rapid response teams (RRTs) can effectively foster discussions about appropriate goals of care and address other emergent palliative care needs of patients and families facing life-threatening illness on hospital wards. In this article, The Improving Palliative Care in the ICU (IPAL-ICU) Project brings together interdisciplinary expertise and existing data to address the following: special challenges for providing palliative care in the rapid response setting, knowledge and skills needed by RRTs for delivery of high-quality palliative care, and strategies for improving the integration of palliative care with rapid response critical care. We discuss key components of communication with patients, families, and primary clinicians to develop a goal-directed treatment approach during a rapid response event. We also highlight the need for RRT expertise to initiate symptom relief. Strategies including specific clinician training and system initiatives are then recommended for RRT care improvement. We conclude by suggesting that as evaluation of their impact on other outcomes continues, performance by RRTs in meeting palliative care needs of patients and families should also be measured and improved. PMID:25644909

  11. Rapid Weight Loss Elicits Harmful Biochemical and Hormonal Responses in Mixed Martial Arts Athletes.

    PubMed

    Coswig, Victor Silveira; Fukuda, David Hideyoshi; Del Vecchio, Fabrício Boscolo

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare biochemical and hormonal responses between mixed martial arts (MMA) competitors with minimal prefight weight loss and those undergoing rapid weight loss (RWL). Blood samples were taken from 17 MMA athletes (Mean± SD; age: 27.4 ±5.3yr; body mass: 76.2 ± 12.4kg; height: 1.71 ± 0.05m and training experience: 39.4 ± 25 months) before and after each match, according to the official events rules. The no rapid weight loss (NWL, n = 12) group weighed in on the day of the event (~30 min prior fight) and athletes declared not having used RWL strategies, while the RWL group (n = 5) weighed in 24 hr before the event and the athletes claimed to have lost 7.4 ± 1.1kg, approximately 10% of their body mass in the week preceding the event. Results showed significant (p < .05) increases following fights, regardless of group, in lactate, glucose, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatinine, and cortisol for all athletes. With regard to group differences, NWL had significantly (p < .05) greater creatinine levels (Mean± SD; pre to post) (NWL= 101.6 ± 15-142.3 ± 22.9μmol/L and RWL= 68.9 ± 10.6-79.5 ± 15.9μmol/L), while RWL had higher LDH (median [interquartile range]; pre to post) (NWL= 211.5[183-236] to 231[203-258]U/L and RWL= 390[370.5-443.5] to 488[463.5-540.5]U/L) and AST (NWL= 30[22-37] to 32[22-41]U/L and 39[32.5-76.5] to 72[38.5-112.5] U/L) values (NWL versus RWL, p < .05). Post hoc analysis showed that AST significantly increased in only the RWL group, while creatinine increased in only the NWL group. The practice of rapid weight loss showed a negative impact on energy availability and increased both muscle damage markers and catabolic expression in MMA fighters. PMID:25811230

  12. Rapid Response Tools and Datasets for Post-fire Hydrological Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Mary Ellen; MacDonald, Lee H.; Billmire, Michael; Elliot, William J.; Robichaud, Pete R.

    2016-04-01

    Rapid response is critical following natural disasters. Flooding, erosion, and debris flows are a major threat to life, property and municipal water supplies after moderate and high severity wildfires. The problem is that mitigation measures must be rapidly implemented if they are to be effective, but they are expensive and cannot be applied everywhere. Fires, runoff, and erosion risks also are highly heterogeneous in space, so there is an urgent need for a rapid, spatially-explicit assessment. Past post-fire modeling efforts have usually relied on lumped, conceptual models because of the lack of readily available, spatially-explicit data layers on the key controls of topography, vegetation type, climate, and soil characteristics. The purpose of this project is to develop a set of spatially-explicit data layers for use in process-based models such as WEPP, and to make these data layers freely available. The resulting interactive online modeling database (http://geodjango.mtri.org/geowepp/) is now operational and publically available for 17 western states in the USA. After a fire, users only need to upload a soil burn severity map, and this is combined with the pre-existing data layers to generate the model inputs needed for spatially explicit models such as GeoWEPP (Renschler, 2003). The development of this online database has allowed us to predict post-fire erosion and various remediation scenarios in just 1-7 days for six fires ranging in size from 4-540 km2. These initial successes have stimulated efforts to further improve the spatial extent and amount of data, and add functionality to support the USGS debris flow model, batch processing for Disturbed WEPP (Elliot et al., 2004) and ERMiT (Robichaud et al., 2007), and to support erosion modeling for other land uses, such as agriculture or mining. The design and techniques used to create the database and the modeling interface are readily repeatable for any area or country that has the necessary topography

  13. Slide Rule for Rapid Response Estimation of Radiological Dose from Criticality Accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Broadhead, B L; Childs, R L; Hopper, C M; Parks, C V

    1999-09-20

    This paper describes a functional slide rule that provides a readily usable "in-hand" method for estimating nuclear criticality accident information from sliding graphs, thereby permitting (1) the rapid estimation of pertinent criticality accident information without laborious or sophisticated calculations in a nuclear criticality emergency situation, (2) the appraisal of potential fission yields and external personnel radiation exposures for facility safety analyses, and (3) a technical basis for emergency preparedness and training programs at nonreactor nuclear facilities. The slide rule permits the estimation of neutron and gamma dose rates and integrated doses based upon estimated fission yields, distance from the fission source, and time-after criticality accidents for five different critical systems. Another sliding graph permits the estimation of critical solution fission yields based upon fissile material concentration, critical vessel geometry, and solution addition rate. Another graph provides neutron and gamma dose-reduction factors for water, steel, and concrete shields.

  14. LEADERS: Lightweight Epidemiology Advanced Detection and Emergency Response System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Todd A.

    2002-06-01

    Technological advancements in molecular biology now offer a wide-range of applications for bio-warfare defense, medical surveillance, agricultural surveillance and pure research. Idaho Technology has designed and produced the world's fastest DNA-based identifiers. The R.A.P.I.D. TM (Ruggedized Advanced Pathogen Identification Device) provides several options for using sensitive and specific molecular biology-based technology One of the key features of the RAPID is a software package called Detector*. Detector* allows Minimally Trained Care Providers (MTCP) to operate the instrument by automating the steps of running PCR and automatically analyzing the sample data. Pathogen identification is carried out automatically using positive and negative controls to protect against false positive and false negative results. As part of the LEADER system, the Remote RAPID Viewer (RRV) component allows for real-time remote monitoring of PCR reactions run on the RAPID, thus giving the Subject Matter Expert (SME) the ability to request specific tests when triggered by the auto-analysis system. In addition the RRV component facilitates in result verification of tests run by MTCP, assists in tracking outbreaks, and helps coordinate large scale real-time crisis management. The system will allow access to epidemiological data from thin client (i.e. web browser), thus allowing the SME to connect from anywhere with an internet connection. In addition the LEADER system will automatically contact and alert SME when threshold criteria are met, helping reduce the time to first response.

  15. Rapid hydrological response to central Andean Plateau uplift, NW-Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrmann, Alexander; Sachse, Dirk; Strecker, Manfred R.; Mulch, Andreas; Pingel, Heiko; Alonso, Ricardo N.

    2015-04-01

    The response of the regional and global hydrological cycle, vegetation and erosion to tectonic surface uplift and topographic growth of the world's largest orogenic plateaus and their flanking ranges is subject to ongoing debate. During the last decade reconstructions of paleo-environmental conditions and the topographic evolution of mountain belts have increasingly relied on stable isotope proxies retaining the oxygen (δ18O) or hydrogen (δD) isotopic composition of ancient meteoric waters or carbon (δ13C) of vegetation. Intermontane basin sediments along the Puna of NW Argentina, the southern extension of the Altiplano-Puna Plateau and the world's second largest plateau, record the eastward-directed lateral growth of the central Andes and the spatiotemporal impact of tectonism on hydrologic, sedimentary, and ecological changes through time. Here we reconstructed paleo-hydrological changes during a phase of major Andean uplift and orographic barrier formation (10-2 Ma) along the eastern flank of the Puna Plateau from a sedimentary sequence within the intermontane Angastaco basin of NW Argentina (25°45 S, 66 W). We use a unique array of stable water-isotope proxies in leafwaxes, pedogenic carbonates and hydrated volcanic glass. In addition we use vegetation-cover proxies based on stable C isotopes obtained from leaf-waxes and pedogenic carbonates. Lipid biomarker leafwax δD values range between -95 and -160 ‰ (VSMOW), and δ13C values from -23 to -36 ‰ (PDB). Pedogenic carbonate δ18O values range from 18 to 31 ‰ (VSMOW) and δ13C values vary between -4 to -17 ‰ (PDB), whereas volcanic glass δD values range from -71 to -95 ‰ (VSMOW). In combination, these proxies provide a precipitation - evapotranspiration record, which reveals the onset of the South American Low Level-Jet in NW Argentina at ~ 9 Ma and the presence of seasonally humid foreland conditions until 7 Ma, followed by orographic barrier formation upwind of the basin and rapid creation of

  16. Development of Response Surface Models for Rapid Analysis & Multidisciplinary Optimization of Launch Vehicle Design Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unal, Resit

    1999-01-01

    Multdisciplinary design optimization (MDO) is an important step in the design and evaluation of launch vehicles, since it has a significant impact on performance and lifecycle cost. The objective in MDO is to search the design space to determine the values of design parameters that optimize the performance characteristics subject to system constraints. Vehicle Analysis Branch (VAB) at NASA Langley Research Center has computerized analysis tools in many of the disciplines required for the design and analysis of launch vehicles. Vehicle performance characteristics can be determined by the use of these computerized analysis tools. The next step is to optimize the system performance characteristics subject to multidisciplinary constraints. However, most of the complex sizing and performance evaluation codes used for launch vehicle design are stand-alone tools, operated by disciplinary experts. They are, in general, difficult to integrate and use directly for MDO. An alternative has been to utilize response surface methodology (RSM) to obtain polynomial models that approximate the functional relationships between performance characteristics and design variables. These approximation models, called response surface models, are then used to integrate the disciplines using mathematical programming methods for efficient system level design analysis, MDO and fast sensitivity simulations. A second-order response surface model of the form given has been commonly used in RSM since in many cases it can provide an adequate approximation especially if the region of interest is sufficiently limited.

  17. Beyond the New Architectures - Enabling Rapid System Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Dan

    2009-01-01

    This presentation slide document reviews the attempts to integrate systems and create common standards for missions. A primary example is telemetry and command sets for satellites. The XML Telemetric and Command Exchange (XTCE) exists, but this is not easy to implement. There is a need for a new standard. The document proposes a method to achieve the standard, and the benefits of using a new standard,

  18. GA-optimization for rapid prototype system demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jinwoo; Zeigler, Bernard P.

    1994-01-01

    An application of the Genetic Algorithm (GA) is discussed. A novel scheme of Hierarchical GA was developed to solve complicated engineering problems which require optimization of a large number of parameters with high precision. High level GAs search for few parameters which are much more sensitive to the system performance. Low level GAs search in more detail and employ a greater number of parameters for further optimization. Therefore, the complexity of the search is decreased and the computing resources are used more efficiently.

  19. The respiratory response to inspiratory resistive loading during rapid eye movement sleep in humans

    PubMed Central

    Morrell, Mary J; Browne, Helen A K; Adams, Lewis

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the respiratory response to an added inspiratory resistive load (IRL) during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in humans and compared this with those in non-REM (NREM) sleep and wakefulness. Results were obtained from 7 out of 15 healthy subjects (n = 7; 32 ± 9 years, mean ± s.d.). Linearised IRLs (4 and 12 cmH2O l−1 s−1) were applied for five breaths during NREM sleep (4-10 trials per subject; total 101), REM sleep (2-5 trials; total 46) and wakefulness (2-3 trials; total 40). Respiratory variables were compared, between unloaded breathing (UL: mean of 5 breaths preceding IRL) and the 1st (B1) and 5th (B5) loaded breaths in each state. During wakefulness, 12 cmH2O l−1 s−1 IRL produced an immediate respiratory compensation with prolongation of inspiratory time (TI; UL: 2.0 ± 0.6; B1: 2.6 ± 0.7 s) and an increase in tidal volume (VT; UL: 0.49 ± 0.12; B1: 0.52 ± 0.12 l). During REM sleep, TI was prolonged (UL: 2.0 ± 0.3; B1: 2.2 ± 0.5 s), although VT fell (UL: 0.27 ± 0.15; B1: 0.22 ± 0.10 l). For both wakefulness and REM sleep the TI response was significantly greater than seen in NREM sleep (UL: 1.9 ± 0.3; B1: 1.9 ± 0.3 s.). For VT, only the wakefulness response was significantly different from NREM sleep (UL: 0.31 ± 0.14; B1: 0.21 ± 0.10 l). The B5 responses were not significantly different between states for any of the variables. REM sleep is associated with partial respiratory load compensation suggesting that exacerbation of sleep disordered breathing in REM (compared to NREM) sleep is unlikely to be secondary to an inability to overcome increases in upper airway resistance. PMID:10878111

  20. Rapid response of soil fungal communities to low and high intensity fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Jane E.; Cowan, Ariel D.; Reazin, Chris; Jumpponen, Ari

    2016-04-01

    burned soils within one growing season. Community results from both burn treatments suggest an increase in patchy spatial distribution of EMF. The importance of incorporating mixed fire effects in fuel management practices will help to provide EMF refugia for dry forest regeneration. Our studies highlight the strong and rapid fungal community responses to fires and differences among fires of different severities. We theorize that quick initiation of EMF recolonization is possible depending on the size of high burn patches, proximity of low and unburned soil, and survival of nearby hosts.

  1. Rapid Responsiveness to Practice Predicts Longer-Term Retention of Upper Extremity Motor Skill in Non-Demented Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Sydney Y.; Duff, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Skill acquisition is a form of motor learning that may provide key insights into the aging brain. Although previous work suggests that older adults learn novel motor tasks slower and to a lesser extent than younger adults, we have recently demonstrated no significant effect of chronological age on the rates and amounts of skill acquisition, nor on its long-term retention, in adults over the age of 65. To better understand predictors of skill acquisition in non-demented older adults, we now explore the relationship between early improvements in motor performance due to practice (i.e., rapid responsiveness) and longer-term retention of an upper extremity motor skill, and whether the extent of rapid responsiveness was associated with global cognitive status. Results showed significant improvements in motor performance within the first five (of 150) trials, and that this “rapid responsiveness” was predictive of skill retention 1 month later. Notably, the extent of rapid responsiveness was not dependent on global cognitive status, as measured by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Thus, rapid responsiveness appears to be an important variable in longer-term neurorehabilitative efforts with older adults, regardless of their cognitive status. PMID:26635601

  2. Rapid-Response or Repeat-Mode Topography from Aerial Structure from Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissen, E.; Johnson, K. L.; Fitzgerald, F. S.; Morgan, M.; White, J.

    2014-12-01

    This decade has seen a surge of interest in Structure-from-Motion (SfM) as a means of generating high-resolution topography and coregistered texture maps from stereo digital photographs. Using an unstructured set of overlapping photographs captured from multiple viewpoints and minimal GPS ground control, SfM solves simultaneously for scene topography and camera positions, orientations and lens parameters. The use of cheap unmanned aerial vehicles or tethered helium balloons as camera platforms expedites data collection and overcomes many of the cost, time and logistical limitations of LiDAR surveying, making it a potentially valuable tool for rapid response mapping and repeat monitoring applications. We begin this presentation by assessing what data resolutions and precisions are achievable using a simple aerial camera platform and commercial SfM software (we use the popular Agisoft Photoscan package). SfM point clouds generated at two small (~0.1 km2), sparsely-vegetated field sites in California compare favorably with overlapping airborne and terrestrial LiDAR surveys, with closest point distances of a few centimeters between the independent datasets. Next, we go on to explore the method in more challenging conditions, in response to a major landslide in Mesa County, Colorado, on 25th May 2014. Photographs collected from a small UAV were used to generate a high-resolution model of the 4.5 x 1 km landslide several days before an airborne LiDAR survey could be organized and flown. An initial estimate of the mass balance of the landslide could quickly be made by differencing this model against pre-event topography generated using stereo photographs collected in 2009 as part of the National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP). This case study therefore demonstrates the rich potential offered by this technique, as well as some of the challenges, particularly with respect to the treatment of vegetation.

  3. Student Accomplishments in the Rapid Response Radiotherapy Program: A 10-Year Review.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Rachel; Lechner, Breanne; Pulenzas, Natalie; Bedard, Gillian; Wong, Erin; Holden, Lori; Tsao, May; Barnes, Elizabeth; Szumacher, Ewa; Fenton, Gonenc; Chow, Edward; Popovic, Marko; Danjoux, Cyril

    2015-12-01

    In 1996, the Toronto Sunnybrook Regional Cancer Centre developed the Rapid Response Radiotherapy Program (RRRP). The objective of this clinic is to consult, simulate, plan, and treat patients with palliative radiotherapy on the same day. In 2004, the RRRP initiated a program to provide clinical and research experience to undergraduate students interested in health sciences. The purpose of this study is to review the 10-year (2004-2013) experience of the RRRP and to examine whether the goals of the student program have been met. Students who worked in the RRRP from 2004 to 2013 were contacted to complete a short survey regarding their overall experience with the program and their current endeavors. Student accomplishments were collected from an internal database as well as PubMed. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze results. A total of 54 students from ten postsecondary institutions have worked in the RRRP; 29 were from the University of Waterloo undergraduate co-op program. In total, 214 articles with first authorship from students were published, 93 (43%) of which can be found on PubMed. Other accomplishments include 40 book chapters, 58 invited presentations, and 99 awards cumulatively. Qualitative data regarding student perspectives of their experience in the RRRP were also analyzed. Over the past 10 years, the RRRP has achieved its goal of providing quality medical and research experience to students interested in the health sciences. Using the responses of past and present students, we hope to continue to shape our program and provide unique opportunities to future students. PMID:25370839

  4. Rapid hyperosmotic-induced Ca2+ responses in Arabidopsis thaliana exhibit sensory potentiation and involvement of plastidial KEA transporters.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Aaron B; Kunz, Hans-Henning; Yang, Eric; Schroeder, Julian I

    2016-08-30

    Plants experience hyperosmotic stress when faced with saline soils and possibly with drought stress, but it is currently unclear how plant roots perceive this stress in an environment of dynamic water availabilities. Hyperosmotic stress induces a rapid rise in intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)]i) in plants, and this Ca(2+) response may reflect the activities of osmo-sensory components. Here, we find in the reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana that the rapid hyperosmotic-induced Ca(2+) response exhibited enhanced response magnitudes after preexposure to an intermediate hyperosmotic stress. We term this phenomenon "osmo-sensory potentiation." The initial sensing and potentiation occurred in intact plants as well as in roots. Having established a quantitative understanding of wild-type responses, we investigated effects of pharmacological inhibitors and candidate channel/transporter mutants. Quintuple mechano-sensitive channels of small conductance-like (MSL) plasma membrane-targeted channel mutants as well as double mid1-complementing activity (MCA) channel mutants did not affect the response. Interestingly, however, double mutations in the plastid K(+) exchange antiporter (KEA) transporters kea1kea2 and a single mutation that does not visibly affect chloroplast structure, kea3, impaired the rapid hyperosmotic-induced Ca(2+) responses. These mutations did not significantly affect sensory potentiation of the response. These findings suggest that plastids may play an important role in early steps mediating the response to hyperosmotic stimuli. Together, these findings demonstrate that the plant osmo-sensory components necessary to generate rapid osmotic-induced Ca(2+) responses remain responsive under varying osmolarities, endowing plants with the ability to perceive the dynamic intensities of water limitation imposed by osmotic stress. PMID:27528686

  5. Rapid response near-infrared spectrophotometric characterization of Near Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mommert, Michael; Trilling, David; Axelrod, Tim; Butler, Nat; Jedicke, Robert; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Pichardo, Barbara; Reyes, Mauricio

    2014-11-01

    Small NEOs are, as a whole, poorly characterized, and we know nothing about the physical properties of the majority of all NEOs. The rate of NEO discoveries is increasing each year, and projects to determine the physical properties of NEOs are lagging behind. NEOs are faint, and generally even fainter by the time that follow-up characterizations can be made days or weeks later. There is a need for a high-throughput, high-efficiency physical characterization strategy in which hundreds of faint NEOs can be characterized each year. Broadband photometry in the near-infrared is sufficiently diagnostic to assign taxonomic types, and hence constrain both the individual and ensemble properties of NEOs. We will present results from our recently initiated program of rapid response near-infrared spectrophotometric characterization of NEOs. We are using UKIRT (on Mauna Kea) and the RATIR instrument on the 1.5m telescope at the San Pedro Martir Observatory (Mexico) to allow us to make observations most nights of the year in robotic/queue mode. This technique is powerful and fast. We have written automated software that allows us to observe NEOs very soon after discovery. Our targets are NEOs that are generally too faint for other characterization techniques. We are on pace to characterize hundreds of NEOs per year.

  6. Stress responses to rapid temperature changes of the juvenile sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus Selenka)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunwei, Dong; Tingting, Ji; Shuanglin, Dong

    2007-07-01

    Activities of hexokinase (HK), pyruvate kinase (PK), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and Hsp70 level were measured to evaluate the response of the commercially important sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus Selenka) to rapid temperature changes in laboratory. Animals were subjected to a higher temperature (from 10 to 20°C) (Tinc treatment) or to a lower temperature (from 20 to 10°C) (Tdec treatment) for 72h. At 1, 3, 12, 24, 72h of exposure, animals were removed and prepared for further analysis. Results showed that the effect of acute temperature changes on enzyme activities was significant. In Tinc treatment, activities of SOD and CAT increased immediately. The significant enhancement of SOD and CAT activities suggested that oxidative stress increases significantly when ambient temperature increasing from 10 to 20°C. The up-regulation of Hsp70 in Tinc and Tdec treatments indicated that Hsp70 was a bioindicator of thermal stress in the sea cucumber, and the expression pattern depended on the thermal treatment.

  7. Elevated plasma leptin levels of fasted rainbow trout decrease rapidly in response to feed intake.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Marcus; Björnsson, Björn Thrandur

    2015-04-01

    Leptin has an anorexigenic effect in fish, indicating a role in regulation of growth and energy homeostasis. The study aimed to further clarify the physiological role of leptin in rainbow trout, specifically its short-term response to feed intake after a period of fasting. Utilizing a salmonid leptin radioimmunoassay, the study demonstrates differences in plasma leptin levels in fishes with different nutritional status and at the onset of feeding. Some of the fasted fish were clearly in a state of anorexia, and did not initiate feeding during the 72h refeeding period. For those fish that did initiate feeding, both previously fed and fasted, plasma leptin levels rapidly decreased during the first 24h in correlation with increased amount of food reaching the gastrointestinal tract, while non-feeding individuals retained a high plasma leptin levels. The data indicate that the leptin-induced anorexic state is broken after onset of feeding and that the regulatory mechanisms leading to decreased plasma leptin levels are linked to nutrient levels. PMID:25745812

  8. Wing Leading Edge RCC Rapid Response Damage Prediction Tool (IMPACT2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Robert; Cottter, Paul; Michalopoulos, Constantine

    2013-01-01

    This rapid response computer program predicts Orbiter Wing Leading Edge (WLE) damage caused by ice or foam impact during a Space Shuttle launch (Program "IMPACT2"). The program was developed after the Columbia accident in order to assess quickly WLE damage due to ice, foam, or metal impact (if any) during a Shuttle launch. IMPACT2 simulates an impact event in a few minutes for foam impactors, and in seconds for ice and metal impactors. The damage criterion is derived from results obtained from one sophisticated commercial program, which requires hours to carry out simulations of the same impact events. The program was designed to run much faster than the commercial program with prediction of projectile threshold velocities within 10 to 15% of commercial-program values. The mathematical model involves coupling of Orbiter wing normal modes of vibration to nonlinear or linear springmass models. IMPACT2 solves nonlinear or linear impact problems using classical normal modes of vibration of a target, and nonlinear/ linear time-domain equations for the projectile. Impact loads and stresses developed in the target are computed as functions of time. This model is novel because of its speed of execution. A typical model of foam, or other projectile characterized by material nonlinearities, impacting an RCC panel is executed in minutes instead of hours needed by the commercial programs. Target damage due to impact can be assessed quickly, provided that target vibration modes and allowable stress are known.

  9. Rapid identification of transience in streambed conductance by inversion of floodwave responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianni, Guillaume; Richon, Julien; Perrochet, Pierre; Vogel, Alexandre; Brunner, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Streambed conductance controls the interaction between surface and groundwater. However, the streambed conductance is often subject to transience. Directly measuring hydraulic properties in a river yields only point values, is time-consuming and therefore not suited to detect transience of physical properties. Here, we present a method to continuously monitor transience in streambed conductance. Input data are time series of stream stage and near stream hydraulic head. The method is based on the inversion of floodwave responses. The analytical model consists of three parameters: x, the distance between streambank and an observation well, α, the aquifer diffusivity, and a the retardation coefficient that is inversely proportional to the streambed conductance. Estimation of a is carried out over successive time steps in order to identify transience in streambed conductance. The method is tested using synthetic data and is applied to field data from the Rhône River and its alluvial aquifer (Switzerland). The synthetic method demonstrated the robustness of the proposed methodology. Application of the method to the field data allowed identifying transience in streambed properties, following flood events in the Rhône. This method requires transience in the surface water, and the river should not change its width significantly with a rising water level. If these conditions are fulfilled, this method allows for a rapid and effective identification of transience in streambed conductance.

  10. First Results from the Rapid-response Spectrophotometric Characterization of Near-Earth Objects using UKIRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mommert, M.; Trilling, D. E.; Borth, D.; Jedicke, R.; Butler, N.; Reyes-Ruiz, M.; Pichardo, B.; Petersen, E.; Axelrod, T.; Moskovitz, N.

    2016-04-01

    Using the Wide Field Camera for the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT), we measure the near-infrared colors of near-Earth objects (NEOs) in order to put constraints on their taxonomic classifications. The rapid-response character of our observations allows us to observe NEOs when they are close to the Earth and bright. Here we present near-infrared color measurements of 86 NEOs, most of which were observed within a few days of their discovery, allowing us to characterize NEOs with diameters of only a few meters. Using machine-learning methods, we compare our measurements to existing asteroid spectral data and provide probabilistic taxonomic classifications for our targets. Our observations allow us to distinguish between S-complex, C/X-complex, D-type, and V-type asteroids. Our results suggest that the fraction of S-complex asteroids in the whole NEO population is lower than the fraction of ordinary chondrites in the meteorite fall statistics. Future data obtained with UKIRT will be used to investigate the significance of this discrepancy.

  11. Rapid screening for citrus canker resistance employing pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity responses

    PubMed Central

    Pitino, Marco; Armstrong, Cheryl M; Duan, Yongping

    2015-01-01

    Citrus canker, caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri (Xcc), has been attributed to millions of dollars in loss or damage to commercial citrus crops in subtropical production areas of the world. Since identification of resistant plants is one of the most effective methods of disease management, the ability to screen for resistant seedlings plays a key role in the production of a long-term solution to canker. Here, an inverse correlation between reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by the plant and the ability of Xcc to grow and form lesions on infected plants is reported. Based on this information, a novel screening method that can rapidly identify citrus seedlings that are less susceptible to early infection by Xcc was devised by measuring ROS accumulation triggered by a 22-amino acid sequence of the conserved N-terminal part of flagellin (flg22) from X. citri ssp. citri (Xcc-flg22). In addition to limiting disease symptoms, ROS production was also correlated with the expression of basal defense-related genes such as the pattern recognition receptors LRR8 and FLS2, the leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein RLP12, and the defense-related gene PR1, indicating an important role for pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) in determining resistance to citrus canker. Moreover, the differential expression patterns observed amongst the citrus seedlings demonstrated the existence of genetic variations in the PTI response among citrus species/varieties. PMID:26504581

  12. Design Review Closure Report for the SY-101 Rapid Transfer System

    SciTech Connect

    POWELL, W.J.

    1999-11-29

    The purpose of this report, is to document closure of design review open items, resulting from design reviews conducted for the SY-101 Respond And Pump In Days (RAPID) Transfer System. Results of the various design reviews were documented in the Design Review Report for The SY-101 Rapid Mitigation System, HNF-4519. In that report, twenty-three open items were identified. In this report the 23 items are reviewed and statused.

  13. Rapid Onboard Trajectory Design for Autonomous Spacecraft in Multibody Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trumbauer, Eric Michael

    This research develops automated, on-board trajectory planning algorithms in order to support current and new mission concepts. These include orbiter missions to Phobos or Deimos, Outer Planet Moon orbiters, and robotic and crewed missions to small bodies. The challenges stem from the limited on-board computing resources which restrict full trajectory optimization with guaranteed convergence in complex dynamical environments. The approach taken consists of leveraging pre-mission computations to create a large database of pre-computed orbits and arcs. Such a database is used to generate a discrete representation of the dynamics in the form of a directed graph, which acts to index these arcs. This allows the use of graph search algorithms on-board in order to provide good approximate solutions to the path planning problem. Coupled with robust differential correction and optimization techniques, this enables the determination of an efficient path between any boundary conditions with very little time and computing effort. Furthermore, the optimization methods developed here based on sequential convex programming are shown to have provable convergence properties, as well as generating feasible major iterates in case of a system interrupt -- a key requirement for on-board application. The outcome of this project is thus the development of an algorithmic framework which allows the deployment of this approach in a variety of specific mission contexts. Test cases related to missions of interest to NASA and JPL such as a Phobos orbiter and a Near Earth Asteroid interceptor are demonstrated, including the results of an implementation on the RAD750 flight processor. This method fills a gap in the toolbox being developed to create fully autonomous space exploration systems.

  14. Comprehensive assessment of the global and regional vascular responses to food ingestion in humans using novel rapid MRI.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Jakob A; Muthurangu, Vivek; Steeden, Jennifer A; Taylor, Andrew M; Jones, Alexander

    2016-03-15

    Ingestion of food is known to increase mesenteric blood flow. It is not clear whether this increased flow demand is compensated by a rise in cardiac output (CO) alone or by redistribution of blood flow from other organs. We used a new comprehensive imaging method to assess the human cardiovascular response to food ingestion. Following a 12-h fast, blood flow in segments of the aorta and in organ-specific arteries, and ventricular volumes were assessed in 20 healthy adults using MRI at rest and following ingestion of a high-energy liquid meal. Systemic vascular resistance (SVR) fell substantially and CO rose significantly. Blood pressure remained stable. These changes were predominantly driven by a rapid fall in mesenteric vascular resistance, resulting in over four times more intestinal blood flow. Renal vascular resistance also declined but less dramatically. No changes in blood flow to the celiac territory, the brain, or the limbs were observed. In conclusion, this is the first study to fully characterize systemic and regional changes in vascular resistance after food ingestion in humans. Our findings show that the postprandial drop in SVR is fully compensated for by increased CO and not by redistribution of blood from other organs. With the exception of a modest increase in renal blood flow, there was no evidence of altered blood flow to nondigestive organs. The proposed oral food challenge protocol can be applied safely in an MRI environment and may be useful for studying the involvement of the gut in systemic or cardiovascular disease. PMID:26764056

  15. Fuel cell system logic for differentiating between rapid and normal shutdown commands

    DOEpatents

    Keskula, Donald H.; Doan, Tien M.; Clingerman, Bruce J.

    2000-01-01

    A method of controlling the operation of a fuel cell system wherein each shutdown command for the system is subjected to decision logic which determines whether the command should be a normal shutdown command or rapid shutdown command. If the logic determines that the shutdown command should be a normal shutdown command, then the system is shutdown in a normal step-by-step process in which the hydrogen stream is consumed within the system. If the logic determines that the shutdown command should be a rapid shutdown command, the hydrogen stream is removed from the system either by dumping to atmosphere or routing to storage.

  16. Demand Response For Power System Reliability: FAQ

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, Brendan J

    2006-12-01

    Demand response is the most underutilized power system reliability resource in North America. Technological advances now make it possible to tap this resource to both reduce costs and improve. Misconceptions concerning response capabilities tend to force loads to provide responses that they are less able to provide and often prohibit them from providing the most valuable reliability services. Fortunately this is beginning to change with some ISOs making more extensive use of load response. This report is structured as a series of short questions and answers that address load response capabilities and power system reliability needs. Its objective is to further the use of responsive load as a bulk power system reliability resource in providing the fastest and most valuable ancillary services.

  17. A rapid and practical technique for real-time monitoring of biomolecular interactions using mechanical responses of macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    Tarhan, Mehmet C.; Lafitte, Nicolas; Tauran, Yannick; Jalabert, Laurent; Kumemura, Momoko; Perret, Grégoire; Kim, Beomjoon; Coleman, Anthony W.; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Collard, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring biological reactions using the mechanical response of macromolecules is an alternative approach to immunoassays for providing real-time information about the underlying molecular mechanisms. Although force spectroscopy techniques, e.g. AFM and optical tweezers, perform precise molecular measurements at the single molecule level, sophisticated operation prevent their intensive use for systematic biosensing. Exploiting the biomechanical assay concept, we used micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS) to develop a rapid platform for monitoring bio/chemical interactions of bio macromolecules, e.g. DNA, using their mechanical properties. The MEMS device provided real-time monitoring of reaction dynamics without any surface or molecular modifications. A microfluidic device with a side opening was fabricated for the optimal performance of the MEMS device to operate at the air-liquid interface for performing bioassays in liquid while actuating/sensing in air. The minimal immersion of the MEMS device in the channel provided long-term measurement stability (>10 h). Importantly, the method allowed monitoring effects of multiple solutions on the same macromolecule bundle (demonstrated with DNA bundles) without compromising the reproducibility. We monitored two different types of effects on the mechanical responses of DNA bundles (stiffness and viscous losses) exposed to pH changes (2.1 to 4.8) and different Ag+ concentrations (1 μM to 0.1 M). PMID:27307109

  18. A rapid and practical technique for real-time monitoring of biomolecular interactions using mechanical responses of macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Tarhan, Mehmet C; Lafitte, Nicolas; Tauran, Yannick; Jalabert, Laurent; Kumemura, Momoko; Perret, Grégoire; Kim, Beomjoon; Coleman, Anthony W; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Collard, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring biological reactions using the mechanical response of macromolecules is an alternative approach to immunoassays for providing real-time information about the underlying molecular mechanisms. Although force spectroscopy techniques, e.g. AFM and optical tweezers, perform precise molecular measurements at the single molecule level, sophisticated operation prevent their intensive use for systematic biosensing. Exploiting the biomechanical assay concept, we used micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS) to develop a rapid platform for monitoring bio/chemical interactions of bio macromolecules, e.g. DNA, using their mechanical properties. The MEMS device provided real-time monitoring of reaction dynamics without any surface or molecular modifications. A microfluidic device with a side opening was fabricated for the optimal performance of the MEMS device to operate at the air-liquid interface for performing bioassays in liquid while actuating/sensing in air. The minimal immersion of the MEMS device in the channel provided long-term measurement stability (>10 h). Importantly, the method allowed monitoring effects of multiple solutions on the same macromolecule bundle (demonstrated with DNA bundles) without compromising the reproducibility. We monitored two different types of effects on the mechanical responses of DNA bundles (stiffness and viscous losses) exposed to pH changes (2.1 to 4.8) and different Ag(+) concentrations (1 μM to 0.1 M). PMID:27307109

  19. Response of rapidly developing extratropical cyclones to sea surface temperature variations over the western Kuroshio-Oyashio confluence region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Hidetaka; Kawamura, Ryuichi; Kato, Masaya; Shinoda, Taro

    2016-04-01

    The dynamical response of rapidly developing extratropical cyclones to sea surface temperature (SST) variations over the western Kuroshio-Oyashio confluence (WKOC) region was examined by using regional cloud-resolving simulations. This study specifically highlights an explosive cyclone that occurred in early February 2014 and includes a real SST experiment (CNTL run) and two sensitivity experiments with warm and cool SST anomalies over the WKOC region (warm and cool runs). The results derived from the CNTL run indicated that moisture supply from the ocean was enhanced when the dry air associated with the cold conveyor belt (CCB) overlapped with warm currents. Further, the evaporated moisture contributed substantially to latent heat release over the bent-back front with the aid of the CCB, leading to cyclone intensification and strengthening of the asymmetric structure around the cyclone's center. Such successive processes were more active in the warm run than in the cool run. The dominance of the zonally asymmetric structure resulted in a difference in sea level pressure around the bent-back front between the two runs. The WKOC SST variations have the potential to affect strong wind distributions along the CCB through modification of the cyclone's inner system. Additional experiments with two other cyclones showed that the cyclone response to the WKOC SST variations became evident when the CCB north of the cyclone's center overlapped with that region, confirming that the dry nature of the CCB plays an important role in latent heat release by allowing for larger moisture supply from the ocean.

  20. Rapid Discrimination Among Putative Mechanistic Models of Biochemical Systems

    PubMed Central

    Lomnitz, Jason G.; Savageau, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    An overarching goal in molecular biology is to gain an understanding of the mechanistic basis underlying biochemical systems. Success is critical if we are to predict effectively the outcome of drug treatments and the development of abnormal phenotypes. However, data from most experimental studies is typically noisy and sparse. This allows multiple potential mechanisms to account for experimental observations, and often devising experiments to test each is not feasible. Here, we introduce a novel strategy that discriminates among putative models based on their repertoire of qualitatively distinct phenotypes, without relying on knowledge of specific values for rate constants and binding constants. As an illustration, we apply this strategy to two synthetic gene circuits exhibiting anomalous behaviors. Our results show that the conventional models, based on their well-characterized components, cannot account for the experimental observations. We examine a total of 40 alternative hypotheses and show that only 5 have the potential to reproduce the experimental data, and one can do so with biologically relevant parameter values. PMID:27578053

  1. System for rapid detection of antibiotic resistance of airborne pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortin, M.; Noiseux, I.; Mouslinkina, L.; Vernon, M. L.; Laflamme, C.; Filion, G.; Duchaine, C.; Ho, J.

    2009-05-01

    This project uses function-based detection via a fundamental understanding of the genetic markers of AR to distinguish harmful organisms from innocuous ones. This approach circumvents complex analyses to unravel the taxonomic details of 1399 pathogen species, enormously simplifying detection requirements. Laval Hospital's fast permeabilization strategy enables AR revelation in <1hr. Packaging the AR protocols in liquid-processing cartridges and coupling these to our in-house miniature fiber optic flow cell (FOFC) provides first responders with timely information on-site. INO's FOFC platform consists of a specialty optical fiber through which a hole is transversally bored by laser micromachining. The analyte solution is injected into the hole of the fiber and the particles are detected and counted. The advantage with respect to classic free space FC is that alignment occurs in the fabrication process only and complex excitation and collection optics are replaced by optical fibers. Moreover, we use a sheathless configuration which has the advantage of increase the portability of the system, to reduce excess biohazard material and the need for weekly maintenance. In this paper we present the principle of our FOFC along with a, demonstration of the basic capability of the platform for detection of bacillus cereus spores using permeabilized staining.

  2. Design and Implementation of a Low-Cost Uav-Based Multi-Sensor Payload for Rapid-Response Mapping Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakr, M.; Lari, Z.; El-Sheimy, N.

    2016-06-01

    The main objective of this paper is to investigate the potential of using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) as a platform to collect geospatial data for rapid response applications, especially in hard-to-access and hazardous areas. The UAVs are low-cost mapping vehicles, and they are easy to handle and deploy in-field. These characteristics make UAVs ideal candidates for rapid-response and disaster mitigation scenarios. The majority of the available UAV systems are not capable of real-time/near real-time data processing. This paper introduces a low-cost UAV-based multi-sensor mapping payload which supports real-time processing and can be effectively used in rapid-response applications. The paper introduces the main components of the system, and provides an overview of the proposed payload architecture. Then, it introduces the implementation details of the major building blocks of the system. Finally, the paper presents our conclusions and the future work, in order to achieve real-time/near real-time data processing and product delivery capabilities.

  3. Real-time risk assessment in seismic early warning and rapid response: a feasibility study in Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picozzi, M.; Bindi, D.; Pittore, M.; Kieling, K.; Parolai, S.

    2013-04-01

    Earthquake early warning systems (EEWS) are considered to be an effective, pragmatic, and viable tool for seismic risk reduction in cities. While standard EEWS approaches focus on the real-time estimation of an earthquake's location and magnitude, innovative developments in EEWS include the capacity for the rapid assessment of damage. Clearly, for all public authorities that are engaged in coordinating emergency activities during and soon after earthquakes, real-time information about the potential damage distribution within a city is invaluable. In this work, we present a first attempt to design an early warning and rapid response procedure for real-time risk assessment. In particular, the procedure uses typical real-time information (i.e., P-wave arrival times and early waveforms) derived from a regional seismic network for locating and evaluating the size of an earthquake, information which in turn is exploited for extracting a risk map representing the potential distribution of damage from a dataset of predicted scenarios compiled for the target city. A feasibility study of the procedure is presented for the city of Bishkek, the capital of Kyrgyzstan, which is surrounded by the Kyrgyz seismic network by mimicking the ground motion associated with two historical events that occurred close to Bishkek, namely the 1911 Kemin ( M = 8.2; ±0.2) and the 1885 Belovodsk ( M = 6.9; ±0.5) earthquakes. Various methodologies from previous studies were considered when planning the implementation of the early warning and rapid response procedure for real-time risk assessment: the Satriano et al. (Bull Seismol Soc Am 98(3):1482-1494, 2008) approach to real-time earthquake location; the Caprio et al. (Geophys Res Lett 38:L02301, 2011) approach for estimating moment magnitude in real time; the EXSIM method for ground motion simulation (Motazedian and Atkinson, Bull Seismol Soc Am 95:995-1010, 2005); the Sokolov (Earthquake Spectra 161: 679-694, 2002) approach for estimating

  4. System response to relay chatter

    SciTech Connect

    Antaki, G.A.; Radder, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    An important aspect of the qualification of safety related systems, is the assessment of the possibility and consequences of seismic or vibration induced relay chatter. The current rules, contained in ANSI/IEEE C37.98 and the SQUG GIP, consider as seismic induced failure'' of a relay, a chatter contact in excess of 2 milliseconds. While this rule is clear in defining failure'' of single relay, the definition of failure'' becomes more problematic when we consider the alignment of an assembly of relays in series or parallel, and the effects of chatter on the function of the system in which the relays are mounted. In this paper, we report a method, based on system test and probabilities analysis, used to assess failure'' by relay chatter in an assembly of relays which control an electric motor. 2 refs.

  5. System response to relay chatter

    SciTech Connect

    Antaki, G.A.; Radder, J.A.

    1992-05-01

    An important aspect of the qualification of safety related systems, is the assessment of the possibility and consequences of seismic or vibration induced relay chatter. The current rules, contained in ANSI/IEEE C37.98 and the SQUG GIP, consider as seismic induced ``failure`` of a relay, a chatter contact in excess of 2 milliseconds. While this rule is clear in defining ``failure`` of single relay, the definition of ``failure`` becomes more problematic when we consider the alignment of an assembly of relays in series or parallel, and the effects of chatter on the function of the system in which the relays are mounted. In this paper, we report a method, based on system test and probabilities analysis, used to assess ``failure`` by relay chatter in an assembly of relays which control an electric motor. 2 refs.

  6. Rapid evolution of a marsh tidal creek network in response to sea level rise.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Z. J.; Fitzgerald, D. M.; Mahadevan, A.; Wilson, C. A.; Pennings, S. C.

    2008-12-01

    In the Santee River Delta (SRD), South Carolina, tidal creeks are extending rapidly onto the marsh platform. A time-series of aerial photographs establishes that these channels were initiated in the 1950's and are headward eroding at a rate of 1.9 m /yr. Short-term trends in sea level show an average relative sea level rise (RSLR) of 4.6 mm/yr over a 20-year tide gauge record from nearby Winyah Bay and Charleston Harbor (1975-1995). Longer-term (85-year) records in Charleston suggest a rate of 3.2 mm/yr. RSLR in the SRD is likely even higher as sediment cores reveal that the marsh is predominantly composed of fine-grained sediment, making it highly susceptible to compaction and subsidence. Furthermore, loss in elevation will have been exacerbated by the decrease in sediment supply due to the damming of the Santee River in 1939. The rapid rate of headward erosion indicates that the marsh platform is in disequilibrium; unable to keep pace with RSLR through accretionary processes and responding to an increased volume and frequency of inundation through the extension of the drainage network. The observed tidal creeks show no sinuosity and a distinctive morphology associated with their young age and biological mediation during their evolution. Feedbacks between tidal flow, vegetation and infauna play a strong role in the morphological development of the creeks. The creek heads are characterized by a region denuded of vegetation, the edges of which are densely populated and burrowed by Uca Pugnax (fiddler crab). Crab burrowing destabilizes sediment, destroys rooting and impacts drainage. Measured infiltration rates are three orders of magnitude higher in the burrowed regions than in a control area (1000 ml/min and 0.6 ml/min respectively). Infiltration of oxygenated water enhances decomposition of organic matter and root biomass is reduced within the creek head (marsh=4.3 kg/m3, head=0.6 kg/m3). These processes lead to the removal and collapse of the soils, producing

  7. Sedimentation rapidly induces an immune response and depletes energy stores in a hard coral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, C.; Grosjean, Ph.; Leblud, J.; Palmer, C. V.; Kushmaro, A.; Eeckhaut, I.

    2014-12-01

    High sedimentation rates have been linked to reduced coral health within multiple systems; however, whether this is a direct result of compromised coral immunity has not been previously investigated. The potential effects of sedimentation on immunity of the hard coral Montipora patula were examined by comparing physiological responses of coral fragments inoculated with sterilized marine sediments and those under control conditions. Sediments were collected from terrestrial runoff-affected reefs in SW Madagascar and applied cyclically for a total of 24 h at a rate observed during precipitation-induced sedimentation events. Coral health was determined 24 h after the onset of the sedimentation stress through measuring metabolic proxies of O2 budget and lipid ratios. Immune response of the melanin synthesis pathway was measured by quantifying phenoloxidase activity and melanin deposits. Sedimentation induced both immune and metabolic responses in M. patula. Both phenoloxidase activity and melanin deposition were significantly higher in the sediment treatment compared to controls, indicating an induced immune response. Sediment-treated corals also showed a tendency towards increased respiration (during the night) and decreased photosynthesis (during the day) and a significant depletion of energy reserves as compared to controls. These data highlight that short-term (24 h) sedimentation, free of live microorganisms, compromises the health of M. patula. The energetically costly immune response, potentially elicited by residual endotoxins and other inflammatory particles associated with the sterile sediments, likely contributes to the energy depletion. Overall, exposure to sedimentation adversely affects coral health and continued exposure may lead to resource depletion and an increased susceptibility to disease.

  8. USGS Emergency Response and the Hazards Data Distribution System (HDDS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, B. K.; Lamb, R.

    2013-12-01

    Remotely sensed datasets such as satellite imagery and aerial photography can be an invaluable resource to support the response and recovery from many types of emergency events such as floods, earthquakes, landslides, wildfires, and other natural or human-induced disasters. When disaster strikes there is often an urgent need and high demand for rapid acquisition and coordinated distribution of pre- and post-event geospatial products and remotely sensed imagery. These products and images are necessary to record change, analyze impacts, and facilitate response to the rapidly changing conditions on the ground. The coordinated and timely provision of relevant imagery and other datasets is one important component of the USGS support for domestic and international emergency response activities. The USGS Hazards Data Distribution System (HDDS) serves as a single, consolidated point-of-access for relevant satellite and aerial image datasets during an emergency event response. The HDDS provides data visibility and immediate download services through a complementary pair of graphical map-based and traditional directory-based interfaces. This system allows emergency response personnel to rapidly select and obtain pre-event ('baseline') and post-event emergency response imagery from many different sources. These datasets will typically include images that are acquired directly by USGS, but may also include many other types of images that are collected and contributed by partner agencies and organizations during the course of an emergency event response. Over the past decade, USGS Emergency Response and HDDS have supported hundreds of domestic and international disaster events by providing critically needed pre- and post-event remotely sensed imagery and other related geospatial products as required by the emergency response community. Some of the larger national events supported by HDDS have included Hurricane Sandy (2012), the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (2010), and Hurricane

  9. Memory management and compiler support for rapid recovery from failures in computer systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuchs, W. K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes recent developments in the use of memory management and compiler technology to support rapid recovery from failures in computer systems. The techniques described include cache coherence protocols for user transparent checkpointing in multiprocessor systems, compiler-based checkpoint placement, compiler-based code modification for multiple instruction retry, and forward recovery in distributed systems utilizing optimistic execution.

  10. Subscriber Response System. Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callais, Richard T.

    Results of preliminary tests made prior and subsequent to the installation of a two-way interactive communication system which involves a computer complex termed the Local Processing Center and subscriber terminals located in the home or business location are reported. This first phase of the overall test plan includes tests made at Theta-Com…

  11. FIRESTORM: a collaborative network suite application for rapid sensor data processing and precise decisive responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaniyantethu, Shaji

    2011-06-01

    This paper discusses the many features and composed technologies in Firestorm™ - a Distributed Collaborative Fires and Effects software. Modern response management systems capitalize on the capabilities of a plethora of sensors and its output for situational awareness. Firestorm utilizes a unique networked lethality approach by integrating unmanned air and ground vehicles to provide target handoff and sharing of data between humans and sensors. The system employs Bayesian networks for track management of sensor data, and distributed auction algorithms for allocating targets and delivering the right effect without information overload to the Warfighter. Firestorm Networked Effects Component provides joint weapon-target pairing, attack guidance, target selection standards, and other fires and effects components. Moreover, the open and modular architecture allows for easy integration with new data sources. Versatility and adaptability of the application enable it to devise and dispense a suitable response to a wide variety of scenarios. Recently, this application was used for detecting and countering a vehicle intruder with the help of radio frequency spotter sensor, command driven cameras, remote weapon system, portable vehicle arresting barrier, and an unmanned aerial vehicle - which confirmed the presence of the intruder, as well as provided lethal/non-lethal response and battle damage assessment. The completed demonstrations have proved Firestorm's™ validity and feasibility to predict, detect, neutralize, and protect key assets and/or area against a variety of possible threats. The sensors and responding assets can be deployed with numerous configurations to cover the various terrain and environmental conditions, and can be integrated to a number of platforms.

  12. Using Earthquake Early Warning in the Bay Area Rapid Transit System (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPartland, J.

    2013-12-01

    When a major earthquake occurs without warning, the public will have no choice but to REACT to the risks and dangers around them. If earthquake early warning (EEW) can be provided, the public will be able to PROACTIVELY take action to reduce risks and protect themselves and their areas of responsibility. The Bay Area Rapid Transit System (BART) is implementing an earthquake retrofit program designed to keep BART operational after a major seismic event. But a critical component of success depends on BART being able to prevent derailments caused by a major earthquake itself. At peak commute, BART runs 64 trains of 8-10 cars each with as many as 100 or more passengers per car and, most importantly, 40-45% of the trains are moving at top speed, ~70 mph. Were a major earthquake to strike at peak commute without warning, we expect many derailments that would result in mass casualties; the higher the speed- the greater the risk of derailments. To address this critical issue, in August 2012 BART implemented a system based on EEW to slow and stop trains before the earthquake shaking starts. When activated, train speeds drop at 3 mph per second reducing the risk both of derailments and casualties. A 70 mph train can be fully stopped within 25 seconds of early warning. In addition, if BART remains operational with few or no derailments, it can provide critical transportation support to the region for response, supply and evacuation until streets and highways can be reopened. Considerations like these, weighing the cost of casualties and damage against the perspective of mitigating disaster, can help to justify the cost of an EEW system to legislators and the public. The figures presented indicate that the aftermath of an earthquake may be overwhelmingly frightening if we don't act, but can be amazingly good for us if we do plan and act. And the good and bad news is: THE CHOICE IS OURS!

  13. Rapid response of the steatosis-sensing hepatokine LECT2 during diet-induced weight cycling in mice.

    PubMed

    Chikamoto, Keita; Misu, Hirofumi; Takayama, Hiroaki; Kikuchi, Akihiro; Ishii, Kiyo-Aki; Lan, Fei; Takata, Noboru; Tajima-Shirasaki, Natsumi; Takeshita, Yumie; Tsugane, Hirohiko; Kaneko, Shuichi; Matsugo, Seiichi; Takamura, Toshinari

    2016-09-23

    Dieting often leads to body weight cycling involving repeated weight loss and regain. However, little information is available regarding rapid-response serum markers of overnutrition that predict body weight alterations during weight cycling. Here, we report the rapid response of serum leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 (LECT2), a hepatokine that induces insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, during diet-induced weight cycling in mice. A switch from a high-fat diet (HFD) to a regular diet (RD) in obese mice gradually decreased body weight but rapidly decreased serum LECT2 levels within 10 days. In contrast, a switch from a RD to a HFD rapidly elevated serum LECT2 levels. Serum LECT2 levels showed a positive correlation with liver triglyceride contents but not with adipose tissue weight. This study demonstrates the rapid response of LECT2 preceding body weight alterations during weight cycling in mice and suggests that measurement of serum LECT2 may be clinically useful in the management of obesity. PMID:27562717

  14. Using a Novel Spatial Tool to Inform Invasive Species Early Detection and Rapid Response Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Alisha D.; Fusaro, Abigail J.; Kashian, Donna R.

    2015-07-01

    Management of invasive species has increasingly emphasized the importance of early detection and rapid response (EDRR) programs in limiting introductions, establishment, and impacts. These programs require an understanding of vector and species spatial dynamics to prioritize monitoring sites and efficiently allocate resources. Yet managers often lack the empirical data necessary to make these decisions. We developed an empirical mapping tool that can facilitate development of EDRR programs through identifying high-risk locations, particularly within the recreational boating vector. We demonstrated the utility of this tool in the Great Lakes watershed. We surveyed boaters to identify trips among water bodies and to quantify behaviors associated with high likelihood of species transfer (e.g., not removing organic materials from boat trailers) during that trip. We mapped water bodies with high-risk inbound and outbound boater movements using ArcGIS. We also tested for differences in high-risk behaviors based on demographic variables to understand risk differences among boater groups. Incorporation of boater behavior led to identification of additional high-risk water bodies compared to using the number of trips alone. Therefore, the number of trips itself may not fully reflect the likelihood of invasion. This tool can be broadly applied in other geographic contexts and with different taxa, and can be adjusted according to varying levels of information concerning the vector or species of interest. The methodology is straightforward and can be followed after a basic introduction to ArcGIS software. The visual nature of the mapping tool will facilitate site prioritization by managers and stakeholders from diverse backgrounds.

  15. Rapid Response Team activation in New Zealand hospitals-a multicentre prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Psirides, A J; Hill, J; Jones, D

    2016-05-01

    We aimed to describe the epidemiology of Rapid Response Team (RRT) activation in New Zealand public hospitals. We undertook a prospective multicentre observational study of RRT activations in 11 hospitals for consecutive 14-day periods during October-December 2014. A standardised case report form was used to collect data on patient demographics, RRT activation criteria and timing, vital signs on RRT arrival, team composition and intervention, treatment limitation and patient outcome at day 30. Three hundred and thirteen patients received 351 RRT calls during the study period. Patients were admitted under a medical specialty in 177 (56.5%) instances. Median duration from hospital admission to first RRT call was two days. Eighty-six percent of RRT calls were to inpatient wards. A total of 43.4% of RRT calls occurred between 0800 and 1700 hours (38% of the day) and 75.5% of RRT calls were activated by ward nurses. A median of three staff attended each call. Common triggers for RRT activation were increased Early Warning Score (56.2%) and staff concern (25.7%). During the RRT call, 2.8% of patients died; 19.8% died by day 30. New 'Not For Resuscitation' orders were written in 22.5% of RRT calls. By day 30, 56.2% of patients had been discharged home alive. In conclusion, RRTs in New Zealand are multidisciplinary, mostly nurse-activated and predominantly respond to deteriorating medical (rather than surgical) patients. Most patients remain on the ward. The RRT frequently implements treatment limitations. Given almost one in five patients die within 30 days, over half of whom die within 72 hours of RRT review, surviving the RRT call may provide false reassurance that the patient will subsequently do well. PMID:27246940

  16. 20 CFR 665.330 - Are the NAFTA-TAA program requirements for rapid response also required activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Are the NAFTA-TAA program requirements for... WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Rapid Response Activities § 665.330 Are the NAFTA-TAA program requirements for... WIA are made available to workers who, under the NAFTA Implementation Act (Public Law 103-182),...

  17. Rapid-Response Monitoring of Flood Inundation in a Small Urban Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, A. J.; Smith, J. A.; Baeck, M. L.; Holland, E. J.; Ballantine, M. R.; Newcomer, T. A.

    2004-12-01

    Intense precipitation on July 7, 2004 from a multicell thunderstorm system (approximately 100-130 mm in 50-75 minutes) caused widespread flooding in the highly urbanized 14.3 km2 Dead Run watershed, which drains the eastern suburbs of Baltimore. The Dead Run watershed is bisected by a pair of intersecting interstate highways and several other major traffic arteries, and land cover is predominantly commercial, industrial and residential. Reconstruction of flood peaks based on surveyed high-water marks indicates that this event exceeded the previous record set by Hurricane Agnes in 1972 at multiple locations upstream of the official USGS gage at Franklintown. Availability of high-resolution (~30 cm) orthorectified aerial photographs and 1-m lidar topography data allowed rapid deployment of student field crews during the week after this event to generate a flood-inundation map with surveyed high-water elevations for the entire drainage network downstream of the Baltimore Beltway (I-695) and for selected stream reaches upstream of the Beltway. Inundated areas were comparable to those mapped previously using FEMA guidelines as 100- and 500-year floodplain. Partial stage hydrographs recorded at three locations, supplemented by field observations of the time of peak, are used in conjunction with 2d hydraulic modeling analyses to reconstruct the spatial and temporal dynamics of this flood.

  18. Using Electronic Response Systems in Economics Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, Sucharita; Renna, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    College instructors and students participated in a pilot project at the University of Akron to enhance student learning through the use of a common teaching pedagogy, peer instruction. The teaching pedagogy was supported by the use of technology, an electronic personal response system, which recorded student responses. The authors report their…

  19. Mechanisms of systemic wound response in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won-Jae; Miura, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    In response to cellular and tissue losses caused by physical or chemical injuries, organisms must activate multiple wound repair systems at the cellular, tissue, and organismal levels. The systemic wound response (SWR) that occurs via interorgan communication between local wound sites and remote organs ensures that the host is protected efficiently in response to a local wound. The local wound response around the wound site is fairly well documented, but the molecular mechanisms that allow the host to launch SWR are poorly understood. Recent studies on the Drosophila adult model system have shown that the local wound response is not restricted to the wound site because it plays an essential role in generating signals transmitted to remote organs that subsequently achieve SWR. By exploiting the genetic methods available for investigating Drosophila, we are just beginning to understand the complex interorgan networks that operate during SWRs. This review discusses the basic processes involved with classical integumental wound responses and tissue regeneration, such as epithelial cell movement, hemocyte recruitment, apoptosis, melanization, and generation of reactive oxygen species, as well as the recently described intestinal epithelial cell renewal program that occurs in response to gut cell damages. Furthermore, we discuss how these local wound responses integrate with organ-to-organ communication to launch SWR. Genetic analysis of SWRs using the Drosophila model system will provide a unique opportunity to dissect the molecular mechanisms that control wound-induced organ-to-organ communication. PMID:24512709

  20. RootScape: a landmark-based system for rapid screening of root architecture in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ristova, Daniela; Rosas, Ulises; Krouk, Gabriel; Ruffel, Sandrine; Birnbaum, Kenneth D; Coruzzi, Gloria M

    2013-03-01

    The architecture of plant roots affects essential functions including nutrient and water uptake, soil anchorage, and symbiotic interactions. Root architecture comprises many features that arise from the growth of the primary and lateral roots. These root features are dictated by the genetic background but are also highly responsive to the environment. Thus, root system architecture (RSA) represents an important and complex trait that is highly variable, affected by genotype × environment interactions, and relevant to survival/performance. Quantification of RSA in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) using plate-based tissue culture is a very common and relatively rapid assay, but quantifying RSA represents an experimental bottleneck when it comes to medium- or high-throughput approaches used in mutant or genotype screens. Here, we present RootScape, a landmark-based allometric method for rapid phenotyping of RSA using Arabidopsis as a case study. Using the software AAMToolbox, we created a 20-point landmark model that captures RSA as one integrated trait and used this model to quantify changes in the RSA of Arabidopsis (Columbia) wild-type plants grown under different hormone treatments. Principal component analysis was used to compare RootScape with conventional methods designed to measure root architecture. This analysis showed that RootScape efficiently captured nearly all the variation in root architecture detected by measuring individual root traits and is 5 to 10 times faster than conventional scoring. We validated RootScape by quantifying the plasticity of RSA in several mutant lines affected in hormone signaling. The RootScape analysis recapitulated previous results that described complex phenotypes in the mutants and identified novel gene × environment interactions. PMID:23335624

  1. [Response of Picea purpurea and Abies faxoniana tree rings at different slope aspects to rapid warming in western Sichuan, China].

    PubMed

    Guo, Bin-de; Zhang, Yuan-dong; Wang, Xiao-chun

    2016-02-01

    By using an empirical 'signal-free' standardization approach, we constructed four Picea purpurea and Abies faxoniana tree-ring chronologies at southeast and northwest slope aspects of Erdaohai and east slope aspect of Zharisi, Songpan, west Sichuan, China. The response analysis and multivariate analysis of variance between tree rings and climatic variables were conducted to explore the divergent responses of tree growth at different slope aspects to the recent warming climate. Results showed that tree growth of P. purpurea at east slope aspect was obviously accelerated (0.011 a-1) since rapid warming in 1980, whereas those at northwest slope aspect was significantly reduced (-0.006 a-1). Tree growth of P. purpurea at southeast slope aspect and A. faxoniana at northwest slope aspect decreased in significantly. With the rapid warming, growth-climate relationships of P. purpurea and A. faxoniana at different slope aspects changed significantly. After rapid warming in 1980, the promoting effects of growing season temperature (GST) on P. purpurea growth at east slope increased significantly, while the inhibitory effects of GST on its growth at southeast and northwest slopes also increased significantly. However, the effects of GST on A. faxoniana growth at northwest slope did not change significantly before and after rapid warming. The effects of precipitation in May (PM) on P. purpurea growth at east slope was changed from inhibition before rapid warming to significant promotion after rapid warming, while the inhibitory effects of PM on P. purpurea growth at southeast and northwest slopes increased significantly. For A. faioniana at northwest slope, however, it did not change obviously before and after rapid warming. The response analysis between tree growth and the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) showed that soil moisture variations at different slope aspects were an important reason of tree-ring growth response difference since rapid warming. In addition, the

  2. Auxin Is Rapidly Induced by Herbivore Attack and Regulates a Subset of Systemic, Jasmonate-Dependent Defenses.

    PubMed

    Machado, Ricardo A R; Robert, Christelle A M; Arce, Carla C M; Ferrieri, Abigail P; Xu, Shuqing; Jimenez-Aleman, Guillermo H; Baldwin, Ian T; Erb, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    Plant responses to herbivore attack are regulated by phytohormonal networks. To date, the role of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in this context is not well understood. We quantified and manipulated the spatiotemporal patterns of IAA accumulation in herbivore-attacked Nicotiana attenuata plants to unravel its role in the regulation of plant secondary metabolism. We found that IAA is strongly, rapidly, and specifically induced by herbivore attack. IAA is elicited by herbivore oral secretions and fatty acid conjugate elicitors and is accompanied by a rapid transcriptional increase of auxin biosynthetic YUCCA-like genes. IAA accumulation starts 30 to 60 s after local induction and peaks within 5 min after induction, thereby preceding the jasmonate (JA) burst. IAA accumulation does not require JA signaling and spreads rapidly from the wound site to systemic tissues. Complementation and transport inhibition experiments reveal that IAA is required for the herbivore-specific, JA-dependent accumulation of anthocyanins and phenolamides in the stems. In contrast, IAA does not affect the accumulation of nicotine or 7-hydroxygeranyllinalool diterpene glycosides in the same tissue. Taken together, our results uncover IAA as a rapid and specific signal that regulates a subset of systemic, JA-dependent secondary metabolites in herbivore-attacked plants. PMID:27485882

  3. Endogenous excitatory drive to the respiratory system in rapid eye movement sleep in cats

    PubMed Central

    Orem, John; Lovering, Andrew T; Dunin-Barkowski, Witali; Vidruk, Edward H

    2000-01-01

    A putative endogenous excitatory drive to the respiratory system in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep may explain many characteristics of breathing in that state, e.g. its irregularity and variable ventilatory responses to chemical stimuli. This drive is hypothetical, and determinations of its existence and character are complicated by control of the respiratory system by the oscillator and its feedback mechanisms. In the present study, endogenous drive was studied during apnoea caused by mechanical hyperventilation. We reasoned that if there was a REM-dependent drive to the respiratory system, then respiratory activity should emerge out of the background apnoea as a manifestation of the drive. Diaphragmatic muscle or medullary respiratory neuronal activity was studied in five intact, unanaesthetized adult cats who were either mechanically hyperventilated or breathed spontaneously in more than 100 REM sleep periods. Diaphragmatic activity emerged out of a background apnoea caused by mechanical hyperventilation an average of 34 s after the onset of REM sleep. Emergent activity occurred in 60 % of 10 s epochs in REM sleep and the amount of activity per unit time averaged approximately 40 % of eupnoeic activity. The activity occurred in episodes and was poorly related to pontogeniculo-occipital waves. At low CO2 levels, this activity was non-rhythmic. At higher CO2 levels (less than 0.5 % below eupnoeic end-tidal percentage CO2 levels in non-REM (NREM) sleep), activity became rhythmic. Medullary respiratory neurons were recorded in one of the five animals. Nineteen of twenty-seven medullary respiratory neurons were excited in REM sleep during apnoea. Excited neurons included inspiratory, expiratory and phase-spanning neurons. Excitation began about 43 s after the onset of REM sleep. Activity increased from an average of 6 impulses s−1 in NREM sleep to 15.5 impulses s−1 in REM sleep. Neuronal activity was non-rhythmic at low CO2 levels and became rhythmic when levels

  4. Forced response analysis of hydroelectric systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alligné, S.; Silva, P. C. O.; Béguin, A.; Kawkabani, B.; Allenbach, P.; Nicolet, C.; Avellan, F.

    2014-03-01

    At off-design operating points, Francis turbines develop cavitation vortex rope in the draft tube which may interact with the hydraulic system. Risk resonance assessment by means of eigenmodes computation of the system is usually performed. However, the system response to the excitation source induced by the cavitation vortex rope is not predicted in terms of amplitudes and phase. Only eigenmodes shapes with related frequencies and dampings can be predicted. Besides this modal analysis, the risk resonance assessment can be completed by a forced response analysis. This method allows identifying the contribution of each eigenmode into the system response which depends on the system boundary conditions and the excitation source location. In this paper, a forced response analysis of a Francis turbine hydroelectric power plant including hydraulic system, rotating train, electrical system and control devices is performed. First, the general methodology of the forced response analysis is presented and validated with time domain simulations. Then, analysis of electrical, hydraulic and hydroelectric systems are performed and compared to analyse the influence of control structures on pressure fluctuations induced by cavitation vortex rope.

  5. The rapid transit system for patients with fractures of proximal femur.

    PubMed Central

    Sikorski, J M; Davis, N J; Senior, J

    1985-01-01

    The rapid transit system for patients with fractures of the proximal femur consists of immediate internal fixation or replacement of the fractured bone under spinal anaesthesia, without any sedation. Patients are mobilised within hours of surgery and sent home as soon as they can walk. They are supervised at home by both an experienced physiotherapist and a visiting nurse. Sixty nine patients admitted to a metropolitan teaching hospital were considered for the system and 50 were accepted. Their age distribution and level of general ill health were comparable with those in other series. The rapid transit system resulted in 90% of patients accepted being discharged to their homes within the first five days, with a lower morbidity and a mortality at three months of 7%. Using the rapid transit system rehabilitation in the original environment is difficult only if the patient lives alone, and even then temporary support is often enough to allow them to return home. PMID:3918621

  6. A versatile powder production and collection system for rapidly solidified metal and ceramic powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khor, K. A.

    1992-08-01

    A versatile system is described which is capable of producing fine metal and ceramic powders using three different modes of a plasma solidification process: microatomization-plasma rapid solidification using air or inert gas as the quenching medium and plasma rapid solidification using water as the quenching medium. The testing and evaluation of the system is carried out using stainless steel 316 and yttria stabilized zirconia for microatomization experiments and alumina for other plasma solidification experiments. The microatomized powders are spherical with particle sizes ranging from 0.5 to 50 microns. The productivity of the pilot-scale system is 4 kg/hr.

  7. Utilizing Fission Technology to Enable Rapid and Affordable Access to any Point in the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Mike; Bonometti, Joe; Morton, Jeff; Hrbud, Ivana; Bitteker, Leo; VanDyke, Melissa; Godfroy, T.; Pedersen, K.; Dobson, C.; Patton, B.; Martin, J.; Chakrabarti, S.

    2000-01-01

    Fission technology can enable rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system. Potential fission-based transportation options include bimodal nuclear thermal rockets, high specific energy propulsion systems, and pulsed fission propulsion systems. In-space propellant re-supply enhances the effective performance of all systems, but requires significant infrastructure development. Safe, timely, affordable utilization of first-generation space fission propulsion systems will enable the development of more advanced systems. First generation systems can build on over 45 years of US and international space fission system technology development to minimize cost.

  8. Assessment of Flood Disaster Impacts in Cambodia: Implications for Rapid Disaster Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahamed, Aakash; Bolten, John; Doyle, Colin

    2016-04-01

    Disaster monitoring systems can provide near real time estimates of population and infrastructure affected by sudden onset natural hazards. This information is useful to decision makers allocating lifesaving resources following disaster events. Floods are the world's most common and devastating disasters (UN, 2004; Doocy et al., 2013), and are particularly frequent and severe in the developing countries of Southeast Asia (Long and Trong, 2001; Jonkman, 2005; Kahn, 2005; Stromberg, 2007; Kirsch et al., 2012). Climate change, a strong regional monsoon, and widespread hydropower construction contribute to a complex and unpredictable regional hydrodynamic regime. As such, there is a critical need for novel techniques to assess flood impacts to population and infrastructure with haste during and following flood events in order to enable governments and agencies to optimize response efforts following disasters. Here, we build on methods to determine regional flood extent in near real time and develop systems that automatically quantify the socioeconomic impacts of flooding in Cambodia. Software developed on cloud based, distributed processing Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is used to demonstrate spatial and numerical estimates of population, households, roadways, schools, hospitals, airports, agriculture and fish catch affected by severe monsoon flooding occurring in the Cambodian portion of Lower Mekong River Basin in 2011. Results show modest agreement with government and agency estimates. Maps and statistics generated from the system are intended to complement on the ground efforts and bridge information gaps to decision makers. The system is open source, flexible, and can be applied to other disasters (e.g. earthquakes, droughts, landslides) in various geographic regions.

  9. Vital Signs Predict Rapid-Response Team Activation Within Twelve Hours of Emergency Department Admission

    PubMed Central

    Walston, James M.; Cabrera, Daniel; Bellew, Shawna D.; Olive, Marc N.; Lohse, Christine M.; Bellolio, M. Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Rapid-response teams (RRTs) are interdisciplinary groups created to rapidly assess and treat patients with unexpected clinical deterioration marked by decline in vital signs. Traditionally emergency department (ED) disposition is partially based on the patients’ vital signs (VS) at the time of hospital admission. We aimed to identify which patients will have RRT activation within 12 hours of admission based on their ED VS, and if their outcomes differed. Methods We conducted a case-control study of patients presenting from January 2009 to December 2012 to a tertiary ED who subsequently had RRT activations within 12 hours of admission (early RRT activations). The medical records of patients 18 years and older admitted to a non-intensive care unit (ICU) setting were reviewed to obtain VS at the time of ED arrival and departure, age, gender and diagnoses. Controls were matched 1:1 on age, gender, and diagnosis. We evaluated VS using cut points (lowest 10%, middle 80% and highest 10%) based on the distribution of VS for all patients. Our study adheres to the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) guidelines for reporting observational studies. Results A total of 948 patients were included (474 cases and 474 controls). Patients who had RRT activations were more likely to be tachycardic (odds ratio [OR] 2.02, 95% CI [1.25–3.27]), tachypneic (OR 2.92, 95% CI [1.73–4.92]), and had lower oxygen saturations (OR 2.25, 95% CI [1.42–3.56]) upon arrival to the ED. Patients who had RRT activations were more likely to be tachycardic at the time of disposition from the ED (OR 2.76, 95% CI [1.65–4.60]), more likely to have extremes of systolic blood pressure (BP) (OR 1.72, 95% CI [1.08–2.72] for low BP and OR 1.82, 95% CI [1.19–2.80] for high BP), higher respiratory rate (OR 4.15, 95% CI [2.44–7.07]) and lower oxygen saturation (OR 2.29, 95% CI [1.43–3.67]). Early RRT activation was associated with increased

  10. Area law for fixed points of rapidly mixing dissipative quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brandão, Fernando G. S. L.; Cubitt, Toby S.; Lucia, Angelo; Michalakis, Spyridon; Perez-Garcia, David

    2015-10-15

    We prove an area law with a logarithmic correction for the mutual information for fixed points of local dissipative quantum system satisfying a rapid mixing condition, under either of the following assumptions: the fixed point is pure or the system is frustration free.

  11. A rapid algorithm for realistic human reaching and its use in a virtual reality system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldridge, Ann; Pandya, Abhilash; Goldsby, Michael; Maida, James

    1994-01-01

    The Graphics Analysis Facility (GRAF) at JSC has developed a rapid algorithm for computing realistic human reaching. The algorithm was applied to GRAF's anthropometrically correct human model and used in a 3D computer graphics system and a virtual reality system. The nature of the algorithm and its uses are discussed.

  12. The Use of Light Rail or Light Rapid Transit Systems by Individuals with Severe Visual Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svendsen, K.

    1994-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between use of light rapid or light rail transit (LRT) systems by persons with severe visual impairments and independence in orientation and mobility. It found that orientation and mobility training on LRT systems would resolve many of the difficulties that users encountered. Modifications to improve…

  13. SYSTEMS FOR RAPID RANKING OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS: SELECTION OF SUBJECTS FOR SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT REPORTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document reports the results of the development and testing of a system for rapidly ranking environmental pollutants. One potential use for the system is in choosing the most important candidates for Scientific and Technical Assessment Reports (STAR). Of several possible app...

  14. Nonequilibrium temperature response for stochastic overdamped systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falasco, G.; Baiesi, M.

    2016-04-01

    The thermal response of nonequilibrium systems requires the knowledge of concepts that go beyond entropy production. This is showed for systems obeying overdamped Langevin dynamics, either in steady states or going through a relaxation process. Namely, we derive the linear response to perturbations of the noise intensity, mapping it onto the quadratic response to a constant small force. The latter, displaying divergent terms, is explicitly regularised with a novel path-integral method. The nonequilibrium equivalents of heat capacity and thermal expansion coefficient are two applications of this approach, as we show with numerical examples.

  15. Magnetic Field Response Measurement Acquisition System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Taylor, Bryant D.; Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    A measurement acquisition method that alleviates many shortcomings of traditional measurement systems is presented in this paper. The shortcomings are a finite number of measurement channels, weight penalty associated with measurements, electrical arcing, wire degradations due to wear or chemical decay and the logistics needed to add new sensors. The key to this method is the use of sensors designed as passive inductor-capacitor circuits that produce magnetic field responses. The response attributes correspond to states of physical properties for which the sensors measure. A radio frequency antenna produces a time-varying magnetic field used to power the sensor and receive the magnetic field response of the sensor. An interrogation system for discerning changes in the sensor response is presented herein. Multiple sensors can be interrogated using this method. The method eliminates the need for a data acquisition channel dedicated to each sensor. Methods of developing magnetic field response sensors and the influence of key parameters on measurement acquisition are discussed.

  16. Transcriptome profiles of hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa × deltoides) reveal rapid changes in undamaged, systemic sink leaves after simulated feeding by forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria).

    PubMed

    Philippe, Ryan N; Ralph, Steven G; Mansfield, Shawn D; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2010-11-01

    • Poplar has been established as a model tree system for genomic research of the response to biotic stresses. This study describes a series of induced transcriptome changes and the associated physiological characterization of local and systemic responses in hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa × deltoides) after simulated herbivory. • Responses were measured in local source (LSo), systemic source (SSo), and systemic sink (SSi) leaves following application of forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria) oral secretions to mechanically wounded leaves. • Transcriptome analyses identified spatially and temporally dynamic, distinct patterns of local and systemic gene expression in LSo, SSo and SSi leaves. Galactinol synthase was strongly and rapidly upregulated in SSi leaves. Genome analyses and full-length cDNA cloning established an inventory of poplar galactinol synthases. Induced changes of galactinol and raffinose oligosaccharides were detected by anion-exchange high-pressure liquid chromatography. • The LSo leaves showed a rapid and strong transcriptome response compared with a weaker and slower response in adjacent SSo leaves. Surprisingly, the transcriptome response in distant, juvenile SSi leaves was faster and stronger than that observed in SSo leaves. Systemic transcriptome changes of SSi leaves have signatures of rapid change of metabolism and signaling, followed by later induction of defense genes. PMID:20955416

  17. MIMO system identification using frequency response data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medina, Enrique A.; Irwin, R. D.; Mitchell, Jerrel R.; Bukley, Angelia P.

    1992-01-01

    A solution to the problem of obtaining a multi-input, multi-output statespace model of a system from its individual input/output frequency responses is presented. The Residue Identification Algorithm (RID) identifies the system poles from a transfer function model of the determinant of the frequency response data matrix. Next, the residue matrices of the modes are computed guaranteeing that each input/output frequency response is fitted in the least squares sense. Finally, a realization of the system is computed. Results of the application of RID to experimental frequency responses of a large space structure ground test facility are presented and compared to those obtained via the Eigensystem Realization Algorithm.

  18. The Response Time of a Rotor System with a Disk-Type Magnetorheological Fluid Damper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Changsheng

    The response time of a rotor system supported upon a disk-type magnetorheological fluid damper operating on shear mode is measured experimentally. The effects of rotating speed, step current and magnetic particle volume fraction, on the response time are dealt with. It is shown that the dynamic response can be described by first 10% response time and rapid response time. Generally, the first 10% response time and the rapid response time are in order of less than 0.1 second and 0.1~0.4 second. The magnetic field strength, magnetic particle volume fraction and power supply have a great effect on the response time. The response time in dropping step current is several times longer than that in applying step current. There is a zero initial delay time at either applying or dropping the current, which is caused by the magnetizing or de-magnetizing process.

  19. A plant‐based system for rapid production of influenza vaccine antigens

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Yoko; Farrance, Christine E.; Bautista, James; Bi, Hong; Musiychuk, Konstantin; Horsey, April; Park, HeeWoo; Jaje, Jennifer; Green, Brian J.; Shamloul, Moneim; Sharma, Satish; Chichester, Jessica A.; Mett, Vadim; Yusibov, Vidadi

    2011-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Shoji et al. (2011) A plant‐based system for rapid production of influenza vaccine antigens. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 6(3), 204–210. Background  Influenza virus is a globally important respiratory pathogen that causes a high degree of annual morbidity and mortality. Significant antigenic drift results in emergence of new, potentially pandemic, virus variants. The best prophylactic option for controlling emerging virus strains is to manufacture and administer pandemic vaccines in sufficient quantities and to do so in a timely manner without impacting the regular seasonal influenza vaccine capacity. Current, egg‐based, influenza vaccine production is well established and provides an effective product, but has limited capacity and speed. Objectives  To satisfy the additional global demand for emerging influenza vaccines, high‐performance cost‐effective technologies need to be developed. Plants have a potential as an economic and efficient large‐scale production platform for vaccine antigens. Methods  In this study, a plant virus‐based transient expression system was used to produce hemagglutinin (HA) proteins from the three vaccine strains used during the 2008–2009 influenza season, A/Brisbane/59/07 (H1N1), A/Brisbane/10/07 (H3N2), and B/Florida/4/06, as well as from the recently emerged novel H1N1 influenza A virus, A/California/04/09. Results  The recombinant plant‐based HA proteins were engineered and produced in Nicotiana benthamiana plants within 2 months of obtaining the genetic sequences specific to each virus strain. These antigens expressed at the rate of 400–1300 mg/kg of fresh leaf tissue, with >70% solubility. Immunization of mice with these HA antigens induced serum anti‐HA IgG and hemagglutination inhibition antibody responses at the levels considered protective against these virus infections. Conclusions  These results demonstrate the feasibility of our transient plant

  20. Continued Development of the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) System for Advanced Extravehicular Activity Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papale, William; Chullen, Cinda; Campbell, Colin; Conger, Bruce; McMillin, Summer; Jeng, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Development activities related to the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and Humidity control system have progressed to the point of integrating the RCA into an advanced Primary Life Support System (PLSS 2.0) to evaluate the interaction of the RCA among other PLSS components in a ground test environment. The RCA 2.0 assembly (integrated into PLSS 2.0) consists of a valve assembly with commercial actuator motor, a sorbent canister, and a field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based process node controller. Continued design and development activities for RCA 3.0 have been aimed at optimizing the canister size and incorporating greater fidelity in the valve actuator motor and valve position feedback design. Further, the RCA process node controller is envisioned to incorporate a higher degree of functionality to support a distributed PLSS control architecture. This paper will describe the progression of technology readiness levels of RCA 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 along with a review of the design and manufacturing successes and challenges for 2.0 and 3.0 units. The anticipated interfaces and interactions with the PLSS 2.0/2.5/3.0 assemblies will also be discussed.

  1. Response properties of self-improving systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krakovsky, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    We observe that a sustained positivity (or negativity) of a system's second-order response will result in a directional change of the system's characteristics under the corresponding random exposure. We identify these changes with improvement (or decline) in the state of a system and introduce the concept of self-improving systems as systems which characteristics can sustainably improve under a random exposure. The resulting framework is of a general phenomenological nature and can be applied to complex systems across different areas of knowledge.

  2. Response properties of self-improving systems.

    PubMed

    Krakovsky, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    We observe that a sustained positivity (or negativity) of a system's second-order response will result in a directional change of the system's characteristics under the corresponding random exposure. We identify these changes with improvement (or decline) in the state of a system and introduce the concept of self-improving systems as systems which characteristics can sustainably improve under a random exposure. The resulting framework is of a general phenomenological nature and can be applied to complex systems across different areas of knowledge. PMID:27059562

  3. Performance and dependability of RapidIO-based systems for real-time space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno, David R.

    Emerging space applications such as Space-Based Radar (SBR) require networks with higher throughput and lower latency than the bus-based interconnects traditionally used in spacecraft payload processing systems. The RapidIO embedded systems interconnect is one network that seeks to help meet the needs of future embedded applications by offering a switched topology with low latency and throughputs in the multi-gigabits per second range. In this research, we use modeling and simulation to study the tradeoffs associated with employing RapidIO in real-time embedded space systems with high processing and network demands. The first phase of this research presents a network-centric study on the use of RapidIO for SBR Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) applications. These results provide insight into the optimal partitioning of the SBR algorithms for the RapidIO network, as well as a sensitivity analysis of the algorithms to various network parameters such as clock rate and flow-control type. In the second phase of this work, we propose several novel fault-tolerant architectures for RapidIO-based space systems and quantitatively evaluate these architectures through a unique combination of analytical metrics and simulation studies. The results from this phase show several promising architectures in terms of achieving a balance between performance, fault-tolerance, size, power, and cost. In the third and final phase of this research, we extend the previous two phases into a set of detailed case studies with an expanded model set that is augmented with actual RapidIO testbed hardware results. These case studies lead to key insight into interactions and architectural tradeoffs between RapidIO, reconfigurable processing elements, and a shared local memory interface in a realistic embedded architecture.

  4. Rapid and Slow Nitric Oxide Responses During Conducted Vasodilation in the In Vivo Intestine and Brain Cortex Microvasculatures

    PubMed Central

    Bohlen, H. Glenn

    2011-01-01

    Conduction of arteriolar vasodilation is initiated by activation of nitric oxide (NO) mechanisms, but dependent on conduction of hyperpolarization. Most studies have used brief (<1 sec) activation of the initial vasodilation to evaluate the fast conduction processes. However, most arteriolar mechanisms involving NO production persist for minutes. In this study, fast and slower components of arteriolar conduction in the in vivo rat brain and small intestine were compared using 3 minute stimulation of NO dependent vasodilation and measurement of [NO] at the distal sites. Within 10-15 seconds, both vasculatures had a rapidly conducted vasodilation and dilation at distance had a fast but small [NO] component. A slower but larger distal vasodilation occurred after 60-90 seconds in the intestine, but not the brain, and was associated with a substantial increase in [NO]. This slowly developed dilation appeared to be caused by flow mediated responses of larger arterioles as smaller arterioles dilated to lower downstream resistance. These results indicate while the intestinal and cerebral arterioles have a fast conducted vasodilation system, the intestinal arterioles also have a slower but larger dilation of major arterioles that is NO related and dependent on the conduction of vasodilation between small arterioles. PMID:22098301

  5. Probabilistic flood forecasting for Rapid Response Catchments using a countrywide distributed hydrological model: experience from the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Steven J.; Moore, Robert J.; Robson, Alice J.; Mattingley, Paul S.

    2014-05-01

    Across Britain, floods in rapidly responding catchments are a major concern and regularly cause significant damage (e.g. Boscastle 2004, Morpeth 2008, Cornwall 2010 and Comrie 2012). Typically these catchments have a small area and are characterised by steep slopes and/or significant suburban/urban land-cover. The meteorological drivers can be of convective origin or frontal with locally intense features (e.g. embedded convection or orographic enhancement); saturated catchments can amplify the flood response. Both rainfall and flood forecasting for Rapid Response Catchments (RRCs)are very challenging due to the often small-scale nature of the intense rainfall which is of most concern, the small catchment areas, and the short catchment response times. Over the last 3 to 4 years, new countrywide Flood Forecasting Systems based on the Grid-to-Grid (G2G) distributed hydrological (rainfall-runoff and routing) model have been implemented across Britain for use by the Flood Forecasting Centre and Scottish Flood Forecasting Service. This has achieved a step-change in operational capability with forecasts of flooding several days ahead "everywhere" on a 1 km grid now possible. The modelling and forecasting approach underpins countrywide Flood Guidance Statements out to 5 days which are used by emergency response organisations for planning and preparedness. The initial focus of these systems has been to provide a countrywide overview of flood risk. However, recent research has explored the potential of the G2G approach to support more frequent and detailed alerts relevant to flood warning in RRCs. Integral to this activity is the use of emerging high-resolution (~1.5km) rainfall forecast products, in deterministic and ensemble form. High spatial resolutions are required to capture some of the small-scale processes and intense rainfall features such as orographic enhancement and convective storm evolution. Even though a deterministic high-resolution numerical weather

  6. Behavioral and physiological responses of wild-caught European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) to a minor, rapid change in ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    de Bruijn, Robert; Romero, L Michael

    2011-10-01

    Free-ranging animals continuously adjust to changes in their environment. The stress response, typified by increases in heart rate and glucocorticoids, is an important physiological response regulating these changes. This study investigated heart rate, corticosterone and behavioral responses of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) to a rapid 30min decrease in temperature using an air-conditioning unit. Ten wild-caught birds were divided into pairs and exposed to four different trials. Three trials were controls: undisturbed birds; exposing birds to only the noise of the air-conditioning unit; and exposing the birds to 20°C airflow. For the experimental trial birds were exposed to 12°C air, leading to a rapid but modest 3°C drop in ambient temperature inside the birdcages. Heart rate and behavior were recorded before and during trials, while blood samples were collected before and after each trial for corticosterone measurements. Cooling, but none of the control conditions, induced an increase in heart rate and corticosterone. Additionally, cooling led to an increase in perch hopping and feather ruffling. We conclude that minor changes in temperature can elicit a stress response in European starlings, which suggests that this may be an important mechanism by which animals cope with minor rapid environmental changes. PMID:21723407

  7. Opperational Systems for Emergency Preparedness and Response

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiyama, G; Nasstrom, J S; Baskett, R

    2003-11-10

    Operational systems predict the consequences of atmospheric releases of hazardous materials for real-time emergency response, pre-event planning, and post-incident assessment. Such systems provide federal, state, and local agencies, emergency planners and responders, public health officials, military personnel, and other users with critical information on which to base life-and-death decisions on safe zones for siting of incident command posts, sheltering-in-place or evacuation advisories, the need for protective equipment, and the utilization of hospital and health care resources. A range of operational modeling capabilities is required to support different types of release events, distance scales, and response times. Fast-response deployable models are used to perform hazard assessments and initial response functions, and can serve as a backup when connections to a reach-back center are not available. Higher-fidelity three-dimensional dispersion models, coupled to real-time observational data and numerical weather prediction model output, are used for real-time response and support expert quality-assured predictions and refined assessments. Computational fluid dynamics models, which explicitly resolve urban structures, are used for high fidelity applications including vulnerability analyses and planning studies. This paper will briefly discuss the types and capabilities of models used or under development for emergency response systems, customer products, supporting data, and a few representative examples of operational systems. Some selected research priorities are summarized in the final sections.

  8. Temporal-Spatial Interaction between Reactive Oxygen Species and Abscisic Acid Regulates Rapid Systemic Acclimation in Plants[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Nobuhiro; Miller, Gad; Salazar, Carolina; Mondal, Hossain A.; Shulaev, Elena; Cortes, Diego F.; Shuman, Joel L.; Luo, Xiaozhong; Shah, Jyoti; Schlauch, Karen; Shulaev, Vladimir; Mittler, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Being sessile organisms, plants evolved sophisticated acclimation mechanisms to cope with abiotic challenges in their environment. These are activated at the initial site of exposure to stress, as well as in systemic tissues that have not been subjected to stress (termed systemic acquired acclimation [SAA]). Although SAA is thought to play a key role in plant survival during stress, little is known about the signaling mechanisms underlying it. Here, we report that SAA in plants requires at least two different signals: an autopropagating wave of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that rapidly spreads from the initial site of exposure to the entire plant and a stress-specific signal that conveys abiotic stress specificity. We further demonstrate that SAA is stress specific and that a temporal–spatial interaction between ROS and abscisic acid regulates rapid SAA to heat stress in plants. In addition, we demonstrate that the rapid ROS signal is associated with the propagation of electric signals in Arabidopsis thaliana. Our findings unravel some of the basic signaling mechanisms underlying SAA in plants and reveal that signaling events and transcriptome and metabolome reprogramming of systemic tissues in response to abiotic stress occur at a much faster rate than previously envisioned. PMID:24038652

  9. Rapidly Characterizing the Fast Dynamics of RNA Genetic Circuitry with Cell-Free Transcription–Translation (TX-TL) Systems

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    RNA regulators are emerging as powerful tools to engineer synthetic genetic networks or rewire existing ones. A potential strength of RNA networks is that they may be able to propagate signals on time scales that are set by the fast degradation rates of RNAs. However, a current bottleneck to verifying this potential is the slow design-build-test cycle of evaluating these networks in vivo. Here, we adapt an Escherichia coli-based cell-free transcription-translation (TX-TL) system for rapidly prototyping RNA networks. We used this system to measure the response time of an RNA transcription cascade to be approximately five minutes per step of the cascade. We also show that this response time can be adjusted with temperature and regulator threshold tuning. Finally, we use TX-TL to prototype a new RNA network, an RNA single input module, and show that this network temporally stages the expression of two genes in vivo. PMID:24621257

  10. Rapidly characterizing the fast dynamics of RNA genetic circuitry with cell-free transcription-translation (TX-TL) systems.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Melissa K; Chappell, James; Hayes, Clarmyra A; Sun, Zachary Z; Kim, Jongmin; Singhal, Vipul; Spring, Kevin J; Al-Khabouri, Shaima; Fall, Christopher P; Noireaux, Vincent; Murray, Richard M; Lucks, Julius B

    2015-05-15

    RNA regulators are emerging as powerful tools to engineer synthetic genetic networks or rewire existing ones. A potential strength of RNA networks is that they may be able to propagate signals on time scales that are set by the fast degradation rates of RNAs. However, a current bottleneck to verifying this potential is the slow design-build-test cycle of evaluating these networks in vivo. Here, we adapt an Escherichia coli-based cell-free transcription-translation (TX-TL) system for rapidly prototyping RNA networks. We used this system to measure the response time of an RNA transcription cascade to be approximately five minutes per step of the cascade. We also show that this response time can be adjusted with temperature and regulator threshold tuning. Finally, we use TX-TL to prototype a new RNA network, an RNA single input module, and show that this network temporally stages the expression of two genes in vivo. PMID:24621257

  11. Rapid assessment system based on ecosystem services for retrofitting of sustainable drainage systems.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Miklas

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable drainage systems (SuDS) design and retrofitting is predominantly based on expert opinion supported by descriptive guidance documents. The aim of this paper is to develop an innovative rapid decision support tool based on novel ecosystem service variables for retrofitting of key SuDS techniques. This unique tool proposes the retrofitting of a SuDS technique that obtained the highest ecosystem service score for a specific urban site. This approach contrasts with methods based on traditional civil engineering judgement linked to standard variables based on community and environment studies. For a case study area (Greater Manchester), a comparison with the traditional approach of determining community and environment variables indicates that permeable pavements, filter strips, swales, ponds, constructed wetlands and below-ground storage tanks are generally less preferred than infiltration trenches, soakaways and infiltration basins. However, permeable pavements and belowground storage tanks also received relatively high scores, because of their great potential impact in terms of water quality improvement and flood control, respectively. The application of the proposed methodology will lead to changes of the sustainable drainage infrastructure in the urban landscape. PMID:24701926

  12. Low-Cost, User-Friendly, Rapid Analysis of Dynamic Data System Established

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arend, David J.

    2004-01-01

    An issue of primary importance to the development of new jet and certain other airbreathing combined-cycle powered aircraft is the advancement of airframe-integrated propulsion technologies. Namely, engine inlets and their systems and subsystems are required to capture, convert, and deliver the atmospheric airflow demanded by such engines across their operating envelope in a form that can be used to provide efficient, stable thrust. This must be done while also minimizing aircraft drag and weight. Revolutionary inlet designs aided by new technologies are needed to enable new missions. An unwanted byproduct of pursuing these inlet technologies is increased time-variant airflow distortion. Such distortions reduce propulsion system stability, performance, operability, and life. To countermand these limitations and fully evaluate the resulting configurations, best practices dictate that this distortion be experimentally measured at large scale and analyzed. The required measurements consist of those made by an array of high-response pressure transducers located in the flow field at the aerodynamic interface plane (AIP) between the inlet and engine. Although the acquisition of the necessary pitot-pressure time histories is relatively straight-forward, until recent years, the analysis has proved to be very time-consuming, tedious, and expensive. To transform the analysis of these data into a tractable and timely proposition, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center created and established the Rapid Analysis of Dynamic Data (RADD) system. The system provides complete, near real-time analysis of time-varying inlet airflow distortion datasets with report quality output. This fully digital approach employs Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) binary data file format standardization to establish data-acquisition-system-independent processing on low cost personal computers. Features include invalid instrumentation code-out, logging, and multiple

  13. Rapid-response fluorescent probe for hydrogen peroxide in living cells based on increased polarity of C-B bonds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Wei; Li, Ping; Huang, Fang; Wang, Hui; Tang, Bo

    2015-10-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a crucial role in oxidative stress and signal transduction of organisms. Currently, a fluorescence probe has proven to be a powerful tool for the H2O2 analysis. However, the common problem is the slow response, causing difficulty in tracking H2O2 in situ. Herein, we describe a novel aggregation-induced emission (AIE) fluorescence probe based on increased polarity of C-B bonds that is well suited for monitoring H2O2 rapidly and selectively. Importantly, the probe was successfully applied to visualize H2O2 levels in living cells, which provides a rapid-response and highly selective fluorescence tool for monitoring of the H2O2 levels in biological process. PMID:26352695

  14. Magnetic Field Response Measurement Acquisition System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Taylor,Bryant D.; Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a measurement acquisition method that alleviates many shortcomings of traditional measurement systems. The shortcomings are a finite number of measurement channels, weight penalty associated with measurements, electrical arcing, wire degradations due to wear or chemical decay and the logistics needed to add new sensors. Wire degradation has resulted in aircraft fatalities and critical space launches being delayed. The key to this method is the use of sensors designed as passive inductor-capacitor circuits that produce magnetic field responses. The response attributes correspond to states of physical properties for which the sensors measure. Power is wirelessly provided to the sensing element by using Faraday induction. A radio frequency antenna produces a time-varying magnetic field used to power the sensor and receive the magnetic field response of the sensor. An interrogation system for discerning changes in the sensor response frequency, resistance and amplitude has been developed and is presented herein. Multiple sensors can be interrogated using this method. The method eliminates the need for a data acquisition channel dedicated to each sensor. The method does not require the sensors to be near the acquisition hardware. Methods of developing magnetic field response sensors and the influence of key parameters on measurement acquisition are discussed. Examples of magnetic field response sensors and the respective measurement characterizations are presented. Implementation of this method on an aerospace system is discussed.

  15. Wireless Demand Response Controls for HVAC Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Federspiel, Clifford

    2009-06-30

    The objectives of this scoping study were to develop and test control software and wireless hardware that could enable closed-loop, zone-temperature-based demand response in buildings that have either pneumatic controls or legacy digital controls that cannot be used as part of a demand response automation system. We designed a SOAP client that is compatible with the Demand Response Automation Server (DRAS) being used by the IOUs in California for their CPP program, design the DR control software, investigated the use of cellular routers for connecting to the DRAS, and tested the wireless DR system with an emulator running a calibrated model of a working building. The results show that the wireless DR system can shed approximately 1.5 Watts per design CFM on the design day in a hot, inland climate in California while keeping temperatures within the limits of ASHRAE Standard 55: Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy.

  16. Modular telerobot control system for accident response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Richard J. M.; Shirey, David L.

    1999-08-01

    The Accident Response Mobile Manipulator System (ARMMS) is a teleoperated emergency response vehicle that deploys two hydraulic manipulators, five cameras, and an array of sensors to the scene of an incident. It is operated from a remote base station that can be situated up to four kilometers away from the site. Recently, a modular telerobot control architecture called SMART was applied to ARMMS to improve the precision, safety, and operability of the manipulators on board. Using SMART, a prototype manipulator control system was developed in a couple of days, and an integrated working system was demonstrated within a couple of months. New capabilities such as camera-frame teleoperation, autonomous tool changeout and dual manipulator control have been incorporated. The final system incorporates twenty-two separate modules and implements seven different behavior modes. This paper describes the integration of SMART into the ARMMS system.

  17. Repetitive hypoxia rapidly depresses cardio-respiratory responses during active sleep but not quiet sleep in the newborn lamb

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Renea V; Grant, Daniel A; Wilkinson, Malcolm H; Walker, Adrian M

    1999-01-01

    Arousal from sleep is an important protective response to hypoxia that becomes rapidly depressed in active sleep (AS) when hypoxia is repeated. This study questioned whether there might also be selective depression of cardio-respiratory responses to hypoxia during AS. Nine newborn lambs (7-22 days of age) were studied over three successive nights. The first and third nights were baseline studies (inspired oxygen fraction, Fi,O2= 0.21). During the second night, during every epoch of sleep, lambs were exposed to 60 s episodes of isocapnic hypoxia (Fi,O2= 0.10). During quiet sleep (QS), the probability of arousal in hypoxia exceeded the probability of spontaneous arousal (P < 0.001) throughout repeated exposures to hypoxia. Similarly, there were persisting increases in ventilation (135 ± 25 %), blood pressure (3 ± 1 %) and heart rate (3 ± 1 %). By contrast, rapid depression of all responses occurred during repetitive hypoxia in AS. Thus, the probability of arousal in hypoxia exceeded the probability of spontaneous arousal during the first 10 hypoxia exposures (P < 0.001) but not thereafter. Similarly, during the first 10 exposures to hypoxia, the changes in ventilation (88 ± 15 %) and blood pressure (5 ± 1 %) were greater than subsequent responses (P < 0.05). We conclude that, when repeated, hypoxia rapidly becomes ineffective in stimulating protective arousal, ventilatory and blood pressure responses in AS, but not in QS. Selective depression of responses during AS may render the newborn particularly vulnerable to hypoxia in this state. PMID:10457072

  18. Evolution of Channels Draining Mount St. Helens: Linking Non-Linear and Rapid, Threshold Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, A.

    2010-12-01

    The catastrophic eruption of Mount St. Helens buried the valley of the North Fork Toutle River (NFT) to a depth of up to 140 m. Initial integration of a new drainage network took place episodically by the “filling and spilling” (from precipitation and seepage) of depressions formed during emplacement of the debris avalanche deposit. Channel incision to depths of 20-30 m occurred in the debris avalanche and extensive pyroclastic flow deposits, and headward migration of the channel network followed, with complete integration taking place within 2.5 years. Downstream reaches were converted from gravel-cobble streams with step-pool sequences to smoothed, infilled channels dominated by sand-sized materials. Subsequent channel evolution was dominated by channel widening with the ratio of changes in channel width to changes in channel depth ranging from about 60 to 100. Widening resulted in significant adjustment of hydraulic variables that control sediment-transport rates. For a given discharge over time, flow depths were reduced, relative roughness increased and flow velocity and boundary shear stress decreased non-linearly. These changes, in combination with coarsening of the channel bed with time resulted in systematically reduced rates of degradation (in upstream reaches), aggradation (in downstream reaches) and sediment-transport rates through much of the 1990s. Vertical adjustments were, therefore, easy to characterize with non-linear decay functions with bed-elevation attenuating with time. An empirical model of bed-level response was then created by plotting the total dimensionless change in elevation against river kilometer for both initial and secondary vertical adjustments. High magnitude events generated from the generated from upper part of the mountain, however, can cause rapid (threshold) morphologic changes. For example, a rain-on-snow event in November 2006 caused up to 9 m of incision along a 6.5 km reach of Loowit Creek and the upper NFT. The event

  19. NIAAA's Rapid Response to College Drinking Problems Initiative: Reinforcing the Use of Evidence-Based Approaches in College Alcohol Prevention*

    PubMed Central

    DeJong, William; Larimer, Mary E.; Wood, Mark D.; Hartman, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) created the Rapid Response to College Drinking Problems initiative so that senior college administrators facing an alcohol-related crisis could get assistance from well-established alcohol researchers and NIAAA staff. Method: Based on a competitive grant process, NIAAA selected five teams of research scientists with expertise in college drinking research. NIAAA then invited college administrators to propose interventions to address a recently experienced alcohol-related problem. Between September 2004 and September 2005, NIAAA selected 15 sites and paired each recipient college with a scientific team. Together, each program development/evaluation team, working closely with NIAAA scientific staff, jointly designed, implemented, and evaluated a Rapid Response project. Results: This supplement reports the results of several Rapid Response projects, plus other findings of interest that emerged from that research. Eight articles present evaluation findings for prevention and treatment interventions, which can be grouped by the individual, group/interpersonal, institutional, and community levels of the social ecological framework. Additional studies provide further insights that can inform prevention and treatment programs designed to reduce alcohol-related problems among college students. This article provides an overview of these findings, placing them in the context of the college drinking intervention literature. Conclusions: College drinking remains a daunting problem on many campuses, but evidence-based strategies—such as those described in this supplement—provide hope that more effective solutions can be found. The Rapid Response initiative has helped solidify the necessary link between research and practice in college alcohol prevention and treatment. PMID:19538907

  20. Rapidly-progressive catatonia responsive to zolpidem in a patient with ovarian teratoma-associated paraneoplastic encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Amorim, Edilberto; McDade, Eric M

    2016-08-01

    Psychiatric symptoms and catatonia are key components of the clinical presentation of paraneoplastic encephalitis; additionally symptoms can be long-lasting and often difficult to treat. We report a 73-year-old patient with rapidly progressive catatonia not responsive to immunotherapy, tumor resection, electroconvulsive therapy, or benzodiazepines who had significant improvement after zolpidem administration. This report suggests that zolpidem is an option in the treatment of patients with refractory catatonia and paraneoplastic encephalitis. PMID:26964475

  1. Rapid Emotional Change Strategies: Enhancing Youth Responsiveness to Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommers-Flanagan, John; Sommers-Flanagan, Rita

    1995-01-01

    Hypothesizes that youth are frequently uncooperative with therapy due to their negative mood state. Describes several rapid emotional change techniques. Recommends that these techniques be used to facilitate therapeutic alliance, heighten interest in therapeutic procedures, demonstrate and teach emotional self-management skills, and improve…

  2. Rift Valley Fever: International Coordinated Efforts from Early Warning to Rapid Responses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists at the USDA, ARS, Arthropod-Borne Animal Diseases Research Laboratory (ABADRL) initiated research to develop operator-safe, rapid diagnostic tests and develop large animal models for both virulent and vaccine strains of Rift Valley Fever (RVF). The ABADRL currently does not have biologica...

  3. High Resolution Rapid Response Observations of Compact Radio Sources with the Ceduna Hobart Interferometer (CHI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, Jay M.; Lovell, James E. J.; Ojha, Roopesh; Kadler, Matthias; Dickey, John M.; Edwards, Philip G.

    2011-01-01

    Context. Frequent, simultaneous observations across the electromagnetic spectrum are essential to the study of a range of astrophysical phenomena including Active Galactic Nuclei. A key tool of such studies is the ability to observe an object when it flares i.e. exhibits a rapid and significant increase in its flux density. Aims. We describe the specific observational procedures and the calibration techniques that have been developed and tested to create a single baseline radio interferometer. that can rapidly observe a flaring object. This is the only facility that is dedicated to rapid high resolution radio observations of an object south of -30 degrees declination. An immediate application is to provide rapid contemporaneous radio coverage of AGN flaring at y-ray frequencies detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Methods. A single baseline interferometer was formed with radio telescopes in Hobart, Tasmania and Ceduna, South Australia. A software correlator was set up at the University of Tasmania to correlate these data. Results. Measurements of the flux densities of flaring objects can be made using our observing strategy within half an hour of a triggering event. These observations can be calibrated with amplitude errors better than 20%. Lower limits to the brightness temperatures of the sources can also be calculated using CHI. Key words. instrumentation:interferometers - galaxies:active - galaxies:jets - galaxies:nuclei quasars:general gamma rays:galaxies- 1.

  4. Rapid Response, Radical Reform: The Story of School Finance Litigation in Vermont.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebell, Michael A.; Metzler, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the legal precursor and political context for the Vermont state legislature's rapid enactment of the 1997 Equal Educational Opportunity Act, commonly know as Act 60, a radical and controversial school fiscal-equity-reform initiative. Describe public reaction and engagement. (Contains 138 references.) (PKP)

  5. Rapid inactivation of chloroplastic ascorbate peroxidase is responsible for oxidative modification to Rubisco in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) under cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai-Lang; Shen, Lin; Wang, Jia-Qi; Sheng, Ji-Ping

    2008-04-01

    To investigate the sensitive site of antioxidant systems in chloroplast under cadmium stress and its consequence on reactive oxygen species production and action, the sub-organellar localization of chloroplast superoxide dismutases (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) and ascorbic peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11) isoenzymes and changes of enzymes activities under cadmium stress were investigated in tomato seedlings. Two APX isoforms, one thylakoid-bound and one stromal, were detected. Cd at 50 microM induced a moderate increase of SOD activities but a rapid inactivation of both APX isoenzymes. APX inactivation was mainly related to the decrease of ascorbate concentration, as supported by in vitro treatment of exogenous ascorbate and APX kinetic properties under Cd stress. H2O2 accumulation in chloroplast, as a consequence of APX inactivation, was associated with a 60% loss of Rubisco (EC 4.1.1.39) activity, which could be partially accounted for by a 10% loss of Rubisco content. Protein oxidation assay found that the Rubisco large subunit was the most prominent carbonylated protein; the level of carbonylated Rubisco large subunit increased fivefold after Cd exposure. Thiol groups in the Rubisco large subunit were oxidized, as indicated by non-reducing electrophoresis. Treating crude extract with H2O2 resulted in a similar pattern of protein oxidation and thiols oxidation with that observed in Cd-treated plants. Our study indicates that APXs in the chloroplast is a highly sensitive site of antioxidant systems under Cd stress, and the inactivation of APX could be mainly responsible for oxidative modification to Rubisco and subsequent decrease in its activity. PMID:18713375

  6. Spill response system configuration study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Desimone, R.V.; Agosta, J.M.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the development of a prototype decision support system for oil spill response configuration planning that will help U.S. Coast Guard planners to determine the appropriate response equipment and personnel for major spills. The report discusses the application of advanced artificial intelligence planning techniques, as well as other software tools for spill trajectory modeling, plan evaluation and map display. The implementation of the prototype system is discussed in the context of two specific major spill scenarios in the San Francisco Bay.

  7. Systemic inflammation regulates microglial responses to tissue damage in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gyoneva, Stefka; Davalos, Dimitrios; Biswas, Dipankar; Swanger, Sharon A; Garnier-Amblard, Ethel; Loth, Francis; Akassoglou, Katerina; Traynelis, Stephen F

    2014-08-01

    Microglia, the resident immune cells of the central nervous system, exist in either a "resting" state associated with physiological tissue surveillance or an "activated" state in neuroinflammation. We recently showed that ATP is the primary chemoattractor to tissue damage in vivo and elicits opposite effects on the motility of activated microglia in vitro through activation of adenosine A2A receptors. However, whether systemic inflammation affects microglial responses to tissue damage in vivo remains largely unknown. Using in vivo two-photon imaging of mice, we show that injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at levels that can produce both clear neuroinflammation and some features of sepsis significantly reduced the rate of microglial response to laser-induced ablation injury in vivo. Under proinflammatory conditions, microglial processes initially retracted from the ablation site, but subsequently moved toward and engulfed the damaged area. Analyzing the process dynamics in 3D cultures of primary microglia indicated that only A2A , but not A1 or A3 receptors, mediate process retraction in LPS-activated microglia. The A2A receptor antagonists caffeine and preladenant reduced adenosine-mediated process retraction in activated microglia in vitro. Finally, administration of preladenant before induction of laser ablation in vivo accelerated the microglial response to injury following systemic inflammation. The regulation of rapid microglial responses to sites of injury by A2A receptors could have implications for their ability to respond to the neuronal death occurring under conditions of neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:24807189

  8. Rapid detection of Salmonella in bovine lymph nodes using a commercial real-time PCR system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rapid Salmonella detection is needed to help prevent the distribution of contaminated food products. Using traditional culture methods, Salmonella detection can take up to 3-5 days. Using an improved protocol and a commercial real-time PCR system, we have shortened the detection time to under 24 h...

  9. Rapid Confirmation of Listeria spp. with the MIT 1000 Microbial Identification System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods that can rapidly confirm the identification of foodborne pathogens are highly desired. The USDA has recently entered into a collaborative research agreement with Micro Imaging Technology to evaluate their MIT 1000 microbial identification system for its ability to identify Listeria species ...

  10. Rapid propagation of deglacial precipitation changes to turbidite systems on the Chile continental slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, Anne; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2016-04-01

    Understanding how Earth surface processes respond to past climatic perturbations is crucial for making informed predictions about future impacts of climate change on sediment fluxes. Beyond the instrumental record, sedimentary records provide the necessary archives for inferring these processes. Yet, their interpretation is compromised by our incomplete understanding of the sediment routing system whose response to high-frequency, millennial-scale cycles is strongly debated. Key questions include if, how, and how fast climatic signals propagate through a sediment routing system. Furthermore, it is still unclear how perturbations are manifested in the ultimate sinks of such complex sedimentary systems. In this study, we analyzed eight sediment cores recovered from marine turbidite depositional sites along the Chile continental margin. The sites span a pronounced arid-to-humid gradient with distinct geomorphic characteristics (e.g., onshore gradient, shelf width), which allowed us to study event-related depositional processes during the Last Glacial Maximum to present in different geomorphic and climatic settings. The turbidite record was quantified in terms of turbidite thickness and frequency between 25 ka cal BP to present. Our results indicate that the three study areas show a steep decline of turbidite deposition during deglaciation: between 19-16.5 ka cal BP in the arid and semiarid study area and around 16-15.5 ka cal BP in the humid study site. Sea-level rise significantly lags the decline in turbidite deposition by 3-6.5 kyrs. However, comparison to paleoclimate proxies obtained in the same region shows that this spatio-temporal sedimentary pattern follows the postglacial southward migration of the Southern Hemisphere Westerly Winds and related pronounced precipitation decline. The turbidite record shows little to no lag times when compared to precipitation proxies, such as sea surface temperatures, pollen records, clay mineralogy and grain size of

  11. The Rapid Response Radiation Survey (R3S) Mission Using the HiSat Conformal Satellite Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Nathanael A.; Norman, Ryan B.; Soto, Hector L.; Stewart, Victor A.; Jones, Mark L.; Kowalski, Matthew C.; Ben Shabat, Adam; Gough, Kerry M.; Stavely, Rebecca L.; Shim, Alex C.; Jaeger, Gene T. K.

    2015-01-01

    The Rapid Response Radiation Survey (R3S) experiment, designed as a quick turnaround mission to make radiation measurements in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), will fly as a hosted payload in partnership with NovaWurks using their Hyper-integrated Satlet (HISat) architecture. The need for the mission arises as the Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionization Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) model moves from a research effort into an operational radiation assessment tool. Currently, airline professionals are the second largest demographic of radiation workers and to date their radiation exposure is undocumented in the USA. The NAIRAS model seeks to fill this information gap. The data collected by R3S, in addition to the complementary data from a NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) atmospheric balloon mission entitled Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X), will validate exposure prediction capabilities of NAIRAS. The R3S mission collects total dose and radiation spectrum measurements using a Teledyne µDosimeter and a Liulin-6SA2 LED spectrometer. These two radiation sensors provide a cross correlated radiometric measurement in combination with the Honeywell HMR2300 Smart Digital Magnetometer. The magnetometer assesses the Earth's magnetic field in the LEO environment and allows radiation dose to be mapped as a function of the Earth's magnetic shielding. R3S is also unique in that the radiation sensors will be exposed on the outer surface of the spacecraft, possibly making this the first measurements of the LEO radiation environment with bare sensors. Viability of R3S as an extremely fast turnaround mission is due, in part, to the nature of the robust, well-defined interfaces of the conformal satellite HiSat Architecture. The HiSat architecture, which was developed with the support of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's (DARPA's) Phoenix Program, enabled the R3S system to advance from the first concept to delivery of preliminary design review (PDR) level documents in

  12. Efficiency of a Multitest System (Enterotube) for Rapid Identification of Enterobacteriaceae

    PubMed Central

    Grunberg, E.; Titsworth, E.; Beskid, G.; Cleeland, R.; Delorenzo, W. F.

    1969-01-01

    Enterotube, a multiple-test system which combines nine biochemical tests useful in the identification of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, was tested and compared with the PathoTec test system in the identification of gram-negative bacilli isolated from clinical specimens. It was found that both the Enterotube and the PathoTec systems rapidly and accurately defined the position of the organisms in the major groups of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Discrepancies were noted between the results of citrate tests on Simmons' citrate-agar and in the Enterotube, as well as between Simmons' citrate-agar and the PathoTec citrate test. It was concluded that the Enterotube system provides a simple, reliable, and rapid method for the presumptive identification of Enterobacteriaceae. The major advantage of the Enterotube is that all tests are done simultaneously by inoculation from a single isolated colony. PMID:4979941

  13. Rapid and automatic 3D body measurement system based on a GPU-Steger line detector.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xingjian; Zhao, Hengshuang; Zhan, Guomin; Zhong, Kai; Li, Zhongwei; Chao, Yuhjin; Shi, Yusheng

    2016-07-20

    This paper proposes a rapid and automatic measurement system to acquire a 3D shape of a human body. A flexible calibration method was developed to decrease the complexity in system calibration. To reduce the computation cost, a GPU-Steger line detector was proposed to more rapidly detect the center of the laser pattern and at subpixel level. The processing time of line detection is significantly shortened by the GPU-Steger line detector, which can be over 110 times faster than that by CPU. The key technologies are introduced, and the experimental results are presented in this paper to illustrate the performance of the proposed system. The system can be used to measure human body surfaces with nonuniform reflectance such as hair, skin, and clothes with rich texture. PMID:27463902

  14. A Microelectromechanical High-Density Energy Storage/Rapid Release System

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, M. Steven; Allen, Jim J.; Meeks, Kent D.; Jensen, Brian D.; Miller, Sam L.

    1999-07-21

    One highly desirable characteristic of electrostatically driven microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is that they consume very little power. The corresponding drawback is that the force they produce may be inadequate for many applications. It has previously been demonstrated that gear reduction units or microtransmissions can substantially increase the torque generated by microengines. Operating speed, however, is also reduced by the transmission gear ratio. Some applications require both high speed and high force. If this output is only required for a limited period of time, then energy could be stored in a mechanical system and rapidly released upon demand. We have designed, fabricated, and demonstrated a high-density energy storage/rapid release system that accomplishes this task. Built using a 5-level surface micromachining technology, the assembly closely resembles a medieval crossbow. Energy releases on the order of tens of nanojoules have already been demonstrated, and significantly higher energy systems are under development.

  15. 20 CFR 665.300 - What are rapid response activities and who is responsible for providing them?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... natural or other disaster resulting in a mass job dislocation. (b) The State is responsible for providing... experience disasters, mass layoffs, plant closings, or other dislocation events when such...

  16. 20 CFR 665.300 - What are rapid response activities and who is responsible for providing them?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... natural or other disaster resulting in a mass job dislocation. (b) The State is responsible for providing... experience disasters, mass layoffs, plant closings, or other dislocation events when such...

  17. A simplified CARS measurement system for rapid determination of temperature and oxygen concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujii, Shoichi

    1987-01-01

    A new spectroscopic concept for the rapid determination of temperature and oxygen concentration by CARS (Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy) was described. The ratio of two spectral regions in the broadband Q-branch spectrum was detected by photomultipliers in a monochromator, which ratio depends on temperature and species concentration. The comparison of the measured data with theory was made using a flat flame burner and an electric furnace, with reasonable results. Various optical techniques for alignment were introduced including a highly efficient, stable dye oscillator. The combination of the spectroscopic concept and the optical techniques will make the CARS measurement system rapid in data processing and simple in optical parts.

  18. Magnetic Field Response Measurement Acquisition System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor); Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor); Fox, Christopher L. (Inventor); Fox, Melanie L. (Inventor); Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Magnetic field response sensors designed as passive inductor-capacitor circuits produce magnetic field responses whose harmonic frequencies correspond to states of physical properties for which the sensors measure. Power to the sensing element is acquired using Faraday induction. A radio frequency antenna produces the time varying magnetic field used for powering the sensor, as well as receiving the magnetic field response of the sensor. An interrogation architecture for discerning changes in sensor s response kequency, resistance and amplitude is integral to the method thus enabling a variety of measurements. Multiple sensors can be interrogated using this method, thus eliminating the need to have a data acquisition channel dedicated to each sensor. The method does not require the sensors to be in proximity to any form of acquisition hardware. A vast array of sensors can be used as interchangeable parts in an overall sensing system.

  19. Rapid genetic restoration of a keystone species exhibiting delayed demographic response

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic founder effects are often expected when animals colonize restored habitat in fragmented landscapes, but empirical data on genetic responses to restoration are limited. We examined the genetic response of banner-tailed kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spectabilis) to landscape-scale grassland restor...

  20. Crossing the Chasm with Classroom Response Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towns, Marcy H.

    2010-01-01

    Research and literature on the adoption of technology provides a useful lens through which to view the adoption and implementation of classroom response systems (CRS). The technology adoption life cycle describes groups of adopters in ways that are helpful in understanding the adoption and sustained implementation of CRS in chemistry departments.…

  1. Using Audience Response Systems in FCS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Deborah B.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, a basic explanation of audience response systems is provided, including how this technology has evolved to date, varied settings and purposes for use, and reported benefits and challenges. A specific application in the context of teaching a family and consumer public policy course is highlighted.

  2. GLOBAL EMERGING INFECTIONS SURVEILLANCE AND RESPONSE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Department of Defense (DoD) Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project (GISP). The DoD Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (DoD-GEIS) partners with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) in the global surv...

  3. Validation of the Audience Response System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guse, Darlene M.; Zobitz, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Audience response systems (ARS) are gaining popularity in multiple areas of education. Although its usefulness has been well reported, no study has investigated the accuracy of the technology. The purpose of this study was to validate ARS by assessing three key aspects: signal transmission from the keypad to the receiver, capture of a proper…

  4. Emergency Response Systems for Outdoor Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Kurt; Satz, Jay A.

    The Student Conservation Association (SCA) runs backcountry programs in wilderness settings, providing both an educational experience for participants and badly needed conservation work on public lands. As part of its risk management efforts, SCA has developed an emergency response system that ties resources in the field to all the resources of…

  5. Complete and rapid response to FOLFIRI plus bevacizumab in a patient presenting with impaired liver function and poor performance status from colon cancer liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Belda-Iniesta, Cristóbal; Sáenz, Enrique Casado; de Castro-Carpeño, Javier; Hernández, Elena; Barón, Manuel González

    2009-04-01

    Impaired liver function is a final complication of hepatic metastases from colon cancer. This disease status is of critical importance at first clinical presentation because of the tight therapeutic window for chemotherapy. A rapid response to treatment is required as other means of supportive care for hepatic function are limited. New targeted therapies including monoclonal antibodies directed against several proteins with key roles in colon cancer biology are now available, allowing new treatment options for this group of patients. Here, we present a patient with highly impaired liver function secondary to hepatic metastases from colon cancer that showed clinical and radiological improvement after systemic treatment including bevacizumab. PMID:19352108

  6. A replicated climate change field experiment reveals rapid evolutionary response in an ecologically important soil invertebrate.

    PubMed

    Bataillon, Thomas; Galtier, Nicolas; Bernard, Aurelien; Cryer, Nicolai; Faivre, Nicolas; Santoni, Sylvain; Severac, Dany; Mikkelsen, Teis N; Larsen, Klaus S; Beier, Claus; Sørensen, Jesper G; Holmstrup, Martin; Ehlers, Bodil K

    2016-07-01

    Whether species can respond evolutionarily to current climate change is crucial for the persistence of many species. Yet, very few studies have examined genetic responses to climate change in manipulated experiments carried out in natural field conditions. We examined the evolutionary response to climate change in a common annelid worm using a controlled replicated experiment where climatic conditions were manipulated in a natural setting. Analyzing the transcribed genome of 15 local populations, we found that about 12% of the genetic polymorphisms exhibit differences in allele frequencies associated to changes in soil temperature and soil moisture. This shows an evolutionary response to realistic climate change happening over short-time scale, and calls for incorporating evolution into models predicting future response of species to climate change. It also shows that designed climate change experiments coupled with genome sequencing offer great potential to test for the occurrence (or lack) of an evolutionary response. PMID:27109012

  7. Validation of a Rapid Bacteria Endospore Enumeration System for Planetary Protection Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fei; Kern, Roger; Kazarians, Gayane; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    NASA monitors spacecraft surfaces to assure that the presence of bacterial endospores meets strict criteria at launch, to minimize the risk of inadvertent contamination of the surface of Mars. Currently, the only approved method for enumerating the spores is a culture based assay that requires three days to produce results. In order to meet the demanding schedules of spacecraft assembly, a more rapid spore detection assay is being considered as an alternate method to the NASA standard culture-based assay. The Millipore Rapid Microbiology Detection System (RMDS) has been used successfully for rapid bioburden enumeration in the pharmaceutical and food industries. The RMDS is rapid and simple, shows high sensitivity (to 1 colony forming unit [CFU]/sample), and correlates well with traditional culture-based methods. It combines membrane filtration, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence chemistry, and image analysis based on photon detection with a Charge Coupled Device (CCD) camera. In this study, we have optimized the assay conditions and evaluated the use of the RMDS as a rapid spore detection tool for NASA applications. In order to select for spores, the samples were subjected to a heat shock step before proceeding with the RMDS incubation protocol. Seven species of Bacillus (nine strains) that have been repeatedly isolated from clean room environments were assayed. All strains were detected by the RMDS in 5 hours and these assay times were repeatedly demonstrated along with low image background noise. Validation experiments to compare the Rapid Sore Assay (RSA) and NASA standard assay (NSA) were also performed. The evaluation criteria were modeled after the FDA Guideline of Process Validation, and Analytical Test Methods. This body of research demonstrates that the Rapid Spore Assay (RSA) is quick, and of equivalent sensitivity to the NASA standard assay, potentially reducing the assay time for bacterial endospores from over 72 hours to less than 8 hours

  8. Free-space laser communication system with rapid acquisition based on astronomical telescopes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianmin; Lv, Junyi; Zhao, Guang; Wang, Gang

    2015-08-10

    The general structure of a free-space optical (FSO) communication system based on astronomical telescopes is proposed. The light path for astronomical observation and for communication can be easily switched. A separate camera is used as a star sensor to determine the pointing direction of the optical terminal's antenna. The new system exhibits rapid acquisition and is widely applicable in various astronomical telescope systems and wavelengths. We present a detailed analysis of the acquisition time, which can be decreased by one order of magnitude compared with traditional optical communication systems. Furthermore, we verify software algorithms and tracking accuracy. PMID:26367918

  9. Identification of rapidly induced genes in the response of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) to water deficit and abscisic acid

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is an important crop, but droughts often affect peanut production. There is a lack of genomic information available for peanut; therefore, little is known about the molecular basis of its drought stress response. Results Previously, we found that peanut stomata close rapidly during water deficit and in response to abscisic acid (ABA) treatment, and many genes show changes in their expression levels. To screen for candidate genes involved in the water deficit response, we used the Illumina HiSeq2000/MiSeq sequencing platform to conduct a global transcriptome analysis of peanut seedlings under water deficit with or without an ABA pretreatment. Three peanut tissues (leaves, roots, and stems) collected at each of three developmental stages (four-leaf, flowering, and podding stages) were used to construct sequence libraries. Then, 4.96 × 107 raw sequence reads were generated and the high quality reads were assembled into 47,842 unigenes. We analyzed these sequence libraries to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) under water deficit with or without ABA pretreatment. In total, 621 genes were induced rapidly (≥1.5 fold change compared with control) under water deficit, 2,665 genes were induced rapidly under water deficit + ABA pretreatment, and 279 genes overlapped between water deficit and water deficit + ABA pretreatment. Of the 279 overlapping genes, 264 showed the same expression pattern and 15 showed opposite expression patterns. Among the DEGs, 257 were highly induced (>5 fold) by water deficit + ABA pretreatment, while 19 were highly induced (>5 fold) by water deficit alone. The genes induced under water deficit + ABA pretreatment included 100 putative transcription factor (TF) genes, while those induced under water deficit alone included only 22 putative TF genes. To validate the transcriptome results, we conducted quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyses to quantify the transcript levels of nine

  10. A rapid dehydration leaf assay reveals stomatal response differences in grapevine genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Hopper, Daniel W; Ghan, Ryan; Cramer, Grant R

    2014-01-01

    A simple and reliable way of phenotyping plant responses to dehydration was developed. Fully-developed leaves were detached and placed in a closed plastic box containing a salt solution to control the atmospheric water potential in the container. Three hours of dehydration (weight loss of the leaf) was optimal for measuring changes in stomatal response to dehydration. Application of the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) prior to leaf detachment decreased the amount of water loss, indicating that the assay was able to detect differences based on a stomatal response to dehydration. Five different Vitis genotypes (V. riparia, V. champinii, V. vinifera cv. Shiraz, V. vinifera cv. Grenache and V. vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon) with known differences in drought tolerance were screened for their dehydration response and the results obtained corresponded to previous reports of stomatal responses in the vineyard. Significant differences in stomatal density along with differences in the amount and rate of water lost indicate differences in dehydration sensitivity among the genotypes screened. Differences in stomatal response to ABA were also detected. Shiraz had the lowest stomatal density and the highest ABA sensitivity among the genotypes screened, yet Shiraz lost the most amount of water, indicating that it was the least sensitive to dehydration. Despite having the highest stomatal density and intermediate stomatal sensitivity to ABA, V. riparia lost the smallest amount of water, indicating that it was the most sensitive to dehydration. The assay presented here represents a simple and reliable phenotyping method for plant responses to leaf dehydration. PMID:26504528

  11. Hypothermia followed by rapid rewarming exacerbates ischemia-induced brain injury and augments inflammatory response in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shu-Zhen; Gu, Yong; Wu, Zhou; Hu, Ya-Fang; Pan, Su-Yue

    2016-05-20

    Hypothermia followed by slow rewarming is neuroprotective for ischemic stroke. However, slow rewarming causes patients' longer stay in intensive care unit and increases the risk of hypothermic complications. Hypothermia followed by rapid rewarming (HTRR) is more convenient; but it exacerbates intracranial hypertension for patients with massive hemispheric infarcts. The present study aims to investigate in detail how HTRR exacerbates ischemic brain injury and what are underlying mechanisms. Rats subjected to transient focal ischemia by middle cerebral artery occlusion were treated with normothermia or hypothermia followed by rapid rewarming. Neurological outcome, neuronal injury, blood-brain barrier integrity and expressions of inflammatory cytokines were observed. Results showed that HTRR at a rate of 3 °C/20 min increased both neurological deficit score and Longa score, enhanced the loss of neurons and the plasma level of neuron-specific enolase. Rapid rewarmed rats also displayed increased Evans blue dye extravasation, matrix metalloproteinase 9 level and tight junction impairment. Meanwhile, interleukin-1β, -6, tumor necrosis factor α and cyclooxygenase-2 were markedly elevated in rapid rewarmed rats. Anti-inflammatory agent minocycline suppressed HTRR-induced elevation of inflammatory cytokines and improved neurological outcome. These results indicated that HTRR significantly impaired neurovascular unit and augmented proinflammatory response in stroke. PMID:27107700

  12. Rapid systemic up-regulation of genes after heat-wounding and electrical stimulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, E.; Vian, A.; Vian, C.; Stankovic, B.

    1997-01-01

    When one leaf of a tomato plant is electrically-stimulated or heat-wounded, proteinase inhibitor genes are rapidly up-regulated in distant leaves. The identity of the systemic wound signal(s) is not yet known, but major candidates include hormones transmitted via the phloem or the xylem, the electrically-stimulated self-propagating electrical signal in the phloem (the action potential, AP), or the heat-wound-induced surge in hydraulic pressure in the xylem evoking a local change in membrane potential in adjacent living cells (the variation potential, VP). In order to discriminate between these signals we have adopted two approaches. The first approach involves applying stimuli that evoke known signals and determining whether these signals have similar effects on the "model" transcripts for proteinase inhibitors (pin) and calmodulin (cal). Here we show that a heat wound almost invariably evokes a VP, while an electrical stimulation occasionally evokes an AP, and both of these signals induce accumulation of transcripts encoding proteinase inhibitors. The second approach involves identifying the array of genes turned on by heat-wounding. To this end, we have constructed a subtractive library for heat-wounded tissue, isolated over 800 putatively up-regulated clones, and shown that all but two of the fifty that we have analyzed by Northern hybridization are, indeed, up-regulated. Here we show the early kinetics of up-regulation of three of these transcripts in the terminal (4th) leaf in response to heat-wounding the 3rd leaf, about 5 cm away. Even though these transcripts show somewhat different time courses of induction, with one peaking at 30 min, another at 15 min, and another at 5 min after flaming of a distant leaf, they all exhibit a similar pattern, i.e., a transient period of transcript accumulation preceding a period of transcript decrease, followed by a second period of transcript accumulation.

  13. Knowledge acquisition and rapid protyping of an expert system: Dealing with real world problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Patrick A.; Doehr, Brett B.

    1988-01-01

    The knowledge engineering and rapid prototyping phases of an expert system that does fault handling for a Solid Amine, Water Desorbed CO2 removal assembly for the Environmental Control and Life Support System for space based platforms are addressed. The knowledge acquisition phase for this project was interesting because it could not follow the textbook examples. As a result of this, a variety of methods were used during the knowledge acquisition task. The use of rapid prototyping and the need for a flexible prototype suggested certain types of knowledge representation. By combining various techniques, a representative subset of faults and a method for handling those faults was achieved. The experiences should prove useful for developing future fault handling expert systems under similar constraints.

  14. Warning systems and public warning response

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, J.H.

    1993-09-01

    This background paper reviews current knowledge on warning systems and human response to warnings. It expands on an earlier paper prepared for a workshop on the Second Assessment on Natural Hazards, held in Estes Park, Colorado in July 1992. Although it has a North American perspective, many of the lessons learned are universally applicable. The paper addresses warning systems in terms of dissemination and does not cover physical science issues associated with prediction and forecast. Finally, it covers hazards with relatively short lead times -- 48 hours or less. It does not address topics such as long-term forecasts of earthquakes or volcanic eruptions or early famine warning systems.

  15. Personal response systems in the United States.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, C

    1992-01-01

    In summation, although Personal Response Systems are relatively new in the marketplace they have made tremendous inroads over the past fifteen years. The next decade presents some difficult problems for this country in terms of its aging population and the delivery of quality, cost effective health care to all who need it. In light of these problems, the PRS industry can offer viable solutions-solutions for the U.S. health care system in helping to control and reduce the cost of health care delivery; solutions for industry in attempting to meet their employee health care needs; solutions for families who are coping with the strains of eldercare; and most important, solutions for many people who, regardless of age, could not live independently without a Personal Response System. PMID:10126442

  16. 20 CFR 665.310 - What rapid response activities are required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... development of an application for National Emergency Grant under 20 CFR part 671. (WIA secs. 101(38) and 134(a... and chief elected official(s) to develop a coordinated response to the dislocation event and,...

  17. 20 CFR 665.310 - What rapid response activities are required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... development of an application for National Emergency Grant under 20 CFR part 671. (WIA secs. 101(38) and 134(a... and chief elected official(s) to develop a coordinated response to the dislocation event and,...

  18. 20 CFR 665.310 - What rapid response activities are required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... development of an application for National Emergency Grant under 20 CFR part 671. (WIA secs. 101(38) and 134(a... and chief elected official(s) to develop a coordinated response to the dislocation event and,...

  19. 20 CFR 665.310 - What rapid response activities are required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... application for National Emergency Grant under 20 CFR part 671. (WIA secs. 101(38) and 134(a)(2)(A).) ... official(s) to develop a coordinated response to the dislocation event and, as needed, obtain access...

  20. 20 CFR 665.310 - What rapid response activities are required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... application for National Emergency Grant under 20 CFR part 671. (WIA secs. 101(38) and 134(a)(2)(A).) ... official(s) to develop a coordinated response to the dislocation event and, as needed, obtain access...

  1. Evaluation of the rapid NFT system for identification of gram-negative, nonfermenting rods.

    PubMed

    Appelbaum, P C; Leathers, D J

    1984-10-01

    This study evaluated the ability of the Rapid NFT system (API System SA, Montalieu-Vercieu, France) to accurately identify 262 clinically isolated, gram-negative, nonfermentative rods without additional tests. Identifications were classified as correct; low discrimination, with a spectrum of two or more possibilities (additional tests necessary for accurate identification); and incorrect. Correct identification rates were analyzed in two categories: (i) correct to species or biotype for all organism groups except Alcaligenes faecalis-odorans, Moraxella, Pseudomonas testosteroni-alcaligenes-pseudoalcaligenes, and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus biotype haemolyticus-alcaligenes (in this category, the latter four genus-biotype group identifications were taken as correct) and (ii) correct to species or biotype in all cases, including the above four groups. In category i, 87.4% of the strains were correctly identified, with 4.2% low discrimination and 8.4% incorrect. When the criteria of category ii were used, 71.8% of the strains were correctly identified, with 19.9% low discrimination. The Rapid NFT system provided excellent species identification of Pseudomonas and Flavobacterium spp., Bordetella bronchiseptica, and Achromobacter xylosoxidans strains. Within Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, differentiation between biotypes anitratus and lwoffi was satisfactory, but the system did not differentiate between biotypes haemolyticus and alcaligenes. Species resolution within the genera Moraxella and Alcaligenes was incomplete. All Alcaligenes faecalis strains were misidentified and accounted for 50% of misidentifications with the Rapid NFT system; however, these results may reflect taxonomic differences rather than true misidentifications. The Rapid NFT system is easy to inoculate and interpret and represents a worthwhile advance in the identification of gram-negative, nonfermentative rods. PMID:6490857

  2. The computer emergency response team system (CERT-System)

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, E.E.

    1991-10-11

    This paper describes CERT-System, an international affiliation of computer security response teams. Formed after the WANK and OILZ worms attacked numerous systems connected to the Internet, an operational charter was signed by representatives of 11 response teams. This affiliation's purpose is to provide a forum for ideas about incident response and computer security, share information, solve common problems, and develop strategies for responding to threats, incidents, etc. The achievements and advantages of participation in CERT-System are presented along with suggested growth areas for this affiliation. The views presented in this paper are the views of one member, and do not necessarily represent the views of others affiliated with CERT-System.

  3. The computer emergency response team system (CERT-System)

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, E.E.

    1991-10-11

    This paper describes CERT-System, an international affiliation of computer security response teams. Formed after the WANK and OILZ worms attacked numerous systems connected to the Internet, an operational charter was signed by representatives of 11 response teams. This affiliation`s purpose is to provide a forum for ideas about incident response and computer security, share information, solve common problems, and develop strategies for responding to threats, incidents, etc. The achievements and advantages of participation in CERT-System are presented along with suggested growth areas for this affiliation. The views presented in this paper are the views of one member, and do not necessarily represent the views of others affiliated with CERT-System.

  4. Three-dimensional manual responses to unexpected target perturbations during rapid aiming.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Steve; Elliott, Digby

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the execution of rapid aiming movements to targets that changed size and position. Participants viewed a medium-size target during movement preparation. The target became smaller or larger at movement initiation on size perturbation trials. The target moved closer or farther away from the home position on amplitude perturbation trials. The authors examined-in addition to several performance measures-the volume of 3-dimensional ellipsoids to quantify between-trials variability. In the size protocol, men executed movements in a similar manner irrespective of condition. In contrast, women exhibited less variability when target size increased. In the amplitude protocol, men moved inconsistently in the latter portion of the trajectory when targets became proximal. Men also failed to adjust for the perturbation on several trials. In comparison, women were more variable in the initial portions of the trajectory when the target became distal. Although men and women performed their movements in a similar duration, the trajectory and error analyses indicated different behaviors. Specifically, women made more rapid and efficient adjustments to their trajectories on the basis of concurrent visual information. In contrast, men executed movements on the basis of the visual information initially presented and then made adjustments, rather than gathering visual information and executing adjustments throughout the trajectory. PMID:19073468

  5. Ultraviolet absorbing compounds provide a rapid response mechanism for UV protection in some reef fish.

    PubMed

    Braun, C; Reef, R; Siebeck, U E

    2016-07-01

    The external mucus surface of reef fish contains ultraviolet absorbing compounds (UVAC), most prominently Mycosporine-like Amino Acids (MAAs). MAAs in the external mucus of reef fish are thought to act as sunscreens by preventing the damaging effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), however, direct evidence for their protective role has been missing. We tested the protective function of UVAC's by exposing fish with naturally low, Pomacentrus amboinensis, and high, Thalassoma lunare, mucus absorption properties to a high dose of UVR (UVB: 13.4W∗m(-2), UVA: 6.1W∗m(-2)) and measuring the resulting DNA damage in the form of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs). For both species, the amount of UV induced DNA damage sustained following the exposure to a 1h pulse of high UVR was negatively correlated with mucus absorbance, a proxy for MAA concentration. Furthermore, a rapid and significant increase in UVAC concentration was observed in P. amboinensis following UV exposure, directly after capture and after ten days in captivity. No such increase was observed in T. lunare, which maintained relatively high levels of UV absorbance at all times. P. amboinensis, in contrast to T. lunare, uses UV communication and thus must maintain UV transparent mucus to be able to display its UV patterns. The ability to rapidly alter the transparency of mucus could be an important adaptation in the trade off between protection from harmful UVR and UV communication. PMID:27162066

  6. Acute pressure on the sciatic nerve results in rapid inhibition of the wide dynamic range neuronal response

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Acute pressure on the sciatic nerve has recently been reported to provide rapid short-term relief of pain in patients with various pathologies. Wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons transmit nociceptive information from the dorsal horn to higher brain centers. In the present study, we examined the effect of a 2-min application of sciatic nerve pressure on WDR neuronal activity in anesthetized male Sprague–Dawley rats. Results Experiments were carried out on 41 male Sprague–Dawley albino rats weighing 160–280 grams. Dorsal horn WDR neurons were identified on the basis of characteristic responses to mechanical stimuli applied to the cutaneous receptive field. Acute pressure was applied for 2 min to the sciatic nerve using a small vascular clip. The responses of WDR neurons to three mechanical stimuli applied to the cutaneous receptive field were recorded before, and 2, 5 and 20 min after cessation of the 2-min pressure application on the sciatic nerve. Two-min pressure applied to the sciatic nerve caused rapid attenuation of the WDR response to pinching, pressure and brushing stimuli applied to the cutaneous receptive field. Maximal attenuation of the WDR response to pinching and pressure was noted 5 min after release of the 2-min pressure on the sciatic nerve. The mean firing rate decreased from 31.7±1.7 Hz to 13±1.4 Hz upon pinching (p < 0.001), from 31.2±2.3 Hz to 10.9±1.4 Hz (p < 0.001) when pressure was applied, and from 18.9±1.2 Hz to 7.6±1.1 Hz (p < 0.001) upon brushing. Thereafter, the mean firing rates gradually recovered. Conclusions Our results indicate that acute pressure applied to the sciatic nerve exerts a rapid inhibitory effect on the WDR response to both noxious and innocuous stimuli. Our results may partially explain the rapid analgesic effect of acute sciatic nerve pressure noted in clinical studies, and also suggest a new model for the study of pain. PMID:23211003

  7. Evaluation of automated emergency response systems

    SciTech Connect

    Addis, R.P.

    1988-12-31

    Automated Emergency Response (ER) systems are playing a greater role in providing prompt and reliable predictions of the impact of inadvertent releases of hazardous materials to the environment. Observed and forecast environmental and accident source term data are input into environmental transport and dispersion models to provide dosimetry estimates used as decision making aids for responding to emergencies. Several automated ER systems have been developed for US Federal Government facilities and many are available commercially. For such systems to be useful, they must reliably and consistently deliver a timely product to the decision makers. Evaluation of the entire ER system is essential to determine the performance that can be expected from the system during an emergency. Unfortunately, seldom are ER systems evaluated as a whole. Usually Quality Assurance programs evaluate the performance of individual components of the system. Most atmospheric pollution model evaluation methods usually involve an evaluation of the predictive performance of the transport and dispersion model when compared either with experimental tracer results or results from other models. Rarely, however, is the ability of the ER system to provide timely, reliable and consistent information evaluated. Such an evaluation is vital to determine the system performance during an emergency and to provide valuable information to aid in improving the system.

  8. Development of a System for Rapid Detection of Contaminants in Water Supplies Using Magnetic Resonance and Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Lowery, Thomas J; Neely, Lori; Chepin, James; Wellman, Parris; Toso, Ken; Murray, Paul; Audeh, Mark; Demas, Vasiliki; Palazzolo, Robert; Min, Michael; Phung, Nu; Blanco, Matt; Raphel, Jordan; O'Neil, Troy

    2010-09-14

    To keep the water supply safe and to ensure a swift and accurate response to a water supply contamination event, rapid and robust methods for microbial testing are necessary. Current technologies are complex, lengthy and costly and there is a need for rapid, reliable, and precise approaches that can readily address this fundamental security and safety issue. T2 Biosystems is focused on providing solutions to this problem by making breakthroughs in nanotechnology and biosensor techniques that address the current technical restrictions facing rapid, molecular analysis in complex samples. In order to apply the T2 Biosystems nucleic acid detection procedure to the analysis of nucleic acid targets in unprocessed water samples, Bacillus thuringeinsis was selected as a model organism and local river water was selected as the sample matrix. The initial assay reagent formulation was conceived with a manual magnetic resonance reader, was optimized using a high throughput system, and transferred back to the MR reader for potential field use. The final assay employing the designed and manufactured instruments was capable of detecting 10 CFU/mL of B. thuringiensis directly within the environmental water sample within 90 minutes. Further, discrimination of two closely related species of Bacilli was accomplished using the methods of this project; greater than 3-fold discrimination between B. cereus and B. thuringiensis at a concentrations spanning 10 CFU/mL to 10{sup 5} CFU/mL was observed.

  9. Evolution and behavioural responses to human-induced rapid environmental change

    PubMed Central

    Sih, Andrew; Ferrari, Maud C O; Harris, David J

    2011-01-01

    Almost all organisms live in environments that have been altered, to some degree, by human activities. Because behaviour mediates interactions between an individual and its environment, the ability of organisms to behave appropriately under these new conditions is crucial for determining their immediate success or failure in these modified environments. While hundreds of species are suffering dramatically from these environmental changes, others, such as urbanized and pest species, are doing better than ever. Our goal is to provide insights into explaining such variation. We first summarize the responses of some species to novel situations, including novel risks and resources, habitat loss/fragmentation, pollutants and climate change. Using a sensory ecology approach, we present a mechanistic framework for predicting variation in behavioural responses to environmental change, drawing from models of decision-making processes and an understanding of the selective background against which they evolved. Where immediate behavioural responses are inadequate, learning or evolutionary adaptation may prove useful, although these mechanisms are also constrained by evolutionary history. Although predicting the responses of species to environmental change is difficult, we highlight the need for a better understanding of the role of evolutionary history in shaping individuals’ responses to their environment and provide suggestion for future work. PMID:25567979

  10. A highly portable, rapidly deployable system for eddy covariance measurements of CO2 fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Billesbach, David P.; Fischer, Marc L.; Torn, Margaret S.; Berry, Joe A.

    2001-09-19

    To facilitate the study of flux heterogeneity within a region, the authors have designed, built, and field-tested a highly portable, rapidly deployable, eddy covariance CO{sub 2} flux measurement system. The system is built from off-the-shelf parts and was assembled at a minimal cost. The unique combination of features of this system allow for a very rapid deployment with a minimal number of field personnel. The system is capable of making high precision, unattended measurements of turbulent CO{sub 2} fluxes, latent heat (LE) fluxes, sensible heat fluxes (H), and momentum transfer fluxes. In addition, many of the meteorological and ecosystem variables necessary for quality control of the fluxes and for running ecosystem models are measured. A side-by-side field comparison of the system at a pair of established AmeriFlux sites has verified that, for single measurements, the system is capable of CO{sub 2} flux accuracy of about {+-} 1.2 {micro}mole/m{sup 2}/sec, LE flux accuracy of about {+-} 15 Watts/m{sup 2}, H flux accuracy of about {+-} 7 Watts/m{sup 2}, and momentum transfer flux accuracy of about {+-} 11 gm-m/sec/sec. System deployment time is between 2 and 4 hours by a single person. The system was measured to draw between 30 and 35 Watts of power and may be run from available line power, storage batteries, or solar panels.

  11. Use of the VITEK 2 System for Rapid Identification of Clinical Isolates of Staphylococci from Bloodstream Infections

    PubMed Central

    Spanu, Teresa; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Ciccaglione, Daniela; D'Inzeo, Tiziana; Romano, Lucio; Leone, Fiammetta; Fadda, Giovanni

    2003-01-01

    Staphylococci are an increasing cause of bloodstream infections. Rapid reliable identification of these organisms is essential for accurate diagnosis and prompt effective treatment. We evaluated the ability of the VITEK 2 system (bioMérieux, Inc, Hazelwood, Mo.) to identify these organisms rapidly and accurately. A total of 405 clinically relevant nonduplicate staphylococcal isolates (Staphylococcus aureus, n = 130; coagulase-negative staphylococci, n = 275) collected from blood cultures were tested. VITEK 2 results were considered correct when they were identical to those furnished by the comparison method based on the ID 32 STAPH system (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France) plus supplementary manual testing. When discrepancies occurred, isolate identity was verified by molecular typing. The VITEK 2 correctly identified 387 (95.6%) isolates at the species level: 379 (including all but one [99.2%] of 130 S. aureus isolates and 249 of 275 [90.5%] coagulase-negative isolates) were identified by the automated reading; for the other eight, supplemental tests suggested by the manufacturer had to be used. Only one strain (0.2%) was misidentified (Staphylococcus hominis as Staphylococcus epidermidis), and four (1%), all S. epidermidis, were not identified. For the remaining 13 strains (including 10 S. hominis), the VITEK 2 system was unable to discriminate among two species, and no supplemental tests were suggested for conclusive identification. Over 90% of results were obtained within 4 h. These results suggest that the VITEK 2 system can provide rapid, accurate, and reliable species-level identification of staphylococci responsible for bloodstream infections, although there is room for improvement in the identification of certain coagulase-negative species, especially S. hominis. PMID:12958254

  12. Drug-induced death signaling strategy rapidly predicts cancer response to chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Montero, Joan; Sarosiek, Kristopher A.; DeAngelo, Joseph D.; Maertens, Ophélia; Ryan, Jeremy; Ercan, Dalia; Piao, Huiying; Horowitz, Neil S.; Berkowitz, Ross S.; Matulonis, Ursula; Jänne, Pasi A.; Amrein, Philip C.; Cichowski, Karen; Drapkin, Ronny; Letai, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY There is a lack of effective predictive biomarkers to precisely assign optimal therapy to cancer patients. While most efforts are directed at inferring drug response phenotype based on genotype, there is very focused and useful phenotypic information to be gained from directly perturbing the patient’s living cancer cell with the drug(s) in question. To satisfy this unmet need we developed the Dynamic BH3 Profiling technique to measure early changes in net pro-apoptotic signaling at the mitochondrion (‘priming’) induced by chemotherapeutic agents in cancer cells, not requiring prolonged ex vivo culture. We find in cell line and clinical experiments that early drug-induced death signaling measured by Dynamic BH3 Profiling predicts chemotherapy response across many cancer types and many agents, including combinations of chemotherapies. We propose that Dynamic BH3 Profiling can be used as a broadly applicable predictive biomarker to predict cytotoxic response of cancers to chemotherapeutics in vivo. PMID:25723171

  13. Slow and rapid response: The temperature memory of smectite in JFAST's Tohoku earthquake core samples (Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleicher, Anja M.; Boles, Austin; van der Pluijm, Ben A.

    2014-05-01

    The ability of clay minerals to absorb and retain interlayer water during large slip events can be limited because of locally high frictional heating temperatures. Core samples from JFAST (Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project) Expedition 343 provide a unique opportunity to characterize smectitic clay minerals in fault rocks of an active plate-boundary fault that produced a displacement of ~50 meters during the Tohoku earthquake of 2011. Smectite is abundant in the fault zone identified at 820 mbsf. Chemical compositions analyzed by ICP-OES show a significant amount of Fe, and lesser Mg and K. In order to analyze the swelling capacity of smectite during slow and rapid temperature changes, we heated and cooled samples in steps of 25 °C from 25 to 225 °C at different rates, using a temperature stage and humidity chamber attached to an X-ray diffractometer. Rapid heating is represented by 5 min and slow heating by 5 hours for each sample. Cooling back to ~25 °C was achieved within 15-40 min, depending on the maximum heating temperature. X-ray analyses of randomly-oriented and oriented samples were conducted on air-dried and glycolated samples. Illite and smectite are the most abundant clay mineral types detected. Mineralogic characterization of illite shows 1Md and 2M1 polytypes, with authigenically formed 1Md slightly more abundant in the finer grained material. Clay size fractions 0.05 - 0.5 microns show pure smectite with a characteristic interlayer distance of 1.2 nm that increases to 1.7 nm after ethylene glycolization, indicating up to 3 water layers. Based on slow and rapid heating and cooling experiments of these samples, we observe that (i) both slow and fast heating causes similar reduction of water layers in smectite, (ii) smectite recovers faster to the original hydration state after quick heating than slow heating, and (iii) non-recoverable collapse of all smectite occurs at temperatures > 200 °C, regardless of the heating rate. Based on these results

  14. Non-uniform system response detection for hyperspectral imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castorena, Juan; Morrison, Jason; Paliwal, Jitendra; Erkinbaev, Chyngyz

    2015-11-01

    Near infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging (HSI) has established itself as a powerful non-destructive tool for the chemical analysis of heterogeneous samples. However, one of the main disadvantages of NIR HSI is that the technique suffers from instrumentation-related problems, which in turn affect the acquired images. In general, focal plane array (FPA) based hyperspectral systems are affected by spatial and spectral non-uniform response, the presence of defective sensors (e.g. dead or saturated sensors), and temporal and spatial (e.g. dark current) noise. Another issue is each new camera system needs to be calibrated to assess its specific responses to light. To correct for these issues, we used known standards to measure the response of the sensors and capture the location of the field of view and defective sensors using linear and quadratic models. The parameters of these models were then used as input features for classification of sensor responses using a k-means algorithm. The results conclude that linear models are insufficiently precise for calibration but estimate sufficiently accurately the system's response and functionality. Specifically, it was shown that the classification method discriminates non-responsive regions effectively.

  15. [BIOCHEMICAL RESPONSE OF BLUE MUSSELS MYTILUS EDULIS L. FROM THE WHITE SEA TO RAPID TEMPERATURE CHANGES].

    PubMed

    Fokina, N N; Lysenko, L A; Sukhovskaya, I V; Vdovichenko, E A; Borvinskaya, E V; Kantserova, N P; Krupnova, M Yu; Ruokolainen, T R; Smirnov, L P; Vysotskaya, R U; Bakhmet, I N; Nemova, N N

    2015-01-01

    The effect of a rapid temperature change on the biochemical status of blue mussels Mytilus edulis L. from the White Sea was studied under conditions of aquarium experiment. It is shown that modifications of the composition of reserve and structural lipids and their fatty acids, of the activity of lysosomal enzymes (β-glucosidases, cathepsins B and D), of calcium-dependent proteases of cytocol (calpains) and of the enzyme of the second phase of biotransformation of xenobiotics - glutathione-S-transferase, reflect an unspecific compensatory reaction of bivalves to stress action of environmental factors and indicate reconstruction of blue mussel metabolism as early as within first hours of temperature change. The initial high level of glutathione-S-transferase activity in control blue mussels as well as an increase of glutathione concentration in the course of experiment may facilitate successful exit of mussels from the state of reduced metabolism. PMID:26856072

  16. Polar bear and walrus response to the rapid decline in Arctic sea ice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oakley, K.; Whalen, M.; Douglas, D.; Udevitz, M.; Atwood, T.; Jay, C.

    2012-01-01

    The Arctic is warming faster than other regions of the world due to positive climate feedbacks associated with loss of snow and ice. One highly visible consequence has been a rapid decline in Arctic sea ice over the past 3 decades - a decline projected to continue and result in ice-free summers likely as soon as 2030. The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) and the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) are dependent on sea ice over the continental shelves of the Arctic Ocean's marginal seas. The continental shelves are shallow regions with high biological productivity, supporting abundant marine life within the water column and on the sea floor. Polar bears use sea ice as a platform for hunting ice seals; walruses use sea ice as a resting platform between dives to forage for clams and other bottom-dwelling invertebrates. How have sea ice changes affected polar bears and walruses? How will anticipated changes affect them in the future?

  17. Tsunami response system for ports in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, H.-R.; Cho, J.-S.; Cho, Y.-S.

    2015-03-01

    The tsunamis that have occurred in many places around the world over the past decade have taken a heavy toll on human lives and property. The eastern coast of the Korean Peninsula is not safe from tsunamis, particularly the eastern coastal areas, which have long sustained tsunami damage. The aim of this study was to mitigate the casualties and property damage on the east eastern coast by developing a proper tsunami response system for important ports and harbors with high population densities and high concentrations of key national industries. For study purposes, the government-managed major international trade ports and coastal harbors were selected and an effective tsunami response system was formulated based on field surveys and related literature.

  18. MODELING VENTILATION SYSTEM RESPONSE TO FIRE

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D

    2007-04-17

    Fires in facilities containing nuclear material have the potential to transport radioactive contamination throughout buildings and may lead to widespread downwind dispersal threatening both worker and public safety. Development and implementation of control strategies capable of providing adequate protection from fire requires realistic characterization of ventilation system response which, in turn, depends on an understanding of fire development timing and suppression system response. This paper discusses work in which published HEPA filter data was combined with CFAST fire modeling predictions to evaluate protective control strategies for a hypothetical DOE non-reactor nuclear facility. The purpose of this effort was to evaluate when safety significant active ventilation coupled with safety class passive ventilation might be a viable control strategy.

  19. Rapid phosphatidic acid accumulation in response to low temperature stress in Arabidopsis is generated through diacylglycerol kinase.

    PubMed

    Arisz, Steven A; van Wijk, Ringo; Roels, Wendy; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Haring, Michel A; Munnik, Teun

    2013-01-01

    Phosphatidic acid (PtdOH) is emerging as an important signaling lipid in abiotic stress responses in plants. The effect of cold stress was monitored using (32)P-labeled seedlings and leaf discs of Arabidopsis thaliana. Low, non-freezing temperatures were found to trigger a very rapid (32)P-PtdOH increase, peaking within 2 and 5 min, respectively. In principle, PtdOH can be generated through three different pathways, i.e., (1) via de novo phospholipid biosynthesis (through acylation of lyso-PtdOH), (2) via phospholipase D hydrolysis of structural phospholipids, or (3) via phosphorylation of diacylglycerol (DAG) by DAG kinase (DGK). Using a differential (32)P-labeling protocol and a PLD-transphosphatidylation assay, evidence is provided that the rapid (32)P-PtdOH response was primarily generated through DGK. A simultaneous decrease in the levels of (32)P-PtdInsP, correlating in time, temperature dependency, and magnitude with the increase in (32)P-PtdOH, suggested that a PtdInsP-hydrolyzing PLC generated the DAG in this reaction. Testing T-DNA insertion lines available for the seven DGK genes, revealed no clear changes in (32)P-PtdOH responses, suggesting functional redundancy. Similarly, known cold-stress mutants were analyzed to investigate whether the PtdOH response acted downstream of the respective gene products. The hos1, los1, and fry1 mutants were found to exhibit normal PtdOH responses. Slight changes were found for ice1, snow1, and the overexpression line Super-ICE1, however, this was not cold-specific and likely due to pleiotropic effects. A tentative model illustrating direct cold effects on phospholipid metabolism is presented. PMID:23346092

  20. Rapid phosphatidic acid accumulation in response to low temperature stress in Arabidopsis is generated through diacylglycerol kinase

    PubMed Central

    Arisz, Steven A.; van Wijk, Ringo; Roels, Wendy; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Haring, Michel A.; Munnik, Teun

    2013-01-01

    Phosphatidic acid (PtdOH) is emerging as an important signaling lipid in abiotic stress responses in plants. The effect of cold stress was monitored using 32P-labeled seedlings and leaf discs of Arabidopsis thaliana. Low, non-freezing temperatures were found to trigger a very rapid 32P-PtdOH increase, peaking within 2 and 5 min, respectively. In principle, PtdOH can be generated through three different pathways, i.e., (1) via de novo phospholipid biosynthesis (through acylation of lyso-PtdOH), (2) via phospholipase D hydrolysis of structural phospholipids, or (3) via phosphorylation of diacylglycerol (DAG) by DAG kinase (DGK). Using a differential 32P-labeling protocol and a PLD-transphosphatidylation assay, evidence is provided that the rapid 32P-PtdOH response was primarily generated through DGK. A simultaneous decrease in the levels of 32P-PtdInsP, correlating in time, temperature dependency, and magnitude with the increase in 32P-PtdOH, suggested that a PtdInsP-hydrolyzing PLC generated the DAG in this reaction. Testing T-DNA insertion lines available for the seven DGK genes, revealed no clear changes in 32P-PtdOH responses, suggesting functional redundancy. Similarly, known cold-stress mutants were analyzed to investigate whether the PtdOH response acted downstream of the respective gene products. The hos1, los1, and fry1 mutants were found to exhibit normal PtdOH responses. Slight changes were found for ice1, snow1, and the overexpression line Super-ICE1, however, this was not cold-specific and likely due to pleiotropic effects. A tentative model illustrating direct cold effects on phospholipid metabolism is presented. PMID:23346092

  1. Synergistic action of thermoresponsive and hygroresponsive elements elicits rapid and directional response of a bilayer actuator.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lidong; Desta, Israel; Naumov, Panče

    2016-05-21

    A bilayer actuator composed of thermoresponsive and thermo/hygroresponsive elements is developed, which undergoes fast, directional and autonomous curling with a speed of up to 0.7 m s(-1) and recovers its shape by hydration. In situ tensile testing of the thermal response of individual layers provided insights into the mechanism of actuation of thermo/hygromorphic bilayers. PMID:26997588

  2. Terra-Kleen Response Group, Inc. Solvent Extraction Technology Rapid Commercialization Initiative Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    Terra-Kleen Response Group Inc. (Terra-Kleen), has commercialized a solvent extraction technology that uses a proprietary extraction solvent to transfer organic constituents from soil to a liquid phase in a batch process at ambient temperatures. The proprietary solvent has a rel...

  3. Lumped Parameter Modeling for Rapid Vibration Response Prototyping and Test Correlation for Electronic Units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Dyke, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    Present preliminary work using lumped parameter models to approximate dynamic response of electronic units to random vibration; Derive a general N-DOF model for application to electronic units; Illustrate parametric influence of model parameters; Implication of coupled dynamics for unit/board design; Demonstrate use of model to infer printed wiring board (PWB) dynamics from external chassis test measurement.

  4. Rapid acquisition of auditory subcortical steady state responses using multichannel recordings✩

    PubMed Central

    Bharadwaj, Hari M.; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Auditory subcortical steady state responses (SSSRs), also known as frequency following responses (FFRs), provide a non-invasive measure of phase-locked neural responses to acoustic and cochlear-induced periodicities. SSSRs have been used both clinically and in basic neurophysiological investigation of auditory function. SSSR data acquisition typically involves thousands of presentations of each stimulus type, sometimes in two polarities, with acquisition times often exceeding an hour per subject. Here, we present a novel approach to reduce the data acquisition times significantly. Methods Because the sources of the SSSR are deep compared to the primary noise sources, namely background spontaneous cortical activity, the SSSR varies more smoothly over the scalp than the noise. We exploit this property and extract SSSRs efficiently, using multichannel recordings and an eigendecomposition of the complex cross-channel spectral density matrix. Results Our proposed method yields SNR improvement exceeding a factor of 3 compared to traditional single-channel methods. Conclusions It is possible to reduce data acquisition times for SSSRs significantly with our approach. Significance The proposed method allows SSSRs to be recorded for several stimulus conditions within a single session and also makes it possible to acquire both SSSRs and cortical EEG responses without increasing the session length. PMID:24525091

  5. A method of rapidly evaluating image quality of NED optical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qi; Qiu, Chuankai; Yang, Huan

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, with the development of technology of micro-display, advanced optics and the software and hardware, near-to-eye display ( NED) optical system will have a wide range of potential applications in the fields of amusement and virtual reality. However, research on the evaluating image quality of this kind optical system is comparatively lagging behind. Although now there are some methods and equipment for evaluation, they can't be applied in commercial production because of their complex operation and inaccuracy. In this paper, an academic method is proposed and a Rapid Evaluation System (RES) is designed to evaluate the image of optical system rapidly and exactly. Firstly, a set of parameters that eyes are sensitive to and also express the quality of system should be extracted and quantized to be criterion, so the evaluation standards can be established. Then, some parameters can be detected by RES consisted of micro-display, CCD camera and computer and so on. By process of scaling, the measuring results of the RES are exact and creditable, relationship between object measurement, subjective evaluation and the RES will be established. After that, image quality of optical system can be evaluated just by detecting parameters of that. The RES is simple and the results of evaluation are exact and keeping with human vision. So the method can be used not only for optimizing design of optical system, but also for evaluation in commercial production.

  6. Single-photon emission of two-level system via rapid adiabatic passage

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Qiang; Zheng, Yujun

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a high quality single-photon source based on the two-level system undergoing rapid adiabatic passage (RAP). A trigger strategy (sweet region) is suggested to optimize the single-photon emission and explain a counter-intuitive phenomenon on the optimal parameters. The RAP strategy of single-photon source is robust against control error and environmental fluctuation. PMID:27601295

  7. Single-photon emission of two-level system via rapid adiabatic passage.

    PubMed

    Miao, Qiang; Zheng, Yujun

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a high quality single-photon source based on the two-level system undergoing rapid adiabatic passage (RAP). A trigger strategy (sweet region) is suggested to optimize the single-photon emission and explain a counter-intuitive phenomenon on the optimal parameters. The RAP strategy of single-photon source is robust against control error and environmental fluctuation. PMID:27601295

  8. Lupus erythematosus and lichen planus overlap syndrome:a case report with a rapid response to topical corticosteroid therapy

    PubMed Central

    Demirci, Gulsen Tukenmez; Altunay, Ilknur Kıvanç; Sarıkaya, Sezgi; Sakiz, Damlanur

    2011-01-01

    Lupus erythematosus (LE) and lichen planus (LP) may occur as an overlap syndrome. We report the clinical characteristics of a young man with lesions diagnosed as LE and LP by histopathological and direct immunoflurosence examinations. We achieved remarkable clinical response from the treatment with topical corticosteroids and no recurrence was seen in a 6 months of follow up time. We found this case interesting because of the rapid improvement with corticosteroid and discussed if there is a real overlap or a coexistence according to the literature. PMID:25386300

  9. An emergency response UAV Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Pedro A; Geckle, William J; Barton, Jeffrey D; Samsundar, John; Gao, Tia; Brown, Myron Z; Martin, Sean R

    2006-01-01

    A system using Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs), equipped for real time telemetry of video imagery, sensor support data, and GPS/INS navigation, is being developed to provide situational awareness (SA) to the central command of mass casualty incident response. UAVs provide an inexpensive and safe means of acquiring video surveillance in chaotic disaster scenes, while being durable and non-intrusive. The system provides autonomous surveillance of defined perimeters, video tracking and active following of targets of interest, and real time cueing to other imaging UAVs. PMID:17238697

  10. Rapid genetic divergence in response to 15 years of simulated climate change.

    PubMed

    Ravenscroft, Catherine H; Whitlock, Raj; Fridley, Jason D

    2015-11-01

    Genetic diversity may play an important role in allowing individual species to resist climate change, by permitting evolutionary responses. Our understanding of the potential for such responses to climate change remains limited, and very few experimental tests have been carried out within intact ecosystems. Here, we use amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) data to assess genetic divergence and test for signatures of evolutionary change driven by long-term simulated climate change applied to natural grassland at Buxton Climate Change Impacts Laboratory (BCCIL). Experimental climate treatments were applied to grassland plots for 15 years using a replicated and spatially blocked design and included warming, drought and precipitation treatments. We detected significant genetic differentiation between climate change treatments and control plots in two coexisting perennial plant study species (Festuca ovina and Plantago lanceolata). Outlier analyses revealed a consistent signature of selection associated with experimental climate treatments at individual AFLP loci in P. lanceolata, but not in F. ovina. Average background differentiation at putatively neutral AFLP loci was close to zero, and genomewide genetic structure was associated neither with species abundance changes (demography) nor with plant community-level responses to long-term climate treatments. Our results demonstrate genetic divergence in response to a suite of climatic environments in reproductively mature populations of two perennial plant species and are consistent with an evolutionary response to climatic selection in P. lanceolata. These genetic changes have occurred in parallel with impacts on plant community structure and may have contributed to the persistence of individual species through 15 years of simulated climate change at BCCIL. PMID:26311135

  11. Audience response systems: technology to engage learners.

    PubMed

    Collins, Jannette

    2008-09-01

    An audience response system (ARS) provides a means of infusing interaction into a traditional didactic lecture format, enhancing student attention and learning. It can be used in a variety of ways, with both large and small audiences, to evaluate participants' knowledge, attitudes, and opinions or to verify student attendance at a lecture. The technology of ARS has markedly improved over the years, resulting in systems that are less costly and easier to use. Commercial systems that can be rented or purchased as well as local systems that can be downloaded free via the Internet are available. In this essay, the author reviews the components of an ARS, the history of ARS, educational outcomes related to ARS use, the benefits and limitations of ARS, tips for using an ARS, and current developments in ARS. PMID:18755440

  12. Validation of a rapid bacteria endospore enumeration system for use with spacecraft assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, F.; Kuhlman, G.; Kirschner, L.; Kazarians, G.; Matsuyama, A.; Pickett, M.; Venkateswaran, K.; Kastner, J.; Kern, R.

    NASA planetary protection policy sets forth strict limits on the number of bacterial endospores that can be present on a spacecraft at launch Currently the only approved method for counting the spores is a culture based assay that requires three days to produce results a timeframe that can be at odds with the rapid pace and rigorous deadlines of spacecraft assembly A possible alternative to the traditional culture based approach is the Millipore Rapid Microbiology Detection System RMDS which has previously been used for process and contamination control in the pharmaceutical and food industries The RMDS is rapid and simple shows high sensitivity 1 colony forming unit CFU sample and correlates well with traditional culture-based methods It combines membrane filtration adenosine triphosphate ATP bioluminescence chemistry and image analysis based on photon detection with a Charge Coupled Device CCD camera In this study we have optimized the assay condition and evaluated the use of the RMDS as a rapid spore detection tool for NASA applications Seven species of Bacillus nine strains that have been repeatedly isolated from clean room environments were assayed In order to select for spores the samples were subjected to a heat shock step before proceeding with the RMDS incubation protocol All strains were detected by the RMDS in sim 5 hours and these assay times were repeatedly demonstrated along with low image background noise The RMDS-based spore detection method is undergoing the final stages of validation and is

  13. Installation and Commissioning Automated Demand Response Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Global Energy Partners; Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Kiliccote, Sila; Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Wikler, Greg; Prijyanonda, Joe; Chiu, Albert

    2008-04-21

    Demand Response (DR) can be defined as actions taken to reduce electric loads when contingencies, such as emergencies and congestion, occur that threaten supply-demand balance, or market conditions raise supply costs. California utilities have offered price and reliability DR based programs to customers to help reduce electric peak demand. The lack of knowledge about the DR programs and how to develop and implement DR control strategies is a barrier to participation in DR programs, as is the lack of automation of DR systems. Most DR activities are manual and require people to first receive notifications, and then act on the information to execute DR strategies. Levels of automation in DR can be defined as follows. Manual Demand Response involves a labor-intensive approach such as manually turning off or changing comfort set points at each equipment switch or controller. Semi-Automated Demand Response involves a pre-programmed demand response strategy initiated by a person via centralized control system. Fully-Automated Demand Response does not involve human intervention, but is initiated at a home, building, or facility through receipt of an external communications signal. The receipt of the external signal initiates pre-programmed demand response strategies. We refer to this as Auto-DR (Piette et. al. 2005). Auto-DR for commercial and industrial facilities can be defined as fully automated DR initiated by a signal from a utility or other appropriate entity and that provides fully-automated connectivity to customer end-use control strategies. One important concept in Auto-DR is that a homeowner or facility manager should be able to 'opt out' or 'override' a DR event if the event comes at time when the reduction in end-use services is not desirable. Therefore, Auto-DR is not handing over total control of the equipment or the facility to the utility but simply allowing the utility to pass on grid related information which then triggers facility defined and programmed

  14. Minimizing the Impact of Electromagnetic Interference Affecting the Control System of Personal Rapid Transit in the Context of the Competitiveness of the Supply Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choromański, Włodzimierz; Dyduch, Janusz; Paś, Jacek

    2011-06-01

    Personal Rapid Transit control system is exploited in diverse electromagnetic enlivenments. The unintentional or intentional electromagnetic disturbances on a vast railway area can disturb operation of PRT control system. The security systems are responsible for security of humans and goods transpiration and therefore their disturbance can threaten life or health their disturbance can threaten life or health of people exploitation decisions in the reference to these systems. The paper presents the ways of minimization of the influence of electromagnetic disturbances on PRT control system.

  15. A rapid method for obtaining frequency-response functions for multiple input photogrammetric data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroen, M. L.; Tripp, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    A two-digital-camera photogrammetric technique for measuring the motion of a vibrating spacecraft structure or wing surface and an applicable data-reduction algorithm are presented. The 3D frequency-response functions are obtained by coordinate transformation from averaged cross and autopower spectra derived from the 4D camera coordinates by Fourier transformation. Error sources are investigated analytically, and sample results are shown in graphs.

  16. Repeated Rapid Shear-Responsiveness of Peptide Hydrogels with Tunable Shear Modulus

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Sivakumar; Tseng, Yiider; Yu, Y. Bruce

    2006-01-01

    A pair of mutually-attractive but self-repulsive decapeptides, with alternating charged/neutral amino acid sequence patterns, was found to co-assemble into a viscoelastic material upon mixing at a low total peptide concentration of 0.25 wt%. Circular dichroism spectroscopy of individual decapeptide solutions revealed their random coil conformation. Transmission electron microscopy images showed the nanofibrillar network structure of the hydrogel. Dynamic rheological characterization revealed its high elasticity and shear-thinning nature. Furthermore, the co-assembled hydrogel was capable of rapid recoveries from repeated shear-induced breakdowns (compliance), a property desirable for designing injectable biomaterials for controlled drug delivery and tissue engineering applications. A systematic variation of the neutral amino acids in the sequence revealed some of the critical design principles involved in this novel class of biomaterials. Lowering the hydrophobicity of the neutral amino acids lowered the elastic modulus and the resilience of the assembled hydrogel, thereby providing a means to fine-tune material property. Replacement of neutral amino acids in the sequence with proline (a β-sheet breaker) impaired the ability of the peptides to co-assemble into a hydrogel. PMID:15877347

  17. Rapid response of Helheim Glacier, Greenland, to climate variability over the last century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andresen, C. S.; Straneo, F.; Ribergaard, M. H.; Bjoerk, A. A.; Andersen, T. J.; Kuijpers, A.; Nørgaard-Pedersen, N.; Kjaer, K. H.; Schjøth, F.; Weckström, K.; Ahlstrøm, A. P.

    2012-04-01

    Ice mass loss from Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets contribute approximately half of the current global sea level rise and in recent years the Greenland Ice sheet is observed to increase its mass loss rapidly. The quasi-simultaneous acceleration, thinning and retreat of the largest outlet glaciers (Jakobshavn, Helheim and Kangerdluqssuag) in the early 2000s suggested a common climate forcing and increasing air and ocean temperatures were indicated as potential triggers. We present a new record of calving activity of Helheim Glacier, East Greenland, extending back to c. 1890 AD. This record was obtained by analysing sedimentary deposits from Sermilik Fjord, where Helheim Glacier terminates, and uses the annual deposition of sand grains as a proxy for iceberg discharge. The 120 year long record reveals large fluctuations in calving rates, but that the present high rate was reproduced only in the 1930s. A comparison with climate indices indicates that high calving activity coincides with increased Atlantic Water and decreased Polar Water influence on the shelf, warm summers and a negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation. Our analysis provides evidence that Helheim Glacier responds to short-term (3-10 years) large-scale oceanic and atmospheric fluctuations.

  18. Rapid warming in Tibet, China: public perception, response and coping resources in urban Lhasa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tibet, average altitude more than 4,000 meters, is warming faster than anywhere else in China. The increase in temperatures may aggravate existing health problems and lead to the emergence of new risks. However, there are no actions being taken at present to protect population health due to limited understanding about the range and magnitude of health effects of climate change. Methods The study was a cross-sectional survey of 619 respondents from urban Lhasa, Tibet in August 2012 with the aim to investigate public perceptions of risk, heat experiences, and coping resources. Results Respondents are aware of the warming that has occurred in Lhasa in recent years. Over 78% reported that rising temperature is either a “very” or “somewhat” serious threat to their own health, and nearly 40% reported they had experienced heat-related symptoms. Sex, age, education and income influenced perceived risks, health status, and heat experience. The vast majority of respondents reported that they had altered their behaviour on hot summer days. Bakuo, a sub-district at the city center, is considered especially vulnerable to heat because of sparse vegetation, high population density, poor dwelling conditions and a high proportion of low-income population. However, neighborhood social ties were stronger in Bakuo than other study locations. Conclusions The study suggests that actions are needed now to minimize downside effects of rapid warming in Tibet, because of increasing human exposure to high temperatures and uneven distribution of the resources needed to cope. PMID:24103412

  19. Evaluation of the MS-2 system for rapid identification of Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed Central

    McCracken, A W; Martin, W J; McCarthy, L R; Schwab, D A; Cooper, B H; Helgeson, N G; Prowant, S; Robson, J

    1980-01-01

    The precision, accuracy, and other performance characteristics of the MS-2 (Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostic Division, Dallas, Tex.) system for the identification of Enterobacteriaceae were evaluated in a collaborative study involving three clinical laboratories. When identifying 150 unknown, coded organisms, the MS-2 system was 97%, 98%, and 93% accurate, respectively, in three laboratories. The system showed an overall accuracy of 94% when compared with conventional manual tube methods in identifying 1,154 clinical isolates of 26 species of Enterobacteriaceae. Discrepancies between automated and conventional methods were chiefly caused by biochemical variants, especially among Enterobacter species. The MS-2 system was rapid and simple to operate and produced printed results of bacterial identification in 5 h. The cost of disposable components compared favorably with commercial, visually read systems for identifying Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:7024299

  20. The Rapid Transit System That Achieves Higher Performance with Lower Life-Cycle Costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sone, Satoru; Takagi, Ryo

    In the age of traction system made of inverter and ac traction motors, distributed traction system with pure electric brake of regenerative mode has been recognised very advantageous. This paper proposes a new system as the lowest life-cycle cost system for high performance rapid transit, a new architecture and optimum parameters of power feeding system, and a new running method of trains. In Japan, these components of this proposal, i.e. pure electric brake and various countermeasures of reducing loss of regeneration have been already popular but not as yet the new running method for better utilisation of the equipment and for lower life-cycle cost. One example of what are proposed in this paper will be made as Tsukuba Express, which is under construction as the most modern commuter railway in Greater Tokyo area.