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Sample records for rapidly destructive coxarthrosis

  1. Total Hip Arthroplasty for Rapidly Destructive Coxarthrosis in a Patient with Severe Platelet Deficiency due to Liver Cirrhosis and Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura.

    PubMed

    Hama, Shunpei; Inori, Fumiaki; Momose, Dai; Konishi, Sadahiko

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly destructive coxarthrosis (RDC) causes rapid and extreme destruction of the hip joint, which was reported by Postel and Kerboull. RDC is commonly unilateral and occurs mostly in elderly women. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is characterized by a low platelet count that is the result of both immune-mediated platelet destruction and suppression of platelet production. In patients with ITP undergoing surgery, bleeding associated with a low preoperative platelet count can lead to unsuccessful outcomes. To the best of our knowledge, there has been only one report describing total hip arthroplasty (THA) for patients with ITP and there have been no reports of THA for RDC with a very low platelet count due to liver cirrhosis (LC) and ITP. We report the case of a patient who had right RDC and a very low platelet count due to LC and ITP in whom THA was successfully performed. Furthermore, this case was also unique in that her platelet count increased after THA. THA for right RDC might resolve ITP by relieving inflammation of the right hip since her platelet count recovered after THA. PMID:26064742

  2. Comparison of Perioperative Blood Loss in Primary Non-cemented Total Hip Arthroplasty for Rapidly Destructive Coxarthrosis and Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head

    PubMed Central

    Song, Joo-Hyoun; Han, Suk Ku; Lee, Kyung-Hoon; Lee, Jae-Min

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to compare the perioperative blood loss in primary non-cemented total hip arthroplasty (THA) performed for rapidly destructive coxarthrosis (RDC) with the perioperative blood loss in primary non-cemented THA for typical osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). Materials and Methods From January 2000 to December 2013, 19 patients were diagnosed with RDC (group 1) and 40 patients were diagnosed typical Ficat stage IV ONFH (group 2), comparison of perioperative blood loss between group 1 and group 2 in primary noncemented THA was done. Patients with preoperative usage of steroid or anticoagulants medication and with hemodynamic abnormal blood test results were excluded. The blood loss was measured up to the fifth post operation day and calculated with formula proposed by Mercuriali, Inghilleri and Nadler. Results Non-compensated blood loss calculated in milliliters of red blood cells was 362 mL (standard deviation [SD], 187; range, 77-675) in group 1 and 180 mL (SD, 145; range, 53-519) in group 2. Compensated blood loss was 630 mL (SD, 180; range, 380-760) in group 1 and 503 mL (SD, 260; range, 190-1, 505) in group 2. The total blood loss after primary non-cemented THA is greater when surgery is performed for RDC than for ONFH, with the volume of 992 mL (SD, 300; range, 457-1, 434) in group 1 and 683 mL (SD, 360; range, 226-1, 975) in group 2 respectively. Conclusion Total perioperative blood loss was significantly greater in RDC than in ONFH in primary non-cemented THA. PMID:27536617

  3. Coxarthrosis and farm work: a case-referent study.

    PubMed

    Thelin, A; Jansson, B; Jacobsson, B; Ström, H

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this case-referent study was to analyze the association between coxarthrosis and occupation. The study was performed in a Swedish agricultural county and comprised 269 cases of radiologically verified arthrosis of osteoarthritis (< 3 mm joint space) that were compared to 538 randomly selected controls in the same region, matched for age, sex, and place of residence. Farmers and agricultural workers showed an increased risk of coxarthrosis and the observed risk increased with increasing number of years of farming. Tractor driving and milking were associated with coxarthrosis, whereas no association with other types of machine work could be demonstrated. An association between coxarthrosis and heavy physical work before the age of 16 years was also observed. The results give only limited information on the external causes of coxarthrosis, however. More detailed studies of groups of individuals with coxarthrosis in order to obtain more information about contributing and underlying factors would therefore be valuable. PMID:9327073

  4. Rapid Destruction of the Hip Joint Accompanied by an Enlarged Iliopsoas Bursa in a Healthy Man

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ju-Oh

    2014-01-01

    Association between enlarged iliopsoas bursa and hip lesions such as osteoarthritis of the hip or femoral head necrosis is infrequently seen. Enlarged iliopsoas bursa with a rapidly destructive arthropathy is claimed to be seen only in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. In this paper, we report a patient with a rapidly destructive arthropathy accompanied by an enlarged iliopsoas bursa that has been misdiagnosed as an infection.

  5. Rapid destruction of organic chemicals in groundwater using sunlight

    SciTech Connect

    Tyner, C.E.; Haslund, C.A.; Pacheco, J.E.; Holmes, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    We are currently investigating a solar-driven photocatalytic process that promises to destroy low concentrations of hazardous organic molecules in large volumes of contaminated groundwater or industrial waste streams. Preliminary results of laboratory-scale screening tests using a model compound, salicylic acid, and titanium dioxide catalyst have shown that no measurable reaction occurs without both uv light and catalyst; no measurable volatilization of the salicylic acid occurs at room temperature; salicylic acid destruction rates depend on catalyst supplier and concentration and on uv light intensity; and some intermediates are being formed and subsequently destroyed. Observed reaction rates are consistent with those observed in an initial pilot-scale solar test of a falling-film reactor, although further testing will be required to quantify the comparison. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Early MRI and intraoperative findings in rapidly destructive osteoarthritis of the hip: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Fukui, Kiyokazu; Kaneuji, Ayumi; Fukushima, Mana; Matsumoto, Tadami

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The pathophysiology of rapidly destructive hip osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip is still unclear. Also, there have been only few reports on the initial stage of the disease. We report a case of an initial-stage rapidly destructive hip OA, documented by magnetic resonance imaging and intraoperative findings. Presentation of case A 77-year-old woman reported left hip pain without any antecedent trauma. Initial radiographs showed no obvious abnormality. After 4 months of conservative therapy, radiographs showed progressive joint-space narrowing and T1-weighted magnetic resonance images revealed a bone-marrow edema pattern not only on the femoral head but also on the lateral side of the acetabulum. Then during total hip arthroplasty, we found extensive inversion of the anterosuperior portion of the acetabular labrum, and the location was mostly consistent with the bone-marrow edema lesions in the femoral head and acetabulum. Discussion Several theories for the etiology of rapidly destructive hip OA have been proposed, including idiopathic chondrolysis, abnormal immunoreaction, intra-articular deposition of hydroxyapatite crystals, and subchondral insufficiency fracture. One of the reasons rapidly destructive hip OA is still considered idiopathic is the lack of reports regarding the initial stage of the disease. Our report is the first to demonstrate magnetic resonance imaging for initial-stage disease with intraoperative findings before collapse of the femoral head. Conclusion Inversion of the acetabular labrum may be a mechanism of rapidly destructive hip OA. PMID:25603485

  7. Rapid, Non-Destructive Estimation of Leaf Area on Field-Grown Vitis labruscana Grapevines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three potential variables, shoot basal diameter, leaf count per shoot and shoot length, were examined as potential rapid, non-destructive methods for estimating leaf area per shoot, a frequent component of estimates of leaf area per vine. The metrics were recorded in large field-grown vines over fi...

  8. [Dynamics of hip joint biomechanics in patients with coxarthrosis at the time of hippotherapy].

    PubMed

    Nareklishvili, T M

    2008-02-01

    The problems of degenerative-dystrophic abnormalities stimulate the development of new skills and methods of treatment and rehabilitation of the diseases. The goal of the study was to determine the efficacy of hippotherapy in patients with coxarthrosis, according to functional and biomechanical parameters. Hippotherapy involves the utilization of horseback riding to stimulate the patient's normal reactions and locomotion; to improve the balance and coordination of movement, normalize muscle tension, and eliminate pathological reflexes. The advantage of the hippotherapy is in the specific posture, which is adopted by hip joint at the time of riding and in movement, which is accomplished by rider, at different paces of the horse. 10 female patients from 14 to 32 years old with coxarthrosis were under the observation. The rehabilitation of the patients was carried out by means of hippotherapy, which consisted of three months riding three times a week. To evaluate the efficacy of treatment, a new method of biomechanical registration of hip joint movement during hippotherapy on pacing horse was developed. The dynamics of biomechanical curves before and after the treatment, as well as the clinical and functional parameters of the patients allowed the authors to conclude: hippotherapy improves a hip joint functional state in patients with coxarthrosis; improves the muscle-tendineous component of hip joint movement. Hippotherapy may be considered as the pathogenetic method of treatment of coxarthrosis. Drawing the biomechanical curve of hip joint movement at the time of riding is the objective method of studying its function. PMID:18401052

  9. Rapid non-destructive assessment of pork edible quality by using VIS/NIR spectroscopic technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Leilei; Peng, Yankun; Dhakal, Sagar; Song, Yulin; Zhao, Juan; Zhao, Songwei

    2013-05-01

    The objectives of this research were to develop a rapid non-destructive method to evaluate the edible quality of chilled pork. A total of 42 samples were packed in seal plastic bags and stored at 4°C for 1 to 21 days. Reflectance spectra were collected from visible/near-infrared spectroscopy system in the range of 400nm to 1100nm. Microbiological, physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics such as the total viable counts (TVC), total volatile basic-nitrogen (TVB-N), pH value and color parameters L* were determined to appraise pork edible quality. Savitzky-Golay (SG) based on five and eleven smoothing points, Multiple Scattering Correlation (MSC) and first derivative pre-processing methods were employed to eliminate the spectra noise. The support vector machines (SVM) and partial least square regression (PLSR) were applied to establish prediction models using the de-noised spectra. A linear correlation was developed between the VIS/NIR spectroscopy and parameters such as TVC, TVB-N, pH and color parameter L* indexes, which could gain prediction results with Rv of 0.931, 0.844, 0.805 and 0.852, respectively. The results demonstrated that VIS/NIR spectroscopy technique combined with SVM possesses a powerful assessment capability. It can provide a potential tool for detecting pork edible quality rapidly and non-destructively.

  10. Monitoring fungal growth on brown rice grains using rapid and non-destructive hyperspectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Siripatrawan, U; Makino, Y

    2015-04-16

    This research aimed to develop a rapid, non-destructive, and accurate method based on hyperspectral imaging (HSI) for monitoring spoilage fungal growth on stored brown rice. Brown rice was inoculated with a non-pathogenic strain of Aspergillus oryzae and stored at 30 °C and 85% RH. Growth of A. oryzae on rice was monitored using viable colony counts, expressed as colony forming units per gram (CFU/g). The fungal development was observed using scanning electron microscopy. The HSI system was used to acquire reflectance images of the samples covering the visible and near-infrared (NIR) wavelength range of 400-1000 nm. Unsupervised self-organizing map (SOM) was used to visualize data classification of different levels of fungal infection. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to predict fungal growth on rice grains from the HSI reflectance spectra. The HSI spectral signals decreased with increasing colony counts, while conserving similar spectral pattern during the fungal growth. When integrated with SOM, the proposed HSI method could be used to classify rice samples with different levels of fungal infection without sample manipulation. Moreover, HSI was able to rapidly identify infected rice although the samples showed no symptoms of fungal infection. Based on PLS regression, the coefficient of determination was 0.97 and root mean square error of prediction was 0.39 log (CFU/g), demonstrating that the HSI technique was effective for prediction of fungal infection in rice grains. The ability of HSI to detect fungal infection at early stage would help to prevent contaminated rice grains from entering the food chain. This research provides scientific information on the rapid, non-destructive, and effective fungal detection system for rice grains. PMID:25662486

  11. Ultra-portable, wireless smartphone spectrometer for rapid, non-destructive testing of fruit ripeness

    PubMed Central

    Das, Anshuman J.; Wahi, Akshat; Kothari, Ishan; Raskar, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a smartphone based spectrometer design that is standalone and supported on a wireless platform. The device is inherently low-cost and the power consumption is minimal making it portable to carry out a range of studies in the field. All essential components of the device like the light source, spectrometer, filters, microcontroller and wireless circuits have been assembled in a housing of dimensions 88 mm × 37 mm × 22 mm and the entire device weighs 48 g. The resolution of the spectrometer is 15 nm, delivering accurate and repeatable measurements. The device has a dedicated app interface on the smartphone to communicate, receive, plot and analyze spectral data. The performance of the smartphone spectrometer is comparable to existing bench-top spectrometers in terms of stability and wavelength resolution. Validations of the device were carried out by demonstrating non-destructive ripeness testing in fruit samples. Ultra-Violet (UV) fluorescence from Chlorophyll present in the skin was measured across various apple varieties during the ripening process and correlated with destructive firmness tests. A satisfactory agreement was observed between ripeness and fluorescence signals. This demonstration is a step towards possible consumer, bio-sensing and diagnostic applications that can be carried out in a rapid manner. PMID:27606927

  12. Ultra-portable, wireless smartphone spectrometer for rapid, non-destructive testing of fruit ripeness.

    PubMed

    Das, Anshuman J; Wahi, Akshat; Kothari, Ishan; Raskar, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a smartphone based spectrometer design that is standalone and supported on a wireless platform. The device is inherently low-cost and the power consumption is minimal making it portable to carry out a range of studies in the field. All essential components of the device like the light source, spectrometer, filters, microcontroller and wireless circuits have been assembled in a housing of dimensions 88 mm × 37 mm × 22 mm and the entire device weighs 48 g. The resolution of the spectrometer is 15 nm, delivering accurate and repeatable measurements. The device has a dedicated app interface on the smartphone to communicate, receive, plot and analyze spectral data. The performance of the smartphone spectrometer is comparable to existing bench-top spectrometers in terms of stability and wavelength resolution. Validations of the device were carried out by demonstrating non-destructive ripeness testing in fruit samples. Ultra-Violet (UV) fluorescence from Chlorophyll present in the skin was measured across various apple varieties during the ripening process and correlated with destructive firmness tests. A satisfactory agreement was observed between ripeness and fluorescence signals. This demonstration is a step towards possible consumer, bio-sensing and diagnostic applications that can be carried out in a rapid manner. PMID:27606927

  13. Direct, non-destructive, and rapid evaluation of developmental cotton fibers by ATR FT-IR spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemical, compositional, and structural differences within the fibers at different growth stages have been investigated considerably through a number of methodologies. Due to its direct, non-destructive, and rapid attribute, this study reports the utilization of attenuated total reflection Fourier t...

  14. Development of vibrational spectroscopic methods to rapidly and non-destructively assess quality of chicken breast meat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of Vibrational Spectroscopic Methods to Rapidly and Non-Destructively Assess Quality of Chicken Breast Meat H. Zhuang1, M. Sohn2, S. Trabelsi1 and K. Lawrence1 1Quality and Safety Assessment Research Unit, ARS-USDA, 950 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605 2University of Georgia, De...

  15. Rapid and non-destructive identification of water-injected beef samples using multispectral imaging analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinxia; Cao, Yue; Wang, Qiu; Pan, Wenjuan; Ma, Fei; Liu, Changhong; Chen, Wei; Yang, Jianbo; Zheng, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Water-injected beef has aroused public concern as a major food-safety issue in meat products. In the study, the potential of multispectral imaging analysis in the visible and near-infrared (405-970 nm) regions was evaluated for identifying water-injected beef. A multispectral vision system was used to acquire images of beef injected with up to 21% content of water, and partial least squares regression (PLSR) algorithm was employed to establish prediction model, leading to quantitative estimations of actual water increase with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.923. Subsequently, an optimized model was achieved by integrating spectral data with feature information extracted from ordinary RGB data, yielding better predictions (r = 0.946). Moreover, the prediction equation was transferred to each pixel within the images for visualizing the distribution of actual water increase. These results demonstrate the capability of multispectral imaging technology as a rapid and non-destructive tool for the identification of water-injected beef. PMID:26213059

  16. Litchi freshness rapid non-destructive evaluating method using electronic nose and non-linear dynamics stochastic resonance model

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Xiaoguo; Liu, Wei; Hui, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, litchi freshness rapid non-destructive evaluating method using electronic nose (e-nose) and non-linear stochastic resonance (SR) was proposed. EN responses to litchi samples were continuously detected for 6 d Principal component analysis (PCA) and non-linear stochastic resonance (SR) methods were utilized to analyze EN detection data. PCA method could not totally discriminate litchi samples, while SR signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) eigen spectrum successfully discriminated all litchi samples. Litchi freshness predictive model developed using SNR eigen values shows high predictive accuracy with regression coefficients R2 = 0 .99396. PMID:25920547

  17. Rapid real-time detection of cold atoms with minimal destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Lye, J.E.; Hope, J.J.; Close, J.D.

    2004-02-01

    We present a minimally destructive interferometric measurement of the column density of cold atoms with a passively stabilized separated beam path interferometer. We achieve a heating rate of 4 (photons/sec)/atom. The interferometer employed in these measurements utilizes a photodiode rather than a charge-coupled device camera and is suitable for the measurement of fast dynamics in Bose-Einstein condensates and real-time feedback with atom lasers. The technique is compatible with modulation techniques employing squeezed light as the probe beam for sub-shot-noise-limited measurements.

  18. Recent advances in rapid and non-destructive assessment of meat quality using hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Feifei; Ngadi, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Meat is an important food item in human diet. Its production and consumption has greatly increased in the last decades with the development of economies and improvement of peoples' living standards. However, most of the traditional methods for evaluation of meat quality are time-consuming, laborious, inconsistent and destructive to samples, which make them not appropriate for a fast-paced production and processing environment. Development of innovative and non-destructive optical sensing techniques to facilitate simple, fast, and accurate evaluation of quality are attracting increasing attention in the food industry. Hyperspectral imaging is one of the promising techniques. It integrates the combined merits of imaging and spectroscopic techniques. This paper provides a comprehensive review on recent advances in evaluation of the important quality attributes of meat including color, marbling, tenderness, pH, water holding capacity, and also chemical composition attributes such as moisture content, protein content and fat content in pork, beef and lamb. In addition, the future potential applications and trends of hyperspectral imaging are also discussed in this paper.

  19. Rapid, non-destructive evaluation of ultrathin WSe{sub 2} using spectroscopic ellipsometry

    SciTech Connect

    Eichfeld, Sarah M.; Lin, Yu-Chuan; Hossain, Lorraine; Eichfeld, Chad M.; Robinson, Joshua A.

    2014-09-01

    The utilization of tungsten diselenide (WSe{sub 2}) in electronic and optoelectronic devices depends on the ability to understand and control the process-property relationship during synthesis. We demonstrate that spectroscopic ellipsometry is an excellent technique for accurate, non-destructive determination of ultra-thin (<30 nm) WSe{sub 2} properties. The refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k) were found to be independent of thickness down to 1.3 nm, and were used to determine film thickness, which was confirmed to be within 9% of values found via atomic force microscopy. Finally, the optical bandgap was found to closely correlate with thickness, ranging from 1.2 to 1.55 eV as the WSe{sub 2} is thinned to the equivalent of 2 atomic layers.

  20. Spatial distribution pattern analysis of subtidal macroalgae assemblages by a non-destructive rapid assessment method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinda, Xabier; Juanes, José Antonio; Puente, Araceli; Echavarri-Erasun, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    The extensive field work carried out over the last century has allowed the worldwide description of general distribution patterns and specific composition of rocky intertidal communities. However, the information concerning subtidal communities on hard substrates is more recent and scarce due to the difficulties associated with working in such environments. In this work, a non-destructive method is applied to the study and mapping of subtidal rocky bottom macroalgae assemblages on the coast of Cantabria (N Spain) which is quick, easy and economical. Gelidium corneum and Cystoseira baccata were the dominant species, however, the composition and coverage of macroalgae assemblages varied significantly at different locations and depth ranges. The high presence of Laminaria ochroleuca and Saccorhiza polyschides, characteristic of colder waters, shows the transitional character of this coastal area. The results obtained throughout this study have been very useful to the application of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD 2000/60/EC) and could be of great interest for the future conservation and management of these ecosystems (e.g. Habitats Directive 92/43/EEC).

  1. Towards development of a rapid and effective non-destructive testing strategy to identify brominated flame retardants in the plastics of consumer products.

    PubMed

    Gallen, Christie; Banks, Andrew; Brandsma, Sicco; Baduel, Christine; Thai, Phong; Eaglesham, Geoff; Heffernan, Amy; Leonards, Pim; Bainton, Paul; Mueller, Jochen F

    2014-09-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) once extensively used in the plastics of a wide range of consumer products. The listing of certain congeners that are constituents of commercial PBDE mixtures (including c-octaBDE) in the Stockholm Convention and tightening regulation of many other BFRs in recent years have created the need for a rapid and effective method of identifying BFR-containing plastics. A three-tiered testing strategy comparing results from non-destructive testing (X-ray fluorescence (XRF)) (n=1714), a surface wipe test (n=137) and destructive chemical analysis (n=48) was undertaken to systematically identify BFRs in a wide range of consumer products. XRF rapidly identified bromine in 92% of products later confirmed to contain BFRs. Surface wipes of products identified tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), c-octaBDE congeners and BDE-209 with relatively high accuracy (>75%) when confirmed by destructive chemical analysis. A relationship between the amounts of BFRs detected in surface wipes and subsequent destructive testing shows promise in predicting not only the types of BFRs present but also estimating the concentrations present. Information about the types of products that may contain persistent BFRs will assist regulators in implementing policies to further reduce the occurrence of these chemicals in consumer products. PMID:24529451

  2. Intravenous Ibandronate Rapidly Reduces Pain, Neurochemical Indices of Central Sensitization, Tumor Burden, and Skeletal Destruction in a Mouse Model of Bone Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Halvorson, Kyle G.; Sevcik, Molly A.; Ghilardi, Joseph R.; Sullivan, Lucy J.; Koewler, Nathan J.; Bauss, Frieder; Mantyh, Patrick W.

    2008-01-01

    Over half of all chronic cancer pain arises from metastases to bone and bone cancer pain is one of the most difficult of all persistent pain states to fully control. Currently, bone pain is treated primarily by opioid-based therapies, which are frequently accompanied by significant unwanted side effects. In an effort to develop non-opioid-based therapies that could rapidly attenuate tumor-induced bone pain, we examined the effect of intravenous administration of the bisphosphonate, ibandronate, in a mouse model of bone cancer pain. Following injection and confinement of green fluorescent protein-transfected murine osteolytic 2472 sarcoma cells into the marrow space of the femur of male C3H/HeJ mice, ibandronate was administered either as a single dose (300 µg/kg), at day 7 post-tumor injection, when tumor-induced bone destruction and pain were first evident, or in three consecutive doses (100 µg/kg/day) at day 7, 8 and 9 post-tumor injection. Intravenous ibandronate administered once or in three consecutive doses reduced ongoing and movement-evoked bone cancer pain-related behaviors, neurochemical markers of central sensitization, tumor burden and tumor-induced bone destruction. These results support limited clinical trials that suggest the potential of ibandronate to rapidly attenuate bone pain and illuminate the mechanisms that may be responsible for limiting pain and disease progression. PMID:18411018

  3. Microwave dielectric method for the rapid, non-destructive determination of bulk density and moisture content of peanut hull pellets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A dielectric-based method was used to determine rapidly and nondestructively moisture content and bulk density of peanut-hull pellets from free-space measurement of their dielectric properties at microwave frequencies. For moisture content determination, a permittivity-based function which allows mo...

  4. Rapid detection and destruction of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck by nano-quadrapeutics.

    PubMed

    Lukianova-Hleb, Ekaterina Y; Lapotko, Dmitri O

    2015-10-01

    Survival and quality of life remain poor for patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) that cannot be fully resected safely, and form therapy-resistant residual and recurrent tumors. We report novel cell-level technology, quadrapeutics. Quadrapeutics converts surgery, drug, and radiation therapies into on-demand microtreatment that unites the diagnosis and treatment in 1 rapid procedure by using 4 standard components: (1) targeted gold colloids; (2) liposomal drugs; (3) a laser pulse; and (4) radiation, all at safe doses. The therapeutic strength of quadrapeutics increases with cancer aggressiveness. In animal models of a primary and microscopic residual HNSCC, quadrapeutics increased the efficacy of standard chemoradiation therapy by more than 17-fold by using only 3% to 6% of clinical doses of drug and radiation, did not cause side effects, and detected residual microtumors in vivo intraoperatively. Quadrapeutics can be applied to detect and eradicate HNSCC and similar microtumors in a safe and rapid theranostic procedure. PMID:25677387

  5. Rapid and non-destructive analysis of metallic dental restorations using X-ray fluorescence spectra and light-element sampling tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuhashi, K.; Uo, M.; Kitagawa, Y.; Watari, F.

    2012-12-01

    IntroductionRecently, allergic diseases caused by dental metals have been increasing. Therefore, rapid and accurate analytical methods for the metal restorations in the oral cavities of patients are required. The purpose of this study was to develop a non-destructive extraction method for dental alloys, along with a subsequent, rapid and accurate elemental analysis. Materials and methodSamples were obtained by polishing the surfaces of metal restorations using a dental rotating tool with disposable buffs and polishing pastes. As materials for the analysis, three dental alloys were used. To compare the sampling and analysis efficiencies, two buffs and seven pastes were used. After polishing the surface of a metal restoration, the buff was analyzed using X-ray scanning analytical microscopy (XSAM). ResultsThe efficiency of the analysis was judged based on the sampling rate achieved and the absence of disturbing elements in the background in fluorescence X-ray spectra. The best results were obtained for the combination of TexMet as a buff with diamond as a paste. This combination produced a good collection efficiency and a plain background in the fluorescence X-ray spectra, resulting in a high precision of the analysis.

  6. Rapid and non-destructive determination of quality parameters in the 'Tommy Atkins' mango using a novel handheld near infrared spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Marques, Emanuel José Nascimento; de Freitas, Sérgio Tonetto; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; Pasquini, Celio

    2016-04-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of a new handheld ultra-compact near infrared (NIR) spectrometer, based on the linear-variable filter (LVF) technology for rapid and non-destructive quality control analysis of the 'Tommy Atkins' mango. Multivariate calibration models were built using the Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression method to determine soluble solids (SS), dry matter (DM), titratable acidity (TA) and pulp firmness (PF). Different spectral pre-processing techniques were tested. Coefficient of determination and root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) values were, respectively: 0.92 and 0.55°Brix for SS, 0.67 and 0.51% for DM, 0.50 and 0.17% citric acid for TA, 0.72 and 12.2N for PF. The predictive models allowed monitoring physico-chemical changes in each fruit during ripening. The results show the feasibility of using the new NIR handheld spectrometer to determine quality parameters in the 'Tommy Atkins' mango. PMID:26675859

  7. UV / Visible / Near-Infrared Reflectance Models for the Rapid and Non-Destructive Prediction and Classification of Cotton Color and Physical Indices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High volume instrumentation (HVI), utilized in the cotton industry to determine the qualities and classifications of cotton fibers, is time consuming, and prone to day-to-day and location-to-location variations. UV / visible / NIR spectroscopy, a rapid and easy sampling technique, was investigated a...

  8. Rapid and Non-destructive Detection and Identification of Two Strains of Wolbachia in Aedes aegypti by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Marta F.; Milali, Masabho P.; Henry, Michael; Mkandawile, Gustav; Kho, Elise A.; Wirtz, Robert A.; Hugo, Leon E.; Dowell, Floyd E.; Devine, Gregor J.

    2016-01-01

    The release of Wolbachia infected mosquitoes is likely to form a key component of disease control strategies in the near future. We investigated the potential of using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to simultaneously detect and identify two strains of Wolbachia pipientis (wMelPop and wMel) in male and female laboratory-reared Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Our aim is to find faster, cheaper alternatives for monitoring those releases than the molecular diagnostic techniques that are currently in use. Our findings indicate that NIRS can differentiate females and males infected with wMelPop from uninfected wild type samples with an accuracy of 96% (N = 299) and 87.5% (N = 377), respectively. Similarly, females and males infected with wMel were differentiated from uninfected wild type samples with accuracies of 92% (N = 352) and 89% (N = 444). NIRS could differentiate wMelPop and wMel transinfected females with an accuracy of 96.6% (N = 442) and males with an accuracy of 84.5% (N = 443). This non-destructive technique is faster than the standard polymerase chain reaction diagnostic techniques. After the purchase of a NIRS spectrometer, the technique requires little sample processing and does not consume any reagents. PMID:27362709

  9. Rapid and Non-destructive Detection and Identification of Two Strains of Wolbachia in Aedes aegypti by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sikulu-Lord, Maggy T; Maia, Marta F; Milali, Masabho P; Henry, Michael; Mkandawile, Gustav; Kho, Elise A; Wirtz, Robert A; Hugo, Leon E; Dowell, Floyd E; Devine, Gregor J

    2016-06-01

    The release of Wolbachia infected mosquitoes is likely to form a key component of disease control strategies in the near future. We investigated the potential of using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to simultaneously detect and identify two strains of Wolbachia pipientis (wMelPop and wMel) in male and female laboratory-reared Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Our aim is to find faster, cheaper alternatives for monitoring those releases than the molecular diagnostic techniques that are currently in use. Our findings indicate that NIRS can differentiate females and males infected with wMelPop from uninfected wild type samples with an accuracy of 96% (N = 299) and 87.5% (N = 377), respectively. Similarly, females and males infected with wMel were differentiated from uninfected wild type samples with accuracies of 92% (N = 352) and 89% (N = 444). NIRS could differentiate wMelPop and wMel transinfected females with an accuracy of 96.6% (N = 442) and males with an accuracy of 84.5% (N = 443). This non-destructive technique is faster than the standard polymerase chain reaction diagnostic techniques. After the purchase of a NIRS spectrometer, the technique requires little sample processing and does not consume any reagents. PMID:27362709

  10. Creative Destruction: Singapore's Speak Good English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubdy, Rani

    2001-01-01

    Attempts to show that the move to stem the popularity of Singlish (Singapore English) is another manifestation of the notion of creative destruction, currently being proposed as a strategy to improve partial destruction of existing economic ideas and structures that rapidly obsolesce with the emergence of new ones. Argues that attempts to replace…

  11. Polysaccharide-thickened aqueous fluoride solutions for rapid destruction of the nerve agent VX. Introducing the opportunity for extensive decontamination scenarios.

    PubMed

    Elias, Shlomi; Saphier, Sigal; Columbus, Ishay; Zafrani, Yossi

    2014-01-01

    Among the chemical warfare agents, the extremely toxic nerve agent VX (O-ethyl S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methylphosphonothioate) is a target of high importance in the development of decontamination methods, due to its indefinite persistence on common environmental surfaces. Liquid decontaminants are mostly characterized by high corrosivity, usually offer poor coverage, and tend to flow and accumulate in low areas. Therefore, the development of a noncorrosive decontaminant, sufficiently viscous to resist dripping from the contaminated surface, is necessary. In the present paper we studied different polysaccharides-thickened fluoride aqueous solutions as noncorrosive decontaminants for rapid and efficient VX degradation to the nontoxic product EMPA (ethyl methylphosphonic acid). Polysaccharides are environmentally benign, natural, and inexpensive. Other known decontaminants cannot be thickened by polysaccharides, due to the sensitivity of the latter toward basic or oxidizing agents. We found that the efficiency of VX degradation in these viscous solutions in terms of kinetics and product identity is similar to that of KF aqueous solutions. Guar gum (1.5 wt %) with 4 wt % KF was chosen for further evaluation. The benign nature, rheological properties, adhering capabilities to different surfaces, and decontamination from a porous matrix were examined. This formulation showed promising properties for implementation as a spray decontaminant for common and sensitive environmental surfaces. PMID:24517492

  12. In vitro Characterization of the Rapid Cytotoxicity of Anticancer Peptide HPRP-A2 through Membrane Destruction and Intracellular Mechanism against Gastric Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jing; Hao, Xueyu; Liu, Dong; Huang, Yibing; Chen, Yuxin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, HPRP-A2, a synthetic 15-mer cationic peptides with all D-amino acids, effectively inhibited the survival of gastric cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. Gastric tumor cells killing by HPRP-A2 involves a rapid collapse of the membrane integrity and intracellular pathways. Propidium iodide (PI) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays demonstrated that one-hour treatment with HPRP-A2 led to membrane permeability changes of BGC-823 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, HPRP-A2 induced apoptosis in BGC-823 cells involves a marked increase in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS),caspase-3, -8 and -9 activation, a reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. In addition to its inherent cytotoxicity, HPRP-A2 synergized strongly with doxorubicin (DOX) to enhance the efficacy of killing gastric tumor cells in vitro. We believe that HPRP-A2 with all D-amino acids could be a potent candidate of anticancer therapeutics, especially in combination therapy. PMID:26422386

  13. Rapid and non-destructive determination of drip loss and pH distribution in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fillets using visible and near-infrared (Vis-NIR) hyperspectral imaging.

    PubMed

    He, Hong-Ju; Wu, Di; Sun, Da-Wen

    2014-08-01

    Drip loss and pH are important indices in quality assessment of salmon products. This work was carried out for rapid and non-destructive determination of drip loss and pH distribution in salmon fillets using near-infrared (Vis-NIR) hyperspectral imaging. Hyperspectral images were acquired for salmon fillet samples and their spectral signatures in the 400-1700nm range were extracted. Partial least square regression (PLSR) was used to correlate the spectra with reference drip loss and pH values. Important wavelengths were selected using the regression coefficients method to develop new PLSR models, leading to a correlation coefficient of cross-validation (rCV) of 0.834 with root-mean-square errors by cross-validation (RMSECV) of 0.067 for drip loss and a rCV of 0.877 with RMSECV of 0.046 for pH, respectively. Distribution maps of drip loss and pH were generated based on the new PLSR models using image processing algorithms. The results showed that Vis-NIR hyperspectral imaging technique combined with PLSR calibration analysis offers an effective quantitative capability for determining the spatial distribution of drip loss and pH in salmon fillets. PMID:24629986

  14. A new rapid and non-destructive method to detect tephra layers and cryptotephras: applying to the first distal tephrostratigraphic record of the Chaîne des Puys volcanic field (France).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouannic, Gwénolé; Walter-Simonnet, Anne-Véronique; Bossuet, Gilles; Delabrousse, Eric; Cubizolle, Hervé

    2014-05-01

    Tephrostratigraphy has been considerably developed for 30 years, mainly in palaeo-environmental studies. In such studies, distal tephra layers are important chronological markers, but they are also tools to establish or specify record of past eruptions of a volcanic field. Nowadays, development of effective rapid methods to detect tephra layers in sedimentary records of various compositions is a challenge. Many classic methods for detection of tephra layers, like regular sampling or magnetic susceptibility measurements, have shown their limits. Regular sampling takes a long time, and finding tephra layers remains uncertain. Moreover, magnetic susceptibility maesurements, although it is a non-destructive method, is ineffective when tephra layers are made of volcanic glass shards with differentiated magma composition. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is also a non-destructive method but it takes a very long time to analyze a core with sufficient high resolution, and measurements only concern the surface of the sediment. We propose a new method allows detection of tephra layers with, for the first time, a 3D resolution: the Computed Tomography Scan (CT- Scan). This method, regularly used in medicine, allows there to obtain pictures of materials density on 3D with inframillimetric measurement ranges. Then, it is possible to detect tephras, cryptotephras (invisible by naked eye), reworked tephra layers even when tephra layers don't outcrop at the surface of the sediment (and are therefore undetectable by usual methods like XRF and magnetic susceptibility). This method has been tried out on tephras sedimented in different types of sediments (silicated, carbonated and organic matter). Our results show that this method is very efficient for peaty environment. Used on coring carried out in Forez Mountains (French Massif Central), CT-Scan allows to detect more tephra layers than usual methods (XRF and magnetic susceptibility). Results presented here allow to build the first

  15. HAZARDOUS WASTE DESTRUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper profiles the current status of hazardous waste thermal destruction in the United States, including facilities and wastes typically handled. The results of extensive EPA-sponsored performance tests are presented for incinerators, industrial boilers, and industrial proces...

  16. Waste destruction by plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cretenot, Didier; Vanrenterghem, Jacques; Labrot, Maxime; Pineau, Didier

    The use of arc plasma for waste destruction is addressed. Types of treatable waste, processes for liquid and solid or pasty wastes, and the present state of these techniques in France are described. The efficiency of arc plasma technology in the destruction of liquid organochlorinated waste compounds in commercial size units, particularly mobile units, is demonstrated. Many trials with solid waste demonstrate that plasmas are a highly efficient solution.

  17. Witnessing Extrasolar Asteroid Destruction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Siyi; Jura, Michael; Su, Kate; Meng, Huan

    2014-11-01

    40 white dwarfs with excess infrared radiation due to a circumstellar dust disk from tidally disrupted asteroids have been identified. Recently, we identified one dusty white dwarf whose infrared fluxes have been increasing since May 2014. Very likely, it is caused by a recent tidal disruption event of extrasolar asteroid. We propose DDT to follow it up in a timely manner because the flare could dissipate very soon. This proposal provides a unique opportunity to study the destruction of an extrasolar asteroid.

  18. Love, psychoanalysis and destruction.

    PubMed

    Ovcharenko, V

    1999-07-01

    The author presents the available information concerning the eminent Russian psychoanalyst Sabina Spielrein, who originally developed the idea of destruction. A major part of the article, which concerns today's popular following of C. G. Jung and S. Freud, is based on documents in the Russian (Moscow) archives, and touches upon the least known periods and facts of her tragic life and of her creative activity. PMID:10424191

  19. [A DESTRUCTIVE SHOULDER ARTHROPATHY].

    PubMed

    Ouhadi, L; Gaudreault, M; Mottard, S; Gillet, Ph

    2016-02-01

    Charcot arthropathy is a progressive, chronic and degenerative destruction of one or several joints caused by a central or peripheral neurological disorder. Approximately 25 % of the patients with syringomyelia develop this arthropathy located in the upper limb in 80 % of the cases. An early etiological diagnosis is essential to begin the treatment of the underlying neurological disorder. Afterwards, a conservative treatment of the arthropathy is preferred. We report the story of a patient with an arthropathy of the left shoulder due to Arnold-Chiari's malformation of type I with syringomyelia. PMID:27141649

  20. Shock destruction armor system

    DOEpatents

    Froeschner, Kenneth E.

    1993-01-01

    A shock destruction armor system is constructed and arranged to destroy the force of impact of a projectile by shock hydrodynamics. The armor system is designed to comprise a plurality of superimposed armor plates each preferably having a thickness less than five times the projectile's diameter and are preferably separated one-from-another by a distance at least equal to one-half of the projectile's diameter. The armor plates are effective to hydrodynamically and sequentially destroy the projectile. The armor system is particularly adapted for use on various military vehicles, such as tanks, aircraft and ships.

  1. Tank 48 - Chemical Destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Simner, Steven P.; Aponte, Celia I.; Brass, Earl A.

    2013-01-09

    Small tank copper-catalyzed peroxide oxidation (CCPO) is a potentially viable technology to facilitate the destruction of tetraphenylborate (TPB) organic solids contained within the Tank 48H waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS). A maturation strategy was created that identified a number of near-term development activities required to determine the viability of the CCPO process, and subsequent disposition of the CCPO effluent. Critical activities included laboratory-scale validation of the process and identification of forward transfer paths for the CCPO effluent. The technical documentation and the successful application of the CCPO process on simulated Tank 48 waste confirm that the CCPO process is a viable process for the disposition of the Tank 48 contents.

  2. 27 CFR 19.691 - Voluntary destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., State, and local environmental laws and regulations. (e) Record of destruction. The proprietor shall... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Voluntary destruction. 19... Voluntary Destruction Voluntary Destruction § 19.691 Voluntary destruction. (a) General. Spirits,...

  3. SARM1 activation triggers axon degeneration locally via NAD+ destruction

    PubMed Central

    Gerdts, Josiah; Brace, E.J.; Sasaki, Yo; DiAntonio, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Axon degeneration is an intrinsic self-destruction program that underlies axon loss during injury and disease. Sterile alpha and TIR motif containing 1 (SARM1) protein is an essential mediator of axon degeneration. We report that SARM1 initiates a local destruction program involving rapid breakdown of NAD+ after injury. We used an engineered protease-sensitized SARM1 to demonstrate that SARM1 activity is required after axon injury to induce axon degeneration. Dimerization of the Toll-Interleukin Receptor (TIR) domain of SARM1 alone was sufficient to induce locally-mediated axon degeneration. Formation of the SARM1 TIR dimer triggered rapid breakdown of NAD+, whereas SARM1-induced axon destruction could be counteracted by increased NAD+ synthesis. SARM1-induced depletion of NAD+ may explain the potent axon protection in Wallerian Degeneration slow (Wlds) mutant mice. PMID:25908823

  4. Flameless thermal destruction of VOCs

    SciTech Connect

    Hohl, H.M.

    1997-04-01

    A new technology controls volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions with high destruction efficiencies. This article describes the technology developed by Thermatrix, Inc. of San Jose, CA. The field proven flameless thermal oxidation (FTO) is capable of destroying over 99.99 percent of a wide range of organic air pollution. Topics covered include FTO technology, high destruction efficiencies, VOCs in wastewater from chemical manufacturing; refinery fugitive emissions.

  5. A self-destruction game.

    PubMed

    Raczynski, Stanislaw

    2006-10-01

    A simple model of a self-destructing society is presented. It can be interpreted as a game with two players: the society and its sub-set which tends to destroy the whole society, as well as itself. The main factor taken into account in the model is the progress of science and technology which provides the destruction tools (new weapons and killing techniques), as well as tools the society can use to defend itself. The modeling and simulation tool is discrete-event and can be treated as agent-oriented, though the agent capabilities are rather simple. The simulation experiments show that, in the near future, this progress will become extremely dangerous, and it may result in the total destruction of mankind. For the longer time period, however, the conclusion is not so pessimistic. If the society survives during a certain time interval, then the probability of survival becomes greater for a longer time span. PMID:16884653

  6. Conceptualizing Chronic Self-Destructiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Kathryn

    Self-destructiveness can be viewed in two ways: as performing an act which one knows cognitively is not conducive to one's welfare but nonetheless leads to some pleasurable affect (e.g., overeating, smoking); or not performing an act one knows one should perform but which has some negative affective consequences (e.g., dental checkups, saving…

  7. Molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Brummond, W.A.; Upadhye, R.S.; Pruneda, C.O.

    1995-07-18

    A molten salt destruction process is used to treat and destroy energetic waste materials such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels. The energetic material is pre-blended with a solid or fluid diluent in safe proportions to form a fluid fuel mixture. The fuel mixture is rapidly introduced into a high temperature molten salt bath. A stream of molten salt is removed from the vessel and may be recycled as diluent. Additionally, the molten salt stream may be pumped from the reactor, circulated outside the reactor for further processing, and delivered back into the reactor or cooled and circulated to the feed delivery system to further dilute the fuel mixture entering the reactor. 4 figs.

  8. Molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Brummond, William A.; Upadhye, Ravindra S.; Pruneda, Cesar O.

    1995-01-01

    A molten salt destruction process is used to treat and destroy energetic waste materials such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels. The energetic material is pre-blended with a solid or fluid diluent in safe proportions to form a fluid fuel mixture. The fuel mixture is rapidly introduced into a high temperature molten salt bath. A stream of molten salt is removed from the vessel and may be recycled as diluent. Additionally, the molten salt stream may be pumped from the reactor, circulated outside the reactor for further processing, and delivered back into the reactor or cooled and circulated to the feed delivery system to further dilute the fuel mixture entering the reactor.

  9. NON-DESTRUCTIVE BEAM MEASUREMENTS.

    SciTech Connect

    BAI,M.

    2004-07-05

    In high energy accelerators, especially storage rings, non-destructive beam measurements are highly desirable to minimize the impact on the beam quality. In principle, the non-destructive tools can be either passive detectors like Schottky, or active devices which excite either longitudinal or transverse beam motions for the corresponding measurements. An example of such a device is an ac dipole, a magnet with oscillating field, which can be used to achieve large coherent betatron oscillations. It has been demonstrated in the Brookhaven AGS that by adiabatically exciting the beam, the beam emittance growth due to the filamentation in the phase space can be avoided. This paper overviews both techniques in general. In particular, this paper also presents the beam tune measurement with a Schottky detector, phase advance measurements as well as nonlinear resonance measurements with the ac dipoles in the Brookhaven RHIC.

  10. Chondrule destruction in nebular shocks

    SciTech Connect

    Jacquet, Emmanuel; Thompson, Christopher

    2014-12-10

    Chondrules are millimeter-sized silicate spherules ubiquitous in primitive meteorites, but whose origin remains mysterious. One of the main proposed mechanisms for producing them is melting of solids in shock waves in the gaseous protoplanetary disk. However, evidence is mounting that chondrule-forming regions were enriched in solids well above solar abundances. Given the high velocities involved in shock models, destructive collisions would be expected between differently sized grains after passage of the shock front as a result of differential drag. We investigate the probability and outcome of collisions of particles behind a one-dimensional shock using analytic methods as well as a full integration of the coupled mass, momentum, energy, and radiation equations. Destruction of protochondrules seems unavoidable for solid/gas ratios ε ≳ 0.1, and possibly even for solar abundances because of 'sandblasting' by finer dust. A flow with ε ≳ 10 requires much smaller shock velocities (∼2 versus 8 km s{sup –1}) in order to achieve chondrule-melting temperatures, and radiation trapping allows slow cooling of the shocked fragments. Initial destruction would still be extensive; although re-assembly of millimeter-sized particles would naturally occur by grain sticking afterward, the compositional heterogeneity of chondrules may be difficult to reproduce. We finally note that solids passing through small-scale bow shocks around few kilometer-sized planetesimals might experience partial melting and yet escape fragmentation.

  11. Chondrule Destruction in Nebular Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquet, Emmanuel; Thompson, Christopher

    2014-12-01

    Chondrules are millimeter-sized silicate spherules ubiquitous in primitive meteorites, but whose origin remains mysterious. One of the main proposed mechanisms for producing them is melting of solids in shock waves in the gaseous protoplanetary disk. However, evidence is mounting that chondrule-forming regions were enriched in solids well above solar abundances. Given the high velocities involved in shock models, destructive collisions would be expected between differently sized grains after passage of the shock front as a result of differential drag. We investigate the probability and outcome of collisions of particles behind a one-dimensional shock using analytic methods as well as a full integration of the coupled mass, momentum, energy, and radiation equations. Destruction of protochondrules seems unavoidable for solid/gas ratios epsilon >~ 0.1, and possibly even for solar abundances because of "sandblasting" by finer dust. A flow with epsilon >~ 10 requires much smaller shock velocities (~2 versus 8 km s-1) in order to achieve chondrule-melting temperatures, and radiation trapping allows slow cooling of the shocked fragments. Initial destruction would still be extensive; although re-assembly of millimeter-sized particles would naturally occur by grain sticking afterward, the compositional heterogeneity of chondrules may be difficult to reproduce. We finally note that solids passing through small-scale bow shocks around few kilometer-sized planetesimals might experience partial melting and yet escape fragmentation.

  12. 43 CFR 4730.1 - Destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.1 Destruction. Except as an act of mercy, no wild horse or burro shall be destroyed without the authorization of...

  13. 43 CFR 4730.1 - Destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.1 Destruction. Except as an act of mercy, no wild horse or burro shall be destroyed without the authorization of...

  14. 43 CFR 4730.1 - Destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.1 Destruction. Except as an act of mercy, no wild horse or burro shall be destroyed without the authorization of...

  15. 43 CFR 4730.1 - Destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.1 Destruction. Except as an act of mercy, no wild horse or burro shall be destroyed without the authorization of...

  16. Laser osteoperforation for treatment of inflammatory and destructive bone diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Privalov, V. A.; Krochek, I. V.; Abushkin, I. A.; Shumilin, I. I.; Lappa, A. V.

    2009-07-01

    The method of laser osteoperforation was developed in experiment and then applied for treatment of 508 patients with osteomyelitis, 51 patients with nonunion and pseudo-joint and 34 patients with different forms of osteochondropathy. The clinical trial proved the efficiency of laser osteoperforation for treatment of both inflammatory and destructive bone diseases. This method is minimally invasive, promotes rapid reduction of bone and soft tissue inflammation, and apparently stimulates bone reparation.

  17. Highly destructive perianal Crohn's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, A. K.; Udall, J.; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, E.

    1998-01-01

    This article reports a case of highly destructive perianal Crohn's disease in a 15-year-old boy who presented with fecal impaction and incontinence. Both upper and lower gastrointestinal tract endoscopy were unrevealing. Treatment with intravenous prednisolone and broad-spectrum antibiotics supplemented by enteral feeding with an elemental diet resulted in prompt recovery. However, healing of his perianal lesions began only after a diverting colostomy. Awareness of this uncommon entity is important because prompt recognition can lead to early institution of appropriate treatment and avoid further morbidity. PMID:9727293

  18. Using magnetic levitation for non-destructive quality control of plastic parts.

    PubMed

    Hennek, Jonathan W; Nemiroski, Alex; Subramaniam, Anand Bala; Bwambok, David K; Yang, Dian; Harburg, Daniel V; Tricard, Simon; Ellerbee, Audrey K; Whitesides, George M

    2015-03-01

    Magnetic levitation (MagLev) enables rapid and non-destructive quality control of plastic parts. The feasibility of MagLev as a method to: i) rapidly assess injection-molded plastic parts for defects during process optimization, ii) monitor the degradation of plastics after exposure to harsh environmental conditions, and iii) detect counterfeit polymers by density is demonstrated. PMID:25589230

  19. [Destructive spondylarthropathy in dialysis patients].

    PubMed

    Stein, G; Schneider, A; Marzoll, I; Sperschneider, H; Ritz, E

    1991-01-01

    Back pain and a cervicobrachial syndrome, as well as progressive sensory and motor deficits as far as symptoms of paraplegia, developed in two dialysis patients two and five years after the start of dialysis. One was a 60-year-old woman with pyelonephritis, the other a 55-year-old man with glomerulonephritis. There were typical radiological signs of destructive spondylarthropathy (narrowed intervertebral spaces and slippage of the vertebral bodies). The female patient required several operations (spondylothesis and orthothesis) and both patients received daily 10,000 IU vitamin D and 3-4 g calcium carbonate. In the woman the destructive process no longer progressed one year after onset of symptoms, but she still required many analgesics. She died three months later of circulatory failure. The man died four weeks after the onset of symptoms from purulent meningitis. At autopsy only renal fibrous ostitis was still demonstrable. Amyloidosis resulting from an increase in beta 2-microglobulin level were excluded by both histological and immunohistochemical examinations. PMID:1985800

  20. Enhancing Biopolymer Dynamics through Destruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Jennifer

    2012-02-01

    Microtubules are cytoskeletal filaments that organize intracellular space structurally and through active transport along their lengths. They need to be organized and remodeled quickly during development of differentiated cells or in mitosis. Much work has focused on remodeling from the ends because these long polymers can stochastically disassemble through dynamic instability or be actively disassembled. Microtubule-severing enzymes are a novel class of microtubule regulators that create new ends by cutting the filament. Thus, these proteins add a new dimension to microtubule regulation by their ability to create new microtubule ends. Interestingly, despite their destructive capabilities, severing has the ability to create new microtubule networks in cells. We are interested in the inherent biophysical activities of these proteins and their ability to remodel cellular microtubule networks. Interestingly, despite their destructive capabilities, severing has the ability to create new microtubule networks in cells. We use two-color single molecule total internal reflection fluorescence imaging to visualize purified severing enzymes and microtubules in vitro. We have examined two families of severing enzymes to find that their biophysical activities are distinct giving them different network-regulating abilities.

  1. Destruction of chemical warfare agents using metal-organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Mondloch, Joseph E; Katz, Michael J; Isley, William C; Ghosh, Pritha; Liao, Peilin; Bury, Wojciech; Wagner, George W; Hall, Morgan G; DeCoste, Jared B; Peterson, Gregory W; Snurr, Randall Q; Cramer, Christopher J; Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K

    2015-05-01

    Chemical warfare agents containing phosphonate ester bonds are among the most toxic chemicals known to mankind. Recent global military events, such as the conflict and disarmament in Syria, have brought into focus the need to find effective strategies for the rapid destruction of these banned chemicals. Solutions are needed for immediate personal protection (for example, the filtration and catalytic destruction of airborne versions of agents), bulk destruction of chemical weapon stockpiles, protection (via coating) of clothing, equipment and buildings, and containment of agent spills. Solid heterogeneous materials such as modified activated carbon or metal oxides exhibit many desirable characteristics for the destruction of chemical warfare agents. However, low sorptive capacities, low effective active site loadings, deactivation of the active site, slow degradation kinetics, and/or a lack of tailorability offer significant room for improvement in these materials. Here, we report a carefully chosen metal-organic framework (MOF) material featuring high porosity and exceptional chemical stability that is extraordinarily effective for the degradation of nerve agents and their simulants. Experimental and computational evidence points to Lewis-acidic Zr(IV) ions as the active sites and to their superb accessibility as a defining element of their efficacy. PMID:25774952

  2. Destruction of chemical warfare agents using metal-organic frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondloch, Joseph E.; Katz, Michael J.; Isley, William C., III; Ghosh, Pritha; Liao, Peilin; Bury, Wojciech; Wagner, George W.; Hall, Morgan G.; Decoste, Jared B.; Peterson, Gregory W.; Snurr, Randall Q.; Cramer, Christopher J.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Farha, Omar K.

    2015-05-01

    Chemical warfare agents containing phosphonate ester bonds are among the most toxic chemicals known to mankind. Recent global military events, such as the conflict and disarmament in Syria, have brought into focus the need to find effective strategies for the rapid destruction of these banned chemicals. Solutions are needed for immediate personal protection (for example, the filtration and catalytic destruction of airborne versions of agents), bulk destruction of chemical weapon stockpiles, protection (via coating) of clothing, equipment and buildings, and containment of agent spills. Solid heterogeneous materials such as modified activated carbon or metal oxides exhibit many desirable characteristics for the destruction of chemical warfare agents. However, low sorptive capacities, low effective active site loadings, deactivation of the active site, slow degradation kinetics, and/or a lack of tailorability offer significant room for improvement in these materials. Here, we report a carefully chosen metal-organic framework (MOF) material featuring high porosity and exceptional chemical stability that is extraordinarily effective for the degradation of nerve agents and their simulants. Experimental and computational evidence points to Lewis-acidic ZrIV ions as the active sites and to their superb accessibility as a defining element of their efficacy.

  3. Indirect Self-Destructiveness and Emotional Intelligence.

    PubMed

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos

    2016-06-01

    While emotional intelligence may have a favourable influence on the life and psychological and social functioning of the individual, indirect self-destructiveness exerts a rather negative influence. The aim of this study has been to explore possible relations between indirect self-destructiveness and emotional intelligence. A population of 260 individuals (130 females and 130 males) aged 20-30 (mean age of 24.5) was studied by using the Polish version of the chronic self-destructiveness scale and INTE, i.e., the Polish version of the assessing emotions scale. Indirect self-destructiveness has significant correlations with all variables of INTE (overall score, factor I, factor II), and these correlations are negative. The intensity of indirect self-destructiveness differentiates significantly the height of the emotional intelligence and vice versa: the height of the emotional intelligence differentiates significantly the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness. Indirect self-destructiveness has negative correlations with emotional intelligence as well as its components: the ability to recognize emotions and the ability to utilize emotions. The height of emotional intelligence differentiates the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness, and vice versa: the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness differentiates the height of emotional intelligence. It seems advisable to use emotional intelligence in the prophylactic and therapeutic work with persons with various types of disorders, especially with the syndrome of indirect self-destructiveness. PMID:26164838

  4. Non-Destructive Testing Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Bio-Imaging Research's technology that originated in an aerospace program has come full circle with a new aerospace adaptation called the Advanced Computed Tomography Inspection System, or ACTIS. The medical version of CT scans the human body for tumors or other abnormalities, the ACTIS system finds imperfections in aerospace structures and components, such as castings, assemblies, rocket motors and nozzles. ACTIS is described by its developer as the most versatile CT scanner available for non-destructive testing applications. ACTIS is a variable geometry system. ACTIS source and detectors can be moved closer together or farther apart to optimize the geometry for different sizes of test objects. The combination of variable geometry, three sources, and focusing detectors makes ACTIS cost effective for a broad range of applications. System can scan anything from very small turbine blades to large rocket assemblies.

  5. Finally, proof of weapons of mass destruction.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Ian T

    2003-10-01

    Allelopathy (one species' use of chemicals to harm other species) may be a key ingredient in successful invasions of alien plants into established communities. Bais et al. show that in response to elicitation by common soil fungi, spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) launches an ineffective defense against the fungi that results in extensive collateral damage to neighboring plants. Specifically, the flavonoid (-)-catechin, released from the roots of knapweed, produces a massive reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated oxidative burst, Ca2+ signaling, and rapid cell death in those unadapted native species whose habitats the plant regularly invades. The roots release both (+) and (-) enantiomers, but only the (-) enantiomer functions as a weapon of mass destruction; the (+) enantiomer inhibits the growth of numerous common soil-borne bacterial pathogens. Eliciting apoptotic response for a competitive advantage is an example of signal cross-talk between the genomes of interacting organisms and highlights how the internal signaling of one organism can be used by others to adjust their phenotypes in an adaptive manner. The study provides strong circumstantial evidence for an allelopathic interaction, but the genetic manipulation of (-)-catechin release would allow researchers to determine if these responses occur in nature. Precise genetic control over the release of secondary metabolites from plants would benefit ecological research. PMID:14534326

  6. Self-Destructive Behavior in Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessel, Greer; Chrisler, Joan C.

    Trichotillomania (hair-pulling) and delicate self-cutting are self-destructive behaviors which utilize the body as a vehicle for self-expression. Like anorexia and bulimia, these behaviors occur primarily in young women. This study compared groups of women college students who engage in these self-destructive behaviors with those who do not. It…

  7. 27 CFR 40.253 - Destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Destruction. 40.253 Section 40.253 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... § 40.253 Destruction. When a manufacturer of tobacco products desires to destroy tobacco products...

  8. 27 CFR 40.253 - Destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Destruction. 40.253 Section 40.253 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... § 40.253 Destruction. When a manufacturer of tobacco products desires to destroy tobacco products...

  9. 32 CFR 2001.47 - Destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Destruction. 2001.47 Section 2001.47 National... ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Safeguarding § 2001.47... pulverizing. Agencies shall comply with the destruction equipment standard stated in § 2001.42(b) of...

  10. 10 CFR 1017.26 - Destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Destruction. 1017.26 Section 1017.26 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) IDENTIFICATION AND PROTECTION OF UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Physical Protection Requirements § 1017.26 Destruction. A document marked as containing UCNI must...

  11. 10 CFR 1017.26 - Destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Destruction. 1017.26 Section 1017.26 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) IDENTIFICATION AND PROTECTION OF UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Physical Protection Requirements § 1017.26 Destruction. A document marked as containing UCNI must...

  12. 27 CFR 40.253 - Destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND... have been entered in the factory record as manufactured or received, without salvaging the tobacco, he... shall make an entry of such destruction in his factory record, and where destruction without...

  13. 27 CFR 40.253 - Destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND... have been entered in the factory record as manufactured or received, without salvaging the tobacco, he... shall make an entry of such destruction in his factory record, and where destruction without...

  14. Destruction of chlorofluorocarbons and halons

    SciTech Connect

    Matchett, J.M.; Miller, K.B.; Purcell, C.W.

    1995-06-01

    The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer requires the phaseout of ozone-depleting substances in most developed countries by January 1, 1996. Developing, or Article 5, countries have been allowed additional time in which to produce these chemicals. Contrary to the Protocol`s intent, current estimates indicate that production of these chemicals by Article 5 countries could easily equal that of the developed world before their production is required to be eliminated. The Montreal Protocol also requires that used chlorofluorcarbons (CFCs) and halons are disposed of in an environmentally acceptable manner. One mechanism devised by the Montreal Protocol to reduce the amount of ozone-depleting substances that may need to be destroyed is to transfer those chemicals to Article 5 countries. Theoretically, this has the added benefit of also eliminating the need for additional production by those countries. This paper discusses the major issues associated with the disposal/destruction of ozone-depleting substances, including the transfer of these chemicals to Article 5 countries. Potential implications of the barriers to ozone-depleting substance transfer on the viability of the Montreal Protocol will also be discussed.

  15. Photocatalyzed destruction of water contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Ollis, D.F. ); Pelizzetti, E. ); Serpone, N. )

    1991-09-01

    Heterogeneous photocatalysis is a process in which the illumination of an oxide semiconductor, usually the anatase form of titanium dioxide, produces photoexcited electrons (e{sup {minus}}) and holes (h{sup +}). These can migrate to the oxide surface and participate in half-cell reactions that are part of a closed, catalytic cycle. In the aqueous phase, the illuminated surface is widely regarded as a producer of hydroxyl radicals (e.g., h{sup +} + OH{sup {minus}} {yields} {center dot}OH), and these and other highly oxidizing initial products of this indirect photochemistry go on to attack oxidizable contaminants. This article highlights recent developments in photocatalysis that are applicable to water treatment. Topics discussed include the generality of photocatalysis for complete contaminant destruction (mineralization); some specific contaminant classes of interest (chlorinated aromatics, surfactants, herbicides, and pesticides); the use of solar versus artificial illumination; the influence of additional oxidants such as H{sub 2}O{sub 2}; catalyst forms (suspended vs. immobilized); and related potential applications of photocatalysis (metal recovery and total organic carbon (TOC) analyses).

  16. Self-destructiveness in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Noshpitz, J D

    1994-01-01

    This study is an attempt to formulate the dynamics of the group of adolescents involved in major drug use and other antisocial behavior. As consultant to a drug rehabilitation center for teenagers, the author has had occasion to interview and evaluate a large number of youths whose lives had taken such a turn. Certain aspects of the life style and behavior patterns of these young people show striking similarities. In particular, their behavior evidences the presence of a central self-destructive moiety which can be likened to a negative ego ideal; this acts to shape and to direct their lives. This element in the character structure of these patients is described in clinical and theoretical (developmental) terms, with special address to: a chronic low-grade sense of inner malaise, a tendency to self-blame for whatever goes wrong for family and close friends, feelings of alienation from the larger society around them, behavioral provocativeness in the service of seeking the relief that punishment brings, recurrent gestures of self-mutilation, frequent involvement with cults of devil worship, a record of multiple antisocial acts punctuated by numerous arrests, and repeated suicidal gestures and attempts. The origins of the negative regulatory superego elements which make for this type of psychopathology are explored. PMID:7992866

  17. Energetic materials destruction using molten salt

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhye, R.S.; Watkins, B.E.; Pruneda, C.O.; Brummond, W.A.

    1994-04-29

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in conjunction with the Energetic Materials Center is developing methods for the safe and environmentally sound destruction of explosives and propellants as a part of the Laboratory`s ancillary demilitarization mission. LLNL has built a small-scale unit to test the destruction of HE using the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process. In addition to the high explosive HMX, destruction has been carried out on RDX, PETN, ammonium picrate, TNT, nitroguanadine, and TATB. Also destroyed was a liquid gun propellant comprising hydroxyammonium nitrate, triethanolammonium nitrate and water. In addition to these pure components, destruction has been carried out on a number of commonly used formulations, such as LX-10, LX-16, LX-17, and PBX-9404.

  18. The use of positive and negative reinforcement in the treatment of escape-maintained destructive behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Piazza, C C; Fisher, W W; Hanley, G P; Remick, M L; Contrucci, S A; Aitken, T L

    1997-01-01

    We identified 3 clients whose destructive behavior was sensitive to negative reinforcement (break from tasks) and positive reinforcement (access to tangible items, attention, or both). In an instructional context, we then evaluated the effects of reinforcing compliance with one, two, or all of these consequences (a break, tangible items, attention) when destructive behavior produced a break and when it did not (escape extinction). For 2 clients, destructive behavior decreased and compliance increased when compliance produced access to tangible items, even though destructive behavior resulted in a break. For 1 client, extinction was necessary to reduce destructive behavior and to increase compliance. Subsequently, when the schedule of reinforcement for compliance was faded for all clients, destructive behavior was lower and fading proceeded more rapidly when compliance produced multiple functional reinforcers (i.e., a break plus tangible items or attention) and destructive behavior was on extinction. The results are discussed in terms of the effects of relative reinforcement value and extinction on concurrent operants. PMID:9210307

  19. Non-destructive identification of twisted light.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengyun; Wang, Bo; Song, Xinbing; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2016-04-01

    The non-destructive identification of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) is essential to various applications in the optical information processing. Here, we propose and demonstrate experimentally an efficient method to identify non-destructively the OAM by using a modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Our schemes are applicable not only to the case with integer charges, but also to optical vortices with noninteger charges. Our Letter presents the first experimental demonstration of the non-destructive identification of twisted light with integer or noninteger topological charges, which has potential applications in the OAM-based data transmission for optical communications. PMID:27192290

  20. Rubidium dimer destruction by a diode laser

    SciTech Connect

    Ban, T.; Aumiler, D.; Pichler, G.

    2005-02-01

    We observed rubidium dimer destruction by excitation of rubidium vapor with diode laser light tuned across the Rb D{sub 2} resonance line in a 2400 GHz tuning interval. The destruction was measured for rubidium atom concentrations in the (1-9)x10{sup 16} cm{sup -3} range, pump beam power up to 43 mW, and with a 5 Torr of the helium buffer gas. We discuss the physical mechanisms involved and specify the molecular pathways which may effectively lead to the observed dimer destruction.

  1. SARM1 activation triggers axon degeneration locally via NAD⁺ destruction.

    PubMed

    Gerdts, Josiah; Brace, E J; Sasaki, Yo; DiAntonio, Aaron; Milbrandt, Jeffrey

    2015-04-24

    Axon degeneration is an intrinsic self-destruction program that underlies axon loss during injury and disease. Sterile alpha and TIR motif-containing 1 (SARM1) protein is an essential mediator of axon degeneration. We report that SARM1 initiates a local destruction program involving rapid breakdown of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) after injury. We used an engineered protease-sensitized SARM1 to demonstrate that SARM1 activity is required after axon injury to induce axon degeneration. Dimerization of the Toll-interleukin receptor (TIR) domain of SARM1 alone was sufficient to induce locally mediated axon degeneration. Formation of the SARM1 TIR dimer triggered rapid breakdown of NAD(+), whereas SARM1-induced axon destruction could be counteracted by increased NAD(+) synthesis. SARM1-induced depletion of NAD(+) may explain the potent axon protection in Wallerian degeneration slow (Wld(s)) mutant mice. PMID:25908823

  2. Non-Destructive Classification Approaches for Equilbrated Ordinary Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, K.; Harrington, R.; Schroeder, C.; Morris, R. V.

    2013-01-01

    Classification of meteorites is most effectively carried out by petrographic and mineralogic studies of thin sections, but a rapid and accurate classification technique for the many samples collected in dense collection areas (hot and cold deserts) is of great interest. Oil immersion techniques have been used to classify a large proportion of the US Antarctic meteorite collections since the mid-1980s [1]. This approach has allowed rapid characterization of thousands of samples over time, but nonetheless utilizes a piece of the sample that has been ground to grains or a powder. In order to compare a few non-destructive techniques with the standard approaches, we have characterized a group of chondrites from the Larkman Nunatak region using magnetic susceptibility and Moessbauer spectroscopy.

  3. TECHNOLOGIES FOR CFC/HALON DESTRUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents an overview of the current status of possible technologies used to destroy chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons chemicals implicated in the destruction of the stratospheric ozone layer. The Montreal Protocol an international treaty to control the production a...

  4. Habitat destruction and the extinction debt revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Loehle, C.

    1996-02-01

    A very important analysis of the problem of habitat destruction concluded that such destruction may lead to an extinction debt, which is the irreversible loss of species following a prolonged transient or delay. An error in interpretation of this model led the authors to apply the results to all types of habitat destruction, but in fact the model applies only to an across-the-board decrease in fecundity, not to disturbances. For repeated, spatially random disturbance, a different model applies. For habitat destruction on regional scales (reduction in ecosystem area without disturbance in remnant areas), one must, in contrast, apply species-area relations based on the distribution of different habitat types (e.g., elevational and rainfall gradients, physiographic and edaphic variability). The error in interpretation of the basic model is presented, followed by clarification of model usage and development of a new model that applies to disturbance events.

  5. A Novel Chemical Nitrate Destruction Process

    SciTech Connect

    Dziewinski, J.; Marczak, S.

    1999-03-01

    Nitrates represent one of the most significant pollutant discharged to the Baltic Sea by the Sliiamae hydrometallurgical plant. This article contains a brief overview of the existing nitrate destruction technologies followed by the description of a new process developed by the authors. The new chemical process for nitrate destruction is cost effective and simple to operate. It converts the nitrate to nitrogen gas which goes to the atmosphere.

  6. Time Domain Terahertz Non-Destructive Evaluation of Aeroturbine Blade Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Jeffrey; Fichter, G.; Chernovsky, A.; Whitaker, John F.; Das, D.; Pollock, Tresa M.; Zimdars, David

    2009-03-01

    Time domain terahertz (TD-THz) non destructive evaluation (NDE) imaging is used to two-dimensionally map the thickness of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thermal barrier coatings (TBC) on aircraft engine turbine blades. Indications of thermal degradation can be seen. The method is non-contact, rapid, and requires no special preparation of the blade.

  7. Non-destructive freeze damage detection in oranges using machine vision and ultraviolet fluorescence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A non-contact, non-destructive, and rapid method of detecting freeze damaged oranges based on ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence of the peel oil constituents visible on the peel surface was investigated. The visual appearance is different from oleocellosis in that freeze damaged oranges exhibit a fine pa...

  8. Rapid Evaporation of microbubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Jitendra; Esmaeeli, Asghar

    2008-11-01

    When a liquid is heated to a temperature far above its boiling point, it evaporates abruptly. Boiling of liquid at high temperatures can be explosive and destructive, and poses a potential hazard for a host of industrial processes. Explosive boiling may occur if a cold and volatile liquid is brought into contact with a hot and non-volatile liquid, or if a liquid is superheated or depressurized rapidly. Such possibilities are realized, for example, in the depressurization of low boiling point liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the pipelines or storage tanks as a result of a leak. While boiling of highly heated liquids can be destructive at macroscale, the (nearly) instantaneous pace of the process and the release of large amount of kinetic energy make the phenomena extremely attractive at microscale where it is possible to utilize the released energy to derive micromechanical systems. For instance, there is currently a growing interest in micro-explosion of liquid for generation of micro bubbles for actuation purposes. The aim of the current study is to gain a fundamental understanding of the subject using direct numerical simulations. In particular, we seek to investigate the boundary between stable and unstable nucleus growth in terms of the degree of liquid superheat and to compare the dynamics of unstable and stable growth.

  9. Ultrasonic destruction of kidney stones.

    PubMed

    Brannen, G E; Bush, W H

    1984-02-01

    Kidney stones may be removed without using a surgical incision by a combination of techniques and skills recently developed in the fields of urology and radiology. Percutaneous access to the kidney is established under fluoroscopic control. A guide wire placed into the renal pelvis allows a nephroscope to be inserted and the collecting system visualized. A long hollow metal probe is advanced through the nephroscope and placed in contact with the stone. This probe conducts the ultrasonic energy. The stone absorbs the energy and breaks into fine granules, which are evacuated by suction.Twenty-three consecutively seen patients presenting with 27 upper urinary tract calculi for which removal was indicated underwent successful percutaneous ultrasonic lithotripsy. Fifteen stones were located in the renal pelvis, eight in a calix, three at the ureteropelvic junction and one in the upper ureter. One infected staghorn calculus was removed. Two complications resulted in extended hospital stays, but in no patients were surgical incisions required. Of the 23 patients, 9 had previously had a surgical lithotomy. The authors believe that most renal and upper ureteral calculi for which removal is indicated may be extracted percutaneously with the aid of the ultrasonic lithotriptor. The patients may expect a rapid convalescence with diminished pain. PMID:6730470

  10. [Destructive mastoiditis with thrombosis of the sigmoid sinus in a 8 year-old child presenting with concomitant chicken pox].

    PubMed

    Bogomil'skiĭ, M R; Polunin, M M; Ivanenko, A M; Poliakov, A A

    2014-01-01

    The specific clinical feature of mastoidities that developed in a patient presenting with chicken pox was the rapid progress in temporal bone destruction with partial thrombosis of the sigmoid sinusis in the absence of typical manifestations of mastoiditis. The pronounced destructive changes found in a series of CT images were regarded as the indications for urgent antromastoidotomy with the puncture of the sigmoid sinusis. PMID:25734315

  11. 9 CFR 51.6 - Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.6 Destruction of... be deemed necessary to accomplish destruction of bison subject to this part. (c) Swine. The claimant shall be responsible for insuring that swine subject to this part shall be sold under permit to...

  12. 9 CFR 51.6 - Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.6 Destruction of... be deemed necessary to accomplish destruction of bison subject to this part. (c) Swine. The claimant shall be responsible for insuring that swine subject to this part shall be sold under permit to...

  13. 9 CFR 51.6 - Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.6 Destruction of... be deemed necessary to accomplish destruction of bison subject to this part. (c) Swine. The claimant shall be responsible for insuring that swine subject to this part shall be sold under permit to...

  14. 9 CFR 51.6 - Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.6 Destruction of... be deemed necessary to accomplish destruction of bison subject to this part. (c) Swine. The claimant shall be responsible for insuring that swine subject to this part shall be sold under permit to...

  15. 9 CFR 51.6 - Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.6 Destruction of... be deemed necessary to accomplish destruction of bison subject to this part. (c) Swine. The claimant shall be responsible for insuring that swine subject to this part shall be sold under permit to...

  16. 27 CFR 24.235 - Taxpayment or destruction of spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.235 Taxpayment or destruction of... of tax procedures of 27 CFR 19.522(c). (b) Destruction of spirits. The proprietor who wants to..., the proposed date and method of destruction, and the reason for destruction. Spirits may not...

  17. Entropic destruction of a moving heavy quarkonium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Tabatabaei, Seyed Kamal

    2016-07-01

    Recently it has been shown that the peak of the quarkonium entropy at the deconfinement transition is related to the emergent entropic force which destructs the quarkonium. Using the AdS/CFT correspondence, we consider dissociation of a moving heavy quarkonium by entropic force. For larger distance of quark and antiquark, the entropy of moving quarkonium increases, monotonically. We find that the entropic force destructs the moving quarkonium easier than the static case. By considering the Maxwell charge, we study the effect of the medium on the destruction of heavy quarkonium. It is shown that the quarkonium dissociates easier in the medium. Our results imply that the quarkonium dissociates easier when it moves orthogonal to the plasma wind rather than parallel.

  18. Weapons of mass destruction. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, M.W.

    1997-04-01

    The policy of mutual destruction limited the use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) during the Cold War but has much less significance in today`s global environment not only because of multiple regional instability and motivation to acquire, but also increased availability of resources and technologies to build WMD. Proliferation of weapons of mass destruction is a preeminent security threat in the 1990`s. The US has policies and strategies to stem WMD proliferation and to counter the effects of their use. This paper will identify ways to deter threats of WMD against the United States through counterproliferation strategies of counterforce, active defense, and passive defense. Discussion includes aspects which challenge US interests and place greater burden on policymakers. These include politics, economics, technology and the global mindset.

  19. Aggressive periodontal destruction and herpes zoster in a suspected AIDS patient.

    PubMed

    Moskow, B S; Hernandez, G

    1991-11-01

    An unusual case of spontaneous and rapidly destructive lesions involving the periodontal structures is described in a 54 year old, bi-sexual patients suspected of having AIDS. Concomitant with the periodontal breakdown, the patient developed a severe case of Herpes Zoster involving the area of the face innervated by the 5th cranial nerve. The dermal lesions involved the face, nose, eyes and scalp. Similar lesions were noted on the gingival and palatal mucosa on the same side of the jaw as the skin lesions. The differences between this type of periodontal destruction and more conventional forms of periodontitis are discussed. PMID:1811045

  20. Radiolytic destruction of toxic explosives appearing as an aqueous waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dedgaonkar, V.G.; Navle, P.B.; Wani, V.S.

    1996-10-01

    Ability of high energy radiations to decompose materials is utilized in this research. Explosives like RDX, NGu, TNT, PETN, NG and Tetryl, are known to be toxic and destruction of these while present in aqueous medium is attempted making use of gamma radiation. Solutions containing different concentrations of these explosives were treated with 2kCi (nominal) Co-60 source which gave the radiation dose rate of 3 kGy/h. The dose was varied over the range 0-12 kGy. Concentration of explosive compounds in water after the radiation treatment was estimated by means of a UV-spectrophotometer. The peak height of the absorption spectrum (max {approximately}280 nm) was considered to be proportional to the concentration of the explosive remaining. The data show that concentration of the explosive goes down progressively as the radiation dose is increased. However, at a given dose, the G-value increased rapidly when the initial concentration increased. Effect of pH on the radiation induced decomposition is studied over the pH range 2-11; here the total dose was maintained constant at 12 Gy. Radiolytic destruction seems to be dependent on pH of the solution.

  1. Non-destructive monitoring of curing process in precast concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aparicio, S.; Ranz, J.; Fernández, R.; Albert, V.; Fuente, J. V.; Hernández, M. G.

    2012-12-01

    Currently, the use of precast concrete elements has gained importance because it offers many advantages over site-cast concrete. A disadvantage of site-cast concrete is that its properties vary according to the manufacturing method, the environment and even the operator who carried out the mixing, pouring and implementation of the concrete. Precast concrete elements are manufactured in a controlled environment (typically referred to as a precast plant) and this reduces the shrinkage and creep. One of the key properties of precast concrete is the capability to gain compressive strength rapidly under the appropriate conditions. The compressive strength determines if the precast can be stripped from the form or manipulated. This parameter is measured using destructive testing over cylindrical or cubic samples. The quality control of precast is derived from the fracture suffered by these elements, resulting in a "pass or fail" evaluation. In most cases, the solution to this problem is to allow the material to cure for a few hours until it acquires sufficient strength to handle the precast element. The focus of this paper is the description of the research project "CUREND". This project aims to design a non-destructive methodology to monitor the curing process in precast concrete. The monitoring will be performed using wireless sensor networks.

  2. Onsite Gaseous Centrifuge Enrichment Plant UF6 Cylinder Destructive Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Qiao, Hong; Carter, Jennifer C.; McNamara, Bruce K.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Phillips, Jon R.; Curtis, Michael M.

    2012-07-17

    The IAEA safeguards approach for gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) includes measurements of gross, partial, and bias defects in a statistical sampling plan. These safeguard methods consist principally of mass and enrichment nondestructive assay (NDA) verification. Destructive assay (DA) samples are collected from a limited number of cylinders for high precision offsite mass spectrometer analysis. DA is typically used to quantify bias defects in the GCEP material balance. Under current safeguards measures, the operator collects a DA sample from a sample tap following homogenization. The sample is collected in a small UF6 sample bottle, then sealed and shipped under IAEA chain of custody to an offsite analytical laboratory. Current practice is expensive and resource intensive. We propose a new and novel approach for performing onsite gaseous UF6 DA analysis that provides rapid and accurate assessment of enrichment bias defects. DA samples are collected using a custom sampling device attached to a conventional sample tap. A few micrograms of gaseous UF6 is chemically adsorbed onto a sampling coupon in a matter of minutes. The collected DA sample is then analyzed onsite using Laser Ablation Absorption Ratio Spectrometry-Destructive Assay (LAARS-DA). DA results are determined in a matter of minutes at sufficient accuracy to support reliable bias defect conclusions, while greatly reducing DA sample volume, analysis time, and cost.

  3. Method for non-destructive testing

    DOEpatents

    Akers, Douglas W.

    2011-08-30

    Non-destructive testing method may include providing a source material that emits positrons in response to bombardment of the source material with photons. The source material is exposed to photons. The source material is positioned adjacent the specimen, the specimen being exposed to at least some of the positrons emitted by the source material. Annihilation gamma rays emitted by the specimen are detected.

  4. 32 CFR 2001.47 - Destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Destruction. 2001.47 Section 2001.47 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Safeguarding §...

  5. 27 CFR 40.253 - Destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Destruction. 40.253 Section 40.253 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Operations by Manufacturers...

  6. The β-catenin destruction complex.

    PubMed

    Stamos, Jennifer L; Weis, William I

    2013-01-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin pathway is highly regulated to insure the correct temporal and spatial activation of its target genes. In the absence of a Wnt stimulus, the transcriptional coactivator β-catenin is degraded by a multiprotein "destruction complex" that includes the tumor suppressors Axin and adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), the Ser/Thr kinases GSK-3 and CK1, protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), and the E3-ubiquitin ligase β-TrCP. The complex generates a β-TrCP recognition site by phosphorylation of a conserved Ser/Thr-rich sequence near the β-catenin amino terminus, a process that requires scaffolding of the kinases and β-catenin by Axin. Ubiquitinated β-catenin is degraded by the proteasome. The molecular mechanisms that underlie several aspects of destruction complex function are poorly understood, particularly the role of APC. Here we review the molecular mechanisms of destruction complex function and discuss several potential roles of APC in β-catenin destruction. PMID:23169527

  7. Injector nozzle for molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Brummond, W.A.; Upadhye, R.S.

    1996-02-13

    An injector nozzle has been designed for safely injecting energetic waste materials, such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels, into a molten salt reactor in a molten salt destruction process without premature detonation or back burn in the injection system. The energetic waste material is typically diluted to form a fluid fuel mixture that is injected rapidly into the reactor. A carrier gas used in the nozzle serves as a carrier for the fuel mixture, and further dilutes the energetic material and increases its injection velocity into the reactor. The injector nozzle is cooled to keep the fuel mixture below the decomposition temperature to prevent spontaneous detonation of the explosive materials before contact with the high-temperature molten salt bath. 2 figs.

  8. Injector nozzle for molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Brummond, William A.; Upadhye, Ravindra S.

    1996-01-01

    An injector nozzle has been designed for safely injecting energetic waste materials, such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels, into a molten salt reactor in a molten salt destruction process without premature detonation or back burn in the injection system. The energetic waste material is typically diluted to form a fluid fuel mixture that is injected rapidly into the reactor. A carrier gas used in the nozzle serves as a carrier for the fuel mixture, and further dilutes the energetic material and increases its injection velocity into the reactor. The injector nozzle is cooled to keep the fuel mixture below the decomposition temperature to prevent spontaneous detonation of the explosive materials before contact with the high-temperature molten salt bath.

  9. Pediatric Myofibroma of the Palate with Ulceration and Bone Destruction

    PubMed Central

    Capo, Joseph A.; Moubayed, Dina; Hernandez-Prera, Juan C.; Khorsandi, Azita; Buchbinder, Daniel; Urken, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    Myofibroma is a rare benign neoplasm occurring in the head and neck, arising primarily in infants and children. Frequently, myofibromas grow rapidly leading to suspicion of malignancy and the potential for overaggressive surgical excision. We aim to report a rare case of myofibroma with ulceration and bone destruction. A nine-year-old female presented with an ulcerated left hard palate mass. Open biopsy was performed with pathology suggestive of myofibroma. A left partial maxillectomy and reconstruction with a buccal advancement flap were performed. Final pathology confirmed the diagnosis of a benign myofibroma. Myofibroma is a rare benign tumor of the head and neck which must be considered in the differential diagnosis by the clinician and the pathologist in order to prevent inappropriate and/or overaggressive treatment. PMID:27403363

  10. Climate change and habitat destruction: a deadly anthropogenic cocktail.

    PubMed Central

    Travis, J M J

    2003-01-01

    Climate change and habitat destruction are two of the greatest threats to global biodiversity. Lattice models have been used to investigate how hypothetical species with different characteristics respond to habitat loss. The main result shows that a sharp threshold in habitat availability exists below which a species rapidly becomes extinct. Here, a similar modelling approach is taken to establish what determines how species respond to climate change. A similar threshold exists for the rate of climate change as has been observed for habitat loss-patch occupancy remains high up to a critical rate of climate change, beyond which species extinction becomes likely. Habitat specialists, especially those of relatively poor colonizing ability are least able to keep pace with climate change. The interaction between climate change and habitat loss might be disastrous. During climate change, the habitat threshold occurs sooner. Similarly, species suffer more from climate change in a fragmented habitat. PMID:12641900

  11. Explosive destruction system for disposal of chemical munitions

    DOEpatents

    Tschritter, Kenneth L.; Haroldsen, Brent L.; Shepodd, Timothy J.; Stofleth, Jerome H.; DiBerardo, Raymond A.

    2005-04-19

    An explosive destruction system and method for safely destroying explosively configured chemical munitions. The system comprises a sealable, gas-tight explosive containment vessel, a fragment suppression system positioned in said vessel, and shaped charge means for accessing the interior of the munition when the munition is placed within the vessel and fragment suppression system. Also provided is a means for treatment and neutralization of the munition's chemical fills, and means for heating and agitating the contents of the vessel. The system is portable, rapidly deployable and provides the capability of explosively destroying and detoxifying chemical munitions within a gas-tight enclosure so that there is no venting of toxic or hazardous chemicals during detonation.

  12. Destructive and Non-Destructive Analysis Techniques for Failure Detection of QFN Packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhila, M. N.; Wedianti, S.; Suhaimi, W. S. W. M.; Aishah, I.

    2010-03-01

    One of the latest developments in packaging technology is the QFN (Quad Flat Non-Lead) packages, which is both a chip scale package and plastic encapsulated package with lead pad at the bottom. In this paper, different type of commercial QFN single die packages were characterized by using destructive and non-destructive techniques. Non-destructive techniques such as Scanning Acoustic Microscope (SAM) and X-Ray analysis were used to observe package cracking, delamination and other failure mode. Application of SAM include detection of delaminations between lead frame, die face, paddle, heat sink, cracks and plastic encapsulant. In comparison to other techniques, SAM is sensitive to detect beneath the surface of devices which would be inaccessible otherwise by both conventional optical and electron microscopy inspection methods. Destructive technique such as Field Emission Electron Microscopy (FESEM) was implemented to address the failures of the QFN single die packages such as die cracking, lifted ball bonds and other failure mode.

  13. Evaluation of Damage in Steels Subjected to Exploitation Loading - Destructive and Non-Destructive Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalewski, Zbigniew L.; Mackiewicz, Sławomir; Szelążek, Jacek; Pietrzak, Krystyna; Augustyniak, Bolesław

    Damage due to creep and plastic flow is assessed using destructive and non-destructive methods in steels (40HNMA and P91). In the destructive methods the standard tension tests were carried out after prestraining and variations of the selected tension parameters were taken into account for damage identification. In order to assess a damage development during the creep and plastic deformation the tests for both steels were interrupted for a range of the selected strain magnitudes. The ultrasonic and magnetic techniques were used as the non-destructive methods for damage evaluation. The last step of the experimental programme contained microscopic observations. A very promising correlation between parameters of methods for damage development evaluation was achieved. It is well proved for the ultimate tensile stress and birefringence coefficient.

  14. Hybrid holographic non-destructive test system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, R. L. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An automatic hybrid holographic non-destructive testing (HNDT) method and system capable of detecting flaws or debonds contained within certain materials are described. This system incorporates the techniques of optical holography, acoustical/optical holography and holographic correlation in determining the structural integrity of a test object. An automatic processing system including a detector and automatic data processor is used in conjunction with the three holographic techniques for correlating and interpreting the information supplied by the non-destructive systems. The automatic system also includes a sensor which directly translates an optical data format produced by the holographic techniques into electrical signals and then transmits this information to a digital computer for indicating the structural properties of the test object. The computer interprets the data gathered and determines whether further testing is necessary as well as the format of this new testing procedure.

  15. Energetics of mechanical destruction of middle radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvachadze, N. G.; Tomashevskii, E. E.; Zhizhenkov, V. V.

    2015-11-01

    The breaking strain of a model fragment of a middle radical in a rigid polymer matrix has been calculated. The force and energy characteristics of the destruction of the radical and the formation of double bonds have been estimated. The dissociation energy and the strength of Cβ-Cγ bonds for trans- and gaucheconformers of radicals have been determined. It has been established that the probability of breaking of the β bonds essentially depends of the conformation structure of the macroradicals.

  16. DESTRUCTION OF CYANIDE IN WASTEWATERS: REVIEW AND EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents a review of known cyanide destruction technologies with respect to applicability, feasibility, effectiveness and cost. Particular emphasis was placed on the destruction of complex cyanides. Laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate a photocatalytic process...

  17. Rapid Prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  18. Tobacco smoking and chronic destructive periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Jan

    2004-09-01

    Tobacco smoking is the main risk factor associated with chronic destructive periodontal disease. No other known factor can match the strength of smoking in causing harm to the periodontium. The harmful effects manifest themselves by interfering with vascular and immunologic reactions, as well as by undermining the supportive functions of the periodontal tissues. The typical characteristic of smoking-associated periodontal disease is the destruction of the supporting tissues of the teeth, with the ensuing clinical symptoms of bone loss, attachment loss, pocket formation, and eventually tooth loss. A review of the international literature that has accumulated over the past 20 years offers convincing evidence that smokers exhibit greater bone loss and attachment loss, as well as more pronounced frequencies of periodontal pockets, than non-smokers do. In addition, tooth loss is more extensive in smokers. Smoking, thus, considerably increases the risk for destructive periodontal disease. Depending on the definition of disease and the exposure to smoking, the risk is 5- to 20-fold elevated for a smoker compared to a never-smoker. For a smoker exposed to heavy long-life smoking, the risk of attracting destructive periodontal disease is equivalent to that of attracting lung cancer. The outcome of periodontal treatment is less favorable or even unfavorable in smokers. Although long-term studies are rare, available studies unanimously agree that treatment failures and relapse of disease are predominantly seen in smokers. This contention is valid irrespective of treatment modality, suggesting that smoking will interfere with an expected normal outcome following commonplace periodontal therapies. The majority of available studies agree that the subgingival microflora of smokers and non-smokers are no different given other conditions. As a consequence, the elevated morbidity in smokers does not depend on particular microflora. The mechanisms behind the destructive effects of

  19. Facing towards or Turning away from Destructive Narcissism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Denis; Skogstad, Helga

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed theoretical discussion of destructive narcissism in relation to Freud and Rosenfeld and later theorists. In destructive narcissism, the destructiveness is itself idealised and overrides "the vital functions which serve the purpose of self-preservation" (Freud, S., 1914, "On narcissism" S.E. 14: 87)--a feature which…

  20. 7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of...

  1. 7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of...

  2. 7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of...

  3. 7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of...

  4. 7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of...

  5. Shock Destruction of Dust in Supernova Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shull, J.

    2009-07-01

    In this AR-Theory program, we propose to carry out a series of investigations of grain injection, transport, and destruction using hydrodynamical models of reverse-shocked SN ejecta. In a young supernova remnant {SNR} such as Cas A or SN 1987A the outer blast wave strikes surrounding circumstellar matter, and reverse shocks propagate inward toward the interior debris, which may contain large amounts of newly formed dust. Our major theoretical goals are to determine how much dust is destroyed in shocked SNR ejecta, as they are decelerated by the reverse shocks, and to study how these ejecta are lighted up in optical, X-ray, andIR line emission. Numerical codes will be used to study grain destruction in metal-enriched ejecta and to interpret the morphologies, proper motions, and emissivities of these fast-moving ejecta, observed by Hubble in many young SNRs. We intend to undertake the following tasks: {1} Compile the latest gas-grain data {sputtering yields vs projectile energy for H, He, and heavy ions}; {2} Incorporate gas-grain and grain-grain interactions with radiative cooling rates {X-ray, optical, IR line emission} of sputtered atoms and ions; {3} Compute adaptive-mesh hydrodynamical models of ejecta-shock interactions; {4} Use these ejecta models to compute grain destruction, grain heating, plasma cooling, and spectral diagnostics in metal-enriched environments; {5} Apply our results to specific SNRs {Cas A, SN 1987A, G292, etc} to interpret ejecta morphologies, proper motions, and emissivities; {6} assess the net efficiency of supernova dust injection.

  6. FIRST 100 T NON-DESTRUCTIVE MAGNET

    SciTech Connect

    J. R. SIMS; ET AL

    1999-10-01

    The first 100 T non-destructive (100 T ND) magnet and power supplies as currently designed are described. This magnet will be installed as part of the user facility research equipment at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL) Pulsed Field Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The 100 T ND magnet will provide a 100 T pulsed field of 5 ms duration (above 90% of full field) in a 15 mm diameter bore once per hour. Magnet operation will be non-destructive. The magnet will consist of a controlled power outer coil set which produces a 47 T platform field in a 225 mm diameter bore. Located within the outer coil set will be a 220 mm outer diameter capacitor powered insert coil. Using inertial energy storage a synchronous motor/generator will provide ac power to a set of seven ac-dc converters rated at 64 MW/80 MVA each. These converters will energize three independent coil circuits to create 170 MJ of field energy in the outer coil set at the platform field of 47 T. The insert will then be energized to produce the balance of the 100 T peak field using a 2.3 MJ, 18 kV (charged to 15 kV), 14.4 mF capacitor bank controlled with solid-state switches. The magnet will be the first of its kind and the first non-destructive, reusable 100 T pulsed magnet. The operation of the magnet will be described along with special features of its design and construction.

  7. Anode materials for electrochemical waste destruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molton, Peter M.; Clarke, Clayton

    1990-01-01

    Electrochemical Oxidation (ECO) offers promise as a low-temperature, atmospheric pressure method for safe destruction of hazardous organic chemical wastes in water. Anode materials tend to suffer corrosion in the intensely oxidizing environment of the ECO cell. There is a need for cheaper, more resistant materials. In this experiment, a system is described for testing anode materials, with examples of several common anodes such as stainless steel, graphite, and platinized titanium. The ECO system is simple and safe to operate and the experiment can easily be expanded in scope to study the effects of different solutions, temperatures, and organic materials.

  8. Non-Inflammatory Destructive Periodontal Disease

    PubMed Central

    José Ricardo Kina; Yumi Umeda Suzuki, Thaís; Fumico Umeda Kina, Eunice; Kina, Juliana; Kina, Mônica

    2016-01-01

    Background: Non-Inflammatory Destructive Periodontal Disease (NIDPD), is a severe destructive periodontal disease, that is characterized by the attachment loss and alveolar bone loss, without signs of the gingival inflammation, and the periodontal pocket development. Objective: Despite the fact that various cases of NIDPD have been reported; their etiology and disease evolution is still indefinite, and therefore, are open for discussion. Method: An NIDPD case was studied in order to demonstrate features of the disease, and discuss the possible etiology and treatment. Results: In this clinical case, the etiology of NIDPD seems to be an association of endogenous opportunist bacteria with anatomical aspects, occlusion pattern, emotional stress and mouth breathing condition. Conclusion: In spite of all cases described in the literature are comparable and may have similar etiology as related in this clinical case, additional research is needed to identify and clarify the role of the etiologic factors which determine the disease. PMID:27053968

  9. Complementary Electromagnetic Non-Destructive Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Gui Yun; Wilson, John; Morozov, Maxim

    2011-06-01

    The use of non-destructive evaluation (NDE) for defect detection and failure prediction in structures and specimens is widespread in energy industries, aimed at ageing power plants and pipelines, material degradation, fatigue and radiation damage, etc. At present there are no suitable electromagnetic NDE methods for the measurement and characterization of material degradation, in irradiated samples in particular, which is very important and timely for the nuclear power industry in the UK. This paper reports recent developments in the field of electromagnetic (EM) NDE at Newcastle University, including pulsed eddy current (PEC), pulsed magnetic flux leakage (PMFL), magnetic Barkhausen emission (MBE) and magneto-acoustic emission (MAE). As different EM methods have different strengths, an integrative EM framework is introduced. Case studies through the second round robin tests organized by the Universal Network for Magnetic Non-Destructive Evaluation (UNMNDE), representing eighteen leading research groups worldwide in the area of electromagnetic NDE, are reported. Twelve samples with different ageing times and rolling reduction ratios were tested using different magnetic methods among the UNMNDE members. Based on the studies, the complementary characteristics of electromagnetic techniques for NDE are discussed.

  10. EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY PEROXIDE DESTRUCTION CATALYST TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    HALGREN DL

    2008-07-30

    The 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) main treatment train includes the peroxide destruction module (PDM) where the hydrogen peroxide residual from the upstream ultraviolet light/hydrogen peroxide oxidation unit is destroyed. Removal of the residual peroxide is necessary to protect downstream membranes from the strong oxidizer. The main component of the PDM is two reaction vessels utilizing granular activated carbon (GAC) as the reaction media. The PDM experienced a number of operability problems, including frequent plugging, and has not been utilized since the ETF changed to groundwater as the predominant feed. The unit seemed to be underperforming in regards to peroxide removal during the early periods of operation as well. It is anticipated that a functional PDM will be required for wastewater from the vitrification plant and other future streams. An alternate media or methodology needs to be identified to replace the GAC in the PDMs. This series of bench scale tests is to develop information to support an engineering study on the options for replacement of the existing GAC method for peroxide destruction at the ETF. A number of different catalysts will be compared as well as other potential methods such as strong reducing agents. The testing should lead to general conclusions on the viability of different catalysts and identify candidates for further study and evaluation.

  11. Molten salt destruction of energetic material wastes as an alternative to open burning. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhye, R.S.; Brummond, W.A.; Pruneda, C.O.; Watkins, B.E.

    1994-11-02

    As a result of the end of the Cold War and the shift in emphasis to a smaller stockpile, many munitions, both conventional and nuclear, are scheduled for retirement and rapid dismantlement and demilitarization. Major components of these munitions are the explosives and propellants, or energetic materials. The Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process has been demonstrated for the destruction of HE and HE-containing wastes. MSD converts the organic constituents of the waste into non-hazardous substances such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen and water. Any inorganic constituents of the waste, such as binders and metallic particles, are retained in the molten salt. LLNL has built a small-scale (about 1 kg/hr throughput) unit to test the destruction of HE using the MSD process. The authors have demonstrated that HE`s and liquid propellants can be safely and fully destroyed using the molten salt destruction process. The authors are currently working on a number of improvements to the process. They are modifying the design of unit to obtain more throughput without any increase in salt entrainment. They are implementing an advanced nozzle design for injection of larger particles. They are defining operating envelopes for a number of high explosives and formulations. They are developing models to study the temperature profile of a top-feed nozzle for feeding larger particles into the unit.

  12. Prediction of maize seed attributes using a rapid single kernel near infrared instrument

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-destructive measurements of seed attributes would significantly enhance breeder selection of seeds with specific traits and potentially improve hybrid development. A single kernel near infrared reflectance (NIR) instrument was developed for rapidly predicting maize grain attributes, which would ...

  13. Destruction of LP XM46 using the molten salt destruction process. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhye, R.S.; Watkins, B.E.

    1994-04-01

    The preliminary experimental work done on the destruction of the liquid gun propellant LP XM46 (the new designation for LGP-1846) using the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the US Army is described in this report. A series of 18 continuous experimental runs were made wherein a solution of LP XM46 and water was injected into a bed of molten salt comprising the carbonates of sodium, potassium and lithium, along with air. The purpose of these initial Phase 1 runs was to collect information on the applicability of the Molten Salt Destruction Process for the destruction of LP XM46, identify the key technical uncertainties, and to plan future runs. The tentative results from these experiments, described in detail in the main body of this report, indicate that: (1) LP XM46 can be safely and completely destroyed in a bed of molten salt at temperatures well below those needed for incineration; and (2) under optimum operating conditions, less than 1% of the chemically bound nitrogen in the LP XM46 is converted to NOx, and less than 1% carbon is converted to CO.

  14. Hypergolic Propellant Destruction Evaluation Cost Benefit Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessel, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    At space vehicle launch sites such as Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB), Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) and Kennedy Space Center (KSC), toxic vapors and hazardous liquid wastes result from the handling of commodities (hypergolic fuels and oxidizers), most notably from transfer operations where fuel and oxidizer are transferred from bulk storage tanks or transfer tankers to space launch vehicles. During commodity transfer at CCAFS and KSC, wet chemical scrubbers (typically containing four scrubbing towers) are used to neutralize fuel saturated vapors from vent systems on tanks and tanker trailers. For fuel vapors, a citric acid solution is used to scrub out most of the hydrazine. Operation of both the hypergolic fuel and oxidizer vapor scrubbers generates waste scrubber liquor. Currently, scrubber liquor from the fuel vapor scrubber is considered non-hazardous. The scrubber liquor is defined as spent citric acid scrubber solution; the solution contains complexed hydrazine I methylhydrazine and is used to neutralize nonspecification hypergolic fuel generated by CCAFS and KSC. This project is a collaborative effort between Air Force Space Command (AFSPC), Space and Missile Center (SMC), the CCAFS, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to evaluate microwave destruction technology for the treatment of non-specification hypergolic fuel generated at CCAFS and KSC. The project will capitalize on knowledge gained from microwave treatment work being accomplished by AFSPC and SMC at V AFB. This report focuses on the costs associated with the current non-specification hypergolic fuel neutralization process (Section 2.0) as well as the estimated costs of operating a mobile microwave unit to treat non-specification hypergolic fuel (Section 3.0), and compares the costs for each (Section 4.0).The purpose of this document is to assess the costs associated with waste hypergolic fuel. This document will report the costs associated with the current fuel

  15. Detecting Macroevolutionary Self-Destruction from Phylogenies.

    PubMed

    Bromham, Lindell; Hua, Xia; Cardillo, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetic analyses have lent support to the concept of lineage selection: that biological lineages can have heritable traits that influence their capacity to persist and diversify, and thereby affect their representation in biodiversity. While many discussions have focused on "positive" lineage selection, where stably heritable properties of lineages enhance their diversification rate, there are also intriguing examples that seem to represent "negative" lineage selection, where traits reduce the likelihood that a lineage will persist or speciate. In this article, we test whether a particular pattern of negative lineage selection is detectable from the distributions of the trait on a phylogeny. "Self-destructive" traits are those that arise often but then disappear again because they confer either a raised extinction rate or they are prone to a high rate of trait loss. For such a trait, the reconstructed origins will tend to be dispersed across the tips of the phylogeny, rather than defining large clades of related lineages that all share the trait. We examine the utility of four possible measures of "tippiness" as potential indicators of macroevolutionary self-destruction, applying them to phylogenies on which trait evolution has been simulated under different combinations of parameters for speciation, extinction, trait gain, and trait loss. We use an efficient simulation approach that starts with the required number of tips with and without the trait and uses a model to work "backwards" to construct different possible trees that result in that set of tips. We then apply these methods to a number of case studies: salt tolerance in grasses, color polymorphism in birds of prey, and selfing in nightshades. We find that the relative age of species, measured from tip length, can indicate a reduced speciation rate but does not identify traits that increase the extinction rate or the trait loss rate. We show that it is possible to detect cases of macroevolutionary self-destruction

  16. Non-destructive evaluation of composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Tsuchin Philip

    1996-01-01

    The composite materials have been used in aerospace industries for quite some time. Several non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods have been developed to inspect composites in order to detect flaws, matrix cracking, and delamination. These methods include ultrasonics, acoustic emission, shearography, thermography, X-ray, and digital image correlation. The NDE Branch of Marshall Space Flight Center has recently acquired a thermal imaging NDE system. The same system has been used at NASA Langley Research Center for detecting disbonds. In order to compare different NDE methods, three carbon/carbon composite panels were used for experiment using ultrasonic C-scan, shearography, and thermography methods. These panels have teflon inserts to simulate the delamination between plies in a composite panel. All three methods have successfully located the insert. The experiment and results are presented in the following sections.

  17. Non-destructive testing method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Akers, Douglas W.

    2011-10-04

    Non-destructive testing apparatus may comprise a photon source and a source material that emits positrons in response to bombardment of the source material with photons. The source material is positionable adjacent the photon source and a specimen so that when the source material is positioned adjacent the photon source it is exposed to photons produced thereby. When the source material is positioned adjacent the specimen, the specimen is exposed to at least some of the positrons emitted by the source material. A detector system positioned adjacent the specimen detects annihilation gamma rays emitted by the specimen. Another embodiment comprises a neutron source and a source material that emits positrons in response to neutron bombardment.

  18. NON-DESTRUCTIVE FLAW DETECTION APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Stateman, M.J.; Holloway, H.R.

    1957-12-17

    An apparatus is described for the non-destructive detection of flaws in electrical conducting articles. The particular feature of the detection apparatus is that a flaw in the front or back of the test article will not be masked by signals caused by the passage of the end and front of the article through the detection apparatus. The present invention alleviates the above problem by mounting detection coils on directly opposite sides of the test passageway so that the axes of the pickup coils are perpendicular to the axis of an energizing coil through which the article is passed. A flaw in the article will cause a change in the voltage induced in one pickup coil, but passage of the end or front of the article will not produce unequal signals. The signals are compared in appropriate electrical circuitry to actuate a recorder only when unequal signals are present, indicating the presence of a flaw.

  19. Destructive Single-Event Failures in Diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casey, Megan C.; Gigliuto, Robert A.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Wilcox, Edward P.; Kim, Hak; Chen, Dakai; Phan, Anthony M.; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    In this summary, we have shown that diodes are susceptible to destructive single-event effects, and that these failures occur along the guard ring. By determining the last passing voltages, a safe operating area can be derived. By derating off of those values, rather than by the rated voltage, like what is currently done with power MOSFETs, we can work to ensure the safety of future missions. However, there are still open questions about these failures. Are they limited to a single manufacturer, a small number, or all of them? Is there a threshold rated voltage that must be exceeded to see these failures? With future work, we hope to answer these questions. In the full paper, laser results will also be presented to verify that failures only occur along the guard ring.

  20. Vertebral destruction due to abdominal aortic aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez Viseu Pinheiro, J.F.; Blanco Blanco, J.F.; Pescador Hernández, D.; García García, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Low back pain is a common cause of medical consultation, and usually supposes a non-malignant prognostic. Presentation of case We report an atypical appearance of low back pain associated to shock and pulsatile abdominal mass that made us diagnose an abdominal aortic aneurysm as reason of vertebral lysis and pain. Discusion Surgical repair of contained AAA should be directed to secondary re-rupture prevention, with an approximate survival near to 100% at selected patients for elective surgery. Consequently, orthopedic surgery for back spine stabilization has to be elective in those cases when vertebral destruction is above 30% and clinic is directly related to spine instability. Conclusion We should consider AAA as other cause of low back pain and routinely examine the abdomen and seek complementary imaging proves when risk factors for AAA are present. PMID:25569196

  1. Risk Assessment for Destructive Re-Entry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lips, T.; Koppenwallner, G.; Bianchi, L.; Klinkrad, H.

    2009-03-01

    From 2007 to 2008, Hypersonic Technology Göttingen (HTG) worked on a study called Risk Assessment for Destructive Re-entry (RADR). The main purposes of this study were to identify and to quantify the inherent uncertainties of re-entry analysis tools, and to provide possible risk mitigation measures. For these purposes, three basic risk scenarios were specified: a 1-ton-class satellite without propulsion for uncontrolled re-entry, a 6-ton-class satellite with propulsion and the capability to perform a controlled re-entry, and a 1-ton-class launcher upper stage re-entering uncontrolled. Based on the identified uncertainty parameters, variation analyses were conducted for these scenarios with the two ESA tools for re-entry analysis SCARAB (Spacecraft Atmospheric Reentry and Aerothermal Breakup) and SESAM (Spacecraft Entry Survival Analysis Module). This paper describes the major results of the RADR study.

  2. Stability of nuclear forces versus weapons of mass destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-12-01

    The model derived for nuclear missile exchanges is used to describe the interaction between two forces, of which one has nuclear weapons and the other has weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The model equations are solved analytically for exchanges, costs, and stability indices by analytically minimizing the cost of first strikes. The analysis is restricted to theater operations, as WMD are inferior to nuclear weapons in strategic counter force operations, but quite adequate for theater operations against exposed forces. The analysis treats only in-theater forces as companion papers show that ex-theater forces, which enter as survivable forces, cancel out of the theater balances treated here. Optimal nuclear weapon and WMD allocations are proportional to the opponent`s carriers and inversely proportional to one`s own weapons. Thus, as WMD increase, WMD allocations to nuclear forces fall, reflecting a shift from damage limiting to inflicting damage with surviving forces. Nuclear weapon kill probabilities degrade rapidly against dispersed forces. As they fall, their allocation to WMD falls sharply as they become ineffective and are reallocated to value. Thus, damage limiting is primarily effective for undispersed forces, which produces an incentive for the nuclear side to use his weapons while they are still effective.

  3. Destruction of Interstellar Dust in Evolving Supernova Remnant Shock Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, Jonathan D.; Dwek, Eli; Jones, Anthony P.

    2015-01-01

    Supernova generated shock waves are responsible for most of the destruction of dust grains in the interstellar medium (ISM). Calculations of the dust destruction timescale have so far been carried out using plane parallel steady shocks, however that approximation breaks down when the destruction timescale becomes longer than that for the evolution of the supernova remnant (SNR) shock. In this paper we present new calculations of grain destruction in evolving, radiative SNRs. To facilitate comparison with the previous study by Jones et al. (1996), we adopt the same dust properties as in that paper. We find that the efficiencies of grain destruction are most divergent from those for a steady shock when the thermal history of a shocked gas parcel in the SNR differs significantly from that behind a steady shock. This occurs in shocks with velocities 200 km s(exp -1) for which the remnant is just beginning to go radiative. Assuming SNRs evolve in a warm phase dominated ISM, we find dust destruction timescales are increased by a factor of approximately 2 compared to those of Jones et al. (1996), who assumed a hot gas dominated ISM. Recent estimates of supernova rates and ISM mass lead to another factor of approximately 3 increase in the destruction timescales, resulting in a silicate grain destruction timescale of approximately 2-3 Gyr. These increases, while not able resolve the problem of the discrepant timescales for silicate grain destruction and creation, are an important step towards understanding the origin, and evolution of dust in the ISM.

  4. An integrated approach to monitoring a field test of in situ contaminant destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Aines, R D; Carrigan, C; Chiarappa, M; Eaker, C; Elsholtz, A; Hudson, G B; Leif, R; Newmark, R L

    1998-12-01

    The development of in situ thermal remediation techniques requires parallel development of techniques capable of monitoring the physical and chemical changes for purposes of process control. Recent research indicates that many common contaminants can be destroyed in situ by hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation (HPO), eliminating the need for costly surface treatment and disposal. Steam injection, combined with supplemental air, can create the conditions in which HP0 occurs. Field testing of this process, conducted in the summer of 1997, indicates rapid destruction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Previous work established a suite of underground geophysical imaging techniques capable of providing sufficient knowledge of the physical changes in the subsurface during thermal treatment at sufficient frequencies to be used to monitor and guide the heating and extraction processes. In this field test, electrical resistance tomography (ERT) and temperature measurements provided the primary information regarding the temporal and spatial distribution of the heated zones. Verifying the in situ chemical destruction posed new challenges. We developed field methods for sampling and analyzing hot water for contaminants, oxygen, intermediates and products of reaction. Since the addition of air or oxygen to the contaminated region is a critical aspect of HPO, noble gas tracers were used to identify fluids from different sources. The combination of physical monitoring with noble gas identification of the native and injected fluids and accurate fluid sampling resulted in an excellent temporal and spatial evaluation of the subsurface processes, from which the amount of in situ destruction occurring in the treated region could be quantified. The experimental field results constrain the destruction rates throughout the site, and enable site management to make accurate estimates of total in situ destruction based on the recovered carbon. As of October, 1998, over 400,000 kg (900

  5. A simple holistic hypothesis for the self-destruction of ice sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, T.

    2011-07-01

    Ice sheets are the only components of Earth's climate system that can self-destruct. This paper presents the quantitative force balance for bottom-up modeling of ice sheets, as first presented qualitatively in this journal as a way to quantify ice-bed uncoupling leading to self-destruction of ice sheets ( Hughes, 2009a). Rapid changes in sea level and climate can result if a large ice-sheet self-destructs quickly, as did the former Laurentide Ice Sheet of North America between 8100 and 7900 BP, thereby terminating the last cycle of Quaternary glaciation. Ice streams discharge up to 90 percent of ice from past and present ice sheets. A hypothesis is presented in which self-destruction of an ice sheet begins when ubiquitous ice-bed decoupling, quantified as a floating fraction of ice, proceeds along ice streams. This causes ice streams to surge and reduce thickness by some 90 percent, and height above sea level by up to 99 percent for floating ice, so the ice sheet undergoes gravitational collapse. Ice collapsing over marine embayments becomes floating ice shelves that may then disintegrate rapidly. This floods the world ocean with icebergs that reduce the ocean-to-atmosphere heat exchange, thereby triggering climate change. Calving bays migrate up low stagnating ice streams and carve out the accumulation zone of the collapsed ice sheet, which prevents its recovery, decreases Earth's albedo, and terminates the glaciation cycle. This sequence of events may coincide with a proposed life cycle of ice streams that drain the ice sheet. A first-order treatment of these life cycles is presented that depends on the longitudinal force balance along the flowbands of ice streams and gives a first approximation to ice-bed uncoupling at snapshots during gravitational collapse into ice shelves that disintegrate, thereby removing the ice sheet. The stability of the Antarctic Ice Sheet is assessed using this bottom-up approach.

  6. Rapid weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... loss-rapid weight loss; Overweight-rapid weight loss; Obesity-rapid weight loss; Diet-rapid weight loss ... for people who have health problems because of obesity. For these people, losing a lot of weight ...

  7. Rapid decision tool to predict earthquake destruction in Sumatra by using first motion study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhakta, Shardul Sanjay

    The main idea of this project is to build an interactive and smart Geographic Information system tool which can help predict intensity of real time earthquakes in Sumatra Island of Indonesia. The tool has an underlying intelligence to predict the intensity of an earthquake depending on analysis of similar earthquakes in the past in that specific region. Whenever an earthquake takes place in Sumatra, a First Motion Study is conducted; this decides its type, depth, latitude and longitude. When the user inputs this information into the input string, the tool will try to find similar earthquakes with a similar First Motion Survey and depth. It will do a survey of similar earthquakes and predict if this real time earthquake can be disastrous or not. This tool has been developed in JAVA. I have used MOJO (Map Objects JAVA Objects) to show map of Indonesia and earthquake locations in the form of points. ESRI has created MOJO which is a set of JAVA API's. The Indonesia map, earthquake location points and its co-relation was all designed using MOJO. MOJO is a powerful tool which made it easy to design the tool. This tool is easy to use and the user has to input only a few parameters for the end result. I hope this tool justifies its use in prediction of earthquakes and help save lives in Sumatra.

  8. A RAPID NON-DESTRUCTIVE METHOD FOR ESTIMATING ABOVEGROUND BIOMASS OF SALT MARSH GRASSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding the primary productivity of salt marshes requires accurate estimates of biomass. Unfortunately, these estimates vary enough within and among salt marshes to require large numbers of replicates if the averages are to be statistically meaningful. Large numbers of repl...

  9. NON-DESTRUCTIVE SOIL CARBON ANALYZER.

    SciTech Connect

    Wielopolski, Lucian; Hendrey, G.; Orion, I.; Prior, S.; Rogers, H.; Runion, B.; Torbert, A.

    2004-02-01

    This report describes the feasibility, calibration, and safety considerations of a non-destructive, in situ, quantitative, volumetric soil carbon analytical method based on inelastic neutron scattering (INS). The method can quantify values as low as 0.018 gC/cc, or about 1.2% carbon by weight with high precision under the instrument's configuration and operating conditions reported here. INS is safe and easy to use, residual soil activation declines to background values in under an hour, and no radiological requirements are needed for transporting the instrument. The labor required to obtain soil-carbon data is about 10-fold less than with other methods, and the instrument offers a nearly instantaneous rate of output of carbon-content values. Furthermore, it has the potential to quantify other elements, particularly nitrogen. New instrumentation was developed in response to a research solicitation from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE LAB 00-09 Carbon Sequestration Research Program) supporting the Terrestrial Carbon Processes (TCP) program of the Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research (BER). The solicitation called for developing and demonstrating novel techniques for quantitatively measuring changes in soil carbon. The report includes raw data and analyses of a set of proof-of-concept, double-blind studies to evaluate the INS approach in the first phase of developing the instrument. Managing soils so that they sequester massive amounts of carbon was suggested as a means to mitigate the atmospheric buildup of anthropogenic CO{sub 2}. Quantifying changes in the soils' carbon stocks will be essential to evaluating such schemes and documenting their performance. Current methods for quantifying carbon in soil by excavation and core sampling are invasive, slow, labor-intensive and locally destroy the system being observed. Newly emerging technologies, such as Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, offer soil

  10. Destructive Leadership: The Hatfield and McCoy Feud

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, George; Wolf, Patricia; Zurick, Andryce M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the phenomenon of destructive leadership using the historical case study of the feud between the Hatfields and McCoys. The characteristics of destructive leadership as well as the consequences of this leadership style are reviewed, examined and analyzed. Utilizing a case from history to shine light on a contemporary problem,…

  11. 32 CFR 644.494 - Donation, abandonment or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Donation, abandonment or destruction. 644.494 Section 644.494 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL... Land) § 644.494 Donation, abandonment or destruction. (a) General. Improvements may be...

  12. 32 CFR 644.494 - Donation, abandonment or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Donation, abandonment or destruction. 644.494 Section 644.494 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL... Land) § 644.494 Donation, abandonment or destruction. (a) General. Improvements may be...

  13. 32 CFR 644.494 - Donation, abandonment or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Donation, abandonment or destruction. 644.494 Section 644.494 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL... Land) § 644.494 Donation, abandonment or destruction. (a) General. Improvements may be...

  14. 19 CFR 191.44 - Destruction under Customs supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Destruction under Customs supervision. 191.44 Section 191.44 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Rejected Merchandise § 191.44 Destruction under...

  15. 19 CFR 191.25 - Destruction under Customs supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Destruction under Customs supervision. 191.25 Section 191.25 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Manufacturing Drawback § 191.25 Destruction under...

  16. 19 CFR 191.44 - Destruction under Customs supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Destruction under Customs supervision. 191.44 Section 191.44 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Rejected Merchandise § 191.44 Destruction under...

  17. 19 CFR 191.25 - Destruction under Customs supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Destruction under Customs supervision. 191.25 Section 191.25 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Manufacturing Drawback § 191.25 Destruction under...

  18. 19 CFR 191.44 - Destruction under Customs supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Destruction under Customs supervision. 191.44 Section 191.44 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Rejected Merchandise § 191.44 Destruction under...

  19. 19 CFR 191.25 - Destruction under Customs supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Destruction under Customs supervision. 191.25 Section 191.25 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Manufacturing Drawback § 191.25 Destruction under...

  20. 50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and...

  1. 50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and...

  2. 50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and...

  3. 50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and...

  4. 50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and...

  5. 10 CFR 52.10 - Attacks and destructive acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attacks and destructive acts. 52.10 Section 52.10 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 52.10 Attacks and destructive acts. Neither an applicant for a license to manufacture, construct, and operate a...

  6. 19 CFR 191.25 - Destruction under Customs supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Destruction under Customs supervision. 191.25 Section 191.25 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Manufacturing Drawback § 191.25 Destruction under...

  7. 19 CFR 191.44 - Destruction under Customs supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Destruction under Customs supervision. 191.44 Section 191.44 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Rejected Merchandise § 191.44 Destruction under...

  8. 19 CFR 191.25 - Destruction under Customs supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Destruction under Customs supervision. 191.25 Section 191.25 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Manufacturing Drawback § 191.25 Destruction under...

  9. 19 CFR 191.44 - Destruction under Customs supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Destruction under Customs supervision. 191.44 Section 191.44 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Rejected Merchandise § 191.44 Destruction under...

  10. 27 CFR 24.294 - Destruction of wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Destruction of wine. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.294 Destruction of wine. (a) General. Wine on bonded wine premises may be destroyed on or off...

  11. 27 CFR 26.41 - Destruction of marks and brands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Destruction of marks and brands. 26.41 Section 26.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Products Coming Into the United States From Puerto Rico § 26.41 Destruction of marks and brands. The...

  12. 27 CFR 26.41 - Destruction of marks and brands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Destruction of marks and brands. 26.41 Section 26.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Products Coming Into the United States From Puerto Rico § 26.41 Destruction of marks and brands. The...

  13. 27 CFR 26.207 - Destruction of marks and brands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Destruction of marks and... Products Coming Into the United States From the Virgin Islands § 26.207 Destruction of marks and brands. The marks, brands, and serial numbers required by this part to be placed on barrels, casks, or...

  14. 27 CFR 26.207 - Destruction of marks and brands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Destruction of marks and... Products Coming Into the United States From the Virgin Islands § 26.207 Destruction of marks and brands. The marks, brands, and serial numbers required by this part to be placed on barrels, casks, or...

  15. 27 CFR 26.41 - Destruction of marks and brands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Destruction of marks and brands. 26.41 Section 26.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Products Coming Into the United States From Puerto Rico § 26.41 Destruction of marks and brands. The...

  16. 27 CFR 26.207 - Destruction of marks and brands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Destruction of marks and... Products Coming Into the United States From the Virgin Islands § 26.207 Destruction of marks and brands. The marks, brands, and serial numbers required by this part to be placed on barrels, casks, or...

  17. 9 CFR 54.7 - Procedures for destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for destruction of animals. 54.7 Section 54.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... human or animal food. (c) The destruction of animals and disposition of their carcasses in...

  18. 9 CFR 54.7 - Procedures for destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Procedures for destruction of animals. 54.7 Section 54.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... human or animal food. (c) The destruction of animals and disposition of their carcasses in...

  19. 27 CFR 24.294 - Destruction of wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Destruction of wine. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.294 Destruction of wine. (a) General. Wine on bonded wine premises may be destroyed on or off...

  20. Chronic Self-Destructive Behavior in Normative and Delinquent Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolin, Ira H.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Administered Chronic Self-Destructiveness Scale (CSDS) and Psychopathic Deviate and Hypomania scales of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) to 112 delinquent adolescents and to 141 high school students. Both male and female delinquents reported significantly higher levels of chronic self-destructiveness than did students.…

  1. 49 CFR 15.19 - Destruction of SSI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Destruction of SSI. 15.19 Section 15.19... Destruction of SSI. (a) DOT. Subject to the requirements of the Federal Records Act (5 U.S.C. 105), including... essential transactions, DOT destroys SSI when no longer needed to carry out the agency's function. (b)...

  2. 49 CFR 1520.19 - Destruction of SSI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Destruction of SSI. 1520.19 Section 1520.19... SECURITY INFORMATION § 1520.19 Destruction of SSI. (a) DHS. Subject to the requirements of the Federal... agency's policies, decisions, and essential transactions, DHS destroys SSI when no longer needed to...

  3. 32 CFR 2400.31 - Destruction of classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Safeguarding § 2400.31 Destruction of classified information. (a) Classified information... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Destruction of classified information....

  4. 27 CFR 25.221 - Voluntary destruction of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... beer. 25.221 Section 25.221 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.221 Voluntary destruction of beer. (a) On brewery premises. (1) A brewer may destroy, at the brewery, beer on which the tax has...

  5. 27 CFR 25.221 - Voluntary destruction of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... beer. 25.221 Section 25.221 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.221 Voluntary destruction of beer. (a) On brewery premises. (1) A brewer may destroy, at the brewery, beer on which the tax has...

  6. 27 CFR 25.221 - Voluntary destruction of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... beer. 25.221 Section 25.221 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.221 Voluntary destruction of beer. (a) On brewery premises. (1) A brewer may destroy, at the brewery, beer on which the tax has...

  7. 27 CFR 25.221 - Voluntary destruction of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... beer. 25.221 Section 25.221 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.221 Voluntary destruction of beer. (a) On brewery premises. (1) A brewer may destroy, at the brewery, beer on which the tax has...

  8. 27 CFR 25.221 - Voluntary destruction of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... beer. 25.221 Section 25.221 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.221 Voluntary destruction of beer. (a) On brewery premises. (1) A brewer may destroy, at the brewery, beer on which the tax has...

  9. 9 CFR 2.129 - Confiscation and destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confiscation and destruction of animals. 2.129 Section 2.129 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Miscellaneous § 2.129 Confiscation and destruction...

  10. 9 CFR 2.129 - Confiscation and destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Confiscation and destruction of animals. 2.129 Section 2.129 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Miscellaneous § 2.129 Confiscation and destruction...

  11. 9 CFR 2.129 - Confiscation and destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Confiscation and destruction of animals. 2.129 Section 2.129 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Miscellaneous § 2.129 Confiscation and destruction...

  12. 9 CFR 2.129 - Confiscation and destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Confiscation and destruction of animals. 2.129 Section 2.129 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Miscellaneous § 2.129 Confiscation and destruction...

  13. 27 CFR 479.24 - Destructive device determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Destructive device determination. 479.24 Section 479.24 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE...

  14. 27 CFR 479.24 - Destructive device determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Destructive device determination. 479.24 Section 479.24 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE...

  15. 27 CFR 479.24 - Destructive device determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Destructive device determination. 479.24 Section 479.24 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE...

  16. 27 CFR 479.24 - Destructive device determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Destructive device determination. 479.24 Section 479.24 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE...

  17. 27 CFR 479.24 - Destructive device determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Destructive device determination. 479.24 Section 479.24 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE...

  18. 9 CFR 2.129 - Confiscation and destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Confiscation and destruction of animals. 2.129 Section 2.129 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Miscellaneous § 2.129 Confiscation and destruction of animals. (a) If an animal being held by a...

  19. 10 CFR 52.10 - Attacks and destructive acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Attacks and destructive acts. 52.10 Section 52.10 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 52.10 Attacks and destructive acts. Neither an applicant for a license to...

  20. 10 CFR 52.10 - Attacks and destructive acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Attacks and destructive acts. 52.10 Section 52.10 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 52.10 Attacks and destructive acts. Neither an applicant for a license to...

  1. 10 CFR 52.10 - Attacks and destructive acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Attacks and destructive acts. 52.10 Section 52.10 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 52.10 Attacks and destructive acts. Neither an applicant for a license to...

  2. 10 CFR 52.10 - Attacks and destructive acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Attacks and destructive acts. 52.10 Section 52.10 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 52.10 Attacks and destructive acts. Neither an applicant for a license to...

  3. Self-Destructive Behavior in People with Dissociative Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxe, Glenn N.; Chawla, Neharika; Van der Kolk, Bessel

    2002-01-01

    Study assesses self-destructive behavior in a group of inpatients who have dissociative disorders compared to those who report few dissociative symptoms. Results reveal that these patients more frequently engage in self-destructive behaviors, use more methods of self-injury, and begin to injure themselves at an earlier age then patients who do not…

  4. Destruction of propellant magazine, November 1982

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tozer, N. H.

    1984-08-01

    Details on the destruction of a propellant magazine are given. The properties of single base propellants are discussed. Although single base propellants have been around for one hundred years, production of this type of propellant in Australia only commenced during World War 2 when appropriate plant and know how were provided under the Lend Lease Scheme. Most of the single base propellants made at Mulwala Explosives Factory have been of the IMR type i.e., single perforated tubular granules with their surface coated with DNT for use in small to medium calibre ammunition. Since production started at Mulwala Explosives Factory in 1944 some fourteen different versions of style of propellant have been manufactured. Four versions only were made up until 1957 and these were identified with an IMR type number matching the US propellants from which they were copied. New varieties introduced since 1957 have been identified with an AR aeries number commencing with AR2001 - the original Australian 7.62 mm rifle propellant.

  5. Pore destruction resulting from mechanical thermal expression

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, S.A.; Wheeler, R.A.; Hoadley, A.F.A.

    2007-07-01

    Mechanical thermal expression (MTE) is a dewatering technology ideally suited for the dewatering of internally porous biomaterials. For such materials, the combined application of temperature and compressive force in the MTE process enhances the collapse of the porous structure, resulting in effective water removal. In this article, a comparison of the dewatering of titanium dioxide, which is an ideal incompressible, non-porous material, and lignite, which is a porous plant-based biomaterial, is presented. The comparison is based on the parameters critical to dewatering, namely the material compressibility and the permeability. With the aid of mercury porosimetry results, a detailed discussion of the pore destruction of lignite resulting from MTE processing is presented. It is illustrated that there is a well-defined relationship between the pore size distribution after MTE dewatering and the MTE temperature and pressure. The discussion is extended to an investigation of the effects of MTE processing conditions on the effective and noneffective porosity. The effective porosity is defined as the interconnected porosity, which contributes to flow through the compressed matrix, while the non-effective porosity is the remaining porosity, which does not contribute to flow. It is illustrated that there is a linear relationship in both the effective and non-effective porosity with the total porosity. The linear relationship is independent of the processing conditions. It is also shown that MTE processing collapses the effective and non-effective pores at roughly the same rate.

  6. The preventive destruction of a hazardous asteroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrova, A. G.; Galushina, T. Yu.; Prishchepenko, A. B.; Kholshevnikov, K. V.; Chechetkin, V. M.

    2016-06-01

    One means of countering a hazardous asteroid is discussed: destruction of the object using a nuclear charge. Explosion of such an asteroid shortly before its predicted collision would have catastrophic consequences, with numerous highly radioactive fragments falling onto the Earth. The possibility of exploding the asteroid several years before its impact is also considered. Such an approach is made feasible because the vast majority of hazardous objects pass by the Earth several times before colliding with it. Computations show that, in the 10 years following the explosion, only a negligible number of fragments fall onto the Earth, whose radioactivity has substantially reduced during this time. In most cases, none of these fragments collides with the Earth. Thus, this proposed method for eliminating a threat from space is reasonable in at least two cases: when it is not possible to undergo a soft removal of the object from the collisional path, and to destroy objects that are continually returning to near-Earth space and require multiple removals from hazardous orbits.

  7. Detection of weapons of mass destruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjorkholm, Paul J.

    2003-07-01

    High Energy X-ray cargo screening is a mature technology that has proven its value in the detection of contraband material hidden within cargo including fully loaded sea containers. To date high energy screening has been largely applied to manifest verification and to drug detection. However, the dramatic change in world terrorism has altered the application. Now it is essential that weapons of mass destruction (WMD"s) be interdicted with incredibly high accuracy. The implication of a missed detection has gone from loss of revenue or the lowering of the street price of drugs to potentially stopping, at least for some significant time, most world commerce. Screening containers with high energy x-rays (~250+ mm of steel penetration) is capable of detecting all nuclear threats at a fraction of the strategically important mass. The screening operation can be automated so that no human decisions are required with very low false alarms. Finally, the goal of 100% inspection of cargo inbound to the United States from the twenty largest international ports is an achievable goal with hardware costs in the area of that already spent on airport security.

  8. Photocatalytic destruction of automobile exhaust emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Kaviranta, P.D.; Peden, C.H.F.

    1996-10-01

    Hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides contained in automobile exhaust emissions are among the major atmospheric air pollutants. During the first few minutes of a cold start of the engine, the emission levels of unburned hydrocarbon and CO pollutants are very high due to the inefficiency of the cold engine and the poor activity of the catalysts lower temperatures. Therefore, it is necessary to provide an alternative approach to deal with this specific problem in order to meet near-term regulatory requirements. Our approach has been to use known photocatalytic reactions obtainable on semiconducting powders such as titanium dioxide. In this presentation we describe our recent studies aimed at the photocatalytic reduction of unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide in automobile exhaust emissions. Our results demonstrate the effective destruction of propylene into water and carbon dioxide. The conversion was found to be dependent on the propylene flow rate. The reaction rate was studied as a function of time, humidity and temperature. The effect of the power of the UV source on conversion will also be presented.

  9. Destruction of the Josephson effect by fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fibich, M.; Kuper, C. G.; Revzen, M.; Ron, Amiram

    1987-12-01

    The Josephson effect occurs when the phases of the complex order parameter of two superconducting bodies separated by an insulating barrier become correlated. Prima facie, this is energetically favorable, since there is a finite coupling energy. However, when fluctuations of charge and phase are taken into account, one has to include the “cost” of these fluctuations in the energy balance. This becomes especially important in very small systems. We use the fluctuation-dissipation theorem to calculate the fluctuation energy and the associated free energy both when the junction is phase-correlated and when it is uncorrelated. In these calculations, we use the “resistively-shunted-junction” model to describe the junction. By comparing the excess free energy in the correlated state (over the uncorrelated one) with the Josephson coupling energy, we find a thermodynamic criterion for destruction of the Josephson characteristic of the junction. In the limiting case where the shunt resistance has a finite zero-temperature limit, we find a nearly universal resistance threshold. In another limit, where the resistance is taken to be the frequency-independent tunneling resistance of the Bogoliubov quasiparticles (in a “semiconductor” picture), our criterion reduces to that of Anderson when the temperature T=0. We predict that for some junction parameters, the system can be reentrant, while for some other values, the transition temperature may be lowered.

  10. Destruction and Sequestration of H2O on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Benton

    2016-07-01

    The availability of water in biologically useable form on any planet is a quintessential resource, even if the planet is in a zone habitable with temperature regimes required for growth of organisms (above -18 °C). Mars and most other planetary objects in the solar system do not have sufficient liquid water at their surfaces that photosynthesis or chemolithoautotrophic metabolism could occur. Given clear evidence of hydrous mineral alteration and geomorphological constructs requiring abundant supplies of liquid water in the past, the question arises whether this H2O only became trapped physically as ice, or whether there could be other, more or less accessible reservoirs that it has evolved into. Salts containing S or Cl appear to be ubiquitous on Mars, having been measured in soils by all six Mars landed missions, and detected in additional areas by orbital investigations. Volcanoes emit gaseous H2S, S, SO2, HCl and Cl2. A variety of evidence indicates the geochemical fate of these gases is to be transformed into sulfates, chlorides, chlorates and perchlorates. Depending on the gas, the net reaction causes the destruction of between one and up to eight molecules of H2O per atom of S or Cl (although hydrogen atoms are also released, they are lost relatively rapidly to atmospheric escape). Furthermore, the salt minerals formed often incorporate H2O into their crystalline structures, and can result in the sequestration of up to yet another six (sometimes, more) molecules of H2O. In addition, if the salts are microcrystalline or amorphous, they are potent adsorbents for H2O. In certain cases, they are even deliquescent under martian conditions. Finally, the high solubility of the vast majority of these salts (with notable exception of CaSO4) can result in dense brines with low water activity, aH, as well as cations which can be inimical to microbial metabolism, effectively "poisoning the well." The original geologic materials on Mars, igneous rocks, also provide some

  11. Magmatism & lithospheric destruction along the Colorado Plateau margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendersky, C.; Plank, T.; Forsyth, D. W.; Hauri, E. H.; Lee, C.; Holtzman, B. K.

    2012-12-01

    due to melt corrosion, which has focused strain. Further south, in Snow Canyon Volcanic Field, Vs in the low-velocity zone and seismic lid are faster than at BRVF and magmas record equilibration depths that coincide with the seismically defined lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (~70km). In this location both observations are consistent with a stronger lithosphere, which may allow rapid melt ascent by diking from the LAB to the surface, and limited melt-infiltration. Lavas from the most southern volcanic field, the Grand Canyon, record the deepest and largest range of melt equilibration depths (49-139km), the highest water contents (up to 3wt%) and have the most variable geochemistry (Nb/La ranging from asthenospheric to lithospheric values). Several vents contain abundant mantle xenoliths. Mantle Vs here is consistently higher (>4.1 km/s) than all the regions to the north. Here, lower mantle Tp, a stronger lithosphere, and wetter melts appears to enable more efficient melt extraction from all depths. Our results indicate that the destruction of the CP lithosphere occurs via a spectrum of processes along its margin, ranging from diking in the south to extensive melt infiltration and corrosion in the north. The spatial distribution of mantle heat and water content may exert a primary influence on the mode of lithosphere destruction, surface strain and volcanism.

  12. Horseradish Peroxidase Inactivation: Heme Destruction and Influence of Polyethylene Glycol

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Liang; Luo, Siqiang; Huang, Qingguo; Lu, Junhe

    2013-01-01

    Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) mediates efficient conversion of many phenolic contaminants and thus has potential applications for pollution control. Such potentially important applications suffer however from the fact that the enzyme becomes quickly inactivated during phenol oxidation and polymerization. The work here provides the first experimental data of heme consumption and iron releases to support the hypothesis that HRP is inactivated by heme destruction. Product of heme destruction is identified using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. The heme macrocycle destruction involving deprivation of the heme iron and oxidation of the 4-vinyl group in heme occurs as a result of the reaction. We also demonstrated that heme consumption and iron releases resulting from HRP destruction are largely reduced in the presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG), providing the first evidence to indicate that heme destruction is effectively suppressed by co-dissolved PEG. These findings advance a better understanding of the mechanisms of HRP inactivation. PMID:24185130

  13. Emerging technology summary: Destruction of organic contaminants in air using advanced ultraviolet flashlamps

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The summary describes a new process for photo-oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air using an advanced ultraviolet (UV) source, and a pulsed xenon flashlamp. The flashlamps have greater output at 200 to 250 nm than medium-pressure mercury lamps at the same power and, therefore, cause much more rapid direct photolysis of VOCs. The observation of quantum yields greater than unity indicate the involvement of chain reactions for trichloroethene (TCE), perchloroethene (PCE), 1,1-dichloroethylene (DCE), CHCl3, and CH2Cl2. TCE was examined more closely because of its widespread occurrence and very high destruction rate.

  14. Integrated system for the destruction of organics by hydrolysis and oxidation with peroxydisulfate

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F.; Balazs, G. Bryan; Hsu, Peter; Lewis, Patricia R.; Adamson, Martyn G.

    2000-01-01

    An integrated system for destruction of organic waste comprises a hydrolysis step at moderate temperature and pressure, followed by direct chemical oxidation using peroxydisulfate. This system can be used to quantitatively destroy volatile or water-insoluble halogenated organic solvents, contaminated soils and sludges, and the organic component of mixed waste. The hydrolysis step results in a substantially single phase of less volatile, more water soluble hydrolysis products, thus enabling the oxidation step to proceed rapidly and with minimal loss of organic substrate in the off-gas.

  15. Souter arthroplasty for elbows with severe destruction.

    PubMed

    Ikävalko, Mikko; Belt, Eero A; Kautiainen, Hannu; Lehto, Matti U K

    2004-04-01

    One hundred fifty-eight primary Souter elbow arthroplasties were done on 134 patients (121 women) with severe joint destruction (Larsen Grade 5) or large bone defects or both. Joint replacement operations were done at our institution from 1985-1997. The study group comprised 156 joints in 132 patients with rheumatoid arthritis or other variants of chronic inflammatory joint disease, one in a patient with osteoarthritis, and one patient with posttraumatic arthrosis. The mean age of the patients at the time of surgery was 57 years (range, 26-81 years) and the mean disease duration was 27 years (tinge, 2-70 years). Radiographically, severe bone defects were detected in 100 humeri and 134 ulnas. Retentive (snap-fit) ulnar components were implanted in 110 joints, and bone grafts were used on 26 humeri and 14 ulnas. Major complications led to five early and 16 late reoperations in 19 patients. Four reoperations were done because of dislocation and eight because of aseptic loosening. One reoperation was done because of early infection and five were done because of late infection. One patient had reoperation because of superficial infection in the bursa olecrani and one triceps tendon rupture also was repaired. One patient had wound repair because of marginal necrosis. In the survival analysis, the cumulative success rate without revision for aseptic loosening at 5 years followup was 97%. Despite the demanding nature of these arthroplasties, the primary results are encouraging. Technically, it is possible to do elbow replacement, even on elbows where the humeral condyles or olecranon or both are missing, if there is sufficient bone left on the diaphyseal areas for primary stem fixation. However, in these extreme cases, the poor general condition of the patient or the difficult soft tissue problems in the elbow region may prove to be a contraindication for joint replacement. PMID:15123937

  16. Non destructive testing of soft body armor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhise, Karan

    Pristine bullet proof vests are extremely effective at halting pre-determined projectile threats and have saved over 3000 lives. However, the effectiveness of these vests to halt a bullet is seen to decrease over time.Owing to the importance of bullet proof vests over a period of time, tests to determine their effectiveness have been carried out on every batch of vests at the time of inception and at certain time intervals by shooting a bullet through them. A few vests from every batch are picked up and shot at to check for bullet penetration during this process while these results are extrapolated onto the other vests from the batch.One of the main issues with this method is the fact that testing a few jackets among a large set of jackets does not guarantee the safety of every jacket in the entire batch.Further the jackets that are shot-at have the possibility of undergoing substantial damage during the process thus compromising its safety rendering them unsafe for future use.As the vest penetration phenomenon is extremely complex too, there arose a need for a better testing procedure that could not only help ensure more safety, but also save time and money.The new testing procedure proposed a non-destructive evaluation of the jackets that would solve the issues previous faced in testing the vests. This would lead to the building of a portable set up which could be carried to any location to test jackets in a matter of minutes thus saving time and money.

  17. VOC Destruction by Catalytic Combustion Microturbine

    SciTech Connect

    Tom Barton

    2009-03-10

    This project concerned the application of a catalytic combustion system that has been married to a micro-turbine device. The catalytic combustion system decomposes the VOC's and transmits these gases to the gas turbine. The turbine has been altered to operate on very low-level BTU fuels equivalent to 1.5% methane in air. The performance of the micro-turbine for VOC elimination has some flexibility with respect to operating conditions, and the system is adaptable to multiple industrial applications. The VOC source that was been chosen for examination was the emissions from coal upgrading operations. The overall goal of the project was to examine the effectiveness of a catalytic combustion based system for elimination of VOCs while simultaneously producing electrical power for local consumption. Project specific objectives included assessment of the feasibility for using a Flex-Microturbine that generates power from natural gas while it consumes VOCs generated from site operations; development of an engineering plan for installation of the Flex-Microturbine system; operation of the micro-turbine through various changes in site and operation conditions; measurement of the VOC destruction quantitatively; and determination of the required improvements for further studies. The micro-turbine with the catalytic bed worked effectively to produce power on levels of fuel much lower than the original turbine design. The ability of the device to add or subtract supplemental fuel to augment the amount of VOC's in the inlet air flow made the device an effective replacement for a traditional flare. Concerns about particulates in the inlet flow and the presence of high sulfur concentrations with the VOC mixtures was identified as a drawback with the current catalytic design. A new microturbine design was developed based on this research that incorporates a thermal oxidizer in place of the catalytic bed for applications where particulates or contamination would limit the lifetime of

  18. Cryogenic Storage Tank Non-Destructive Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arens, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work in non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of cryogenic storage tanks. Four large cryogenic tanks, constructed in 1965 with perlite insulation in the annular regions, are of concern. The construction of the tanks, two Liquid Oxygen (LOX) and two Liquid Hydrogen (LH2), are described. The loss rate for the LOX tank at Pad A is slightly higher than that for the one at Pad B. The concerns for the LH2 tank at Pad B are that there is a significantly higher boil-off rate than that at Pad A, that there is mold growth, indicative of increased heat flow, that there is a long down-time needed for repairs, and that 3 of 5 full thermal cycles have been used on the Pad B LH2 tank. The advantages and disadvantages of thermal imaging are given. A detailed description of what is visible of the structures in the infra-red is given and views of the thermal images are included. Missing Perlite is given as the probable cause of the cold spot on the Pad B LH2 tank. There is no indications of problematic cold regions on the Pad A LH2 tank, as shown by the thermal images given in the presentation. There is definite indication of a cold region on the Pad A LOX tank. There is however concerns with thermal imaging, as thermal images can be significantly effected by environmental conditions, image differences on similar days but with different wind speeds. Other effects that must be considered include ambient temperature, humidity levels/dew, and cloud reflections

  19. PROCESSING ALTERNATIVES FOR DESTRUCTION OF TETRAPHENYLBORATE

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, D; Thomas Peters, T; Samuel Fink, S

    2007-02-27

    Two processes were chosen in the 1980's at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to decontaminate the soluble High Level Waste (HLW). The In Tank Precipitation (ITP) process (1,2) was developed at SRS for the removal of radioactive cesium and actinides from the soluble HLW. Sodium tetraphenylborate was added to the waste to precipitate cesium and monosodium titanate (MST) was added to adsorb actinides, primarily uranium and plutonium. Two products of this process were a low activity waste stream and a concentrated organic stream containing cesium tetraphenylborate and actinides adsorbed on monosodium titanate (MST). A copper catalyzed acid hydrolysis process was built to process (3, 4) the Tank 48H cesium tetraphenylborate waste in the SRS's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Operation of the DWPF would have resulted in the production of benzene for incineration in SRS's Consolidated Incineration Facility. This process was abandoned together with the ITP process in 1998 due to high benzene in ITP caused by decomposition of excess sodium tetraphenylborate. Processing in ITP resulted in the production of approximately 1.0 million liters of HLW. SRS has chosen a solvent extraction process combined with adsorption of the actinides to decontaminate the soluble HLW stream (5). However, the waste in Tank 48H is incompatible with existing waste processing facilities. As a result, a processing facility is needed to disposition the HLW in Tank 48H. This paper will describe the process for searching for processing options by SRS task teams for the disposition of the waste in Tank 48H. In addition, attempts to develop a caustic hydrolysis process for in tank destruction of tetraphenylborate will be presented. Lastly, the development of both a caustic and acidic copper catalyzed peroxide oxidation process will be discussed.

  20. NITRATE DESTRUCTION LITERATURE SURVEY AND EVALUATION CRITERIA

    SciTech Connect

    Steimke, J.

    2011-02-01

    This report satisfies the initial phase of Task WP-2.3.4 Alternative Sodium Recovery Technology, Subtask 1; Develop Near-Tank Nitrate/Nitrite Destruction Technology. Some of the more common anions in carbon steel waste tanks at SRS and Hanford Site are nitrate which is corrosive, and nitrite and hydroxide which are corrosion inhibitors. At present it is necessary to periodically add large quantities of 50 wt% caustic to waste tanks. There are three primary reasons for this addition. First, when the contents of salt tanks are dissolved, sodium hydroxide preferentially dissolves and is removed. During the dissolution process the concentration of free hydroxide in the tank liquid can decrease from 9 M to less than 0.2 M. As a result, roughly half way through the dissolution process large quantities of sodium hydroxide must be added to the tank to comply with requirements for corrosion control. Second, hydroxide is continuously consumed by reaction with carbon dioxide which occurs naturally in purge air used to prevent buildup of hydrogen gas inside the tanks. The hydrogen is generated by radiolysis of water. Third, increasing the concentration of hydroxide increases solubility of some aluminum compounds, which is desirable in processing waste. A process that converts nitrate and nitrite to hydroxide would reduce certain costs. (1) Less caustic would be purchased. (2) Some of the aluminum solid compounds in the waste tanks would become more soluble so less mass of solids would be sent to High Level Vitrification and therefore it would be not be necessary to make as much expensive high level vitrified product. (3) Less mass of sodium would be fed to Saltstone at SRS or Low Level Vitrification at Hanford Site so it would not be necessary to make as much low level product. (4) At SRS less nitrite and nitrate would be sent to Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) so less formic acid would be consumed there and less hydrogen gas would be generated. This task involves

  1. Non-destructive sampling of rock-dwelling microbial communities using sterile adhesive tape.

    PubMed

    Cutler, Nick A; Oliver, Anna E; Viles, Heather A; Whiteley, Andrew S

    2012-12-01

    Building stone provides a habitat for an array of microorganisms, many of which have been demonstrated to have a deleterious effect on the appearance and/or structural integrity of stone masonry. It is essential to understand the composition and structure of stone-dwelling (lithobiontic) microbial communities if successful stone conservation strategies are to be applied, particularly in the face of global environmental change. Ideally, the techniques used to sample such assemblages should be non-destructive due to the sensitive conservation status of many stone buildings. This paper quantitatively assesses the performance of sterile adhesive tape as a non-destructive sampling technique and compares the results of tape sampling with an alternative, destructive, sampling method. We used DNA fingerprinting (TRFLP) to characterise the algal, fungal and bacterial communities living on a stone slab. Our results demonstrate that tape sampling may be used to collect viable quantities of microbial DNA from environmental samples. This technique is ideally suited to the sampling of microbial biofilms, particularly when these communities are dominated by green algae. It provides a good approximation of total community diversity (i.e. the aggregate diversity of epilithic and endolithic communities). Tape sampling is straightforward, rapid and cost effective. When combined with molecular analytical techniques, this sampling method has the potential to make a major contribution to efforts to understand the structure of lithobiontic microbial communities and our ability to predict the response of such communities to future environmental change. PMID:23022426

  2. Indirect (chronic) self-destructiveness and modes of suicide attempts

    PubMed Central

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos; Gruszczynski, Wojciech; Tsirigotis-Wołoszczak, Marta

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Suicides and suicide attempts may be considered as manifestations not only of direct self-destructiveness, but also of indirect (chronic) self-destructiveness. The aim of this work is to assess the relation between intensity of indirect self-destructiveness and suicide attempt modes. Material and methods The research was conducted among 147 persons after suicide attempts (114 women and 33 men) aged 14-33 years. The Polish version of the “Chronic Self-Destructiveness Scale” by Kelley (CS-DS) in Suchańska's adaptation was used. Results Examined persons applied several modes of committing suicide: pharmacological drugs, exsanguination, hanging, jumping from a height, asphyxia, poisoning, and throwing oneself under a moving car. The most frequent are pharmacological drugs (42.31%) and exsanguination (25.60%); the rarest is throwing oneself under a car (1.28%). Relations between indirect self-destructiveness and the following suicide attempt modes were found: pharmacological drugs (0.366, p = 0.00001), poisoning (0.667, p = 0.01), and throwing oneself under a car (0.542, p = 0.04). There were found three clusters regarding the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness (low, medium and high). The largest differences concerned hanging, jumping from a height (medium CS-DS), poisoning and throwing oneself under a car (high CS-DS). There is a relation between indirect self-destructiveness and recurrence of suicide attempts (Kendall Tau = 0.217, p = 0.007); the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness differentiates the risk of consecutive suicide attempts (F = 2.871, p = 0.05). Conclusions The implications of the findings are mainly of preventive and therapeutic nature. In the preventative aspect, the subject of interest should be not only persons with a tendency to the active form of indirect self-destructiveness, but also persons exhibiting its passive form. PMID:22371730

  3. Rapid shallow breathing

    MedlinePlus

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the lung Choking Chronic obstructive ...

  4. Thermal destruction of vessels with liquid upon heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zverev, V. G.; Goldin, V. D.; Svetashkov, A. A.

    2016-04-01

    A new engineering technique of calculating the heating and thermal destruction of vessels containing liquid under extreme thermal loading conditions is offered. The heating of the shell and the internal vessel volume is described on the basis of the thermodynamic approach. The pressure growth in a vessel is a result of gas heating and liquid evaporation. Stresses within the shell and its destruction conditions are determined, which allows predicting the critical time of destruction upon heating. The calculation and experimental data for pressure growth inside the vessel are in good agreement.

  5. Shake and stew: a non-destructive PCR-ready DNA isolation method from a single preserved fish larva.

    PubMed

    Alvarado Bremer, J R; Smith, B L; Moulton, D L; Lu, C-P; Cornic, M

    2014-01-01

    A rapid non-destructive alternative to isolate DNA from an individual fish larva is presented, based on the suspension of epithelial cells through vortex forces, and the release of DNA in a heated alkaline solution. DNA from >6056 fish larvae isolated using this protocol has yielded a high PCR amplification success rate (>93%), suggesting its applicability to other taxonomic groups or sources when tissue amount is the limiting factor. PMID:24383811

  6. Tank 50H Tetraphenylborate Destruction Results

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.B.

    2003-10-03

    We conducted several scoping tests with both Tank 50H surrogate materials (KTPB and phenol) as well as with actual Tank 50H solids. These tests examined whether we could destroy the tetraphenylborate in the surrogates or actual Tank 50H material either by use of Fenton's Reagent or by hydrolysis (in Tank 50H conditions at a maximum temperature of 50 degrees C) under a range of conditions. The results of these tests showed that destruction of the solids occurred only under a minority of conditions. (1)Using Fenton's Reagent and KTPB as the Tank 50H surrogate, no reaction occurred at pH ranges greater than 9. (2)Using Fenton's Reagent and phenol as the Tank 50H surrogate, no reaction occurred at a pH of 14. (3)Using Fenton's Reagent and actual Tank 50H slurry, a reaction occurred at a pH of 9.5 in the presence of ECC additives. (4)Using Fenton's Reagent and actual Tank 50H slurry, after a thirty three day period, all attempts at hydrolysis (at pH 14) were too slow to be viable. This happened even in the case of higher temperature (50 degrees C) and added (100 ppm) copper. Tank 50H is scheduled to return to HLW Tank Farm service with capabilities of transferring and receiving salt supernate solutions to and from the Tank Farms and staging feed for the Saltstone Facility. Before returning Tank 50H to Tank Farm service as a non-organic tank, less than 5 kg of TPB must remain in Tank 50H. Recently, camera inspections in Tank 50H revealed two large mounds of solid material, one in the vicinity of the B5 Riser Transfer Pump and the other on the opposite side of the tank. Personnel sampled and analyzed this material to determine its composition. The sample analysis indicated presence of a significant quantity of organics in the solid material. This quantity of organic material exceeds the 5 kg limit for declaring only trace amounts of organic material remain in Tank 50H. Additionally, these large volumes of solids, calculated as approximately 61K gallons, present other

  7. Non-Destructive Classification Approaches for Equilibrated Ordinary Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righter, K.; Harrington, R.; Schroeder, C.; Morris, R. V.

    2013-09-01

    In order to compare a few non-destructive classification techniques with the standard approaches, we have characterized a group of chondrites from the Larkman Nunatak region using magnetic susceptibility and Mössbauer spectroscopy.

  8. Senseless demolition in progress, showing destruction of perfectly decent and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Senseless demolition in progress, showing destruction of perfectly decent and recyclable mill building. Problem exacerbated by high value of scrap iron. - Phoenix Iron Company, Rolling Mill, North of French Creek, west of Fairview Avenue, Phoenixville, Chester County, PA

  9. NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING METHODS FOR GEOTHERMAL PIPING.

    SciTech Connect

    BERNDT,M.L.

    2001-03-23

    Non-destructive testing is a key component of optimized plant inspection and maintenance programs. Risk based inspection, condition based maintenance and reliability centered maintenance systems all require detection, location and sizing of defects or flaws by non-destructive methods. Internal damage of geothermal piping by corrosion and erosion-corrosion is an ongoing problem requiring inspection and subsequent maintenance decisions to ensure safe and reliable performance. Conventional manual ultrasonic testing to determine remaining wall thickness has major limitations, particularly when damage is of a random and localized nature. Therefore, it is necessary to explore alternative non-destructive methods that offer potential benefits in terms of accurate quantification of size, shape and location of damage, probability of detection, ability to use on-line over long ranges, and economics. A review of non-destructive methods and their applicability to geothermal piping was performed. Based on this, ongoing research will concentrate on long range guided wave and dynamic methods.

  10. 9 CFR 51.29 - Destruction of animals; time limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.29 Destruction of animals; time limit. (a) The claimant must ensure that goats, sheep, and horses infected with or exposed to B. abortus...

  11. 9 CFR 51.29 - Destruction of animals; time limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.29 Destruction of animals; time limit. (a) The claimant must ensure that goats, sheep, and horses infected with or exposed to B. abortus...

  12. 9 CFR 51.29 - Destruction of animals; time limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.29 Destruction of animals; time limit. (a) The claimant must ensure that goats, sheep, and horses infected with or exposed to B. abortus...

  13. Dust Destruction in the ISM: A Re-Evaluation of Dust Lifetimes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, A. P.; Nuth, J. A., III

    2011-01-01

    There is a long-standing conundrum in interstellar dust studies relating to the discrepancy between the time-scales for dust formation from evolved stars and the apparently more rapid destruction in supernova-generated shock waves. Aims. We re-examine some of the key issues relating to dust evolution and processing in the interstellar medium. Methods. We use recent and new constraints from observations, experiments, modelling and theory to re-evaluate dust formation in the interstellar medium (ISM). Results. We find that the discrepancy between the dust formation and destruction time-scales may not be as significant as has previously been assumed because of the very large uncertainties involved. Conclusions. The derived silicate dust lifetime could be compatible with its injection time-scale, given the inherent uncertainties in the dust lifetime calculation. The apparent need to re-form significant quantities of silicate dust in the tenuous interstellar medium may therefore not be a strong requirement. Carbonaceous matter, on the other hand, appears to be rapidly recycled in the ISM and, in contrast to silicates, there are viable mechanisms for its re-formation in the ISM.

  14. Non-destructive testing and fracture mechanics: A short discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerbst, Uwe; Heckel, Thomas; Carboni, Michele

    2016-02-01

    A short discussion is provided on the relationship between non-destructive testing and fracture mechanics. The basic tasks behind this are to guarantee the safety of a component at a potential hazard loading event, to specify inspection intervals or, alternatively, of demands on non-destructive testing for a fixed inspection regime, to plan accompanying actions for cases of temporary continued operation of structures in which cracks have been detected, and, finally, fatigue strength considerations which take into account initial defects.

  15. Destruction of XM-46 (aka LGP-1846) using the Molten Salt Destruction Process

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhye, R.S.; Watkins, B.E.

    1994-03-01

    The experimental work done on the destruction of the liquid gun propellant XM-46 (or LGP-1846) using the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the US Army is described in this report. The current methods of disposal of large quantities of high explosives (HE), propellants and wastes containing energetic materials by open burning or open detonation (OB/OD), or by incineration, are becoming undesirable. LLNL is developing MSD as an alternative to OB/OD and incineration of energetic materials. A series of 18 continuous experimental runs were made wherein a solution of XM-46 and water was injected into a bed of molten salt comprising the carbonates of sodium, potassium and lithium, along with air. The results from these experiments, described in detail in the main body of this report, show that: XM-46 can be safely and completely destroyed in a bed of molten salt at temperatures well below those needed for incineration. Under optimum operating conditions, less than 1% of the chemically bound nitrogen in the XM-46 is converted to NO{sub x}, and less than 1% carbon is converted to CO. There exist, however, a number of technical uncertainties: We need to understand better why nitrates build up in the salt bath, and what we can do to reduce this amount. We need to understand the mechanism of XM-46 oxidation and ways to minimize the formation of CO and NO{sub x}. In addition, we would like to find out ways by which a more concentrated solution of XM-46 can be introduced into the reactor, so as to increase the throughputs.

  16. Destruction of Staphylococcus aureus during frankfurter processing.

    PubMed Central

    Palumbo, S A; Smith, J L; Kissinger, J C

    1977-01-01

    We studied the thermal resistance of Staphylococcus aureus during frankfurter processing in respect to whether staphylococci are killed by the heating step of the process and whether heat injury interferes with the quantitative estimation of the survivors. With S. aureus 198E, heat injury could be demonstrated only when large numbers of cells (10(8)/g) were present and at a product temperature of 140 degrees F (60 degrees C). On tryptic soy agar and tryptic soy agar plus 7% NaCl media, at temperatures less than 140 degrees F, the counts were virtually identical; above 140 degrees F, the counts converged, with the organisms dying so rapidly that heat injury was not demonstrable. Heat injury was thus judged not to interfere with the quantitative estimation of staphylococci surviving the normal commercial heating given frankfurters. By using a combination of direct plating on tryptic soy agar and a most-probable-number technique, we detected no viable cells (less than 0.3/g) of several strains of S. aureus in frankfurters heated to 160 degrees F (71.1 degrees C). This temperature is compatible with the normal final temperature to which federally inspected processors heat their frankfurters and with the temperature needed to destroy salmonellae. PMID:563701

  17. Destruction of Refractory Carbon in Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Dana; Bergin, Edwin A.; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Ciesla, Fred; Visser, Ruud; Lee, Jeong-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Rocky bodies in the inner solar system contain significantly less carbon than the dust of interstellar origin that seeded their formation. Even primitive meteorites exhibit carbon deficiencies, suggesting at least one process active prior to the formation of planetesimals. Selective erosion of carbonaceous materials by free oxygen atoms present in the photoactive surface layers of the protoplanetary disk provides one such mechanism for destroying refractory carbon while leaving silicate materials intact. We model this process with a large chemical network in a disk surrounding a T-Tauri star. We find that given sufficient turbulence to loft small grains into the oxidative surface regions of the disk, carbon grains are rapidly converted into CO. These oxidative regions can deplete carbon present in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and small grains (˜0.02-20 μm) by at least two orders of magnitude, enough to explain the deficiencies in meteorites compared to interstellar dust, and extend out to ˜15-20 AU from the central star at the disk surface in our static model. When turbulence is considered, the effects may reach the midplane causing depletion out to ˜1 AU. However, the amount of the total carbon reservoir at these radii that is affected by this mechanism depends on several unconstrained parameters concerning the nature of the disk and refractory carbon sources.

  18. PUBLISHER'S NOTE: Rapid Communications Rapid Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Tom

    2009-09-01

    As part of a general review of Superconductor Science and Technology, we have been examining the scope for Rapid Communications (RAPs). We recognize these articles make up an important part of the journal representing the latest state-of-the-art research in superconductivity. To reflect this, we have devised a new scope for this article type: 'Rapid Communications. The journal offers open access to outstanding short articles (no longer than 5 journal pages or 4500 words including figures) reporting new and timely developments in superconductivity and its applications. These articles should report very substantial new advances in superconductivity to the readers of Superconductor Science and Technology, but are not expected to meet any requirement of 'general interest'. RAPs will be processed quickly (average receipt to online publication for RAPs is around 60 days) and are permanently free to read in the electronic journal. Authors submitting a RAP should provide reasons why the work is urgent and requires rapid publication. Each RAP will be assessed for suitability by our Reviews and Rapid Communications Editor before full peer review takes place.' The essential points are: They should report very substantial new advances in superconductivity and its application; They must be no longer than 5 journal pages long (approx. 4500 words); Average publication time for a Rapid Communication is 60 days; They are free to read. As mentioned in the previous publisher's announcement (2009 Supercond. Sci. Technol. 22 010101), each submitted Rapid Communication must come with a letter justifying why it should be prioritized over regular papers and will be pre-assessed by our Reviews and Rapid Communications Editor. In addition, we will work with the authors of any Rapid Communication to promote and raise the visibility of the work presented in it. We will be making further changes to the journal in the near future and we write to you accordingly. Thank you for your kind

  19. Assessment of disinfectants in explosive destruction system for biological agent destruction : LDRD final report FY04.

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Blake Alexander; Didlake, John E. Jr.; Bradshaw, Robert W.; Crooker, Paul J.; Buffleben, George M.

    2005-01-01

    Treatment systems that can neutralize biological agents are needed to mitigate risks from novel and legacy biohazards. Tests with Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus steurothemophilus spores were performed in a 190-liter, 1-112 lb TNT equivalent rated Explosive Destruction System (EDS) system to evaluate its capability to treat and destroy biological agents. Five tests were conducted using three different agents to kill the spores. The EDS was operated in steam autoclave, gas fumigation and liquid decontamination modes. The first three tests used EDS as an autoclave, which uses pressurized steam to kill the spores. Autoclaving was performed at 130-140 deg C for up to 2-hours. Tests with chlorine dioxide at 750 ppm concentration for 1 hour and 10% (vol) aqueous chlorine bleach solution for 1 hour were also performed. All tests resulted in complete neutralization of the bacterial spores based on no bacterial growth in post-treatment incubations. Explosively opening a glass container to expose the bacterial spores for treatment with steam was demonstrated and could easily be done for chlorine dioxide gas or liquid bleach.

  20. 27 CFR 25.223 - Destruction of beer off brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Destruction of beer off... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.223 Destruction of beer off brewery premises. (a) Destruction without supervision. A brewer may destroy beer...

  1. 27 CFR 25.223 - Destruction of beer off brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Destruction of beer off... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.223 Destruction of beer off brewery premises. (a) Destruction without supervision. A brewer may destroy beer...

  2. 27 CFR 25.223 - Destruction of beer off brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Destruction of beer off... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.223 Destruction of beer off brewery premises. (a) Destruction without supervision. A brewer may destroy beer...

  3. 27 CFR 25.223 - Destruction of beer off brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Destruction of beer off... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.223 Destruction of beer off brewery premises. (a) Destruction without supervision. A brewer may destroy beer...

  4. 27 CFR 25.223 - Destruction of beer off brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Destruction of beer off... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.223 Destruction of beer off brewery premises. (a) Destruction without supervision. A brewer may destroy beer...

  5. A kind of specific osteolytic destruction of the vertebral bodies

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Baogan; Chen, Jinhong; Pang, Xiaodong; Hei, Yan

    2012-01-01

    This report describes two young patients with osteolytic destruction in two adjacent vertebral bodies along with the intervertebral disc, and reveals its possible mechanism. A lateral radiograph and CT scan displayed a giant osteolytic cavity in the L4 vertebral body. An MRI or CT scan with a two-dimensional reconstruction displayed the same changes in the L4 vertebral body and lower endplate erosion in the L3 vertebral body. A comprehensive preoperative evaluation did not identify a specific cause of vertebral destruction. Both patients underwent anterior lumbar fusion surgery. The lesions were removed for histological and immunohistochemical examination. Histopathological study of the destructed vertebral bodies in the two patients revealed the disruption or atrophy of bone trabeculae with infiltration of a large amount of B-lymphocytes and macrophages into the marrow cavities. Studies of its pathogenesis reveal that it is likely to be a B-lymphocyte-mediated local immune inflammatory reaction in the lumbar spine. PMID:22675148

  6. Community Destruction and Traumatic Stress in Post-Tsunami Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Nobles, Jenna; Sumantri, Cecep

    2013-01-01

    How are individuals affected when the communities they live in change for the worse? This question is central to understanding neighborhood effects, but few study designs generate estimates that can be interpreted causally. We address issues of inference through a natural experiment, examining post-traumatic stress at multiple time points in a population differentially exposed to the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. The data, from the Study of the Tsunami Aftermath and Recovery, include interviews with over 16,000 Indonesian adults before and after the event. These data are combined with satellite imagery, direct observation, and informant interviews to examine the consequences of community destruction for post-traumatic stress. Using multilevel linear mixed models, we show that community destruction worsens post-traumatic stress, net of rigorous controls for individual experiences of trauma and loss. Furthermore, the effect of community destruction persists over time and extends across a wide range of community types. PMID:22940603

  7. Winnicott on Jung: destruction, creativity and the unrepressed unconscious.

    PubMed

    Meredith-Owen, William

    2011-02-01

    This paper considers Winnicott's critique of Jung, principally expressed in his review of Memories, Dreams, Reflections, which asserts that Jung's creative contribution to analysis was constrained by his failure to integrate his 'primitive destructive impulses', subsequent to inadequate early containment. It is argued that although Winnicott's diagnosis illuminates Jung's shadow, particularly his constraints vis-à-vis the repressed Freudian unconscious, it fails to appreciate the efficacy of the compensatory containment Jung found in the collective unconscious. This enigmatic relationship between destruction and creativity-so central to late Winnicott-is illuminated by Matte Blanco's bi-logic, and further explored in relation to William Blake. Winnicott's personal resolution through his Jung-inspired 'splitting headache' dream of destruction-previously considered in this Journal by Morey (2005) and Sedgwick (2008)-is given particular attention. PMID:21241294

  8. Determining the Stability of Asphalt Concrete at Varying Temperatures and Exposure Times Using Destructive and Non-Destructive Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozgan, Ercan

    This study examined the effect of varying temperatures and varying exposure times on the stability of asphalt concrete using destructive and non-destructive methods. The study also looked at the relationship between destructive and non-destructive methods. In order to investigate the stability according to exposure time and environment temperature, exposure times of 1.5, 3, 4.5 and 6 h and temperatures of 30, 40 and 50°C were selected. The results showed that at the environment temperature of 17°C the stability of the asphalt core samples decreased by 40.16% at 30°C after 1.5 h and 62.39% after 6 h. At 40°C the decrease was 74.31% after 1.5 and 78.10% after 6 h. At 50°C the stability of the asphalt decreased by 83.22% after 1.5 h and 88.66% after 6 h. The results also pointed to a moderate negative relationship (R = -0.533) between second ultrasound and stability indicating that non-destructive ultrasound method can be used to predict stability.

  9. Acoustic Techniques for Assessing the Optison Destruction Threshold

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Tyrone M.; Smith, Denise A. B.; Holland, Christy K.

    2007-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to identify the pressure threshold for the destruction of Optison (octafluoropropane contrast agent; Amersham Health, Princeton, NJ) using a laboratory-assembled 3.5-MHz pulsed ultrasound system and a clinical diagnostic ultrasound scanner. Methods A 3.5-MHz focused transducer and a linear array with a center frequency of 6.9 MHz were positioned confocally and at 90° to each other in a tank of deionized water. Suspensions of Optison (5–8 × 104 microbubbles/mL) were insonated with 2-cycle pulses from the 3.5-MHz transducer (peak rarefactional pressure, or Pr, from 0.0, or inactive, to 0.6 MPa) while being interrogated with fundamental B-mode imaging pulses (mechanical index, or MI, = 0.04). Scattering received by the 3.5-MHz transducer or the linear array was quantified as mean backscattered intensity or mean digital intensity, respectively, and fit with exponential decay functions (Ae−kt + N, where A + N was the amplitude at time 0; N, background echogenicity; and k, decay constant). By analyzing the decay constants statistically, a pressure threshold for Optison destruction due to acoustically driven diffusion was identified. Results The decay constants determined from quantified 3.5-MHz radio frequency data and B-mode images were in good agreement. The peak rarefactional pressure threshold for Optison destruction due to acoustically driven diffusion at 3.5 MHz was 0.15 MPa (MI = 0.08). Furthermore, the rate of Optison destruction increased with increasing 3.5-MHz exposure pressure output. Conclusions Optison destruction was quantified with a laboratory-assembled 3.5-MHz ultrasound system and a clinical diagnostic ultrasound scanner. The pressure threshold for acoustically driven diffusion was identified, and 3 distinct mechanisms of ultrasound contrast agent destruction were observed with acoustic techniques. PMID:17121946

  10. Habitat destruction and metacommunity size in pen shell communities.

    PubMed

    Munguia, Pablo; Miller, Thomas E

    2008-11-01

    1. In spatially structured communities, habitat destruction can have two effects: first, a main effect that occurs because of the loss of habitat area within a larger region, and a secondary effect due to changes in the spatial arrangement of local communities. Changes to the spatial arrangement can, in turn, affect the migration and extinction rates within local communities. 2. Our study involved the experimental destruction of entire local communities within larger regions in natural marine microcosms. Large and small arrays of dead pen shells were created in a shallow bay in north Florida, and the colonization by both encrusting and motile species on this empty substrate were followed through time. After most species had become established, half of the large arrays were perturbed to create small arrays by removal of half the shells, simulating habitat destruction. 3. After 48 days of further community development, comparisons of the large arrays, reduced arrays and original small arrays suggested that the mechanisms by which habitat destruction affects diversity could depend upon the size of the region affected and the natural history of the species being studied. 4. Habitat destruction reduced the diversity of motile species to a level lower than that found in the undisturbed small arrays, suggesting that the species that assembled in the original large metacommunities negatively influenced the species that occurred ultimately in the converted small arrays. 5. With sessile species, habitat destruction created richness levels that were intermediate to those of small and large arrays. The initial predestruction richness appears to have had a positive effect; because sessile species cannot disperse as adults, they may not respond to significant shifts in metacommunity size later in succession. Initial metacommunity size may be important for allowing individuals to select appropriate habitats before they settle. PMID:18637972

  11. Photolytic destruction of oxalate in aqueous mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, F.T.; Lum, B.Y.

    1995-03-01

    In aqueous plutonium processing, residual oxalic acid can be destroyed (oxalate kill) by UV light with hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) in 1 M HCl solutions. By controlling the amount of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, the oxalate kill process will not affect the chloride concentration. In nitric acid solutions, UV light alone can destroy the oxalic acid. However, with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, the rate of destruction is faster. After the destruction of oxalic acid, the acidic solutions may be reusable without further purification process.

  12. Product acceptance environmental and destructive testing for reliability.

    SciTech Connect

    Dvorack, Michael A.; Kerschen, Thomas J.; Collins, Elmer W.

    2007-08-01

    To determine whether a component is meeting its reliability requirement during production, acceptance sampling is employed in which selected units coming off the production line are subjected to additional environmental and/or destructive tests that are within the normal environment space to which the component is expected to be exposed throughout its life in the Stockpile. This report describes what these tests are and how they are scored for reliability purposes. The roles of screens, Engineering Use Only tests, and next assembly product acceptance testing are also discussed, along with both the advantages and disadvantages of environmental and destructive testing.

  13. Mechanisms of CFR composites destruction studying with pulse acoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petronyuk, Y. S.; Morokov, E. S.; Levin, V. M.; Ryzhova, T. B.; Chernov, A. V.

    2016-05-01

    Non-destructive inspection of carbon-fiber-reinforced (CFR) composites applied in aerospace industry attracts a wide attention. In the paper, high frequency focused ultrasound (50-100 MHz) has been applied to study the bulk microstructure of the CFR material and mechanisms of its destruction under the mechanical loading. It has been shown impulse acoustic microscopy provides detecting the areas of adhesion loss at millimeter and micron level. Behavior of the CFR laminate structure fabricated by prepreg or infusion technology has been investigated under the tensile and impact loading.

  14. Investigations and Non-destructive Testing in New Building Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenov, V.; Ovchinnikov, A.; Osipov, S.; Shtein, A.; Ustinov, A.; Danilson, A.

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical rebar couplers are preferable in the advanced building construction and structural design of antiseismic elements. The paper presents destructive inspection techniques used to investigate stress fields (tensile and compressive) and deformation curves for mechanical rebar splicing. The properties of mechanical rebar splicing are investigated by the non-destructive testing digital radiography. The behavior of real connections (column-to- column, beam-to-column) is studied under static and dynamic loads. Investigation results allow the elaboration of recommendations on their application in the universal prefabricated antiseismic structural system developed at Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, Tomsk, Russia.

  15. Destruction of dimethyl methylphosphonate using a microwave plasma torch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhm, Han S.; Cho, Soon C.; Hong, Yong C.; Park, Yang G.; Park, Ju S.

    2008-02-01

    A microwave plasma torch with a microwave power of 1.2kW destroys dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) with a destruction rate of 1.14l/h, demonstrating a safe removal capability of stockpiled chemical weapons. The FTIR spectra of the discharge gas from DMMP destruction indicates near perfect elimination of DMMP when the proper amount of oxygen gas is added. This can be confirmed by the gas chromatography spectra, which show the disappearance of even intermediary compounds. The compactness and light weight of the microwave plasma torch provide an effective means of on-site removal of the chemical warfare agents found on a battlefield.

  16. Destructive arthritis of the wrist and palmoplantar pustulosis.

    PubMed

    Goupille, P; Pizzuti, P; Jattiot, F; Valat, J P

    1994-01-01

    The authors report a case of destructive arthritis of the right wrist occurring in a 29-year-old Algerian man, associated with palmoplantar pustulosis and HLA B27 antigen. Joint fluid and synovial biopsy were sterile and the course was favourable with surgical synovectomy and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Usually, arthritis associated with palmoplantar pustulosis is of the non-erosive type but cases of destructive arthritis have been reported. This condition is probably a new member of the seronegative spondylarthropathy group. PMID:8070165

  17. Destructive hydroisomerization of naphtha cuts over zeolitic nickel aluminosilicate catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Abad-zade, K.I.; Rustamov, M.I.

    1987-05-01

    The authors discuss a process developed for hydroisomerization of low-octane naphtha cuts with the aim of obtaining light isoparaffinic hydrocarbons. A zeolitic Ni-Al-Si catalyst with highly dispersed nickel was synthesized. The characteristics of the naphtha cuts used are provided. Data is given on the influence of temperature on destructive hydroisomerization of the 85-195/sup 0/C cut. It is found that the zeolitic Ni-Al-Si catalyst is adequate in activity so that the naphtha cut can be subjected to thorough destructive hydroisomerization through an ionic mechanism with little formation of C/sub 1/ and C/sub 2/ hydrocarbons.

  18. Synthetic single beam heterodyne interferometry (SSHI) for continuous, high bandwidth, minimally destructive detection of ultracold atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locke, Mary; Fertig, Chad

    2011-05-01

    We demonstrate a new method, ``synthetic single beam heterodyne interferometry'' (SSHI), to continuously monitor rapid population dynamics in ultracold atomic clouds at the minimum destruction limit (i.e., with signal-to-noise determined solely by the maximum allowable spontaneous scattering rate and the measurement bandwidth). Similar to frequency modulation spectroscopy (FMS), SSHI encodes atom dynamics into the time-dependent shift of the optical phase of one spectral component relative to a second in a single laser beam. Unlike FMS, SSHI does not suffer from residual amplitude modulation (RAM) noise, is highly insensitive to intensity fluctuations, and does not require modulation frequencies of 100's of GHz to reach the minimum destruction regime. In SSHI, a large signal size is made compatible with low spontaneous scattering by passing only a weak laser through the atoms, subsequently interfering it with a bright beam that does not pass through the atoms. Unlike a true separated beams interferometer, however, SSHI is completely insensitive to mirror shake anywhere on any beam path. Details of the theory and measured performance of our scheme will be presented. Work partially supported by UGA, NSF and ARO.

  19. Heavy-fermion quantum criticality and destruction of the Kondo effect in a nickel oxypnictide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yongkang; Pourovskii, Leonid; Rowley, S. E.; Li, Yuke; Feng, Chunmu; Georges, Antoine; Dai, Jianhui; Cao, Guanghan; Xu, Zhu'An; Si, Qimiao; Ong, N. P.

    2014-08-01

    A quantum critical point arises at a continuous transformation between distinct phases of matter at zero temperature. Studies in antiferromagnetic heavy-fermion materials have revealed that quantum criticality has several classes, with an unconventional type that involves a critical destruction of the Kondo entanglement. To understand such varieties, it is important to extend the materials basis beyond the usual setting of intermetallic compounds. Here we show that a nickel oxypnictide, CeNiAsO, exhibits a heavy-fermion antiferromagnetic quantum critical point as a function of either pressure or P/As substitution. At the quantum critical point, non-Fermi-liquid behaviour appears, which is accompanied by a divergent effective carrier mass. Across the quantum critical point, the low-temperature Hall coefficient undergoes a rapid sign change, suggesting a sudden jump of the Fermi surface and a destruction of the Kondo effect. Our results imply that the enormous materials basis for the oxypnictides, which has been so crucial in the search for high-temperature superconductivity, will also play a vital role in the effort to establish the universality classes of quantum criticality in strongly correlated electron systems.

  20. Neural network and principal component regression in non-destructive soluble solids content assessment: a comparison.

    PubMed

    Chia, Kim-seng; Abdul Rahim, Herlina; Abdul Rahim, Ruzairi

    2012-02-01

    Visible and near infrared spectroscopy is a non-destructive, green, and rapid technology that can be utilized to estimate the components of interest without conditioning it, as compared with classical analytical methods. The objective of this paper is to compare the performance of artificial neural network (ANN) (a nonlinear model) and principal component regression (PCR) (a linear model) based on visible and shortwave near infrared (VIS-SWNIR) (400-1000 nm) spectra in the non-destructive soluble solids content measurement of an apple. First, we used multiplicative scattering correction to pre-process the spectral data. Second, PCR was applied to estimate the optimal number of input variables. Third, the input variables with an optimal amount were used as the inputs of both multiple linear regression and ANN models. The initial weights and the number of hidden neurons were adjusted to optimize the performance of ANN. Findings suggest that the predictive performance of ANN with two hidden neurons outperforms that of PCR. PMID:22302428

  1. Molten salt destruction of energetic material wastes as an alternative to open burning

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhye, R.S.; Pruneda, C.O.; Watkins, B.E.

    1995-09-26

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in conjunction with the Energetic Materials Center ( a partnership of Lawrence Livermore and Sandia National Laboratories), is developing methods for the safe and environmentally sound destruction of explosives and propellants as a part of the Laboratory`s ancillary demilitarization mission. As a result of the end of the Cold War and the shift in emphasis to a smaller stockpile, many munitions, both conventional and nuclear, are scheduled for retirement and rapid dismantlement and demilitarization. Major components of these munitions are the explosives and propellants, or energetic materials. The Department of Energy has thousands of pounds of energetic materials which result from dismantlement operations at the Pantex Plant. The Department of Defense has several hundred million pounds of energetic materials in its demilitarization inventory, with millions more added each year. In addition, there are vast energetic materials demilitarization inventories world-wide, including those in the former Soviet Union and eastern Bloc countries. Although recycling and reusing is the preferred method of dealing with these surplus materials, there will always be the necessity of destroying intractable or unusable energetic materials. Traditionally, open bum/open detonation (OB/OD) has been the method of choice for the destruction of energetic materials. Public concerns and increasingly stringent environmental regulations have made open burning and open detonation of energetic materials increasingly costly and nearly unacceptable. Thus, the impetus to develop environmentally sound alternatives to dispose of energetic materials is great.

  2. Neural network and principal component regression in non-destructive soluble solids content assessment: a comparison*

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Kim-seng; Abdul Rahim, Herlina; Abdul Rahim, Ruzairi

    2012-01-01

    Visible and near infrared spectroscopy is a non-destructive, green, and rapid technology that can be utilized to estimate the components of interest without conditioning it, as compared with classical analytical methods. The objective of this paper is to compare the performance of artificial neural network (ANN) (a nonlinear model) and principal component regression (PCR) (a linear model) based on visible and shortwave near infrared (VIS-SWNIR) (400–1000 nm) spectra in the non-destructive soluble solids content measurement of an apple. First, we used multiplicative scattering correction to pre-process the spectral data. Second, PCR was applied to estimate the optimal number of input variables. Third, the input variables with an optimal amount were used as the inputs of both multiple linear regression and ANN models. The initial weights and the number of hidden neurons were adjusted to optimize the performance of ANN. Findings suggest that the predictive performance of ANN with two hidden neurons outperforms that of PCR. PMID:22302428

  3. Loss of cftr function leads to pancreatic destruction in larval zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Navis, Adam; Bagnat, Michel

    2016-01-01

    The development and function of many internal organs requires precisely regulated fluid secretion. A key regulator of vertebrate fluid secretion is an anion channel, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Loss of CFTR function leads to defects in fluid transport and cystic fibrosis (CF), a complex disease characterized by a loss of fluid secretion and mucus buildup in many organs including the lungs, liver, and pancreas. Several animal models including mouse, ferret and pig have been generated to investigate the pathophysiology of CF. However, these models have limited accessibility to early processes in the development of CF and are not amenable for forward genetic or chemical screens. Here, we show that Cftr is expressed and localized to the apical membrane of the zebrafish pancreatic duct and that loss of cftr function leads to destruction of the exocrine pancreas and a cystic fibrosis phenotype that mirrors human disease. Our analyses reveal that the cftr mutant pancreas initially develops normally, then rapidly loses pancreatic tissue during larval life, reflecting pancreatic disease in CF. Altogether, we demonstrate that the cftr mutant zebrafish is a powerful new model for pancreatitis and pancreatic destruction in CF. This accessible model will allow more detailed investigation into the mechanisms that drive CF of the pancreas and facilitate development of new therapies to treat the disease. PMID:25592226

  4. Destruction of Representative Navy Wastes Using Supercritical Water Oxidation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, S.F.; Steeper, R.R.; LaJeunesse, C.A.

    1993-10-01

    Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is a rapidly emerging technology that presents potential as a hazardous waste treatment method for a wide variety of industrial chemicals ranging from common organic solvents to complex formulations such as paints, lubricating oils, and degreasers. The Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory is contributing to the development of this technology for application to waste materials generated at naval shipyards and bases. These wastes include paint stripping and changeout fluids generated from equipment service procedures as well as herbicides, pesticides, paint, and numerous other materials associated with base facility maintenance. An important design consideration in the development of SCWO systems centers on choosing a reactor operating temperature such that the destruction of the waste organic is sufficiently complete. This report examines the temperature dependence of the oxidation in supercritical water of seven common organic compounds and three industrial commercial materials over the temperature range of 430{degree}C to 585{degree}C and reaction times ranging from seven to thirty seconds at a pressure of 27.5 MPa (4000 psi). The materials studies are methanol, phenol, methyl ethyl ketone, ethylene glycol, acetic acid, methylene chloride, 1,1,1-tichloroethane (TCA), latex paint, motor oil, and Roundup, a commercial general purpose herbicide. The results indicate that for most materials, temperatures over 530{degree}C and residence times near 20 seconds afford destruction efficiencies of greater than 99.95%

  5. Investigations of emergency destruction methods for recovered, explosively configured, chemical warfare munitions: Interim emergency destruction methods - evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, M.R.; Cooper, P.W.; Kipp, M.E.

    1995-07-01

    At the request of the U.S. Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Material Office, the Sandia Explosives Containment System Design Team investigated mature destruction systems for destroying recovered chemical warfare munitions (CWM). The goal of the investigations was to identify and examine available techniques for the destruction of recovered CWM. The result of this study is a recommendation for an interim solution, a solution for use on any munitions found while an optimal, long-term solution is developed. Sandia is also performing the long-term solution study to develop a system that destroys CWM, contains the blast and fragments, and destroys the chemical agent without insult to the environment.

  6. FACILITIES EVALUATION OF HIGH EFFICIENCY BOILER DESTRUCTION PCB WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of destruction in two different high-efficiency boilers (as an alternative to landfill disposal) of waste (a rendering plant byproduct, yellow grease) found to be contaminated by PCBs from a transformer leak. (The PCB content--under 500 p...

  7. 32 CFR 2400.31 - Destruction of classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Destruction of classified information. 2400.31 Section 2400.31 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY...

  8. Destructive Leadership Behaviors and Workplace Attitudes in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woestman, Daniel S.; Wasonga, Teresa Akinyi

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated destructive leadership behaviors (DLBs) and their influence on K-12 workplace attitudes (subordinate consideration for leaving their job, job satisfaction, and levels of stress). Quantitative survey method was used to gather data from experienced professional educators. Analyses of data show that the practice of DLB exists…

  9. 9 CFR 51.25 - Proof of destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proof of destruction. 51.25 Section 51.25 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF...

  10. 9 CFR 51.25 - Proof of destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Proof of destruction. 51.25 Section 51.25 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF...

  11. Longitudinal Relations Between Constructive and Destructive Conflict and Couples’ Sleep

    PubMed Central

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Koss, Kalsea J.; Kelly, Ryan J.; Rauer, Amy J.

    2016-01-01

    We examined longitudinal relations between interpartner constructive (negotiation) and destructive (psychological and physical aggression) conflict strategies and couples’ sleep over 1 year. Toward explicating processes of effects, we assessed the intervening role of internalizing symptoms in associations between conflict tactics and couples’ sleep. Participants were 135 cohabiting couples (M age = 37 years for women and 39 years for men). The sample included a large representation of couples exposed to economic adversity. Further, 68% were European American and the remainder were primarily African American. At Time 1 (T1), couples reported on their conflict and their mental health (depression, anxiety). At T1 and Time 2, sleep was examined objectively with actigraphs for 7 nights. Three sleep parameters were derived: efficiency, minutes, and latency. Actor–partner interdependence models indicated that husbands’ use of constructive conflict forecasted increases in their own sleep efficiency as well as their own and their wives’ sleep duration over time. Actor and partner effects emerged, and husbands’ and wives’ use of destructive conflict strategies generally predicted worsening of some sleep parameters over time. Several mediation and intervening effects were observed for destructive conflict strategies. Some of these relations reveal that destructive conflict is associated with internalizing symptoms, which in turn are associated with some sleep parameters longitudinally. These findings build on a small, albeit growing, literature linking sleep with marital functioning, and illustrate that consideration of relationship processes including constructive conflict holds promise for gaining a better understanding of factors that influence the sleep of men and women. PMID:25915089

  12. 21 CFR 884.4500 - Obstetric fetal destructive instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Obstetric fetal destructive instrument. 884.4500 Section 884.4500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... dead or anomalous (abnormal) fetus. This generic type of device includes the cleidoclast,...

  13. 21 CFR 884.4500 - Obstetric fetal destructive instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Obstetric fetal destructive instrument. 884.4500 Section 884.4500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... dead or anomalous (abnormal) fetus. This generic type of device includes the cleidoclast,...

  14. 21 CFR 884.4500 - Obstetric fetal destructive instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Obstetric fetal destructive instrument. 884.4500 Section 884.4500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... dead or anomalous (abnormal) fetus. This generic type of device includes the cleidoclast,...

  15. 21 CFR 884.4500 - Obstetric fetal destructive instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obstetric fetal destructive instrument. 884.4500 Section 884.4500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... dead or anomalous (abnormal) fetus. This generic type of device includes the cleidoclast,...

  16. 21 CFR 884.4500 - Obstetric fetal destructive instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Obstetric fetal destructive instrument. 884.4500 Section 884.4500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... dead or anomalous (abnormal) fetus. This generic type of device includes the cleidoclast,...

  17. Self-destructiveness and serotonin function in bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Steiger, H; Koerner, N; Engelberg, M J; Israël, M; Ng Ying Kin, N M; Young, S N

    2001-08-01

    Studies have linked bulimia nervosa (BN) to alterations in brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine: 5-HT) activity and to heightened propensity for parasuicidality and self-injuriousness. The coincidence of self-destructiveness and 5-HT abnormality in BN is of interest, given documentation (in various populations) of an inverse association between 5-HT activity and potential for self-harm. The present study examined the connection between 5-HT status and self-destructiveness in BN. Structured interviews and self-report questionnaires were used to assess 40 bulimic and 21 normal-eater women for: (a) history of parasuicidal or self-injurious acts; and (b) mood and impulse-regulation problems. We then applied tests, presumed to reflect 5-HT function, of serial prolactin (PRL) and cortisol (CORT) responses after oral administration of the partial 5-HT agonist, meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP). Relative to non-bulimic women, bulimic women (on average) showed blunting of PRL and CORT following m-CPP. The blunting of neuroendocrine responses was, however, most remarkable in bulimic women with a history of self-destructiveness. These findings suggest that some serotonergic anomalies reported in BN sufferers (i.e. reduced neuroendocrine response after m-CPP) may be most characteristic of individuals in the population showing clear-cut self-destructive potential. PMID:11472787

  18. 19 CFR 191.37 - Destruction under Customs supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Destruction under Customs supervision. 191.37 Section 191.37 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Customs supervision. A claimant may destroy merchandise and obtain unused merchandise drawback...

  19. 19 CFR 191.37 - Destruction under Customs supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Destruction under Customs supervision. 191.37 Section 191.37 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Customs supervision. A claimant may destroy merchandise and obtain unused merchandise drawback...

  20. 19 CFR 191.37 - Destruction under Customs supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Destruction under Customs supervision. 191.37 Section 191.37 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Customs supervision. A claimant may destroy merchandise and obtain unused merchandise drawback...

  1. Lawmakers, Lawbreakers: The Problems of Library Record Destruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiegand, Shirley A.; Wiegand, Wayne A.

    1994-01-01

    Examines laws regarding the retention and destruction of library records. Issues librarians need to address are suggested, including a definition of public records, who determines what records can be destroyed, and penalties for violations; and a sidebar discusses the need for retention of historical records from public libraries. (LRW)

  2. 19 CFR 191.37 - Destruction under Customs supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Destruction under Customs supervision. 191.37 Section 191.37 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Customs supervision. A claimant may destroy merchandise and obtain unused merchandise drawback...

  3. 19 CFR 191.37 - Destruction under Customs supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Destruction under Customs supervision. 191.37 Section 191.37 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Customs supervision. A claimant may destroy merchandise and obtain unused merchandise drawback...

  4. PHOTOTHERMAL DESTRUCTION OF THE VAPOR OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The results of thermal and photothermal destruction of the vapors of organic compounds were compared by conducting tests in a photothermal detoxification unit. enon are lamp was used as the irradiation source. he tests were conducted on trichlorethylene (TCE), 1,2-dichlorobenzene...

  5. 34 CFR 303.416 - Destruction of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... U.S.C. 1232f, and EDGAR, 34 CFR parts 76 and 80. (b) Subject to paragraph (a) of this section, the... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Destruction of information. 303.416 Section 303.416... TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES Procedural Safeguards Confidentiality of Personally Identifiable Information...

  6. 34 CFR 303.416 - Destruction of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... U.S.C. 1232f, and EDGAR, 34 CFR parts 76 and 80. (b) Subject to paragraph (a) of this section, the... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Destruction of information. 303.416 Section 303.416... TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES Procedural Safeguards Confidentiality of Personally Identifiable Information...

  7. 34 CFR 303.416 - Destruction of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... U.S.C. 1232f, and EDGAR, 34 CFR parts 76 and 80. (b) Subject to paragraph (a) of this section, the... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Destruction of information. 303.416 Section 303.416... TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES Procedural Safeguards Confidentiality of Personally Identifiable Information...

  8. DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION OF SHIPPING PACKAGE 9975-06100

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.

    2014-11-07

    Destructive and non-destructive examinations have been performed on specified components of shipping package 9975-06100. This package was selected for examination based on several characteristics: - This was the first destructively examined package in which the fiberboard assembly was fabricated from softwood fiberboard. - The package contained a relatively high heat load to contribute to internal temperature, which is a key environmental factor for fiberboard degradation. - The package has been stored in the middle or top of a storage array since its receipt in K- Area, positions that would contribute to increased service temperatures. No significant changes were observed for attributes that were measured during both field surveillance and destructive examination. Except for the axial gap, all observations and test results met identified criteria, or were collected for information and trending purposes. The axial gap met the 1 inch maximum criterion during field surveillance, but was just over the criterion during SRNL measurements. When re-measured at a later date, it again met the criterion. The bottom of the lower fiberboard assembly and the drum interior had two small stains at matching locations, suggestive of water intrusion. However, the fiberboard assembly did not contain any current evidence of excess moisture. No evidence of a degraded condition was found in this package. Despite exposure to the elevated temperatures of this higher-then-average wattage package, properties of the fiberboard and O-rings are consistent with those of new packages.

  9. COMPARISON OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR THERMAL DESTRUCTION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper briefly summaries and compares six technologies which are considered to be innovative to the thermal destruction of hazardous wastes. The six technologies are: Fluidized Bed, Molten Salt, High Temperature Fluid Wall, Plasma Arc, Wet Air Oxidation and Supercritical Wate...

  10. 28 CFR 115.89 - Data storage, publication, and destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Data storage, publication, and destruction. 115.89 Section 115.89 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Data Collection and Review §...

  11. 28 CFR 115.89 - Data storage, publication, and destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Data storage, publication, and destruction. 115.89 Section 115.89 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Data Collection and Review §...

  12. 28 CFR 115.89 - Data storage, publication, and destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Data storage, publication, and destruction. 115.89 Section 115.89 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Data Collection and Review §...

  13. Destruction of the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect by Disorder

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Laughlin, R. B.

    1985-07-01

    It is suggested that Hall steps in the fractional quantum Hall effect are physically similar to those in the ordinary quantum Hall effect. This proposition leads to a simple scaling diagram containing a new type of fixed point, which is identified with the destruction of the fractional states by disorder. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  14. ADSORPTION AND CATALYTIC DESTRUCTION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE IN HYDROPHOBIC ZEOLITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several chromium exchanged ZSM-5 zeolites of varying SiO2/Al2O3 ratio were prepared and investigated for ambient (23 ?C) adsorption and subsequent oxidative destruction (250-400 ?C) of gaseous trichloroethylene (TCE, Cl2C=CHCl) in a humid air stream. With an increase in the SiO2...

  15. Longitudinal relations between constructive and destructive conflict and couples' sleep.

    PubMed

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Kelly, Ryan J; Koss, Kalsea J; Rauer, Amy J

    2015-06-01

    We examined longitudinal relations between interpartner constructive (negotiation) and destructive (psychological and physical aggression) conflict strategies and couples' sleep over 1 year. Toward explicating processes of effects, we assessed the intervening role of internalizing symptoms in associations between conflict tactics and couples' sleep. Participants were 135 cohabiting couples (M age = 37 years for women and 39 years for men). The sample included a large representation of couples exposed to economic adversity. Further, 68% were European American and the remainder were primarily African American. At Time 1 (T1), couples reported on their conflict and their mental health (depression, anxiety). At T1 and Time 2, sleep was examined objectively with actigraphs for 7 nights. Three sleep parameters were derived: efficiency, minutes, and latency. Actor-partner interdependence models indicated that husbands' use of constructive conflict forecasted increases in their own sleep efficiency as well as their own and their wives' sleep duration over time. Actor and partner effects emerged, and husbands' and wives' use of destructive conflict strategies generally predicted worsening of some sleep parameters over time. Several mediation and intervening effects were observed for destructive conflict strategies. Some of these relations reveal that destructive conflict is associated with internalizing symptoms, which in turn are associated with some sleep parameters longitudinally. These findings build on a small, albeit growing, literature linking sleep with marital functioning, and illustrate that consideration of relationship processes including constructive conflict holds promise for gaining a better understanding of factors that influence the sleep of men and women. PMID:25915089

  16. Mannose-6-phosphate regulates destruction of lipid-linked oligosaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ningguo; Shang, Jie; Huynh, Dang; Manthati, Vijaya L.; Arias, Carolina; Harding, Heather P.; Kaufman, Randal J.; Mohr, Ian; Ron, David; Falck, John R.; Lehrman, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Mannose-6-phosphate (M6P) is an essential precursor for mannosyl glycoconjugates, including lipid-linked oligosaccharides (LLO; glucose3mannose9GlcNAc2-P-P-dolichol) used for protein N-glycosylation. In permeabilized mammalian cells, M6P also causes specific LLO cleavage. However, the context and purpose of this paradoxical reaction are unknown. In this study, we used intact mouse embryonic fibroblasts to show that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress elevates M6P concentrations, leading to cleavage of the LLO pyrophosphate linkage with recovery of its lipid and lumenal glycan components. We demonstrate that this M6P originates from glycogen, with glycogenolysis activated by the kinase domain of the stress sensor IRE1-α. The apparent futility of M6P causing destruction of its LLO product was resolved by experiments with another stress sensor, PKR-like ER kinase (PERK), which attenuates translation. PERK's reduction of N-glycoprotein synthesis (which consumes LLOs) stabilized steady-state LLO levels despite continuous LLO destruction. However, infection with herpes simplex virus 1, an N-glycoprotein-bearing pathogen that impairs PERK signaling, not only caused LLO destruction but depleted LLO levels as well. In conclusion, the common metabolite M6P is also part of a novel mammalian stress-signaling pathway, responding to viral stress by depleting host LLOs required for N-glycosylation of virus-associated polypeptides. Apparently conserved throughout evolution, LLO destruction may be a response to a variety of environmental stresses. PMID:21737679

  17. Music as a Treatment Channel of Adolescent Destructivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehtonen, Kimmo; Shaughnessy, Michael F.

    A young person showing strong destructive symptoms often has too much hatred toward adults, other authorities, and society for the "voice of reason" to penetrate or reach some fixed point in his or her psyche. Music, however, activates emotions raising problems of the real field of life to be dealt with in symbolic form. This paper discusses the…

  18. 32 CFR 644.494 - Donation, abandonment or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Donation, abandonment or destruction. 644.494 Section 644.494 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Buildings and Other Improvements (without the Related Land) § 644.494 Donation, abandonment...

  19. Combating the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Bonnie

    1997-01-01

    Reveals the growing threat posed to all countries by the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Discusses the international effort combating this proliferation including the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties, Biological Weapons Convention, and Chemical Weapons Convention. Also considers regional arms…

  20. An unusually large destructive nasopalatine duct cyst: a case report.

    PubMed

    Perumal, Colin Jerome

    2013-03-01

    A case of an unusually large expansile nasopalatine duct cyst (NPDC) causing extensive destruction of the hard palate with involvement of the nasal cavity, perforation of the alveolar process and mucosa of the maxilla by pressure of the maxillary anterior teeth is being presented. PMID:24431822

  1. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Dissociation, and Adult Self-Destructive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Srednicki, Ofelia

    2001-01-01

    Female college students reporting a history of childhood sexual abuse and not reporting a history of childhood sexual abuse were compared on indices of six self-destructive behaviors, including drug use, alcohol abuse, binge eating, self-mutilation, risky sex, and suicidality. The CSA group had significantly higher mean scores on all the indices…

  2. The Strength of Seeds and Their Destruction by Granivorous Insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of seed structure and strength on their destruction by granivores is central to understanding the dynamics of granivore-plant interactions. The effects of seed size (cm3), mass (mg), density (mg/cm3) and coat strength (MPa) on the damage inflicted to up to nine seed species were evalua...

  3. 9 CFR 54.7 - Procedures for destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Procedures for destruction of animals. 54.7 Section 54.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... surfaces, tools, equipment, and instruments using hot water and detergent. Allow all surfaces,...

  4. 9 CFR 54.7 - Procedures for destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Procedures for destruction of animals. 54.7 Section 54.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... surfaces, tools, equipment, and instruments using hot water and detergent. Allow all surfaces,...

  5. 9 CFR 54.7 - Procedures for destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Procedures for destruction of animals. 54.7 Section 54.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... surfaces, tools, equipment, and instruments using hot water and detergent. Allow all surfaces,...

  6. 9 CFR 50.7 - Destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 50.7 Section 50.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE...

  7. 9 CFR 51.29 - Destruction of animals; time limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit. 51.29 Section 51.29 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS...

  8. 9 CFR 50.7 - Destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 50.7 Section 50.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE...

  9. 9 CFR 50.7 - Destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 50.7 Section 50.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE...

  10. 9 CFR 51.29 - Destruction of animals; time limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit. 51.29 Section 51.29 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS...

  11. 9 CFR 50.7 - Destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 50.7 Section 50.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE...

  12. 9 CFR 50.7 - Destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 50.7 Section 50.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE...

  13. 9 CFR 53.4 - Destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 53.4 Section 53.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... animals. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, animals infected with or exposed...

  14. Non-destructive methods for food texture assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food texture is important to the successful marketing and profitability of food products. Non-destructive sensing would allow food producers and processors to inspect, sort, grade, or track individual product items, so that they can deliver consistent, superior food products to the marketplace. Over...

  15. Destructive Dialogue: Negative Self-Talk and Effective Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Richard L., II; Cotrell, Howard W.

    Destructive dialogue, originating from frustration and disappointment, is an intrapersonal process that always involves a person in a relationship to others and that can be defined as inner talk cast in a negative tone. It is so powerful, influential, and pervasive that it can affect all aspects of a person's life and become a self-fulfilling…

  16. 27 CFR 26.207 - Destruction of marks and brands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... brands. 26.207 Section 26.207 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Products Coming Into the United States From the Virgin Islands § 26.207 Destruction of marks and brands. The marks, brands, and serial numbers required by this part to be placed on barrels, casks, or...

  17. 27 CFR 26.41 - Destruction of marks and brands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... brands. 26.41 Section 26.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Products Coming Into the United States From Puerto Rico § 26.41 Destruction of marks and brands. The marks, brands, and serial numbers required by this part to be placed on barrels, casks, or similar...

  18. 27 CFR 26.207 - Destruction of marks and brands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... brands. 26.207 Section 26.207 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Products Coming Into the United States From the Virgin Islands § 26.207 Destruction of marks and brands. The marks, brands, and serial numbers required by this part to be placed on barrels, casks, or...

  19. 27 CFR 26.41 - Destruction of marks and brands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... brands. 26.41 Section 26.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Products Coming Into the United States From Puerto Rico § 26.41 Destruction of marks and brands. The marks, brands, and serial numbers required by this part to be placed on barrels, casks, or similar...

  20. The Woman Writer and the Element of Destruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killoh, Ellen Peck

    1972-01-01

    Using Anais Nin as an example, the author describes the problem of the female writer as an agent of destruction. She is angered over the fact that women writers misdirected so much of their creative energy through fear of adopting any but the submissive, passive, feminine role. (Author/NL)

  1. Automated Non-Destructive Testing Array Evaluation System

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, T; Zavaljevski, N; Bakhtiari, S; Miron, A; Kupperman, D

    2004-12-24

    Automated Non-Destructive Testing Array Evaluation System (ANTARES) sofeware alogrithms were developed for use on X-probe(tm) data. Data used for algorithm development and preliminary perfomance determination was obtained for USNRC mock-up at Argone and data from EPRI.

  2. 9 CFR 53.5 - Disinfection or destruction of materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disinfection or destruction of materials. 53.5 Section 53.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES...

  3. 9 CFR 53.5 - Disinfection or destruction of materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disinfection or destruction of materials. 53.5 Section 53.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES...

  4. 9 CFR 53.5 - Disinfection or destruction of materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disinfection or destruction of materials. 53.5 Section 53.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES...

  5. 9 CFR 53.5 - Disinfection or destruction of materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disinfection or destruction of materials. 53.5 Section 53.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES...

  6. 9 CFR 53.5 - Disinfection or destruction of materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disinfection or destruction of materials. 53.5 Section 53.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES...

  7. Destructiveness, atrocities and healing: epistemological and clinical reflections.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, R K

    1998-10-01

    In this paper, destructiveness is approached as a multi-dimensional phenomenon where the mental health perspective addresses only one of these dimensions. An attempt is made to locate this phenomenon in the context of epistemological and societal considerations. Critical of mono-dimensional explanations based on causal-reductive epistemology, the paper instead proposes the idea of an 'ecology of destructiveness', according to which mental health professionals cannot possibly continue to assume the role of detached observers. The ordinariness and archetypal fascination of destructiveness are discussed as preventing the psychologizing and pathologizing of it. In addition, it is suggested that 'destructiveness may be a tragic facet of the human condition', without this implying any justification of it. Based on my work with a group of Bosnian ex-camp prisoners, some basic principles of how one can work with survivors of atrocities are derived and discussed. A central feature of this work is the attempt to create an appropriate therapeutic context within which a 'therapeutic presence' and 'therapeutic witnessing' can be developed. Finally, the relevance of Jungian insights to this kind of work is reviewed and the emergence of new types of defences of the self is identified. PMID:9821401

  8. 50 CFR 27.61 - Destruction or removal of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Destruction or removal of property. 27.61 Section 27.61 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: Against...

  9. 50 CFR 27.61 - Destruction or removal of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Destruction or removal of property. 27.61 Section 27.61 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: Against...

  10. 50 CFR 27.61 - Destruction or removal of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Destruction or removal of property. 27.61 Section 27.61 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: Against...

  11. 50 CFR 27.61 - Destruction or removal of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Destruction or removal of property. 27.61 Section 27.61 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: Against...

  12. 50 CFR 27.61 - Destruction or removal of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Destruction or removal of property. 27.61 Section 27.61 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: Against...

  13. [Pathobiochemistry of joint destruction in inflammatory and degenerative joint diseases].

    PubMed

    Greiling, H; Kleesiek, K; Reinards, R

    1987-08-01

    While the biochemical mechanism which leads to the destruction of joints in the course of degenerative and inflammatory arthropathies has not been cleared up completely to this day, basic differences have been noted in the way the two types of arthropathy affect the articular cartilage. The differences are described from the viewpoint of pathobiochemistry as they are fundamental to causal therapy. PMID:3314203

  14. DESTRUCTION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS VIA CATALYTIC INCINERATION (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an investigation of the effect of catalytic incinerator design and operation on the destruction of specific volatile organic compounds (VOCs), both singly and in mixtures. A range of operating and design parameters were tested on a wide variety of compo...

  15. DESTRUCTION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS VIA CATALYTIC INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an investigation of the effect of catalytic incinerator design and operation the destruction of specific volatile organic compounds (VOCs), both singly and in mixtures. A range of operating and design parameters were tested on a wide variety of compound...

  16. A Targeting Modality for Destruction of RNA Polymerase I that Possesses Anticancer Activity

    PubMed Central

    Peltonen, Karita; Colis, Laureen; Liu, Hester; Trivedi, Rishi; Moubarek, Michael S.; Moore, Henna M.; Bai, Bayoan; Rudek, Michelle A.; Bieberich, Charles J.; Laiho, Marikki

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY We define here the activity and mechanisms of action of a small molecule lead compound for cancer targeting. We show that the compound, BMH-21, has wide and potent antitumorigenic activity across NCI60 cancer cell lines and represses tumor growth in vivo. BMH-21 binds GC-rich sequences, which is present at high frequency in ribosomal DNA genes, and potently and rapidly represses RNA polymerase I (Pol I) transcription. Strikingly, we find that BMH-21 causes proteasome-dependent destruction of RPA194, the large catalytic subunit protein of Pol I holocomplex, and this correlates with cancer cell killing. Our results show that Pol I activity is under proteasome-mediated control, which reveals an unexpected therapeutic opportunity. PMID:24434211

  17. Transient elastodynamic model for beam defect interaction: application to non-destructive testing

    PubMed

    Raillon; Lecoeur-Taibi

    2000-03-01

    Modeling tools have been developed at the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) for the simulation of ultrasonic non-destructive testing inspections. In this paper the model for the prediction of echoes arising from defects within a piece (Mephisto) is presented and some examples are given and compared with experimental results. The model for computing wave defect interaction is based on Kirchhoff's approximation, and uses the principle of reciprocity and a mode-by-mode (between the transducer and the defect) calculation of the echoes. It accounts for possible mode conversions. These approximations and other approximations for the radiated field incident on the defect allow us to obtain a formulation of the echo received at the transducer, which is able to be computed rapidly. PMID:10829719

  18. Chemodetection and Destruction of Host Urea Allows Helicobacter pylori to Locate the Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Julie Y.; Sweeney, Emily Goers; Sigal, Michael; Zhang, Hai C.; Remington, S. James; Cantrell, Michael A.; Kuo, Calvin J.; Guillemin, Karen; Amieva, Manuel R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori interacts intimately with the gastric mucosa to avoid the microbicidal acid in the stomach lumen. The cues H. pylori senses to locate and colonize the gastric epithelium have not been well defined. We show that metabolites emanating from human gastric organoids rapidly attract H. pylori. This response is largely controlled by the bacterial chemoreceptor TlpB, and the main attractant emanating from epithelia is urea. Our previous structural analyses show that TlpB binds urea with high affinity. Here we demonstrate that this tight binding controls highly sensitive responses, allowing detection of urea concentrations as low as 50 nanomolar. Attraction to urea requires that H. pylori urease simultaneously destroys the signal. We propose that H. pylori has evolved a sensitive urea chemodetection and destruction system that allows the bacterium to dynamically and locally modify the host environment to locate the epithelium. PMID:26269952

  19. Apparatus and method for destructive removal of particles contained in flowing fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, L. C. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    An apparatus and method for destructively removing particles from a flowing gas containing the particles is described. In the specific embodiments disclosed the apparatus is adapted to remove carbon particles from diesel engine exhaust products. The exhaust products are directed to a predetermined location where they are rapidly vaporized and combine with oxygen in the exhaust products to form carbon dioxide. Vaporization in one embodiment is effected by a discharge grid located within an exhaust conduit, the grid being chosen so that alternate conductors defining the grid are spaced apart a distance approximately 125 times the mean diameter of the particles to be removed. A voltage differential of approximately 690 volts is applied across adjacent conductors.

  20. Apparatus and method for destructive removal of particles contained in flowing fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, L. C.

    1980-10-01

    An apparatus and method for destructively removing particles from a flowing gas containing the particles is described. In the specific embodiments disclosed the apparatus is adapted to remove carbon particles from diesel engine exhaust products. The exhaust products are directed to a predetermined location where they are rapidly vaporized and combine with oxygen in the exhaust products to form carbon dioxide. Vaporization in one embodiment is effected by a discharge grid located within an exhaust conduit, the grid being chosen so that alternate conductors defining the grid are spaced apart a distance approximately 125 times the mean diameter of the particles to be removed. A voltage differential of approximately 690 volts is applied across adjacent conductors.

  1. Investigation of carbon tetrachloride destruction by copper acetate.

    PubMed

    Chien, Yi-Chi

    2012-01-01

    Halogenated synthetic organic compounds are used in a wide variety of pesticides, solvents, refrigerants, fire retardants, and paints that cause extensive pollution to the air, surface water, groundwater, and soils. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl) is a typical halogenated synthetic organic compound that has been suspected to be toxic and carcinogenic and to cause ozone depletion. In the present work, molecular-level destruction of CCl by copper acetate was investigated by extended X-ray absorption fine structural spectra, X-ray absorption near-edge spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. Experimentally, the Cl species dissociated from CCl were abstracted by copper species and formed CuCl. At 473 to 533 K, reaction products (copper chloride) aggregated on the surfaces of CuO, which might cause the obstruction of further CCl destruction. Due to the insertion of Cl species into the matrix of CuO, the bond distances of Cu-O and Cu-(O)-Cu were increased by 0.3 to 0.4 Å and 0.3 to 0.6 Å, respectively. However, at 603 K, because 79.5% of the Cu was in the CCl destruction solid products, the coordination number of Cu-(O)-Cu increased to 5.6. Molecular level investigations are a key to identifying the mechanisms of the CCl destruction process. In addition, identification of the molecular characteristics of the products may help in safe disposal of the toxic substances. The success of this study paved the way for the destruction of halogenated organic compounds by copper acetate. PMID:22370408

  2. Surgical management of hemophilic pseudotumor complicated by destructive osteoarthropathy

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Jiliang; Weng, Xisheng; Zhang, Baozhong; Peng, Hui-ming; Bian, Yan-yan; Zhou, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Hemophilic pseudotumor gradually erodes bone and induces fracture or deformity, causing joint dysfunction or destructive osteoarthropathy. Reports about surgery for hemophilic pseudotumor complicated by destructive osteoarthropathy are scarce. The object of this study was to evaluate the results and complications of surgical management for patients of pseudotumor complicated by destructive osteoarthropathy. We retrospectively reviewed records from July 1996 to July 2013, and found eight patients with pseudotumor complicated by destructive osteoarthropathy. We recorded their demographic data, time of surgery, amount of blood loss and transfusion, bone union, and complications. Seven patients were diagnosed with hemophilia A and one with hemophilia B. The mean age at surgery was 31.9 ± 8.3 years. Two of the eight underwent excision of the pseudotumor and metallic fixation, one had amputation, and five underwent autogenous or exogenous bone grafting and fixation with an absorbable screw. The median operating time was 170 min (135–315 min). The median amount of intraoperative blood loss was 1350 ml (100–4000 ml). The amount of red blood cells, plasma, and whole blood transfusion after surgery were 0–24 units, 0–2000 ml, and 0–4600 ml, respectively. After a median follow-up of 75 months, the numbers of pseudotumor recurrence, fracture nonunion, coagulation factor inhibitor formation, and wound complications were one, one, two, and four, respectively. Surgery is an effective treatment for hemophilic pseudotumor complicated by destructive osteoarthropathy. However, the incidences of wound infection, coagulation factor inhibitor formation, hemophilic pseudotumor recurrence, and fracture nonunion are high. PMID:25629563

  3. PEROXIDE DESTRUCTION TESTING FOR THE 200 AREA EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    HALGREN DL

    2010-03-12

    The hydrogen peroxide decomposer columns at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) have been taken out of service due to ongoing problems with particulate fines and poor destruction performance from the granular activated carbon (GAC) used in the columns. An alternative search was initiated and led to bench scale testing and then pilot scale testing. Based on the bench scale testing three manganese dioxide based catalysts were evaluated in the peroxide destruction pilot column installed at the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The ten inch diameter, nine foot tall, clear polyvinyl chloride (PVC) column allowed for the same six foot catalyst bed depth as is in the existing ETF system. The flow rate to the column was controlled to evaluate the performance at the same superficial velocity (gpm/ft{sup 2}) as the full scale design flow and normal process flow. Each catalyst was evaluated on peroxide destruction performance and particulate fines capacity and carryover. Peroxide destruction was measured by hydrogen peroxide concentration analysis of samples taken before and after the column. The presence of fines in the column headspace and the discharge from carryover was generally assessed by visual observation. All three catalysts met the peroxide destruction criteria by achieving hydrogen peroxide discharge concentrations of less than 0.5 mg/L at the design flow with inlet peroxide concentrations greater than 100 mg/L. The Sud-Chemie T-2525 catalyst was markedly better in the minimization of fines and particle carryover. It is anticipated the T-2525 can be installed as a direct replacement for the GAC in the peroxide decomposer columns. Based on the results of the peroxide method development work the recommendation is to purchase the T-2525 catalyst and initially load one of the ETF decomposer columns for full scale testing.

  4. An Investigation into PAH Destruction in Nearby Supernova Remnants, North Polar Spur and Cygnus Loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkhart, Sarah M.; Witt, Adolf N.

    2015-01-01

    Our goal in conducting this research was to look at the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)/large dust grain emission intensity ratio in nearby supernova remnants to find evidence for selective PAH destruction by hot gas and high velocity shock waves within these regions, as predicted by the models of Arendt et al. (2010) and Micelotta et al. (2010a,b). Two supernova remnants were studied- the North Polar Spur (NPS) and the Cygnus Loop. The data for PAHs were obtained from the WISE W3 12 micron all-sky map processed by Meisner & Finkbeiner (2014), and the data for the larger grains come from the IRAS 100 micron all-sky map processed by Schlegel, Finkbeiner & Davis (1998). After obtaining a control PAH/large grain intensity ratio of ~2.8 (DN/px)/(MJy/sr) from two high latitude clouds, MBM 30 and MBM 32, we found that the intensity ratios across the NPS and Cygnus Loop were not far off- ~2.7 (DN/px)/(MJy/sr) and ~3.1 (DN/px)/(MJy/sr), respectively- showing no evidence of selective large-scale PAH destruction in supernova remnants. The individual intensities for both PAHs and large grains do decrease inside the Cygnus Loop, however, suggesting a decrease in abundances of both grain types, which could mean total dust grain destruction with the normal ratios coming from foreground and background dust located in the line of sight of the remnant. In addition, temperature and E(B-V) measurements taken from calibrated IRAS images show that while the dust column density increases in the Eastern Veil of the Cygnus Loop, the dust temperature reaches a local maximum, indicating the heating of large grains by interaction with the hot gas in the remnant. The PAH/large grain ratio in the Eastern Veil does decrease and could be indicative of currently ongoing active grain destruction there, with the PAHs being destroyed on a more rapid timescale than the large grains.We are grateful for financial support from the NSF REU Program grant to the Department of Physics & Astronomy at

  5. Screening of Maritime Containers to Intercept Weapons of Mass Destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Manatt, D R; Sleaford, B; Schaffer, T; Accatino, M R; Slaughter, D; Mauger, J; Newmark, R; Prussin, S; Luke, J; Frank, M; Bernstein, A; Alford, O; Mattesich, G; Stengel, J; Hall, J; Descalle, M A; Wolford, J; Hall, H; Loshak, A; Sale, K; Trombino, D; Dougan, A D; Pohl, B; Dietrich, D; Weirup, D; Walling, R; Rowland, M; Johnson, D; Hagmann, C; Hankins, D

    2004-02-18

    The goal of our research was to address the problem of detection of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) materials within containers in common use on commercial cargo trafficking. LLNL has created an experimental test bed for researching potential solutions using (among other techniques) active interrogation with neutrons. Experiments and computational modeling were used to determine the effectiveness of the technique. Chemical weapons materials and high explosives can be detected using neutron activation and simple geometries with little or no intervening material. However in a loaded container there will be nuisance alarms from conflicting signatures resulting from the presence of material between the target and the detector (and the interrogation source). Identifying some elements may require long counting times because of the increased background. We performed some simple signature measurements and simulations of gamma-ray spectra from several chemical simulants. We identified areas where the nuclear data was inadequate to perform detailed computations. We concentrated on the detection of SNM in cargo containers, which will be emphasized here. The goal of the work reported here is to develop a concept for an active neutron interrogation system that can detect small targets of SNM contraband in cargo containers, roughly 5 kg HEU or 1 kg Pu, even when well shielded by a thick cargo. It is essential that the concept be reliable and have low false-positive and false-negative error rates. It also must be rapid to avoid interruption of commerce, completing the analysis in minutes. A potentially viable concept for cargo interrogation has been developed and its components have been evaluated experimentally. A new radiation signature unique to SNM has been identified that utilizes high-energy, fission-product gamma rays. That signature due to {gamma}-radiation in the range 3-6 MeV is distinct from normal background radioactivity that does not extend above 2.6 MeV. It

  6. Modeling rapidly rotating stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieutord, M.

    2006-06-01

    We review the quest of modeling rapidly rotating stars during the past 40 years and detail the challenges to be taken up by models facing new data from interferometry, seismology, spectroscopy... We then present the progress of the ESTER project aimed at giving a physically self-consistent model for the structure and evolution of rapidly rotating stars.

  7. Non-Destructive Techniques Based on Eddy Current Testing

    PubMed Central

    García-Martín, Javier; Gómez-Gil, Jaime; Vázquez-Sánchez, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Non-destructive techniques are used widely in the metal industry in order to control the quality of materials. Eddy current testing is one of the most extensively used non-destructive techniques for inspecting electrically conductive materials at very high speeds that does not require any contact between the test piece and the sensor. This paper includes an overview of the fundamentals and main variables of eddy current testing. It also describes the state-of-the-art sensors and modern techniques such as multi-frequency and pulsed systems. Recent advances in complex models towards solving crack-sensor interaction, developments in instrumentation due to advances in electronic devices, and the evolution of data processing suggest that eddy current testing systems will be increasingly used in the future. PMID:22163754

  8. Hospital planning for weapons of mass destruction incidents.

    PubMed

    Perry, Ronald W; Lindell, Michael K

    2007-01-01

    As terrorist attacks increase in fre-quency, hospital disaster plans need to be scrutinized to ensure that they take into account issues unique to weapons of mass destruction. This paper reports a review of the literature addressing hospital experiences with such incidents and the planning lessons thus learned. Construction of hos-pital disaster plans is examined as an ongoing process guided by the disaster planning committee. A review is completed of six special elements of weapons of mass destruction incidents that should be addressed in hospital disaster plans. The paper closes with a dis-cussion of the importance of train-ing and exercises in maintaining and improving the disaster plan. PMID:17970447

  9. Hospital planning for weapons of mass destruction incidents.

    PubMed

    Perry, R W; Lindell, M K

    2006-01-01

    As terrorists attacks increase in frequency, hospital disaster plans need to be scrutinized to ensure that they take into account issues unique to weapons of mass destruction. This paper reports a review of the literature addressing hospital experiences with such incidents and the planning lessons thus learned. Construction of hospital disaster plans is examined as an ongoing process guided by the disaster planning committee. Hospitals are conceived as one of the components of a larger community disaster planning efforts, with specific attention devoted to defining important linkages among response organizations. This includes the public health authorities, political authorities, prehospital care agencies, and emergency management agencies. A review is completed of six special elements of weapons of mass destruction incidents that should be addressed in hospital disaster plans: incident command, hospital security, patient surge, decontamination, mental health consequences, and communications. The paper closes with a discussion of the importance of training and exercises in maintaining and improving the disaster plan. PMID:16679675

  10. Infrared Thermography for Temperature Measurement and Non-Destructive Testing

    PubMed Central

    Usamentiaga, Rubèn; Venegas, Pablo; Guerediaga, Jon; Vega, Laura; Molleda, Julio; Bulnes, Francisco G.

    2014-01-01

    The intensity of the infrared radiation emitted by objects is mainly a function of their temperature. In infrared thermography, this feature is used for multiple purposes: as a health indicator in medical applications, as a sign of malfunction in mechanical and electrical maintenance or as an indicator of heat loss in buildings. This paper presents a review of infrared thermography especially focused on two applications: temperature measurement and non-destructive testing, two of the main fields where infrared thermography-based sensors are used. A general introduction to infrared thermography and the common procedures for temperature measurement and non-destructive testing are presented. Furthermore, developments in these fields and recent advances are reviewed. PMID:25014096

  11. Grain destruction in a supernova remnant shock wave

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, John C.; Gaetz, Terrance J.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Williams, Brian J.; Blair, William P.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Sankrit, Ravi

    2013-12-01

    Dust grains are sputtered away in the hot gas behind shock fronts in supernova remnants (SNRs), gradually enriching the gas phase with refractory elements. We have measured emission in C IV λ1550 from C atoms sputtered from dust in the gas behind a non-radiative shock wave in the northern Cygnus Loop. Overall, the intensity observed behind the shock agrees approximately with predictions from model calculations that match the Spitzer 24 μm and the X-ray intensity profiles. Thus, these observations confirm the overall picture of dust destruction in SNR shocks and the sputtering rates used in models. However, there is a discrepancy in that the C IV intensity 10'' behind the shock is too high compared with the intensities at the shock and 25'' behind it. Variations in the density, hydrogen neutral fraction, and the dust properties over parsec scales in the pre-shock medium limit our ability to test dust destruction models in detail.

  12. Non-destructive NIR FT Raman analysis of plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrader, B.; Klump, H. H.; Schenzel, K.; Schulz, H.

    1999-10-01

    Non-destructive analyses of animal and plant cells and tissues by 'classical' Raman spectroscopy with excitation in the visible range have not been possible since the samples are destroyed photochemically or their fluorescence conceals the Raman spectra completely. When excited with the Nd:YAG laser line at 1064 nm fluorescence-free Raman spectra of animal or plant cells and tissues can be recorded without special preparation. In this paper we concentrate on plants and its constituents: essential oils, natural dyes, flavors, spices, alkaloids and fibers can be characterized. The spectra allow the observation of biochemical processes, to observe the distribution of natural products, application to taxonomy, optimizing plant breeding, the harvesting time and control of food—everything non-destructively in living plants!

  13. Platelet destruction in immune thrombocytopenia. Understanding the mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Bakchoul, Tamam; Sachs, Ulrich J

    2016-08-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune bleeding disorder characterized by isolated thrombocytopenia. A dysfunctional proliferation of autoreactive T cells is suggested to be responsible for the loss of tolerance to self-platelet antigens in ITP patients. Autoreactive T cells induce uncontrolled proliferation of autoantibody producing B cells leading to persistent anti-platelet autoimmunity in some ITP patients. The autoimmune response causes an increased destruction of platelets by antibody-mediated phagocytosis, complement activation but also by T cell mediated cytotoxicity. In addition, abnormalities in thrombopoiesis and insufficient platelet production due to antibody or T cell mediated megakaryocyte inhibition and destruction contribute to the pathophysiology of ITP. These various effector cell responses may account for the heterogeneity in the clinical manifestation of ITP and also, to success or failure of different treatment strategies. A better understanding of the mechanisms behind ITP will hopefully allow for better diagnostic and, particularly, therapeutic strategies in the future. PMID:25982994

  14. Evidence for midwinter chemical ozone destruction over Antartica

    SciTech Connect

    Voemel, H.; Hoffmann, D.J.; Oltmans, S.J.; Harris, J.M.

    1995-09-01

    Two ozone profiles on June 15 and June 19, obtained over McMurdo, Antartica, showed a strong depletion in stratospheric ozone, and a simultaneous profile of water vapor on June 19 showed the first clear signs of dehydration. The observation of Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs) beginning with the first sounding showing ozone depletion, the indication of rehydration layers, which could be a sign for recent dehydration, and trajectory calculations indicate that the observed low ozone was not the result of transport from lower latitudes. during this time the vortex was strongly distorted, transporting PSC processed air well into sunlit latitudes where photochemical ozone destruction may have occurred. The correlation of ozone depletion and dehydration indicates that water ice PSCs provided the dominant surface for chlorine activation. An analysis of the time when the observed air masses could have formed type II PSCs for the first time limits the time scale for the observed ozone destruction to about 4 days.

  15. Effects of random habitat destruction in a predator prey model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szwabiński, Janusz; Peķalski, Andrzej

    2006-01-01

    The influence of habitat destruction on a population of predators and prey is studied. We show, via Monte Carlo simulations of a lattice model, that with growing devastation the oscillations in the densities of both species, as well as cross-correlations between the two densities diminish. As should be expected, predators are more vulnerable and disappear before the prey. Devastation of the habitat is never beneficial and the percentage of coexisting (prey and predators) states decreases with destruction. Because of the high fragmentation of the environment in the case of large devastation, animals’ populations are separated into small sub-populations living in restricted areas. Such small populations become extinct more easily. We have also shown that in the case of large habitat devastation the density of the population of prey depends on its history.

  16. Frequency-doubling optoelectronic oscillator based on destructive interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jun; Chen, Fushen; Fan, Mengqiu; Li, Chengxin; Dong, Qimeng

    2015-12-01

    A frequency-doubling optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) using two cascaded modulators based on destructive interference is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. In the proposed system, we utilize a cascaded modulator including a phase modulator and an intensity modulator, which implements a carrier-suppressed double-sideband modulation based on destructive interference to generate a frequency-doubled microwave signal. Meanwhile, the phase modulator is connected by a chirp fiber Bragg grating in the loop, which forms a microwave photonic filter to select the fundamental frequency signal in the OEO loop. As a result, a frequency-doubled microwave signal at 17.9 and 20.5 GHz is generated, respectively. The phase noises and the long-term stability of the generated microwave signals are also investigated.

  17. The destructiveness of laissez-faire leadership behavior.

    PubMed

    Skogstad, Anders; Einarsen, Ståle; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Aasland, Merethe Schanke; Hetland, Hilde

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study is to test the assumption that laissez-faire leadership behavior is not a type of zero-leadership, but a type of destructive leadership behavior that shows systematic relationships with workplace stressors, bullying at work, and psychological distress. A survey of 2,273 Norwegian employees was conducted and analyzed. Laissez-faire leadership was positively correlated with role conflict, role ambiguity, and conflicts with coworkers. Path modeling showed that these stressors mediated the effects of laissez-faire leadership on bullying at work and that the effects of laissez-faire leadership on distress were mediated through the workplace stressors, especially through exposure to bullying. The results support the assumption that laissez-faire leadership behavior is a destructive leadership behavior. PMID:17257068

  18. Grain Destruction in a Supernova Remnant Shock Wave

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raymond, John C.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Williams, Brian J.; Blair, William P.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Gaetz, Terrance J.; Sankrit, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Dust grains are sputtered away in the hot gas behind shock fronts in supernova remnants, gradually enriching the gas phase with refractory elements. We have measured emission in C IV (lambda)1550 from C atoms sputtered from dust in the gas behind a non-radiative shock wave in the northern Cygnus Loop. Overall, the intensity observed behind the shock agrees approximately with predictions from model calculations that match the Spitzer 24 micron and the X-ray intensity profiles. Thus these observations confirm the overall picture of dust destruction in SNR shocks and the sputtering rates used in models. However, there is a discrepancy in that the CIV intensity 10'' behind the shock is too high compared to the intensities at the shock and 25'' behind it. Variations in the density, hydrogen neutral fraction and the dust properties over parsec scales in the pre- shock medium limit our ability to test dust destruction models in detail.

  19. Challenges of cervical reconstruction for destructive spondyloarthropathy in renal osteodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Elder, Benjamin D; Petteys, Rory J; Sciubba, Daniel M; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul

    2016-08-01

    Patients with end stage renal disease on hemodialysis may present with destructive spondyloarthropathy of the spine, most commonly in the subaxial cervical and lumbar spine, often with severe stenosis and instability. However, surgical management of these patients is challenging due to a high pseudarthrosis rate, poor bone quality, and medical frailty. We present a 49-year-old man on hemodialysis who presented with C4-C5 vertebral body destruction and a focal kyphotic deformity with myelopathy. The patient underwent a 360 degree decompression and reconstructive procedure that resulted in posterior instrumentation failure. Several salvage techniques were used in order to adequately stabilize the spine while preserving the patient's remaining cervical motion. PMID:27052255

  20. Non-destructive examination system of vitreous body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Takuma; Gong, Jin; Watanabe, Yosuke; Kabir, M. Hasnat; Masato, Makino; Furukawa, Hidemitsu; Nishitsuka, Koichi

    2014-04-01

    Eyeball plays a quite important role in acquiring the vision. Vitreous body occupies the largest part of the eyeball and consists of biological, elastic, transparent, gel materials. In the present medical examination, the non-destructive examination method of the vitreous body has not been well established. Here, we focus on an application of dynamic light scattering to this topic. We tried to apply our lab-made apparatus, scanning microscopic light scattering (SMILS), which was specially designed for observing the nanometer-scale network structure in gel materials. In order to examine the vitreous body using SMILS method, a commercial apparatus, nano Partica (Horiba Co. Ltd.) was also customized. We analyzed vitreous body using both the SMILS and the customized nano Partica. We successfully examined the vitreous bodies of healthy pigs in non-destructive way.

  1. Boby-Vortex Interaction, Sound Generation and Destructive Interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, Hsiao C.

    2000-01-01

    It is generally recognized that interaction of vortices with downstream blades is a major source of noise production. To analyze this problem numerically, a two-dimensional model of inviscid flow together with the method of matched asymptotic expansions is proposed. The method of matched asymptotic expansions is used to match the inner region of incompressible flow to the outer region of compressible flow. Because of incompressibility, relatively simple numerical methods are available to treat multiple vortices and multiple bodies of arbitrary shape. Disturbances from vortices and bodies propagate outward as sound waves. Due to their interactions, either constructive or destructive interference may result. When it is destructive, the combined sound intensity can be reduced, sometimes substantially. In addition, an analytical solution to sound generation by the cascade-vonex interaction is given.

  2. Mathematical models applied in inductive non-destructive testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wac-Wlodarczyk, A.; Goleman, R.; Czerwinski, D.; Gizewski, T.

    Non-destructive testing are the wide group of investigative methods of non-homogenous material. Methods of computer tomography, ultrasonic, magnetic and inductive methods still developed are widely applied in industry. In apparatus used for non-destructive tests, the analysis of signals is made on the basis of complex system answers. The answer is linearized due to the model of research system. In this paper, the authors will discuss the applications of the mathematical models applied in investigations of inductive magnetic materials. The statistical models and other gathered in similarity classes will be taken into consideration. Investigation of mathematical models allows to choose the correct method, which in consequence leads to precise representation of the inner structure of examined object. Inductive research of conductive media, especially those with ferromagnetic properties, are run with high frequency magnetic field (eddy-currents method), which considerably decrease penetration depth.

  3. Non-destructive Faraday imaging of dynamically controlled ultracold atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajdacz, Miroslav; Pedersen, Poul L.; Mørch, Troels; Hilliard, Andrew J.; Arlt, Jan; Sherson, Jacob F.

    2013-08-01

    We describe an easily implementable method for non-destructive measurements of ultracold atomic clouds based on dark field imaging of spatially resolved Faraday rotation. The signal-to-noise ratio is analyzed theoretically and, in the absence of experimental imperfections, the sensitivity limit is found to be identical to other conventional dispersive imaging techniques. The dependence on laser detuning, atomic density, and temperature is characterized in a detailed comparison with theory. Due to low destructiveness, spatially resolved images of the same cloud can be acquired up to 2000 times. The technique is applied to avoid the effect of shot-to-shot fluctuations in atom number calibration, to demonstrate single-run vector magnetic field imaging and single-run spatial imaging of the system's dynamic behavior. This demonstrates that the method is a useful tool for the characterization of static and dynamically changing properties of ultracold atomic clouds.

  4. Non-destructive Faraday imaging of dynamically controlled ultracold atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajdacz, Miroslav; Pedersen, Poul; Mørch, Troels; Hilliard, Andrew; Arlt, Jan; Sherson, Jacob

    2013-05-01

    We investigate non-destructive measurements of ultra-cold atomic clouds based on dark field imaging of spatially resolved Faraday rotation. In particular, we pursue applications to dynamically controlled ultracold atoms. The dependence of the Faraday signal on laser detuning, atomic density and temperature is characterized in a detailed comparison with theory. In particular the destructivity per measurement is extremely low and we illustrate this by imaging the same cloud up to 2000 times. The technique is applied to avoid the effect of shot-to-shot fluctuations in atom number calibration. Adding dynamic changes to system parameters, we demonstrate single-run vector magnetic field imaging and single-run spatial imaging of the system's dynamic behavior. The method can be implemented particularly easily in standard imaging systems by the insertion of an extra polarizing beam splitter. These results are steps towards quantum state engineering using feedback control of ultracold atoms.

  5. Non-destructive Faraday imaging of dynamically controlled ultracold atoms.

    PubMed

    Gajdacz, Miroslav; Pedersen, Poul L; Mørch, Troels; Hilliard, Andrew J; Arlt, Jan; Sherson, Jacob F

    2013-08-01

    We describe an easily implementable method for non-destructive measurements of ultracold atomic clouds based on dark field imaging of spatially resolved Faraday rotation. The signal-to-noise ratio is analyzed theoretically and, in the absence of experimental imperfections, the sensitivity limit is found to be identical to other conventional dispersive imaging techniques. The dependence on laser detuning, atomic density, and temperature is characterized in a detailed comparison with theory. Due to low destructiveness, spatially resolved images of the same cloud can be acquired up to 2000 times. The technique is applied to avoid the effect of shot-to-shot fluctuations in atom number calibration, to demonstrate single-run vector magnetic field imaging and single-run spatial imaging of the system's dynamic behavior. This demonstrates that the method is a useful tool for the characterization of static and dynamically changing properties of ultracold atomic clouds. PMID:24007051

  6. Non-destructive techniques based on eddy current testing.

    PubMed

    García-Martín, Javier; Gómez-Gil, Jaime; Vázquez-Sánchez, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Non-destructive techniques are used widely in the metal industry in order to control the quality of materials. Eddy current testing is one of the most extensively used non-destructive techniques for inspecting electrically conductive materials at very high speeds that does not require any contact between the test piece and the sensor. This paper includes an overview of the fundamentals and main variables of eddy current testing. It also describes the state-of-the-art sensors and modern techniques such as multi-frequency and pulsed systems. Recent advances in complex models towards solving crack-sensor interaction, developments in instrumentation due to advances in electronic devices, and the evolution of data processing suggest that eddy current testing systems will be increasingly used in the future. PMID:22163754

  7. Mechanochemical destruction of halogenated organic pollutants: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Cagnetta, Giovanni; Robertson, John; Huang, Jun; Zhang, Kunlun; Yu, Gang

    2016-08-01

    Many tons of intentionally produced obsolete halogenated persistent organic pollutants (POPs), are stored worldwide in stockpiles, often in an unsafe manner. These are a serious threat to the environment and to human health due to their ability to migrate and accumulate in the biosphere. New technologies, alternatives to combustion, are required to destroy these substances, hopefully to their complete mineralization. In the last 20 years mechanochemical destruction has shown potential to achieve pollutant degradation, both of the pure substances and in contaminated soils. This capability has been tested for many halogenated pollutants, with various reagents, and under different milling conditions. In the present paper, a review of the published work in this field is followed by a critique of the state of the art of POPs mechanochemical destruction and its applicability to full-scale halogenated waste treatment. PMID:27054668

  8. Microbial destruction of chitin in soils under different moisture conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaroslavtsev, A. M.; Manucharova, N. A.; Stepanov, A. L.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.; Sudnitsyn, I. I.

    2009-07-01

    The most favorable moisture conditions for the microbial destruction of chitin in soils are close to the total water capacity. The water content has the most pronounced effect on chitin destruction in soils in comparison with other studied substrates. It was found using gas-chromatographic and luminescent-microscopic methods that the maximum specific activity of the respiration of the chitinolytic community was at a rather low redox potential with the soil moisture close to the total water capacity. The range of moisture values under which the most intense microbial transformation of chitin occurred was wider in clayey and clay loamy soils as compared with sandy ones. The increase was observed due to the contribution of mycelial bacteria and actinomycetes in the chitinolytic complex as the soil moisture increased.

  9. Coral poaching worsens tsunami destruction in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernando, H. J. S.; McCulley, J. L.; Mendis, S. G.; Perera, K.

    Observations of the trail of destruction of the Sumatra tsunami of 26 December 2004 indicate remarkable, small-scale spatial variations, of the order of a few kilometers, of water inundation and destruction in southwestern Sri Lanka [Shiermeier, 2005; Liu et al., 2005] that are much smaller than the tsunami wavelength of ˜100 km.For example, the town of Peraliya, was awash with an approximately 1.5-km water inundation from a wave of 10 m in height; the inundation there carried the passenger train Samudra Devi (the “Ocean Queen”) inland some 50 m, killing 1700 people. Yet,˜3 km south, in Hikkaduwa, there was a mere 2-3 m wave height, 50-m inundation and no deaths.

  10. Martyrdom redefined: self-destructive killers and vulnerable narcissism.

    PubMed

    Bobadilla, Leonardo

    2014-08-01

    Lankford shows that suicide terrorists have much in common with maladjusted persons who die by suicide. However, what differentiates suicidal killers from those who "only" commit suicide? A key element may be vulnerable narcissism. Narcissism has been simultaneously linked to interpersonal aggression, achievement, and depression. These traits may explain the paradoxical picture of a person who may appear "normal" in some aspects, and yet hate himself and others so intensely as to seek mutual destruction. PMID:25162842

  11. Dust Destruction Rates and Lifetimes in the Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temim, Tea; Dwek, Eli; Tchernyshyov, Kirill; Boyer, Martha L.; Meixner, Margaret; Gall, Christa; Roman-Duval, Julia

    2015-02-01

    The dust budget in galaxies depends on the rate at which dust grains are created in different stellar sources and destroyed by interstellar shocks. Because of their extensive wavelength coverage, proximity, and nearly face-on geometry, the Magellanic Clouds (MCs) provide a unique opportunity to study these processes in great detail. In this paper, we use the complete sample of supernova remnants (SNRs) in the MCs to calculate the lifetimes and destruction efficiencies of silicate and carbon dust. We find dust lifetimes of 22 ± 13 Myr (30 ± 17 Myr) for silicate (carbon) grains in the LMC, and 54 ± 32 Myr (72 ± 43 Myr) for silicate (carbon) grains in the SMC. The corresponding dust destruction rates are 2.3 × 10-2 M ⊙ yr-1 (5.9 × 10-3 M ⊙ yr-1) and 3.0 × 10-3 M ⊙ yr-1 (5.6 × 10-4 M ⊙ yr-1) for silicate (carbon) grains in the LMC and SMC, respectively. The significantly shorter lifetimes in the MCs, as compared to the Milky Way, are explained as the combined effect of their lower total dust mass and preferentially higher dust-to-gas (D2G) mass ratios in the vicinity of the SNRs. We find that the maximum dust injection rates by asymptotic giant branch stars and core collapse supernovae are an order of magnitude lower than the dust destruction rates by the SNRs, suggesting that most of the dust may be reconstituted in dense molecular clouds. We also discuss the dependence of the dust destruction rate on the local D2G mass ratio, ambient gas density, and metallicity, as well as the application of our results to other galaxies and dust evolution models.

  12. Destruction of public and governmental experiments of GMO in Europe.

    PubMed

    Kuntz, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to compile the destruction of GMO trials from academic or governmental research institutes in Europe, in a factual manner and to highlight their main characteristics. About 80 acts of vandalism against academic or governmental research on GMOs are identified, mainly in 4 countries; namely France, Germany, the United Kingdom and Switzerland. Examples are also provided for Italy and Belgium. The general conclusions that can be drawn from these acts are also discussed. PMID:22825391

  13. Method and apparatus for low temperature destruction of halogenated hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Reagen, William Kevin; Janikowski, Stuart Kevin

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for decomposing halogenated hydrocarbons are provided. The halogenated hydrocarbon is mixed with solvating agents and maintained in a predetermined atmosphere and at a predetermined temperature. The mixture is contacted with recyclable reactive material for chemically reacting with the recyclable material to create dehalogenated hydrocarbons and halogenated inorganic compounds. A feature of the invention is that the process enables low temperature destruction of halogenated hydrocarbons.

  14. IET. Aerial view of snaptran destructive experiment in 1964. Camera ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET. Aerial view of snaptran destructive experiment in 1964. Camera facing north. Test cell building (TAN-624) is positioned away from coupling station. Weather tower in right foreground. Divided duct just beyond coupling station. Air intake structure on south side of shielded control room. Experiment is on dolly at coupling station. Date: 1964. INEEL negative no. 64-1736 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  15. From the Magic of Light to the Destruction of Night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posch, Thomas

    2012-09-01

    Life on the Earth depends on the light from the Sun. Humans generally have a very positive attitude towards light. This paper discusses the 'magic of light' - i.e. our dependence on and even addiction to light - and how it gradually led to the destruction of natural darkness by means of excessive artificial illumination. Furthermore, we develop a theory of the aesthetic value of natural nightscapes, which we illustrate by masterpieces from the history of painting.

  16. Activation of intraislet lymphoid cells causes destruction of islet cells.

    PubMed Central

    Lacy, P. E.; Finke, E. H.

    1991-01-01

    In vitro culture of rat islets at 24 degrees C for 7 days in tissue culture medium CMRL 1066 almost completely eliminated lymphoid cells from the islets. Immunostaining of the islets with monoclonal antibody OX4 for demonstration of class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-expressing cells revealed a decrease from 13.1 +/- 0.6 positive cells per islet on day 0 to 0.7 +/- 0.1 cells per islet on day 7. A comparable decrease was found using OX1 for demonstration of all leukocytes. In contrast, culture of rat islets at 24 degrees C for 7 days with tissue culture Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) 1640 medium was not as effective in eliminating lymphoid cells as in medium CMRL 1066 (3.0 +/- 0.2 class II MHC positive cells per islet at 7 days). Effective elimination of intraislet lymphoid cells apparently is due to the combined effect of low temperature culture and the tissue culture medium CMRL-1066. The second goal of the study was to determine whether the destructive effect of interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) on rat islets in culture was due to intraislet lymphoid cells. In vitro culture of rat islets with IFN-gamma (1000 units/ml) at 37 degrees C caused almost complete destruction of the islets at 7 days. If intraislet lymphoid cells were eliminated from the islets by in vitro culture at 24 degrees C followed by exposure to IFN-gamma (1000 units/ml) for 7 days at 37 degrees C, then IFN-gamma did not cause destruction of the islets and transplants of the treated islets produced normoglycemia in diabetic recipient mice. These findings indicate that intraislet lymphoid cells are responsible for destruction of islet cells when these cells (presumably macrophages) are activated by IFN-gamma. Intraislet lymphoid cells may play a significant role in destroying islet cells in autoimmune diabetes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:1902627

  17. System and method for high precision isotope ratio destructive analysis

    DOEpatents

    Bushaw, Bruce A; Anheier, Norman C; Phillips, Jon R

    2013-07-02

    A system and process are disclosed that provide high accuracy and high precision destructive analysis measurements for isotope ratio determination of relative isotope abundance distributions in liquids, solids, and particulate samples. The invention utilizes a collinear probe beam to interrogate a laser ablated plume. This invention provides enhanced single-shot detection sensitivity approaching the femtogram range, and isotope ratios that can be determined at approximately 1% or better precision and accuracy (relative standard deviation).

  18. DUST DESTRUCTION RATES AND LIFETIMES IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Temim, Tea; Dwek, Eli; Boyer, Martha L.; Tchernyshyov, Kirill; Meixner, Margaret; Gall, Christa; Roman-Duval, Julia

    2015-02-01

    The dust budget in galaxies depends on the rate at which dust grains are created in different stellar sources and destroyed by interstellar shocks. Because of their extensive wavelength coverage, proximity, and nearly face-on geometry, the Magellanic Clouds (MCs) provide a unique opportunity to study these processes in great detail. In this paper, we use the complete sample of supernova remnants (SNRs) in the MCs to calculate the lifetimes and destruction efficiencies of silicate and carbon dust. We find dust lifetimes of 22 ± 13 Myr (30 ± 17 Myr) for silicate (carbon) grains in the LMC, and 54 ± 32 Myr (72 ± 43 Myr) for silicate (carbon) grains in the SMC. The corresponding dust destruction rates are 2.3 × 10{sup –2} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} (5.9 × 10{sup –3} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}) and 3.0 × 10{sup –3} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} (5.6 × 10{sup –4} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}) for silicate (carbon) grains in the LMC and SMC, respectively. The significantly shorter lifetimes in the MCs, as compared to the Milky Way, are explained as the combined effect of their lower total dust mass and preferentially higher dust-to-gas (D2G) mass ratios in the vicinity of the SNRs. We find that the maximum dust injection rates by asymptotic giant branch stars and core collapse supernovae are an order of magnitude lower than the dust destruction rates by the SNRs, suggesting that most of the dust may be reconstituted in dense molecular clouds. We also discuss the dependence of the dust destruction rate on the local D2G mass ratio, ambient gas density, and metallicity, as well as the application of our results to other galaxies and dust evolution models.

  19. Can self-destructive killers be classified so easily?

    PubMed

    Egan, Vincent

    2014-08-01

    Lankford makes many useful points regarding the myths and shibboleths underlying our understanding of self-destructive killers and suicide bombers. He has collated an impressive data set on such offenders. However, his classification scheme is not built on sufficient evidence to support his proposed discrete categories of conventional, coerced, escapist, and indirect suicide terrorists. It would be straightforward to analyse the data, but it is unlikely that the resulting model would reflect that anticipated. PMID:25162843

  20. Non-destructive metallurgical analysis of astrolabes utilizing synchrotron radiation.

    SciTech Connect

    Newbury, B.; Stephenson, B.; Almer, J. D.; Notis, M.; Haeffner, D. R.; Slade Cargill, G., III

    2002-05-22

    From the experiments performed it is possible to determine a wide range of information about the metallurgy of the astrolabes studied. It was found that different brass alloys were used for components that were cast and those that were mechanically deformed. Chemical composition, forming history, and thickness measurements are all determined non-destructively, illustrating that this technique could be useful for many applications with metal artifact analysis where non-intrusive methods are required.

  1. LSP Composite Susbtrate Destructive Evaluation Test Assessment Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovach, Daniel J.; Erickson, Grant J.

    2013-01-01

    This document specifies the processes to perform post-strike destructive damage evaluation of tested CFRP panels.It is recognized that many factors besides lightning damage protection are involved in the selection of an appropriate Lightning Strike Protection (LSP) for a particular system (e.g., cost, weight, corrosion resistance, shielding effectiveness, etc.). This document strives primarily to address the standardized generation of damage protection performance data.

  2. Dust Destruction Rates and Lifetimes in the Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Temim, Tea; Dwek, Eli; Tchernyshyov, Kirill; Boyer, Martha L.; Meixner, Margaret; Gall, Christa; Roman-Duval, Julia

    2015-01-01

    The nature, composition, abundance, and size distribution of dust in galaxies is determined by the rate at which it is created in the different stellar sources and destroyed by interstellar shocks. Because of their extensive wavelength coverage, proximity, and nearly face-on geometry, the Magellanic Clouds (MCs) provide a unique opportunity to study these processes in great detail. In this paper we use the complete sample of supernova remnants (SNRs) in the MCs to calculate the lifetime and destruction efficiencies of silicate and carbon dust in these galaxies. We find dust lifetimes of 22+/-13 Myr (30+/-17 Myr) for silicate (carbon) grains in the LMC, and 54 +/- 32 Myr (72 +/- 43 Myr) for silicate (carbon) grains in the SMC. The significantly shorter lifetimes in the MCs, as compared to the Milky Way, are explained as the combined effect of their lower total dust mass, and the fact that the dust-destroying isolated SNe in the MCs seem to be preferentially occurring in regions with higher than average dust-to-gas (D2G) mass ratios. We also calculate the supernova rate and the current star formation rate in the MCs, and use them to derive maximum dust injection rates by asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and core collapse supernovae (CCSNe). We find that the injection rates are an order of magnitude lower than the dust destruction rates by the SNRs. This supports the conclusion that, unless the dust destruction rates have been considerably overestimated, most of the dust must be reconstituted from surviving grains in dense molecular clouds. More generally, we also discuss the dependence of the dust destruction rate on the local D2G mass ratio and the ambient gas density and metallicity, as well as the application of our results to other galaxies and dust evolution models.

  3. Destruction of explosives and rocket fuels by supercritical water oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, R.B.; Buelow, S.J.; Harradine, D.M.; Robinson, J.M.; Foy, B.R.; Atencio, J.H.; Dell'Orco, P.C.; Funk, K.A.; McInroy, R.E.; Rofer, C.K.; Counce, D.A.; Trujillo, P.E. Jr. ); Wander, J.D. )

    1992-01-01

    Traditional methods for disposing of PEPs have been open burning or open detonation (OB/OD); however, regulatory agencies are likely to prohibit OB/OD because of the uncontrolled air emissions and soil contaminations. Likewise, controlled incineration carries a liability for air pollution because large quantities of NO{sub x} are produced in the conventional combustion chemistry of PEPS. Soil and ground water have already been contaminated with PEPs through normal operations at manufacturing plants and military bases. Incineration can be used for decontamination of these soils, with the associated liability for air pollution, but few satisfactory and economic methods exist for ground water decontamination. A clear need exists for improved disposal and destruction methods. The destruction of energetic materials, including propellants, explosives and pyrotechnics (PEPS) by oxidation in supercritical water is described. The focus is on the chemistry of the process. The destruction efficiencies and products of reaction contained in the aqueous and gaseous effluents of several representative PEPs are reported.

  4. Self-destructive consequences of sex-role socialization.

    PubMed

    Clifton, A K; Lee, D E

    1976-01-01

    Suicide proneness and self-destruction scales, together with measures of self-favorability and self-confidence, were administered to two samples (n = 106 and n = 213). The affective responses of the second sample (134 women and 79 men) were measured by asking respondents to circle adjectives classified for activity-passivity, positive-negativeness, and extroversion-introversion that expressed their feelings toward eight situations. Women scored lower than men on suicide proneness, higher on self-destruction, and lower on self-favorability and self-confidence. Women reacted more passively to the situations than men and more negatively to the public challenge situation. Women tend to extrovert (turn outward on others) their positive feelings in pleasant situations and to introvert (turn blame on themselves) their negative reactions to unpleasant situations. Men do the reverse. It is suggested that women are self-destructive in passive ways, reflecting their lack of self-favorability and confidence and manifested by failure to react to everyday situations in ego-building ways. PMID:1265813

  5. Destruction of explosives and rocket fuels by supercritical water oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, R.B.; Buelow, S.J.; Harradine, D.M.; Robinson, J.M.; Foy, B.R.; Atencio, J.H.; Dell`Orco, P.C.; Funk, K.A.; McInroy, R.E.; Rofer, C.K.; Counce, D.A.; Trujillo, P.E. Jr.; Wander, J.D.

    1992-09-01

    Traditional methods for disposing of PEPs have been open burning or open detonation (OB/OD); however, regulatory agencies are likely to prohibit OB/OD because of the uncontrolled air emissions and soil contaminations. Likewise, controlled incineration carries a liability for air pollution because large quantities of NO{sub x} are produced in the conventional combustion chemistry of PEPS. Soil and ground water have already been contaminated with PEPs through normal operations at manufacturing plants and military bases. Incineration can be used for decontamination of these soils, with the associated liability for air pollution, but few satisfactory and economic methods exist for ground water decontamination. A clear need exists for improved disposal and destruction methods. The destruction of energetic materials, including propellants, explosives and pyrotechnics (PEPS) by oxidation in supercritical water is described. The focus is on the chemistry of the process. The destruction efficiencies and products of reaction contained in the aqueous and gaseous effluents of several representative PEPs are reported.

  6. Epilepsy Surgery in Pediatric Intractable Epilepsy with Destructive Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Park, So Young; Kwon, Hye Eun; Kang, Hoon-Chul; Lee, Joon Soo; Kim, Dong Seok; Kim, Heung Dong

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The aim of the current study is to review the clinical features, surgery outcomes and parental satisfaction of children with destructive encephalopathy who underwent epilepsy surgery due to medically intractable seizures. Methods: 48 patients who underwent epilepsy surgery from October 2003 to August 2011 at Severance Children’s Hospital have been reviewed. The survey was conducted for functional outcomes and parental satisfaction at least 1 year after the surgery. Results: Epileptic encephalopathy including Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and infantile spasms was more prevalent than symptomatic focal epilepsy. Hypoxic ischemic injury accounted for most of the underlying etiology of the destructive encephalpathy, followed by central nervous system infection and head trauma. 27 patients (56.3%) underwent resective surgery and 21 patients (43.7%) underwent palliative surgery. 16 patients (33.3%) achieved seizure free and 27 parents (87.5%) reported satisfaction with the outcome of their children’s epilepsy surgery. In addition, 14 parents (77.8 %) whose children were not seizure free reported satisfaction with their children’s improvement in cognitive and behavior issues. Conclusions: Epilepsy surgery in destructive encephalopathy was effective for controlling seizures. Parents reported satisfaction not only with the surgical outcomes, but also with improvement of cognitive and behavior issues. PMID:24649473

  7. Non-Destructive Testing for Control of Radioactive Waste Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumeri, S.; Carrel, F.

    2015-10-01

    Characterization and control of radioactive waste packages are important issues in the management of a radioactive waste repository. Therefore, Andra performs quality control inspection on radwaste package before disposal to ensure the compliance of the radwast characteristics with Andra waste disposal specifications and to check the consistency between Andra measurements results and producer declared properties. Objectives of this quality control are: assessment and improvement of producer radwaste packages quality mastery, guarantee of the radwaste disposal safety, maintain of the public confidence. To control radiological characteristics of radwaste package, non-destructive passive methods (gamma spectrometry and neutrons counting) are commonly used. These passive methods may not be sufficient, for instance to control the mass of fissile material contained inside radwaste package. This is particularly true for large concrete hull of heterogeneous radwaste containing several actinides mixed with fission products like 137Cs. Non-destructive active methods, like measurement of photofission delayed neutrons, allow to quantify the global mass of actinides and is a promising method to quantify mass of fissile material. Andra has performed different non-destructive measurements on concrete intermediate-level short lived nuclear waste (ILW-SL) package to control its nuclear material content. These tests have allowed Andra to have a first evaluation of the performance of photofission delayed neutron measurement and to identify development needed to have a reliable method, especially for fissile material mass control in intermediate-level long lived waste package.

  8. 31 CFR 309.12 - Relief on account of loss, theft or destruction, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., theft, destruction, mutilation or defacement of Treasury bills may be given only under the authority of... insofar as applicable. (b) In case of the loss, theft, destruction, mutilation or defacement of...

  9. 31 CFR 309.12 - Relief on account of loss, theft or destruction, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... loss, theft, destruction, mutilation or defacement of Treasury bills may be given only under the.... 300 insofar as applicable. (b) In case of the loss, theft, destruction, mutilation or defacement...

  10. 31 CFR 309.12 - Relief on account of loss, theft or destruction, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., theft, destruction, mutilation or defacement of Treasury bills may be given only under the authority of... insofar as applicable. (b) In case of the loss, theft, destruction, mutilation or defacement of...

  11. 31 CFR 309.12 - Relief on account of loss, theft or destruction, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., theft, destruction, mutilation or defacement of Treasury bills may be given only under the authority of... insofar as applicable. (b) In case of the loss, theft, destruction, mutilation or defacement of...

  12. 31 CFR 309.12 - Relief on account of loss, theft or destruction, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., theft, destruction, mutilation or defacement of Treasury bills may be given only under the authority of... insofar as applicable. (b) In case of the loss, theft, destruction, mutilation or defacement of...

  13. Rapid Airplane Parametric Input Design (RAPID)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    RAPID is a methodology and software system to define a class of airplane configurations and directly evaluate surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity on and about the configurations. A distinguishing characteristic which separates RAPID from other airplane surface modellers is that the output grids and grid sensitivity are directly applicable in CFD analysis. A small set of design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process which is incorporated into interactive software for 'real time' visual analysis and into batch software for the application of optimization technology. The computed surface grids and volume grids are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, horizontal tail, and vertical tail components. The double-delta wing and tail components are manifested by solving a fourth order partial differential equation (PDE) subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design parameters are incorporated into the boundary conditions and therefore govern the shapes of the surfaces. The PDE solution yields a smooth transition between boundaries. Surface grids suitable for CFD calculation are created by establishing an H-type topology about the configuration and incorporating grid spacing functions in the PDE equation for the lifting components and the fuselage definition equations. User specified grid parameters govern the location and degree of grid concentration. A two-block volume grid about a configuration is calculated using the Control Point Form (CPF) technique. The interactive software, which runs on Silicon Graphics IRIS workstations, allows design parameters to be continuously varied and the resulting surface grid to be observed in real time. The batch software computes both the surface and volume grids and also computes the sensitivity of the output grid with respect to the input design parameters by applying the precompiler tool

  14. Rapidly Progressive Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Geschwind, Michael D.; Shu, Huidy; Haman, Aissa; Sejvar, James J.; Miller, Bruce L.

    2009-01-01

    In contrast with more common dementing conditions that typically develop over years, rapidly progressive dementias can develop subacutely over months, weeks, or even days and be quickly fatal. Because many rapidly progressive dementias are treatable, it is paramount to evaluate and diagnose these patients quickly. This review summarizes recent advances in the understanding of the major categories of RPD and outlines efficient approaches to the diagnosis of the various neurodegenerative, toxic-metabolic, infectious, autoimmune, neoplastic, and other conditions that may progress rapidly. PMID:18668637

  15. 3 CFR - Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Mass Destruction Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of November 4, 2010 Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994, by Executive Order... of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means...

  16. 3 CFR - Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Mass Destruction Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of November 6, 2009 Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994, by Executive Order... of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means...

  17. 27 CFR 70.442 - Taxes relating to machine guns, destructive devices, and certain other firearms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... relating to machine guns, destructive devices, and certain other firearms. Part 479 of title 27 CFR... guns, destructive devices, and certain other firearms. 70.442 Section 70.442 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... importers of and dealers in, machine guns, destructive devices, and certain other types of firearms,...

  18. 27 CFR 70.442 - Taxes relating to machine guns, destructive devices, and certain other firearms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... relating to machine guns, destructive devices, and certain other firearms. Part 479 of title 27 CFR... guns, destructive devices, and certain other firearms. 70.442 Section 70.442 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... importers of and dealers in, machine guns, destructive devices, and certain other types of firearms,...

  19. 27 CFR 70.442 - Taxes relating to machine guns, destructive devices, and certain other firearms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... relating to machine guns, destructive devices, and certain other firearms. Part 479 of title 27 CFR... guns, destructive devices, and certain other firearms. 70.442 Section 70.442 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... importers of and dealers in, machine guns, destructive devices, and certain other types of firearms,...

  20. 27 CFR 70.442 - Taxes relating to machine guns, destructive devices, and certain other firearms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... relating to machine guns, destructive devices, and certain other firearms. Part 479 of title 27 CFR... guns, destructive devices, and certain other firearms. 70.442 Section 70.442 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... importers of and dealers in, machine guns, destructive devices, and certain other types of firearms,...

  1. 27 CFR 70.442 - Taxes relating to machine guns, destructive devices, and certain other firearms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... relating to machine guns, destructive devices, and certain other firearms. Part 179 of title 27 CFR... guns, destructive devices, and certain other firearms. 70.442 Section 70.442 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... importers of and dealers in, machine guns, destructive devices, and certain other types of firearms,...

  2. [Proposal for a predator for the destruction of Triatoma infestans: Tarentola mauritanica].

    PubMed

    Castello, J A; Gil Rivas, M J

    1980-01-01

    The task of Chagas disease control is overwhelming. One of the measures is the destruction of the bugs which act as vectors. In this paper the authors suggest trying this with a predator, a voracious insectivorous lizard, a kind of gecko: the Tarentola mauritanica or Moorish Gecko. These geckos were transported fortuitously to Argentina in cargoes of cork from their natural habitat, the Mediterranean basin. They have adapted easily to their new environment. Their ability to eat the kissing bug (Triatoma infestans) was tested in the observations reported herein. Four adult geckos were caught in an area of the city of Buenos Aires, in the neighbourhood of a corkstop factory. These geckos were placed in a modified glass acuarium tank with fourteen ninphs and adult kissing bugs. The bugs were rapidly eaten by the geckos (Fig. 3). The advantages of this type of biological control are stressed. The lizard and the bugs share the same habitat and both are nocturnal. Both make themselves quite at home in human habitations. The lizards -as the birds- are refractory to Tripanosomiasis and so they cannot become reservoirs. This kind of gecko seems also to be resistant to the toxic action of Gammexane. Therefore the authors think it is worthwhile to try this possibility of bug control in the field. It will be necessary to favour the reproduction of gecko and promote an educational campaign to prevent their destruction by man emphasizing their usefulness and their domesticity. Though costs were not estimated, the authors believe that it would be cheaper to provide lizards to dwellers in the poor homes of the rural areas ("ranchos") than expensive campaigns with potentially dangerous insecticides. PMID:22167700

  3. Traitement par plasma thermique d'une liqueur caustique pour la destruction des cyanures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortin, Luc

    L'objectif principal de cette recherche est d'evaluer la possibilite de traiter le lixiviat de brasques usees produit par le procede LCL&L (Lixiviation a bas caustique et chaulage) par contact direct avec un jet de plasma thermique. L'utilisation d'un chalumeau au plasma permet d'eliminer les problemes de reaction avec les produits de combustion relies a l'utilisation de chalumeaux conventionnels (e.g. carbonatation du NaOH en Na2CO3). Le fait de se servir de ce type de chalumeau en mode submerge pour le traitement d'une solution liquide constitue l'originalite du projet. Les essais effectues dans le cadre de ce travail experimental sont realises a l'echelle banc d'essai dans un premier temps. Ils visent a determiner le taux de decomposition des cyanures contenus dans le lixiviat sous des conditions de plasma thermique en fonction de differents parametres et a faire la mise a l'echelle d'un reacteur pilote. La puissance electrique fournie au chalumeau, la temperature et la pression d'operation, le point d'addition d'eau, le volume de lixiviat traite et l'addition de peroxyde d'hydrogene (H2O2) comme co-reactif ont tous un impact sur le taux de destruction des cyanures trouve. Sous toutes les conditions etudiees, le reacteur plasma offre un taux de destruction plus rapide qu'un reacteur agite sous pression pour une meme concentration en cyanures. Ainsi, la comparaison de la constante cinetique obtenue pour le reacteur agite avec une constante similaire pour le reacteur plasma (pente du graphique -ln(C/C0) en fonction du temps) est de 0.04x10-3 s-1 vs 0.59x10-3 s-1 a 100°C et de 1.85x10-3 s-1' vs 3x10 -3 s-1s a 170°C. Ces resultats confirment que le plasma joue un role important sur la decomposition des cyanures et qu'il contribue a en augmenter le taux de destruction. Suite aux connaissances acquises sur le banc d'essai, un reacteur pilote est concu. Un chalumeau au plasma d'une puissance de 60 kW-150 kW et fonctionnant avec l'air comme gaz plasmagene y est

  4. Technical area status report for waste destruction and stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Dalton, J.D.; Harris, T.L.; DeWitt, L.M.

    1993-08-01

    The Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) was established by the Department of Energy (DOE) to direct and coordinate waste management and site remediation programs/activities throughout the DOE complex. In order to successfully achieve the goal of properly managing waste and the cleanup of the DOE sites, the EM was divided into five organizations: the Office of Planning and Resource Management (EM-10); the Office of Environmental Quality Assurance and Resource Management (EM-20); the Office of Waste Operations (EM-30); the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40); and the Office of Technology and Development (EM-50). The mission of the Office of Technology Development (OTD) is to develop treatment technologies for DOE`s operational and environmental restoration wastes where current treatment technologies are inadequate or not available. The Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) was created by OTD to assist in the development of treatment technologies for the DOE mixed low-level wastes (MLLW). The MWIP has established five Technical Support Groups (TSGs) whose purpose is to identify, evaluate, and develop treatment technologies within five general technical areas representing waste treatment functions from initial waste handling through generation of final waste forms. These TSGs are: (1) Front-End Waste Handling, (2) Physical/Chemical Treatment, (3) Waste Destruction and Stabilization, (4) Second-Stage Destruction and Offgas Treatment, and (5) Final Waste Forms. This report describes the functions of the Waste Destruction and Stabilization (WDS) group. Specifically, the following items are discussed: DOE waste stream identification; summary of previous efforts; summary of WDS treatment technologies; currently funded WDS activities; and recommendations for future activities.

  5. DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION OF SHIPPING PACKAGE 9975-02028

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.; Stefek, T.

    2009-12-30

    Destructive and non-destructive examinations have been performed on specified components of shipping package 9975-02028. For those attributes that were also measured during the field surveillance, no significant changes were observed. Four conditions were identified that do not meet inspection criteria. These conditions are subject to additional investigation and disposition by the Surveillance Program Authority. The conditions include: (1) The lead shield was covered with a white corrosion layer; (2) The lead shield height exceeds drawing requirements; (3) Mold was observed on the lower fiberboard subassembly; and (4) Fiberboard thermal conductivity in the axial direction exceeded the specified range. The Surveillance Program Authority was notified of these conditions and will document the disposition by surveillance report. All other observations and test results met identified criteria, or were collected for information and trending purposes. The Savannah River Site (SRS) stores packages containing plutonium (Pu) materials in the K-Area Complex (KAC). The Pu materials are packaged per the DOE 3013 Standard and stored within Model 9975 shipping packages in KAC. The KAC facility DSA (Document Safety Analysis) credits the Model 9975 package to perform several safety functions, including criticality prevention, impact resistance, containment, and fire resistance to ensure the plutonium materials remain in a safe configuration during normal and accident conditions. The Model 9975 package is expected to perform its safety function for at least 12 years from initial packaging. The DSA recognizes the degradation potential for the materials of package construction over time in the KAC storage environment and requires an assessment of materials performance to validate the assumptions of the analysis and ultimately predict service life. As part of the comprehensive Model 9975 package surveillance program, destructive examination of package 9975-02028 was performed

  6. DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION OF SHIPPING PACKAGE 9975-02168

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.

    2010-11-18

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) stores packages containing plutonium (Pu) materials in the K-Area Complex (KAC). The Pu materials are packaged per the DOE 3013 Standard and stored within Model 9975 shipping packages in KAC. The KAC facility DSA (Document Safety Analysis) credits the Model 9975 package to perform several safety functions, including criticality prevention, impact resistance, containment, and fire resistance to ensure the plutonium materials remain in a safe configuration during normal and accident conditions. The Model 9975 package is expected to perform its safety function for at least 12 years from initial packaging. The DSA recognizes the degradation potential for the materials of package construction over time in the KAC storage environment and requires an assessment of materials performance to validate the assumptions of the analysis and ultimately predict service life. As part of the comprehensive Model 9975 package surveillance program, destructive examination of package 9975-02028 was performed following field surveillance in accordance with Reference. Field surveillance of the Model 9975 package in KAC included nondestructive examination of the drum, fiberboard, lead shield and containment vessels. Results of the field surveillance are provided in Attachment 1. Destructive and non-destructive examinations have been performed on specified components of shipping package 9975-02168. For those attributes that were also measured during the field surveillance, no significant changes were observed. Two conditions were identified that do not meet inspection criteria. These conditions are subject to additional investigation and disposition by the Surveillance Program Authority. The conditions include: (1) The lead shield was covered with a white corrosion layer, and (2) Fiberboard thermal conductivity in the axial direction exceeded the specified range. The Surveillance Program Authority was notified of these conditions and will document the findings

  7. DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION OF SHIPPING PACKAGE 9975-00600

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W

    2007-10-29

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) stores packages containing plutonium (Pu) materials in the K-Area Complex (KAC). The Pu materials are packaged per the DOE 3013 Standard and stored within Model 9975 shipping packages in KAC. The KAC facility DSA (Document Safety Analysis) [1] credits the Model 9975 package to perform several safety functions, including criticality, impact resistance, containment, and fire resistance to ensure the plutonium materials remain in a safe configuration during normal and accident conditions. The Model 9975 package is expected to perform its safety function for at least 12 years from initial packaging. The DSA recognizes the degradation potential for the materials of package construction over time in the KAC storage environment and requires an assessment of materials performance to validate the assumptions of the analysis and ultimately predict service life. As part of the comprehensive Model 9975 package surveillance program [2-3], destructive examination of package 9975-00600 was performed following field surveillance in accordance with Reference [4]. Field surveillance of the Model 9975 package in KAC included nondestructive examination of the drum, fiberboard, lead shield and containment vessels [5]. Results of the field surveillance are provided in Attachment 1. Destructive and non-destructive examinations have been performed on specified components of shipping package 9975-00600. For those attributes that were also measured during the field surveillance, no significant changes were observed. Three conditions were identified that do not meet inspection criteria. These conditions are subject to additional investigation and disposition by the Surveillance Program Authority. The conditions include: (1) The lead shield was covered with a white corrosion layer; (2) The lead shield height dimension exceeded drawing requirements; and (3) Fiberboard thermal conductivity in the axial direction exceeded the specified range. The Surveillance

  8. DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION OF SHIPPING PACKAGE 9975-03431

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.

    2012-05-30

    Destructive and non-destructive examinations have been performed on specified components of shipping package 9975-03431. For those attributes that were also measured during the field surveillance, no significant changes were observed. All observations and test results met identified criteria, or were collected for information and trending purposes. Except for modest corrosion of the lead shield (which is typical of these packages following several years service), no evidence of a degraded condition was found in this package. The Savannah River Site (SRS) stores packages containing plutonium (Pu) materials in the KArea Complex (KAC). The Pu materials are packaged per the DOE 3013 Standard and stored within Model 9975 shipping packages in KAC. The KAC facility DSA (Document Safety Analysis) credits the Model 9975 package to perform several safety functions, including criticality prevention, impact resistance, containment, and fire resistance to ensure the plutonium materials remain in a safe configuration during normal and accident conditions. The Model 9975 package is expected to perform its safety function for at least 12 years from initial packaging. The DSA recognizes the degradation potential for the materials of package construction over time in the KAC storage environment and requires an assessment of materials performance to validate the assumptions of the analysis and ultimately predict service life. As part of the comprehensive Model 9975 package surveillance program, destructive examination of package 9975-03431 was performed following field surveillance in accordance with Reference. Field surveillance of the Model 9975 package in KAC included nondestructive examination of the drum, fiberboard, lead shield and containment vessels. Results of the field surveillance are provided in Attachment 1.

  9. Lateral Orbital Wall Destruction Due to Pilonidal Sinus.

    PubMed

    Karadağ, Emine Çiğdem; Toy, Hatice; Tosun, Zekeriya

    2016-07-01

    Pilonidal sinus is a chronic inflammatory disease commonly observed in the sacrococcygeal region. The authors report a patient of a pilonidal sinus in a rare location-the lateral orbital region. The authors' patient was misdiagnosed with an epidermal cyst, and the subsequent incomplete excision of the sinus tract led a pilonidal sinus with a high morbidity resulting in the destruction of bone tissue in the lateral orbital wall. It was, therefore, crucial to accurately diagnose and treat before the infection progressed through the bone and caused osteomyelitis. PMID:27391513

  10. Effect of combined heat and radiation on microbial destruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, D. A.; Pflug, I. J.

    1977-01-01

    A series of experiments at several levels of relative humidity and radiation dose rates was carried out using spores of Bacillus subtilis var. niger to evaluate the effect of heat alone, radiation alone, and a combination of heat and radiation. Combined heat and radiation treatment of microorganisms yields a destruction rate greater than the additive rates of the independent agents. The synergistic mechanism shows a proportional dependency on radiation dose rate, an Arrhenius dependence on temperature, and a dependency on relative humidity. Maximum synergism occurs under conditions where heat and radiation individually destroy microorganisms at approximately equal rates. Larger synergistic advantage is possible at low relative humidities rather than at high relative humidities.

  11. Potential techniques for non-destructive evaluation of cable materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillen, Kenneth T.; Clough, Roger L.; Mattson, Bengt; Stenberg, Bengt; Oestman, Erik

    This paper describes the connection between mechanical degradation of common cable materials, in radiation and elevated temperature environments, and density increases caused by the oxidation which leads to this degradation. Two techniques based on density changes are suggested as potential non-destructive evaluation (NDE) procedures which may be applicable to monitoring the mechanical condition of cable materials in power plant environments. The first technique is direct measurement of density changes, via a density gradient column, using small shavings removed from the surface of cable jackets at selected locations. The second technique is computed X-ray tomography, utilizing a portable scanning device.

  12. Reductive Dehalogenases Come of Age in Biological Destruction of Organohalides.

    PubMed

    Jugder, Bat-Erdene; Ertan, Haluk; Lee, Matthew; Manefield, Michael; Marquis, Christopher P

    2015-10-01

    Halogenated organic compounds (organohalides) are globally prevalent, recalcitrant toxic, and carcinogenic environmental pollutants. Select microorganisms encode enzymes known as reductive dehalogenases (EC 1.97.1.8) that catalyze reductive dehalogenation reactions resulting in the generation of lesser-halogenated compounds that may be less toxic and more biodegradable. Recent breakthroughs in enzyme structure determination, elucidation of the mechanisms of reductive dehalogenation, and in heterologous expression of functional reductive dehalogenase enzymes have substantially increased our understanding of this fascinating class of enzymes. This knowledge has created opportunities for more versatile (in situ and ex situ) biologically-mediated organohalide destruction strategies. PMID:26409778

  13. Thermal Destruction of Riboflavin in Different Aggregate States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astanov, S.; Sharipov, M. Z.; Faizullaev, A. R.; Kurtaliev, E. N.; Nizomov, N.

    2014-03-01

    The influence of temperature on the spectroscopic properties of powders and aqueous solutions of riboflavin was studied using NMR, linear dichroism, IR and UV absorption spectroscopy, and luminescence. It was found that exposure of riboflavin powders over a wide temperature range (290-423 K) did not change significantly its properties and spectral characteristics. The absorbance and fluorescence of aqueous solutions of riboflavin decreased under the same conditions due to riboflavin thermal destruction. The fraction of destroyed molecules in aqueous solutions of riboflavin was in the range 4-28% and depended on the drug concentration and thermal conditions.

  14. Destructive fat tissue engineering using photodynamic and selective photothermal effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuchin, Valery V.; Yanina, Irina Yu.; Simonenko, Georgy V.

    2009-02-01

    Destructive fat tissue engineering could be realized using the optical method, which provides reduction of regional or site-specific accumulations of subcutaneous adipose tissue on the cell level. We hypothesize that light irradiation due to photodynamic and selective photothermal effects may lead to fat cell lypolytic activity (the enhancement of lipolysis of cell triglycerides due to expression of lipase activity and cell release of free fat acids (FFAs) due to temporal cell membrane porosity), and cell delayed killing due to apoptosis caused by the induced fat cell stress and/or limited cell necrosis.

  15. Deterring weapons of mass destruction terrorism. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    LeHardy, F.A.

    1997-12-01

    This thesis examines terrorist acts involving the use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) against unsuspecting civilians by the Aum Shinrikyo and Rajneesh cults. The proliferation of WMD (i.e., nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons) has created a concern that terrorists might use WMD. Despite obvious signs, these groups were not identified as terrorists until after they committed terrorist attacks. This thesis identifies common characteristics of terrorists that have used WMD in the past and generates indicators of non-state actors that might commit WMD terrorism in the future.

  16. APPARATUS FOR NON-DESTRUCTIVE INSPECTION OF CANTILEVERED MEMBERS

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, E.R.; Mahoney, C.H.; Lay, C.R.

    1961-10-24

    An apparatus for non-destructive inspection of cantilevered members, such as compressor blades, is described. The member under inspection is vibrated with a regulated source of air under pressure. The amplitude of vibration of the member is maintained at its natural frequency. The frequency of vibration of the member is measured. An indication of an excessive decay or erratic shifting in the measured frequency above an allowable hysteretic decay is provided as an indication of a fault in the member. The member is vibrated for a selected test period. (AEC)

  17. Non-destructive characterization using pulsed fast-thermal neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Womble, P. C.; Schultz, F. J.; Vourvopoulos, G.

    1995-05-01

    Explosives, illicit drugs, and other contraband materials contain various chemical elements in quantities and ratios that differentiate them from each other and from innocuous substances. Furthermore, the major chemical elements in coal can provide information about various parameters of importance to the coal industry. In both examples, the non-destructive identification of chemical elements can be performed using pulsed fast-thermal neutrons that, through nuclear reactions, excite the nuclei of the various elements. This technique is being currently developed for the dismantling of nuclear weapons classified as trainers, and for the on-line coal bulk analysis.

  18. Solar Processes for the Destruction of Hazardous Chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, D. M.

    1993-06-01

    Solar technologies are being developed to address a wide range of environmental problems. Sunlight plays a role in the passive destruction of hazardous substances in soil, water, and air. Development of processes that use solar energy to remediate environmental problems or to treat process wastes is underway in laboratories around the world. This paper reviews progress in understanding the role of solar photochemistry in removing man-made chemicals from the environment, and developing technology that uses solar photochemistry for this purpose in an efficient manner.

  19. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, Leo M.

    1999-01-01

    Disclosed are improvments to a rapid road repair vehicle comprising an improved cleaning device arrangement, two dispensing arrays for filling defects more rapidly and efficiently, an array of pre-heaters to heat the road way surface in order to help the repair material better bond to the repaired surface, a means for detecting, measuring, and computing the number, location and volume of each of the detected surface imperfection, and a computer means schema for controlling the operation of the plurality of vehicle subsystems. The improved vehicle is, therefore, better able to perform its intended function of filling surface imperfections while moving over those surfaces at near normal traffic speeds.

  20. Rapid small lot manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Harrigan, R.W.

    1998-05-09

    The direct connection of information, captured in forms such as CAD databases, to the factory floor is enabling a revolution in manufacturing. Rapid response to very dynamic market conditions is becoming the norm rather than the exception. In order to provide economical rapid fabrication of small numbers of variable products, one must design with manufacturing constraints in mind. In addition, flexible manufacturing systems must be programmed automatically to reduce the time for product change over in the factory and eliminate human errors. Sensor based machine control is needed to adapt idealized, model based machine programs to uncontrolled variables such as the condition of raw materials and fabrication tolerances.

  1. Rapid Cycling and Its Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be rapid, ultra-rapid or ultradian cycling. Biological rhythm disturbances: This theory proposes that people with rapid cycling have daily biological rhythms that are out of sync with typical “ ...

  2. Non-Destructive Evaluation of Materials via Ultraviolet Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pugel, Betsy

    2008-01-01

    A document discusses the use of ultraviolet spectroscopy and imaging for the non-destructive evaluation of the degree of cure, aging, and other properties of resin-based composite materials. This method can be used in air, and is portable for field use. This method operates in reflectance, absorbance, and luminescence modes. The ultraviolet source is used to illuminate a composite surface of interest. In reflectance mode, the reflected response is acquired via the imaging system or via the spectrometer. The spectra are analyzed for organic compounds (conjugated organics) and inorganic compounds (semiconducting band-edge states; luminescing defect states such as silicates, used as adhesives for composite aerospace applications; and metal oxides commonly used as thermal coating paints on a wide range of spacecraft). The spectra are compared with a database for variation in conjugation, substitution, or length of molecule (in the case of organics) or band edge position (in the case of inorganics). This approach is useful in the understanding of material quality. It lacks the precision in defining the exact chemical structure that is found in other materials analysis techniques, but it is advantageous over methods such as nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy, and chromatography in that it can be used in the field to assess significant changes in chemical structure that may be linked to concerns associated with weaknesses or variations in structural integrity, without disassembly of or destruction to the structure of interest.

  3. Mechanical destruction of pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms by ultrasound exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jin; Bigelow, Timothy A.; Halverson, Larry J.; Middendorf, Jill; Rusk, Ben

    2012-10-01

    Medical implants are prone to colonization by bacterial biofilms, which are highly resistant to antibiotics. Normally, surgery is required to replace the infected implant. One promising non-invasive treatment option is to destroy the biofilm with high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) exposure. In our study, Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial biofilms were grown on graphite disks in a flow chamber for three days prior to exposing them to ultrasound pulses of varying duration or burst period. The pulses were 20 cycles in duration at a frequency of 1.1 MHz from a spherically focused transducer (f/1, 63 mm focal length), creating peak compressional and rarefactional pressures at the disk surface of 30 and 13 MPa, respectively. P. aeruginosa were tagged with GFP and cells killed by HIFU were visualized using propidium iodide, which permeates membranes of dead cells, to aid determining the extent of biofilm destruction and whether cells are alive or dead. Our results indicate that a 30-s exposure and 6-ms pulse period or those combinations with the same number of pulses, were sufficient to destroy the biofilm and to kill the remaining cells. Reducing the number of pulses decreased biofilm destruction, leaving more dead and live bacteria on the surface.

  4. A non-destructive method for dating human remains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lail, Warren K.; Sammeth, David; Mahan, Shannon; Nevins, Jason

    2013-01-01

    The skeletal remains of several Native Americans were recovered in an eroded state from a creek bank in northeastern New Mexico. Subsequently stored in a nearby museum, the remains became lost for almost 36 years. In a recent effort to repatriate the remains, it was necessary to fit them into a cultural chronology in order to determine the appropriate tribe(s) for consultation pursuant to the Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA). Because the remains were found in an eroded context with no artifacts or funerary objects, their age was unknown. Having been asked to avoid destructive dating methods such as radiocarbon dating, the authors used Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) to date the sediments embedded in the cranium. The OSL analyses yielded reliable dates between A.D. 1415 and A.D. 1495. Accordingly, we conclude that the remains were interred somewhat earlier than A.D. 1415, but no later than A.D. 1495. We believe the remains are from individuals ancestral to the Ute Mouache Band, which is now being contacted for repatriation efforts. Not only do our methods contribute to the immediate repatriation efforts, they provide archaeologists with a versatile, non-destructive, numerical dating method that can be used in many burial contexts.

  5. "Till destruction sicken": the catastrophe of mind in Macbeth.

    PubMed

    Tarantelli, Carole Beebe

    2010-12-01

    The author examines the tragedy of Macbeth from the vertex of its portrait of the effects of the hero's abandonment to the "blindest fury of destructiveness" (Freud, 1930, p. 121), using aspects of psychoanalytic thought to illuminate the theme. She affirms that Macbeth's immediate transformation in phantasy from loyal subject to future assassin threatens to flood his psyche with the uncontainable energy of destruction and thus to produce a psychic catastrophe. The remainder of the play is then examined as a representation of Macbeth's attempts to defend himself from that catastrophe: the only objects whose existence he can tolerate are those that cannot challenge his possession of the crown, which leads him to attempt to destroy all opposition. Since this is impossible, his alternative is to denude his mind of its perception of the reality in which the actions of others will inevitably produce future transformations which he is unable to control. The play's last soliloquy anticipates the final state, the repose of emptiness; it portrays a mind, emptied of emotion, looking at a world which it has denuded of meaning. PMID:21133909

  6. Empirical Confirmation of Creative Destruction from World Trade Data

    PubMed Central

    Klimek, Peter; Hausmann, Ricardo; Thurner, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    We show that world trade network datasets contain empirical evidence that the dynamics of innovation in the world economy indeed follows the concept of creative destruction, as proposed by J.A. Schumpeter more than half a century ago. National economies can be viewed as complex, evolving systems, driven by a stream of appearance and disappearance of goods and services. Products appear in bursts of creative cascades. We find that products systematically tend to co-appear, and that product appearances lead to massive disappearance events of existing products in the following years. The opposite–disappearances followed by periods of appearances–is not observed. This is an empirical validation of the dominance of cascading competitive replacement events on the scale of national economies, i.e., creative destruction. We find a tendency that more complex products drive out less complex ones, i.e., progress has a direction. Finally we show that the growth trajectory of a country’s product output diversity can be understood by a recently proposed evolutionary model of Schumpeterian economic dynamics. PMID:22719989

  7. Taphonomy of rhodoliths as determined by constructional and destructional processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitsch, Florian; Nebelsick, James; Bassi, Davide

    2015-04-01

    Rhodoliths made up primarily of self encrusting coralline algae are important contributors to Cenozoic carbonates and can be used as ecological indicators following taxonomic make up, encrustation patterns and growth form morphologies. Relatively few studies have been con-ducted on the taphonomy of rhodoliths with respect to their preservation potentials and how this affects our knowledge of carbonate production. In this study an actualistic approach is used assessing the production and destruction of rhodoliths derived from the Island of Giglio (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy). These rhodoliths are studied with regard to shape, growth-forms and taxonomy of the constructing fauna, presence and degree of porosity and types of void for-mation. Techniques used include sectioning and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) enabling the recognition of different void types on different scales as well as their distribu-tions. The rhodoliths are spheroidal to sub-spheroidal in shape and reach sizes up to to 13 cm in length. They are dominated by coralline red algae though the skeletons of other components especially bryozoans and serpulid worm tubes contribute to the nodules. Porosity values up to 41 % in volume were measured consisting of three different types of voids: Primary voids are represented by single cells of the algae; constructional voids are caused by amalgamated protuberances of coralline algae thalli; destructional voids are produced by dissolution of nucleus as well as potential soft bodied animals contributing to the rhodoliths and by a wide range of bioerosion types including Trypanites and Gastrochaenolites ichnotaxa.

  8. Local defect resonance for sensitive non-destructive testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adebahr, W.; Solodov, I.; Rahammer, M.; Gulnizkij, N.; Kreutzbruck, M.

    2016-02-01

    Ultrasonic wave-defect interaction is a background of ultrasound activated techniques for imaging and non-destructive testing (NDT) of materials and industrial components. The interaction, primarily, results in acoustic response of a defect which provides attenuation and scattering of ultrasound used as an indicator of defects in conventional ultrasonic NDT. The derivative ultrasonic-induced effects include e.g. nonlinear, thermal, acousto-optic, etc. responses also applied for NDT and defect imaging. These secondary effects are normally relatively inefficient so that the corresponding NDT techniques require an elevated acoustic power and stand out from conventional ultrasonic NDT counterparts for their specific instrumentation particularly adapted to high-power ultrasonic. In this paper, a consistent way to enhance ultrasonic, optical and thermal defect responses and thus to reduce an ultrasonic power required is suggested by using selective ultrasonic activation of defects based on the concept of local defect resonance (LDR). A strong increase in vibration amplitude at LDR enables to reliably detect and visualize the defect as soon as the driving ultrasonic frequency is matched to the LDR frequency. This also provides a high frequency selectivity of the LDR-based imaging, i.e. an opportunity of detecting a certain defect among a multitude of other defects in material. Some examples are shown how to use LDR in non-destructive testing techniques, like vibrometry, ultrasonic thermography and shearography in order to enhance the sensitivity of defect visualization.

  9. Microbiological destruction of composite polymeric materials in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legonkova, O. A.; Selitskaya, O. V.

    2009-01-01

    Representatives of the same species of microscopic fungi developed on composite materials with similar polymeric matrices independently from the type of soils, in which the incubation was performed. Trichoderma harzianum, Penicillium auranthiogriseum, and Clonostachys solani were isolated from the samples of polyurethane. Fusarium solani, Clonostachys rosea, and Trichoderma harzianum predominated on the surface of ultrathene samples. Ulocladium botrytis, Penicillium auranthiogriseum, and Fusarium solani predominated in the variants with polyamide. Trichoderma harzianum, Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus ochraceus, and Acremonium strictum were isolated from Lentex-based composite materials. Mucor circinelloides, Trichoderma harzianum, and Penicillium auranthiogriseum were isolated from composite materials based on polyvinyl alcohol. Electron microscopy demonstrated changes in the structure of polymer surface (loosening and an increase in porosity) under the impact of fungi. The physicochemical properties of polymers, including their strength, also changed. The following substances were identified as primary products of the destruction of composite materials: stearic acid for polyurethane-based materials; imide of dithiocarbonic acid and 1-nonadecen in variants with ultrathene; and tetraaminopyrimidine and isocyanatodecan in variants with polyamide. N,N-dimethyldodecan amide, 2-methyloximundecanon and 2-nonacosane were identified for composites on the base of Lentex A4-1. Allyl methyl sulfide and imide of dithiocarbonic acid were found in variants with the samples of composites based on polyvinyl alcohol. The identified primary products of the destruction of composite materials belong to nontoxic compounds.

  10. Minimally destructive Doppler measurement of a quantized, superfluid flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Neil; Kumar, Avinash; Eckel, Stephen; Stringari, Sandro; Campbell, Gretchen

    2016-05-01

    Ring shaped Bose-Einstein condensates are of interest because they support the existence of quantized, persistent currents. These currents arise because in a ring trap, the wavefunction of the condensate must be single valued, and thus the azimuthal velocity is quantized. Previously, these persistent current states have only been measured in a destructive fashion via either interference with a phase reference or using the size of a central vortex-like structure that appears in time of flight. Here, we demonstrate a minimally destructive, in-situ measurement of the winding number of a ring shaped BEC. We excite a standing wave of phonon modes in the ring BEC using a perturbation. If the condensate is in a nonzero circulation state, then the frequency of these phonon modes are Doppler shifted, causing the standing wave to precess about the ring. From the direction and velocity of this precession, we can infer the winding number of the flow. For certain parameters, this technique can detect individual winding numbers with approximately 90% fidelity.

  11. The MODAR process for the destruction of hazardous organic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Swallow, K.C.; Killilea, W.R.; Malinowski, K.C.; Staszak, C.N.

    1989-01-01

    The MODAR process for destruction of hazardous organic waste materials employs an oxidation reaction to convert organic compounds to CO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/O and, when heteroatoms are present, inorganic compounds. The reaction is carried out in a flowing aqueous stream heated and pressurized above the critical point of water. Residence times of less than one minute are usually sufficient to reduce the concentrations of all organic compounds to levels below analytical detection limits. The pilot-scale MODAR unit is skid-mounted and transportable by truck. It measures 12.2 m x 2.6 m x 2.9 m and can process 190 liters of organic liquid or 1900 liters of a 10% organic in water solution per day. In-house testing with pure chemicals and mixtures of chemicals confirmed that the pilot-scale unit met or exceeded the destruction efficiencies achieved with a laboratory-scale unit. A pilot-scale field test, conducted on toxic waste material, demonstrated that the MODAR process could destroy organic compounds with greater than 99.99% efficiency.

  12. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: An Overlooked Etiology of Midfacial Destructive Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Elie; Abbas, Ossama

    2016-01-01

    Background Midline destructive lesions of the face (MDL) have a wide range of etiologies. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is rarely reported as a possible cause. Methods Fifteen patients with solitary nasal lesions caused by CL were studied. The clinical data, biopsies/scrapings and PCR were collected/performed. Ridley’s Pattern (RP) and Parasitic Index (PI) were documented. Results Patients’ age ranged from 1 to 60 years including 7 males and 8 females. The duration of the observed lesions ranged from 1 to 18 months. Clinically, the lesions showed 6 patterns varying from dermal erythematous papulonodular with no epidermal changes to destructive erythematous plaque with massive central hemorrhagic crust. The clinical impression ranged from neoplastic to inflammatory processes. RP varied among the cases [RP 3 (n = 6), RP 4 (n = 3), RP 5 (n = 6)]. All cases show low PI [PI 0 (n = 7), PI 1 (n = 6), PI 2 (n = 1), and PI 3 (n = 1)]. Higher PI was noted in the pediatric group [average age 24 years for PI 0–1 vs. 6.5 years for PI 2–3]. Molecular speciation showed Leishmania tropica (n = 13) and Leishmania major (n = 2). All the patients received Meglumine Antimoniate (Glucantine) injections and had initial cure defined as complete scarring and disappearance of inflammatory signs within 3 months. Conclusion Leishmaniasis may cause MDL especially in endemic areas. PCR is instrumental in confirming the diagnosis. MDL caused by CL showed wide spectrum of clinical and microscopic presentation. PMID:26862748

  13. Empirical confirmation of creative destruction from world trade data.

    PubMed

    Klimek, Peter; Hausmann, Ricardo; Thurner, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    We show that world trade network datasets contain empirical evidence that the dynamics of innovation in the world economy indeed follows the concept of creative destruction, as proposed by J.A. Schumpeter more than half a century ago. National economies can be viewed as complex, evolving systems, driven by a stream of appearance and disappearance of goods and services. Products appear in bursts of creative cascades. We find that products systematically tend to co-appear, and that product appearances lead to massive disappearance events of existing products in the following years. The opposite-disappearances followed by periods of appearances-is not observed. This is an empirical validation of the dominance of cascading competitive replacement events on the scale of national economies, i.e., creative destruction. We find a tendency that more complex products drive out less complex ones, i.e., progress has a direction. Finally we show that the growth trajectory of a country's product output diversity can be understood by a recently proposed evolutionary model of Schumpeterian economic dynamics. PMID:22719989

  14. Non destructive testing of works of art by terahertz analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodnar, Jean-Luc; Metayer, Jean-Jacques; Mouhoubi, Kamel; Detalle, Vincent

    2013-11-01

    Improvements in technologies and the growing security needs in airport terminals lead to the development of non destructive testing devices using terahertz waves. Indeed, these waves have the advantage of being, on one hand, relatively penetrating. They also have the asset of not being ionizing. It is thus potentially an interesting contribution in the non destructive testing field. With the help of the VISIOM Company, the possibilities of this new industrial analysis method in assisting the restoration of works of art were then approached. The results obtained within this framework are presented here and compared with those obtained by infrared thermography. The results obtained show first that the THZ method, like the stimulated infrared thermography allows the detection of delamination located in murals paintings or in marquetries. They show then that the THZ method seems to allow detecting defects located relatively deeply (10 mm) and defects potentially concealed by other defects. It is an advantage compared to the stimulated infra-red thermography which does not make it possible to obtain these results. Furthermore, they show that the method does not seem sensitive to the various pigments constituting the pictorial layer, to the presence of a layer of "Japan paper" and to the presence of a layer of whitewash. It is not the case of the stimulated infrared thermography. It is another advantage of the THZ method. Finally, they show that the THZ method is limited in the detection of low-size defects. It is a disadvantage compared to the stimulated infrared thermography.

  15. Rapid and non-destructive detection and identification two strains of Wolbachia in Aedes aegypti by near-infrared spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the potential of using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to detect the presence of Wolbachia pipientis (wMel) in male and female laboratory-reared Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The release of Wolbachia transinfected mosquitoes is likely to form a key component of disease control strategi...

  16. Rapid photocatalytic destruction of pentachlorophenol in F-Si-comodified TiO(2) suspensions under microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shaogui; Fu, Hongbo; Sun, Cheng; Gao, Zhanqi

    2009-01-30

    A novel photocatalysis material, F-Si-comodified TiO(2) (FST) powder, was synthesized by ultrasound-assisted hydrolysis. The prepared material was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, respectively. XRD analysis indicated that the phase of FST was pure anatase and Si atoms suppressed the growth of titania crystalline, XPS spectra showed that FST was composed of Ti, O, Si and F element, the band gap energy of FST calculated according to the spectrum of UV-vis absorption was 3.26 eV. The electron spin resonance (ESR) spin-trapping technique using 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) as the spin-trap reagent has been applied to detect free radical intermediates generated from FST. ESR results showed the concentration of the active species (OH) on FST is higher than those on F-doping TiO(2) (FT), Si-modifying TiO(2) (ST) and P25 titania. The degradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in the microwave-assisted photocatalysis (MAPC) process was faster than other processes including microwave-assisted direct photolysis (MADP), microwave process alone (MP) and dark process (DP). The photocatalytic activity of FST is much higher than that of ST, FT and P25 titania. It may be attributed to its strong capacity of absorption to the UV-vis irradiation and more hydroxyl radical on surface of FST. In MPAC process, 40 mg L(-1) PCP was completely degraded in 20 min and its corresponding mineralization efficiency was 71%, the pH of solutions decreased from 10.3 to 6.47 and the dechlorination was completed in 12 min. The intermediates products of PCP in MAPC process identified by GC/MS were trichlorophenols (TCP), tetrachlorophenols (TTCP) and tetrachlorocatechol (TTCC) and the possible mechanism of PCP degradation is proposed. PMID:18555596

  17. Rapid destruction of the rhodamine B using TiO2 photocatalyst in the liquid phase plasma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Rhodamine B (RhB) is widely used as a colorant in textiles and food stuffs, and is also a well-known water tracer fluorescent. It is harmful to human beings and animals, and causes irritation of the skin, eyes and respiratory tract. The carcinogenicity, reproductive and developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity and chronic toxicity toward humans and animals have been experimentally proven. RhB cannot be effectively removed by biological treatment due to the slow kinetics. Therefore, RhB is chosen as a model pollutant for liquid phase plasma (LPP) treatment in the present investigation. Results This paper presents experimental results for the bleaching of RhB from aqueous solutions in the presence of TiO2 photocatalyst with LPP system. Properties of generated plasma were investigated by optical emission spectroscopy methods. The results of electrical-discharge degradation of RhB showed that the decomposition rate increased with the applied voltage, pulse width, and frequency. The oxygen gas addition to reactant solution increases the degradation rate by active oxygen species. The RhB decomposition rate was shown to increase with the TiO2 particle dosage. Conclusion This work presents the conclusions on the photocatalytic oxidation of RhB, as a function of plasma conditions, oxygen gas bubbling as well as TiO2 particle dosage. We knew that using the liquid phase plasma system with TiO2 photocatalyst at high speed we could remove the organic matter in the water. PMID:24041151

  18. Development of Fourier transform infrared Spectroscopy in direct, non-destructive, and rapid determination of cotton fiber maturity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    FTIR spectra of seed and lint cottons were collected to explore the potential for the discrimination of immature cottons from mature ones and also for the determination of actual cotton maturity. Spectral features of immature and mature cottons revealed large differences in the 1200-900 cm-1 region,...

  19. LiDAR based biomass and crop nitrogen estimates for rapid, non-destructive assessment of wheat nitrogen status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Optical remote sensing of crop nitrogen (N) status is developing into a powerful diagnostic tool that can improve N management decisions. Crop N status is a function of dry mass per unit area (W) and N concentration (%Na), which can be used to calculate N nutrition index (NNI),where NNI is %Na/%Nc (...

  20. A rapid, non-invasive and non-destructive method for studying swelling behavior and microstructure variations of hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Li, Yaqiong; Li, Xiunan; Chen, Chao; Zhao, Dawei; Su, Zhiguo; Ma, Guanghui; Yu, Rong

    2016-10-20

    A new method for studying swelling behavior of hydrogels was developed based on low field NMR (LF-NMR). This method is established on these facts: firstly, internal water (water trapped in hydrogel) and external water (water outside of hydrogel) correspond to different components of transverse relaxation time (T2); secondly, T2 component amplitude is proportional to relative water content; and finally, T2 value is closely related to mesh size of hydrogel network, the main effect being due to the overall concentration (degree of swelling). This method was successfully applied to swelling ratio determination of chitosan/glutaraldehyde (CS/GA) hydrogels in situ, and the results had better accuracy and repeatability compared with that of weighing method. Furthermore, swelling kinetics at different pH and microstructure of CS/GA hydrogels was well elucidated based on T2. It is clearly showed that LF-NMR provides a powerful tool for probing processes related to water transport and microstructure variation of hydrogels. PMID:27474678

  1. Navigate the Digital Rapids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Julie; Davis, Vicki

    2010-01-01

    How can teachers teach digital citizenship when the digital landscape is changing so rapidly? How can teachers teach proper online social interactions when the students are outside their classroom and thus outside their control? Will encouraging students to engage in global collaborative environments land teachers in hot water? These are the…

  2. Rapid Prototyping in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Cesar A.; Butler, Ricky (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    PVSio is a conservative extension to the PVS prelude library that provides basic input/output capabilities to the PVS ground evaluator. It supports rapid prototyping in PVS by enhancing the specification language with built-in constructs for string manipulation, floating point arithmetic, and input/output operations.

  3. AFRPL Rapid Indexing System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltran, Alfred A.

    A modified Keyword Out of Context (KWOC) system was developed to gain rapid control over more than 8,000 scattered, unindexed documents. This was the first step in providing the technical information support required by Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory scientists and engineers. Implementation of the KWOC system, computer routines, and…

  4. Pathogenic Role of Basic Calcium Phosphate Crystals in Destructive Arthropathies

    PubMed Central

    Ea, Hang-Korng; Chobaz, Véronique; Nguyen, Christelle; Nasi, Sonia; van Lent, Peter; Daudon, Michel; Dessombz, Arnaud; Bazin, Dominique; McCarthy, Geraldine; Jolles-Haeberli, Brigitte; Ives, Annette; Van Linthoudt, Daniel; So, Alexander; Lioté, Frédéric; Busso, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    Background basic calcium phosphate (BCP) crystals are commonly found in osteoarthritis (OA) and are associated with cartilage destruction. BCP crystals induce in vitro catabolic responses with the production of metalloproteases and inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL-1). In vivo, IL-1 production induced by BCP crystals is both dependant and independent of NLRP3 inflammasome. We aimed to clarify 1/ the role of BCP crystals in cartilage destruction and 2/ the role of IL-1 and NLRP3 inflammasome in cartilage degradation related to BCP crystals. Methodology/ Principal Findings synovial membranes isolated from OA knees were analysed by alizarin Red and FTIR. Pyrogen free BCP crystals were injected into right knees of WT, NLRP3 -/-, ASC -/-, IL-1α -/- and IL-1β-/- mice and PBS was injected into left knees. To assess the role of IL-1, WT mice were treated by intra-peritoneal injections of anakinra, the IL-1Ra recombinant protein, or PBS. Articular destruction was studied at d4, d17 and d30 assessing synovial inflammation, proteoglycan loss and chondrocyte apoptosis. BCP crystals were frequently found in OA synovial membranes including low grade OA. BCP crystals injected into murine knee joints provoked synovial inflammation characterized by synovial macrophage infiltration that persisted at day 30, cartilage degradation as evidenced by loss of proteoglycan staining by Safranin-O and concomitant expression of VDIPEN epitopes, and increased chondrocyte apoptosis. BCP crystal-induced synovitis was totally independent of IL-1α and IL-1β signalling and no alterations of inflammation were observed in mice deficient for components of the NLRP3-inflammasome, IL-1α or IL-1β. Similarly, treatment with anakinra did not prevent BCP crystal effects. In vitro, BCP crystals elicited enhanced transcription of matrix degrading and pro-inflammatory genes in macrophages. Conclusions/ Significance intra-articular BCP crystals can elicit synovial inflammation and cartilage

  5. Dissociation of Tissue Destruction and Bacterial Expansion during Bubonic Plague

    PubMed Central

    Guinet, Françoise; Avé, Patrick; Filali, Sofia; Huon, Christèle; Savin, Cyril; Huerre, Michel; Fiette, Laurence; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Activation and/or recruitment of the host plasmin, a fibrinolytic enzyme also active on extracellular matrix components, is a common invasive strategy of bacterial pathogens. Yersinia pestis, the bubonic plague agent, expresses the multifunctional surface protease Pla, which activates plasmin and inactivates fibrinolysis inhibitors. Pla is encoded by the pPla plasmid. Following intradermal inoculation, Y. pestis has the capacity to multiply in and cause destruction of the lymph node (LN) draining the entry site. The closely related, pPla-negative, Y. pseudotuberculosis species lacks this capacity. We hypothesized that tissue damage and bacterial multiplication occurring in the LN during bubonic plague were linked and both driven by pPla. Using a set of pPla-positive and pPla-negative Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis strains in a mouse model of intradermal injection, we found that pPla is not required for bacterial translocation to the LN. We also observed that a pPla-cured Y. pestis caused the same extensive histological lesions as the wild type strain. Furthermore, the Y. pseudotuberculosis histological pattern, characterized by infectious foci limited by inflammatory cell infiltrates with normal tissue density and follicular organization, was unchanged after introduction of pPla. However, the presence of pPla enabled Y. pseudotuberculosis to increase its bacterial load up to that of Y. pestis. Similarly, lack of pPla strongly reduced Y. pestis titers in LNs of infected mice. This pPla-mediated enhancing effect on bacterial load was directly dependent on the proteolytic activity of Pla. Immunohistochemistry of Pla-negative Y. pestis-infected LNs revealed extensive bacterial lysis, unlike the numerous, apparently intact, microorganisms seen in wild type Y. pestis-infected preparations. Therefore, our study demonstrates that tissue destruction and bacterial survival/multiplication are dissociated in the bubo and that the primary action of Pla is to protect

  6. Recent advances in the molten salt destruction of energetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pruneda, C. O., LLNL

    1996-09-01

    We have demonstrated the use of the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process for destroying explosives, liquid gun propellant, and explosives-contaminated materials on a 1.5 kg of explosive/hr bench- scale unit (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). In our recently constructed 5 kg/hr pilot- scale unit we have also demonstrated the destruction of a liquid gun propellant and simulated wastes containing HMX (octogen). MSD converts the organic constituents of the waste into non-hazardous substances such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and water. Any inorganic constituents of the waste, such as metallic particles, are retained in the molten salt. The destruction of energetic materials waste is accomplished by introducing it, together with air, into a vessel containing molten salt (a eutectic mixture of sodium, potassium, and lithium carbonates). The following pure explosives have been destroyed in our bench-scale experimental unit located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF): ammonium picrate, HMX, K- 6 (keto-RDX), NQ, NTO, PETN, RDX, TATB, and TNT. In addition, the following compositions were also destroyed: Comp B, LX- IO, LX- 1 6, LX- 17, PBX-9404, and XM46 (liquid gun propellant). In this 1.5 kg/hr bench-scale unit, the fractions of carbon converted to CO and of chemically bound nitrogen converted to NO{sub x} were found to be well below 1%. In addition to destroying explosive powders and compositions we have also destroyed materials that are typical of residues which result from explosives operations. These include shavings from machined pressed parts of plastic-bonded explosives and sump waste containing both explosives and non-explosive debris. Based on the process data obtained on the bench-scale unit we designed and constructed a next-generation 5 kg/hr pilot-scale unit, incorporating LLNL`s advanced chimney design. The pilot unit has completed process implementation operations and explosives safety reviews. To date, in this

  7. Dissociation of Tissue Destruction and Bacterial Expansion during Bubonic Plague.

    PubMed

    Guinet, Françoise; Avé, Patrick; Filali, Sofia; Huon, Christèle; Savin, Cyril; Huerre, Michel; Fiette, Laurence; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2015-10-01

    Activation and/or recruitment of the host plasmin, a fibrinolytic enzyme also active on extracellular matrix components, is a common invasive strategy of bacterial pathogens. Yersinia pestis, the bubonic plague agent, expresses the multifunctional surface protease Pla, which activates plasmin and inactivates fibrinolysis inhibitors. Pla is encoded by the pPla plasmid. Following intradermal inoculation, Y. pestis has the capacity to multiply in and cause destruction of the lymph node (LN) draining the entry site. The closely related, pPla-negative, Y. pseudotuberculosis species lacks this capacity. We hypothesized that tissue damage and bacterial multiplication occurring in the LN during bubonic plague were linked and both driven by pPla. Using a set of pPla-positive and pPla-negative Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis strains in a mouse model of intradermal injection, we found that pPla is not required for bacterial translocation to the LN. We also observed that a pPla-cured Y. pestis caused the same extensive histological lesions as the wild type strain. Furthermore, the Y. pseudotuberculosis histological pattern, characterized by infectious foci limited by inflammatory cell infiltrates with normal tissue density and follicular organization, was unchanged after introduction of pPla. However, the presence of pPla enabled Y. pseudotuberculosis to increase its bacterial load up to that of Y. pestis. Similarly, lack of pPla strongly reduced Y. pestis titers in LNs of infected mice. This pPla-mediated enhancing effect on bacterial load was directly dependent on the proteolytic activity of Pla. Immunohistochemistry of Pla-negative Y. pestis-infected LNs revealed extensive bacterial lysis, unlike the numerous, apparently intact, microorganisms seen in wild type Y. pestis-infected preparations. Therefore, our study demonstrates that tissue destruction and bacterial survival/multiplication are dissociated in the bubo and that the primary action of Pla is to protect

  8. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  9. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, L.M.

    1998-05-05

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find at the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was not heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past. 2 figs.

  10. Rapid climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Morantine, M.C.

    1995-12-31

    Interactions between insolation changes due to orbital parameter variations, carbon dioxide concentration variations, the rate of deep water formation in the North Atlantic and the evolution of the northern hemisphere ice sheets during the most recent glacial cycle will be investigated. In order to investigate this period, a climate model is being developed to evaluate the physical mechanisms thought to be most significant during this period. The description of the model sub-components will be presented. The more one knows about the interactions between the sub-components of the climate system during periods of documented rapid climate change, the better equipped one will be to make rational decisions on issues related to impacts on the environment. This will be an effort to gauge the feedback processes thought to be instrumental in rapid climate shifts documented in the past, and their potential to influence the current climate. 53 refs.

  11. Rapidly refuelable fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Joy, R.W.

    1982-09-20

    A rapidly refuelable dual cell of an electrochemical type is described wherein a single anode cooperates with two cathodes and wherein the anode has a fixed position and the cathodes are urged toward opposite faces of the anodes at constant and uniform force. The associated cathodes are automatically retractable to permit the consumed anode remains to be removed from the housing and a new anode inserted between the two cathodes.

  12. Rapid Detection of Pathogens

    SciTech Connect

    David Perlin

    2005-08-14

    Pathogen identification is a crucial first defense against bioterrorism. A major emphasis of our national biodefense strategy is to establish fast, accurate and sensitive assays for diagnosis of infectious diseases agents. Such assays will ensure early and appropriate treatment of infected patients. Rapid diagnostics can also support infection control measures, which monitor and limit the spread of infectious diseases agents. Many select agents are highly transmissible in the early stages of disease, and it is critical to identify infected patients and limit the risk to the remainder of the population and to stem potential panic in the general population. Nucleic acid-based molecular approaches for identification overcome many of the deficiencies associated with conventional culture methods by exploiting both large- and small-scale genomic differences between organisms. PCR-based amplification of highly conserved ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, intergenic sequences, and specific toxin genes is currently the most reliable approach for bacterial, fungal and many viral pathogenic agents. When combined with fluorescence-based oligonucleotide detection systems, this approach provides real-time, quantitative, high fidelity analysis capable of single nucleotide allelic discrimination (4). These probe systems offer rapid turn around time (<2 h) and are suitable for high throughput, automated multiplex operations that are critical for clinical diagnostic laboratories. In this pilot program, we have used molecular beacon technology invented at the Public health Research Institute to develop a new generation of molecular probes to rapidly detect important agents of infectious diseases. We have also developed protocols to rapidly extract nucleic acids from a variety of clinical specimen including and blood and tissue to for detection in the molecular assays. This work represented a cooperative research development program between the Kramer-Tyagi/Perlin labs on probe development

  13. Weapons of STAT destruction. Interferon evasion by paramyxovirus V protein.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Curt M

    2004-12-01

    The signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) family of proteins function to activate gene transcription downstream of myriad cytokine and growth factor signals. The prototype STAT proteins, STAT1 and STAT2, are required for innate and adaptive antimicrobial immune responses that result from interferon signal transduction. While many viruses have evolved the ability to avoid these antiviral cytokines, the Paramyxoviruses are distinct in their abilities to interfere directly with STAT proteins. Individual paramyxovirus species differ greatly in their precise mechanism of STAT signaling evasion, but a virus-encoded protein called V plays a central role in this process. The theme of V-dependent interferon evasion and its variations provide significant insights into virus-host interactions and viral immune evasion that can help define targets for antiviral drug design. Exposure of the viral weapons of STAT destruction may also be instructive for application to STAT-directed therapeutics for diseases characterized by STAT hyperactivity. PMID:15606749

  14. Countering nuclear weapons of mass destruction: Are we doing enough?

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, L.A.

    1998-04-15

    Countering nuclear fissile material leakage from the former Soviet Union should be the First National Security Priority of the United States. Once these nuclear weapons and weapons-usable nuclear materials have dispersed to the possession of Third World rogue states, there is not much one can do to prevent their usage in a regional setting by US Military means. This study discusses national policy and military options available to counter hostile countries nuclear weapons before and after use. There are no clear cut policies and easy military means for neutralizing nuclear weapons in the most likely scenarios. Therefore, The US National Command Authority should consider the framework of these policy and military options in countering nuclear weapons of mass destruction in the future.

  15. Apparatus for the plasma destruction of hazardous gases

    DOEpatents

    Kang, M.

    1995-02-07

    A plasma cell for destroying hazardous gases is described. An electric-discharge cell having an electrically conducting electrode onto which an alternating high-voltage waveform is impressed and a dielectric barrier adjacent thereto, together forming a high-voltage electrode, generates self-terminating discharges throughout a volume formed between this electrode and a grounded conducting liquid electrode. The gas to be transformed is passed through this volume. The liquid may be flowed, generating thereby a renewable surface. Moreover, since hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids may be formed from destruction of various chlorofluorocarbons in the presence of water, a conducting liquid may be selected which will neutralize these corrosive compounds. The gases exiting the discharge region may be further scrubbed if additional purification is required. 4 figs.

  16. Apparatus for the plasma destruction of hazardous gases

    DOEpatents

    Kang, Michael

    1995-01-01

    A plasma cell for destroying hazardous gases. An electric-discharge cell having an electrically conducting electrode onto which an alternating high-voltage waveform is impressed and a dielectric barrier adjacent thereto, together forming a high-voltage electrode, generates self-terminating discharges throughout a volume formed between this electrode and a grounded conducting liquid electrode. The gas to be transformed is passed through this volume. The liquid may be flowed, generating thereby a renewable surface. Moreover, since hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids may be formed from destruction of various chlorofluorocarbons in the presence of water, a conducting liquid may be selected which will neutralize these corrosive compounds. The gases exiting the discharge region may be further scrubbed if additional purification is required.

  17. Destruction of nuclear graphite using closed chamber incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Senor, D.J.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Morgan, W.C.; Marianowski, L.G.

    1994-03-01

    Closed chamber incineration (CCI) is a novel technique by which irradiated nuclear graphite may be destroyed without the risk of radioactive cation release into the environment. The process utilizes an enclosed combustion chamber coupled with molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs). The transport of cations is intrinsically suppressed by the MCFCs, such that only the combustion gases are conducted through for release to the environment. An example CCI design was developed which had as its goal the destruction of graphite fuel elements from the Fort St. Vrain reactor (FSVR). By employing CCI, the volume of high level waste from the FSVR will be reduced by approximately 87 percent. Additionally, the incineration process will convert the SiC coating on the FSVR fuel particles to SiO{sub 2}, thus creating a form potentially suitable for direct incorporation in a vitrification process stream. The design is compact, efficient, and makes use of currently available technology.

  18. Elastic suppression in Brillouin imaging by destructive interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonacci, Giuseppe; Lepert, Guillaume; Paterson, Carl; Török, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Brillouin microscopy is an emerging technique to yield high spatial resolution mechanical images in a non-contact manner. The main challenge in Brillouin spectroscopy is given by the detection and the localisation of the Brillouin peaks, in particular, when a high amount of elastic light is collected. We demonstrate a purely interferometric method to suppress the parasitic light which overwhelms the Brillouin spectrum using destructive interference in a Michelson interferometer. A suppression ratio of 35 dB is readily achieved. Both double and single stage virtually imaged phased array spectrometers are tested showing that the Brillouin peaks can still be measured when the intensity of the elastic light is higher by 53 dB, hence, enabling 3D mechanical imaging of thin biological systems such as cells.

  19. Photocatalytic destruction of volatile organic compounds in water. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Oluic, S.

    1991-12-10

    Ground water at the Anniston Army Depot in Anniston, Alabama has been found to be contaminated with volatile organic compounds. Recent research has indicated that advanced oxidation processes, namely hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by ultraviolet light radiation, can be successful in destroying these contaminants. In this process hydrogen peroxide is decomposed by ultraviolet radiation producing hydroxyl free radicals which in turn oxidize the organic compounds present. A series of batch tests and flow through experiments using this oxidation process was performed on a synthetic wastewater that closely duplicated contaminant concentration levels found at Anniston. These contaminants, 1,2 dichloroethene, trichloroethene, dichloromethane and benzene, were found readily destructed by the UV/H2O2 process both individually and in mixtures during batch testing and in flow-through experiments. All experimentation was performed utilizing a thin film reactor.

  20. Electromagnetic non-destructive technique for duplex stainless steel characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, João Vicente; Camerini, Cesar; Pereira, Gabriela

    2016-02-01

    Duplex stainless steel (DSS) is a two-phase (ferrite and austenite) material, which exhibits an attractive combination of mechanical properties and high corrosion resistance, being commonly employed for equipment of petrochemical plants, refining units and oil & gas platforms. The best properties of DSS are achieved when the phases are in equal proportions. However, exposition to high temperatures (e.g. welding process) may entail undesired consequences, such as deleterious phases precipitation (e.g. sigma, chi) and different proportion of the original phases, impairing dramatically the mechanical and corrosion properties of the material. A detailed study of the magnetic behavior of DSS microstructure with different ferrite austenite ratios and deleterious phases content was accomplished. The non destructive method evaluates the electromagnetic properties changes in the material and is capable to identify the presence of deleterious phases into DSS microstructure.

  1. Medical experimentation concerning chemical and biological weapons for mass destruction.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Erwin

    2003-04-01

    This article is the text of a speech originally presented at the Second World Conference on Medical Ethics at Gijon, Spain, on 2 October 2002 under the title "Medical Experimentation Concerning Chemical and Biological Weapons for Mass Destruction: Clinical Design for New Smallpox Vaccines: Ethical and Legal Aspects." Experimentation on vaccines such as smallpox is subject to the usual ethical rules such as the need for informed consent. However, the participants will not often be at risk of catching the disease but expose themselves by taking part in the experimentation. Professor Deutsch explores the implications of this, including the position of vulnerable groups such as children, those with mental handicaps, and those acting under orders such as the miliary, the policy and fire officers. PMID:16211734

  2. Advanced Command Destruct System (ACDS) Enhanced Flight Termination System (EFTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tow, David

    2009-01-01

    NASA Dryden started working towards a single vehicle enhanced flight termination system (EFTS) in January 2008. NASA and AFFTC combined their efforts to work towards final operating capability for multiple vehicle and multiple missions simultaneously, to be completed by the end of 2011. Initially, the system was developed to support one vehicle and one frequency per mission for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) at NASA Dryden. By May 2008 95% of design and hardware builds were completed, however, NASA Dryden's change of software safety scope and requirements caused delays after May 2008. This presentation reviews the initial and final operating capabilities for the Advanced Command Destruct System (ACDS), including command controller and configuration software development. A requirements summary is also provided.

  3. Swarm autonomic agents with self-destruct capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor); Sterritt, Roy (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Systems, methods and apparatus are provided through which in some embodiments an autonomic entity manages a system by generating one or more stay alive signals based on the functioning status and operating state of the system. In some embodiments, an evolvable synthetic neural system is operably coupled to one or more evolvable synthetic neural systems in a hierarchy. The evolvable neural interface receives and generates heartbeat monitor signals and pulse monitor signals that are used to generate a stay alive signal that is used to manage the operations of the synthetic neural system. In another embodiment an asynchronous Alice signal (Autonomic license) requiring valid credentials of an anonymous autonomous agent is initiated. An unsatisfactory Alice exchange may lead to self-destruction of the anonymous autonomous agent for self-protection.

  4. Swarm autonomic agents with self-destruct capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor); Sterritt, Roy (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Systems, methods and apparatus are provided through which in some embodiments an autonomic entity manages a system by generating one or more stay alive signals based on the functioning status and operating state of the system. In some embodiments, an evolvable synthetic neural system is operably coupled to one or more evolvable synthetic neural systems in a hierarchy. The evolvable neural interface receives and generates heartbeat monitor signals and pulse monitor signals that are used to generate a stay alive signal that is used to manage the operations of the synthetic neural system. In another embodiment an asynchronous Alice signal (Autonomic license) requiring valid credentials of an anonymous autonomous agent is initiated. An unsatisfactory Alice exchange may lead to self-destruction of the anonymous autonomous agent for self-protection.

  5. Non-destructive evaluation method employing dielectric electrostatic ultrasonic transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cantrell, Jr., John H. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An acoustic nonlinearity parameter (.beta.) measurement method and system for Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of materials and structural members novelly employs a loosely mounted dielectric electrostatic ultrasonic transducer (DEUT) to receive and convert ultrasonic energy into an electrical signal which can be analyzed to determine the .beta. of the test material. The dielectric material is ferroelectric with a high dielectric constant .di-elect cons.. A computer-controlled measurement system coupled to the DEUT contains an excitation signal generator section and a measurement and analysis section. As a result, the DEUT measures the absolute particle displacement amplitudes in test material, leading to derivation of the nonlinearity parameter (.beta.) without the costly, low field reliability methods of the prior art.

  6. Assessment and treatment of pica and destruction of holiday decorations.

    PubMed

    Mitteer, Daniel R; Romani, Patrick W; Greer, Brian D; Fisher, Wayne W

    2015-12-01

    Problem behavior exhibited by individuals with autism can be disruptive to family traditions, such as decorating for the holidays. We present data for a 6-year-old girl who engaged in automatically reinforced pica and destruction of holiday decorations. Treatment was evaluated within an ABCDCD reversal design. During baseline (Phases A and B), we observed elevated rates of problem behavior. We implemented differential reinforcement of alternative behavior in Phase C to teach a response to compete with problem behavior. Little change in toy play or problem behavior occurred. In Phase D, we added a facial screen to the differential reinforcement procedures, which resulted in increases in toy play and decreases in problem behavior. Findings are discussed in terms of how interventions for problem behavior can promote alternative behavior while they facilitate household activities and traditions. PMID:26380947

  7. Induction thermography for non-destructive evaluation of adhesive bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaji, L.; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Krishnamurthy, C. V.

    2013-01-01

    Adhesive bonding is widely used in automotive industry in the recent times. One of the major problems with adhesive bonds is the lack of a suitable non-destructive evaluation technique for assessing bonding. In this paper, an experimental study was carried out to apply induction thermography technique to evaluate adhesively bonded steel plates. Samples were fabricated with artificial defects such as air gap, foreign material, and improper adhesive filling. Induction thermography technique was found to detect defects and foreign inclusions. The sample specimen was also inspected using standard techniques such as Ultrasonic testing and Radiography testing. Defect detecting capabilities of the three techniques are compared. Induction thermography heating was FE modelled in 3D using COMSOL 3.5a. The simulated Induction thermography model was compared and validated with experimental results.

  8. Non-equilibrium plasma reactors for organic solvent destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C.L.; Beltran, M.R.; Kravets, Z.

    1997-12-31

    Two non-equilibrium plasma reactors were evaluated for their ability to destroy three widely used organic solvents, i.e., 2-butanone, toluene and ethyl acetate. The catalyzed plasma reactor (CPR) with 6 mm glass beads destroys 98% of 50 ppm toluene in air at 24 kV/cm and space velocities of 1,400 v/v/hr. Eighty-five percent of ethyl acetate and 2-butanone are destroyed under the same conditions. The tubular plasma reactor (TPR) has an efficiency of 10% to 20% lower than that of a CPR under the same conditions. The 1,400 v/v/hr in a CPR is equal to a residence time of 2.6 seconds in a TPR. The operating temperatures, corona characteristics, as well as the kinetics of VOC destruction in both TPR and CPR were studied.

  9. Catalytic destruction of groundwater contaminants in reactive extraction wells

    DOEpatents

    McNab, Jr., Walt W.; Reinhard, Martin

    2002-01-01

    A system for remediating groundwater contaminated with halogenated solvents, certain metals and other inorganic species based on catalytic reduction reactions within reactive well bores. The groundwater treatment uses dissolved hydrogen as a reducing agent in the presence of a metal catalyst, such a palladium, to reduce halogenated solvents (as well as other substituted organic compounds) to harmless species (e.g., ethane or methane) and immobilize certain metals to low valence states. The reactive wells function by removing water from a contaminated water-bearing zone, treating contaminants with a well bore using catalytic reduction, and then reinjecting the treated effluent into an adjacent water-bearing zone. This system offers the advantages of a compact design with a minimal surface footprint (surface facilities) and the destruction of a broad suite of contaminants without generating secondary waste streams.

  10. Recent decrease in typhoon destructive potential and global warming implications

    PubMed Central

    Lin, I-I; Chan, Johnny C.L.

    2015-01-01

    Typhoons (tropical cyclones) severely impact the half-billion population of the Asian Pacific. Intriguingly, during the recent decade, typhoon destructive potential (Power Dissipation Index, PDI) has decreased considerably (by ∼35%). This decrease, paradoxically, has occurred despite the increase in typhoon intensity and ocean warming. Using the method proposed by Emanuel (in 2007), we show that the stronger negative contributions from typhoon frequency and duration, decrease to cancel the positive contribution from the increasing intensity, controlling the PDI. Examining the typhoons' environmental conditions, we find that although the ocean condition became more favourable (warming) in the recent decade, the atmospheric condition ‘worsened' at the same time. The ‘worsened' atmospheric condition appears to effectively overpower the ‘better' ocean conditions to suppress PDI. This stronger negative contribution from reduced typhoon frequency over the increased intensity is also present under the global warming scenario, based on analysis of the simulated typhoon data from high-resolution modelling. PMID:25990561

  11. Non-destructive Raman analyses - polyacetylenes in plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrader, Bernhard; Schulz, Hartwig; Baranska, Malgorzata; Andreev, George N.; Lehner, Caroline; Sawatzki, Juergen

    2005-05-01

    Ferdinand Bohlmann has described the isolation, the identification and the structure elucidation of acetylene compounds in many plants, and confirmed it by its synthesis. We have recorded the Raman spectra of most of these plants non-destructively by FT-Raman spectroscopy using radiation at 1064 nm. We could not observe any interfering fluorescence. We found acetylene compounds in some plants, even distinct compounds with different concentration in various parts of it. The distribution of the different compounds over the plant can be observed and their changes during the ontogenesis can be followed by a FT-Raman mapping technique. Of special help is a library of Raman and IR spectra and the structure of the compounds, synthesized by Bohlmann. Thus, the Raman technique allows analyses in a very short time replacing the usual time-consuming separation procedures and avoiding artefacts during clean-up procedures.

  12. Effect of combined heat and radiation on microbial destruction.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, D A; Pflug, I J

    1977-01-01

    A series of experiments at several levels of relative humidity and radiation dose rates was carried out using spores of Bacillus subtilis var. niger to evaluate the effect of heat alone, radiation alone, and a combination of heat and radiation. Combined heat and radiation treatment of microorganisms yields a destruction rate greater than the additive rates of the independence agents. The synergistic mechanism shows a proportional dependency on radiation dose rate an Arrhenius dependency on temperature, and a dependency on relative humidity. Maximum synergism occurs under conditions where heat and radiation individually destroy microorganisms at approximately equal rates. Larger synergistic advantage is possible at low relative humidities rather than at high relative humidities. PMID:406843

  13. Photocatalytic destruction of chlorinated solvents with solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Pacheco, J.; Prairie, M.; Yellowhorse, L.

    1990-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and the Solar Energy Research Institute are developing a photocatalytic process to destroy organic contaminants in water. Tests with common water pollutants are being conducted at Sandia's Solar Thermal Test Facility using a near commercial-scale single-axis tracking parabolic trough system with glass pipe mounted at its focus. Experiments at this scale provide verification of laboratory studies and allow examination of design and operation issues at a real-life scale. The catalyst, titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}), is a harmless material found in paint, cosmetics and toothpaste. Experiments were conducted to determine the effect of key process parameters on destruction rates of two chlorinated organic compounds which are common water pollutants: trichloroethylene and trichloroethane. In this paper, we summarize the engineering-scale results of these experiments and analyses. 21 refs., 8 figs.

  14. Photocatalytic destruction of chlorinated solvents in water with solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Pacheco, J.E.; Prairie, M.R.; Yellowhorse, L. . Solar Thermal Technology Dept.)

    1993-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory are developing a photocatalytic process to destroy organic contaminants in water. Tests with common water pollutants have been conducted at Sandia's Solar Thermal Facility using a near commercial scale, single-axis tracking parabolic trough system with a glass pipe reactor mounted at its focus. Experiments at this scale provide verification of laboratory studies and allow examination of design and operation issues at a real-lifescale. The catalyst, titanium dioxide (TiO[sub 2]), is a harmless material found in paint, cosmetics, and toothpaste. Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of key process parameters on destruction rates of chlorinated organic compounds that are common water pollutants. This paper summarizes the engineering-scale results of these experiments and analyses.

  15. Biofunctionalized magnetic vortex microdisks for targeted cancer cell destruction.

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, D.-H.; Rozhkova, E. A.; Ulasov, I. V.; Bader, S. D.; Rajh, T.; Lesniak, M. S.; Novosad, V.; Univ. of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine

    2010-01-01

    Nanomagnetic materials offer exciting avenues for probing cell mechanics and activating mechanosensitive ion channels, as well as for advancing cancer therapies. Most experimental works so far have used superparamagnetic materials. This report describes a first approach based on interfacing cells with lithographically defined microdiscs that possess a spin-vortex ground state. When an alternating magnetic field is applied the microdisc vortices shift, creating an oscillation, which transmits a mechanical force to the cell. Because reduced sensitivity of cancer cells toward apoptosis leads to inappropriate cell survival and malignant progression, selective induction of apoptosis is of great importance for the anticancer therapeutic strategies. We show that the spin-vortex-mediated stimulus creates two dramatic effects: compromised integrity of the cellular membrane, and initiation of programmed cell death. A low-frequency field of a few tens of hertz applied for only ten minutes was sufficient to achieve {approx}90% cancer-cell destruction in vitro.

  16. Dust destruction and kinematics in the Galactic Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolovy, Susan R.; Herter, Terry; Gull, George E.; Pirger, Bruce; Vogt, Nicole P.

    1995-01-01

    We present observations of the 34.815 micron (SiII) line and continuum emission from the inner few parsecs of the Galaxy obtained with the KAO Echelle Grating Spectrograph (KEGS) in June 1993. The SiII emission, which has been spectrally resolved at 64 km/s and spatially resolved at 10 arcsec, in kinematically consistent with the motions of ionized and neutral gas interior to the circumnuclear disk (CND). In addition, the emission in the (SiII) line as well as the continuum extends northward along the 'northern arm' past the inner edge of the CND. A peak in the (SiII) line/continuum ratio is observed at approx. 25 arcsec W and 75 arcsec N of Sgr A* with a large velocity dispersion. This may be an indication of dust destruction via cloud-cloud collisions.

  17. EVALUATION OF TRANSPORTATION OPTIONS FOR INTERMEDIATE NON DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Case, Susan; Hoggard, Gary

    2014-07-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) shipments of irradiated experiments from the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to the Hot Fuels Examination Facility (HFEF) have historically been accomplished using the General Electric Model 2000 (GE 2000) Type B shipping container. Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) concerns regarding the future availability and leasing and handling costs associated with the GE 2000 cask have warranted an evaluation of alternative shipping options. One or more of these shipping options may be utilized to perform non destructive examinations (NDE) such as neutron radiography and precision gamma scans of irradiated experiments at HFEF and then return the experiments to ATR for further irradiation, hereafter referred to as “intermediate NDE.”

  18. Rapidly Progressive Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Geschwind, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of Review This article presents a practical and informative approach to the evaluation of a patient with a rapidly progressive dementia (RPD). Recent Findings Prion diseases are the prototypical causes of RPD, but reversible causes of RPD might mimic prion disease and should always be considered in a differential diagnosis. Aside from prion diseases, the most common causes of RPD are atypical presentations of other neurodegenerative disorders, curable disorders including autoimmune encephalopathies, as well as some infections, and neoplasms. Numerous recent case reports suggest dural arterial venous fistulas sometimes cause RPDs. Summary RPDs, in which patients typically develop dementia over weeks to months, require an alternative differential than the slowly progressive dementias that occur over a few years. Because of their rapid decline, patients with RPDs necessitate urgent evaluation and often require an extensive workup, typically with multiple tests being sent or performed concurrently. Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease, perhaps the prototypical RPD, is often the first diagnosis many neurologists consider when treating a patient with rapid cognitive decline. Many conditions other than prion disease, however, including numerous reversible or curable conditions, can present as an RPD. This chapter discusses some of the major etiologies for RPDs and offers an algorithm for diagnosis. PMID:27042906

  19. Rapid frequency scan EPR.

    PubMed

    Tseitlin, Mark; Rinard, George A; Quine, Richard W; Eaton, Sandra S; Eaton, Gareth R

    2011-08-01

    In rapid frequency scan EPR with triangular scans, sufficient time must be allowed to insure that the magnetization in the x, y plane decays to baseline at the end of the scan, which typically is about 5T(2) after the spins are excited. To permit relaxation of signals excited toward the extremes of the scan the total scan time required may be much longer than 5T(2). However, with periodic, saw-tooth excitation, the slow-scan EPR spectrum can be recovered by Fourier deconvolution of data recorded with a total scan period of 5T(2), even if some spins are excited later in the scan. This scan time is similar to polyphase excitation methods. The peak power required for either polyphase excitation or rapid frequency scans is substantially smaller than for pulsed EPR. The use of an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) and cross loop resonator facilitated implementation of the rapid frequency scan experiments reported here. The use of constant continuous low B(1), periodic excitation waveform, and constant external magnetic field is similar to polyphase excitation, but could be implemented without the AWG that is required for polyphase excitation. PMID:21664848

  20. Rapid Frequency Scan EPR

    PubMed Central

    Tseitlin, Mark; Rinard, George A.; Quine, Richard W.; Eaton, Sandra S.; Eaton, Gareth R.

    2011-01-01

    In rapid frequency scan EPR with triangular scans, sufficient time must be allowed to insure that the magnetization in the x,y plane decays to baseline at the end of the scan, which typically is about 5 T2 after the spins are excited. To permit relaxation of signals excited toward the extremes of the scan the total scan time required may be much longer than 5 T2. However, with periodic, saw-tooth excitation, the slow-scan EPR spectrum can be recovered by Fourier deconvolution of data recorded with a total scan period of 5 T2, even if some spins are excited later in the scan. This scan time is similar to polyphase excitation methods. The peak power required for either polyphase excitation or rapid frequency scans is substantially smaller than for pulsed EPR. The use of an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) and cross loop resonator facilitated implementation of the rapid frequency scan experiments reported here. The use of constant continuous low B1, periodic excitation waveform, and constant external magnetic field is similar to polyphase excitation, but could be implemented without the AWG that is required for polyphase excitation. PMID:21664848

  1. Rapid adhesive bonding concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, B. A.; Tyeryar, J. R.; Hodges, W. T.

    1984-01-01

    Adhesive bonding in the aerospace industry typically utilizes autoclaves or presses which have considerable thermal mass. As a consequence, the rates of heatup and cooldown of the bonded parts are limited and the total time and cost of the bonding process is often relatively high. Many of the adhesives themselves do not inherently require long processing times. Bonding could be performed rapidly if the heat was concentrated in the bond lines or at least in the adherends. Rapid adhesive bonding concepts were developed to utilize induction heating techniques to provide heat directly to the bond line and/or adherends without heating the entire structure, supports, and fixtures of a bonding assembly. Bonding times for specimens are cut by a factor of 10 to 100 compared to standard press bonding. The development of rapid adhesive bonding for lap shear specimens (per ASTM D1003 and D3163), for aerospace panel bonding, and for field repair needs of metallic and advanced fiber reinforced polymeric matrix composite structures are reviewed.

  2. DESTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION FOR ORGANICS IN TRANSURANIC WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Spritzer

    2003-02-01

    General Atomics (GA) has recently completed a Phase I program for the development of a two-step alternative to incineration for the destruction of organics in transuranic wastes at the Savannah River Site. This process is known as thermal desorption-supercritical water oxidation, or TD-SCWO. The GA TD process uses heat to volatilize and transport organics from the waste material for subsequent treatment by SCWO. SCWO oxidizes organics in a steam medium at elevated temperatures and pressures in a manner that achieves excellent destruction efficiencies and compliance with all environmental requirements without the need for complex pollution-abatement equipment. This application of TD-SCWO is focused on a full-scale batch process for 55-gallon drums of mixed transuranic waste at the Savannah River Site. The Phase I reduced-scale test results show that the process operates as intended on surrogate waste matrices chosen to be representative of Savannah River Site transuranic mixed wastes. It provides a high degree of hydrogen removal and full containment of the radionuclide surrogate, with minimal requirements for pre-treatment and post-treatment. Other test objectives were to verify that the process produces no dioxins or furans, and meets all applicable regulatory criteria for retention of toxic metals, particulate, and criteria pollutants, while meeting WIPP/WAC and TRUPACT-II requirements. Thermal desorption of surrogate SRS mixed wastes at 500 psi and 1000 F met all tested requirements for WIPP/WAC and TRUPACT-II. SCWO of the desorbed surrogate organic materials at 500 psi and 1500 F also appears to meet all requirements for a nonincineration alternative, although >99.99% DRE for chlorinated solvents has not yet been demonstrated.

  3. Formation and Destruction of Jets in X-ray Binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kylafix, N. D.; Contopoulos, I.; Kazanas, D.; Christodoulou, D. M.

    2011-01-01

    Context. Neutron-star and black-hole X-ray binaries (XRBs) exhibit radio jets, whose properties depend on the X-ray spectral state e.nd history of the source. In particular, black-hole XRBs emit compact, 8teady radio jets when they are in the so-called hard state. These jets become eruptive as the sources move toward the soft state, disappear in the soft state, and then re-appear when the sources return to the hard state. The jets from neutron-star X-ray binaries are typically weaker radio emitters than the black-hole ones at the same X-ray luminosity and in some cases radio emission is detected in the soft state. Aims. Significant phenomenology has been developed to describe the spectral states of neutron-star and black-hole XRBs, and there is general agreement about the type of the accretion disk around the compact object in the various spectral states. We investigate whether the phenomenology describing the X-ray emission on one hand and the jet appearance and disappearance on the other can be put together in a consistent physical picture. Methods. We consider the so-called Poynting-Robertson cosmic battery (PRCB), which has been shown to explain in a natural way the formation of magnetic fields in the disks of AGNs and the ejection of jets. We investigate whether the PRCB can also explain the [ormation, destruction, and variability or jets in XRBs. Results. We find excellent agreement between the conditions under which the PRCB is efficient (i.e., the type of the accretion disk) and the emission or destruction of the r.adio jet. Conclusions. The disk-jet connection in XRBs can be explained in a natural way using the PRCB.

  4. Catalytic destruction of hazardous organics in aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.G.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.

    1988-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing a process for destroying hazardous organics and chlorinated organics in aqueous solutions. The process is targeted at liquid waste streams that are difficult and costly to treat with conventional or developing technologies. Examples of these waste streams include contaminated groundwater and surface water and industrial wastewater. Aqueous solutions are treated with a transition metal catalyst at 300/degree/C to 460/degree/C and 2000 to 5000 psig pressure to convert the wastes to innocuous gases. During proof-of-principle tests conducted in a 1-L batch reactor, destruction of over 99/percent/ (in most cases approaching 99.9/percent/) of the organic material was achieved. Hexone (methyl is isobutyl ketone, MIBK), p-cresol, hexane, benzene, and naphthalene were used as model waste materials. The only major product with all of the organic compounds was a gas containing 50/percent/ to 75/percent/ methane, 25/percent/ to 45/percent/ carbon dioxide, and 0/percent) to 5/percent/ hydrogen. Reduced nickel was the only effective catalyst and that the optimal operating conditions for destroying nonchlorinated organics were 350/degree/C to 400/degree/C, 2000 to 4000 psig, and 30/endash/ to 60/endash/min residence time. These tests also indicated that catalyst deactivation or fouling would not be a problem at these conditions. Chlorobenzene and trichloroethylene (TEC), were also tested. Destruction of both compounds was 99/percent/ or greater, but the products were different from those obtained from hydrocarbons. With TCE, the major product was carbon dioxide; with chlorobenzene the major product identified was benzene. In the tests with the chlorinated hydrocarbons, the chlorine was converted to HC1 and the reduced nickel was converted to nickel hydroxide, which may be detrimental to long-term catalyst activity. (15 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs).

  5. Seismically Imaging the Destruction of Continental Lithosphere beneath Afar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rychert, C. A.; Hammond, J. O.; Kendall, J. M.; Harmon, N.; Keir, D.; Ebinger, C. J.; Stuart, G. W.; Belachew, M.

    2011-12-01

    The onset of continental rifting is often accompanied by production of large volumes of molten rock. However, the influence of magmatism on the deforming lithosphere during the breakup process is not well understood. In particular, whether lithosphere is predominantly thinned by mechanical stretching or thermal destruction from melt infiltration, and how this impacts melt production during the breakup process remains unconstrained. Here we use S-to-P (Sp) receiver functions to image the onset of decompression melting beneath Afar, Ethiopia; a region where continental breakup gives way to oceanic spreading. We analyze three broadband datasets using S-to-p (Sp) imaging, which provide high resolution imaging beneath the rift and surrounding regions: the Ethiopia/Kenya Broadband Seismic Experiment (EKBSE), the Ethiopia Afar Geophysical Lithospheric Experiment (EAGLE), and a new UK/US led deployment of 46 stations in the Afar depression and surrounding area. We use two methodologies to investigate structure and locate robust features: 1) binning by conversion point and then simultaneous deconvolution in the frequency domain, and 2) extended multitaper followed by migration and stacking. At ~75 km depth we image a strong, sharp, velocity reduction on the flank of the rift that likely represents the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, versus a strong velocity increase with depth beneath the rift. The sharpness of the negative gradient can only be explained by melt ponded at the base of the lithosphere. The depth and magnitude of the positive gradient resemble those expected from numerical estimates for the onset of decompression melting in a mid-ocean ridge environment where ~1% melt is retained in the mantle. This implies that the mantle lithosphere beneath Afar has been destroyed; melt intrusion likely played a key role in the initial destruction of continental lithosphere, but the degree of influence from a thermal plume today in Afar is minimal.

  6. Controlling weapons of mass destruction through the rule of law

    SciTech Connect

    Tanzman, E.A.

    1995-08-08

    Many who speak of the end of the Cold War emphasize the improvement in international relations when they speak of the momentous consequences of this event. According to this image, the half century since Trinity has been a period of sparse international communication during which the Eastern and Western blocs hibernated in their isolated dens of security alliances. The emphasis in the phrase ``Cold War`` was on the word ``cold,`` and relations with the former Communist regimes are now ``warm`` by comparison. It is equally valid to consider what has happened to the word ``was` in this highly descriptive phrase. While meaningful international dialogue was in a state of relative lethargy during much of the last fifty years, the military establishments of the Great Powers were actively engaged in using as much force as possible in their efforts to control world affairs, short of triggering a nuclear holocaust. Out of these military postures a tense peace ironically emerged, but the terms by which decisions were made about controlling weapons of mass destruction (i.e., nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons) were the terms of war. The thesis of this paper is that the end of the Cold War marks a shift away from reliance on military might toward an international commitment to controlling weapons,of mass destruction through the ``rule of law.`` Rawls wrote that ``legal system is a coercive order of public rules addressed to rational persons for the purpose of regulating their conduct and providing the framework for social cooperation. The regular and impartial administration of public rules, becomes the rule of law when applied to the legal system.`` Inparticular, Rawls identifies as part of this system of public rules those laws that aim to prevent free riders on the economic system and those that aim to correct such externalities as environmental pollution.``

  7. Destruction of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by Fenton oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Z.M.; Comfort, S.D.; Shea, P.J.

    1997-03-01

    Past disposal practices at munitions production facilities have generated numerous acres of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT)-contaminated soil. We determined the potential of the Fenton reagent (Fe{sup 2+} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) to remediate TNT contamination in water, aqueous extracts of contaminated soil, and soil-water slurries. The effects of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and Fe{sup 2+} concentrations, solution pH, temperature, and initial TNT concentration on transformation and mineralization rates were evaluated. Treating an aqueous TNT solution (70 mg TNT L{sup -1}) with Fenton reagent (1% H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, 80 mg Fe{sup 2+} L{sup -1}) in the dark resulted in 100% destruction of TNT within 24 h. This coincided with 40% mineralization. Subsequent exposure to light resulted in >90% mineralization. We observed generation of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzoic acid and 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene within 15 min following Fenton oxidation of TNT. This indicates that initial TNT destruction likely occurs by methyl group oxidation and decarboxylation. Subsequent transformations involve nitro moiety removal with ring hydroxylation and cleavage, as evidenced by the stoichiometric recovery of TNT-nitrogen as NO{sub 3}{sup -} and production of oxalic acid as the primary C-containing end product. Upon exposure to light, Fe(II) was regenerated and the oxalate produced from 14C-TNT oxidation disappeared; this coincided with a decrease in solution {sup 14}C activity. Similar observations were made when {sup 14}C-oxalic acid was the starting substrate. Fenton oxidation was also effective in destroying TNT in aqueous extracts of contaminated soil and soil-water slurries. Experimental data provide evidence that the Fenton reagent can effectively remediate TNT-contaminated water and soil. 39 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  8. An x ray scatter approach for non-destructive chemical analysis of low atomic numbered elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, H. Richard

    1993-01-01

    A non-destructive x-ray scatter (XRS) approach has been developed, along with a rapid atomic scatter algorithm for the detection and analysis of low atomic-numbered elements in solids, powders, and liquids. The present method of energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (EDXRF) makes the analysis of light elements (i.e., less than sodium; less than 11) extremely difficult. Detection and measurement become progressively worse as atomic numbers become smaller, due to a competing process called 'Auger Emission', which reduces fluorescent intensity, coupled with the high mass absorption coefficients exhibited by low energy x-rays, the detection and determination of low atomic-numbered elements by x-ray spectrometry is limited. However, an indirect approach based on the intensity ratio of Compton and Rayleigh scattered has been used to define light element components in alloys, plastics and other materials. This XRS technique provides qualitative and quantitative information about the overall constituents of a variety of samples.

  9. Nitrogen Concentration Estimation in Tomato Leaves by VIS-NIR Non-Destructive Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ulissi, Valentina; Antonucci, Francesca; Benincasa, Paolo; Farneselli, Michela; Tosti, Giacomo; Guiducci, Marcello; Tei, Francesco; Costa, Corrado; Pallottino, Federico; Pari, Luigi; Menesatti, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen concentration in plants is normally determined by expensive and time consuming chemical analyses. As an alternative, chlorophyll meter readings and N-NO3 concentration determination in petiole sap were proposed, but these assays are not always satisfactory. Spectral reflectance values of tomato leaves obtained by visible-near infrared spectrophotometry are reported to be a powerful tool for the diagnosis of plant nutritional status. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility and the accuracy of the estimation of tomato leaf nitrogen concentration performed through a rapid, portable and non-destructive system, in comparison with chemical standard analyses, chlorophyll meter readings and N-NO3 concentration in petiole sap. Mean reflectance leaf values were compared to each reference chemical value by partial least squares chemometric multivariate methods. The correlation between predicted values from spectral reflectance analysis and the observed chemical values showed in the independent test highly significant correlation coefficient (r = 0.94). The utilization of the proposed system, increasing efficiency, allows better knowledge of nutritional status of tomato plants, with more detailed and sharp information and on wider areas. More detailed information both in space and time is an essential tool to increase and stabilize crop quality levels and to optimize the nutrient use efficiency. PMID:22163962

  10. Human Serum Transferrin Fibrils: Nanomineralisation in Bacteria and Destruction of Red Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Arindam; Barnett, Mark A; Venkatesh, V; Verma, Sandeep; Sadler, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Fibrils formed by human serum transferrin [(1–3 μm) apo-Tf, partially iron-saturated (Fe0.6-Tf) and holo-Tf (Fe2-Tf) forms], from dilute bicarbonate solutions, were deposited on formvar surfaces and studied by electron microscopy. We observed that possible bacterial contamination appears to give rise to long, pea-pod-like (PPL) structures for Fe2-Tf, attributable to the formation of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) storage granules, under the nutrient-limiting conditions used. These PPL structures contained periodic nanomineralisation sites susceptible to uranyl stain. Extended incubation of transferrin solutions (about four days) gave rise to extensive transferrin fibril structures. Optical microscopy and AFM studies showed that red blood cells (RBCs) readily adhere to these fibrils. Moreover, the fibrils appear to penetrate RBC membranes and to induce rapid cell destruction (within about 5 h). It is speculated that in situations in vivo where transferrin fibrils can form, such interactions might have adverse physiological consequences, and further studies could aid the understanding of related pathological events. PMID:25476866

  11. Nitrogen concentration estimation in tomato leaves by VIS-NIR non-destructive spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ulissi, Valentina; Antonucci, Francesca; Benincasa, Paolo; Farneselli, Michela; Tosti, Giacomo; Guiducci, Marcello; Tei, Francesco; Costa, Corrado; Pallottino, Federico; Pari, Luigi; Menesatti, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen concentration in plants is normally determined by expensive and time consuming chemical analyses. As an alternative, chlorophyll meter readings and N-NO(3) concentration determination in petiole sap were proposed, but these assays are not always satisfactory. Spectral reflectance values of tomato leaves obtained by visible-near infrared spectrophotometry are reported to be a powerful tool for the diagnosis of plant nutritional status. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility and the accuracy of the estimation of tomato leaf nitrogen concentration performed through a rapid, portable and non-destructive system, in comparison with chemical standard analyses, chlorophyll meter readings and N-NO(3) concentration in petiole sap. Mean reflectance leaf values were compared to each reference chemical value by partial least squares chemometric multivariate methods. The correlation between predicted values from spectral reflectance analysis and the observed chemical values showed in the independent test highly significant correlation coefficient (r = 0.94). The utilization of the proposed system, increasing efficiency, allows better knowledge of nutritional status of tomato plants, with more detailed and sharp information and on wider areas. More detailed information both in space and time is an essential tool to increase and stabilize crop quality levels and to optimize the nutrient use efficiency. PMID:22163962

  12. Non-destructive testing of ceramic balls using high frequency ultrasonic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Petit, S; Duquennoy, M; Ouaftouh, M; Deneuville, F; Ourak, M; Desvaux, S

    2005-12-01

    Although ceramic balls are used more and more for bearings in the aerospace and space industries, defects in this type of ceramic material could be dangerous, particularly if such defects are located close to the surface. In this paper, we propose a non-destructive testing method for silicon nitride balls, based on ultrasonic resonance spectroscopy. Through the theoretical study of their elastic vibrations, it is possible to characterize the balls using a vibration mode that is similar to surface wave propagation. The proposed methodology can both excite spheroidal vibrations in the ceramic balls and detect such vibrations over a large frequency range. Studying their resonance spectrums allows the balls' elastic parameters be characterized. Ours is an original method that can quickly estimate the velocity of surface waves using high frequency resonances, which permits surface and sub-surface areas to be tested specifically. Two applications are described in this paper. Both use velocity measurements to achieve their different goals, the first to differentiate between flawless balls from different manufacturing processes, and the second to detect small defects, such as cracks. Our method is rapid and permits the entire ceramic ball to be tested in an industrial context. PMID:16083931

  13. Non-destructive determination of anisotropic mechanical properties of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Akseli, I; Hancock, B C; Cetinkaya, C

    2009-07-30

    The mechanical property anisotropy of compacts made from four commercially available pharmaceutical excipient powders (microcrystalline cellulose, lactose monohydrate, ascorbic acid, and aspartame) was evaluated. The speed of pressure (longitudinal) waves in the uni-axially compressed cubic compacts of each excipient in the three principle directions was determined using a contact ultrasonic method. Average Young's moduli of each compact in the axial (x) and radial (y and z) directions were characterized. The contact ultrasonic measurements revealed that average Young's modulus values vary with different testing orientations which indicate Young's modulus anisotropy in the compacts. The extent of Young's modulus anisotropy was quantified by using a dimensionless ratio and was found to be significantly different for each material (microcrystalline cellulose>lactose>aspartame>ascorbic acid). It is also observed that using the presented contact method, compacts at high solid fraction (0.857-0.859) could be differentiated than those at the solid fraction of 0.85 in their groups. The presented contact ultrasonic method is an attractive tool since it has the advantages of being sensitive to solid fraction ratio, non-destructive, requiring small amount of material and rapid. It is noteworthy that, since the approach provides insight into the performance of common pharmaceutical materials and fosters increased process knowledge, it can be applied to broaden the understanding of the effect of the mechanical properties on the performance (e.g., disintegration profiles) of solid oral dosage forms. PMID:19426791

  14. Ombitasvir, paritaprevir, ritonavir, dasabuvir and ribavirin in cirrhosis after complete destruction of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Krastev, Zahariy; Jelev, Deian; Antonov, Krasimir; Petkova, Tanya; Atanasova, Evelina; Zheleva, Nadezhda; Tomov, Bojidar; Boyanova, Yana; Mateva, Lyudmila

    2016-01-01

    We observed a sustained viral response (SVR) of ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir, dasabuvir and ribavirin therapy, for 12 wk, in two cases with compensated liver cirrhosis and fully destroyed early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Patients were infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1b and were previous null responders/relapsers to interferon-alpha/ribavirin (IFN/RBV). There was a rapid suppression of HCV RNA to undetectable levels within the first two treatment weeks. SVR was achieved even after marked reduction of the RBV dose. The treatment was well tolerated. Both subjects experienced worsening of liver disease during therapy, in different patterns: severe, transient, predominantly direct hyperbilirubinemia without cytolysis (case 1) or progressive increase of aminotransferases (grade 4) without severe hyperbilirubinemia (case 2). Adverse events spontaneously resolved. The patients remained in a good clinical condition without hepatic decompensation. There was no re-occurrence of HCC. This is the first report for treatment of HCV cirrhosis after complete HCC destruction. PMID:26937151

  15. Right-Rapid-Rough

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Craig

    2003-01-01

    IDEO (pronounced 'eye-dee-oh') is an international design, engineering, and innovation firm that has developed thousands of products and services for clients across a wide range of industries. Its process and culture attracted the attention of academics, businesses, and journalists around the world, and are the subject of a bestselling book, The Art of Innovation by Tom Kelley. One of the keys to IDEO's success is its use of prototyping as a tool for rapid innovation. This story covers some of IDEO's projects, and gives reasons for why they were successful.

  16. Rapidly Progressing Chagas Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Hollowed, John; McCullough, Matthew; Sanchez, Daniel; Traina, Mahmoud; Hernandez, Salvador; Murillo, Efrain

    2016-04-01

    Chagas disease, caused by the parasiteTrypanosoma cruzi, can cause a potentially life-threatening cardiomyopathy in approximately 10-40% of afflicted individuals. The decline in cardiac function characteristically progresses over the course of many years. We report a case of Chagas disease in which the patient experienced an atypical rapid deterioration to severe cardiomyopathy over the course of 16 months. This case argues the need for increased routine surveillance for patients with confirmedT. cruziinfection, who are determined to be at high-risk for worsening cardiomyopathy. PMID:26856912

  17. Rapid and Quiet Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2007-01-01

    This describes aspects of the rapid and quiet drill (RAQD), which is a prototype apparatus for drilling concrete or bricks. The design and basic principle of operation of the RAQD overlap, in several respects, with those of ultrasonic/ sonic drilling and coring apparatuses described in a number of previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. The main difference is that whereas the actuation scheme of the prior apparatuses is partly ultrasonic and partly sonic, the actuation scheme of the RAQD is purely ultrasonic. Hence, even though the RAQD generates considerable sound, it is characterized as quiet because most or all of the sound is above the frequency range of human hearing.

  18. Rapid prototype and test

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, D.L.; Hansche, B.D.

    1996-06-01

    In order to support advanced manufacturing, Sandia has acquired the capability to produce plastic prototypes using stereolithography. Currently, these prototypes are used mainly to verify part geometry and ``fit and form`` checks. This project investigates methods for rapidly testing these plastic prototypes, and inferring from prototype test data actual metal part performance and behavior. Performances examined include static load/stress response, and structural dynamic (modal) and vibration behavior. The integration of advanced non-contacting measurement techniques including scanning laser velocimetry, laser holography, and thermoelasticity into testing of these prototypes is described. Photoelastic properties of the epoxy prototypes to reveal full field stress/strain fields are also explored.

  19. Rapid mineralocorticoid receptor trafficking.

    PubMed

    Gekle, M; Bretschneider, M; Meinel, S; Ruhs, S; Grossmann, C

    2014-03-01

    The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that physiologically regulates water-electrolyte homeostasis and controls blood pressure. The MR can also elicit inflammatory and remodeling processes in the cardiovascular system and the kidneys, which require the presence of additional pathological factors like for example nitrosative stress. However, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) for pathophysiological MR effects remain(s) elusive. The inactive MR is located in the cytosol associated with chaperone molecules including HSP90. After ligand binding, the MR monomer rapidly translocates into the nucleus while still being associated to HSP90 and after dissociation from HSP90 binds to hormone-response-elements called glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) as a dimer. There are indications that rapid MR trafficking is modulated in the presence of high salt, oxidative or nitrosative stress, hypothetically by induction or posttranslational modifications. Additionally, glucocorticoids and the enzyme 11beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase may also influence MR activation. Because MR trafficking and its modulation by micro-milieu factors influence MR cellular localization, it is not only relevant for genomic but also for nongenomic MR effects. PMID:24252381

  20. Rapid Decisions From Experience

    PubMed Central

    Zeigenfuse, Matthew D.; Pleskac, Timothy J.; Liu, Taosheng

    2014-01-01

    In many everyday decisions, people quickly integrate noisy samples of information to form a preference among alternatives that offer uncertain rewards. Here, we investigated this decision process using the Flash Gambling Task (FGT), in which participants made a series of choices between a certain payoff and an uncertain alternative that produced a normal distribution of payoffs. For each choice, participants experienced the distribution of payoffs via rapid samples updated every 50 ms. We show that people can make these rapid decisions from experience and that the decision process is consistent with a sequential sampling process. Results also reveal a dissociation between these preferential decisions and equivalent perceptual decisions where participants had to determine which alternatives contained more dots on average. To account for this dissociation, we developed a sequential sampling rank-dependent utility model, which showed that participants in the FGT attended more to larger potential payoffs than participants in the perceptual task despite being given equivalent information. We discuss the implications of these findings in terms of computational models of preferential choice and a more complete understanding of experience-based decision making. PMID:24549141