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Sample records for rapidly growing field

  1. A rapidly growing lid lump

    PubMed Central

    Koay, Su-Yin; Lee, Richard M H; Hugkulstone, Charles; Rodrigues, Ian Aureliano Stephen

    2014-01-01

    A 97-year-old woman presented with a 5-month history of a rapidly growing, painless, left upper eyelid lesion. Examination revealed a large vascularised, ulcerated nodule on the left upper lid, causing significant ptosis. Wide local excision of the lesion was performed and the wound was left to heal by secondary intention. Histology and immunohistochemistry of the lesion confirmed a diagnosis of Merkel cell carcinoma, a rare primary malignancy of the eyelid which has significant morbidity and mortality. Although uncommon, this diagnosis should always be considered in any patient with a rapidly growing lid lump. In view of the patient's age, known dementia and family wishes, the patient was managed conservatively, with no further investigations performed. She was due to be followed up in clinic on a regular basis, but has since died from other causes. PMID:25123568

  2. The treatment of rapidly growing mycobacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Kasperbauer, Shannon H; De Groote, Mary Ann

    2015-03-01

    Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) include a diverse group of species. We address the treatment of the most commonly isolated RGM-M abscessus complex, M fortuitum, and M chelonae. The M abscessus complex is composed of 3 closely related species: M abscessus senso stricto (hereafter M abscessus), M massiliense, and M bolletii. Most studies address treatment of M abscessus complex, which accounts for 80% of lung disease caused by RGM and is the second most common RGM to cause extrapulmonary disease (after M fortuitum). The M abscessus complex represent the most drug-resistant nontuberculous mycobacteria and are the most difficult to treat. PMID:25676520

  3. Laboratory aspects of clinically significant rapidly growing mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Set, R; Shastri, J

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenic potential of the rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) has started being recognized. This is due to more sensitive and specific techniques in the laboratory. The RGM are generally defined as nontuberculous species of mycobacteria that show visible growth on agar media within 7 days. RGM are widely distributed in nature and have been isolated from natural water, tap water, and soil. Several biochemical tests, high performance liquid chromatography, and molecular techniques have been developed for rapid identification of these species. The American Thoracic Society and the Infectious Disease Society of America recommend that RGM should be identified to the species level using a recognized acceptable methodology such as polymerase chain reaction restriction enzyme analysis or biochemical testing and routine susceptibility testing of RGM should include amikacin, imipenem, doxycycline, the fluorinated quinolones, a sulphonamide or trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, cefoxitin, clarithromycin, linezolid, and tobramycin. The diseases caused by these organisms have varied manifestations. They have been responsible for a number of healthcare-associated outbreaks and pseudo-outbreaks. For recognition of outbreaks, it is important to be familiar with the causative organisms like RGM which are most frequently involved in healthcare-associated outbreaks and pseudo outbreaks. It is essential to intervene as soon as possible to interrupt this transmission. Large gaps still exist in our knowledge of RGM. Unquestionably more studies are required. Through this review, we wish to emphasize that reporting of RGM from clinical settings along with their sensitivity patterns is an absolute need of the hour. PMID:22120792

  4. Glasses crystallize rapidly at free surfaces by growing crystals upward

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ye; Zhu, Lei; Kearns, Kenneth L.; Ediger, Mark D.; Yu, Lian

    2011-01-01

    The crystallization of glasses and amorphous solids is studied in many fields to understand the stability of amorphous materials, the fabrication of glass ceramics, and the mechanism of biomineralization. Recent studies have found that crystal growth in organic glasses can be orders of magnitude faster at the free surface than in the interior, a phenomenon potentially important for understanding glass crystallization in general. Current explanations differ for surface-enhanced crystal growth, including released tension and enhanced mobility at glass surfaces. We report here a feature of the phenomenon relevant for elucidating its mechanism: Despite their higher densities, surface crystals rise substantially above the glass surface as they grow laterally, without penetrating deep into the bulk. For indomethacin (IMC), an organic glass able to grow surface crystals in two polymorphs (α and γ), the growth front can be hundreds of nanometers above the glass surface. The process of surface crystal growth, meanwhile, is unperturbed by eliminating bulk material deeper than some threshold depth (ca. 300 nm for α IMC and less than 180 nm for γ IMC). As a growth strategy, the upward-lateral growth of surface crystals increases the system’s surface energy, but can effectively take advantage of surface mobility and circumvent slow growth in the bulk. PMID:21444775

  5. Intraoral tumor with rapid growing. Report of a case.

    PubMed

    González-Martín-Moro, Javier; Cebrián-Carretero, Jose Luis; Gómez-García, Elena; del Castillo-Pardo de Vera, Jose Luis; del Val, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    The appearance of an intraoral mass is common in our specialty. Most are benign lesions, but some are primary malignancies. Metastases account for less than 1% of all oral malignancies. An 86 year old woman was referred to our department with a large, asymptomatic, intraoral, fast-growing mass. She had no previous cancer history or other relevant physical findings. The radiology studies showed underlying bone erosion. The histological study showed a metastatic adenocarcinoma with a suspected origin in the abdomen. We were unable to identify it by non invasive diagnostic procedures. Given the patient's general status and despite the ominous prognosis of such lesions, we decided not to perform any aggressive therapy beyond removing the oral mass, in order to maintain her quality of life. There have been no local recurrences until this time. PMID:16264378

  6. Halogenated graphenes: rapidly growing family of graphene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Karlický, František; Kumara Ramanatha Datta, Kasibhatta; Otyepka, Michal; Zbořil, Radek

    2013-08-27

    Graphene derivatives containing covalently bound halogens (graphene halides) represent promising two-dimensional systems having interesting physical and chemical properties. The attachment of halogen atoms to sp(2) carbons changes the hybridization state to sp(3), which has a principal impact on electronic properties and local structure of the material. The fully fluorinated graphene derivative, fluorographene (graphene fluoride, C1F1), is the thinnest insulator and the only stable stoichiometric graphene halide (C1X1). In this review, we discuss structural properties, syntheses, chemistry, stabilities, and electronic properties of fluorographene and other partially fluorinated, chlorinated, and brominated graphenes. Remarkable optical, mechanical, vibrational, thermodynamic, and conductivity properties of graphene halides are also explored as well as the properties of rare structures including multilayered fluorinated graphenes, iodine-doped graphene, and mixed graphene halides. Finally, patterned halogenation is presented as an interesting approach for generating materials with applications in the field of graphene-based electronic devices. PMID:23808482

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility of rapidly growing mycobacteria using the rapid colorimetric method.

    PubMed

    Ramis, I B; Cnockaert, M; von Groll, A; Nogueira, C L; Leão, S C; Andre, E; Simon, A; Palomino, J C; da Silva, P E A; Vandamme, P; Martin, A

    2015-07-01

    Drug susceptibility testing (DST) of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are recommended for guiding the antimicrobial therapy. We have evaluated the use of resazurin in Mueller-Hinton medium (MHR) for MIC determination of RGM and compared the results with those obtained with the reference standard broth microdilution in Mueller-Hinton (MH) and with the resazurin microtiter assay (REMA) in 7H9 broth. The MIC of eight drugs: amikacin (AMI), cefoxitin (FOX), ciprofloxacin (CIP), clarithromycin (CLA), doxycycline (DOX), linezolid (LZD), moxifloxacin (MXF) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) were evaluated against 76 RGM (18 species) using three methods (MH, MHR, and REMA) in a 96-well plate format incubated at 37 °C over 3-5 days. Results obtained in the MH plates were interpreted by the appearance of turbidity at the bottom of the well before adding the resazurin. MHR and 7H9-REMA plates were read by visual observation for a change in color from blue to pink. The majority of results were obtained at day 5 for MH and 1 day after for MHR and 7H9-REMA. However, the preliminary experiment on time to positivity results using the reference strain showed that the resazurin can be added to the MH at day 2 to produce the results at day 3, but future studies with large sets of strains are required to confirm this suggestion. A high level of agreement (kappa 1.000-0.884) was obtained between the MH and the MHR. Comparison of results obtained with 7H9-REMA, on the other hand, revealed several discrepancies and a lower level of agreement (kappa 1.000-0.111). The majority of the strains were resistant to DOX and TMP-SMX, and the most active antimicrobials for RGM were AMI and FOX. In the present study, MHR represented an excellent alternative for MIC determination of RGM. The results could be read reliably, more easily, and more quickly than with the classical MH method. PMID:25820290

  8. Evaluation of Various Culture Media for Detection of Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria from Patients with Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Preece, Clair L; Wichelhaus, Thomas A; Perry, Audrey; Jones, Amanda L; Cummings, Stephen P; Perry, John D; Hogardt, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Isolation of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) from the sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is challenging due to overgrowth by rapidly growing species that colonize the lungs of patients with CF. Extended incubation on Burkholderia cepacia selective agar (BCSA) has been recommended as an expedient culture method for the isolation of rapidly growing NTM in this setting. The aim of this study was to assess five selective media designed for the isolation of Burkholderia cepacia complex, along with two media designed for the isolation of mycobacteria (rapidly growing mycobacteria [RGM] medium and Middlebrook 7H11 agar), for their abilities to isolate NTM. All seven media were challenged with 147 isolates of rapidly growing mycobacteria and 185 isolates belonging to other species. RGM medium was then compared with the most selective brand of BCSA for the isolation of NTM from 224 sputum samples from patients with CF. Different agars designed for the isolation of B. cepacia complex varied considerably in their inhibition of other bacteria and fungi. RGM medium supported the growth of all isolates of mycobacteria and was more selective than any other medium. NTM were recovered from 17 of 224 sputum samples using RGM medium, compared with only 7 samples using the most selective brand of BCSA (P = 0.023). RGM medium offers a superior option, compared to other selective agars, for the isolation of rapidly growing mycobacteria from the sputum of patients with CF. Furthermore, the convenience of using RGM medium enables routine screening for rapidly growing NTM in all submitted sputum samples from patients with CF. PMID:27098962

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium wolinskyi, a Rapid-Growing Species of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Perry, K. Allison; Lawsin, Adrian; Coulliette, Angela D.; Jensen, Bette; Toney, Nadege C.; Limbago, Brandi M.; Noble-Wang, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium wolinskyi is a nonpigmented, rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacterium species that is associated with bacteremia, peritonitis, infections associated with implants/prostheses, and skin and soft tissue infections often following surgical procedures in humans. Here, we report the first functionally annotated draft genome sequence of M. wolinskyi CDC_01. PMID:26988052

  10. Vibrio natriegens: A Rapidly Growing Micro-Organism Ideally Suited for Class Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullenger, L.; Gill, Nijole R.

    1973-01-01

    Describes five microbiological experiments using the marine organism Vibrio natriegens. This organism is highly suitable for laboratory work because it is non-pathogenic and grows extremely rapidly, having the distinction of the lowest mean generation time yet recorded (9.8 minutes). (JR)

  11. Structural analysis of biofilm formation by rapidly and slowly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) such as M. abscessus, M. mucogenicum, M. chelonae and M. fortuitum, implicated in healthcare-associated infections, are often isolated from potable water supplies as part of the microbial flora. To understa...

  12. Rapid Reconnection and Field Line Topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, E. N.; Rappazzo, A. F.

    Rapid reconnection of magnetic fields arises where the magnetic stresses push the plasma and field so as to increase the field gradient without limit. The intent of the present writing is to show the larger topological context in which this commonly occurs. Consider an interlaced field line topology as commonly occurs in the bipolar magnetic regions on the Sun. A simple model is constructed starting with a strong uniform magnetic field B 0 in the z-direction through an infinitely conducting fluid from the end plate z = 0 to z = L with the field lines tied at both end plates. Field line interlacing is introduced by smooth continuous random turbulent mixing of the footpoints at the end plates. This configuration is well suited to be modeled with the reduced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations, with the equilibria given by the solutions of the 2D vorticity equation in this case. The set of continuous solutions to the "vorticity" equation have greatly restricted topologies, so almost all interlaced field topologies do not have continuous solutions. That infinite set represents the "weak" solutions of the vorticity equation, wherein there are surfaces of tangential discontinuity (current sheets) in the field dividing regions of smooth continuous field. It follows then that current sheets are to be found throughout interlaced fields, providing potential sites for rapid reconnection. That is to say, rapid reconnection and nanoflaring are expected throughout the bipolar magnetic fields in the solar corona, providing substantial heating to the ambient gas. Numerical simulations provide a direct illustration of the process, showing that current sheets thin on fast ideal Alfvén timescales down to the smallest numerically resolved scales. The asymmetric structure of the equilibria and the interlacing threshold for the onset of singularities are discussed. Current sheet formation and dynamics are further analyzed with dissipative and ideal numerical simulations.

  13. Topological Growing of Laughlin States in Synthetic Gauge Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grusdt, Fabian; Letscher, Fabian; Hafezi, Mohammad; Fleischhauer, Michael

    2014-10-01

    We suggest a scheme for the preparation of highly correlated Laughlin states in the presence of synthetic gauge fields, realizing an analogue of the fractional quantum Hall effect in photonic or atomic systems of interacting bosons. It is based on the idea of growing such states by adding weakly interacting composite fermions along with magnetic flux quanta one by one. The topologically protected Thouless pump ("Laughlin's argument") is used to create two localized flux quanta and the resulting hole excitation is subsequently filled by a single boson, which, together with one of the flux quanta, forms a composite fermion. Using our protocol, filling 1/2 Laughlin states can be grown with particle number N increasing linearly in time and strongly suppressed number fluctuations. To demonstrate the feasibility of our scheme, we consider two-dimensional lattices subject to effective magnetic fields and strong on-site interactions. We present numerical simulations of small lattice systems and also discuss the influence of losses.

  14. Pollutants dynamics in a rice field catchment during storms in the growing and non-growing seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. S.; Lee, J. B.; Cho, J. P.

    2012-04-01

    We compared the behavior of pollutants such as total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorous (TP), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and suspended solid (SS) in runoff from a Korean rice field catchment during storm events between growing and non-growing seasons. The study catchment has a size of 21.9 ha and its water source is river. Fertilizers were applied at rates of 91 N kg ha-1 and 18 P kg ha-1 as basal and top dressings. The rice fields are shallowly (3-10 cm) flooded during most of the growing season, and therefore runoff water always flows during the growing season but flows only during storms in the non-growing season. TN concentrations in runoff water decreased with discharge irrespective of the season, whereas TP, COD and SS concentrations increased with discharge. Event mean concentrations (EMCs) of pollutants in runoff water from the catchment during the non-growing season were 2 to 3 times higher than those during the growing season. This may be because flooded water in the growing season greatly reduces transport of pollutant associated with soil erosion. The results suggest that the rice field catchment may act as a sink of some pollutants during growing season but as a source of all pollutants during non-growing season. .

  15. Topological growing of Laughlin states in synthetic gauge fields.

    PubMed

    Grusdt, Fabian; Letscher, Fabian; Hafezi, Mohammad; Fleischhauer, Michael

    2014-10-10

    We suggest a scheme for the preparation of highly correlated Laughlin states in the presence of synthetic gauge fields, realizing an analogue of the fractional quantum Hall effect in photonic or atomic systems of interacting bosons. It is based on the idea of growing such states by adding weakly interacting composite fermions along with magnetic flux quanta one by one. The topologically protected Thouless pump ("Laughlin's argument") is used to create two localized flux quanta and the resulting hole excitation is subsequently filled by a single boson, which, together with one of the flux quanta, forms a composite fermion. Using our protocol, filling 1/2 Laughlin states can be grown with particle number N increasing linearly in time and strongly suppressed number fluctuations. To demonstrate the feasibility of our scheme, we consider two-dimensional lattices subject to effective magnetic fields and strong on-site interactions. We present numerical simulations of small lattice systems and also discuss the influence of losses. PMID:25375718

  16. Pulmonary infection with rapidly growing mycobacteria in a singer with achalasia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cramer, J P; Sudeck, H; Burchard, G D

    2007-04-01

    We report the case of a 37-year-old male patient with prolonged pneumonia and achalasia. Culture and molecular genetic typing identified Mycobacterium abscessus as causative agent. Treatment with clarithromycin and minocycline over 8 months gradually resolved the infection. Rapidly growing, non-obligate pathogenic mycobacteria are widespread in the environment. Several cases of pulmonary infections with these mycobacteria in patients with achalasia have been reported, suggesting a causative association. This is the first report of a case with isolation of M. abscessus in this context. PMID:17316814

  17. Biofilm development by potentially pathogenic non-pigmented rapidly growing mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Esteban, Jaime; Martín-de-Hijas, Nieves Z; Kinnari, Teemu J; Ayala, Guillermo; Fernández-Roblas, Ricardo; Gadea, Ignacio

    2008-01-01

    Background A study to evaluate the biofilm-development ability in three different media (Middlebrook 7H9, sterile tap water and PBS-5% glucose) was performed with 19 collection strains from 15 different species on non-pigmented rapidly growing mycobacteria (NPRGM). A microtiter plate assay was developed to evaluate the percentage of covered surface of the microtiter plate wells in different days from day 1 to day 69. Results All strains were able to develop biofilm in all the tested media. Middlebrook 7H9 showed the fastest growth, followed by sterile tap water and PBS-5% glucose. A sigmoid growth curve was detected in all the strains both in Middlebrook 7H9 and in sterile tap water. A difference could be detected for Mycobacterium abscessus in tap water, where it showed faster growth than all the other strains. Conclusion Biofilm development seems to be a property of all the species of NPRGM and it depends on the nutrients present in the medium. The microtiter plate assay described here is a useful tool to evaluate differences in biofilm development among the different species of rapidly growing mycobacteria. PMID:18928544

  18. Overweight, obesity, and inactivity and urban design in rapidly growing Chinese cities.

    PubMed

    Day, Kristen; Alfonzo, Mariela; Chen, Yufei; Guo, Zhan; Lee, Karen K

    2013-05-01

    China faces rising rates of overweight, obesity, and physical inactivity among its citizens. Risk is highest in China's rapidly growing cities and urban populations. Current urban development practices and policies in China heighten this risk. These include policies that support decentralization in land use planning; practices of neighborhood gating; and policies and practices tied to motor vehicle travel, transit planning, and bicycle and pedestrian infrastructure. In this paper, we review cultural, political, and economic issues that influence overweight, obesity, and inactivity in China. We examine key urban planning features and policies that shape urban environments that may compromise physical activity as part of everyday life, including walking and bicycling. We review the empirical research to identify planning and design strategies that support physical activity in other high-density cities in developing and developed countries. Finally, we identify successful strategies to increase physical activity in another growing, high-density city - New York City - to suggest strategies that may have relevance for rapidly urbanizing Chinese cities. PMID:23416231

  19. Structural analysis of biofilm formation by rapidly and slowly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Williams, Margaret M; Yakrus, Mitchell A; Arduino, Matthew J; Cooksey, Robert C; Crane, Christina B; Banerjee, Shailen N; Hilborn, Elizabeth D; Donlan, Rodney M

    2009-04-01

    Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) such as M. abscessus, M. mucogenicum, M. chelonae, and M. fortuitum, implicated in health care-associated infections, are often isolated from potable water supplies as part of the microbial flora. To understand factors that influence growth in their environmental source, clinical RGM and slowly growing MAC isolates were grown as biofilm in a laboratory batch system. High and low nutrient levels were compared, as well as stainless steel and polycarbonate surfaces. Biofilm growth was measured after 72 h of incubation by enumeration of bacteria from disrupted biofilms and by direct quantitative image analysis of biofilm microcolony structure. RGM biofilm development was influenced more by nutrient level than by substrate material, though both affected biofilm growth for most of the isolates tested. Microcolony structure revealed that RGM develop several different biofilm structures under high-nutrient growth conditions, including pillars of various shapes (M. abscessus and M. fortuitum) and extensive cording (M. abscessus and M. chelonae). Although it is a slowly growing species in the laboratory, a clinical isolate of M. avium developed more culturable biofilm in potable water in 72 h than any of the 10 RGM examined. This indicates that M. avium is better adapted for growth in potable water systems than in laboratory incubation conditions and suggests some advantage that MAC has over RGM in low-nutrient environments. PMID:19201956

  20. Airborne observations of electric fields around growing and decaying cumulus clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giori, K. L.; Nanevicz, J. E.

    1991-01-01

    Airborne electric field data were gathered in an atmospheric electrification study near Cape Canaveral, FL. A Learjet 36A was instrumented with eight electric field meters (mills) and five different particle probes. The local electric field enhancements at each field mill site were determined under lab conditions and verified using in-flight data. The overdetermined system of eight equations (one for each field mill) was solved using a weighted least squares algorithm to compute the magnitude and direction of the ambient electric field. The signal processing system allowed the measured data to be expressed in terms of earth coordinates, regardless of the attitude of the aircraft. Thus, it was possible to take maximum advantage of the Learjet's speed and maneuverability in studying the electric field structure in the vicinity of the clouds. Data gathered while circling just outside the boundary of a growing cumulus cloud show a nonsymmetric pattern of electric field strength. Field intensity grew rapidly over a period of less than 10 minutes. The observed direction of the ambient electric field vector can be explained by an ascending motion of the charge centers of a classic tripole model of a thunderstorm.

  1. Nuclear oncology, a fast growing field of nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivier, Pierre

    2004-07-01

    Nuclear Medicine in oncology has been for a long time synonymous with bone scintigraphy, the first ever whole body imaging modality, and with treatment of thyroid cancer with iodine-131. More recently, somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) using peptides such as 111In-labelled octreotide became a reference imaging method in the detection and staging of neuroendocrine tumors while 131I- and 123I-MIBG remain the tracers of reference for pheochromocytomas and neuroblastomas. Lymphoscintigraphic imaging based on peritumoral injection of 99mTc-labelled colloids supports, in combination with per operative detection, the procedure of sentinel node identification in breast cancers and melanomas. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is currently experiencing a considerable growth in oncology based on the use of 18F-FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose), a very sensitive, although non-specific, tumor tracer. Development of instrumentation is crucial in this expansion of PET imaging with new crystals being more sensitive and hybrid imagers that permit to reduce the acquisition time and offer fused PET-CT images. Current developments in therapy can be classified into three categories. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) based on monoclonal antibodies (or fragments) labelled with beta-emitters. This technique has recently made its entrance in clinical practice with a 90Y-labelled anti-CD20 antibody ( 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin ®)) approved in US for the treatment of some subtypes of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Radionuclide-bone pain palliation has experienced developments with 153Sm-EDTMP, 186Re-HEDP or 89Sr, efficient in patients with widespread disease. Last, the same peptides, as those used in SRS, are being developed for therapy, labelled with 90Y, 111In or 177Lu in patients who failed to respond to other treatments. Overall, nuclear oncology is currently a fast growing field thanks to the combined developments of radiopharmaceuticals and instrumentation.

  2. Rapid field application of hydraulic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauchler, R.; Hu, R.; Hu, L.; Parras, S. J.; Bayer, P.; Dietrich, P.; Ptak, T.

    2013-12-01

    The motivation of this field study is the need for investigation methods that are both rapid and well suited for resolving the spatial distribution of hydraulic properties in aquifers. Therefore, we propose a field strategy for hydraulic tomography that can be analyzed and performed with a similar speed as direct-push profiling. The field implementation is designed in a way that a suite of tomographic measurements can be recorded in one day. We utilize direct-push technology for the well installation and limit the pumping time to 300 s, which permits us to record 30 transient pressure response curves between two wells in one working day. For the inversion, we applied a computationally efficient inversion scheme which is based on the transformation of the ground water flow equation into a form of the eikonal equation. By exploiting the early part of a transient hydraulic pressure response recorded during cross-well tests only short-term pumping tests are required. The main advantages of the inversion scheme are the low computational requirements of eikonal solvers and that no information about the hydraulic boundaries is needed. The short pumping time in combination with the straightforward inversion technique allows for the reconstruction of hydraulic conductivity and specific storage distributions already in the field, which is particularly useful for an adaptive site investigation approach. Additionally, direct-push injection logging is performed at the field site, and the obtained field data is utilized for successful validation of the hydraulic tomograms. We also compare both methods with respect to the necessary requirements, time demand in the field and complexity of interpretation.

  3. The CUE Domain of Cue1 Aligns Growing Ubiquitin Chains with Ubc7 for Rapid Elongation.

    PubMed

    von Delbrück, Maximilian; Kniss, Andreas; Rogov, Vladimir V; Pluska, Lukas; Bagola, Katrin; Löhr, Frank; Güntert, Peter; Sommer, Thomas; Dötsch, Volker

    2016-06-16

    Ubiquitin conjugation is an essential process modulating protein function in eukaryotic cells. Surprisingly, little is known about how the progressive assembly of ubiquitin chains is managed by the responsible enzymes. Only recently has ubiquitin binding activity emerged as an important factor in chain formation. The Ubc7 activator Cue1 carries a ubiquitin binding CUE domain that substantially stimulates K48-linked polyubiquitination mediated by Ubc7. Our results from NMR-based analysis and in vitro ubiquitination reactions point out that two parameters accelerate ubiquitin chain assembly: the increasing number of CUE binding sites and the position of CUE binding within a growing chain. In particular, interactions with a ubiquitin moiety adjacent to the acceptor ubiquitin facilitate chain elongation. These data indicate a mechanism for ubiquitin binding in which Cue1 positions Ubc7 and the distal acceptor ubiquitin for rapid polyubiquitination. Disrupting this mechanism results in dysfunction of the ERAD pathway by a delayed turnover of substrates. PMID:27264873

  4. Patient Report and Review of Rapidly Growing Mycobacterial Infection after Cardiac Device Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Hirsh, David S.; Goswami, Neela D.

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterial infections resulting from cardiac implantable electronic devices are rare, but as more devices are implanted, these organisms are increasingly emerging as causes of early-onset infections. We report a patient with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator pocket and associated bloodstream infection caused by an organism of the Mycobacterium fortuitum group, and we review the literature regarding mycobacterial infections resulting from cardiac device implantations. Thirty-two such infections have been previously described; most (70%) were caused by rapidly growing species, of which M. fortuitum group species were predominant. When managing such infections, clinicians should consider the potential need for extended incubation of routine cultures or dedicated mycobacterial cultures for accurate diagnosis; combination antimicrobial drug therapy, even for isolates that appear to be macrolide susceptible, because of the potential for inducible resistance to this drug class; and the arrhythmogenicity of the antimicrobial drugs traditionally recommended for infections caused by these organisms. PMID:26890060

  5. Giant nodular pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) of the breast presenting as a rapidly growing tumour.

    PubMed

    Mezzabotta, Maurizio; Riccardi, Silvia; Bonvini, Simona; Declich, Paolo; Tavani, Enrico; Morandi, Eugenio

    2009-01-01

    Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) is often a microscopic incidental finding in breast biopsies performed for benign or malignant diseases. In rare cases, it presents as a localised breast mass. Since Vuitch et al first described this condition in 1986, only 109 cases of PASH presenting as a palpable or mammographically detectable mass have been documented. PASH is characterised by a dense, collagenous proliferation of mammary stroma, forming inter-anastomosing capillary-like spaces. It is important to distinguish this benign lesion from a low-grade angiosarcoma. Here we describe the clinical, radiological and histological features of a very unusual case of PASH that presented as a rapidly growing breast lesion in a 37-year old woman. PMID:19694241

  6. A rapid and sensitive fluorometric microassay for determining cell mediated cytotoxicity to adherent growing cell lines.

    PubMed

    Krüger-Krasagakes, S; Garbe, C; Kossman, P; Orfanos, C E

    1992-11-25

    In order to measure cell mediated cytotoxicity to adherent growing cell lines in vitro more rapidly and conveniently, a fluorometric microassay was developed and results were compared with those obtained by the 51Cr release assay. The fluorometric method is based on the hydrolysis of the fluorochrome 4-methylumbelliferyl heptanoate (MUH) by intracellular esterases of viable cells. Melanoma cell monolayers were incubated with lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cells for 4 h at various effector: target (E:T) cell ratios (E:T = 16, 8, 4, 2:1). Thereafter surviving adherent melanoma cells were stained with MUH for 30 min and fluorescence was measured directly in a 96 well plate reader. For the calculation of LAK cell cytotoxicity fluorescence values were corrected for the number of nonspecifically detached tumor cells during the washes and the number of nonspecifically adherent LAK cells. Using identical target and effector cell preparations both assays showed a nearly proportional increase of percentage cytotoxicity with rising numbers of lymphocytes. Compared with the 51Cr release assay, however, higher cytotoxicity values were obtained with the fluorometric MUH microassay: 57% with MUH versus 26% with 51Cr and 39% versus 14% for cell lines StML-11 and SKMel-28, respectively (E:T ratio = 16:1). The higher cytotoxicity rates obtained with the fluorometric MUH microassay were not due to the additional 30 min staining with MUH or due to nonspecific hydrolysis of MUH by extracellular esterases released from damaged cells, as could be shown by a series of experiments. In conclusion, a simple and rapid fluorometric microassay has been developed showing reliable reproducibility and a higher sensitivity compared with the 51Cr release assay for the determination of cellular cytotoxicity to adherent growing cell lines, avoiding hazardous radioactive labels. PMID:1431156

  7. Night Temperature has a Minimal Effect on Respiration and Growth in Rapidly Growing Plants

    PubMed Central

    FRANTZ, JONATHAN M.; COMETTI, NILTON N.; BUGBEE, BRUCE

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Carbon gain depends on efficient photosynthesis and adequate respiration. The effect of temperature on photosynthetic efficiency is well understood. In contrast, the temperature response of respiration is based almost entirely on short‐term (hours) measurements in mature organisms to develop Q10 values for maintenance and whole‐plant respiration. These Q10 values are then used to extrapolate across whole life cycles to predict the influence of temperature on plant growth. • Methods In this study, night temperature in young, rapidly growing plant communities was altered from 17 to 34 °C for up to 20 d. Day temperature was maintained at 25 °C. CO2 gas‐exchange was continuously monitored in ten separate chambers to quantify the effect of night‐temperature on respiration, photosynthesis and the efficiency of carbon gain (carbon use efficiency). • Key Results Respiration increased only 20–46 % for each 10 °C rise in temperature (total respiratory Q10 of between 1·2 to about 1·5). This change resulted in only a 2–12 % change in carbon use efficiency, and there was no effect on cumulative carbon gain or dry mass. No acclimation of respiration was observed after 20 d of treatment. • Conclusions These findings indicate that whole‐plant respiration of rapidly growing plants has a small sensitivity to temperature, and that the sensitivity does not change among the species tested, even after 20 d of treatment. Finally, the results support respiration models that separate respiration into growth and maintenance components. PMID:15159217

  8. Rapid urbanization and the growing threat of violence and conflict: a 21st century crisis.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ronak B; Burkle, Frederick M

    2012-04-01

    As the global population is concentrated into complex environments, rapid urbanization increases the threat of conflict and insecurity. Many fast-growing cities create conditions of significant disparities in standards of living, which set up a natural environment for conflict over resources. As urban slums become a haven for criminal elements, youth gangs, and the arms trade, they also create insecurity for much of the population. Specific populations, such as women, migrants, and refugees, bear the brunt of this lack of security, with significant impacts on their livelihoods, health, and access to basic services. This lack of security and violence also has great costs to the general population, both economic and social. Cities have increasingly become the battlefield of recent conflicts as they serve as the seats of power and gateways to resources. International agencies, non-governmental organizations, and policy-makers must act to stem this tide of growing urban insecurity. Protecting urban populations and preventing future conflict will require better urban planning, investment in livelihood programs for youth, cooperation with local communities, enhanced policing, and strengthening the capacity of judicial systems. PMID:22591767

  9. Cathepsin K inhibitors increase distal femoral bone mineral density in rapidly growing rabbits

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Selective and reversible inhibitors of human Cathepsin K (CatK), including odanacatib (ODN), have been developed as potential therapeutics for the treatment of osteoporosis. Inhibitors of human CatK show significantly less potency for the rodent enzymes compared with that for the human or rabbit enzymes; thus the Schenk model in growing rabbit was developed as a screening assay for the in vivo activity of CatK inhibitors in blocking bone resorption. Methods In this study, the efficacy of the selective inhibitors L-833905, L-006235, L-873724, and L-1037536 (ODN) of human CatK in the rapidly growing rabbit ‘Schenk’ model (age seven weeks) was compared to vehicle, using the bisphosphonate, alendronate (ALN), as a positive control, to assess inhibition of bone resorption. An enzyme inhibition assay (EIA) and an in vitro bone resorption assay using rabbit osteoclasts on bovine cortical bone slices were performed to evaluate the potency of these CatK inhibitors. Bone mineral density of the distal femur (DFBMD) was measured after ten days of treatment using ex vivo DXA densitometry. Results Results of the EIA using rabbit CatK and the rabbit bone resorption assay showed that three of the four compounds (L-006235, L-873724, and ODN) had similar potencies in the reduction of collagen degradation. L-833905 appeared to be a weaker inhibitor of CatK. Taking into account the respective in vitro potencies and pharmacokinetic profiles via oral administration, the efficacy of these four CatK inhibitors was demonstrated in a dose-related manner in the growing rabbit. Significant increases in DFBMD in animals dosed with the CatK inhibitors compared to vehicle were seen. Conclusions Efficacy of the CatK inhibitors in the Schenk rabbit correlated well with that in the in vitro rabbit bone resorption assay and in the ovariectomized rabbit model as previously published. Hence, these studies validated the rabbit Schenk assay as a rapid and reliable in vivo model for

  10. Rapidly growing tropical trees mobilize remarkable amounts of nitrogen, in ways that differ surprisingly among species

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Ann E.; Raich, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Fast-growing forests such as tropical secondary forests can accumulate large amounts of carbon (C), and thereby play an important role in the atmospheric CO2 balance. Because nitrogen (N) cycling is inextricably linked with C cycling, the question becomes: Where does the N come from to match high rates of C accumulation? In unique experimental 16-y-old plantations established in abandoned pasture in lowland Costa Rica, we used a mass-balance approach to quantify N accumulation in vegetation, identify sources of N, and evaluate differences among tree species in N cycling. The replicated design contained four broad-leaved evergreen tree species growing under similar environmental conditions. Nitrogen uptake was rapid, reaching 409 (±30) kg⋅ha−1⋅y−1, double the rate reported from a Puerto Rican forest and greater than four times that observed at Hubbard Brook Forest (New Hampshire, USA). Nitrogen amassed in vegetation was 874 (±176) kg⋅ha−1, whereas net losses of soil N (0–100 cm) varied from 217 (±146) to 3,354 (±915) kg⋅ha−1 (P = 0.018) over 16 y. Soil C:N, δ13C values, and N budgets indicated that soil was the main source of biomass N. In Vochysia guatemalensis, however, N fixation contributed >60 kg⋅ha−1⋅y−1. All species apparently promoted soil N turnover, such that the soil N mean residence time was 32–54 y, an order of magnitude lower than the global mean. High rates of N uptake were associated with substantial N losses in three of the species, in which an average of 1.6 g N was lost for every gram of N accumulated in biomass. PMID:22689942

  11. The spatial biology of transcription and translation in rapidly growing Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Bakshi, Somenath; Choi, Heejun; Weisshaar, James C.

    2015-01-01

    Single-molecule fluorescence provides high resolution spatial distributions of ribosomes and RNA polymerase (RNAP) in live, rapidly growing Escherichia coli. Ribosomes are more strongly segregated from the nucleoids (chromosomal DNA) than previous widefield fluorescence studies suggested. While most transcription may be co-translational, the evidence indicates that most translation occurs on free mRNA copies that have diffused from the nucleoids to a ribosome-rich region. Analysis of time-resolved images of the nucleoid spatial distribution after treatment with the transcription-halting drug rifampicin and the translation-halting drug chloramphenicol shows that both drugs cause nucleoid contraction on the 0–3 min timescale. This is consistent with the transertion hypothesis. We suggest that the longer-term (20–30 min) nucleoid expansion after Rif treatment arises from conversion of 70S-polysomes to 30S and 50S subunits, which readily penetrate the nucleoids. Monte Carlo simulations of a polymer bead model built to mimic the chromosomal DNA and ribosomes (either 70S-polysomes or 30S and 50S subunits) explain spatial segregation or mixing of ribosomes and nucleoids in terms of excluded volume and entropic effects alone. A comprehensive model of the transcription-translation-transertion system incorporates this new information about the spatial organization of the E. coli cytoplasm. We propose that transertion, which radially expands the nucleoids, is essential for recycling of 30S and 50S subunits from ribosome-rich regions back into the nucleoids. There they initiate co-transcriptional translation, which is an important mechanism for maintaining RNAP forward progress and protecting the nascent mRNA chain. Segregation of 70S-polysomes from the nucleoid may facilitate rapid growth by shortening the search time for ribosomes to find free mRNA concentrated outside the nucleoid and the search time for RNAP concentrated within the nucleoid to find transcription

  12. Rapidly growing giant cell tumor of bone in a skeletally immature girl.

    PubMed

    Akaike, Gensuke; Ueno, Teruko; Matsumoto, Seiichi; Motoi, Noriko; Matsueda, Kiyoshi

    2016-04-01

    Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) in skeletally immature patients is rare, and little is known regarding how fast GCTB can grow. We report a case of a 10-year-old skeletally immature girl with pathologically proven GCTB with obvious growth plate invasion that showed surprisingly rapid growth over only 14 days. A radiograph of the left knee revealed well-circumscribed, geographic bone destruction at the distal metaphysis of the femur with a focal cortical defect, suggesting a pathologic fracture. No abnormal mineralization or periosteal reaction was seen. A CT without contrast and an MRI demonstrated a homogeneous lesion with cortical disruption posteriorly and laterally with a slight soft tissue extension. Biopsy showed numerous multinucleated giant cells and spindle-shaped mononuclear cells without any sign of malignancy, suggesting GCTB. However, rapid lesion enlargement and destruction of the surrounding cortex were noted 14 days after biopsy. Considering the amount of bone destruction, traditional treatment of curettage and bone cement would not suffice to sustain structural strength. In addition, considering the patient's age, the tumor location, and the aggressive course, a malignant tumor, especially a giant cell-rich osteosarcoma, could not be excluded. Therefore, en bloc resection, including the growth plate and prosthetic replacement, were performed. Confirmation of GCTB was made from a pathologic evaluation, and a breach to the growth plate was identified. Since very little inflammatory reaction, degenerative change, or aneurysmal, bone, cyst-like change was found, the growth plate invasion was confirmed as due to GCTB extension, not due to the preoperative biopsy. PMID:26585568

  13. Drug Susceptibility Testing of 31 Antimicrobial Agents on Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria Isolates from China

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Hui; Li, Guilian; Zhao, Xiuqin; Liu, Haican; Wan, Kanglin; Yu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Several species of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are now recognized as human pathogens. However, limited data on effective drug treatments against these organisms exists. Here, we describe the species distribution and drug susceptibility profiles of RGM clinical isolates collected from four southern Chinese provinces from January 2005 to December 2012. Methods. Clinical isolates (73) were subjected to in vitro testing with 31 antimicrobial agents using the cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth microdilution method. The isolates included 55 M. abscessus, 11 M. fortuitum, 3 M. chelonae, 2 M. neoaurum, and 2 M. septicum isolates. Results. M. abscessus (75.34%) and M. fortuitum (15.07%), the most common species, exhibited greater antibiotic resistance than the other three species. The isolates had low resistance to amikacin, linezolid, and tigecycline, and high resistance to first-line antituberculous agents, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, rifapentine, dapsone, thioacetazone, and pasiniazid. M. abscessus and M. fortuitum were highly resistant to ofloxacin and rifabutin, respectively. The isolates showed moderate resistance to the other antimicrobial agents. Conclusions. Our results suggest that tigecycline, linezolid, clofazimine, and cefmetazole are appropriate choices for M. abscessus infections. Capreomycin, sulfamethoxazole, tigecycline, clofazimine, and cefmetazole are potentially good choices for M. fortuitum infections. Our drug susceptibility data should be useful to clinicians. PMID:26351633

  14. Clinical and taxonomic status of pathogenic nonpigmented or late-pigmenting rapidly growing mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Wallace, Richard J

    2002-10-01

    The history, taxonomy, geographic distribution, clinical disease, and therapy of the pathogenic nonpigmented or late-pigmenting rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are reviewed. Community-acquired disease and health care-associated disease are highlighted for each species. The latter grouping includes health care-associated outbreaks and pseudo-outbreaks as well as sporadic disease cases. Treatment recommendations for each species and type of disease are also described. Special emphasis is on the Mycobacterium fortuitum group, including M. fortuitum, M. peregrinum, and the unnamed third biovariant complex with its recent taxonomic changes and newly recognized species (including M. septicum, M. mageritense, and proposed species M. houstonense and M. bonickei). The clinical and taxonomic status of M. chelonae, M. abscessus, and M. mucogenicum is also detailed, along with that of the closely related new species, M. immunogenum. Additionally, newly recognized species, M. wolinskyi and M. goodii, as well as M. smegmatis sensu stricto, are included in a discussion of the M. smegmatis group. Laboratory diagnosis of RGM using phenotypic methods such as biochemical testing and high-performance liquid chromatography and molecular methods of diagnosis are also discussed. The latter includes PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, hybridization, ribotyping, and sequence analysis. Susceptibility testing and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of the RGM are also annotated, along with the current recommendations from the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) for mycobacterial susceptibility testing. PMID:12364376

  15. In vitro drug susceptibility of 40 international reference rapidly growing mycobacteria to 20 antimicrobial agents

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Hui; Li, Guilian; Wan, Li; Jiang, Yi; Liu, Haican; Zhao, Xiuqin; Zhao, Zhongfu; Wan, Kanglin

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are human pathogens that are relatively easily identified by acid-fast staining but are proving difficult to treat in the clinic. In this study, we performed susceptibility testing of 40 international reference RGM species against 20 antimicrobial agents using the cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton (CAMH) broth microdilution based on the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay recommended by the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The results demonstrated that RGM organisms were resistant to the majority of first-line antituberculous agents but not to second-line fluoroquinolones or aminoglycosides. Three drugs (amikacin, tigecycline and linezolid) displayed potent antimycobacterial activity against all tested strains. Capreomycin, levofloxacin and moxifloxacin emerged as promising candidates for the treatment of RGM infections, and cefoxitin and meropenem were active against most strains. Mycobacterium chelonae (M. chelonae), M. abscessus, M. bolletii, M. fortuitum, M. boenickei, M. conceptionense, M. pseudoshottsii, M. septicum and M. setense were the most resistant RGM species. These results provide significant insight into the treatment of RGM species and will assist optimization of clinical criteria. PMID:26629031

  16. Clinical and Taxonomic Status of Pathogenic Nonpigmented or Late-Pigmenting Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Brown-Elliott, Barbara A.; Wallace, Richard J.

    2002-01-01

    The history, taxonomy, geographic distribution, clinical disease, and therapy of the pathogenic nonpigmented or late-pigmenting rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are reviewed. Community-acquired disease and health care-associated disease are highlighted for each species. The latter grouping includes health care-associated outbreaks and pseudo-outbreaks as well as sporadic disease cases. Treatment recommendations for each species and type of disease are also described. Special emphasis is on the Mycobacterium fortuitum group, including M. fortuitum, M. peregrinum, and the unnamed third biovariant complex with its recent taxonomic changes and newly recognized species (including M. septicum, M. mageritense, and proposed species M. houstonense and M. bonickei). The clinical and taxonomic status of M. chelonae, M. abscessus, and M. mucogenicum is also detailed, along with that of the closely related new species, M. immunogenum. Additionally, newly recognized species, M. wolinskyi and M. goodii, as well as M. smegmatis sensu stricto, are included in a discussion of the M. smegmatis group. Laboratory diagnosis of RGM using phenotypic methods such as biochemical testing and high-performance liquid chromatography and molecular methods of diagnosis are also discussed. The latter includes PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, hybridization, ribotyping, and sequence analysis. Susceptibility testing and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of the RGM are also annotated, along with the current recommendations from the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) for mycobacterial susceptibility testing. PMID:12364376

  17. Mushroom growing project at the Los Humeros, Mexico geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Rangel, M.E.R.

    1998-12-01

    There are several projects of direct (non-electrical) use of geothermal energy in Mexico. Personnel of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) have experience in various of these projects, like drying of timber and fruits, space heating, food processing, etc. Taking this in consideration, CFE built the Los Humeros mushroom plant using for heat source the geothermal steam from Well H-1. The main purpose of the project was to take advantage of residual geothermal energy in a food production operation and to develop the appropriate technology. In 1992, existing installations were renovated, preparing appropriate areas for pasteurization, inoculation and production. The mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus var. florida and columbinus was used. A year later, CFE proposed the construction of improved facilities for growing edible mushrooms. New materials and equipment, as well as different operation conditions, were proposed on the basis of the experience gained in the initial project. The construction and renovation activities were completed in 1994.

  18. Mercuric reductase activity and evidence of broad-spectrum mercury resistance among clinical isolates of rapidly growing mycobacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Steingrube, V.A.; Wallace, R.J. Jr.; Steele, L.C.; Pang, Y.J. )

    1991-05-01

    Resistance to mercury was evaluated in 356 rapidly growing mycobacteria belonging to eight taxonomic groups. Resistance to inorganic Hg2+ ranged from 0% among the unnamed third biovariant complex of Mycobacterium fortuitum to 83% among M. chelonae-like organisms. With cell extracts and 203Hg(NO3)2 as the substrate, mercuric reductase (HgRe) activity was demonstrable in six of eight taxonomic groups. HgRe activity was inducible and required NADPH or NADH and a thiol donor for optimai activity. Species with HgRe activity were also resistant to organomercurial compounds, including phenylmercuric acetate. Attempts at intraspecies and intragenus transfer of HgRe activity by conjugation or transformation were unsuccessful. Mercury resistance is common in rapidly growing mycobacteria and appears to function via the same inducible enzyme systems already defined in other bacterial species. This system offers potential as a strain marker for epidemiologic investigations and for studying genetic systems in rapidly growing mycobacteria.

  19. Susceptibility of rapidly growing mycobacteria and Nocardia isolates from cats and dogs to pradofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Govendir, M; Norris, J M; Hansen, T; Wigney, D I; Muscatello, G; Trott, D J; Malik, R

    2011-12-15

    Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) and Nocardiae can cause severe or refractory infections in cats and dogs. Prolonged antibacterial therapy is required to cure these infections. As fluoroquinolones have been used in combination therapy for treating RGM infections, isolates from the Mycobacterium smegmatis cluster (n=64), Mycobacterium fortuitum cluster (n=17), and M. mageritense cluster (n=2), collected from feline and canine patients, underwent susceptibility testing to pradofloxacin. The MIC(50), MIC(90) and tentative epidemiological cut-off (ECOFF) values as determined by microbroth dilution susceptibility testing that inhibited growth of the M. smegmatis and M. fortuitum clusters were 0.063, 0.125 and ≤ 0.25; and 0.125, 0.250 and ≤ 1.0 μg/mL, respectively. E-Test results showed similar trends but MICs were lower than those for microbroth dilution. In summary, pradofloxacin demonstrated effective in vitro activity against RGM isolates. Additionally, veterinary isolates of Nocardia nova (n=18), Nocardia farcinica (n=3) and Nocardia cyriacigeorgica (n=1) underwent microbroth dilution testing to ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin and pradofloxacin. The MIC(50) and MIC(90) of pradofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin that inhibited growth of Nocardia nova isolates were 2 (4), 8 (16), 16 (32) μg/mL, respectively. The tentative ECOFF values for pradofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were 32 μg/mL and for enrofloxacin 64 μg/mL. The MIC or MIC range for the three N. farcinica isolates of pradofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin were 0.25-0.5, 2 and 2 μg/mL and for the single N. cyriacigeorgica isolate were 1, 4 and 4 μg/mL, respectively. On the basis on these results, fluoroquinolones appear to have limited therapeutic potential for most Nocardia infections. PMID:21726965

  20. Susceptibility of rapidly growing mycobacteria isolated from cats and dogs, to ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin and moxifloxacin.

    PubMed

    Govendir, M; Hansen, T; Kimble, B; Norris, J M; Baral, R M; Wigney, D I; Gottlieb, S; Malik, R

    2011-01-10

    Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) cause infections in cats and dogs which require prolonged antibacterial medication for resolution. In Australia, pathogens from the Mycobacterium fortuitum and Mycobacterium smegmatis clusters are responsible for most of the RGM infections in cats and dogs. As fluoroquinolones are often recommended for treating such infections, 14 M. fortuitum isolates, 51 isolates from the M. smegmatis cluster and 2 M. mageritense isolates, collected from feline and canine patients, underwent susceptibility testing to the second generation fluoroquinolones ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin and the newer generation fluoroquinolone moxifloxacin. Using microbroth dilution, the MIC(90) of ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, and moxifloxacin that inhibited growth of M. fortuitum isolates were 0.500, 0.250 and 0.063 μg/mL respectively. For the M. smegmatis cluster isolates the corresponding MIC(90) was 0.500, 0.250 and 0.125 μg/mL respectively. E-test results showed similar trends but MICs were lower than those determined by microbroth dilution. Additionally, moxifloxacin was administered to 10 clinically normal cats (50mg per cat, once daily for 4 days). The plasma moxifloxacin concentration 2h after the last dose was determined by liquid chromatography as 2.2 ± 0.6 μg/mL. The plasma concentration at 2h:MIC(90) ratios for moxifloxacin for M. fortuitum and M. smegmatis cluster was 34.9 and 17.6 respectively which exceeded the recommended threshold of 10, indicating that moxifloxacin has good theoretical efficacy for treatment of those M. fortuitum and M. smegmatis infections in cats and dogs that have become refractory to other antibacterial drug classes. PMID:20619975

  1. Infections Caused by Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria spp in Children and Adolescents With Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Apiwattankul, Nopporn; Flynn, Patricia M.; Hayden, Randall T.; Adderson, Elisabeth E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) infections in pediatric oncology patients have not been completely characterized. Methods We reviewed medical records of oncology patients at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital (St. Jude) from 1990 to 2010 with RGM infections and summarized the results of previously published cases. Results Twenty-five St. Jude patients had 27 episodes of infection. Approximately half of the cases occurred in patients with hematological malignancies and in males; infections were more common in white patients. Most patients were not neutropenic or lymphopenic. The most common causative species were Mycobacterium chelonae, Mycobacterium abscessus, and Mycobacterium fortuitum. Most isolates were susceptible to amikacin and clarithromycin; all were susceptible to at least 1 of these. Treatment regimens varied considerably, particularly with respect to the duration of antimicrobial chemotherapy. Two St. Jude patients died; both had pulmonary infections. The literature search identified an additional 58 cases of infection. Localized catheter-associated infections were more common than bloodstream infections in the current series than in previous reports, and outbreaks were not recognized. Otherwise, the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients were similar. Conclusions Localized catheter-associated infections were most common in this largest reported single center experience reported to date. Pulmonary infection is uncommon in children but, as in adults, has a high mortality rate. Relatively short-term antimicrobial treatment and surgical debridement of infected tissue, if present, may be as effective for catheter-associated infections as prolonged antimicrobial use and may reduce adverse drug effects in these patients, who are vulnerable to drug-drug interactions and toxicity. PMID:26407409

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium chelonae Type Strain CCUG 47445, a Rapidly Growing Species of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Jaén-Luchoro, Daniel; Salvà-Serra, Francisco; Aliaga-Lozano, Francisco; Seguí, Carolina; Busquets, Antonio; Ramírez, Antonio; Ruíz, Mikel; Gomila, Margarita; Lalucat, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium chelonae strains are ubiquitous rapidly growing mycobacteria associated with skin and soft tissue infections, cellulitis, abscesses, osteomyelitis, catheter infections, disseminated diseases, and postsurgical infections after implants with prostheses, transplants, and even hemodialysis procedures. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of M. chelonae type strain CCUG 47445. PMID:27284158

  3. Rapidly Growing Brtl/+ Mouse Model of Osteogenesis Imperfecta Improves Bone Mass and Strength with Sclerostin Antibody Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sinder, Benjamin P.; Salemi, Joseph D.; Ominsky, Michael S.; Caird, Michelle S.; Marini, Joan C.; Kozloff, Kenneth M.

    2014-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heritable collagen-related bone dysplasia, characterized by brittle bones with increased fracture risk that presents most severely in children. Anti-resorptive bisphosphonates are frequently used to treat pediatric OI and controlled clinical trials have shown bisphosphonate therapy improves vertebral outcomes but has little benefit on long bone fracture rate. New treatments which increase bone mass throughout the pediatric OI skeleton would be beneficial. Sclerostin antibody (Scl-Ab) is a potential candidate anabolic therapy for pediatric OI and functions by stimulating osteoblastic bone formation via the canonical wnt signaling pathway. To explore the effect of Scl-Ab on the rapidly growing OI skeleton, we treated rapidly growing 3 week old Brtl/+ mice, harboring a typical heterozygous OI-causing Gly->Cys substitution on col1a1, for 5 weeks with Scl-Ab. Scl-Ab had anabolic effects in Brtl/+ and led to new cortical bone formation and increased cortical bone mass. This anabolic action resulted in improved mechanical strength to WT Veh levels without altering the underlying brittle nature of the material. While Scl-Ab was anabolic in trabecular bone of the distal femur in both genotypes, the effect was less strong in these rapidly growing Brtl/+ mice compared to WT. In conclusion, Scl-Ab was able to stimulate bone formation in a rapidly growing Brtl/+ murine model of OI, and represents a potential new therapy to improve bone mass and reduce fracture risk in pediatric OI. PMID:25445450

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium chelonae Type Strain CCUG 47445, a Rapidly Growing Species of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Jaén-Luchoro, Daniel; Salvà-Serra, Francisco; Aliaga-Lozano, Francisco; Seguí, Carolina; Busquets, Antonio; Ramírez, Antonio; Ruíz, Mikel; Gomila, Margarita; Lalucat, Jorge; Bennasar-Figueras, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium chelonae strains are ubiquitous rapidly growing mycobacteria associated with skin and soft tissue infections, cellulitis, abscesses, osteomyelitis, catheter infections, disseminated diseases, and postsurgical infections after implants with prostheses, transplants, and even hemodialysis procedures. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of M. chelonae type strain CCUG 47445. PMID:27284158

  5. Cancer chemoprevention: a rapidly evolving field

    PubMed Central

    Steward, W P; Brown, K

    2013-01-01

    Cancer chemoprevention involves the chronic administration of a synthetic, natural or biological agent to reduce or delay the occurrence of malignancy. The potential value of this approach has been demonstrated with trials in breast, prostate and colon cancer. The paradigm for developing new chemopreventive agents has changed markedly in the last decade and now involves extensive preclinical mechanistic evaluation of agents before clinical trials are instituted and a focus on defining biomarkers of activity that can be used as early predictors of efficacy. This review will summarise the current status of the field of chemoprevention and highlight potential new developments. PMID:23736035

  6. Rapid alignment of velocity and magnetic field in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.

    PubMed

    Matthaeus, W H; Pouquet, A; Mininni, P D; Dmitruk, P; Breech, B

    2008-02-29

    We show that local directional alignment of the velocity and magnetic field fluctuations occurs rapidly in magnetohydrodynamics for a variety of parameters and is seen both in direct numerical simulations and in solar wind data. The phenomenon is due to an alignment between magnetic field and gradients of either pressure or kinetic energy, and is similar to alignment of velocity and vorticity in Navier-Stokes turbulence. This rapid and robust relaxation process leads to a local weakening of nonlinear terms. PMID:18352632

  7. Rapidly growing gastric metastasis of Merkel cell carcinoma, an unusual cause of melena.

    PubMed

    Hulstaert, Eva; Smith, Vanessa; Mielants, Herman; Van Praet, Louis; De Kock, Joris; Lambrecht, Valérie; Rasschaert, Gertjan; Van Belle, Simon

    2016-08-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an uncommon, highly aggressive neuroendocrine skin carcinoma that has a tendency for local recurrence and metastatic disease. We report a rare case of recurrent melena in a 77-year-old Caucasian male. Three years earlier, the patient had undergone a radical resection of a para-umbilical MCC. A repeat esophagogastroduodenoscopy proved necessary to identify rapidly proliferating gastric metastasis of MCC as the cause of bleeding. PMID:27075789

  8. Evaluation of transit systems for a rapidly growing city in a developing country

    SciTech Connect

    Odunmbaku, A.O.

    1988-01-01

    This study analyzes trends and policies regarding developments of public and private transport in large cities of developing countries. The importance of public transport is extremely great because of their large low-income populations. It is found that improved public transport is the basic component of any solution for improvement of mobility and reduction of congestion and chaotic traffic conditions. Most cities cannot afford to build a road network required to accommodate unrestrained travel by private automobiles. Considerable economies and improved services can be achieved by better organization of present buses and jitneys, but the modes cannot by themselves provide either required high capacities or improved levels of service in major, heavily travelled corridors in large cities of developing countries. Instead of simply transplanting standard rapid-transit systems from developed countries, developing countries must select their systems with a careful analysis of their specific physical, economic and social conditions. A comprehensive methodology for selection of transit modes is developed with special attention to the needs of these countries. In many cases, light-rail transit can achieve performance close to that of rapid transit at a lower cost.

  9. [Stent graft for rapidly growing thoracic mycotic aneurysm in a patient with advanced lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Ikeuchi, Masaki; Ando, Makoto; Hisano, Kumi; Nakamura, Ryo; Urabe, Yoshitoshi; Uchida, Takayuki

    2015-02-01

    We report a compromised patient with mycotic aneurysm, who was successfully treated by urgent placement of a stent graft. A man in his seventies was admitted to our hospital with relapsing high fever and back pain during chemotherapy for advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. Contrast CT demonstrated a saccular aneurysm of the thoracic aorta and left pleural effusion. Blood cultures were positive for Escherichia coli producing extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL). Therefore, thoracic mycotic aneurysm was diagnosed. Because of rapid growth on consecutive examinations, absolute bed rest was required. Therefore, we performed antibiotic therapy combined with stent graft placement, which achieved complete exclusion of the aneurysm. He was discharged in an ambulatory state, and his quality of life remained good at home until just before death from terminal state of the cancer. PMID:26021128

  10. Relative in vitro growth rates of duckweeds (Lemnaceae) - the most rapidly growing higher plants.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, P; Adelmann, K; Zimmer, S; Schmidt, C; Appenroth, K-J

    2015-01-01

    Relative growth rates (RGR), doubling times (DT) and relative weekly yields (RY) of 39 clones (ecotypes) from 13 species representing all five genera of duckweeds were determined under standardised cultivation conditions. RGR ranged overall from 0.153 to 0.519 day(-1) , DT from 1.34 to 4.54 days and RY from 2.9 to 37.8 week(-1) . The RGR and RY data can be compared directly to other published findings to only a limited extent on account of missing clonal designations for and limited accessibility to previously investigated clones, as well as the use of different data denominators. However, they are consistent with the published results of other comparative duckweed studies of similar scope in showing that RGR does not vary primarily at the level of the genus or species, but rather reflects the adaptation of individual clones to specific local conditions. The RGR data support the widely held assumption that duckweeds can grow faster than other higher plants and that they can thus surpass land-based agricultural crops in productivity. Duckweeds are highly promising for the production of biomass for nutrition and energy, but extensive clonal comparison will be required to identify the most suitable isolates for this purpose. PMID:24803032

  11. Soft Tissue Infection Caused by Rapid Growing Mycobacterium following Medical Procedures: Two Case Reports and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shih-Sen; Lee, Chin-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Non-tubecrulosis mycobacterium infections were increasingly reported either pulmonary or extrapulmonary in the past decades. In Taiwan, we noticed several reports about the soft tissue infections caused by rapid growing mycobacterium such as Mycobacterium abscessus, Mycobacterium chelonae, on newspaper, magazines, or the multimedia. Most of them occurred after a plastic surgery, and medical or non-medical procedures. Here, we reported two cases of these infections following medical procedures. We also discussed common features and the clinical course of the disease, the characteristics of the infected site, and the treatment strategy. The literatures were also reviewed, and the necessity of the treatment guidelines was discussed. PMID:24882980

  12. Dietary restriction does not adversely affect bone geometry and mechanics in rapidly growing male wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Jennifer; Lamothe, Jeremy M; Zernicke, Ronald F; Auer, Roland N; Reimer, Raylene A

    2005-02-01

    The present study assessed the effects of dietary restriction on tibial and vertebral mechanical and geometrical properties in 2-mo-old male Wistar rats. Two-month-old male Wistar rats were randomized to the ad libitum (n=8) or the 35% diet-restricted (DR) feeding group (n=9) for 5 mo. Tibiae and L6 vertebrae were dissected out for microcomputed tomography (microCT) scanning and subsequently fractured in biomechanical testing to determine geometrical and mechanical properties. The DR group had significantly lower mean tibial length, mass, area, and cross-sectional moment of inertia, as well as vertebral energy to maximal load. After adjustment for body mass, however, DR tibial mean maximal load and stiffness, and DR vertebral area, height, volume, and maximal load were significantly greater, relative to ad libitum means. No significant differences were found between the DR and ad libitum mineral ash fractions. Because the material properties of the tibiae between the two groups were not significantly different, presumably the material integrity of the bones was not adversely affected as a consequence of DR. The similar material characteristics were consistent with mineral ash fractions that were not different between the two groups. Vertebral maximal load and stiffness were not significant between the DR and ad libitum animals. Importantly, we show that a level of dietary restriction (35%) that is less severe than many studies (40%), and without micronutrient compensation does not adversely affect tibial and vertebral mechanical properties in young growing male rats when normalized for body mass. PMID:15585686

  13. Method and apparatus for rapidly growing films on substrates using pulsed supersonic jets

    DOEpatents

    Eres, Diula; Lowndes, Douglas H.

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the rapid and economical deposition of uniform and high quality films upon a substrate for subsequent use in producing electronic devices, for example. The resultant films are either epitaxial (crystalline) or amorphous depending upon the incidence rate and the temperature and structure of the substrate. The deposition is carried out in a chamber maintained at about 10.sup.-6 Torr. A gaseous source of the material for forming the deposit is injected into the deposition chamber in the form of a pulsed supersonic jet so as to obtain a high incidence rate. The supersonic jet is produced by a pulsed valve between a relatively high presure reservoir, containing the source gaseous molecules, and the deposition chamber; the valve has a small nozzle orifice (e.g., 0.1-1.0 mm diameter). The type of deposit (crystalline amorphous) is then dependent upon the temperature and structure of the substrate. Very high deposition rates are achieved, and the deposit is very smooth and of uniform thickness. Typically the deposition rate is about 100 times that of much more expensive conventional molecular beam methods for deposition, and comparable to certain expensive plasma-assisted CVD methods of the art. The high growth rate of this method results in a reduced contamination of the deposit from other elements in the environment. The method is illustrated by the deposition of epitaxial and amorphour germanium films upon GaAs substrates.

  14. Multistate US Outbreak of Rapidly Growing Mycobacterial Infections Associated with Medical Tourism to the Dominican Republic, 2013–20141

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Douglas H.; Gaines, Joanna; Ridpath, Alison; Barry, M. Anita; Feldman, Katherine A.; Mullins, Jocelyn; Burns, Rachel; Ahmad, Nina; Nyangoma, Edith N.; Nguyen, Duc B.; Perz, Joseph F.; Moulton-Meissner, Heather A.; Jensen, Bette J.; Lin, Ying; Posivak-Khouly, Leah; Jani, Nisha; Morgan, Oliver W.; Brunette, Gary W.; Pritchard, P. Scott; Greenbaum, Adena H.; Rhee, Susan M.; Blythe, David; Sotir, Mark

    2016-01-01

    During 2013, the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene in Baltimore, MD, USA, received report of 2 Maryland residents whose surgical sites were infected with rapidly growing mycobacteria after cosmetic procedures at a clinic (clinic A) in the Dominican Republic. A multistate investigation was initiated; a probable case was defined as a surgical site infection unresponsive to therapy in a patient who had undergone cosmetic surgery in the Dominican Republic. We identified 21 case-patients in 6 states who had surgery in 1 of 5 Dominican Republic clinics; 13 (62%) had surgery at clinic A. Isolates from 12 (92%) of those patients were culture-positive for Mycobacterium abscessus complex. Of 9 clinic A case-patients with available data, all required therapeutic surgical intervention, 8 (92%) were hospitalized, and 7 (78%) required ≥3 months of antibacterial drug therapy. Healthcare providers should consider infection with rapidly growing mycobacteria in patients who have surgical site infections unresponsive to standard treatment. PMID:27434822

  15. Multistate US Outbreak of Rapidly Growing Mycobacterial Infections Associated with Medical Tourism to the Dominican Republic, 2013-2014(1).

    PubMed

    Schnabel, David; Esposito, Douglas H; Gaines, Joanna; Ridpath, Alison; Barry, M Anita; Feldman, Katherine A; Mullins, Jocelyn; Burns, Rachel; Ahmad, Nina; Nyangoma, Edith N; Nguyen, Duc B; Perz, Joseph F; Moulton-Meissner, Heather A; Jensen, Bette J; Lin, Ying; Posivak-Khouly, Leah; Jani, Nisha; Morgan, Oliver W; Brunette, Gary W; Pritchard, P Scott; Greenbaum, Adena H; Rhee, Susan M; Blythe, David; Sotir, Mark

    2016-08-01

    During 2013, the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene in Baltimore, MD, USA, received report of 2 Maryland residents whose surgical sites were infected with rapidly growing mycobacteria after cosmetic procedures at a clinic (clinic A) in the Dominican Republic. A multistate investigation was initiated; a probable case was defined as a surgical site infection unresponsive to therapy in a patient who had undergone cosmetic surgery in the Dominican Republic. We identified 21 case-patients in 6 states who had surgery in 1 of 5 Dominican Republic clinics; 13 (62%) had surgery at clinic A. Isolates from 12 (92%) of those patients were culture-positive for Mycobacterium abscessus complex. Of 9 clinic A case-patients with available data, all required therapeutic surgical intervention, 8 (92%) were hospitalized, and 7 (78%) required ≥3 months of antibacterial drug therapy. Healthcare providers should consider infection with rapidly growing mycobacteria in patients who have surgical site infections unresponsive to standard treatment. PMID:27434822

  16. Characteristics of growing media mixes and application for open-field production of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pathogen-free growing media are widely used for strawberry production in protected structures in Europe but not common in the United States. There is a need to investigate the feasibility of producing strawberry fruits in open fields with the pathogen-free media in the U.S. The objective of the stud...

  17. Growing Indian Fig Opuntia on selenium-laden agriculture drainage sediment under field conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growing alternative crops for saline and selenium (Se) impacted lands in arid regions, e.g., Western United States, depends upon the plant’s ability to tolerate the presence of high salts and boron (B). In this field study, we planted 2-month old cacti plants on 30 x 1m beds and evaluated the abilit...

  18. Environmental Field Surveys, EMF Rapid Program, Engineering Project No.3

    SciTech Connect

    Enertech Consultants

    1996-04-01

    The EMF Research and Public Information Dissemination Program (RAPID) includes several engineering research in the area of exposure assessment and source characterization. RAPID engineering project No. 3: ''Environmental Field Surveys'' was performed to obtain information on the levels and characteristics of different environments, for which only limited data were available, especially in comparison to magnetic field data for the residential environment and for electric utility facilities, such as power lines and substations. This project was also to provide information on the contribution of various field sources in the surveyed environments. Magnetic field surveys were performed at four sites for each of five environments: schools, hospitals, office buildings, machine shops, and grocery stores. Of the twenty sites surveyed, 11 were located in the San Francisco Bay Area and 9 in Massachusetts. The surveys used a protocol based on magnetic field measurements and observation of activity patterns, designed to provide estimates of magnetic field exposure by type of people and by type of sources. The magnetic field surveys conducted by this project produced a large amount of data which will form a part of the EMF measurement database Field and exposure data were obtained separately for ''area exposure'' and ''at exposure points''. An exposure point is a location where persons engage in fixed, site specific activities near a local source that creates a significant increase in the area field. The area field is produced by ''area sources'', whose location and field distribution is in general not related to the location of the people in the area.

  19. Prosthetic joint infections secondary to rapidly growing mycobacteria: Two case reports and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Henry, Michael W; Miller, Andy O; Kahn, Barbara; Windsor, Russel E; Brause, Barry D

    2016-06-01

    Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are a rare but treatable cause of prosthetic joint infections. This study reports on two patients comprising three prosthetic joint infections caused by RGM successfully treated at the institution. With removal of the infected prosthetic joint and judicious use of prolonged courses of antibiotics, patients with prosthetic joint infections secondary to RGM can both be cured and retain function of the affected joint. In addition, this study identified 40 additional cases reported during an extensive review of the literature and provide a summary of these cases. These infections can present within days of arthroplasty or can develop only decades after the index surgery. The clinical presentations often mimic those of more routine bacterial prosthetic joint infections. PMID:27030918

  20. Cutaneous infection with rapidly-growing mycobacterial infection following heart transplant: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Freudenberger, R S; Simafranca, S M

    2006-06-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria are ubiquitous and infrequently cause disease in humans, most commonly in immunocompromised hosts. One type of nontuberculous mycobacteria is Mycobacterium abscessus. This rapidly growing mycobacterium is a soil or water saprophyte. It was previously classified as a subspecies of Mycobacterium chelonae; however, current taxonomy now designates it as a separate species. Rapidly growing mycobacteria are resistant to the usual antituberculous drugs. This emphasizes the need for tissue diagnosis and obtaining specimens for culture and drug susceptibility testing. M abscessus has been reported to cause infection in renal transplant patients, but is less well described in cardiac transplant recipients. We report the case of a 65-year-old man who presented 5 years after transplantation for heart failure, with a 2-day history of progressive right lower extremity swelling and redness. He recalled no antecedent trauma and denied any unusual epidemiologic exposure. Medical history included diabetes with peripheral neuropathy and renal insufficiency, hypertension, and right-sided heart failure felt to be due to obstructive sleep apnea. A punch biopsy of the area grew M abscessus sensitive only to clarithromycin (MIC not reported), amikacin (30 microg/mL), and kanamycin (30 microg/mL). On subsequent clinic visits, the patient had decreased leg swelling and resolution of the papular lesions. Ten weeks into antimycobacterial therapy, the patient had an increase in creatinine to 4.9 mg/dL from a baseline of 2.0 with fluid overload necessitating discontinuation of aminoglycoside therapy. He completed 6 months of treatment with oral clarithromycin. We describe these findings and review the literature in this report. PMID:16797350

  1. Rapidly changing climatic conditions for wine grape growing in the Okanagan Valley region of British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Rayne, Sierra; Forest, Kaya

    2016-06-15

    A statistical analysis was conducted on long-term climate records for sites bordering Okanagan Lake in the Okanagan Valley viticultural region of British Columbia, Canada. Average wine grape growing season temperatures are increasing rapidly in the area over the post-1980 period at rates upwards of 7.0±1.3°C/century. Similar increases in the average dormant season temperature are evident. These temperature changes are likely some of the most extreme observed among the world's wine producing areas during the past few decades. Growing degree day base 10°C (GDD10) has increased by nearly 50% at some locations since the 1970s, resulting in major impacts on the corresponding climate classification for viticulture. If current climate trends continue, the southern and central portions of the region will likely enter Winkler region II within the next few decades, placing them in the same category as well-established warmer wine regions from France, Spain, Italy, and Australia. The large dormant season temperature increases over the last several decades have resulted in the area no longer being a cold season outlier when compared to most other cool-climate viticultural areas. Based on average growing season temperatures, the southern end of Okanagan Lake has moved out of the cool-climate viticultural classification and into the intermediate zone, while the central and northern regions are now at the cool/intermediate viticulture interface, similar to the historical positions of the Rhine Valley in Germany, northern Oregon in the United States, and the Loire Valley, Burgundy-Cote, Burgundy-Beaujolais, and Champagne appelations of France. The corresponding suitable grape species for the area have evolved into warmer region varietals during this time frame, having substantial economic impacts on producers. Increased temperatures are also expected to bring greater threats from agricultural pests, notably Pierce's disease from the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. PMID:26971218

  2. Field-Scale Soil Moisture Mapping Using RapidEye Satellite Imagery and Distributed Hydrologic Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yourek, M. A.; Brooks, E. S.; Magney, T. S.; Anderson, T. R.; Brown, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    In the dryland cropping region of the Pacific Northwest there is a growing need for tools which capture the spatial variability in soil moisture and crop response within a field. Soil moisture distribution within a field often reflects the spatial variability in underlying soil properties and is often well correlated with crop yield patterns. With improved modeling and management tools that capture this field-scale spatial variability, nitrogen fertilizer prescription maps can be developed which optimize nitrogen-use efficiency and profit while minimizing nitrous oxide emissions and nitrate leaching losses. In this project we use high spatial resolution (5 meter) vegetation indices calculated from RapidEye visual, near infrared, and red-edge wavebands to capture changes in crop response throughout the growing season. The late season drying/senescence patterns are compared to simulated soil moisture patterns from a grid-based distributed hydrologic model and apparent soil electrical conductivity patterns measured using an EM38 sensor. Observed soil moisture, surface runoff and surface saturation patterns are compared to model predictions in two ~10 ha field catchments, each having distinct soil properties, climates and topography. We investigate the use of vegetation indices from RapidEye imagery to identify characteristic soil structural patterns as a way to improve both dry and wet season soil moisture predictions.

  3. Rapid magnetofluidic mixing in a uniform magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Gui-Ping; Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2012-11-21

    This paper reports the investigation of mixing phenomena caused by the interaction between a uniform magnetic field and a magnetic fluid in a microfluidic chamber. The flow system consists of a water-based ferrofluid and a mixture of DI water and glycerol. Under a uniform magnetic field, the mismatch in magnetization of the fluids leads to instability at the interface and subsequent rapid mixing. The mismatch of magnetization is determined by concentration of magnetic nanoparticles. Full mixing at a relatively low magnetic flux density up to 10 mT can be achieved. The paper discusses the impact of key parameters such as magnetic flux density, flow rate ratio and viscosity ratio on the mixing efficiency. Two main mixing regimes are observed. In the improved diffusive mixing regime under low field strength, magnetic particles of the ferrofluid migrate into the diamagnetic fluid. In the bulk transport regime under high field strength, the fluid system is mixed rapidly by magnetically induced secondary flow in the chamber. The mixing concept potentially provides a wireless solution for a lab-on-a-chip system that is low-cost, robust, free of induced heat and independent of pH level or ion concentration. PMID:22990170

  4. Shrinkage of a rapidly growing tumor by drug-loaded polymersomes: pH-triggered release through copolymer degradation.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Fariyal; Pakunlu, Refika I; Srinivas, Goundla; Brannan, Aaron; Bates, Frank; Klein, Michael L; Minko, Tamara; Discher, Dennis E

    2006-01-01

    Carrier-mediated delivery of drugs into the cytosol is often limited by either release from the carrier or release from an internalizing endolysosome. Here, loading, delivery, and cytosolic uptake of drug mixtures from degradable polymersomes are shown to exploit both the thick membrane of these block copolymer vesicles and their aqueous lumen as well as pH-triggered release within endolysosomes. Our initial in vivo studies demonstrate growth arrest and shrinkage of rapidly growing tumors after a single intravenous injection of polymersomes composed of poly(ethylene glycol)-polyester. Vesicles are shown to break down into membrane-lytic micelles within hours at 37 degrees C and low pH, although storage at 4 degrees C allows retention of drug for over a month. It is then shown that cell entry of the polymersomes into endolysosomes is followed by copolymer-induced endolysosomal rupture with release of cytotoxic drugs. Above a critical poration concentration (CCPC) that is easily achieved within endolysosomes and that scales with copolymer proportions and molecular weight, the copolymer micelles are seen to disrupt lipid membranes and thereby enhance drug activity. Neutral polymersomes and related macrosurfactant assemblies can thus create novel pathways within cells for controlled release and delivery. PMID:16749866

  5. Rapid change of field line connectivity and reconnection in stochastic magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yi-Min; Bhattacharjee, A.; Boozer, Allen H.

    2014-10-01

    Magnetic fields without a direction of continuous symmetry have the generic feature that neighboring field lines exponentiate away from each other and become stochastic, and hence the ideal constraint of preserving magnetic field line connectivity becomes exponentially sensitive to small deviations from ideal Ohm's law. The idea of breaking field line connectivity by stochasticity as a mechanism for fast reconnection is tested with numerical simulations based on reduced magnetohydrodynamics equations with a strong guide field line-tied to two perfectly conducting end plates. Starting from an ideally stable force-free equilibrium, the system is allowed to undergo resistive relaxation. Two distinct phases are found in the process of resistive relaxation. During the quasi-static phase, rapid change of field line connectivity and strong induced flow are found in regions of high field line exponentiation. However, although the field line connectivity of individual field lines can change rapidly, the overall pattern of field line mapping appears to deform gradually. From this perspective, field line exponentiation appears to cause enhanced diffusion rather than reconnection. In some cases, resistive quasi-static evolution can cause the ideally stable initial equilibrium to cross a stability threshold, leading to formation of intense current filaments and rapid change of field line mapping into a qualitatively different pattern. It is in this onset phase that the change of field line connectivity is more appropriately designated as magnetic reconnection. Our results show that rapid change of field line connectivity appears to be a necessary, but not a sufficient condition for fast reconnection.

  6. Rapid topography mapping of scalar fields: Large molecular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeole, Sachin D.; López, Rafael; Gadre, Shridhar R.

    2012-08-01

    An efficient and rapid algorithm for topography mapping of scalar fields, molecular electron density (MED) and molecular electrostatic potential (MESP) is presented. The highlight of the work is the use of fast function evaluation by Deformed-atoms-in-molecules (DAM) method. The DAM method provides very rapid as well as sufficiently accurate function and gradient evaluation. For mapping the topography of large systems, the molecular tailoring approach (MTA) is invoked. This new code is tested out for mapping the MED and MESP critical points (CP's) of small systems. It is further applied to large molecular clusters viz. (H2O)25, (C6H6)8 and also to a unit cell of valine crystal at MP2/6-31+G(d) level of theory. The completeness of the topography is checked by extensive search as well as applying the Poincaré-Hopf relation. The results obtained show that the DAM method in combination with MTA provides a rapid and efficient route for mapping the topography of large molecular systems.

  7. Rapid adhesive bonding and field repair of aerospace materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    Adhesive bonding in the aerospace industry typically utilizes autoclaves or presses which have considerable thermal mass. As a consequence, the rates of heatup and cooldown of the bonded parts are limited and the total time and cost of the bonding process are often relatively high. Many of the adhesives themselves do not inherently require long processing times. Bonding could be performed rapidly if the heat was concentrated in the bond lines or at least in the adherends. Rapid Adhesive Bonding concepts are developed to utilize induction heating techniques to provide heat directly to the bond line and/or adherends without heating the entire structure, supports, and fixtures of a bonding assembly. Bonding times for specimens can be cut by a factor of 10 to 100 compared to standard press or autoclave bonding. The development of Rapid Adhesive Bonding for lap shear specimens (per ASTM D1002 and D3163), for aerospace panel or component bonding, and for field repair needs of metallic and advanced fiber reinforced polymeric-matrix composite structures is reviewed. Equipment and procedures are described for bonding and repairing thin sheets, simple geometries, and honeycomb core panels.

  8. Field demonstration of rapid turnaround, multilevel groundwater screening

    SciTech Connect

    Tingle, A.R.; Baker, L.; Long, D.D.; Miracle, M.

    1994-09-01

    A combined technology approach to rapidly characterizing source area and downgradient groundwater associated with a past fuel spill has been field tested. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the presence and extent of fuel-related compounds or indications of their biodegradation in groundwater. The distance from the source area to be investigated was established by calculating the potential extent of a plume based only on groundwater flow velocities. To accomplish this objective, commercially available technologies were combined and used to rapidly assess the source area and downgradient groundwater associated with the fuel discharge. The source of contamination that was investigated overlies glacial sand and gravel outwash deposits. Historical data suggest that from 1955 to 1970 as many as 1 to 6 million pi of aviation gasoline (AVGAS) were god at the study area. Although the remedial investigation (RI) for this study area indicated fuel-related groundwater contamination at the source area, fuel-related contamination was not detected in downgradient monitoring wells. Rapid horizontal groundwater velocities and the 24-year time span from the last reported spill farther suggest that a plume of contaminated groundwater could extend several thousand feet downgradient. The lack of contamination downgradient from the source suggests two possibilities: (1) monitoring wells installed during the RI did not intersect the plume or (2) fuel-related compounds had naturally degraded.

  9. Rapid current transition in a crossed-field diode

    SciTech Connect

    Verboncoeur, J.P.; Birdsall, C.K.

    1996-03-01

    The transmitted current in a crossed-field gap has been characterized analytically by a number of authors. Using a one dimensional PIC simulation, we explore the behavior of the crossed-field diode at {ital B}={ital B}{sub {ital Hull}}. For mono-energetic (cold) emission, a rapid reduction of transmitted current is observed when the injected current exceeds the critical current by just 1{percent}. The addition of a small electron temperature normal to the cathode eliminates the transition, even for {ital kT}/{ital V}{approximately}10{sup {minus}5} ({ital V}=10 kV, gap = 1 cm, {ital B}=337 G, {ital J}=1.69 A/cm{sup 2}), while an isotropic velocity distribution accelerates the transition. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Mycobacterium saopaulense sp. nov., a rapidly growing mycobacterium closely related to members of the Mycobacterium chelonae--Mycobacterium abscessus group.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Christiane Lourenço; Whipps, Christopher M; Matsumoto, Cristianne Kayoko; Chimara, Erica; Droz, Sara; Tortoli, Enrico; de Freitas, Denise; Cnockaert, Margo; Palomino, Juan Carlos; Martin, Anandi; Vandamme, Peter; Leão, Sylvia Cardoso

    2015-12-01

    Five isolates of non-pigmented, rapidly growing mycobacteria were isolated from three patients and,in an earlier study, from zebrafish. Phenotypic and molecular tests confirmed that these isolates belong to the Mycobacterium chelonae-Mycobacterium abscessus group, but they could not be confidently assigned to any known species of this group. Phenotypic analysis and biochemical tests were not helpful for distinguishing these isolates from other members of the M. chelonae–M.abscessus group. The isolates presented higher drug resistance in comparison with other members of the group, showing susceptibility only to clarithromycin. The five isolates showed a unique PCR restriction analysis pattern of the hsp65 gene, 100 % similarity in 16S rRNA gene and hsp65 sequences and 1-2 nt differences in rpoB and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences.Phylogenetic analysis of a concatenated dataset including 16S rRNA gene, hsp65, and rpoB sequences from type strains of more closely related species placed the five isolates together, as a distinct lineage from previously described species, suggesting a sister relationship to a group consisting of M. chelonae, Mycobacterium salmoniphilum, Mycobacterium franklinii and Mycobacterium immunogenum. DNA–DNA hybridization values .70 % confirmed that the five isolates belong to the same species, while values ,70 % between one of the isolates and the type strains of M. chelonae and M. abscessus confirmed that the isolates belong to a distinct species. The polyphasic characterization of these isolates, supported by DNA–DNA hybridization results,demonstrated that they share characteristics with M. chelonae–M. abscessus members, butconstitute a different species, for which the name Mycobacterium saopaulense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is EPM10906T (5CCUG 66554T5LMG 28586T5INCQS 0733T). PMID:26358475

  11. Groundwater geochemistry in the Seminole Well Field, Cedar Rapids, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyd, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    The City of Cedar Rapids obtains its municipal water supply from four well fields in an alluvial aquifer along the Cedar River in east-central Iowa. Since 1992, the City and the U.S. Geological Survey have cooperatively studied the groundwater-flow system and water chemistry near the well fields. The geochemistry in the alluvial aquifer near the Seminole Well Field was assessed to identify potentially reactive minerals and possible chemical reactions that produce observed changes in water chemistry. Calcite, dolomite, ferrihydrite, quartz, rhodochrosite, and siderite were identified as potentially reactive minerals by calculating saturation indexes. Aluminosiicate minerals including albite, Ca-montmorillonite, gibbsite, illite, K-feldspar, and kaolinite were identified as potentially reactive minerals using hypothetical saturation indexes calculated with an assumed dissolved aluminum concentration of 1 microgram per liter. Balanced chemical equations derived from inverse-modeling techniques were used to assess chemical reactions as precipitation percolates to the water table. Calcite dissolution was predominate, but aluminosilicate weathering, cation exchange, and redox reactions also likely occurred. Microbial-catalyzed redox reactions altered the chemical composition of water infiltrating from the Cedar River into the alluvial aquifer by consuming dissolved oxygen, reducing nitrate, and increasing dissolved iron and manganese concentrations. Nitrate reduction only occurred in relatively shallow (3 to 7 meters below land surface) groundwater near the Cedar River and did not occur in water infiltrating to deeper zones of the alluvial aquifer.

  12. RAPID CASING CORROSION IN HIGH TEMPERATURE LIQUID DOMINATED GEOTHERMAL FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Bixley, P.F.; Wilson, D.M.

    1985-01-22

    Downhole logging and workover operations on 12-20 year old wells in several high temperature, liquid-dominated geothermal fields in New Zealand has shown that severe corrosion has commonly occurred in the production casing string where this is unprotected by larger diameter casings. To date corrosion products from only one well have been examined in detail. These indicate that corrosion attack commences at the outer casing wall and continues at a rate as great as 0.8mm/year. Rapid corrosion has been attributed to neutral or slightly acid high bicarbonate waters formed by the absorption of steam and gas into shallow aquifers not directly connected to the deeper, high chloride reservoir.

  13. Magnetic field-magnetic nanoparticle culture system used to grow in vitro murine embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Erika Regina Leal; Soares, Paula Roberta Otaviano; de Santos, Rachel Paula; dos Santos, Regiane Lopes; Porfírio, Elaine Paulucio; Báo, Sônia N; Lima, Emília Celma Oliveira; Guillo, Lídia Andreu

    2011-01-01

    The in vitro growth of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is usually obtained in the presence of murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEF), but new methods for in vitro expansion of ESCs should be developed due to their potential clinical use. This study aims to establish a culture system to expand and maintain ESCs in the absence of MEF by using murine embryonic stem cells (mECS) as a model of embryonic stem cell. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were used for growing mESCs in the presence of an external magnetic field, creating the magnetic field-magnetic nanoparticle (MF-MNP) culture system. The growth characteristics were evaluated showing a doubling time slightly higher for mESCs cultivated in the presence of the system than in the presence of the MEF. The undifferentiated state was characterized by RT-PCR, immunofluorescence, alkaline phosphatase activity and electron microscopy. Murine embryonic stem cells cultivated in presence of the MF-MNP culture system exhibited Oct-4 and Nanog expression and high alkaline phosphatase activity. Ultrastructural morphology showed that the MF-MNP culture system did not interfere with processes that cause structural changes in the cytoplasm or nucleus. The MF-MNP culture system provides a tool for in vitro expansion of mESCs and could contribute to studies that aim the therapeutic use of embryonic stem cells. PMID:21446404

  14. Rapid Numerical Simulation of Viscous Axisymmetric Flow Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweedt, Daniel L.; Chima, Rodrick V.

    1995-01-01

    A two-dimensional Navier-Stokes code has been developed for rapid numerical simulation of axisymmetric flow fields, including flow fields with an azimuthal velocity component. The azimuthal-invariant Navier-Stokes equations in a cylindrical coordinate system are mapped to a general body-fitted coordinate system, with the streamwise viscous terms then neglected by applying the thin-layer approximation. Turbulence effects are modeled using an algebraic model, typically the Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model, although a modified Cebeci-Smith model can also be used. The equations are discretized using central finite differences and solved using a multistage Runge-Kutta algorithm with a spatially varying time step and implicit residual smoothing. Results are presented for calculations of supersonic flow over a waisted body-of-revolution, transonic flow through a normal shock wave in a straight circular duct of constant cross sectional area, swirling supersonic (inviscid) flow through a strong shock in a straight radial duct, and swirling subsonic flow in an annular-to-circular diffuser duct. Comparisons between computed and experimental results are in fair to good agreement, demonstrating that the viscous code can be a useful tool for practical engineering design and analysis work.

  15. Evaluation of capillary and myofiber density in the pectoralis major muscles of rapidly growing, high-yield broiler chickens during increased heat stress.

    PubMed

    Joiner, K S; Hamlin, G A; Lien, A R J; Bilgili, S F

    2014-09-01

    Skeletal muscle development proceeds from early embryogenesis through marketing age in broiler chickens. While myofiber formation is essentially complete at hatching, myofiber hypertrophy can increase after hatch by assimilation of satellite cell nuclei into myofibers. As the diameter of the myofibers increases, capillary density peripheral to the myofiber is marginalized, limiting oxygen supply and subsequent diffusion into the myofiber, inducing microischemia. The superficial and deep pectoralis muscles constitute 25% of the total body weight in a market-age bird; thus compromise of those muscle groups can have profound economic impact on broiler production. We hypothesized that marginal capillary support relative to the hypertrophic myofibers increases the incidence of microischemia, especially in contemporary high-yield broilers under stressing conditions such as high environmental temperatures. We evaluated the following parameters in four different broiler strains at 39 and 53 days of age when reared under thermoneutral (20 to 25 C) versus hot (30 to 35 C) environmental conditions: capillary density, myofiber density and diameter, and degree of myodegeneration. Our data demonstrate that myofiber diameter significantly increased with age (P > or = 0.0001), while the absolute numbers of capillaries, blood vessels, and myofibers visible in five 400 x microscopic fields decreased (P > or = 0.0001). This is concomitant with marginalization of vascular support in rapidly growing myofibers. The myofiber diameter was significantly lower with hot environmental temperatures (P > or = 0.001); therefore, the absolute number of myofibers visible in five 400X microscopic fields was significantly higher. The incidence and subjective degree of myodegeneration characterized by loss of cross-striations, myocyte hyperrefractility, sarcoplasmic vacuolation, and nuclear pyknosis or loss also increased in hot conditions. Differences among strains were not observed. PMID:25518431

  16. Sclerophylly and leaf anatomical traits of five field-grown olive cultivars growing under drought conditions.

    PubMed

    Bacelar, Eunice A; Correia, Carlos M; Moutinho-Pereira, José M; Gonçalves, Berta C; Lopes, João I; Torres-Pereira, José M G

    2004-02-01

    Leaf-level morphological and structural adaptations to reduce water loss were examined in five olive (Olea europaea L.) tree cultivars (Arbequina, Blanqueta, Cobrançosa, Manzanilla and Negrinha) growing under field conditions with low water availability. Leaf measurements included leaf tissue thickness, stomatal density, leaf area, leaf mass per unit area, density of leaf tissue, relative water content, succulence, water saturation deficit, water content at saturation and cuticular transpiration rate. We found considerable genotypic differences among the cultivars. Negrinha, Manzanilla and Cobrançosa had more morphological and structural leaf adaptations to protect against water loss than the other cultivars. Manzanilla and Negrinha enhanced their sclerophylly by building parenchyma tissues and increasing protective structures like the upper cuticle and both the upper and lower epidermis. Cobrançosa exhibited good protection against water loss through high density of foliar tissue and by thick cuticle and trichome layers. Compared with the Negrinha, Manzanilla and Cobrançosa cultivars, Arbequina leaves had a thinner trichome layer, implying that the leaves were less protected against water loss; however, the development of smaller leaves may reduce water loss at the whole-plant level. Among cultivars, Blanqueta had the largest leaves and some anatomical traits that may lead to high water loss, especially from the adaxial surface. The mechanisms employed by the cultivars to cope with summer stress are discussed at the morpho-structural level. PMID:14676039

  17. Rapid brain MRI acquisition techniques at ultra-high fields.

    PubMed

    Setsompop, Kawin; Feinberg, David A; Polimeni, Jonathan R

    2016-09-01

    Ultra-high-field MRI provides large increases in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as well as enhancement of several contrast mechanisms in both structural and functional imaging. Combined, these gains result in a substantial boost in contrast-to-noise ratio that can be exploited for higher-spatial-resolution imaging to extract finer-scale information about the brain. With increased spatial resolution, however, there is a concurrent increased image-encoding burden that can cause unacceptably long scan times for structural imaging and slow temporal sampling of the hemodynamic response in functional MRI - particularly when whole-brain imaging is desired. To address this issue, new directions of imaging technology development - such as the move from conventional 2D slice-by-slice imaging to more efficient simultaneous multislice (SMS) or multiband imaging (which can be viewed as "pseudo-3D" encoding) as well as full 3D imaging - have provided dramatic improvements in acquisition speed. Such imaging paradigms provide higher SNR efficiency as well as improved encoding efficiency. Moreover, SMS and 3D imaging can make better use of coil sensitivity information in multichannel receiver arrays used for parallel imaging acquisitions through controlled aliasing in multiple spatial directions. This has enabled unprecedented acceleration factors of an order of magnitude or higher in these imaging acquisition schemes, with low image artifact levels and high SNR. Here we review the latest developments of SMS and 3D imaging methods and related technologies at ultra-high field for rapid high-resolution functional and structural imaging of the brain. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26835884

  18. Electric Field Measurements During the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) Field Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bateman, Monte G.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Mach, Douglas M.

    2010-01-01

    During the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) field program, a system of 6 electric field mills was flown on one of NASA's Global Hawk aircraft. We placed several mills on the aircraft to enable us to measure the vector electric field. We created a distributed, ethernet-connected system so that each sensor has its own embedded Linux system, complete with web server. This makes our current generation system fully "sensor web enabled." The Global Hawk has several unique qualities, but relevant to quality storm electric field measurements are high altitude (20 km) and long duration (20-30 hours) flights. There are several aircraft participating in the GRIP program, and coordinated measurements are happening. Lightning and electric field measurements will be used to study the relationships between lightning and other storm characteristics. It has been long understood that lightning can be used as a marker for strong convective activity. Past research and field programs suggest that lightning flash rate may serve as an indicator and precursor for rapid intensification change in tropical cyclones and hurricanes. We have the opportunity to sample hurricanes for many hours at a time and observe intensification (or de-intensification) periods. The electrical properties of hurricanes during such periods are not well known. American

  19. Growing Together: Boston Area Youth Follow Food from Field to Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeVaux, Ari

    2001-01-01

    The Food Project brings together Boston-area youth to grow and distribute food for the hungry and in the process, develop leadership and job skills. Summer crew workers (high school students) grow vegetables, distribute them to food pantries, and sell them at farmer's markets. Crew leaders learn more about sustainable agriculture and hone…

  20. Rapid susceptibility testing for slowly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria using a colorimetric microbial viability assay based on the reduction of water-soluble tetrazolium WST-1.

    PubMed

    Tsukatani, T; Suenaga, H; Shiga, M; Ikegami, T; Ishiyama, M; Ezoe, T; Matsumoto, K

    2015-10-01

    Rapid susceptibility testing for slowly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) using a colorimetric microbial viability assay based on the reduction of the water-soluble tetrazolium salt {2-(4-iodophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2,4-disulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, monosodium salt (WST-1)} using 2,3,5,6-tetramethyl-1,4-benzoquinone as an electron mediator was developed. Using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) method, a long-term incubation time (7-14 days) was required to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the slowly growing NTM. The MICs for a variety of different antibiotics against the slowly growing NTM were determined by the WST-1 colorimetric method and compared with those obtained using the broth microdilution methods approved by the CLSI. Good agreement was found between the MICs determined after 3-4 days using the WST-1 colorimetric method and those obtained after 10-14 days using the broth microdilution method. The results suggest that the WST-1 colorimetric assay is a useful method for the rapid determination of the MICs for the slowly growing NTM. PMID:26173690

  1. Slowly and Rapidly Propagating "Liquid Flames" in Gravitational Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shkadinsky, K. G.; Shkadinskaya, G. V.; Matkowsky, B. J.; Gokoglu, S. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We consider the combustion, in a gravitational field, of a heterogeneous powder mixture compressed into a solid sample, in which the high temperature ahead of the reaction zone destroys the solid, due, e.g. to melting of some of components of the mixture. Thus, a suspension is formed, consisting of a liquid bath containing solid or liquid particles. Processes such as heat and mass transfer as well as chemical reactions in the suspension determine the structure of the combustion wave and its propagation velocity. Under the influence of gravitational forces there is the possibility of relative motion of the liquid and solid. Previous theoretical analyses considered the rate of beat transfer between the solid and liquid phases to be sufficiently large that their two distinct temperatures rapidly equilibrated to a single temperature. In addition to this case, we also consider the case when the rate of heat transfer is not so large and the model involves the separate temperatures of the solid and liquid phases. We find that multiplicity of traveling wave structures is possible. In particular, in addition to a low velocity structure, which is essentially the same as that obtained from the one temperature description, we find a high velocity structure, which does not exist in the one temperature description, but rather depends on the fact that the solid and fluid temperatures differ from each other. Both structures can exist for the same parameter values in a given range. We describe the dependence of the combustion characteristics of the two structures on gravitational forces and other factors. In particular, we compare the characteristics in gravity and microgravity environments.

  2. Growing Pains from Rapid Growth: A Historical Case Study of George Fox University from 1983 to 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Railsback, Gary L.

    2007-01-01

    This article is a historical case study of George Fox University (GFU) in Newberg, Oregon. Using organizational lifecycle as a theoretical framework, George Fox University had a long and delayed childhood in that it remained a small and struggling institution for most of the 20th century, and then experienced rapid growth in the late 1980s. This…

  3. High temperature and deformation field measurements at the vicinity of dynamically growing shear bands

    SciTech Connect

    Rosakis, A.J.; Ravichandran, G.; Zhou, M.

    1995-12-31

    The phenomenon of dynamic initiation and propagation of adiabatic shear bands is experimentally and numerically investigated. Pre-notched metal plates are subjected to asymmetric impact load histories (dynamic mode-II loading). Dynamic shear bands emanate from the notch tip and propagate rapidly in a direction nearly parallel to the direction of the impact. Real time temperature histories along a line intersecting and perpendicular to the shear band paths are recorded by means of a high-speed infrared detector system. The materials studied are C-300 (a maraging steel) and Ti - 6 Al - 4 V alloy. Experiments show that the peak temperatures inside the propagating shear bands are approaching 90% of the melting point for C-300 and are significantly lower for the titanium alloy (up to 600{degrees}C). Additionally, measured distances of shear band propagation indicate stronger resistance to shear banding by the Ti - 6Al - 4V alloy. Deformation fields around the propagating shear bands are recorded using high-speed photography. Shear band speeds are found to strongly depend on impact velocities, and are as high as 1200 m/s for C-300 steels. Finite Element simulations of the experiments are carried out under the context of plane strain, considering finite deformations, inertia, heat conduction, thermal softening, strain hardening and strain-rate hardening. In the simulations, the shear band propagation is assumed to be governed by a critical plastic strain criterion. The results are compared with experimental measurements obtained using the high-speed infrared detectors and high-speed photography.

  4. Rapid rise time pulsed magnetic field circuit for pump-probe field effect studies.

    PubMed

    Salaoru, T A; Woodward, Jonathan R

    2007-03-01

    Here we describe an electronic circuit capable of producing rapidly switched dc magnetic fields of up to 20 mT with a rise time of 10 ns and a pulse length variable from 50 ns to more than 10 micros, suitable for use in the study of magnetic field effects on radical pair (RP) reactions. This corresponds to switching the field on a time scale short relative to the lifetime of typical RPs and maintaining it well beyond their lifetimes. Previous experiments have involved discharging a capacitor through a low inductance coil for a limited time using a switching circuit. These suffer from decaying field strength over the duration of the pulse given primarily by the ratio of the pulse width to the RC constant of the circuit. We describe here a simple yet elegant solution that completely eliminates this difficulty by employing a feedback loop. This allows a constant field to be maintained over the entire length of the pulse. PMID:17411229

  5. Effect of insulin with concurrent amino acid infusion on protein metabolism in rapidly growing pubertal children with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Godil, Mushtaq A; Wilson, Thomas A; Garlick, Peter J; McNurlan, Margaret A

    2005-08-01

    Insulin treatment of prepubertal children with insulin-dependent diabetes improves body protein balance by decreasing the rate of protein degradation without stimulating protein synthesis. However, insulin also causes hypoaminoacidemia, so the inability of insulin to stimulate protein synthesis may have been limited by substrate availability. We investigated the ability of insulin to stimulate protein synthesis in growing pubertal children who were given sufficient amino acids to counter insulin-induced hypoaminoacidemia. Protein metabolism in six pubertal children with type 1 diabetes was assessed from leucine kinetics during a primed, 6-h infusion of L-[1-(13)C]leucine. The children were studied in the postabsorptive state during a basal (insulin withdrawn) period and during the infusion of 0.83 mU * kg(-1) * min(-1) human regular insulin. Amino acids and glucose were given with insulin to prevent hypoaminoacidemia and hypoglycemia. Net leucine balance was significantly higher with insulin than in the basal state, the result of decreased protein degradation but also decreased protein synthesis. The data suggest that insulin alone does not increase protein synthesis in pubertal children with type 1 diabetes. PMID:16006430

  6. An aerosol climatology for a rapidly growing arid region (southern Arizona): Major aerosol species and remotely sensed aerosol properties

    PubMed Central

    Sorooshian, Armin; Wonaschütz, Anna; Jarjour, Elias G.; Hashimoto, Bryce I.; Schichtel, Bret A.; Betterton, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports a comprehensive characterization of atmospheric aerosol particle properties in relation to meteorological and back trajectory data in the southern Arizona region, which includes two of the fastest growing metropolitan areas in the United States (Phoenix and Tucson). Multiple data sets (MODIS, AERONET, OMI/TOMS, MISR, GOCART, ground-based aerosol measurements) are used to examine monthly trends in aerosol composition, aerosol optical depth (AOD), and aerosol size. Fine soil, sulfate, and organics dominate PM2.5 mass in the region. Dust strongly influences the region between March and July owing to the dry and hot meteorological conditions and back trajectory patterns. Because monsoon precipitation begins typically in July, dust levels decrease, while AOD, sulfate, and organic aerosol reach their maximum levels because of summertime photochemistry and monsoon moisture. Evidence points to biogenic volatile organic compounds being a significant source of secondary organic aerosol in this region. Biomass burning also is shown to be a major contributor to the carbonaceous aerosol budget in the region, leading to enhanced organic and elemental carbon levels aloft at a sky-island site north of Tucson (Mt. Lemmon). Phoenix exhibits different monthly trends for aerosol components in comparison with the other sites owing to the strong influence of fossil carbon and anthropogenic dust. Trend analyses between 1988 and 2009 indicate that the strongest statistically significant trends are reductions in sulfate, elemental carbon, and organic carbon, and increases in fine soil during the spring (March–May) at select sites. These results can be explained by population growth, land-use changes, and improved source controls. PMID:24707452

  7. A Multi-Level Approach to Modeling Rapidly Growing Mega-Regions as a Coupled Human-Natural System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, J. A.; Tang, W.; Meentemeyer, R. K.

    2013-12-01

    concept of our modeling approach and describe its strengths and weaknesses. We furthermore use empirical data for the states of North and South Carolina to demonstrate how the modeling framework can be applied to a large, heterogeneous study system with diverse decision-making agents. Grimm et al. (2005) Pattern-Oriented Modeling of Agent-Based Complex Systems: Lessons from Ecology. Science 310, 987-991. Liu et al. (2013) Framing Sustainability in a Telecoupled World. Ecology and Society 18(2), 26. Meentemeyer et al. (2013) FUTURES: Multilevel Simulations of Merging Urban-Rural Landscape Structure Using a Stochastic Patch-Growing Algorithm. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 103(4), 785-807.

  8. Calculating High Resolution CWSI Maps for Entire Growing Season of a Cultivated Barley Field with UAV-Collected Surface Temperatures.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, H.; Jensen, R.; Nieto Solana, H.; Friborg, T.; Thomsen, A.

    2015-12-01

    With agriculture as the largest consumer of freshwater and an overall increasing pressure on water resources, developing more efficient irrigation systems is important. Combining the crop water stress index (CWSI) with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) enables detection of which specific areas within a cultivated field that requires irrigation to ensure healthy growing plants. In this study remotely sensed, high resolution surface temperatures are collected with a thermal camera onboard an UAV. Temperatures are used to calculate spatially distributed, high resolution CWSI maps over a barley field during growing seasons 2014 and 2015. In early stages of the barley growing season, surface temperatures are an ensemble of both soil and canopy temperatures. Canopy temperatures are extracted using leaf area index and the two source energy balance modelling scheme. This approach enables CWSI calculations for homogeneous and evenly distributed crops (such as barley) during early as well as late stages of a growing season. CWSI maps are calculated using both an empirical and an analytical approach and are compared and validated against modelled canopy conductance and transpiration rates.

  9. Improved Identification of Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria by a 16S–23S Internal Transcribed Spacer Region PCR and Capillary Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Timothy J.; Kong, Fanrong; Jelfs, Peter; Sintchenko, Vitali; Chen, Sharon C-A.

    2014-01-01

    The identification of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) remains problematic because of evolving taxonomy, limitations of current phenotypic methods and absence of a universal gene target for reliable speciation. This study evaluated a novel method of identification of RGM by amplification of the mycobacterial 16S–23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) followed by resolution of amplified fragments by capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE). Nineteen American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) Mycobacterium strains and 178 clinical isolates of RGM (12 species) were studied. All RGM ATCC strains generated unique electropherograms with no overlap with slowly growing mycobacteria species, including M. tuberculosis. A total of 47 electropherograms for the 178 clinical isolates were observed allowing the speciation of 175/178 (98.3%) isolates, including the differentiation of the closely related species, M. massiliense (M. abscessus subspecies bolletii) and M. abscessus (M. abscessus sensu stricto). ITS fragment size ranged from 332 to 534 bp and 33.7% of clinical isolates generated electropherograms with two distinct peaks, while the remainder where characterized with a single peak. Unique peaks (fragment lengths) were identified for 11/12 (92%) RGM species with only M. moriokaense having an indistinguishable electropherogram from a rarely encountered CGE subtype of M. fortuitum. We conclude that amplification of the 16S–23S ITS gene region followed by resolution of fragments by CGE is a simple, rapid, accurate and reproducible method for species identification and characterization of the RGM. PMID:25013955

  10. Concentrations of Cu, growth, and chlorophyll content of field-cultivated wheat growing in naturally enriched Cu soil

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, C.M.; Vardaka, E.; Lanaras, T.

    1997-02-01

    The Serbo-Macedonian massif of northern Greece is notable for the occurrence of numerous small areas of sulphide mineralisation. Varying degrees of porphyry copper mineralisation, associated with post-Miocene volcanic rocks of rhyolitic composition, can be encountered in agricultural fields which are used mainly for wheat production. Although Cu is a trace element essential to plant nutrition, in excess, it is phytotoxic causing stunted growth, chlorosis and root malformation. Previous studies on wheat growing in these naturally enriched Cu soils have shown that plants have reduced growth, chlorosis and chloroplast ultrastructural changes and a reduced efficiency of the photochemistry of photosystem II (PSII). The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between the Cu concentration of the soil and the plant tissue Cu concentration, growth and chlorophyll content of field-cultivated wheat growing in soils with varying degrees of porphyry copper mineralisation. 15 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. A Framework Predicting Water Availability in a Rapidly Growing, Semi-Arid Region under Future Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, B.; Benner, S. G.; Glenn, N. F.; Lindquist, E.; Dahal, K. R.; Bolte, J.; Vache, K. B.; Flores, A. N.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change can lead to dramatic variations in hydrologic regime, affecting both surface water and groundwater supply. This effect is most significant in populated semi-arid regions where water availability are highly sensitive to climate-induced outcomes. However, predicting water availability at regional scales, while resolving some of the key internal variability and structure in semi-arid regions is difficult due to the highly non-linearity relationship between rainfall and runoff. In this study, we describe the development of a modeling framework to evaluate future water availability that captures elements of the coupled response of the biophysical system to climate change and human systems. The framework is built under the Envision multi-agent simulation tool, characterizing the spatial patterns of water demand in the semi-arid Treasure Valley area of Southwest Idaho - a rapidly developing socio-ecological system where urban growth is displacing agricultural production. The semi-conceptual HBV model, a population growth and allocation model (Target), a vegetation state and transition model (SSTM), and a statistically based fire disturbance model (SpatialAllocator) are integrated to simulate hydrology, population and land use. Six alternative scenarios are composed by combining two climate change scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) with three population growth and allocation scenarios (Status Quo, Managed Growth, and Unconstrained Growth). Five-year calibration and validation performances are assessed with Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency. Irrigation activities are simulated using local water rights. Results show that in all scenarios, annual mean stream flow decreases as the projected rainfall increases because the projected warmer climate also enhances water losses to evapotranspiration. Seasonal maximum stream flow tends to occur earlier than in current conditions due to the earlier peak of snow melting. The aridity index and water deficit generally increase in the

  12. Rapid subsidence over oil fields measured by SAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fielding, E. J.; Blom, R. G.; Goldstein, R. M.

    1998-01-01

    The Lost Hills and Belridge oil felds are in the San Joaquin Valley, California. The major oil reservoir is high porosity and low permeability diatomite. Extraction of large volumes from shallow depths causes reduction in pore pressure and subsequent compaction, forming a surface subsidence bowl. We measure this subsidence from space using interferometric analysis of SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) data collected by the European Space Agency Remote Sensing Satellites (ERS-1 and ERS-2). Maximum subsidence rates are as high as 40 mm in 35 days or > 400 mm/yr, measured from interferograms with time separations ranging from one day to 26 months. The 8- and 26-month interferograms contain areas where the subsidence gradient exceeds the measurement possible with ERS SAR, but shows increased detail in areas of less rapid subsidence. Synoptic mapping of subsidence distribution from satellite data powerfully complements ground-based techniques, permits measurements where access is difficult, and aids identification of underlying causes.

  13. Are BVOC exchanges in agricultural ecosystems overestimated? Insights from fluxes measured in a maize field over a whole growing season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachy, Aurélie; Aubinet, Marc; Schoon, Niels; Amelynck, Crist; Bodson, Bernard; Moureaux, Christine; Heinesch, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    Although maize is the second most important crop worldwide, and the most important C4 crop, no study on biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) has yet been conducted on this crop at ecosystem scale and over a whole growing season. This has led to large uncertainties in cropland BVOC emission estimations. This paper seeks to fill this gap by presenting, for the first time, BVOC fluxes measured in a maize field at ecosystem scale (using the disjunct eddy covariance by mass scanning technique) over a whole growing season in Belgium. The maize field emitted mainly methanol, although exchanges were bi-directional. The second most exchanged compound was acetic acid, which was taken up mainly in the growing season. Bi-directional exchanges of acetaldehyde, acetone and other oxygenated VOCs also occurred, whereas the terpenes, benzene and toluene exchanges were small, albeit significant. Surprisingly, BVOC exchanges were of the same order of magnitude on bare soil and on well developed vegetation, suggesting that soil is a major BVOC reservoir in agricultural ecosystems. Quantitatively, the maize BVOC emissions observed were lower than those reported in other maize, crops and grasses studies. The standard emission factors (SEFs) estimated in this study (231 ± 19 µg m-2 h-1 for methanol, 8 ± 5 µg m-2 h-1 for isoprene and 4 ± 6 µg m-2 h-1 for monoterpenes) were also much lower than those currently used by models for C4 crops, particularly for terpenes. These results suggest that maize fields are small BVOC exchangers in north-western Europe, with a lower BVOC emission impact than that modelled for growing C4 crops in this part of the world. They also reveal the high variability in BVOC exchanges across world regions for maize and suggest that SEFs should be estimated for each region separately.

  14. Phase-field modelling of rapid solidification in alloy systems: Spontaneous grain refinement effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullis, A. M.

    2012-07-01

    Phase-field modelling of rapid alloy solidification, in which the rejection of latent heat from the growing solid cannot be ignored, has lagged significantly behind the modelling of conventional casting practises which can be approximated as isothermal. This is in large part due to the fact that if realistic materials properties are adopted the ratio of the thermal to solute diffusivity (the Lewis number) is typically 103 - 104, leading to severe multi-scale problems. However, use of state-of-the-art numerical techniques such as local mesh adaptivity, implicit time-stepping and a non-linear multi-grid solver allow these difficulties to be overcome. Here we describe how the application of this model, formulated in the thin-interface limit, can help to explain the long-standing phenomenon of spontaneous grain refinement in deeply undercooled melts. We find that at intermediate undercoolings the operating point parameter, σ*, may collapse to zero, resulting in the growth of non-dendritic morphologies such as doublons and 'dendritic seaweed'. Further increases in undercooling then lead to the re-establishment of stable dendritic growth. We postulate that remelting of such seaweed structures gives rise to the low undercooling instance of grain refinement observed in alloys.

  15. Effect of high magnetic field on a quasi-3D silver dendrite growing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Fengzhi; Katsuki, Akio; Tanimoto, Yoshifumi

    2006-05-01

    The Ag+/Cu liquid-solid redox reaction was investigated in a vertical and inhomogeneous high magnetic field (up to 15 T). According to a comparison between the morphologies of quasi-3D silver dendrites generated under different magnetic flux densities, the imposition of a high magnetic field strongly affected the aggregation process of the silver dendrites. The present experiment used four kinds of liquid-solid boundaries, which are affected by the reaction direction and solution condition, as bases for the diffusion limited aggregation (DLA)-like dendritic growth of silver deposition. Results are interpreted in terms of convections of the aqueous solution and a tentative quantitative analysis of forces acting on particles arising from the magnetic field. A new force is predicted theoretically and is discussed in detail.

  16. Rapid, learning-induced inhibitory synaptogenesis in murine barrel field

    PubMed Central

    Jasinska, M.; Siucinska, E.; Cybulska-Klosowicz, A.; Pyza, E.; Furness, D.N.; Kossut, M.; Glazewski, S.

    2010-01-01

    The structure of neurones changes during development and in response to injury or alteration in sensory experience. Changes occur in the number, shape and dimensions of dendritic spines together with their synapses. However, precise data on these changes in response to learning are sparse. Here, we show using quantitative transmission electron microscopy that a simple form of learning involving mystacial vibrissae results in about 70% increase in the density of inhibitory synapses on spines of neurones located in layer IV barrels that represent the stimulated vibrissae. The spines contain one asymmetrical (excitatory) and one symmetrical (inhibitory) synapse (double-synapse spines) and their density increases 3-fold due to learning with no apparent change in the density of asymmetrical synapses. This effect seems to be specific for learning as pseudoconditioning (where the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli are delivered at random) does not lead to the enhancement of symmetrical synapses, but instead results in an up-regulation of asymmetrical synapses on spines. Symmetrical synapses of cells located in barrels receiving the conditioned stimulus show also a greater concentration of γ-amino-butyric acid (GABA) in their presynaptic terminals. These results indicate that the immediate effect of classical conditioning in the ‘conditioned’ barrels is rapid, pronounced and inhibitory. PMID:20089926

  17. Planetary Nebulae: Reviews and Previews of a Rapidly Evolving Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balick, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Observational results from the ground and space in the past decade and covering the entire spectrum have jolted and energized research into the nature, the formation, and the evolution of planetary nebulae (PNs). The 101-level bubble structure of PNs turned out to be a pleasant but misleading fantasy as observations by HST and ALMA revealed basic details of their infancy. Some combination of close geriatric binary stars (the precusrors of SN Ia's) and magnetic fields dredged into the dusty winds appear to play vital roles in the ejection and collimation of AGB atmospheres. As a result, PNe and their antecedents, AGB stars and prePNs, are providing an array of new opportunities to study asymmetric wind formation, complex gas dynamics, CNO production rates in various galactic environments, and galaxy structure and evolution. I shall review the highlights of recent results, summarize their interpretations, and show some of the observational opportunities to monitor in the next decade, many of which couple strongly to research to related fields.This talk is dedicated to the career of Olivier Chesneau (1972-2014) who pioneered new high-resolution imaging methods that peered into the deep inner cores of nascent planetary nebulae. We remember Olivier as everyone's enthusiastic friend and colleague whose career ended in full stride.

  18. Rapid magnetic microfluidic mixer utilizing AC electromagnetic field.

    PubMed

    Wen, Chih-Yung; Yeh, Cheng-Peng; Tsai, Chien-Hsiung; Fu, Lung-Ming

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents a novel simple micromixer based on stable water suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles (i.e. ferrofluids). The micromixer chip is built using standard microfabrication and simple soft lithography, and the design can be incorporated as a subsystem into any chemical microreactor or a miniaturized biological sensor. An electromagnet driven by an AC power source is used to induce transient interactive flows between a ferrofluid and Rhodamine B. The alternative magnetic field causes the ferrofluid to expand significantly and uniformly toward Rhodamine B, associated with a great number of extremely fine fingering structures on the interface in the upstream and downstream regions of the microchannel. These pronounced fingering patterns, which have not been observed by other active mixing methods utilizing only magnetic force, increase the mixing interfacial length dramatically. Along with the dominant diffusion effects occurring around the circumferential regions of the fine finger structures, the mixing efficiency increases significantly. The miscible fingering instabilities are observed and applied in the microfluidics for the first time. This work is carried with a view to developing functionalized ferrofluids that can be used as sensitive pathogen detectors and the present experimental results demonstrate that the proposed micromixer has excellent mixing capabilities. The mixing efficiency can be as high as 95% within 2.0 s and a distance of 3.0 mm from the inlet of the mixing channel, when the applied peak magnetic field is higher than 29.2 Oe and frequency ranges from 45 to 300 Hz. PMID:19921677

  19. Pitch-angle diffusion of electrons through growing and propagating along a magnetic field electromagnetic wave in Earth's radiation belts

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, C.-R. Dokgo, K.; Min, K.-W.; Woo, M.-H.; Choi, E.-J.; Hwang, J.; Park, Y.-D.; Lee, D.-Y.

    2015-06-15

    The diffusion of electrons via a linearly polarized, growing electromagnetic (EM) wave propagating along a uniform magnetic field is investigated. The diffusion of electrons that interact with the growing EM wave is investigated through the autocorrelation function of the parallel electron acceleration in several tens of electron gyration timescales, which is a relatively short time compared with the bounce time of electrons between two mirror points in Earth's radiation belts. Furthermore, the pitch-angle diffusion coefficient is derived for the resonant and non-resonant electrons, and the effect of the wave growth on the electron diffusion is discussed. The results can be applied to other problems related to local acceleration or the heating of electrons in space plasmas, such as in the radiation belts.

  20. Short term effects on bone quality associated with consumption of soy protein isolate and other dietary protein sources in rapidly growing female rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin-Ran; Singhal, Rohit; Lazarenko, Oxana P; Liu, Xiaoli; Hogue, William R; Badger, Thomas M; Ronis, Martin J J

    2008-11-01

    Beneficial effects of soy protein consumption on bone quality have been reported. The effects of other dietary protein sources such as whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) and rice protein isolate (RPI) on bone growth have been less well examined. The current study compared effects of feeding soy protein isolate (SPI), WPH and RPI for 14 d on tibial bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in intact and ovariectomized (OVX) rapidly growing female rats relative to animals fed casein (CAS). The effects of estrogenic status on responses to SPI were also explored. Tibial peripheral quantitative computerized tomography (pQCT) showed all three protein sources had positive effects on either BMD or BMC relative to CAS (P < 0.05), but SPI had greater effects in both intact and OVX female rats. SPI and E2 had positive effects on BMD and BMC in OVX rats (P < 0.05). However, trabecular BMD was lower in a SPI + E2 group compared to a CAS + E2 group. In OVX rats, SPI increased serum bone formation markers, and serum from SPI-fed rats stimulated osteoblastogenesis in ex vivo. SPI also suppressed the bone resorption marker RatLaps (P < 0.05). Both SPI and E2 increased alkaline phosphatase gene expression in bone, but only SPI decreased receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL) and estrogen receptor gene expression (P < 0.05). These data suggest beneficial bone effects of a soy diet in rapidly growing animals and the potential for early soy consumption to increase peak bone mass. PMID:18703746

  1. A rapid estimation of near field tsunami run-up

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riqueime, Sebastian; Fuentes, Mauricio; Hayes, Gavin; Campos, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Many efforts have been made to quickly estimate the maximum run-up height of tsunamis associated with large earthquakes. This is a difficult task, because of the time it takes to construct a tsunami model using real time data from the source. It is possible to construct a database of potential seismic sources and their corresponding tsunami a priori.However, such models are generally based on uniform slip distributions and thus oversimplify the knowledge of the earthquake source. Here, we show how to predict tsunami run-up from any seismic source model using an analytic solution, that was specifically designed for subduction zones with a well defined geometry, i.e., Chile, Japan, Nicaragua, Alaska. The main idea of this work is to provide a tool for emergency response, trading off accuracy for speed. The solutions we present for large earthquakes appear promising. Here, run-up models are computed for: The 1992 Mw 7.7 Nicaragua Earthquake, the 2001 Mw 8.4 Perú Earthquake, the 2003Mw 8.3 Hokkaido Earthquake, the 2007 Mw 8.1 Perú Earthquake, the 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule Earthquake, the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku Earthquake and the recent 2014 Mw 8.2 Iquique Earthquake. The maximum run-up estimations are consistent with measurements made inland after each event, with a peak of 9 m for Nicaragua, 8 m for Perú (2001), 32 m for Maule, 41 m for Tohoku, and 4.1 m for Iquique. Considering recent advances made in the analysis of real time GPS data and the ability to rapidly resolve the finiteness of a large earthquake close to existing GPS networks, it will be possible in the near future to perform these calculations within the first minutes after the occurrence of similar events. Thus, such calculations will provide faster run-up information than is available from existing uniform-slip seismic source databases or past events of pre-modeled seismic sources.

  2. A rapid estimation of near-field tsunami runup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riquelme, Sebastián.; Fuentes, Mauricio; Hayes, Gavin P.; Campos, Jaime

    2015-09-01

    Many efforts have been made to quickly estimate the maximum runup height of tsunamis associated with large earthquakes. This is a difficult task because of the time it takes to construct an accurate tsunami model using real-time data from the source. It is possible to construct a database of potential seismic sources and their corresponding tsunami a priori. However, such models are generally based on uniform slip distributions and thus oversimplify the knowledge of the earthquake source. Here we show how to predict tsunami runup from any seismic source model using an analytic solution that is specifically designed for subduction zones with a well-defined geometry, i.e., Chile, Japan, Nicaragua, and Alaska. The main idea of this work is to provide a tool for emergency response, trading off accuracy for speed. The solutions we present for large earthquakes appear promising. Here runup models are computed for the following: the 1992 Mw 7.7 Nicaragua earthquake, the 2001 Mw 8.4 Perú earthquake, the 2003 Mw 8.3 Hokkaido earthquake, the 2007 Mw 8.1 Perú earthquake, the 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule earthquake, the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku earthquake, and the recent 2014 Mw 8.2 Iquique earthquake. The maximum runup estimations are consistent with measurements made inland after each event, with a peak of 9 m for Nicaragua, 8 m for Perú (2001), 32 m for Maule, 41 m for Tohoku, and 4.1 m for Iquique. Considering recent advances made in the analysis of real-time GPS data and the ability to rapidly resolve the finiteness of a large earthquake close to existing GPS networks, it will be possible in the near future to perform these calculations within the first minutes after the occurrence of similar events. Thus, such calculations will provide faster runup information than is available from existing uniform-slip seismic source databases or past events of premodeled seismic sources.

  3. Expression of two PIP genes in rapidly growing internodes of rice is not primarily controlled by meristem activity or cell expansion.

    PubMed

    Malz, S; Sauter, M

    1999-08-01

    Membrane intrinsic proteins facilitate movement of small molecules often times functioning as water channels. We have identified two genes from rice which encode proteins with characteristic features of plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIP). They possess six membrane-spanning domains, an NPA repeat, overall high sequence homologies and characteristic C- and N-terminal hallmark motifs which allowed assignment of OsPIP1a to the PIP1 subfamily and of OsPIP2a to the PIP2 subfamily. OsPIP1a and OsPIP2a showed similar but not identical expression patterns. The two genes were expressed at higher levels in seedlings than in adult plants and expression in the primary root was regulated by light. In internodes of deepwater rice plants which were induced to grow rapidly by submergence, transcript levels were slightly induced in the intercalary meristem (IM) and slightly reduced in the elongation zone (EZ) after 18 h. In internodes of GA-induced excised stem sections transcript levels transiently declined in the IM and EZ after 1 h and subsequently recovered to elevated levels after 18 h. GA also induced OsPIP expression in non-growing tissue after 18 h. In the IM of submergence-induced stem sections transcript levels remained constitutive. The different growth-promoting treatments showed no direct correlation between growth rate and OsPIP gene expression in dividing or expanding cells. In fact, treatment of excised stem sections with ABA or drought stress induced similar changes in OsPIP expression in the growing zone during the first 6 h as GA did. We conclude that regulation of OsPIP1a and OsPIP2a expression is not primarily controlled by growth. GA-induced growth may however change the water status of cells which in turn results in altered PIP abundance. PMID:10527423

  4. RAPID ARSENITE OXIDATION BY THERMUS AQUATICUS AND THERMUS THERMOPHILUS: FIELD AND LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS. (R826189)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thermus aquaticus and Thermus thermophilus, common inhabitants of terrestrial hot springs and thermally polluted domestic and industrial waters, have been found to rapidly oxidize arsenite to arsenate. Field investigations at a hot spring in Yellowstone National Park revealed ...

  5. Metal contamination of soil and translocation in vegetables growing under industrial wastewater irrigated agricultural field of Vadodara, Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, K K; Singh, N K; Patel, M P; Tiwari, M R; Rai, U N

    2011-09-01

    The present investigation was carried out to evaluate metals concentration in ten vegetable crops growing in mixed industrial effluent irrigated agricultural field near Vadodara, Gujarat, India. Differential accumulation and translocation of various metals in selected vegetables plant species was observed. A higher concentration of metals were found in order of Fe>Mn>Zn>Cd>Cu>Pb>Cr>As in soil irrigated with industrial effluent than soil irrigated with tube well water; however, the concentration of As, Cr and Pb found below detection limit in tube well water irrigated soil. Metal accumulation in root and top of vegetables varied significantly both in relations to metal concentration in the soil and the plant genotype. Among ten vegetable species studied five vegetable species, i.e. Spinach, Radish, Tomato, Chili and Cabbage growing in mixed industrial effluent irrigated agricultural field showed high accumulation and translocation of toxic metals (As, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni) in their edible parts, thus, their cultivation are unsafe with respect to possible transfer in food chain and health hazards. However, it is suggested that vegetable crops restricting toxic metal in non-edible port may be recommended for cultivation in such metal contaminated agricultural field. PMID:21555153

  6. [Prolonged remission achieved by using bevacizumab plus paclitaxel therapy combined with sequential radiotherapy for a rapidly growing chest wall recurrence of triple negative breast cancer - a case report].

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Masahiro; Fujii, Kazuhiro; Kiso, Marina; Takeyama, Osamu; Kan, Shugen; Tanaka, Mitsuru

    2015-01-01

    A 73-year-old woman, who was diagnosed with right triple negative breast cancer (cT1cN1M0, stage I ) and underwent right modified radical mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection, showed recurrent disease in the right parasternal lymph node 4 years after the operation. Computed tomography (CT) revealed rapid growth of the tumor along with pain, accompanied by the destruction of the sternal bone. Five cycles of bevacizumab plus paclitaxel (BEV+wPTX) treatment (10 mg/kg of bevacizumab on days 1 and 15 plus 90 mg/m² of paclitaxel on days 1, 8, and 15 every 4 weeks)achieved remarkable tumor regression. Parasternal irradiation (30 Gy/15 Fr) followed by oral capecitabine treatment (600 mg b. i. d; 3 week administration followed by a week of rest) as maintenance therapy showed complete tumor regression and helped to achieve good quality of life (QOL) without any unfavorable symptoms at the 2-year follow-up, although the estimated progression free survival of this treatment is about 6 months. As BEV+wPTX had a high response rate for recurrent breast cancer, its combination with sequential radiotherapy could provide a favorable local control rate and good QOL for patients with rapidly growing, solitary, recurrent breast cancers. PMID:25596684

  7. Quantifying the growing season dynamics and phenology of a boreal black spruce wildfire chronosequence: Coupling field measurements with MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serbin, S. P.; Ahl, D. E.; Gower, S. T.

    2007-12-01

    phenological transition periods of vegetation phenology across the chronosequence for both the in situ and MODIS time series data. In addition, we assessed the uncertainty in these estimates using Monte Carlo simulations to obtain 95% confidence intervals for each modeled transition date. This information is used to examine the effects of temporal aggregation, seasonal cloud and other residual atmospheric effects on determining phenological dates with MODIS. Collectively these data help discern the role warming and increased wildfire have in modifying boreal growing season dynamics while extending our ongoing long-term work to systematically link field measurements, remote sensing and ecosystem modeling to quantify the effects of global change on the carbon budget of boreal forests.

  8. Nested multiplex PCR--a feasible technique to study partial community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in field-growing plant root.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiuli; Zhao, Bin

    2006-08-01

    Plant can be infected by different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, but little is known about the interaction between them within root tissues mainly because different species cannot be distinguished on the basis of fungal structure. Accurate species identification of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonized in plant roots is the cornerstone of mycorrhizal study, yet this fundamental step is impossible through its morphological character alone. For accurate, rapid and inexpensive detection of partial mycorrhizal fungal community in plant roots, a nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed in this study. Five discriminating primers designed based on the variable region of the 5' end of the large ribosomal subunit were used in the experiment for testing their specificity and the sensitivity in nested PCR by using spores from Glomus mosseae (BEG12), Glomus intraradices (BEG141), Scutellospora castaneae (BEG1) and two unidentified Glomus sp. HAUO3 and HAUO4. The feasibility assay of nested multiplex PCR was conducted by use of spore mixture, Astragalus sinicum roots co-inoculated with 4 species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from pot cultures and 15 different field-growing plant roots respectively after analyses of the compatibility of primers. The result indicated that the sensitivity was in the same range as that of the corresponding single PCR reaction. Overall accuracy was 95%. The efficiency and sensitivity of this multiplex PCR procedure provided a rapid and easy way to simultaneously detect several of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungal species in a same plant root system. PMID:16989281

  9. Use of Meteosat Second Generation optimal cloud analysis fields for understanding physical attributes of growing cumulus clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mecikalski, John R.; Watts, Philip D.; Koenig, Marianne

    2011-10-01

    This study develops an understanding on how retrieved cloud parameter fields from the Optimal Cloud Analysis (OCA) algorithm, operating on Meteosat Second Generation (MSG), Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) data, behave at 5-min time resolutions for growing cumulus clouds. Fields retrieved by the OCA algorithm include cloud optical thickness (τ), cloud-top particle effective radius (r e), cloud-top pressure (p c), and cloud-top phase. OCA is based on a one-dimensional optimal estimation methodology, and a measure of radiance fit, the cost function (J m), is a quantity developed as part of the retrieval process and is shown to be useful in delineating mixed phase clouds; it too is evaluated (at 5-min intervals) for the information it provides. Data for 94 growing cumulus cloud events are processed. An "event" is defined as a cumulus cloud that is monitored at 5-min intervals with OCA, as it grows from the "fair weather" or "towering cumulus" stage to near the cumulonimbus stage when precipitation begins. The hypothesis is that OCA products are of high-enough quality to provide unique information about microphysical processes occurring at and near cloud top. The goal through analysis of the 94 events is to identify consistent, repeating patterns in OCA fields during cloud growth that can be in turn used to infer physical processes. Data from the Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (June and July 2007) and in four regions of Europe on 25 May 2009 are used. The validity of the OCA data is presented with a comparison to CloudSat Precipitation Radar and MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer retrieved cloud properties, showing good statistical agreements. Subsequently, results from the analysis of OCA fields for all events show that as cumuli deepen, r e values tend to increase, and then decrease in size as cloud tops glaciate and particle settling begins. The τ magnitudes generally increase as clouds deepen, while p c

  10. Evaluation of the broth microdilution method using 2,3-diphenyl-5-thienyl-(2)-tetrazolium chloride for rapidly growing mycobacteria susceptibility testing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun Min; Kim, Jeong man; Jeong, Joseph; Park, Young Kil; Bai, Gill-Han; Lee, Eun Yup; Lee, Min Ki; Chang, Chulhun L

    2007-10-01

    As the incidence of nontuberculous mycobacterial infection has been increasing recently in Korea, the importance of drug susceptibility test for clinical isolates of mycobacteria has become larger. In this study we determined the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of clinical isolates of M. fortuitum and M. abscessus in Korea, and evaluated the efficacy of a modified broth microdilution method using 2,3-diphenyl-5-thienyl-(2)-tetrazolium chloride (STC), in terms of its ability to provide accurate and easy-to-read minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) endpoints for the susceptibility testing of rapidly growing mycobacteria. Most isolates of M. fortuitum and M. abscessus in Korea are susceptible or intermediately susceptible to amikacin, cefoxitin, ciprofloxacin, and clarithromycin. Many isolates of M. fortuitum are susceptible to doxycycline, sulfamethoxazole, and imipenem, while many M. abscessus isolates are resistant to these drugs. In the present study, the modified broth microdilution method using STC was found to be reliable, easy to read, and inexpensive for M. fortuitum and M. abscessus susceptibility testing. The modified colorimetric MIC testing method using STC was proven to be a useful surrogate for RGM antibiotic susceptibility testing. PMID:17982223

  11. Guidelines for growing perennial grasses for biofuel and bioproducts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Guidelines for growing perennial grasses for biofuel and bioproducts Rob Mitchell Abstract: Switchgrass, big bluestem, and warm-season grass mixtures provide numerous benefits. Existing field equipment, herbicides, and cultivar improvement promote rapid establishment in the planting year. These gra...

  12. Fluid transport by solitary waves along growing faults. A field example from the South Eugene Island Basin, Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revil, A.; Cathles, L. M.

    2002-09-01

    The Red Fault system is one of the main growth faults found in the South Eugene Island Basin, a salt withdrawal minibasin located offshore Louisiana, in the Gulf of Mexico. This fault system corresponds to a lateral boundary between fluid overpressured compartments. In addition, there is a set of observations indicating that the Red Fault system exhibits rapid episodic migration of fluids. This fault represents an example of preferential pathway for the upward episodic migration of overpressured hydrocarbons from deep, heavily pressured, compartments on time scales of years. The migrations of fluids into active growing faults could take the form of propagating surges (solitary waves) that propagate upward along the fault planes in a wave-like manner at km/yr. Solitary waves represent a very efficient mechanism for the upward transport of fluids along growth faults in sedimentary basins generating its own permeability. In addition, this mechanism is compatible with the fact that the fault plane is observed to sustain a static pore fluid pressure difference between its two sides. The propagation of solitary waves in active growth faults appears as a fundamental mechanism to understand the nature of upward fast migration of fluids along active growth faults in compartimentalized sedimentary basins.

  13. Total dural irradiation: RapidArc versus static-field IMRT: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Paul J.

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare conventional fixed-gantry angle intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with RapidArc for total dural irradiation. We also hypothesize that target volume-individualized collimator angles may produce substantial normal tissue sparing when planning with RapidArc. Five-, 7-, and 9-field fixed-gantry angle sliding-window IMRT plans were generated for comparison with RapidArc plans. Optimization and normal tissue constraints were constant for all plans. All plans were normalized so that 95% of the planning target volume (PTV) received at least 100% of the dose. RapidArc was delivered using 350 Degree-Sign clockwise and counterclockwise arcs. Conventional collimator angles of 45 Degree-Sign and 315 Degree-Sign were compared with 90 Degree-Sign on both arcs. Dose prescription was 59.4 Gy in 33 fractions. PTV metrics used for comparison were coverage, V{sub 107}%, D1%, conformality index (CI{sub 95}%), and heterogeneity index (D{sub 5}%-D{sub 95}%). Brain dose, the main challenge of this case, was compared using D{sub 1}%, Dmean, and V{sub 5} Gy. Dose to optic chiasm, optic nerves, globes, and lenses was also compared. The use of unconventional collimator angles (90 Degree-Sign on both arcs) substantially reduced dose to normal brain. All plans achieved acceptable target coverage. Homogeneity was similar for RapidArc and 9-field IMRT plans. However, heterogeneity increased with decreasing number of IMRT fields, resulting in unacceptable hotspots within the brain. Conformality was marginally better with RapidArc relative to IMRT. Low dose to brain, as indicated by V5Gy, was comparable in all plans. Doses to organs at risk (OARs) showed no clinically meaningful differences. The number of monitor units was lower and delivery time was reduced with RapidArc. The case-individualized RapidArc plan compared favorably with the 9-field conventional IMRT plan. In view of lower monitor unit requirements and shorter delivery time, Rapid

  14. A field-deployable device for the rapid detection of cyanide poisoning in whole blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehringer, Hans; Tong, Winnie; Chung, Roy; Boss, Gerry; O'Farrell, Brendan

    2012-06-01

    Feasibility of a field-deployable device for the rapid and early diagnosis of cyanide poisoning in whole blood using the spectral shift of the vitamin B12 precursor cobinamide upon binding with cyanide as an indicator is being assessed. Cyanide is an extremely potent and rapid acting poison with as little as 50 mg fatal to humans. Cyanide poisoning has been recognized as a threat from smoke inhalation and potentially through weapons of mass destruction. Currently, no portable rapid tests for the detection of cyanide in whole blood are available. Cobinamide has an extremely high affinity for cyanide and captures hemoglobin associated cyanide from red blood cells. Upon binding of cyanide, cobinamide undergoes a spectral shift that can be measured with a spectrophotometer. We have combined the unique cyanide-binding properties of cobinamide with blood separation technology, sample transport and a detection system, and are developing a rapid, field deployable, disposable device which will deliver an intuitive result to a first responder, allowing for rapid response to exposure events. Feasibility of the cobinamide-Cyanide chemistry in a rapid test using a whole blood sample from a finger-stick has been demonstrated with an assay time from sample collection to a valid result of under 5 minutes. Data showing the efficacy of the diagnostic method and initial device design concepts will be shown.

  15. Diversity, Community Composition, and Dynamics of Nonpigmented and Late-Pigmenting Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria in an Urban Tap Water Production and Distribution System

    PubMed Central

    Dubrou, S.; Konjek, J.; Macheras, E.; Welté, B.; Guidicelli, L.; Chignon, E.; Joyeux, M.; Gaillard, J. L.; Heym, B.; Tully, T.

    2013-01-01

    Nonpigmented and late-pigmenting rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) have been reported to commonly colonize water production and distribution systems. However, there is little information about the nature and distribution of RGM species within the different parts of such complex networks or about their clustering into specific RGM species communities. We conducted a large-scale survey between 2007 and 2009 in the Parisian urban tap water production and distribution system. We analyzed 1,418 water samples from 36 sites, covering all production units, water storage tanks, and distribution units; RGM isolates were identified by using rpoB gene sequencing. We detected 18 RGM species and putative new species, with most isolates being Mycobacterium chelonae and Mycobacterium llatzerense. Using hierarchical clustering and principal-component analysis, we found that RGM were organized into various communities correlating with water origin (groundwater or surface water) and location within the distribution network. Water treatment plants were more specifically associated with species of the Mycobacterium septicum group. On average, M. chelonae dominated network sites fed by surface water, and M. llatzerense dominated those fed by groundwater. Overall, the M. chelonae prevalence index increased along the distribution network and was associated with a correlative decrease in the prevalence index of M. llatzerense, suggesting competitive or niche exclusion between these two dominant species. Our data describe the great diversity and complexity of RGM species living in the interconnected environments that constitute the water production and distribution system of a large city and highlight the prevalence index of the potentially pathogenic species M. chelonae in the distribution network. PMID:23835173

  16. Tetracycline Resistance and Presence of Tetracycline Resistance Determinants tet(V) and tap in Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria from Agricultural Soils and Clinical Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Kyselková, Martina; Chron̂áková, Alica; Volná, Lucie; Nêmec, Jan; Ulmann, Vít; Scharfen, Josef; Elhottová, Dana

    2012-01-01

    Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) inhabit soil and water but certain strains represent a health risk for human and animals. Both clinical and soil RGM may be under selection pressure for resistance to tetracycline (TET) antibiotics, since tetracyclines are administrated to humans and farm animals, and TET residues enter soil through manuring; however, resistance to TET and the presence of TET-resistance genes have been assessed only in clinical isolates. We were therefore interested in comparing soil and clinical RGM in terms of TET resistance and the presence of TET-resistance genes. We used 44 RGM from grasslands with different exposure to animal manure, and 38 clinical RGM from Czech hospitals. There was no difference between the clinical and soil isolates in TET resistance, with >50% resistant isolates in both groups. otr(A), otr(B), tet(K), tet(L) or tet(M) were not detected in any soil or clinical isolate. In contrast, most isolates harbored tet(V) and tap, both encoding mycobacterial efflux pumps, including species where these genes have never been evidenced before. The phylogeny of tet(V) correlated with isolates’ BOX-PCR profiles, suggesting that this gene evolved along with mycobacterial genomes as a part of the intrinsic resistome. In certain cases, tet(V) and/or tap were found in TET-sensitive isolates, or inversely, were not found in resistant strains. Concluding, intrinsic efflux pumps may be more important for TET resistance than horizontally transferred genes in both soil and clinical RGM. Their simple presence, however, does not attest to resistance, and therefore their diversity, function and expression merit further research. PMID:22673307

  17. Quantitative Imaging of Rapidly Decaying Evanescent Fields Using Plasmonic Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhen; Ahn, Phillip; Dong, Biqin; Balogun, Oluwaseyi; Sun, Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Non-propagating evanescent fields play an important role in the development of nano-photonic devices. While detecting the evanescent fields in far-field can be accomplished by coupling it to the propagating waves, in practice they are measured in the presence of unwanted propagating background components. It leads to a poor signal-to-noise ratio and thus to errors in quantitative analysis of the local evanescent fields. Here we report on a plasmonic near-field scanning optical microscopy (p-NSOM) technique that incorporates a nanofocusing probe for adiabatic focusing of propagating surface plasmon polaritons at the probe apex, and for enhanced coupling of evanescent waves to the far-field. In addition, a harmonic demodulation technique is employed to suppress the contribution of the background. Our experimental results show strong evidence of background free near-field imaging using the new p-NSOM technique. Furthermore, we present measurements of surface plasmon cavity modes, and quantify their contributing sources using an analytical model. PMID:24076563

  18. Rapid Field Measurement of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Based on CO{sub 2} Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    VESPER, DJ, Edenborn, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) is commonly measured in water and is an important parameter for understanding carbonate equilibrium, carbon cycling, and water-rock interaction. While accurate measurements can be made in the analytical laboratory, we have developed a rapid, portable technique that can be used to obtain accurate and precise data in the field as well.

  19. Photometric light curves for ten rapidly rotating stars in Alpha Persei, the Pleiades, and the field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, Charles F.; Schild, Rudolph E.; Stauffer, John R.; Jones, Burton F.

    1993-01-01

    We present the results from a photometric monitoring program of ten rapidly rotating stars observed during 1991 using the FLWO 48-in. telescope. Brightness variations for an additional six cluster stars observed with the Lick 40-in. telescope are also given. The periods and light curves for seven Alpha Persei members, two Pleiades members, and one naked T Tauri field star are reported.

  20. Rapid field assessment of RO desalination of brackish agricultural drainage water.

    PubMed

    Thompson, John; Rahardianto, Anditya; Gu, Han; Uchymiak, Michal; Bartman, Alex; Hedrick, Marcos; Lara, David; Cooper, Jim; Faria, Jose; Christofides, Panagiotis D; Cohen, Yoram

    2013-05-15

    Rapid field evaluation of RO feed filtration requirements, selection of effective antiscalant type and dose, and estimation of suitable scale-free RO recovery level were demonstrated using a novel approach based on direct observation of mineral scaling and flux decline measurements, utilizing an automated Membrane Monitor (MeMo). The MeMo, operated in a stand-alone single-pass desalting mode, enabled rapid assessment of the adequacy of feed filtration by enabling direct observation of particulate deposition on the membrane surface. The diagnostic field study with RO feed water of high mineral scaling propensity revealed (via direct MeMo observation) that suspended particulates (even for feed water of turbidity <1 NTU) could serve as seeds for promoting surface crystal nucleation. With feed filtration optimized, a suitable maximum RO water recovery, with complete mineral scale suppression facilitated by an effective antiscalant dose, can be systematically and directly identified (via MeMo) in the field for a given feed water quality. Scale-free operating conditions, determined via standalone MeMo rapid diagnostic tests, were shown to be applicable to spiral-would RO system as validated via both flux decline measurements and ex-situ RO plant membrane scale monitoring. It was shown that the present approach is suitable for rapid field assessment of RO operability and it is particularly advantageous when evaluating water sources of composition that may vary both temporally and across the regions of interest. PMID:23538039

  1. Rapid, Non-Destructive Estimation of Leaf Area on Field-Grown Vitis labruscana Grapevines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three potential variables, shoot basal diameter, leaf count per shoot and shoot length, were examined as potential rapid, non-destructive methods for estimating leaf area per shoot, a frequent component of estimates of leaf area per vine. The metrics were recorded in large field-grown vines over fi...

  2. Standing Helicon Wave Induced by a Rapidly Bent Magnetic Field in Plasmas.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kazunori; Takayama, Sho; Komuro, Atsushi; Ando, Akira

    2016-04-01

    An electron energy probability function and a rf magnetic field are measured in a rf hydrogen helicon source, where axial and transverse static magnetic fields are applied to the source by solenoids and to the diffusion chamber by filter magnets, respectively. It is demonstrated that the helicon wave is reflected by the rapidly bent magnetic field and the resultant standing wave heats the electrons between the source and the magnetic filter, while the electron cooling effect by the magnetic filter is maintained. It is interpreted that the standing wave is generated by the presence of a spatially localized change of a refractive index. PMID:27081982

  3. Draft Genome Sequences of Five Rapidly Growing Mycobacterium Species, M. thermoresistibile, M. fortuitum subsp. acetamidolyticum, M. canariasense, M. brisbanense, and M. novocastrense

    PubMed Central

    Katahira, Katsuyuki; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Gotoh, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequences of five rapidly growing Mycobacterium (RGM) species potentially pathogenic to humans, M. thermoresistibile, M. fortuitum subsp. acetamidolyticum, M. canariasense, M. brisbanense, and M. novocastrense. As the clinical importance of RGMs is increasingly being recognized worldwide, these sequences would contribute to further advances in RGM research. PMID:27231354

  4. Rapid high temperature field test method for evaluation of geothermal calcite scale inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Asperger, R.G.

    1982-08-01

    A test method is described which allows the rapid field testing of calcite scale inhibitors in high- temperature geothermal brines. Five commercial formulations, chosen on the basis of laboratory screening tests, were tested in brines with low total dissolved solids at ca 500 F. Four were found to be effective; of these, 2 were found to be capable of removing recently deposited scale. One chemical was tested in the full-flow brine line for 6 wks. It was shown to stop a severe surface scaling problem at the well's control valve, thus proving the viability of the rapid test method. (12 refs.)

  5. Flood hazard and a rapidly growing capital in the floodplain: Social response on major 18th-century Danube floods in Pest (East-Budapest)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Due to its floodplain location, Pest was especially prone to damages caused by great flood events. Before water regulation works, the greatest flood events, and the highest rate of destruction occurred during ice jam floods. Whereas in the first half of the 18th century Pest is restricted to the medieval downtown located on a higher terrain (Danube terrace), from the mid 18th century onwards the rapidly growing population established suburbs around the downtown in the lower-lying flood plain. Thus, while in the first half of the century floods were more dangerous for the harvest in the agricultural lands, in the second half of the century at the same place suburbs, urban areas with thousands of inhabitants were prone to the same danger. In the first half of the century at least three particularly large flood events, in 1712, 1732 and 1744, caused increasing problems in the close vicinity of the town (and its lands), the second half of the century - as part of a climatic anomaly (Maldá) famous of its weather extremes - was characterised by two extreme (in 1775 and 1799), at least two larger (1789 and 1795) and some more, medium-sized ice jam floods. While in terms of damaged houses the loss was only some dozens in the early part of the century, several hundreds of houses - actually, complete suburbs were erased by floods in 1775 and 1799. In the poster presentation a series of known damaging 18th-century floods, occurred at Pest, is presented, the short-term impacts (e.g. damages), and medium-, long-term administrative responses as well as related long-term landscape changes influenced by floods and flood protection are discussed. Another important aim of the poster is to present the main reasons why in the 18th century these great ice jam floods caused much greater damages (e.g. percentage of collapsed houses in suburbs) in Pest protected by dams than, for example, in the Buda suburbs with no dams, partly also located in high flood-risk areas, in the immediate

  6. Solute trapping in rapid solidification of a binary dilute system: a phase-field study.

    PubMed

    Galenko, P K; Abramova, E V; Jou, D; Danilov, D A; Lebedev, V G; Herlach, D M

    2011-10-01

    The phase-field model of Echebarria, Folch, Karma, and Plapp [Phys. Rev. E 70, 061604 (2004)] is extended to the case of rapid solidification in which local nonequilibrium phenomena occur in the bulk phases and within the diffuse solid-liquid interface. Such an extension leads to the fully hyperbolic system of equations given by the atomic diffusion equation and the phase-field equation of motion. This model is applied to the problem of solute trapping, which is accompanied by the entrapment of solute atoms beyond chemical equilibrium by a rapidly moving interface. The model predicts the beginning of complete solute trapping and diffusionless solidification at a finite solidification velocity equal to the diffusion speed in bulk liquid. PMID:22181123

  7. Onset of rapid mass loss in cool giant stars - Magnetic field effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullan, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    The possibility that closed magnetic field loops exist in steady state in stellar atmospheres in the HR diagram is examined. A model derived by Pneuman (1968) for helmet streamers in the solar corona is applied using a semi-empirical technique, to find that long-lived closed loops exist only below a certain boundary in the HR diagram. The region below this boundary is occupied by stars which are known to have hot coronae and slow mass loss. It is suggested that rapid mass loss sets in when closed field loops can no longer exist in steady state in the atmosphere.

  8. Phase-field investigation on the non-equilibrium interface dynamics of rapid alloy solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jeong Yun

    The departure from the equilibrium solid concentration at the solid-liquid interface was often observed during rapid solidification. The energetic associated non-equilibrium solute partitioning has been treated in detail, providing possible ranges of interface concentrations for a given growth condition. For analytical description of specific single-phase dendritic and cellular operating point selection, analytical models for solute partitioning under a given set of growth conditions have been developed and widely utilized in most of the theoretical investigations of rapid solidification. However, these solute trapping models are not rigorously verified due to the difficulty in experimentally measuring under rapid growth conditions. Moreover, since these solute trapping models include kinetic parameters which are difficult to directly measure from experiments, application of the solute trapping models or the associated analytic rapid solidification model is limited. These theoretical models for steady state rapid solidification which incorporate the solute trapping models do not describe the interdependency of solute diffusion, interface kinetics, and alloy thermodynamics. This research program is focused on critical issues that represent conspicuous gaps in current understanding of rapid solidification, limiting our ability to predict and control microstructural evolution at high undercooling, where conditions depart significantly from local equilibrium. Through careful application of phase-field modeling, using appropriate thin-interface and anti-trapping corrections and addressing important details such as transient effects and a velocity-dependent numerics, the current analysis provides a reasonable simulation-based picture of non-equilibrium solute partitioning and the corresponding oscillatory dynamics associated with single-phase rapid solidification and show that this method is a suitable means for a self-consistent simulation of transient behavior and

  9. Rapid measurements of heterogeneity in sandstones using low-field nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Jonathan

    2014-03-01

    Sandstone rocks can contain microscopic variations in composition that complicate interpretation of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation time measurements. In this work, methods for assessing the degree of sample heterogeneity are demonstrated in three sandstones. A two-dimensional T1-Δχapp correlation (where Δχapp is the apparent solid/liquid magnetic susceptibility contrast) reveals the microscopic heterogeneity in composition, whilst a spatially resolved T1 profile reveals the macroscopic structural heterogeneity. To perform these measurements efficiently, a rapid measure of longitudinal T1 relaxation time has been implemented on a low-field NMR spectrometer with a magnetic field strength B0=0.3 T. The “double-shot” T1 pulse sequence is appropriate for analysis of porous materials in general. Example relaxation time distributions are presented for doped water phantoms to validate the method. The acquisition time of the double-shot T1 sequence is equivalent to the single-shot Carr-Purcell Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequence used routinely in petrophysics to measure transverse T2 relaxation. Rapid T1 measurements enable practical studies of core plugs at magnetic field strengths previously considered inappropriate, as T1 is independent of molecular diffusion through pore-scale (internal) magnetic field gradients.

  10. Are BVOC exchanges in agricultural ecosystems overestimated? Insights from fluxes measured in a maize field over a whole growing season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachy, Aurélie; Aubinet, Marc; Schoon, Niels; Amelynck, Crist; Bodson, Bernard; Moureaux, Christine; Heinesch, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    Maize is the most important C4 crop worldwide. It is also the second most important crop worldwide (C3 and C4 mixed), and is a dominant crop in some world regions. Therefore, it can potentially influence local climate and air quality through its exchanges of gases with the atmosphere. Among others, biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) are known to influence the atmospheric composition and thereby modify greenhouse gases lifetime and pollutant formation in the atmosphere. However, so far, only two studies have dealt with BVOC exchanges from maize. Moreover, these studies were conducted on a limited range of meteorological and phenological conditions, so that the knowledge of BVOC exchanges by this crop remains poor. Here, we present the first BVOC measurement campaign performed at ecosystem-scale on a maize field during a whole growing season. It was carried out in the Lonzée Terrestrial Observatory (LTO), an ICOS site. BVOC fluxes were measured by the disjunct by mass-scanning eddy covariance technique with a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer for BVOC mixing ratios measurements. Outstanding results are (i) BVOC exchanges from soil were as important as BVOC exchanges from maize itself; (ii) BVOC exchanges observed on our site were much lower than exchanges observed by other maize studies, even under normalized temperature and light conditions, (iii) they were also lower than those observed on other crops grown in Europe. Lastly (iv), BVOC exchanges observed on our site under standard environmental conditions, i.e., standard emission factors SEF, were much lower than those currently considered by BVOC exchange up-scaling models. From those observations, we deduced that (i) soil BVOC exchanges should be better understood and should be incorporated in terrestrial BVOC exchanges models, and that (ii) SEF for the C4 crop plant functional type cannot be evaluated at global scale but should be determined for each important agronomic and pedo-climatic region

  11. Obesity reduces bone density through activation of PPAR gamma and suppression of Wnt/Beta-Catenin in rapidly growing male rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relationship between obesity and skeletal development remains largely ambiguous. In this report, total enteral nutrition (TEN) was used to feed growing male rats intragastrically, with a high 45% fat diet (HFD) to induce obesity. We found that fat mass was increased (P<0.05) compared to rats fed...

  12. Rapid arsenite oxidation by Thermus aquaticus and Thermus thermophilus: Field and laboratory investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gihring, T.M.; Druschel, G.K.; McCleskey, R.B.; Hamers, R.J.; Banfield, J.F.

    2001-01-01

    Thermus aquaticus and Thermus thermophilus, common inhabitants of terrestrial hot springs and thermally polluted domestic and industrial waters, have been found to rapidly oxidize arsenite to arsenate. Field investigations at a hot spring in Yellowstone National Park revealed conserved total arsenic transport and rapid arsenite oxidation occurring within the drainage channel. This environment was heavily colonized by Thermus aquaticus. In laboratory experiments, arsenite oxidation by cultures of Thermus aquaticus YT1 (previously isolated from Yellowstone National Park) and Thermus thermophilus HB8 was accelerated by a factor of over 100 relative to abiotic controls. Thermus aquaticus and Thermus thermophilus may therefore play a large and previously unrecognized role in determining arsenic speciation and bioavailability in thermal environments.

  13. Test plan for preparing the Rapid Transuranic Monitoring Laboratory for field deployment

    SciTech Connect

    McIsaac, C.V.; Sill, C.W.; Gehrke, R.J.; Killian, E.W.; Watts, K.D.

    1994-04-01

    This plan describes experimental work that will be performed during fiscal year 1994 to prepare the Rapid Transuranic Monitoring Laboratory (RTML) for routine field use by US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management programs. The RTML is a mobile, field-deployable laboratory developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) that provides a rapid, cost-effective means of characterizing and monitoring radioactive waste remediation sites for low-level radioactive contaminants. Analytical instruments currently installed in the RTML include an extended-range, germanium photon analysis spectrometer with an automatic sample changer; two, large-area, ionization chamber alpha spectrometers; and four alpha continuous air monitors. The RTML was field tested at the INEL during June 1993 in conjunction with the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration`s remote retrieval demonstration. The major tasks described in this test plan are to (a) evaluate the beta detectors for use in screening soil samples for {sup 90}Sr, (b) upgrade the alpha spectral analysis software programs, and (c) upgrade the photon spectral analysis software programs.

  14. Eat, Grow, Lead 4-H: An Innovative Approach to Deliver Campus- Based Field Experiences to Pre-Entry Extension Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Penny Pennington; Weeks, William G.

    2012-01-01

    Eat, Grow, Lead 4-H Club was created as a pilot program for college students seeking to gain experience as non-formal youth educators, specifically serving pre-entry level Extension educators through a university-based 4-H club. Seventeen student volunteers contributed an estimated 630 hours of service to the club during spring 2011. The club…

  15. Comparison of two rapid test procedures with the standard EC test recovery of fecal coliform bacteria from shellfish-growing waters.

    PubMed

    Hunt, D A; Springer, J

    1978-11-01

    A study was conducted to compare recovery and enumeration capability of two 24-hr multitube fermentation tests with the standard EC test for fecal coliform levels in shellfish-growing waters. The 2 tests were the A-1 test developed by Andrews and Presnell, specifying 24-hr incubation in A-1 medium at 44.5 degree C; and a modification of the A-1 test requiring a 3-hr resuscitation of 35 degree C before incubation at 44.5 degree C for 21 hr. Fifteen State, Federal, and Provincial laboratories examined 10 routine shellfish-growing area samples per month in parallel by the 3 methods for 1 year. IMViC tests (indole, methyl red, Voges-Proskauer, and citrate) were conducted on all gas-positive tubes. The modified A-1 test recovered higher levels of fecal coliforms than the A-1 test. Although there were seasonal and geographic variations in recovery and enumeration by the modified A-1 test, overall there was good correlation of the modified A-1 test with the EC test. Both the A-1 and modified A-1 tests were more specific for Escherichia coli than the EC test. Results of the study indicate that the 24-hr modified A-1 test can be used as an alterantive test for the standard 72-hr EC test as an adjunct to the sanitary survey for the classification and control of shellfish-growing areas waters. PMID:365853

  16. Phase-field investigation on the non-equilibrium interface dynamics of rapid alloy solidification

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jeong

    2011-01-01

    The research program reported here is focused on critical issues that represent conspicuous gaps in current understanding of rapid solidification, limiting our ability to predict and control microstructural evolution (i.e. morphological dynamics and microsegregation) at high undercooling, where conditions depart significantly from local equilibrium. More specifically, through careful application of phase-field modeling, using appropriate thin-interface and anti-trapping corrections and addressing important details such as transient effects and a velocity-dependent (i.e. adaptive) numerics, the current analysis provides a reasonable simulation-based picture of non-equilibrium solute partitioning and the corresponding oscillatory dynamics associated with single-phase rapid solidification and show that this method is a suitable means for a self-consistent simulation of transient behavior and operating point selection under rapid growth conditions. Moving beyond the limitations of conventional theoretical/analytical treatments of non-equilibrium solute partitioning, these results serve to substantiate recent experimental findings and analytical treatments for single-phase rapid solidification. The departure from the equilibrium solid concentration at the solid-liquid interface was often observed during rapid solidification, and the energetic associated non-equilibrium solute partitioning has been treated in detail, providing possible ranges of interface concentrations for a given growth condition. Use of these treatments for analytical description of specific single-phase dendritic and cellular operating point selection, however, requires a model for solute partitioning under a given set of growth conditions. Therefore, analytical solute trapping models which describe the chemical partitioning as a function of steady state interface velocities have been developed and widely utilized in most of the theoretical investigations of rapid solidification. However, these

  17. Continuous Magnetic Field Monitoring Using Rapid Re-Excitation of NMR Probe Sets.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Benjamin E; Brunner, David O; Wilm, Bertram J; Barmet, Christoph; Pruessmann, Klaas P

    2016-06-01

    MRI relies on static and spatially varying dynamic magnetic fields of high accuracy. NMR field probes permit the direct observation of spatiotemporal field dynamics for diverse purposes such as data correction, field control, sequence validation, and hardware characterization. However, due to probe signal decay and dephasing existing field cameras are limited in terms of readout duration and the extent of k -space that can be covered. The present work aims to overcome these limitations by the transition to short-lived NMR probes and rapid re-excitation. The proposed approach uses probes with T 2 so short that thermal relaxation dominates signal decay even in the presence of strongest gradients. They are integrated with transmit, receive and sequencing electronics that permit high-rate re-excitation with optional probe alternation as well as complementary RF pulse recording. The system is demonstrated by monitoring of sample MRI sequences with long readouts and large gradient moments. It is compared with the conventional long-lived probe concept and characterized in terms of net sensitivity and sources of systematic error. Continuous k -space trajectory mapping is demonstrated and validated by trajectory-based image reconstruction. PMID:26742126

  18. A Rapid, Fluorescence-Based Field Screening Technique for Organic Species in Soil and Water Matrices.

    PubMed

    Russell, Amber L; Martin, David P; Cuddy, Michael F; Bednar, Anthony J

    2016-06-01

    Real-time detection of hydrocarbon contaminants in the environment presents analytical challenges because traditional laboratory-based techniques are cumbersome and not readily field portable. In the current work, a method for rapid and semi-quantitative detection of organic contaminants, primarily crude oil, in natural water and soil matrices has been developed. Detection limits in the parts per million and parts per billion were accomplished when using visual and digital detection methods, respectively. The extraction technique was modified from standard methodologies used for hydrocarbon analysis and provides a straight-forward separation technique that can remove interference from complex natural constituents. For water samples this method is semi-quantitative, with recoveries ranging from 70 % to 130 %, while measurements of soil samples are more qualitative due to lower extraction efficiencies related to the limitations of field-deployable procedures. PMID:26988223

  19. Discovery of a strong magnetic field in the rapidly rotating B2Vn star HR 7355

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oksala, M. E.; Wade, G. A.; Marcolino, W. L. F.; Grunhut, J.; Bohlender, D.; Manset, N.; Townsend, R. H. D.; Mimes Collaboration

    2010-06-01

    We report the detection of a strong, organized magnetic field in the He-variable early B-type star HR 7355 using spectropolarimetric data obtained with ESPaDOnS on the 3.6-m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope within the context of the Magnetism in Massive Stars (MiMeS) Large Program. HR 7355 is both the most rapidly rotating known main-sequence magnetic star and the most rapidly rotating He-strong star, with v sin i = 300 +/- 15 km s-1 and a rotational period of 0.5214404+/-0.0000006 d. We have modelled our eight longitudinal magnetic field measurements assuming an oblique dipole magnetic field. Constraining the inclination of the rotation axis to be between 38° and 86°, we find the magnetic obliquity angle to be between 30° and 85°, and the polar strength of the magnetic field at the stellar surface to be between 13-17 kG. The photometric light curve constructed from HIPPARCOS archival data and new CTIO measurements shows two minima separated by 0.5 in rotational phase and occurring 0.25 cycles before/after the magnetic extrema. This photometric behaviour, coupled with previously reported variable emission of the Hα line (which we confirm), strongly supports the proposal that HR 7355 harbours a structured magnetosphere similar to that in the prototypical He-strong star, σ Ori E. Based on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France and the University of Hawaii.

  20. Rapid 3-D forward modeling of gravity and gravity gradient tensor fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longwei, C.; Dai, S.; Zhang, Q.

    2014-12-01

    Three-dimensional inversion are the key process in gravity exploration. In the commonly used scheme of inversion, the subsurface of the earth is usually divided into many small prism blocks (or grids) with variable density values. A key task in gravity inversion is to calculate the composite fields (gravity and gravity gradient tensor) generated by all these grids, this is known as forward modeling. In general forward modeling is memory-demanding and time-consuming. One scheme to rapidly calculate the fields is to implement it in Fourier domain and use fast Fourier transform algorithm. The advantage of the Fourier domain method is, obviously, much faster. However, the intrinsic edge effect of the Fourier domain method degrades the precision of the calculated fields. We have developed an innovative scheme to directly calculate the fields in spatial domain. There are two key points in this scheme. One key point is spatial discretization. Spatial convolution formula is discretized using an approach similar to normal difference method. A key idea during discretization is to use the analytical formula of a cubic prism, and this makes the resultant discrete formula have clear physical meaning: it embodies the superposition principle of the fields and is the exact formula to calculate the fields generated by all grids. The discretization only requires the grids have the same dimension in horizontal directions, and grids in different layers may have different dimension in vertical direction, and this offers more flexibility for inversion. Another key point is discrete convolution calculation. We invoke a high efficient two-dimensional discrete convolution algorithm, and it guarantees both time-saving and memory-saving. Its memory cost has the same order as the number of grids. Numerical test result shows that for a model with a dimension of 1000x1000x201 grids, it takes about 300s to calculate the fields on 1000x1000 field points in a personal computer with 3.4-GHz CPU

  1. Rapid Radiofrequency Field Mapping In Vivo Using Single-Shot STEAM MRI

    PubMed Central

    Helms, Gunther; Finsterbusch, Jürgen; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Dechent, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Higher field strengths entail less homogeneous RF fields. This may influence quantitative MRI and MRS. A method for rapidly mapping the RF field in the human head with minimal distortion was developed on the basis of a single-shot stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM) sequence. The flip angle of the second RF pulse in the STEAM preparation was set to 60° and 100° instead of 90°, inducing a flip angle-dependent signal change. A quadratic approximation of this trigonometric signal dependence together with a calibration accounting for slice excitation-related bias allowed for directly determining the RF field from the two measurements only. RF maps down to the level of the medulla could be obtained in less than 1 min and registered to anatomical volumes by means of the T2-weighted STEAM images. Flip angles between 75% and 125% of the nominal value were measured in line with other methods. Magn Reson Med 60:739–743, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:18727090

  2. Rapid assessment: an international review of diffusion, practice and outcomes in the substance use field.

    PubMed

    Fitch, Chris; Stimson, Gerry V; Rhodes, Tim; Poznyak, Vladimir

    2004-11-01

    'Rapid assessment' (RA) methods have the potential to generate important public health information. This potential is now the subject of debate within the substance use field. Despite this, much remains unknown about the application and outcomes of RAs on substance use, a situation compounded by the absence of published studies. Consequently, we undertook a retrospective review of the use of RA in the substance use field drawing on three methods: literature review (n=300 published and unpublished documents); survey of RA practitioners/commissioners (n=1200 contacts); in-depth expert consultation (n=10 interviews). Study findings indicated: (i) earliest identified RAs were conducted in 1993, with 83 identified studies conducted by 2001; (ii) RAs have been conducted in 70 countries, with seven out of 10 assessments undertaken between 1998 and 2001; (iii) RAs were reported as taking 9-486 days (69 weeks) to complete; and (iv) important outcomes can follow RA on substance use--one in two studies were followed by medical or non-medical interventions, workshops, training, policy change, community participation, network building, or other outcomes (45/83; 54%), whilst more than one in four RAs were followed by medical and non-medical interventions, or policy impact and change (25/83; 30%). In conclusion, we argue that to fully realise the potential of RA in the substance use field, investment has to be made in RA's evidence and knowledge base: in short, a culture of learning, reflection and discussion has to be introduced into a methodology currently premised on rapidity and pragmatism. PMID:15312917

  3. Two-dimensional shear bands growing dynamically in plates: An investigation of transient deformation fields, temperature fields and shear band toughness

    SciTech Connect

    Rosakis, A.J.

    1995-12-31

    The phenomenon of dynamic initiation and propagation of two-dimensional adiabatic shear bands is experimentally and numerically investigated. Prenotched metal plates are subjected to asymmetric impact load histories (dynamic mode-II loading). Dynamic shear bands emanate from the notch-tip and propagate rapidly in a direction nearly parallel to the direction of impact. Real time temperature histories along a line intersecting and perpendicular to the shear band paths are recorded by means of a high speed infrared detector system. The materials studied are C-300 (a maraging steel), HY-100 steel and Ti-6Al-4V. Experiments show that the peak temperatures inside the propagating shear bands are approaching 90% of the melting point for C-300 and are significantly lower for the titanium alloy (up to 6000C). Additionally, measured distances of shear band propagation indicate stronger resistance to shear banding by HY-100 steel and Ti-6Al-4V. Deformation fields around the propagating shear band are recorded using high speed photography. Shear band speeds are found to strongly depend on impact velocity are as high as 1200 m/s for C-300 steel. Finite element simulations of the experiment are carried out under the context of plane strain, considering finite deformations, inertia, heat conduction, thermal softening, strain hardening and strain-rate hardening. In the simulations, the shear band propagation is assumed to be governed by a critical plastic strain criterion. The results are compared with experimental measurements obtained using the high speed infrared detectors and high speed photography. Finally, the numerical calculations are used to investigate motions of shear band toughness. The shear band driving force is calculated as a function of shear band velocity and compared to the crack driving force versus velocity relations for mode-I, opening cracks in the same material.

  4. Recommendations for Guidelines for Environment-Specific Magnetic-Field Measurements, Rapid Program Engineering Project #2

    SciTech Connect

    Electric Research and Management, Inc.; IIT Research Institute; Magnetic Measurements; Survey Research Center, University of California; T. Dan Bracken, Inc.

    1997-03-11

    The purpose of this project was to document widely applicable methods for characterizing the magnetic fields in a given environment, recognizing the many sources co-existing within that space. The guidelines are designed to allow the reader to follow an efficient process to (1) plan the goals and requirements of a magnetic-field study, (2) develop a study structure and protocol, and (3) document and carry out the plan. These guidelines take the reader first through the process of developing a basic study strategy, then through planning and performing the data collection. Last, the critical factors of data management, analysis reporting, and quality assurance are discussed. The guidelines are structured to allow the researcher to develop a protocol that responds to specific site and project needs. The Research and Public Information Dissemination Program (RAPID) is based on exposure to magnetic fields and the potential health effects. Therefore, the most important focus for these magnetic-field measurement guidelines is relevance to exposure. The assumed objective of an environment-specific measurement is to characterize the environment (given a set of occupants and magnetic-field sources) so that information about the exposure of the occupants may be inferred. Ideally, the researcher seeks to obtain complete or "perfect" information about these magnetic fields, so that personal exposure might also be modeled perfectly. However, complete data collection is not feasible. In fact, it has been made more difficult as the research field has moved to expand the list of field parameters measured, increasing the cost and complexity of performing a measurement and analyzing the data. The guidelines address this issue by guiding the user to design a measurement protocol that will gather the most exposure-relevant information based on the locations of people in relation to the sources. We suggest that the "microenvironment" become the base unit of area in a study, with

  5. Spatiotemporal variations in growing season exchanges of CO2, H2O,and sensible heat in agricultural fields of the Southern GreatPlains

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Marc L.; Billesbach, David P.; Berry, Joseph A.; Riley,William J.; Torn, Margaret S.

    2007-06-13

    Climate, vegetation cover, and management create fine-scaleheterogeneity in unirrigated agricultural regions, with important but notwell-quantified consequences for spatial and temporal variations insurface CO2, water, and heat fluxes. We measured eddy covariance fluxesin seven agricultural fields--comprising winter wheat, pasture, andsorghum--in the U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP) during the 2001-2003growing seasons. Land-cover was the dominant source of variation insurface fluxes, with 50-100 percent differences between fields planted inwinter-spring versus fields planted in summer. Interannual variation wasdriven mainly by precipitation, which varied more than two-fold betweenyears. Peak aboveground biomass and growing-season net ecosystem exchange(NEE) of CO2 increased in rough proportion to precipitation. Based on apartitioning of gross fluxes with a regression model, ecosystemrespiration increased linearly with gross primary production, but with anoffset that increased near the time of seed production. Because theregression model was designed for well-watered periods, it successfullyretrieved NEE and ecosystem parameters during the peak growing season,and identified periods of moisture limitation during the summer. Insummary, the effects of crop type, land management, and water limitationon carbon, water, and energy fluxes were large. Capturing the controllingfactors in landscape scale models will be necessary to estimate theecological feedbacks to climate and other environmental impactsassociated with changing human needs for agricultural production of food,fiber, and energy.

  6. Strong-field dynamo action in rapidly rotating convection with no inertia.

    PubMed

    Hughes, David W; Cattaneo, Fausto

    2016-06-01

    The earth's magnetic field is generated by dynamo action driven by convection in the outer core. For numerical reasons, inertial and viscous forces play an important role in geodynamo models; however, the primary dynamical balance in the earth's core is believed to be between buoyancy, Coriolis, and magnetic forces. The hope has been that by setting the Ekman number to be as small as computationally feasible, an asymptotic regime would be reached in which the correct force balance is achieved. However, recent analyses of geodynamo models suggest that the desired balance has still not yet been attained. Here we adopt a complementary approach consisting of a model of rapidly rotating convection in which inertial forces are neglected from the outset. Within this framework we are able to construct a branch of solutions in which the dynamo generates a strong magnetic field that satisfies the expected force balance. The resulting strongly magnetized convection is dramatically different from the corresponding solutions in which the field is weak. PMID:27415196

  7. Rapid, high-temperature, field test method for evaluation of geothermal calcium carbonate scale inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Asperger, R.G.

    1986-09-01

    A new test method is described that allows the rapid field testing of calcium carbonate scale inhibitors at 500/sup 0/F (260/sup 0/C). The method evolved from use of a full-flow test loop on a well with a mass flow rate of about 1 x 10/sup 6/ lbm/hr (126 kg/s). It is a simple, effective way to evaluate the effectiveness of inhibitors under field conditions. Five commercial formulations were chosen for field evaluation on the basis of nonflowing, laboratory screening tests at 500/sup 0/F (260/sup 0/C). Four of these formulations from different suppliers controlled calcium carbonate scale deposition as measured by the test method. Two of these could dislodge recently deposited scale that had not age-hardened. Performance-profile diagrams, which were measured for these four effective inhibitors, show the concentration interrelationship between brine calcium and inhibitor concentrations at which the formulations will and will not stop scale formation in the test apparatus. With these diagrams, one formulation was chosen for testing on the full-flow brine line. The composition was tested for 6 weeks and showed a dramatic decrease in the scaling occurring at the flow-control valve. This scaling was about to force a shutdown of a major, long-term flow test being done for reservoir economic evaluations. The inhibitor stopped the scaling, and the test was performed without interruption.

  8. Strong-field dynamo action in rapidly rotating convection with no inertia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, David W.; Cattaneo, Fausto

    2016-06-01

    The earth's magnetic field is generated by dynamo action driven by convection in the outer core. For numerical reasons, inertial and viscous forces play an important role in geodynamo models; however, the primary dynamical balance in the earth's core is believed to be between buoyancy, Coriolis, and magnetic forces. The hope has been that by setting the Ekman number to be as small as computationally feasible, an asymptotic regime would be reached in which the correct force balance is achieved. However, recent analyses of geodynamo models suggest that the desired balance has still not yet been attained. Here we adopt a complementary approach consisting of a model of rapidly rotating convection in which inertial forces are neglected from the outset. Within this framework we are able to construct a branch of solutions in which the dynamo generates a strong magnetic field that satisfies the expected force balance. The resulting strongly magnetized convection is dramatically different from the corresponding solutions in which the field is weak.

  9. Growing inhomogeneities in cosmological Goldstone modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, Katherine M.

    1992-08-01

    We examine the evolution of initial inhomogeneities in a Goldstone field in an expanding Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe. We find subhorizon inhomogeneities grow, relative to the homogeneous state. This stems not from growing fluctuations - which simply redshift - but from rapid (ϱ ~ a-6) decay of the homogeneous state. We show how Goldstone modes escape assumptions - some inapplicable, some ill-founded - underpinning conventional analyses of cosmological fluctuations. Finally, we reconcile our analysis to standard cosmology, noting that the Goldstone evolution is essentially decoupled and dynamical. This material is based upon work supported by NSF grants PHY-87-14654 (while the author was at Harvard University) and PHY91-06210.

  10. Directly heated high surface area solid phase microextraction sampler for rapid field forensic analyses.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Scott A; Mustacich, Robert V; Smith, Philip A; Hook, Gary L; Eckenrode, Brian A

    2009-11-01

    A high-surface area solid phase microextraction (HSA-SPME) sampler is described for dynamic sampling at high air velocities (up to several hundred centimeters per second). The sampling device consists of a thin wire coated with carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (carboxen/PDMS) material, wound in the annular space between two concentric glass tubes, providing a large trapping surface from which analytes may then be thermally desorbed with little power consumption upon resistive heating of the wire. Desorbed analytes are focused and reconcentrated on a microtrap that is subsequently resistively heated to introduce analytes for GC or GC/MS analysis. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) included in a 39-component toxic organics (TO-14) gas mixture were used to evaluate the efficiency of the HSA-SPME sampler. Quantitation of trace-level BTEX compounds present during weapons cleaning was completed using stepwise calibration. Detection limits of 0.2-6.9 pptr(v) were observed for these analytes using single ion monitoring GC/MS analysis, and an improvement in sensitivity of several orders of magnitude was achieved when compared to standard dynamic flow SPME with a commercially available 10 mm carboxen/PDMS fiber. The potential for rapid analyte uptake and improved sensitivity using the HSA-SPME design will make it possible to rapidly collect and analyze VOC samples in field settings using a portable hand-held pump and a small, low power GC/MS instrument. This system will be especially useful for situations involving forensics, public safety, and military defensive or intelligence needs where rapid, sensitive detection of airborne analytes is required. PMID:19795869

  11. Rapid and field-deployable biological and chemical Raman-based identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botonjic-Sehic, Edita; Paxon, Tracy L.; Boudries, Hacene

    2011-06-01

    Pathogen detection using Raman spectroscopy is achieved through the use of a sandwich immunoassay. Antibody-modified magnetic beads are used to capture and concentrate target analytes in solution and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) tags are conjugated with antibodies and act as labels to enable specific detection of biological pathogens. The rapid detection of biological pathogens is critical to first responders, thus assays to detect E.Coli and Anthrax have been developed and will be reported. The problems associated with pathogen detection resulting from the spectral complexity and variability of microorganisms are overcome through the use of SERS tags, which provide an intense, easily recognizable, and spectrally consistent Raman signal. The developed E. coli assay has been tested with 5 strains of E. coli and shows a low limit of detection, on the order of 10 and 100 c.f.u. per assay. Additionally, the SERS assay utilizes magnetic beads to collect the labeled pathogens into the focal point of the detection laser beam, making the assay robust to commonly encountered white powder interferants such as flour, baking powder, and corn starch. The reagents were also found to be stable at room temperature over extended periods of time with testing conducted over a one year period. Finally, through a specialized software algorithm, the assays are interfaced to the Raman instrument, StreetLab Mobile, for rapid-field-deployable biological identification.

  12. Rapid evolution of analog circuits configured on a field programmable transistor array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoica, A.; Ferguson, M. I.; Zebulum, R. S.; Keymeulen, D.; Duong, V.; Daud, T.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to illustrate evolution of analog circuits on a stand-alone board-level evolvable system (SABLES). SABLES is part of an effort to achieve integrated evolvable systems. SABLES provides autonomous, fast (tens to hundreds of seconds), on-chip circuit evolution involving about 100,000 circuit evaluations. Its main components are a JPL Field Programmable Transistor Array (FPTA) chip used as transistor-level reconfigurable hardware, and a TI DSP that implements the evolutionary algorithm controlling the FPTA reconfiguration. The paper details an example of evolution on SABLES and points out to certain transient and memory effects that affect the stability of solutions obtained reusing the same piece of hardware for rapid testing of individuals during evolution.

  13. Exterior field of slowly and rapidly rotating neutron stars: Rehabilitating spacetime metrics involving hyperextreme objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manko, V. S.; Ruiz, E.

    2016-05-01

    The 4-parameter exact solution presumably describing the exterior gravitational field of a generic neutron star is presented in a concise explicit form defined by only three potentials. In the equatorial plane, the metric functions of the solution are found to be given by particularly simple expressions that make them very suitable for the use in concrete applications. Following Pappas and Apostolatos, we perform a comparison of the multipole structure of the solution with the multipole moments of the known physically realistic Berti-Stergioulas numerical models of neutron stars to argue that the hyperextreme sectors of the solution are not less (but are possibly even more) important for the correct description of rapidly rotating neutron stars than the subextreme sector involving exclusively the black-hole constituents. We have also worked out in explicit form an exact analog of the well-known Hartle-Thorne approximate metric.

  14. Field Testing of Rapid Electrokinetic Nanoparticle Treatment for Corrosion Control of Steel in Concrete

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardenas, Henry E.; Alexander, Joshua B.; Kupwade-Patil,Kunal; Calle, Luz Marina

    2009-01-01

    This work field tested the use of electrokinetics for delivery of concrete sealing nanoparticles concurrent with the extraction of chlorides. Several cylinders of concrete were batched and placed in immersion at the Kennedy Space Center Beach Corrosion Test Site. The specimens were batched with steel reinforcement and a 4.5 wt.% (weight percent) content of sodium chloride. Upon arrival at Kennedy Space Center, the specimens were placed in the saltwater immersion pool at the Beach Corrosion Test Site. Following 30 days of saltwater exposure, the specimens were subjected to rapid chloride extraction concurrent with electrokinetic nanoparticle treatment. The treatments were operated at up to eight times the typical current density in order to complete the treatment in 7 days. The findings indicated that the short-term corrosion resistance of the concrete specimens was significantly enhanced as was the strength of the concrete.

  15. Comparative evaluation of two rapid field tests for malaria diagnosis: Partec Rapid Malaria Test® and Binax Now® Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background About 90% of all malaria deaths in sub-Saharan Africa occur in children under five years. Fast and reliable diagnosis of malaria requires confirmation of the presence of malaria parasites in the blood of patients with fever or history suggestive of malaria; hence a prompt and accurate diagnosis of malaria is the key to effective disease management. Confirmation of malaria infection requires the availability of a rapid, sensitive, and specific testing at an affordable cost. We compared two recent methods (the novel Partec Rapid Malaria Test® (PT) and the Binax Now® Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test (BN RDT) with the conventional Giemsa stain microscopy (GM) for the diagnosis of malaria among children in a clinical laboratory of a hospital in a rural endemic area of Ghana. Methods Blood samples were collected from 263 children admitted with fever or a history of fever to the pediatric clinic of the Agogo Presbyterian Hospital. The three different test methods PT, BN RDT and GM were performed independently by well trained and competent laboratory staff to assess the presence of malaria parasites. Results were analyzed and compared using GM as the reference standard. Results In 107 (40.7%) of 263 study participants, Plasmodium sp. was detected by GM. PT and BN RDT showed positive results in 111 (42.2%) and 114 (43.4%), respectively. Compared to GM reference standard, the sensitivities of the PT and BN RDT were 100% (95% CI: 96.6-100) and 97.2% (95% CI: 92.0-99.4), respectively, specificities were 97.4% (95% CI: 93.6-99.3) and 93.6% (95% CI: 88.5-96.9), respectively. There was a strong agreement (kappa) between the applied test methods (GM vs PT: 0.97; p < 0.001 and GM vs BN RDT: 0.90; p < 0.001). The average turnaround time per tests was 17 minutes. Conclusion In this study two rapid malaria tests, PT and BN RDT, demonstrated a good quality of their performance compared to conventional GM. Both methods require little training, have short turnaround times, are

  16. Rapid tsunami models and earthquake source parameters: Far-field and local applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geist, E.L.

    2005-01-01

    Rapid tsunami models have recently been developed to forecast far-field tsunami amplitudes from initial earthquake information (magnitude and hypocenter). Earthquake source parameters that directly affect tsunami generation as used in rapid tsunami models are examined, with particular attention to local versus far-field application of those models. First, validity of the assumption that the focal mechanism and type of faulting for tsunamigenic earthquakes is similar in a given region can be evaluated by measuring the seismic consistency of past events. Second, the assumption that slip occurs uniformly over an area of rupture will most often underestimate the amplitude and leading-wave steepness of the local tsunami. Third, sometimes large magnitude earthquakes will exhibit a high degree of spatial heterogeneity such that tsunami sources will be composed of distinct sub-events that can cause constructive and destructive interference in the wavefield away from the source. Using a stochastic source model, it is demonstrated that local tsunami amplitudes vary by as much as a factor of two or more, depending on the local bathymetry. If other earthquake source parameters such as focal depth or shear modulus are varied in addition to the slip distribution patterns, even greater uncertainty in local tsunami amplitude is expected for earthquakes of similar magnitude. Because of the short amount of time available to issue local warnings and because of the high degree of uncertainty associated with local, model-based forecasts as suggested by this study, direct wave height observations and a strong public education and preparedness program are critical for those regions near suspected tsunami sources.

  17. Nuclear DNA Methylation and Chromatin Condensation Phenotypes Are Distinct Between Normally Proliferating/Aging, Rapidly Growing/Immortal, and Senescent Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gertych, Arkadiusz; Tajbakhsh, Jian

    2013-01-01

    This study reports on probing the utility of in situ chromatin texture features such as nuclear DNA methylation and chromatin condensation patterns — visualized by fluorescent staining and evaluated by dedicated three-dimensional (3D) quantitative and high-throughput cell-by-cell image analysis — in assessing the proliferative capacity, i.e. growth behavior of cells: to provide a more dynamic picture of a cell population with potential implications in basic science, cancer diagnostics/prognostics and therapeutic drug development. Two types of primary cells and four different cancer cell lines were propagated and subjected to cell-counting, flow cytometry, confocal imaging, and 3D image analysis at various points in culture. Additionally a subset of primary and cancer cells was accelerated into senescence by oxidative stress. DNA methylation and chromatin condensation levels decreased with declining doubling times when primary cells aged in culture with the lowest levels reached at the stage of proliferative senescence. In comparison, immortal cancer cells with constant but higher doubling times mostly displayed lower and constant levels of the two in situ-derived features. However, stress-induced senescent primary and cancer cells showed similar levels of these features compared with primary cells that had reached natural growth arrest. With regards to global DNA methylation and chromatin condensation levels, aggressively growing cancer cells seem to take an intermediate level between normally proliferating and senescent cells. Thus, normal cells apparently reach cancer-cell equivalent stages of the two parameters at some point in aging, which might challenge phenotypic distinction between these two types of cells. Companion high-resolution molecular profiling could provide information on possible underlying differences that would explain benign versus malign cell growth behaviors. PMID:23562889

  18. From the laboratory to the field: assaying histone methylation at FLOWERING LOCUS C in naturally growing Arabidopsis halleri.

    PubMed

    Nishio, Haruki; Buzas, Diana Mihaela; Nagano, Atsushi J; Suzuki, Yutaka; Sugano, Sumio; Ito, Motomi; Morinaga, Shin-Ichi; Kudoh, Hiroshi

    2016-07-20

    Gene regulatory mechanisms are often defined in studies performed in the laboratory but are seldom validated for natural habitat conditions, i.e., in natura. Vernalization, the promotion of flowering by winter cold, is a prominent naturally occurring phenomenon, so far best characterized using artificial warm and cold treatments. The floral inhibitor FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) gene of Arabidopsis thaliana has been identified as the central regulator of vernalization. FLC shows an idiosyncratic pattern of histone modification at different stages of cold exposure, believed to regulate transcriptional responses of FLC. Chromatin modifications, including H3K4me3 and H3K27me3, are routinely quantified using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), standardized for laboratory samples. In this report, we modified a ChIP protocol to make it suitable for analysis of field samples. We first validated candidate normalization control genes at two stages of cold exposure in the laboratory and two seasons in the field, also taking into account nucleosome density. We further describe experimental conditions for performing sampling and sample preservation in the field and demonstrate that these conditions give robust results, comparable with those from laboratory samples. The ChIP protocol incorporating these modifications, "Field ChIP", was used to initiate in natura chromatin analysis of AhgFLC, an FLC orthologue in A. halleri, of which a natural population is already under investigation. Here, we report results on levels of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 at three representative regions of AhgFLC in controlled cold and field samples, before and during cold exposure. We directly compared the results in the field with those from laboratory samples. These data revealed largely similar trends in histone modification dynamics between laboratory and field samples at AhgFLC, but also identified some possible differences. The Field ChIP method described here will facilitate comprehensive chromatin

  19. Compartmental analysis of roots in intact rapidly-growing Spergularia marina and Lactuca sativa: partial characterization of the symplasms functional in the radial transport of Na/sup +/ and K/sup +/

    SciTech Connect

    Lazof, D.B.

    1987-01-01

    Techniques of compartmental analysis were adapted to the study of intact roots of rapidly-growing Spergularia marine and Lactuca sativa. Using large numbers of plants short time-courses of uptake and chase, /sup 42/K/sup +/ and /sup 22/Na/sup +/ transport could be resolved, even during a chase following a brief 10 minute labeling period. The use of intact plant systems allowed distinction of that portion of the isotope flux into the root, associated with the ion-conducting symplasms. A small compartment, which rapidly (t/sub .5/ < 1 min) exchanges with the external medium was implicated in the radial transport of N/sup +/, accounting for the observed obtention of linear translocation rates within minutes of transferring to labeled solution. The ion contents of this compartment varied in proportion to the external ion concentration. When K/sup +/ was at a high external concentration, labeled K/sup +/ exchanged into this same symplasm, but chasing a short pulse indicated that K/sup +/ transport to the xylem was not through a rapidly-exchanging compartment. At physiological concentrations of K/sup +/ the evidence indicated that transport of K/sup +/ across the root proceeded through a compartment which was not exchanging rapidly with the external medium. The rise to a linear rate of isotope translocation was gradual and translocation during a chase, following a brief pulse,was prolonged, indicating that this compartment retained its specific activity for a considerable period.

  20. A quantitative health assessment index for rapid evaluation of fish condition in the field

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, S.M. ); Brown, A.M. ); Goede, R.W. )

    1993-01-01

    The health assessment index (HAI) is an extension and refinement of a previously published field necropsy system. The HAI is a quantitative index that allows statistical comparisons of fish health among data sets. Index variables are assigned numerical values based on the degree of severity or damage incurred by an organ or tissue from environmental stressors. This approach has been used to evaluate the general health status of fish populations in a wide range of reservoir types in the Tennessee River basin (North Carolina, Tennessee, Alabama, Kentucky), in Hartwell Reservoir (Georgia, South Carolina) that is contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls, and in the Pigeon River (Tennessee, North Carolina) that receives effluents from a bleaches kraft mill. The ability of the HAI to accurately characterize the health of fish in these systems was evaluated by comparing this index to other types of fish health measures (contaminant, bioindicator, and reproductive analysis) made at the same time as the HAI. In all cases, the HAI demonstrated the same pattern of fish health status between sites as did each of the other more sophisticated health assessment methods. The HAI has proven to be a simple and inexpensive means of rapidly assessing general fish health in field situations. 29 refs., 5 tabs.

  1. Rapid Measurements of Snow Stratigraphy Using A Portable Penetration Field Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Robert; Louge, Michel; Clifford, Kelly; Decker, Rand

    We describe a new field-portable tool for avalanche forecasting and hydrology that can rapidly generate stratigraphic profiles of density, permittivity and temperature through the snow pack. This penetration instrument consists of a wedged capacitance tip mounted at the end of a pole and a mechanical depth gauge. By appropriate place- ment of its reference, guard and sensor conductive surfaces, the instrument sheds hor- izontal electric field lines resolving horizontal snow layers of 2.5mm thickness. The probe was tested under realistically cold conditions at the mountain resort of Alta near Salt Lake City, Utah. There, it recorded the stratigraphy of the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant at 3.9kHz and the temperature through a typical winter snow pack. The portable electronics was carried in a small backpack and the depth was recorded using a rotary digital encoder in frictional contact with the pole. The profiles were automatically acquired on a hand-held Personal Digital Assistant. Using independent calibrations, measurements of the real part provided an accurate profile of density later confirmed by the conventional excavation of a detailed snow cover profile. The ratio of the imaginary and real permittivities also revealed the signature of individual snow layers that could be identified in the excavation.

  2. Growing Opuntia (cactus) and Brassica species for the long-term remediation of selenium-contaminated soil under field conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identifying alternative crops for planting in Se-containing agricultural soils of western central California will depend upon the plants’ ability to tolerate high salt and boron (B) conditions. Multi-year field studies were conducted on Se-laden soils with different cactus clones (Opuntia-ficus indi...

  3. Field-Applicable Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay for Rapid Detection of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Mingyan; O'Brien, Elizabeth; Heller, Martin; Nepper, Julia F.; Weibel, Douglas B.; Gluecks, Ilona; Younan, Mario; Frey, Joachim; Falquet, Laurent; Jores, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is a highly contagious disease caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae that affects goats in Africa and Asia. Current available methods for the diagnosis of Mycoplasma infection, including cultivation, serological assays, and PCR, are time-consuming and require fully equipped stationary laboratories, which make them incompatible with testing in the resource-poor settings that are most relevant to this disease. We report a rapid, specific, and sensitive assay employing isothermal DNA amplification using recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) for the detection of M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae. We developed the assay using a specific target sequence in M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, as found in the genome sequence of the field strain ILRI181 and the type strain F38 and that was further evidenced in 10 field strains from different geographical regions. Detection limits corresponding to 5 × 103 and 5 × 104 cells/ml were obtained using genomic DNA and bacterial culture from M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae strain ILRI181, while no amplification was obtained from 71 related Mycoplasma isolates or from the Acholeplasma or the Pasteurella isolates, demonstrating a high degree of specificity. The assay produces a fluorescent signal within 15 to 20 min and worked well using pleural fluid obtained directly from CCPP-positive animals without prior DNA extraction. We demonstrate that the diagnosis of CCPP can be achieved, with a short sample preparation time and a simple read-out device that can be powered by a car battery, in <45 min in a simulated field setting. PMID:26085615

  4. Field-Applicable Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay for Rapid Detection of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Liljander, Anne; Yu, Mingyan; O'Brien, Elizabeth; Heller, Martin; Nepper, Julia F; Weibel, Douglas B; Gluecks, Ilona; Younan, Mario; Frey, Joachim; Falquet, Laurent; Jores, Joerg

    2015-09-01

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is a highly contagious disease caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae that affects goats in Africa and Asia. Current available methods for the diagnosis of Mycoplasma infection, including cultivation, serological assays, and PCR, are time-consuming and require fully equipped stationary laboratories, which make them incompatible with testing in the resource-poor settings that are most relevant to this disease. We report a rapid, specific, and sensitive assay employing isothermal DNA amplification using recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) for the detection of M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae. We developed the assay using a specific target sequence in M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, as found in the genome sequence of the field strain ILRI181 and the type strain F38 and that was further evidenced in 10 field strains from different geographical regions. Detection limits corresponding to 5 × 10(3) and 5 × 10(4) cells/ml were obtained using genomic DNA and bacterial culture from M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae strain ILRI181, while no amplification was obtained from 71 related Mycoplasma isolates or from the Acholeplasma or the Pasteurella isolates, demonstrating a high degree of specificity. The assay produces a fluorescent signal within 15 to 20 min and worked well using pleural fluid obtained directly from CCPP-positive animals without prior DNA extraction. We demonstrate that the diagnosis of CCPP can be achieved, with a short sample preparation time and a simple read-out device that can be powered by a car battery, in <45 min in a simulated field setting. PMID:26085615

  5. Too Fast to Measure: Network Adjustment of Rapidly Changing Gravity Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, J.; Ferre, T. P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Measurements of spatially-variable gravity at the field scale are difficult; measurements of the time-varying field even more so. Every previous gravity survey using relative gravimeters—still the workhorse of gravity studies, despite their nearly 80 year history—has assumed a static gravity field during the course of a survey, which may last days to weeks. With recently-improved instrumentation, however, measurements of fields changing on the order of tens of nm/sec2 per day are now possible. In particular, the A-10 portable absolute gravimeter provides not only absolute control, but also the change in that control during the course of a survey. Using digitally-recording spring-based relative gravimeters (namely, the ZLS Burris meter and the Scintrex CG-5), with their more efficient data collection and lower drift than previous generations, many more data are collected in a day. We demonstrate a method for incorporating in the least-squares network adjustment of relative gravity data a relation between the rate of change of gravity, dg, and distance from an infiltration source, x. This relation accounts for the fact that gravity at stations adjacent to the infiltration source changes more rapidly than stations further away; if all measurements collected over several days are to be included in a single network-adjustment, consideration of this change is required. Two methods are used to simulate the dg(x) relation: a simple model where dg is a linear function of x, and a coupled-hydrogeophysical method where a groundwater flow model predicts the nonlinear spatial variation of dg. Then, the change in gravity between different, independently adjusted surveys is used to parameterize the groundwater model. Data from two recent field examples, an artificial recharge facility near Tucson, Arizona, USA, and from the 2014 Lower Colorado River pulse flow experiment, clearly show the need to account for gravity change during a survey; maximum rates of change for the two

  6. Rapid evaluation of fresh ex vivo kidney tissue with full-field optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Manu; Robinson, Brian D.; Salamoon, Bekheit; Thouvenin, Olivier; Boccara, Claude; Mukherjee, Sushmita

    2015-01-01

    Background: Full-field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT) is a real-time imaging technique that rapidly generates images reminiscent of histology without any tissue processing, warranting its exploration for evaluation of ex vivo kidney tissue. Methods: Fresh tissue sections from tumor and adjacent nonneoplastic kidney (n = 25 nephrectomy specimens; clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) = 12, papillary RCC (PRCC) = 4, chromophobe RCC (ChRCC) = 4, papillary urothelial carcinoma (PUC) = 1, angiomyolipoma (AML) = 2 and cystic nephroma = 2) were imaged with a commercial FFOCT device. Sections were submitted for routine histopathological diagnosis. Results: Glomeruli, tubules, interstitium, and blood vessels were identified in nonneoplastic tissue. In tumor sections, the normal architecture was completely replaced by either sheets of cells/trabeculae or papillary structures. The former pattern was seen predominantly in CCRCC/ChRCC and the latter in PRCC/PUC (as confirmed on H&E). Although the cellular details were not very prominent at this resolution, we could identify unique cytoplasmic signatures in some kidney tumors. For example, the hyper-intense punctate signal in the cytoplasm of CRCC represents glycogen/lipid, large cells with abundant hyper-intense cytoplasm representing histiocytes in PRCC, and signal-void large polygonal cell representing adipocytes in AML. According to a blinded analysis was performed by an uropathologist, all nonneoplastic tissues were differentiated from neoplastic tissues. Further, all benign tumors were called benign and malignant were called malignant. A diagnostic accuracy of 80% was obtained in subtyping the tumors. Conclusion: The ability of FFOCT to reliably differentiate nonneoplastic from neoplastic tissue and identify some tumor types makes it a valuable tool for rapid evaluation of ex vivo kidney tissue e.g. for intraoperative margin assessment and kidney biopsy adequacy. Recently, higher resolution images were achieved

  7. Rapid Water Uptake and Limited Storage Capacity at Height of Growing Season in Four Temperate Tree Species in a Central Pennsylvania Catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaines, K.; Meinzer, F. C.; Duffy, C.; Thomas, E.; Eissenstat, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    rapid water uptake and tree water storage limited to about a month in duration. These findings are necessary for modeling of hydrologic parameters that are influenced by tree water age. They also indicate that trees on shallow soil in this catchment may be at risk if droughts lasting over a month occur more frequently in future years.

  8. Carbonaceous Matter in Growing Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, M. V.; Stangl, C. M.; Horan, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric nanoparticles constitute the greatest portion of ambient aerosol loading by number. A major source of atmospheric nanoparticles is new particle formation (NPF), a gas to particle conversion process whereby clusters nucleate from gas phase precursors to form clusters on the order of one or a few nanometers and then grow rapidly to climatically relevant sizes. A substantial fraction of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are thought to arise from NPF. In order to better predict the frequency, growth rates, and climatic impacts of NPF, knowledge of the chemical mechanisms by which nucleated nanoparticles grow is needed. The two main contributors to particle growth are (neutralized) sulfate and carbonaceous matter. Particle growth by sulfuric acid condensation is generally well understood, though uncertainty remains about the extent of base neutralization and the relative roles of ammonia and amines. Much less is known about carbonaceous matter, and field measurements suggest that nitrogen-containing species are important. In this presentation, recent work by our group will be described that uses a combination of ambient measurements, laboratory experiments and computational work to study carbonaceous matter in growing nanoparticles. These studies span a range of particle sizes from the initial adsorption of molecules onto a nanometer-size ammonium bisulfate seed cluster to reactions in particles that are large enough to support condensed-phase chemistry.

  9. Improving our knowledge of the rapid geomagnetic field intensity variation observed in Europe around 800 AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Paccard, M.; Chauvin, A.; Lanos, P.; Dufresne, P.; Kovacheva, M.; Hill, M. J.; Beamud, E.; Gutiérrez-Lloret, S.; Cañavate, V.; Blain, S.; Bouvier, A.; Oberlin, C.; Guibert, P.; Sapin, C.; Pringent, D.

    2011-12-01

    Available European data indicate that during the past 2500 years there have been periods of rapid intensity geomagnetic fluctuations interspersed with periods of little change. The challenge now is to precisely describe these rapid changes. The aim of this study is to obtain an improved description of the sharp geomagnetic intensity change that took place in Western Europe around 800 yrs AD as well as to investigate if this peak is observed at a continental scale. For this purpose 13 precisely dated early medieval Spanish pottery fragments, 4 archeological French kilns and a 3 collections of bricks used for the construction of different historical buildings from France and with ages ranging between 330 to 1290 AD have been studied. The material collected has been dated by archeological/historical constraints together with radiocarbon,thermoluminiscence (TL) and archeomagentic analysis. From classical Thellier experiments including TRM anisotropy and cooling rate corrections upon archeointensity estimates and conducted on 164 specimens (119 of them giving reliable results) ten new high-quality mean intensities have been obtained. The new intensity data together with a selection of the most reliable data from Western Europe have been relocated to the latitude of Paris and confirm the existence of an intensity maxima of ~85 μT centred at ~850 AD and related to intensity changes up to 20 μT per century. The results also indicate that a previous abrupt intensity change (reaching a maximum value of ~ 90 μT) took place in Western Europe around 650 AD. A selection of high-quality intensity data from Bulgaria, Italy and Greece indicate a very similar intensity trend for Eastern Europe. Although available data indicate that the duration of such periods of high intensities may be of less than one century more data are needed to infer the exact duration of these maximums. A comparison between the selected data and regional and global geomagnetic field models indicates that

  10. Field-deployable colorimetric biosensor system for the rapid detection of pathogenic organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duy, Janice

    The rapid identification of pathogenic organisms is necessary for recognizing and managing human and environmental health risks. Numerous detection schemes are available, but most are difficult to employ in non-laboratory settings due to their need for bulky, specialized equipment, multiple reagents, or highly trained personnel. To address this problem, a rapid, field-compatible biosensor system based on the colorimetric detection of nucleic acid hybrids was developed. Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes were used to capture ribosomal RNA sequences from environmental samples. Non-target nucleic acids, including single-base mismatches flanked by adenines and uracils, were removed with a micrococcal nuclease digestion step. Matched PNA-RNA hybrids remained intact and were indicated by the cyanine dye DiSC2(5). PNA-containing duplexes function as templates for the aggregation of DiSC2(5), visualized as a change in solution color from blue to purple. This transition can be measured as an increase in the solution absorbance at 540 nm (dye aggregate) at the expense of the dye monomer peak at 650 nm. These concomitant spectral changes were used to calculate a "hybridization signal" using the ratio A aggregate/Amonomer ≈ A540/A650. Testing with pathogenic environmental samples was accomplished using two model organisms: the harmful algal bloom-causing dinoflagellate Alexandrium species, and the potato wart disease-causing fungus Synchytrium endobioticum. In both cases, the colorimetric approach was able to distinguish the targets with sensitivities rivaling those of established techniques, but with the advantages of decreased hands-on time and cost. Assay fieldability was tested with a portable colorimeter designed to quantify the dye-indicated hybridization signal and assembled from commercially available components. Side-by-side testing revealed no difference in the sensing performance of the colorimeter compared to a laboratory spectrophotometer (Pearson's r=0

  11. CHROMOSPHERIC RAPID BLUESHIFTED EXCURSIONS OBSERVED WITH IBIS AND THEIR ASSOCIATION WITH PHOTOSPHERIC MAGNETIC FIELD EVOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Na; Chen, Xin; Liu, Chang; Jing, Ju; Wang, Shuo; Wang, Haimin; Tritschler, Alexandra; Reardon, Kevin P.; Lamb, Derek A.; Deforest, Craig E.; Denker, Carsten; Liu, Rui

    2015-02-01

    Chromospheric rapid blueshifted excursions (RBEs) are suggested to be the disk counterparts of type II spicules at the limb and believed to contribute to the coronal heating process. Previous identification of RBEs was mainly based on feature detection using Dopplergrams. In this paper, we study RBEs on 2011 October 21 in a very quiet region at the disk center, which were observed with the high-cadence imaging spectroscopy of the Ca II 8542 Å line from the Interferometric Bidimensional Spectrometer (IBIS). By using an automatic spectral analysis algorithm, a total of 98 RBEs are identified during an 11 minute period. Most of these RBEs have either a round or elongated shape, with an average area of 1.2 arcsec{sup 2}. The detailed temporal evolution of spectra from IBIS makes possible a quantitative determination of the velocity (∼16 km s{sup –1}) and acceleration (∼400 m s{sup –2}) of Ca II 8542 RBEs, and reveals an additional deceleration (∼–160 m s{sup –2}) phase that usually follows the initial acceleration. In addition, we also investigate the association of RBEs with the concomitant photospheric magnetic field evolution, using coordinated high-resolution and high-sensitivity magnetograms made by Hinode. Clear examples are found where RBEs appear to be associated with the preceding magnetic flux emergence and/or the subsequent flux cancellation. However, further analysis with the aid of the Southwest Automatic Magnetic Identification Suite does not yield a significant statistical association between these RBEs and magnetic field evolution. We discuss the implications of our results in the context of understanding the driving mechanism of RBEs.

  12. Rapid analysis of non-uniformly sampled pulsed field gradient data for velocity estimation.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, K; Park, J C; Pavlovskaya, G E; Gibbs, S J

    2001-06-01

    Bretthorst's recent generalization of the Lomb-Scargle periodogram shows that a sufficient statistic for frequency estimation from non-uniformly, but simultaneously sampled quadrature data is equivalent to the FFT of those data with the missing samples replaced by zeros. We have applied this concept to the rapid analysis of pulsed field gradient MRI data which have been non-uniformly sampled in the velocity encoding wave vector q. For a small number of q samples, it is more computationally efficient to calculate the periodogram directly rather than using the FFT algorithm with a large number of zeros. The algorithm we have implemented for finding the peak of the generalized periodogram is simple and robust; it involves repeated apodization and grid searching of the periodogram until the desired velocity resolution is achieved. The final estimate is refined by quadratic interpolation. We have tested the method for fully developed Poiseuille flow of a Newtonian fluid and have demonstrated substantial improvement in the precision of velocity measurement achievable in a fixed acquisition time with non-uniform sampling. The method is readily extendible to multidimensional data. Analysis of a 256 by 256 pixel image with 8 q samples and an effective velocity resolution of better than 1/680 of the Nyquist range requires approximately 1 minute computation time on a 400 MHz SUN Ultrasparc II processor. PMID:11672628

  13. Modeling cavitation in a rapidly changing pressure field - application to a small ultrasonic horn.

    PubMed

    Žnidarčič, Anton; Mettin, Robert; Dular, Matevž

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonic horn transducers are frequently used in applications of acoustic cavitation in liquids. It has been observed that if the horn tip is sufficiently small and driven at high amplitude, cavitation is very strong, and the tip can be covered entirely by the gas/vapor phase for longer time intervals. A peculiar dynamics of the attached cavity can emerge with expansion and collapse at a self-generated frequency in the subharmonic range, i.e. below the acoustic driving frequency. The term "acoustic supercavitation" was proposed for this type of cavitation Žnidarčič et al. (2014) [1]. We tested several established hydrodynamic cavitation models on this problem, but none of them was able to correctly predict the flow features. As a specific characteristic of such acoustic cavitation problems lies in the rapidly changing driving pressures, we present an improved approach to cavitation modeling, which does not neglect the second derivatives in the Rayleigh-Plesset equation. Comparison with measurements of acoustic supercavitation at an ultrasonic horn of 20kHz frequency revealed a good agreement in terms of cavity dynamics, cavity volume and emitted pressure pulsations. The newly developed cavitation model is particularly suited for simulation of cavitating flow in highly fluctuating driving pressure fields. PMID:24889548

  14. Development of an overnight rapid bovine identification test (ORBIT) for field use.

    PubMed

    Mageau, R P; Cutrufelli, M E; Schwab, B; Johnston, R W

    1984-01-01

    An Overnight Rapid Bovine Identification Test (ORBIT) has been developed as a serological screen test for species verification of raw, whole tissue, bovine meat products. The test, an agar-gel immunodiffusion technique, uses stabilized reagent paper discs and prepared agar plates that have a printed template for correct placement of test components. This test is reliable, practical, economical, and easily performed in the field, such as at a meat import inspection station. The only nonbovine species found to react in the test are the bovine-related species of American bison (buffalo) and water buffalo (from Australia); however, these rare-occurring species do not present a problem for the intended application of the test. Stability of all test components, when stored in a refrigerator, is excellent for at least 1 year. The nature and stability of the test make it suitable for commercial development into test kits which should be highly practical and economical for wide availability and application of this procedure to meat inspection programs concerned with species verification. PMID:6438051

  15. Weakened magnetic braking as the origin of anomalously rapid rotation in old field stars.

    PubMed

    van Saders, Jennifer L; Ceillier, Tugdual; Metcalfe, Travis S; Aguirre, Victor Silva; Pinsonneault, Marc H; García, Rafael A; Mathur, Savita; Davies, Guy R

    2016-01-14

    A knowledge of stellar ages is crucial for our understanding of many astrophysical phenomena, and yet ages can be difficult to determine. As they become older, stars lose mass and angular momentum, resulting in an observed slowdown in surface rotation. The technique of 'gyrochronology' uses the rotation period of a star to calculate its age. However, stars of known age must be used for calibration, and, until recently, the approach was untested for old stars (older than 1 gigayear, Gyr). Rotation periods are now known for stars in an open cluster of intermediate age (NGC 6819; 2.5 Gyr old), and for old field stars whose ages have been determined with asteroseismology. The data for the cluster agree with previous period-age relations, but these relations fail to describe the asteroseismic sample. Here we report stellar evolutionary modelling, and confirm the presence of unexpectedly rapid rotation in stars that are more evolved than the Sun. We demonstrate that models that incorporate dramatically weakened magnetic braking for old stars can--unlike existing models--reproduce both the asteroseismic and the cluster data. Our findings might suggest a fundamental change in the nature of ageing stellar dynamos, with the Sun being close to the critical transition to much weaker magnetized winds. This weakened braking limits the diagnostic power of gyrochronology for those stars that are more than halfway through their main-sequence lifetimes. PMID:26727162

  16. Rapid acquisition of high resolution full wave-field borehole seismic data

    SciTech Connect

    Sleefe, G.E.; Harding, R.S. Jr.; Fairborn, J.W.; Paulsson, B.N.P.

    1993-04-01

    An essential requirement for both Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) and Cross-Hole Seismic Profiling (CHSP) is the rapid acquisition of high resolution borehole seismic data. Additionally, full wave-field recording using three-component receivers enables the use of both transmitted and reflected elastic wave events in the resulting seismic images of the subsurface. To this end, an advanced three- component multi-station borehole seismic receiver system has been designed and developed by Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and OYO Geospace. The system requires data from multiple three-component wall-locking accelerometer packages and telemeters digital data to the surface in real-time. Due to the multiplicity of measurement stations and the real-time data link, acquisition time for the borehole seismic survey is significantly reduced. The system was tested at the Chevron La Habra Test Site using Chevron`s clamped axial borehole vibrator as the seismic source. Several source and receiver fans were acquired using a four-station version of the advanced system. For comparison purposes, an equivalent data set was acquired using a standard analog wall-locking geophone receiver. The test data indicate several enhancements provided by the multi-station receiver relative to the standard, drastically improved signal-to-noise ratio, increased signal bandwidth, the detection of multiple reflectors, and a true 4:1 reduction in survey time.

  17. Rapid full-field OCT assessment of clinical tissue specimens (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalimier, Eugénie; Harms, Fabrice; Brossollet, Charles; Benoit, Emilie; Martins, Franck; Boccara, Claude A.

    2016-03-01

    FFOCT (Full Field Optical Coherence Tomography) is a novel optical technology that gives access to very high resolution tomography images of biological tissues within minutes, non-invasively. This makes it an attractive tool to bridge the gap between medical imaging modalities (MRI, ultrasound, CT) used for cancer lesion identification or targeting and histological diagnosis. Clinical tissue specimens, such as surgical cancer margins or biopsies, can potentially be assessed rapidly, by the clinician, in the aim to help him decide on the course of action. A fast FFOCT prototype was built, that provides 1cm2 images with 1 µm resolution in 1 minute, and can accommodate samples up to 50mm diameter. Specific work was carried out to implement a large sample holder, high-speed image acquisition system, optimized scanning, and accelerated GPU tiles stitching. Results obtained on breast, urology, and digestive tissues show the efficiency of the technique for the detection of cancer on clinical tissue specimens, and reinforce the clinical relevance of the technique. The technical and clinical results show that the fast FFOCT system can successfully be used for a fast assessment of cancer excision margins or biopsies providing a very valuable tool in the clinical environment.

  18. Rapid immunohistochemistry based on alternating current electric field for intraoperative diagnosis of brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Tanino, Mishie; Sasajima, Toshio; Nanjo, Hiroshi; Akesaka, Shiori; Kagaya, Masami; Kimura, Taichi; Ishida, Yusuke; Oda, Masaya; Takahashi, Masataka; Sugawara, Taku; Yoshioka, Toshiaki; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Akagami, Yoichi; Goto, Akiteru; Minamiya, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    Rapid immunohistochemistry (R-IHC) can contribute to the intraoperative diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) tumors. We have recently developed a new IHC method based on an alternating current electric field to facilitate the antigen-antibody reaction. To ensure the requirement of R-IHC for intraoperative diagnosis, 183 cases of CNS tumors were reviewed regarding the accuracy rate of diagnosis without R-IHC. The diagnostic accuracy was 90.7 % (166/183 cases) [corrected] in which definitive diagnoses were not provided in 17 cases because of the failure of glioma grading and differential diagnosis of lymphoma and glioma. To establish the clinicopathological application, R-IHC for frozen specimens was compared with standard IHC for permanent specimens. 33 gliomas were analyzed, and the Ki-67/MIB-1 indices of frozen specimens by R-IHC were consistent with the grade and statistically correlated with those of permanent specimens. Thus, R-IHC provided supportive information to determine the grade of glioma. For discrimination between glioma and lymphoma, R-IHC was able to provide clear results of CD20 and Ki-67/MIB-1 in four frozen specimens of CNS lymphoma as well as standard IHC. We conclude that the R-IHC for frozen specimens can provide important information for intraoperative diagnosis of CNS tumors. PMID:24807101

  19. Weakened magnetic braking as the origin of anomalously rapid rotation in old field stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Saders, Jennifer L.; Ceillier, Tugdual; Metcalfe, Travis S.; Silva Aguirre, Victor; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; García, Rafael A.; Mathur, Savita; Davies, Guy R.

    2016-01-01

    A knowledge of stellar ages is crucial for our understanding of many astrophysical phenomena, and yet ages can be difficult to determine. As they become older, stars lose mass and angular momentum, resulting in an observed slowdown in surface rotation. The technique of ‘gyrochronology’ uses the rotation period of a star to calculate its age. However, stars of known age must be used for calibration, and, until recently, the approach was untested for old stars (older than 1 gigayear, Gyr). Rotation periods are now known for stars in an open cluster of intermediate age (NGC 6819; 2.5 Gyr old), and for old field stars whose ages have been determined with asteroseismology. The data for the cluster agree with previous period-age relations, but these relations fail to describe the asteroseismic sample. Here we report stellar evolutionary modelling, and confirm the presence of unexpectedly rapid rotation in stars that are more evolved than the Sun. We demonstrate that models that incorporate dramatically weakened magnetic braking for old stars can—unlike existing models—reproduce both the asteroseismic and the cluster data. Our findings might suggest a fundamental change in the nature of ageing stellar dynamos, with the Sun being close to the critical transition to much weaker magnetized winds. This weakened braking limits the diagnostic power of gyrochronology for those stars that are more than halfway through their main-sequence lifetimes.

  20. Net ecosystem exchange, gross primary production, and ecosystem respiration of carbon dioxide during barley growing season in rice-barley paddy field of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, M.; Shim, K.; Min, S.; Kim, Y.; Kim, S.; So, K.

    2013-12-01

    This study was conducted to measure carbon dioxide exchange between customarily cultivated rice-barley double cropping paddy field and the atmosphere during barley growing season (October 2012 and June 2013) and to estimate carbon dioxide fluxes using agro-meteorological factors (temperature, net radiation etc. ) and barley biomass. The carbon dioxide fluxes were quantified by eddy covariance technique in paddy fields with rice-barley double cropping system, located at the Gimje flux site in the southwestern coast of Korea. The total values of net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange (NEE), gross primary production (GPP), and ecosystem respiration (Re) were -100.6, 782.7, and 682.5 g C m-2 during barley growing season, respectively. The NEE was tended to keep between 0 and 5 g C m-2 d-1 from sowing date (Oct. 21, 2012) to winter rest stage (Dec. 3, 2012 to Feb. 22, 2013), and gradually decreased in tillering stage (Feb. 23, 2013 to May 5, 2013) with its maximum around heading date, and then started to increase in ripening stage (May 6, 2013 to Jun. 8, 2013). The soil temperature was strongly correlated with the Re (r2=0.86), while the net radiation showed the weak relationship with the GPP during the emergence, seedling, and winter rest stage. The aboveground biomass of barley was significantly correlated with the values of NEE (r2=0.79), GPP (r2=0.83), and Re (r2=0.77), respectively.

  1. Dielectric Resonator-Based Flow and Stopped-Flow EPR with Rapid Field Scanning: A Methodology for Increasing Kinetic Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sienkiewicz, Andrzej; Ferreira, Ana Maria da Costa; Danner, Birgit; Scholes, Charles P.

    1999-02-01

    We report methodology which combines recently developed dielectric resonator-based, rapid-mix, stopped-flow EPR (appropriate for small, aqueous, lossy samples) with rapid scanning of the external (Zeeman) magnetic field where the scanning is preprogrammed to occur at selected times after the start of flow. This methodology gave spectroscopic information complementary to that obtained by stopped-flow EPR at single fields, and with low reactant usage, it yielded more graphic insight into the time evolution of radical and spin-labeled species. We first used the ascorbyl radical as a test system where rapid scans triggered after flow was stopped provided "snapshots" of simultaneously evolving and interacting radical species. We monitored ascorbyl radical populations either as brought on by biologically damaging peroxynitrite oxidant or as chemically and kinetically interacting with a spectroscopically overlapping nitroxide radical. In a different biophysical application, where a spin-label lineshape reflected rapidly changing molecular dynamics of folding spin-labeled protein, rapid scan spectra were taken during flow with different flow rates and correspondingly different times after the mixing-induced inception of protein folding. This flow/rapid scan method is a means for monitoring early immobilization of the spin probe in the course of the folding process.

  2. Evolution of Rhyolite at Laguna del Maule, a Rapidly Inflating Volcanic Field in the Southern Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, N. L.; Singer, B. S.; Jicha, B. R.; Hildreth, E. W.; Fierstein, J.; Rogers, N. W.

    2012-12-01

    The Laguna del Maule Volcanic Field (LdM) is host to both the foremost example of post-glacial rhyolitic volcanism in the southern Andes and rapid, ongoing crustal deformation. The flare-up of high-silica eruptions was coeval with deglaciation at 24 ka. Rhyolite and rhyodacite domes and coulees totaling 6.5 km3 form a 20 km ring around the central lake basin. This spatial and temporal concentration of rhyolite is unprecedented in the history of the volcanic field. Colinear major and trace element variation suggests these lavas share a common evolutionary history (Hildreth et al., 2010). Moreover, geodetic observations (InSAR & GPS) have identified rapid inflation centered in the western side of the rhyolite dome ring at a rate of 17 cm/year for five years, which has accelerated to 30 cm/yr since April 2012. The best fit to the geodetic data is an expanding magma body located at 5 km depth (Fournier et al., 2010; Le Mevel, 2012). The distribution of high-silica volcanism, most notably geochemically similar high-silica rhyolite lavas erupted 12 km apart of opposite sides of the lake within a few kyr of each other, raises the possibility that the shallow magma intrusion represents only a portion of a larger rhyolitic body, potentially of caldera forming dimensions. We aim to combine petrologic models with a precise geochronology to formulate a model of the evolution of the LdM magma system to its current state. New 40Ar/39Ar age determinations show rhyolitic volcanism beginning at 23 ka with the eruption of the Espejos rhyolite, followed by the Cari Launa Rhyolite at 14.5 ka, two flows of the Barrancas complex at 6.4 and 3.9 ka, and the Divisoria rhyolite at 2.2 ka. In contrast, significant andesitic and dacitic volcanism is largely absent from the central basin of LdM since the early post-glacial period suggesting a coincident basin-wide evolution from andesite to dacite to rhyolite and is consistent with a shallow body of low-density rhyolite blocking the eruption

  3. The ultra-rapid synthesis of 2D graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets via direct microwave heating for field emission.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yongzhi; Zhou, Qing; Wang, Jigang

    2016-02-16

    The 2D g-C3N4 nanosheets were ultra-rapidly prepared via a direct microwave heating approach. The as-synthesized g-C3N4 possessed a large surface area, few stacking layers, a large aspect ratio and an enlarged bandgap. As a consequence, the excellent field emission properties of 2D g-C3N4 nanosheets were exhibited with extremely low turn-on fields. PMID:26879135

  4. Field evaluation of a rapid diagnostic test (Parascreen™) for malaria diagnosis in the Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The rapid diagnostic tests for malaria (RDT) constitute a fast and opportune alternative for non-complicated malaria diagnosis in areas where microscopy is not available. The objective of this study was to validate a RDT named Parascreen™ under field conditions in Iquitos, department of Loreto, Peru. Parascreen™ is a RDT that detects the histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) antigen from Plasmodium falciparum and lactate deshydrogenase from all Plasmodium species. Methods Parascreen™ was compared with microscopy performed by experts (EM) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the following indicators: sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), positive (PV+) and negative predictive values (PV-), positive (LR+) and negative likehood ratio (LR-). Results 332 patients with suspected non-complicated malaria who attended to the MOH health centres were enrolled between October and December 2006. For P. falciparum malaria, Parascreen™ in comparison with EM, had Se: 53.5%, Sp: 98.7%, PV+: 66.7%, PV-: 97.8%, LR+: 42.27 and LR-: 0.47; and for non-P. falciparum malaria, Se: 77.1%, Sp: 97.6%, PV+: 91.4%, PV-: 92.7%, LR+: 32.0 and LR-: 0.22. The comparison of Parascreen™ with PCR showed, for P. falciparum malaria, Se: 81.8%, Sp: 99.1%, PV+: 75%, PV-: 99.4, LR+: 87.27 and LR-: 0.18; and for non-P. falciparum malaria Se: 76.1%, Sp: 99.2%, PV+: 97.1%, PV-: 92.0%, LR+: 92.51 and LR-: 0.24. Conclusions The study results indicate that Parascreen™ is not a valid and acceptable test for malaria diagnosis under the field conditions found in the Peruvian Amazon. The relative proportion of Plasmodium species, in addition to the genetic characteristics of the parasites in the area, must be considered before applying any RDT, especially after the finding of P. falciparum malaria parasites lacking pfhrp2 gene in this region. PMID:20529273

  5. Diagnostic performance characteristics of a rapid field test for anthrax in cattle.

    PubMed

    Muller, Janine; Gwozdz, Jacek; Hodgeman, Rachel; Ainsworth, Catherine; Kluver, Patrick; Czarnecki, Jill; Warner, Simone; Fegan, Mark

    2015-07-01

    Although diagnosis of anthrax can be made in the field with a peripheral blood smear, and in the laboratory with bacterial culture or molecular based tests, these tests require either considerable experience or specialised equipment. Here we report on the evaluation of the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of a simple and rapid in-field diagnostic test for anthrax, the anthrax immunochromatographic test (AICT). The AICT detects the protective antigen (PA) component of the anthrax toxin present within the blood of an animal that has died from anthrax. The test provides a result in 15min and offers the advantage of avoiding the necessity for on-site necropsy and subsequent occupational risks and environmental contamination. The specificity of the test was determined by testing samples taken from 622 animals, not infected with Bacillus anthracis. Diagnostic sensitivity was estimated on samples taken from 58 animals, naturally infected with B. anthracis collected over a 10-year period. All samples used to estimate the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the AICT were also tested using the gold standard of bacterial culture. The diagnostic specificity of the test was estimated to be 100% (99.4-100%; 95% CI) and the diagnostic sensitivity was estimated to be 93.1% (83.3-98.1%; 95% CI) (Clopper-Pearson method). Four samples produced false negative AICT results. These were among 9 samples, all of which tested positive for B. anthracis by culture, where there was a time delay between collection and testing of >48h and/or the samples were collected from animals that were >48h post-mortem. A statistically significant difference (P<0.001; Fishers exact test) was found between the ability of the AICT to detect PA in samples from culture positive animals <48h post-mortem, 49 of 49, Se=100% (92.8-100%; 95% CI) compared with samples tested >48h post-mortem 5 of 9 Se=56% (21-86.3%; 95% CI) (Clopper-Pearson method). Based upon these results a post hoc cut-off for use of

  6. Analysis of the Precursor rRNA Fractions of Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria: Quantification by Methods That Include the Use of a Promoter (rrnA P1) as a Novel Standard†

    PubMed Central

    Menéndez, María del Carmen; Rebollo, María José; Núñez, María del Carmen; Cox, Robert A.; García, María Jesús

    2005-01-01

    Mycobacterial species are able to control rRNA production through variations in the number and strength of promoters controlling their rrn operons. Mycobacterium chelonae and M. fortuitum are members of the rapidly growing mycobacterial group. They carry a total of five promoters each, encoded, respectively, by one and two rrn operons per genome. Quantification of precursor rrn transcriptional products (pre-rrn) has allowed detection of different promoter usage during cell growth. Bacteria growing in several culture media with different nutrient contents were compared. Balanced to stationary phases were analyzed. Most promoters were found to be used at different levels depending on the stage of bacterial growth and the nutrient content of the culture medium. Some biological implications are discussed. Sequences of the several promoters showed motifs that could be correlated to their particular level of usage. A product corresponding to the first rrnA promoter in both species, namely, rrnA P1, was found to contribute at a low and near-constant level to pre-rRNA synthesis, regardless of the culture medium used and the stage of growth analyzed. This product was used as a standard to quantitate rRNA gene expression by real-time PCR when M. fortuitum infected macrophages. It was shown that this bacterium actively synthesizes rRNA during the course of infection and that one of its rrn operons is preferentially used under such conditions. PMID:15629925

  7. Three-Dimensional Evaluation of the Upper Airway Morphological Changes in Growing Patients with Skeletal Class III Malocclusion Treated by Protraction Headgear and Rapid Palatal Expansion: A Comparative Research

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ju; Wu, Zizhong; Xie, Yongtao; Li, Liang; Liu, Hong; Guo, Tiantian; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Shijie

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological changes of upper airway after protraction headgear and rapid maxillary expansion (PE) treatment in growing patients with Class III malocclusion and maxillary skeletal deficiency compared with untreated Class III patients by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods Thirty growing patients who have completed PE therapy were included in PE group. The control group (n = 30) was selected from the growing untreated patients with the same diagnosis. The CBCT scans of the pre-treatment (T1) and post-treatment (T2) of PE group and the control group were collected. Reconstruction and registration of the 3D models of T1 and T2 were completed. By comparing the data obtained from T1, T2 and control group, the morphological changes of the upper airway during the PE treatment were evaluated. Results Comparing with the data from T1 group, the subspinale (A) of maxilla and the upper incisor (UI) of the T2 group were moved in the anterior direction. The gnathion (Gn) of mandible was moved in the posterior-inferior direction. The displacement of the hyoid bone as well as the length and width of dental arch showed significant difference. The volume and mean cross-sectional area of nasopharynx, velopharynx and glossopharynx region showed significant difference. The largest anteroposterior/the largest lateral (AP/LR) ratios of the velopharynx and glossopharynx were increased, but the AP/LR ratio of the hypopharynx was decreased. In addition, the length and width of the maxillary dental arch, the displacement of the hyoid bone, the volume of nasopharynx and velopharynx, and the AP/LR ratio of the hypopharynx and velopharynx showed significant difference between the data from control and T2 group. Conclusion The PE treatment of Class Ⅲ malocclusion with maxillary skeletal hypoplasia leads to a significant increase in the volume of nasopharynx and velopharynx. PMID:26252015

  8. A Method to Teach Age-Specific Demography with Field Grown Rapid Cycling "Brassica rapa" (Wisconsin Fast Plants)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Martin G.; Terrana, Sebastian

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that rapid cycling "Brassica rapa" (Wisconsin Fast Plants) can be used in inquiry-based, student ecological fieldwork. We are the first to describe age-specific survival for field-grown Fast Plants and identify life history traits associated with individual survival. This experiment can be adapted by educators as a…

  9. Growing Spaceships?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Glen A.

    2013-01-01

    NASA currently has a program called the Space Synthetic Biology Project. Synthetic Biology or SynBio is the design and construction of new biological functions and systems not found in nature. Four NASA field centers, along with experts from industry and academia, have been partnering on the Space Synthetic Biology Project and are working on new breakthroughs in this increasingly useful pursuit, which is part a science discipline and part engineering. Led by researchers at NASA s Ames Research Center, the team is studying how this powerful new tool can help NASA now and in the future. The project was created to harness biology in reliable, robust, engineered systems to support the agency s exploration and science missions, to improve life on Earth and to help shape NASA's future. The program also is intended to contribute foundational tools to the synthetic biology research community.

  10. Rapid wide-field Mueller matrix polarimetry imaging based on four photoelastic modulators with no moving parts.

    PubMed

    Alali, Sanaz; Gribble, Adam; Vitkin, I Alex

    2016-03-01

    A new polarimetry method is demonstrated to image the entire Mueller matrix of a turbid sample using four photoelastic modulators (PEMs) and a charge coupled device (CCD) camera, with no moving parts. Accurate wide-field imaging is enabled with a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) optical gating technique and an evolutionary algorithm (EA) that optimizes imaging times. This technique accurately and rapidly measured the Mueller matrices of air, polarization elements, and turbid phantoms. The system should prove advantageous for Mueller matrix analysis of turbid samples (e.g., biological tissues) over large fields of view, in less than a second. PMID:26974110

  11. Field Evaluation of a Semiautomated Method for Rapid and Simple Analysis of Recreational Water Microbiological Quality

    PubMed Central

    Anglès d'Auriac, Marc B.; Roberts, Hildegarde; Shaw, Terri; Sirevåg, Reidun; Hermansen, Leonila Fajardo; Berg, James D.

    2000-01-01

    An early warning system using a rapid enzymatic semiautomated method suitable for fecal coliform detection in recreational waters within 8 h was developed further and evaluated in this study. This rapid method was compared to the standard method followed in the United Kingdom. We used 1,011 samples originating from 206 different locations in Wales. When we assessed the presence or absence of fecal coliforms, targeting very low levels of contamination, we obtained 83.9% agreement between the rapid method and the lauryl sulfate broth-membrane filtration technique, whereas direct confirmation of the samples processed by the rapid method showed 89.3% agreement. Environmental enzymatic background activity was found to be the main limiting factor for this method. Owing to a specific and integrated handling of the results by the software of the instrument, the percentage of false-positive results (a consequence of enzymatic background) was successfully limited to 2.9% by the direct confirmation evaluation. However, 7.8% false-negative results due to “late-growers” had to be accepted in order to produce results within a working day. At present, the method can be used in a more conservative way to assess the environmental threshold of 100 CFU of fecal coliforms per 100 ml in recreational waters. The implications of our findings with regard to the applicability of rapid enzymatic methods are discussed. PMID:11010890

  12. Large-timestep techniques for particle-in-cell simulation of systems with applied fields that vary rapidly in space

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.

    1996-10-01

    Under conditions which arise commonly in space-charge-dominated beam applications, the applied focusing, bending, and accelerating fields vary rapidly with axial position, while the self-fields (which are, on average, comparable in strength to the applied fields) vary smoothly. In such cases it is desirable to employ timesteps which advance the particles over distances greater than the characteristic scales over which the applied fields vary. Several related concepts are potentially applicable: sub-cycling of the particle advance relative to the field solution, a higher-order time-advance algorithm, force-averaging by integration along approximate orbits, and orbit-averaging. We report on our investigations into the utility of such techniques for systems typical of those encountered in accelerator studies for heavy-ion beam-driven inertial fusion.

  13. Bioaccumulation and translocation of metals in the natural vegetation growing on fly ash lagoons: a field study from Santaldih thermal power plant, West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Subodh Kumar; Jaiswal, Shishir

    2008-01-01

    A field study was conducted in the fly ash lagoons of Santandih Thermal Power Plant located in West Bengal (India) to find out total, EDTA and DTPA extractable metals in fly ash and their bioaccumulation in root and shoot portion of the naturally growing vegetation. Fly ash sample has alkaline pH and low conductivity. The concentration of total Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni were found higher than weathered fly ash and natural soil, where as Co, Cd and Cr were found traces. Five dominant vegetation namely, Typha latifolia, Fimbristylis dichotoma, Amaranthus defluxes, Saccharum spontaenum and Cynodon dactylon were collected in the winter months (November-December). Bioaccumulation of metals in root and shoot portions were found varied significantly among the species, but all concentration were found within toxic limits. Correlation between total, DTPA and EDTA extractable metals viz. root and shoot metals concentration were studied. Translocation factor (TF) for Cu, Zn and Ni were found less than unity, indicates that these metals are immobilized in the root part of the plants. Metals like Mn have TF greater than unity. The study infers that natural vegetation removed Mn by phytoextraction mechanisms (TF > 1), while other metals like Zn, Cu, Pb and Ni were removed by rhizofiltration mechanisms (TF < 1). The field study revealed that T. latifolia and S. spontaenum plants could be used for bioremediation of fly ash lagoon. PMID:17429748

  14. Rapid quantification of soilborne pathogen communities in wheat-based long-term field experiments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditional isolation and quantification of inoculum density is difficult for most soilborne pathogens. Quantitative PCR methods have been developed to rapidly identify and quantify many of these pathogens using a single DNA extract from soil. Rainfed experiments operated continuously for up to 84 y...

  15. Age-related effects of bilateral frontal eye fields lesions on rapid eye movements during REM sleep in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shan; Liu, Ning; Zeng, Tao; Tian, Shaohua; Chen, Nanhui; Zhou, Yifeng; Ma, Yuanye

    2004-08-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) is one of the most characteristic features of REM sleep, but the mechanisms underlying its regulation remain unclear. The present study aims to investigate whether the frontal eye field (FEF) is involved in the regulation of the rapid eye movements during REM sleep. To address this question, we ablated the FEF in four rhesus monkeys and observed the effects of the lesions on sleep architecture. After lesions, two adult monkeys did not show any lesion effect. However, in the other two adolescent monkeys, both the total duration and percentage of the rapid eye movements during REM sleep were decreased moderately. The result suggests that the relation between the FEF and the regulation of the rapid eye movements during REM sleep may be affected by age factor, also indicating that both the functions of the FEF and the mechanisms underlying the control of rapid eye movements during REM sleep might not be the same throughout the whole life span of an animal. PMID:15265590

  16. Effective quantum Brownian dynamics in presence of a rapidly oscillating space-dependent time-periodic field.

    PubMed

    Shit, Anindita; Chattopadhyay, Sudip; Chaudhuri, Jyotipratim Ray

    2011-06-01

    We explore the Brownian dynamics in the quantum regime (by investigating the quantum Langevin and Smoluchowski equations) in terms of an effective time-independent Hamiltonian in the presence of a rapidly oscillating field. We achieve this by systematically expanding the time-dependent system-reservoir Hamiltonian in the inverse of driving frequency with a systematic time-scale separation and invoking a quantum gauge transformation within the framework of Floquet theorem. PMID:21797289

  17. How to grow tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Seisuke; Sinha, Neelima

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTIONTomatoes can be easily grown in a field, in a greenhouse, or in a growth cabinet. They need acidic soil (pH 6.0-6.8), a lot of light, and water. The optimum temperature for growing tomato plants and fruit is 18°C-24°C. This protocol describes how to germinate tomato seeds, cultivate adult plants, and harvest seeds from fruit. PMID:21356721

  18. EMF Rapid Program Engineering Projects, Project 1, Development of Recommendations for Guidelines for Field Source Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Electric Research and Management, Inc.

    1997-03-11

    The goal of this project is to develop a protocol for measuring the electric and magnetic fields around sources. Data from these measurements may help direct future biological effects research by better defining the complexity of magnetic and electric fields to which humanity is exposed, as well asprovide the basis for rigorous field exposure analysis and risk assessment once the relationship between field exposure and biological response. is better understood. The data base also should have sufficient spatial and temporal characteristics to guide electric and magnetic field management. The goal of Task A is to construct a set of characteristics that would be ideal to have for guiding and interpreting biological studies and for focusing any future effort at field management. This ideal set will then be quantified and reduced according to the availability (or possible development of) instrumentation to measure the desired characteristics. Factors that also will be used to define pragmatic data sets will be the cost of collecting the data, the cost of developing an adequate data base, and the needed precision in measuring specific characteristics. A field, electric or magnetic, will always be ,some function of time and space. The first step in this section of the protocol development will be to determine what span of time and what portion of space are required to quantify the electric and magnetic fields around sources such as appliances and electrical apparatus. Constraints on time will be set by examining measurement limitations and biological data requirements.

  19. Rapid determination of fluid viscosity using low-field two-dimensional NMR.

    PubMed

    Deng, Feng; Xiao, Lizhi; Chen, Weiliang; Liu, Huabing; Liao, Guangzhi; Wang, Mengying; Xie, Qingming

    2014-10-01

    The rapid prediction of fluid viscosity, especially the fluid in heavy-oil petroleum reservoirs, is of great importance for oil exploration and transportation. We suggest a new method for rapid prediction of fluid viscosity using two-dimensional (2D) NMR relaxation time distributions. DEFIR, Driven-Equilibrium Fast-Inversion Recovery, a new pulse sequence for rapid measurement of 2D relaxation times, is proposed. The 2D relation between the ratio of transverse relaxation time to longitudinal relaxation time (T1/T2) and T1 distribution of fluid are obtained by means of DEFIR with only two one-dimensional measurements. The measurement speed of DEFIR pulse sequence over 2 times as fast as that of the traditional 2D method. Using Bloembergen theory, the relation between the distributions and fluid viscosity is found. Precise method for viscosity prediction is then established. Finally, we apply this method to a down-hole NMR fluid analysis system and realized on-site and on-line prediction of viscosity for formation fluids. The results demonstrated that the new method for viscosity prediction is efficient and accurate. PMID:25218115

  20. Methods for automatized detection of rapid changes in lateral boundary condition fields for NWP limited area models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudor, M.

    2015-08-01

    Three-hourly temporal resolution of lateral boundary data for limited area models (LAMs) can be too infrequent to resolve rapidly moving storms. This problem is expected to be worse with increasing horizontal resolution. In order to detect intensive disturbances in surface pressure moving rapidly through the model domain, a filtered surface pressure field (MCUF) is computed operationally in the ARPEGE global model of Météo France. The field is distributed in the coupling files along with conventional meteorological fields used for lateral boundary conditions (LBCs) for the operational forecast using limited area model ALADIN (Aire Limitée Adaptation dynamique Développement InterNational) in the Meteorological and Hydrological Service of Croatia (DHMZ). Here an analysis is performed of the MCUF field for the LACE coupling domain for the period from 23 January 2006, when it became available, until 15 November 2014. The MCUF field is a good indicator of rapidly moving pressure disturbances (RMPDs). Its spatial and temporal distribution can be associated with the usual cyclone tracks and areas known to be supporting cyclogenesis. An alternative set of coupling files from the IFS operational run in the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) is also available operationally in DHMZ with 3-hourly temporal resolution, but the MCUF field is not available. Here, several methods are tested that detect RMPDs in surface pressure a posteriori from the IFS model fields provided in the coupling files. MCUF is computed by running ALADIN on the coupling files from IFS. The error function is computed using one-time-step integration of ALADIN on the coupling files without initialization, initialized with digital filter initialization (DFI) or scale-selective DFI (SSDFI). Finally, the amplitude of changes in the mean sea level pressure is computed from the fields in the coupling files. The results are compared to the MCUF field of ARPEGE and the results of same

  1. Tsunami Rapid Assessment Using High Resolution Images and Field Surveys: the 2010 , Central Chile, and the 2011, Tohoku Tsunamis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-Herrera, M.; Navarrete-Pacheco, J.; Lagos, M.; Arcas, D.

    2013-12-01

    Recent extreme tsunamis have shown their major socioeconomic impact and imprint in the coastal landscape. Extensive destruction, erosion, sediment transport and deposition resculpted coastal landscape within few minutes along hundreds of kilometers of the Central Chile, in 2010, and the Northeast coast of Japan, in 2011. In the central coast of Chile, we performed a post-tsunami survey a week after the tsunami due to access restrictions. Our observations focus on the inundation and geomorphic effects of the 2010 tsunami and included an air reconnaissance flight, analysis of pre- and post-event low fly air-photographs and Google Earth satellite images, together with ground reconnaissance and mapping in the field, including topographic transects, during a period of 13 days. Eyewitness accounts enabled us to confirm our observations on effects produced by the tsunami along ~ 500km along the coastline landscape in central Chile For the Tohoku case study, we assessed in a day tsunami inundation distances and runup heights using satellite data (very high resolution satellite images from the GeoEye1 satellite and from the DigitalGlobe worldview through the Google crisis response project, SRTM and ASTER GDEM) of the Tohoku region, Northeast Japan. Field survey data by Japanese, other international scientists and us validated our results. The rapid assessment of damage using high-resolution images has proven to be an excellent tool neccessary for effcient postsunami surveys as well as for rapid assessment of areas with access restrictions. All countries, in particular those with less access to technology and infrastructure, can benefit from the use of freely available satellite imagery and DEMs for an initial, pre-field survey, rapid estimate of inundated areas, distances and runup, tsunami effects in the coastal geomorphology and for assisting in hazard management and mitigation after a natural disaster. These data provide unprecedented opportunities for rapid assessment

  2. Phenotypic and molecular fingerprinting of fast growing rhizobia of field-grown pigeonpea from the eastern edge of the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Costa, F M; Schiavo, J A; Brasil, M S; Leite, J; Xavier, G R; Fernandes, P I

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diversity of rhizobial isolates obtained from root nodules of pigeonpea plants grown at the eastern edge of the Brazilian Pantanal. The bacterial isolates were isolated from root nodules from field-growing pigeonpea grown in two rural settlements of the Aquidauana municipality. The bacterial isolates were characterized phenotypically by means of cultural characterization, intrinsic antibiotic resistance (IAR), salt and high incubation temperature tolerance, and amylolytic and cellulolytic activities. The molecular characterization of the bacterial isolates was carried out using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and Box-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. In addition, the symbiotic performance of selected rhizobial isolates was evaluated in a greenhouse experiment using sterile substrate. The phenotypic characterization revealed that the bacterial strains obtained from pigeonpea root nodules presented characteristics that are uncommon among rhizobial isolates, indicating the presence of new species nodulating the pigeonpea plants in the Brazilian Pantanal. The molecular fingerprinting of these bacterial isolates also showed a highly diverse collection, with both techniques revealing less than 25% similarity among bacterial isolates. The evaluation of symbiotic performance also indicated the presence of microorganisms with high potential to increase the growth and nitrogen content at the shoots of pigeonpea plants. The results obtained in this study indicate the presence of a highly diversified rhizobial community nodulating the pigeonpea at the eastern edge of the Brazilian Pantanal. PMID:24535875

  3. Rapid estimation of Aedes aegypti population size using simulation modeling, with a novel approach to calibration and field validation.

    PubMed

    Williams, Craig R; Johnson, Petrina H; Long, Sharron A; Rapley, Luke P; Ritchie, Scott A

    2008-11-01

    New approaches for control of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (L.) are being developed, including the potential introduction of life-shortening symbiont bacteria into field populations and the release of transgenic strains with reduced vector competency. With these new approaches comes the need for rapid estimations of existing field population size. Here, we describe the use of simulation modeling with container-inhabiting mosquito simulation (CIMSiM) for estimation of Ae. aegypti pupal crop size in north Queensland, Australia. CIMSiM was calibrated for local conditions by deploying "sentinel key containers" (tire, 2-liter plastic bucket, 0.6-liter pot plant base, and tarpaulin indentation) in which water flux and pupal productivity were studied for 72 d. Iterative adjustment of CIMSiM parameters was used to fit model outputs to match that of sentinel key containers. This calibrated model was then used in a blind field validation, in which breeding container and local meteorological data were used to populate CIMSiM, and model outputs were compared with a field pupal survey. Actual pupae per ha during two 10-d periods in 2007 fell within 95% confidence intervals of simulated pupal crop estimates made by 10 replicate simulations in CIMSiM, thus providing a successful field validation. Although the stochasticity of the field environment can never be wholly simulated, CIMSiM can provide field-validated estimates of pupal crop in a timely manner by using simple container surveys. PMID:19058645

  4. Rapid computation of the amplitude and phase of tightly focused optical fields distorted by scattering particles.

    PubMed

    Ranasinghesagara, Janaka C; Hayakawa, Carole K; Davis, Mitchell A; Dunn, Andrew K; Potma, Eric O; Venugopalan, Vasan

    2014-07-01

    We develop an efficient method for accurately calculating the electric field of tightly focused laser beams in the presence of specific configurations of microscopic scatterers. This Huygens-Fresnel wave-based electric field superposition (HF-WEFS) method computes the amplitude and phase of the scattered electric field in excellent agreement with finite difference time-domain (FDTD) solutions of Maxwell's equations. Our HF-WEFS implementation is 2-4 orders of magnitude faster than the FDTD method and enables systematic investigations of the effects of scatterer size and configuration on the focal field. We demonstrate the power of the new HF-WEFS approach by mapping several metrics of focal field distortion as a function of scatterer position. This analysis shows that the maximum focal field distortion occurs for single scatterers placed below the focal plane with an offset from the optical axis. The HF-WEFS method represents an important first step toward the development of a computational model of laser-scanning microscopy of thick cellular/tissue specimens. PMID:25121440

  5. Rapid computation of the amplitude and phase of tightly focused optical fields distorted by scattering particles

    PubMed Central

    Ranasinghesagara, Janaka C.; Hayakawa, Carole K.; Davis, Mitchell A.; Dunn, Andrew K.; Potma, Eric O.; Venugopalan, Vasan

    2014-01-01

    We develop an efficient method for accurately calculating the electric field of tightly focused laser beams in the presence of specific configurations of microscopic scatterers. This Huygens–Fresnel wave-based electric field superposition (HF-WEFS) method computes the amplitude and phase of the scattered electric field in excellent agreement with finite difference time-domain (FDTD) solutions of Maxwell’s equations. Our HF-WEFS implementation is 2–4 orders of magnitude faster than the FDTD method and enables systematic investigations of the effects of scatterer size and configuration on the focal field. We demonstrate the power of the new HF-WEFS approach by mapping several metrics of focal field distortion as a function of scatterer position. This analysis shows that the maximum focal field distortion occurs for single scatterers placed below the focal plane with an offset from the optical axis. The HF-WEFS method represents an important first step toward the development of a computational model of laser-scanning microscopy of thick cellular/tissue specimens. PMID:25121440

  6. Temperature and the Field Stability of a Dengue Rapid Diagnostic Test in the Tropics

    PubMed Central

    Phommasone, Koukeo; Sengvilaipaseuth, Onanong; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Vongsouvath, Manivanh; Phonemixay, Ooyanong; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Newton, Paul N.; Dubot-Pérès, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    The global incidence of dengue has increased significantly in recent decades, resulting in a large public health burden in tropical and subtropical countries. Dengue rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) can provide accurate, rapid accessible diagnosis for patient management and may be easily used by health workers in rural areas. However, in dengue-endemic areas, ambient temperatures are often higher than manufacturer's recommendation. We therefore evaluated the effect of high temperature over time on the performance of one commonly used dengue RDT, the Standard Diagnostics Bioline Dengue Duo. RDTs were kept in five different conditions (at 4°C, 35°C, 45°C, 60°C, and at fluctuant ambient temperatures in a free-standing hut) for between 2 days and 2 years in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR). RDTs were tested with four control sera (negative, dengue nonstructural protein 1 [NS1], anti-dengue immunoglobulin [Ig] M, and anti-dengue IgG positive). The RDTs had 100% consistency over the 2-year study, despite high temperatures, including in the hut in which temperatures exceeded the manufacturer's recommendations for 29% of time points. These data suggest that the diagnostic accuracy of the SD Bioline Dengue Duo RDT remains stable even after long-term storage at high temperatures. Therefore, use at such ambient temperatures in tropical areas should not jeopardize the dengue diagnostic outcome. PMID:25962773

  7. Rapid evolution of parasite resistance in a warmer environment: insights from a large scale field experiment.

    PubMed

    Mateos-Gonzalez, Fernando; Sundström, L Fredrik; Schmid, Marian; Björklund, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Global climate change is expected to have major effects on host-parasite dynamics, with potentially enormous consequences for entire ecosystems. To develop an accurate prognostic framework, theoretical models must be supported by empirical research. We investigated potential changes in host-parasite dynamics between a fish parasite, the eyefluke Diplostomum baeri, and an intermediate host, the European perch Perca fluviatilis, in a large-scale semi-enclosed area in the Baltic Sea, the Biotest Lake, which since 1980 receives heated water from a nuclear power plant. Two sample screenings, in two consecutive years, showed that fish from the warmer Biotest Lake were now less parasitized than fish from the Baltic Sea. These results are contrasting previous screenings performed six years after the temperature change, which showed the inverse situation. An experimental infection, by which perch from both populations were exposed to D. baeri from the Baltic Sea, revealed that perch from the Baltic Sea were successfully infected, while Biotest fish were not. These findings suggest that the elevated temperature may have resulted, among other outcomes, in an extremely rapid evolutionary change through which fish from the experimental Biotest Lake have gained resistance to the parasite. Our results confirm the need to account for both rapid evolutionary adaptation and biotic interactions in predictive models, and highlight the importance of empirical research in order to validate future projections. PMID:26035300

  8. Rapid Changes in the Genetic Composition of Stagonosporopsis tanaceti Population in Australian Pyrethrum Fields.

    PubMed

    Vaghefi, Niloofar; Hay, Frank S; Ades, Peter K; Pethybridge, Sarah J; Ford, Rebecca; Taylor, Paul W J

    2015-03-01

    A novel set of microsatellite markers were developed and employed for geographical and temporal population analyses of Stagonosporopsis tanaceti, the cause of ray blight of pyrethrum in Australia. Genotyping of 407 isolates, using 13 markers, suggested an asexual mode of reproduction with significant linkage disequilibrium and high levels of clonality. Low geographical differentiation and widespread distribution of a few multilocus genotypes (MLGs), in the absence of airborne ascospores, suggested the role of human-mediated movement of seed as a major means of long-distance pathogen dispersal. The genetic composition of S. tanaceti was stable for a decade then changed rapidly in only 2 years. Bayesian clustering analyses and minimum spanning networks determined only two major clonal lineages in and prior to 2010. However, in 2012, a previously unobserved cluster of MLGs was detected, which significantly increased in frequency and displaced the historically dominant MLGs by 2013. This rapid change in the genetic composition of S. tanaceti could indicate a second introduction then a selective sweep, or strong selection pressures from recently introduced fungicides or pyrethrum varieties. These results may have serious implications for durability of management strategies for this disease. PMID:25226524

  9. Rapid Evolution of Parasite Resistance in a Warmer Environment: Insights from a Large Scale Field Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Mateos-Gonzalez, Fernando; Sundström, L. Fredrik; Schmid, Marian; Björklund, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Global climate change is expected to have major effects on host-parasite dynamics, with potentially enormous consequences for entire ecosystems. To develop an accurate prognostic framework, theoretical models must be supported by empirical research. We investigated potential changes in host-parasite dynamics between a fish parasite, the eyefluke Diplostomum baeri, and an intermediate host, the European perch Perca fluviatilis, in a large-scale semi-enclosed area in the Baltic Sea, the Biotest Lake, which since 1980 receives heated water from a nuclear power plant. Two sample screenings, in two consecutive years, showed that fish from the warmer Biotest Lake were now less parasitized than fish from the Baltic Sea. These results are contrasting previous screenings performed six years after the temperature change, which showed the inverse situation. An experimental infection, by which perch from both populations were exposed to D. baeri from the Baltic Sea, revealed that perch from the Baltic Sea were successfully infected, while Biotest fish were not. These findings suggest that the elevated temperature may have resulted, among other outcomes, in an extremely rapid evolutionary change through which fish from the experimental Biotest Lake have gained resistance to the parasite. Our results confirm the need to account for both rapid evolutionary adaptation and biotic interactions in predictive models, and highlight the importance of empirical research in order to validate future projections. PMID:26035300

  10. Development and field testing of a rapid and ultra-stable atmospheric carbon dioxide spectrometer

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Xiang, B.; Nelson, D. D.; McManus, J. B.; Zahniser, M. S.; Wehr, R. A.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2014-12-15

    We present field test results for a new spectroscopic instrument to measure atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) with high precision (0.02 μmol mol-1, or ppm at 1 Hz) and demonstrate high stability (within 0.1 ppm over more than 8 months), without the need for hourly, daily, or even monthly calibration against high-pressure gas cylinders. The technical novelty of this instrument (ABsolute Carbon dioxide, ABC) is the spectral null method using an internal quartz reference cell with known CO2 column density. Compared to a previously described prototype, the field instrument has better stability and benefits from more precise thermal control of themore » optics and more accurate pressure measurements in the sample cell (at the mTorr level). The instrument has been deployed at a long-term ecological research site (the Harvard Forest, USA), where it has measured for 8 months without on-site calibration and with minimal maintenance, showing drift bounds of less than 0.1 ppm. Field measurements agree well with those of a commercially available cavity ring-down CO2 instrument (Picarro G2301) run with a standard calibration protocol. This field test demonstrates that ABC is capable of performing high-accuracy, unattended, continuous field measurements with minimal use of reference gas cylinders.« less

  11. Development and field testing of a rapid and ultra-stable atmospheric carbon dioxide spectrometer

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Xiang, B.; Nelson, D. D.; McManus, J. B.; Zahniser, M. S.; Wehr, R.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2014-08-05

    We present field test results for a new spectroscopic instrument to measure atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) with high precision (0.02 ppm at 1 Hz) and demonstrate high stability (within 0.1 ppm over more than 8 months), without the need for hourly, daily, or even monthly calibration against high-pressure gas cylinders. The technical novelty of this instrument (ABsolute Carbon dioxide, ABC) is the spectral null method using an internal quartz reference cell with known CO2 column density. Compared to a previously described prototype, the field instrument has better stability and benefits from more precise thermal control of the optics and moremore » accurate pressure measurements in the sample cell (at the mTorr level). The instrument has been deployed at a long-term ecological research site (the Harvard Forest, USA), where it has measured for eight months without on-site calibration and with minimal maintenance, showing drift bounds of less than 0.1 ppm. Field measurements agree well with those of another commercially available cavity ring-down CO2 instrument (Picarro G2301) run with a standard calibration protocol. This field test demonstrates that ABC is capable of performing high-accuracy, unattended, continuous field measurements with minimal use of calibration cylinders.« less

  12. Development and field testing of a rapid and ultra-stable atmospheric carbon dioxide spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, B.; Nelson, D. D.; McManus, J. B.; Zahniser, M. S.; Wehr, R. A.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    We present field test results for a new spectroscopic instrument to measure atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) with high precision (0.02 μmol mol-1, or ppm at 1 Hz) and demonstrate high stability (within 0.1 ppm over more than 8 months), without the need for hourly, daily, or even monthly calibration against high-pressure gas cylinders. The technical novelty of this instrument (ABsolute Carbon dioxide, ABC) is the spectral null method using an internal quartz reference cell with known CO2 column density. Compared to a previously described prototype, the field instrument has better stability and benefits from more precise thermal control of the optics and more accurate pressure measurements in the sample cell (at the mTorr level). The instrument has been deployed at a long-term ecological research site (the Harvard Forest, USA), where it has measured for 8 months without on-site calibration and with minimal maintenance, showing drift bounds of less than 0.1 ppm. Field measurements agree well with those of a commercially available cavity ring-down CO2 instrument (Picarro G2301) run with a standard calibration protocol. This field test demonstrates that ABC is capable of performing high-accuracy, unattended, continuous field measurements with minimal use of reference gas cylinders.

  13. Development and field testing of a rapid and ultra-stable atmospheric carbon dioxide spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, B.; Nelson, D. D.; McManus, J. B.; Zahniser, M. S.; Wehr, R.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2014-08-01

    We present field test results for a new spectroscopic instrument to measure atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) with high precision (0.02 ppm at 1 Hz) and demonstrate high stability (within 0.1 ppm over more than 8 months), without the need for hourly, daily, or even monthly calibration against high-pressure gas cylinders. The technical novelty of this instrument (ABsolute Carbon dioxide, ABC) is the spectral null method using an internal quartz reference cell with known CO2 column density. Compared to a previously described prototype, the field instrument has better stability and benefits from more precise thermal control of the optics and more accurate pressure measurements in the sample cell (at the mTorr level). The instrument has been deployed at a long-term ecological research site (the Harvard Forest, USA), where it has measured for eight months without on-site calibration and with minimal maintenance, showing drift bounds of less than 0.1 ppm. Field measurements agree well with those of another commercially available cavity ring-down CO2 instrument (Picarro G2301) run with a standard calibration protocol. This field test demonstrates that ABC is capable of performing high-accuracy, unattended, continuous field measurements with minimal use of calibration cylinders.

  14. Improving our knowledge of rapid geomagnetic field intensity changes observed in Europe between 200 and 1400 AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Paccard, Miriam; Chauvin, Annick; Lanos, Philippe; Dufresne, Philippe; Kovacheva, Mary; Hill, Mimi J.; Beamud, Elisabet; Blain, Sophie; Bouvier, Armel; Guibert, Pierre; Archaeological Working Team

    2012-11-01

    Available archaeomagnetic data indicate that during the past 2500 yr there have been periods of rapid geomagnetic field intensity fluctuations interspersed with periods of almost constant field strength. Despite Europe being the most widely covered region in terms of archaeomagnetic data the occurrence and the behaviour of these rapid geomagnetic field intensity changes is under discussion and the challenge now is to precisely describe them. The aim of this study is to obtain an improved description of the sharp intensity change that took place in western Europe around 800 AD as well as to investigate if this peak is observed at the continental scale. For this purpose 13 precisely dated early medieval Spanish pottery fragments, four archaeological French kilns and three collections of bricks used for the construction of different French historical buildings with ages ranging between 335 and 1260 AD have been studied. Classical Thellier experiments performed on 164 specimens, and including anisotropy of thermoremanent magnetisation and cooling rate corrections, gave 119 reliable results. The 10 new high-quality mean archaeointensities obtained confirm the existence of an intensity maximum of ˜85 μT (at the latitude of Paris) centred at ˜800 AD and suggest that a previous abrupt intensity change occurred around 600 AD. Together with previously published data from western Europe that we deem to be the most reliable, the new data also suggest the existence of two other abrupt geomagnetic field intensity variations during the 12th century and around the second half of the 13th century AD. High-quality archaeointensities available from eastern Europe indicate that very similar geomagnetic field intensity changes occurred in this region. European data indicate that very rapid intensity changes (of at least 20 μT/century) took place in the recent history of the Earth's magnetic field. The results call for additional high-quality archaeointensities obtained from

  15. Utilisation of young and old soil carbon sources by microbial groups differ during the growing season and between experimental treatments in a long-term field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Börjesson, Gunnar; Menichetti, Lorenzo; Thornton, Barry; Campbell, Colin; Kätterer, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM)is the largest active carbon pool in the terrestrial environment. SOM is a key factor for soil fertility, but is also important for the sequestration of atmospheric CO2. In agricultural soils, management of plant residues and the use of organic fertilisers play important roles for maintaining SOM. Switching from C3 plants to C4 plants such as maize, enables a natural labelling in situ; when coupled with compound specific 13C isotope analysis of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) it allows the proportion of new C (fixed after the switch added to soil from above- and belowground litter and root exudates) and the proportion of old C (fixed prior to the switch derived from turnover of organic matter) utilised by the soil microbial community to be determined. (new paragraph) A field experiment in Sweden, amended with different mineral and organic fertilisers since 1956, was grown with C3 plants, mainly cereals until 1999. From the year 2000 silage maize was grown every year. In 2012, soil from four replicate plots of five experimental treatments, N fertilised, N fertilised amended with straw and sewage sludge, and two controls (bare fallow and cropped unfertilised) were sampled three times, at the start, middle and end of the growing season. Phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) were extracted from all soil samples and analysed for concentrations and 13C content. (new paragraph) Total PLFA concentrations and also the PLFA/SOM ratios increased with SOM in the different treatments. Seasonal variation in total PLFA was small except for the most SOM-rich treatment (sewage sludge) where concentrations significantly decreased during the growing season indicating the depletion of a labile SOM pool. Weighted mean values of δ13C in PLFAs show that the plots fertilised with only calcium nitrate had the highest δ13C-values in PLFAs before (-20.24 o) and after the vegetation period (-20.37 o), due to a large input of 13C-enriched plant material. However, during

  16. Rapid immunocytochemistry based on alternating current electric field using squash smear preparation of central nervous system tumors.

    PubMed

    Moriya, Jun; Tanino, Mishie Ann; Takenami, Tomoko; Endoh, Tomoko; Urushido, Masana; Kato, Yasutaka; Wang, Lei; Kimura, Taichi; Tsuda, Masumi; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    The role of intraoperative pathological diagnosis for central nervous system (CNS) tumors is crucial for neurosurgery when determining the surgical procedure. Especially, treatment of carmustine (BCNU) wafers requires a conclusive diagnosis of high-grade glioma proven by intraoperative diagnosis. Recently, we demonstrated the usefulness of rapid immunohistochemistry (R-IHC) that facilitates antigen-antibody reaction under alternative current (AC) electric field in the intraoperative diagnosis of CNS tumors; however, a higher proportion of water and lipid in the brain parenchyma sometimes leads to freezing artifacts, resulting in poor quality of frozen sections. On the other hand, squash smear preparation of CNS tumors for cytology does not affect the frozen artifacts, and the importance of smear preparation is now being re-recognized as being better than that of the tissue sections. In this study, we established the rapid immunocytochemistry (R-ICC) protocol for squash smears of CNS tumors using AC electric field that takes only 22 min, and demonstrated its usefulness for semi-quantitative Ki-67/MIB-1 labeling index and CD 20 by R-ICC for intraoperative diagnosis. R-ICC by AC electric field may become a substantial tool for compensating R-IHC and will be applied for broad antibodies in the future. PMID:26546480

  17. A cluster of central line-associated bloodstream infections due to rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria in patients with hematologic disorders at a Japanese tertiary care center: an outbreak investigation and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Tagashira, Yasuaki; Kozai, Yasuji; Yamasa, Hitomi; Sakurada, Masako; Kashiyama, Tetsuya; Honda, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria (RGM) are considered rare pathogens, causing central line-associated bloodstream infection. We identified an outbreak of central line-associated bloodstream infection due to RGM at a hematology-oncology ward during a 5-month period. DESIGN Outbreak investigation and literature review. SETTING A Japanese tertiary care center. PATIENTS Adults who were hospitalized at the hematology-oncology ward from October 15, 2011, through February 17, 2012. RESULTS A total of 5 patients with a bloodstream infection due to RGM (4 cases of Mycobacterium mucogenicum and 1 case of Mycobacterium canariasense infection) were identified; of these, 3 patients had acute myeloid leukemia, 1 had acute lymphocytic leukemia, and 1 had aplastic anemia. Four of the 5 patients received cord blood transplantation prior to developing the bloodstream infection. All central venous catheters in patients with a bloodstream infection were removed. These patients promptly defervesced after catheter removal and their care was successfully managed without antimicrobial therapy. Surveillance cultures from the environment and water detected M. mucogenicum and M. canariasense in the water supply of the hematology-oncology ward. The isolates from the bloodstream infection and water sources were identical on the basis of 16S-rRNA gene sequencing. CONCLUSIONS The source of RGM in the outbreak of bloodstream infections likely was the ward tap water supply. Awareness of catheter-related bloodstream infections due to nontuberculous mycobacteria should be emphasized, especially where immunocompromised patients are at risk. Also, using antimicrobials after catheter removal to treat central line-associated bloodstream infection due to RGM may not be necessary. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2015;36(1): 76-80. PMID:25627764

  18. CLUSTERING OF OBSCURED AND UNOBSCURED QUASARS IN THE BOOeTES FIELD: PLACING RAPIDLY GROWING BLACK HOLES IN THE COSMIC WEB

    SciTech Connect

    Hickox, Ryan C.; Alexander, David M.; Goulding, Andrew D.; Myers, Adam D.; Brodwin, Mark; Forman, William R.; Jones, Christine; Murray, Stephen S.; Eisenstein, Daniel; Caldwell, Nelson; Brown, Michael J. I.; Cool, Richard J.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Assef, Roberto J.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Gorjian, Varoujan; Stern, Daniel; Le Floc'h, Emeric

    2011-04-20

    We present the first measurement of the spatial clustering of mid-infrared-selected obscured and unobscured quasars, using a sample in the redshift range 0.7 < z < 1.8 selected from the 9 deg{sup 2} Booetes multiwavelength survey. Recently, the Spitzer Space Telescope and X-ray observations have revealed large populations of obscured quasars that have been inferred from models of the X-ray background and supermassive black hole evolution. To date, little is known about obscured quasar clustering, which allows us to measure the masses of their host dark matter halos and explore their role in the cosmic evolution of black holes and galaxies. In this study, we use a sample of 806 mid-infrared-selected quasars and {approx}250,000 galaxies to calculate the projected quasar-galaxy cross-correlation function w{sub p} (R). The observed clustering yields characteristic dark matter halo masses of log(M{sub halo} [h {sup -1} M{sub sun}]) = 12.7{sup +0.4}{sub -0.6} and 13.3{sup +0.3}{sub -0.4} for unobscured quasars (QSO-1s) and obscured quasars (Obs-QSOs), respectively. The results for QSO-1s are in excellent agreement with previous measurements for optically selected quasars, while we conclude that the Obs-QSOs are at least as strongly clustered as the QSO-1s. We test for the effects of photometric redshift errors on the optically faint Obs-QSOs, and find that our method yields a robust lower limit on the clustering; photo-z errors may cause us to underestimate the clustering amplitude of the Obs-QSOs by at most {approx}20%. We compare our results to previous studies, and speculate on physical implications of stronger clustering for obscured quasars.

  19. Growing Your Own: Minority Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Delar K.; Stoloff, David L.

    2007-01-01

    In the USA, the number of school age children who represent minority backgrounds is rapidly growing. However, despite several efforts, the teaching force remains primarily White. The purpose of this paper is to describe a residential future teachers program in Connecticut which recruits minority rising juniors and seniors from high schools across…

  20. How Does Your Garlic Grow?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimabukuro, Mary A.; Fearing, Vickie

    1993-01-01

    Garlic is an ideal plant for the elementary classroom. It grows rapidly in water without aeration for several weeks and remains relatively free of microbial contamination. Simple experiments with garlic purchased at grocery stores can illustrate various aspects of plant growth. (PR)

  1. Missile and aircraft field test data acquired with the rapid optical beam steering (ROBS) sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, Bruce; Dunn, Murray; Herr, David W.; Hyman, Howard; Leslie, Daniel H.; Lovern, Michael G.

    1997-08-01

    The ROBS instrument has recently acquired unique imagery of a missile intercepting an airborne drone target. We present a summary of that mission. We also present imagery of three airborne targets collected while the ROBS instrument simultaneously tracked all three aircraft. The recent test data highlights the capability of the ROBS instrument for autonomous acquisition, tracking, and imaging of multiple targets under field test conditions. We also describe improvements to the optical system currently underway.

  2. RAPID COMMUNICATION: High performance superconducting wire in high applied magnetic fields via nanoscale defect engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wee, Sung Hun; Goyal, Amit; Zuev, Yuri L.; Cantoni, Claudia

    2008-09-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) wires capable of carrying large critical currents with low dissipation levels in high applied magnetic fields are needed for a wide range of applications. In particular, for electric power applications involving rotating machinery, such as large-scale motors and generators, a high critical current, Ic, and a high engineering critical current density, JE, in applied magnetic fields in the range of 3-5 Tesla (T) at 65 K are required. In addition, exceeding the minimum performance requirements needed for these applications results in a lower fabrication cost, which is regarded as crucial to realize or enable many large-scale bulk applications of HTS materials. Here we report the fabrication of short segments of a potential superconducting wire comprised of a 4 µm thick YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) layer on a biaxially textured substrate with a 50% higher Ic and JE than the highest values reported previously. The YBCO film contained columns of self-assembled nanodots of BaZrO3 (BZO) roughly oriented along the c-axis of YBCO. Although the YBCO film was grown at a high deposition rate, three-dimensional self-assembly of the insulating BZO nanodots still occurred. For all magnetic field orientations, minimum Ic and JE at 65 K, 3 T for the wire were 353 A cm-1 and 65.4 kA cm-2, respectively.

  3. Rapid method for monitoring chitosan coagulation using low-field NMR relaxometry.

    PubMed

    Kock, Flávio Vinicius Crizóstomo; Colnago, Luiz Alberto

    2016-10-01

    Time-domain NMR relaxometry was proposed as a simple, rapid method to monitor chitosan (CS) coagulation as a function of pH. The longitudinal (T1) and transverse (T2) relaxation times of three CS concentrations (0.022, 0.22, and 2.2gL(-1)) were simultaneously measured by CP-CWFPx-x pulse sequences in a 0.47T spectrometer. T1 and T2 were shown to be independent of pH as well as to assume values similar to the relaxation time of water (2.7s) at the lowest tested CS concentration. At the highest concentration, T1 increased whereas T2 decreased as pH varied from 6.0 to 7.0. This indicates a remarkable effect of CS on water relaxation at pH values higher than the pKa of CS amino groups (6.5). Therefore, CS reduced the water mobility at the highest CS concentration and greatest pH values, suggesting a CS supramolecular structure (gel) that entraps the solvent in confined regions. The method proposed here can be further used to study the coagulation of other polysaccharides. PMID:27312606

  4. Field drains as a route of rapid nutrient export from agricultural land receiving biosolids.

    PubMed

    Heathwaite, A L; Burke, S P; Bolton, L

    2006-07-15

    We report research on the environmental risk of incidental nutrient transfers from land to water for biosolids amended soils. We show that subsurface (drainflow) pathways of P transport may result in significant concentrations, up to 10 mg total P l(-1), in the drainage network of an arable catchment when a P source (recent biosolids application) coincides with a significant and active transport pathway (rainfall event). However, the high P concentrations were short-lived, with drainage ditch total P concentrations returning to pre-storm concentrations within a few days of the storm event. In the case of the drainflow concentrations reported here, the results are unusual in that they describe an 'incidental event' for a groundwater catchment where such events might normally be expected to be rare owing to the capacity of the hydrological system to attenuate nutrient fluxes for highly adsorbed elements such as P. Consequently, there is a potential risk of P transfers to shallow groundwater systems. We suggest that the findings are not specific to biosolids-alone, which is a highly regulated industry, but that similar results may be anticipated had livestock waste or mineral fertilizer been applied, although the magnitude of losses may differ. The risk appears to be more one of timing and the availability of a rapid transport pathway than of P source. PMID:16603229

  5. Growing and Growing: Promoting Functional Thinking with Geometric Growing Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markworth, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    Design research methodology is used in this study to develop an empirically-substantiated instruction theory about students' development of functional thinking in the context of geometric growing patterns. The two research questions are: (1) How does students' functional thinking develop in the context of geometric growing patterns? (2) What are…

  6. Comparative field analyses of rapid analyte measurement platform and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assays for West Nile virus surveillance.

    PubMed

    Williges, Eric; Farajollahi, Ary; Nelder, Mark P; Gaugler, Randy

    2009-12-01

    Rapid detection of West Nile virus (WNV) in mosquito pools is essential for predicting epizootics and epidemics. We compare the efficiency and sensitivity of the Rapid Analyte Measurement Platform (RAMP) to reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from 2005 to 2008 from field mosquito populations in Mercer County, NJ. Overall, 316 pools tested negative and 115 pools tested positive for WNV. Eighty-nine pools tested positive using RAMP and all were confirmed by RT-PCR; 26 pools were WNV-negative using RAMP but positive using RT-PCR. False-positives from RAMP were not detected in our four-year study, indicating that RAMP is a reliable tool when used to augment existing RT-PCR-based WNV surveillance programs. Local mosquito control programs using RAMP will benefit from its ease of use, quick results, and lack of false positives but should understand the sensitivity of this test when compared to RT-PCR. Used with standard methods, RAMP will enhance existing mosquito control and WNV surveillance by providing rapid results and improved mosquito management decisions. PMID:20836836

  7. Rapid bacteriophage MS2 transport in an oxic sandy aquifer in cold climate: Field experiments and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvitsand, Hanne M. L.; Ilyas, Aamir; Østerhus, Stein W.

    2015-12-01

    Virus removal during rapid transport in an unconfined, low-temperature (6°C) sand and gravel aquifer was investigated at a riverbank field site, 25 km south of Trondheim in central Norway. The data from bacteriophage MS2 inactivation and transport experiments were applied in a two-site kinetic transport model using HYDRUS-1D, to evaluate the mechanisms of virus removal and whether these mechanisms were sufficient to protect the groundwater supplies. The results demonstrated that inactivation was negligible to the overall removal and that irreversible MS2 attachment to aquifer grains, coated with iron precipitates, played a dominant role in the removal of MS2; 4.1 log units of MS2 were removed by attachment during 38 m travel distance and less than 2 days residence time. Although the total removal was high, pathways capable of allowing virus migration at rapid velocities were present in the aquifer. The risk of rapid transport of viable viruses should be recognized, particularly for water supplies without permanent disinfection.

  8. Rapid Task-Related Plasticity of Spectrotemporal Receptive Fields in the Auditory Midbrain.

    PubMed

    Slee, Sean J; David, Stephen V

    2015-09-23

    Previous research has demonstrated that auditory cortical neurons can modify their receptive fields when animals engage in auditory detection tasks. We tested for this form of task-related plasticity in the inferior colliculus (IC) of ferrets trained to detect a pure tone target in a sequence of noise distractors that did not overlap in time. During behavior, responses were suppressed at the target tone frequency in approximately half of IC neurons relative to the passive state. This suppression often resulted from a combination of a local tuning change and a global change in overall excitability. Local and global suppression were stronger when the target frequency was aligned to neuronal best frequency. Local suppression in the IC was indistinguishable from that described previously in auditory cortex, while global suppression was unique to the IC. The results demonstrate that engaging in an auditory task can change selectivity for task-relevant features in the midbrain, an area where these effects have not been reported previously. Significance statement: Previous studies have demonstrated that the receptive fields of cortical neurons are modified when animals engage in auditory behaviors, a process that is hypothesized to provide the basis for segregating sound sources in an auditory scene. This study demonstrates for the first time that receptive fields of neurons in the midbrain inferior colliculus are also modified during behavior. The magnitude of the tuning changes is similar to previous reports in cortex. These results support a hierarchical model of behaviorally driven sound segregation that begins in the subcortical auditory network. PMID:26400939

  9. Rapid Task-Related Plasticity of Spectrotemporal Receptive Fields in the Auditory Midbrain

    PubMed Central

    David, Stephen V.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that auditory cortical neurons can modify their receptive fields when animals engage in auditory detection tasks. We tested for this form of task-related plasticity in the inferior colliculus (IC) of ferrets trained to detect a pure tone target in a sequence of noise distractors that did not overlap in time. During behavior, responses were suppressed at the target tone frequency in approximately half of IC neurons relative to the passive state. This suppression often resulted from a combination of a local tuning change and a global change in overall excitability. Local and global suppression were stronger when the target frequency was aligned to neuronal best frequency. Local suppression in the IC was indistinguishable from that described previously in auditory cortex, while global suppression was unique to the IC. The results demonstrate that engaging in an auditory task can change selectivity for task-relevant features in the midbrain, an area where these effects have not been reported previously. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Previous studies have demonstrated that the receptive fields of cortical neurons are modified when animals engage in auditory behaviors, a process that is hypothesized to provide the basis for segregating sound sources in an auditory scene. This study demonstrates for the first time that receptive fields of neurons in the midbrain inferior colliculus are also modified during behavior. The magnitude of the tuning changes is similar to previous reports in cortex. These results support a hierarchical model of behaviorally driven sound segregation that begins in the subcortical auditory network. PMID:26400939

  10. Development of a Rapid, Standardized Data Inventory for R2K Field Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arko, R. A.; Chayes, D. N.; Carbotte, S. M.; Ryan, W. B.; Lehnert, K. A.; Shank, T. M.

    2003-12-01

    Effective data management for Ridge2000 requires the production of a complete data inventory for every field program in a timely and standardized way. We are developing a set of forms to document 1.) basic field program information (dates and locations, platform, science party, etc); 2.) an inventory of sensor systems, data types (marine geophysical, physical and chemical oceanographic, rock and sediment samples, and biological), and file formats; 3.) supplemental attachments (written reports, instrument diagrams, etc); and 4.) a basic navigation track. We regard this as the minimal set of metadata which should be produced immediately at the end of a field program, in order to publicize it in an online database and satisfy agency requirements. We have developed a prototype set of Portable Document Format (PDF) forms which can be completed during a cruise through a combination of manual and automated input. PDF is a stable and widely-used format, with software available as both a commercial product (Adobe Acrobat) and an open-source library (http://www.pdflib.org). Completing a PDF form requires only the Acrobat Reader software, which is freely available for every major computing platform. Acrobat offers extensive functionality to aid in data inventory, including the ability to verify content on-the-fly, import data from other files and forms, show controlled vocabularies as pop-up menus, export to XML format, and print a high-quality readable report. Prototype forms have been tested on a recent transit of the CGC Healy, and we plan to continue testing on other ships and soliciting community feedback over the next several months. We envision a long-term plan in which a master set of forms is deployed with every R2K field program, along with a copy of Acrobat Reader, on lightweight storage media such as USB keys. The completed forms will then be transmitted to the data management center, where they are ingested automatically and the information made available in the

  11. Rapid field-based landslide hazard assessment in response to post-earthquake emergency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frattini, Paolo; Gambini, Stefano; Cancelliere, Giorgio

    2016-04-01

    On April 25, 2015 a Mw 7.8 earthquake occurred 80 km to the northwest of Kathmandu (Nepal). The largest aftershock, occurred on May 12, 2015, was the Mw 7.3 Nepal earthquake (SE of Zham, China), 80 km to the east of Kathmandu. . The earthquakes killed ~9000 people and severely damaged a 10,000 sqkm region in Nepal and neighboring countries. Several thousands of landslides have been triggered during the event, causing widespread damages to mountain villages and the evacuation of thousands of people. Rasuwa was one of the most damaged districts. This contribution describes landslide hazard analysis of the Saramthali, Yarsa and Bhorle VDCs (122 km2, Rasuwa district). Hazard is expressed in terms of qualitative classes (low, medium, high), through a simple matrix approach that combines frequency classes and magnitude classes. The hazard analysis is based primarily on the experience gained during a field survey conducted in September 2014. During the survey, local knowledge has been systematically exploited through interviews with local people that have experienced the earthquake and the coseismic landslides. People helped us to recognize fractures and active deformations, and allowed to reconstruct a correct chronicle of landslide events, in order to assign the landslide events to the first shock, the second shock, or the post-earthquake 2015 monsoon. The field experience was complemented with a standard analysis of the relationship between potential controlling factors and the distribution of landslides reported in Kargel et al (2016). This analysis allowed recognizing the most important controlling factor. This information was integrated with the field observations to verify the mapped units and to complete the mapping in area not accessible for field activity. Finally, the work was completed with the analysis and the use of a detailed landslide inventory produced by the University of Milano Bicocca that covers most of the area affected by coseismic landslides in

  12. Nonlinear growing neutrino cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayaita, Youness; Baldi, Marco; Führer, Florian; Puchwein, Ewald; Wetterich, Christof

    2016-03-01

    The energy scale of dark energy, ˜2 ×10-3 eV , is a long way off compared to all known fundamental scales—except for the neutrino masses. If dark energy is dynamical and couples to neutrinos, this is no longer a coincidence. The time at which dark energy starts to behave as an effective cosmological constant can be linked to the time at which the cosmic neutrinos become nonrelativistic. This naturally places the onset of the Universe's accelerated expansion in recent cosmic history, addressing the why-now problem of dark energy. We show that these mechanisms indeed work in the growing neutrino quintessence model—even if the fully nonlinear structure formation and backreaction are taken into account, which were previously suspected of spoiling the cosmological evolution. The attractive force between neutrinos arising from their coupling to dark energy grows as large as 106 times the gravitational strength. This induces very rapid dynamics of neutrino fluctuations which are nonlinear at redshift z ≈2 . Nevertheless, a nonlinear stabilization phenomenon ensures only mildly nonlinear oscillating neutrino overdensities with a large-scale gravitational potential substantially smaller than that of cold dark matter perturbations. Depending on model parameters, the signals of large-scale neutrino lumps may render the cosmic neutrino background observable.

  13. Field evaluation of a rapid diagnostic test to detect antibodies in human toxocariasis.

    PubMed

    Lim, P K C; Yamasaki, H; Mak, J W; Wong, S F; Chong, C W; Yap, I K S; Ambu, S; Kumarasamy, V

    2015-08-01

    Human toxocariasis which is caused mainly by the larvae of Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati, is a worldwide zoonotic disease that can be a potentially serious human infection. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using T. canis excretory-secretory (TES) antigens harvested from T. canis larvae is currently the serological test for confirming toxocariasis. An alternative to producing large amounts of Toxocara TES and improved diagnosis for toxocariasis is through the development of highly specific recombinant antigens such as the T. canis second stage larva excretory-secretory 30 kDa protein (recTES-30). The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of a rapid diagnostic kit (RDT, named as iToxocara kit) in comparison to recTES-30 ELISA in Serendah Orang Asli village in Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 133 subjects were included in the study. The overall prevalence rates by ELISA and RDT were 29.3% and 33.1%, respectively, with more positive cases detected in males than females. However, no association was found between toxocariasis and gender or age. The percentage sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of RDT were 85.7%, 90.1%, 80% and 93.2%, respectively. The prevalence for toxocariasis in this population using both ELISA and RDT was 27.1% (36/133) and the K-concordance test suggested good agreement of the two tests with a Cohen's kappa of 0.722, P<0.01. In addition, the followed-up Spearman rank correlation showed a moderately high correlation at R=0.704 and P<0.01. In conclusion, the RDT kit was faster and easier to use than an ELISA and is useful for the laboratory diagnosis of hospitalized cases of toxocariasis. PMID:25910623

  14. AC electric field for rapid assembly of nanostructured polyaniline onto microsized gap for sensor devices.

    PubMed

    La Ferrara, Vera; Rametta, Gabriella; De Maria, Antonella

    2015-07-01

    Interconnected network of nanostructured polyaniline (PANI) is giving strong potential for enhancing device performances than bulk PANI counterparts. For nanostructured device processing, the main challenge is to get prototypes on large area by requiring precision, low cost and high rate assembly. Among processes meeting these requests, the alternate current electric fields are often used for nanostructure assembling. For the first time, we show the assembly of nanostructured PANI onto large electrode gaps (30-60 μm width) by applying alternate current electric fields, at low frequencies, to PANI particles dispersed in acetonitrile (ACN). An important advantage is the short assembly time, limited to 5-10 s, although electrode gaps are microsized. That encouraging result is due to a combination of forces, such as dielectrophoresis (DEP), induced-charge electrokinetic (ICEK) flow and alternate current electroosmotic (ACEO) flow, which speed up the assembly process when low frequencies and large electrode gaps are used. The main achievement of the present study is the development of ammonia sensors created by direct assembling of nanostructured PANI onto electrodes. Sensors exhibit high sensitivity to low gas concentrations as well as excellent reversibility at room temperature, even after storage in air. PMID:26009866

  15. A Survey of the Rapidly Emerging Field of Nanotechnology: Potential Applications for Scientific Instruments and Technologies for Atmospheric Entry Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyyappan, M.; Arnold, J. O.

    2005-01-01

    The field of Nanotechnology is well funded worldwide and innovations applicable to Solar System Exploration are emerging much more rapidly than thought possible just a few years ago. This presentation will survey recent innovations from nanotechnololgy with a focus on novel applications to atmospheric entry science and probe technology, in a fashion similar to that presented by Arnold and Venkatapathy at the previous workshop forum at Lisbon Portugal, October 6-9, 2003. Nanotechnology is a rapidly emerging field that builds systems, devices and materials from the bottom up, atom by atom, and in so doing provides them with novel and remarkable macro-scale performance. This technology has the potential to revolutionize space exploration by reducing mass and simultaneously increasing capability. Thermal, Radiation, Impact Protective Shields: Atmospheric probes and humans on long duration deep space missions involved in Solar System Exploration must safely endure 3 significant hazards: (i) atmospheric entry; (ii) radiation; and (iii) micrometeorite or debris impact. Nanostructured materials could be developed to address all three hazards with a single protective shield, which would involve much less mass than a traditional approach. The concept can be ready in time for incorporation into NASA s Crew Exploration Vehicle, and possible entry probes to fly on the Jupiter Icy Moons

  16. Development of a lateral flow immunoassay for rapid field detection of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Valles, Steven M; Strong, Charles A; Callcott, Anne-Marie A

    2016-07-01

    The red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, is an aggressive, highly invasive pest ant species from South America that has been introduced into North America, Asia, and Australia. Quarantine efforts have been imposed in the USA to minimize further spread of the ant. To aid the quarantine efforts, there remains an acute need for a rapid, field portable method for the identification of these ants. In this report, we describe two novel monoclonal antibodies that specifically bind the S. invicta venom protein 2 produced by S. invicta. Using these monoclonal antibodies we developed a lateral flow immunoassay that provides a rapid and portable method for the identification of S. invicta ants. The lateral flow immunoassay was validated against purified S. invicta venom protein 2 and 33 unique ant species (representing 15 % of the total species and 42 % of the Myrmicinae genera found in Florida), and only S. invicta and the S. invicta/richteri hybrid produced a positive result. These monoclonal antibodies were selective to S. invicta venom protein 2 and did not bind to proteins from congeners (i.e., S. geminata or S. richteri) known to produce a S. invicta venom protein 2 ortholog. This S. invicta lateral flow immunoassay provides a new tool for regulatory agencies in the USA to enforce quarantine protocols and limit the spread of this invasive ant. Graphical Abstract Field method to detect and identify the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. PMID:27108280

  17. Disaster behavioral health: legal and ethical considerations in a rapidly changing field.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Brian W; Speier, Anthony H

    2014-08-01

    Disaster behavioral health is increasingly regarded as a central part of disaster preparedness, response and recovery. Legal and ethical issues have received relatively little attention and have sparked divergent opinions. Optimally, understanding and applying legal and ethical considerations requires an understanding of the evolution of the disaster behavioral health field and the context of disaster response and recovery. In addition, there are many legal and ethical questions identified for consideration, and many ways to approach reaching understanding and consensus. Traditionally, discussions of disaster behavioral health, including legal and ethical issues, have not included understanding decision making processes that occur in extreme circumstances. Models which interpret disaster response operations as complex adaptive systems are presented for consideration as useful tools for preparing mental health workers for effectively delivering services in acute disaster response environments. PMID:24912607

  18. A replicated climate change field experiment reveals rapid evolutionary response in an ecologically important soil invertebrate.

    PubMed

    Bataillon, Thomas; Galtier, Nicolas; Bernard, Aurelien; Cryer, Nicolai; Faivre, Nicolas; Santoni, Sylvain; Severac, Dany; Mikkelsen, Teis N; Larsen, Klaus S; Beier, Claus; Sørensen, Jesper G; Holmstrup, Martin; Ehlers, Bodil K

    2016-07-01

    Whether species can respond evolutionarily to current climate change is crucial for the persistence of many species. Yet, very few studies have examined genetic responses to climate change in manipulated experiments carried out in natural field conditions. We examined the evolutionary response to climate change in a common annelid worm using a controlled replicated experiment where climatic conditions were manipulated in a natural setting. Analyzing the transcribed genome of 15 local populations, we found that about 12% of the genetic polymorphisms exhibit differences in allele frequencies associated to changes in soil temperature and soil moisture. This shows an evolutionary response to realistic climate change happening over short-time scale, and calls for incorporating evolution into models predicting future response of species to climate change. It also shows that designed climate change experiments coupled with genome sequencing offer great potential to test for the occurrence (or lack) of an evolutionary response. PMID:27109012

  19. Continued Rapid Uplift at Laguna del Maule Volcanic Field (Chile) from 2007 through 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Mével, H.; Feigl, K. L.; Cordova, L.; DeMets, C.; Lundgren, P.

    2014-12-01

    The current rate of uplift at Laguna del Maule (LdM) volcanic field in Chile is among the highest ever observed geodetically for a volcano that is not actively erupting. Using data from interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and the Global Positioning System (GPS) recorded at five continuously operating stations, we measure the deformation field with dense sampling in time (1/day) and space (1/hectare). These data track the temporal evolution of the current unrest episode from its inception (sometime between 2004 and 2007) to vertical velocities faster than 200 mm/yr that continue through (at least) July 2014. Building on our previous work, we evaluate the temporal evolution by analyzing data from InSAR (ALOS, TerraSAR-X, TanDEM-X) and GPS [http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1093/gji/ggt438]. In addition, we consider InSAR data from (ERS, ENVISAT, COSMO-Skymed, and UAVSAR), as well as constraints from magneto-telluric (MT), seismic, and gravity surveys. The goal is to test the hypothesis that a recent magma intrusion is feeding a large, existing magma reservoir. What will happen next? To address this question, we analyze the temporal evolution of deformation at other large silicic systems such as Yellowstone, Long Valley, and Three Sisters, during well-studied episodes of unrest. We consider several parameterizations, including piecewise linear, parabolic, and Gaussian functions of time. By choosing the best-fitting model, we expect to constrain the time scales of such episodes and elucidate the processes driving them.

  20. Rapid Transient Pressure Field Computations in the Nearfield of Circular Transducers using Frequency Domain Time-Space Decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Alles, E. J.; Zhu, Y.; van Dongen, K. W. A.; McGough, R. J.

    2013-01-01

    The fast nearfield method, when combined with time-space decomposition, is a rapid and accurate approach for calculating transient nearfield pressures generated by ultrasound transducers. However, the standard time-space decomposition approach is only applicable to certain analytical representations of the temporal transducer surface velocity that, when applied to the fast nearfield method, are expressed as a finite sum of products of separate temporal and spatial terms. To extend time-space decomposition such that accelerated transient field simulations are enabled in the nearfield for an arbitrary transducer surface velocity, a new transient simulation method, frequency domain time-space decomposition (FDTSD), is derived. With this method, the temporal transducer surface velocity is transformed into the frequency domain, and then each complex-valued term is processed separately. Further improvements are achieved by spectral clipping, which reduces the number of terms and the computation time. Trade-offs between speed and accuracy are established for FDTSD calculations, and pressure fields obtained with the FDTSD method for a circular transducer are compared to those obtained with Field II and the impulse response method. The FDTSD approach, when combined with the fast nearfield method and spectral clipping, consistently achieves smaller errors in less time and requires less memory than Field II or the impulse response method. PMID:23160476

  1. Development of a Rapid Soil Water Content Detection Technique Using Active Infrared Thermal Methods for In-Field Applications

    PubMed Central

    Antonucci, Francesca; Pallottino, Federico; Costa, Corrado; Rimatori, Valentina; Giorgi, Stefano; Papetti, Patrizia; Menesatti, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of active infrared thermography and thermometry in combination with multivariate statistical partial least squares analysis as rapid soil water content detection techniques both in the laboratory and the field. Such techniques allow fast soil water content measurements helpful in both agricultural and environmental fields. These techniques, based on the theory of heat dissipation, were tested by directly measuring temperature dynamic variation of samples after heating. For the assessment of temperature dynamic variations data were collected during three intervals (3, 6 and 10 s). To account for the presence of specific heats differences between water and soil, the analyses were regulated using slopes to linearly describe their trends. For all analyses, the best model was achieved for a 10 s slope. Three different approaches were considered, two in the laboratory and one in the field. The first laboratory-based one was centred on active infrared thermography, considered measurement of temperature variation as independent variable and reported r = 0.74. The second laboratory–based one was focused on active infrared thermometry, added irradiation as independent variable and reported r = 0.76. The in-field experiment was performed by active infrared thermometry, heating bare soil by solar irradiance after exposure due to primary tillage. Some meteorological parameters were inserted as independent variables in the prediction model, which presented r = 0.61. In order to obtain more general and wide estimations in-field a Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis on three classes of percentage of soil water content was performed obtaining a high correct classification in the test (88.89%). The prediction error values were lower in the field with respect to laboratory analyses. Both techniques could be used in conjunction with a Geographic Information System for obtaining detailed information on soil

  2. Development of a rapid soil water content detection technique using active infrared thermal methods for in-field applications.

    PubMed

    Antonucci, Francesca; Pallottino, Federico; Costa, Corrado; Rimatori, Valentina; Giorgi, Stefano; Papetti, Patrizia; Menesatti, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of active infrared thermography and thermometry in combination with multivariate statistical partial least squares analysis as rapid soil water content detection techniques both in the laboratory and the field. Such techniques allow fast soil water content measurements helpful in both agricultural and environmental fields. These techniques, based on the theory of heat dissipation, were tested by directly measuring temperature dynamic variation of samples after heating. For the assessment of temperature dynamic variations data were collected during three intervals (3, 6 and 10 s). To account for the presence of specific heats differences between water and soil, the analyses were regulated using slopes to linearly describe their trends. For all analyses, the best model was achieved for a 10 s slope. Three different approaches were considered, two in the laboratory and one in the field. The first laboratory-based one was centred on active infrared thermography, considered measurement of temperature variation as independent variable and reported r = 0.74. The second laboratory-based one was focused on active infrared thermometry, added irradiation as independent variable and reported r = 0.76. The in-field experiment was performed by active infrared thermometry, heating bare soil by solar irradiance after exposure due to primary tillage. Some meteorological parameters were inserted as independent variables in the prediction model, which presented r = 0.61. In order to obtain more general and wide estimations in-field a Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis on three classes of percentage of soil water content was performed obtaining a high correct classification in the test (88.89%). The prediction error values were lower in the field with respect to laboratory analyses. Both techniques could be used in conjunction with a Geographic Information System for obtaining detailed information on soil heterogeneity

  3. The Taylor Creek Rhyolite of New Mexico: a rapidly emplaced field of lava domes and flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffield, W.A.; Dalrymple, G.B.

    1990-01-01

    The Tertiary Taylor Creek Rhyolite of southwest New Mexico comprises at least 20 lava domes and flows. Each of the lavas was erupted from its own vent, and the vents are distributed throughout a 20 km by 50 km area. The volume of the rhyolite and genetically associated pyroclastic deposits is at least 100 km3 (denserock equivalent). The rhyolite contains 15%-35% quartz, sanidine, plagioclase, ??biotite, ??hornblende phenocrysts. Quartz and sanidine account for about 98% of the phenocrysts and are present in roughly equal amounts. With rare exceptions, the groundmass consists of intergrowths of fine-grained silica and alkali feldspar. Whole-rock major-element composition varies little, and the rhyolite is metaluminous to weakly peraluminous; mean SiO2 content is about 77.5??0.3%. Similarly, major-element compositions of the two feldsparphenocryst species also are nearly constant. However, whole-rock concentrations of some trace-elements vary as much as several hundred percent. Initial radiometric age determinations, all K-Ar and fission track, suggest that the rhyolite lava field grew during a period of at least 2 m.y. Subsequent 40Ar/39Ar ages indicate that the period of growth was no more than 100 000 years. The time-space-composition relations thus suggest that the Taylor Creek Rhyolite was erupted from a single magma reservoir whose average width was at least 30 km, comparable in size to several penecontemporaneous nearby calderas. However, this rhyolite apparently is not related to a caldera structure. Possibly, the Taylor Creek Phyolite magma body never became sufficiently volatile rich to produce a large-volume pyroclastic eruption and associated caldera collapse, but instead leaked repeatedly to feed many relatively small domes and flows. The new 40Ar/39Ar ages do not resolve preexisting unknown relative-age relations among the domes and flows of the lava field. Nonetheless, the indicated geologically brief period during which Taylor Creek Rhyolite magma was

  4. The Taylor Creek Rhyolite of New Mexico: a rapidly emplaced field of lava domes and flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffield, Wendell A.; Dalrymple, G. Brent

    1990-08-01

    The Tertiary Taylor Creek Rhyolite of southwest New Mexico comprises at least 20 lava domes and flows. Each of the lavas was erupted from its own vent, and the vents are distributed throughout a 20 km by 50 km area. The volume of the rhyolite and genetically associated pyroclastic deposits is at least 100 km3 (denserock equivalent). The rhyolite contains 15% 35% quartz, sanidine, plagioclase, ±biotite, ±hornblende phenocrysts. Quartz and sanidine account for about 98% of the phenocrysts and are present in roughly equal amounts. With rare exceptions, the groundmass consists of intergrowths of fine-grained silica and alkali feldspar. Whole-rock major-element composition varies little, and the rhyolite is metaluminous to weakly peraluminous; mean SiO2 content is about 77.5±0.3%. Similarly, major-element compositions of the two feldsparphenocryst species also are nearly constant. However, whole-rock concentrations of some trace-elements vary as much as several hundred percent. Initial radiometric age determinations, all K-Ar and fission track, suggest that the rhyolite lava field grew during a period of at least 2 m.y. Subsequent 40Ar/39Ar ages indicate that the period of growth was no more than 100 000 years. The time-space-composition relations thus suggest that the Taylor Creek Rhyolite was erupted from a single magma reservoir whose average width was at least 30 km, comparable in size to several penecontemporaneous nearby calderas. However, this rhyolite apparently is not related to a caldera structure. Possibly, the Taylor Creek Phyolite magma body never became sufficiently volatile rich to produce a large-volume pyroclastic eruption and associated caldera collapse, but instead leaked repeatedly to feed many relatively small domes and flows. The new 40Ar/39Ar ages do not resolve preexisting unknown relative-age relations among the domes and flows of the lava field. Nonetheless, the indicated geologically brief period during which Taylor Creek Rhyolite magma was

  5. Rapid detection of peanut oil adulteration using low-field nuclear magnetic resonance and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenran; Wang, Xin; Chen, Lihua

    2017-02-01

    (1)H low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) and chemometrics were employed to screen the quality changes of peanut oil (PEO) adulterated with soybean oil (SO), rapeseed oil (RO), or palm oil (PAO) in ratios ranging from 0% to 100%. Significant differences in the LF-NMR parameters, single component relaxation time (T2W), and peak area proportion (S21 and S22), were detected between pure and adulterated peanut oil samples. As the ratio of adulteration increased, the T2W, S21, and S22 changed linearly; however, the multicomponent relaxation times (T21 and T22) changed slightly. The established principal component analysis or discriminant analysis models can correctly differentiate authentic PEO from fake and adulterated samples with at least 10% of SO, RO, or PAO. The binary blends of oils can be clearly classified by discriminant analysis when the adulteration ratio is above 30%, illustrating possible applications in screening the oil species in peanut oil blends. PMID:27596419

  6. Field Application of a Rapid Spectrophotometric Method for Determination of Persulfate in Soil

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Colin J.; Pitschi, Vanessa; Anderson, Peter; Barry, D. A.; Patterson, Colin; Peshkur, Tanya A.

    2013-01-01

    Remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils can be performed both in situ and ex situ using chemical oxidants such as sodium persulfate. Standard methods for quantifying persulfate require either centrifugation or prolonged settling times. An optimized soil extraction procedure was developed for persulfate involving simple water extraction using a modified disposable syringe. This allows considerable saving of time and removes the need for centrifugation. The extraction time was reduced to only 5 min compared to 15 min for the standard approach. A comparison of the two approaches demonstrated that each provides comparable results. Comparisons were made using high (93 g kg−1 soil) and low (9.3 g kg−1 soil) additions of sodium persulfate to a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, as well as sand spiked with diesel. Recoveries of 95±1% and 96±10% were observed with the higher application rate in the contaminated soil and spiked sand, respectively. Corresponding recoveries of 86±5% and 117±19% were measured for the lower application rate. Results were obtained in only 25 min and the method is well suited to batch analyses. In addition, it is suitable for application in a small field laboratory or even a mobile, vehicle-based system, as it requires minimal equipment and reagents. PMID:23776446

  7. Rapid identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Selim, Samy; El Kholy, Iman; Hagagy, Nashwa; El Alfay, Sahar; Aziz, Mohamed Abdel

    2015-01-01

    Twenty clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates recovered from patients admitted to The General Hospital in Ismailia Governorate (Egypt) were examined in this study. We analysed P. aeruginosa ATCC 9027 (as a control strain) and 19 of the isolates after digestion with SpeI restriction endonuclease. After this we conducted a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and typed the obtained 10 unique patterns, designated as A, A1, B, B1, C, C1, D, D1, E and F. We evaluated the genetic relatedness between all strains, based on ≥87% band identity. As a result, the isolates were grouped in the 10 clusters as follows: patterns A, A1, B, B1, C contained two strains each and patterns C1, D, D1, E contained a single strain each; the five remaining strains were closely related (genomic pattern F). One isolate belonged to antibiotype ‘b’. The genotype patterns of the P. aeruginosa ATCC 9027 control strain and isolate no. 11 were closely related and had two different antibiotypes ‘d’ and ‘c’, respectively. PMID:26019629

  8. Modified full-field optical coherence tomography: A novel tool for rapid histology of tissues

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Manu; Shukla, Nidhi; Manzoor, Maryem; Nadolny, Sylvie; Mukherjee, Sushmita

    2011-01-01

    Background: Here, we report the first use of a commercial prototype of full-field optical coherence tomography called Light-CT™. Based on the principle of white light interferometry, Light-CT™ generates quick high-resolution three-dimensional tomographic images from unprocessed tissues. Its advantage over the current intra-surgical diagnostic standard, i.e. frozen section analysis, lies in the absence of freezing artifacts, which allows real-time diagnostic impressions, and/or for the tissues to be triaged for subsequent conventional histopathology. Materials and Methods: In this study, we recapitulate known normal histology in nine formalin fixed ex vivo rat organs (skin, heart, lung, liver, stomach, kidney, prostate, urinary bladder, and testis). Large surface and virtually sectioned stacks of images at varying depths were acquired by a pair of 10×/0.3 numerical aperture water immersion objectives, processed and visualized in real time. Results: Normal histology of the following organs was recapitulated by identifying various tissue microstructures. Skin: epidermis, dermal-epidermal junction and hair follicles with surrounding sebaceous glands in the dermis. Stomach: mucosa with surface pits, submucosa, muscularis propria and serosa. Liver: hepatocytes separated by sinusoidal spaces, central veins and portal triad. Kidney: convoluted tubules, medullary rays (straight tubules) and collecting ducts. Prostate: acini and fibro-muscular stroma. Lung: bronchi, bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveoli and pleura. Urinary bladder: urothelium, lamina propria, muscularis propria, and serosa. Testis: seminiferous tubules with intra-tubular sperms. Conclusion: Light-CT™ is a powerful imaging tool to perform fast histology on fresh and fixed tissues, without introducing artifacts. Its compact size, ease of handling, fast image acquisition and safe incident light levels makes it well-suited for various intra-operative and intra-procedural triaging and decision making

  9. Rapid Microbiome Changes in Freshly Deposited Cow Feces under Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Kelvin; Shaw, Timothy I.; Oladeinde, Adelumola; Glenn, Travis C.; Oakley, Brian; Molina, Marirosa

    2016-01-01

    Although development of next generation sequencing (NGS) has substantially improved our understanding of the microbial ecology of animal feces, previous studies have mostly focused on freshly excreted feces. There is still limited understanding of the aging process dynamics of fecal microbiomes in intact cowpats exposed to natural environments. Fresh cowpats were sampled at multiple time points for 57 days under field conditions; half the samples were exposed to sunlight (unshaded) while the other half was protected from sunlight (shaded). The 16SRNA hypervariable region 4 was amplified from each sample and sequenced on an Illumina MiSeq Platform. While Clostridia, Bacteroidia, and Sphingobacteria were dominant classes of bacteria in fresh cowpats, Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacilli were the dominant classes by the end of the study, indicating a general shift from anaerobic to aerobic bacterial populations. This change was most likely influenced by the shift from cattle gut (anaerobic) to pasture ground (aerobic). Reduced moisture in cowpats may also contribute to the community shift since air can penetrate the dryer cowpat more easily. Twelve genera consisting pathogenic bacteria were detected, with Mycobacterium, Bacillus, and Clostridium being the most abundant; their combined abundance accounts for 90% of the total pathogenic genera. Taxonomic richness and diversity increased throughout the study for most samples, which could be due to bacteria regrowth and colonization of bacteria from the environment. In contrast to the high taxonomic diversity, the changes of PICRUSt inferred function profile were minimal for all cowpats throughout the study, which suggest that core functions predicted by PICRUSt may be too conserved to distinguish differences between aerobe and anaerobe. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating that cowpat exposure to air and sunlight can cause drastic microbiome changes soon

  10. Rapid Microbiome Changes in Freshly Deposited Cow Feces under Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kelvin; Shaw, Timothy I; Oladeinde, Adelumola; Glenn, Travis C; Oakley, Brian; Molina, Marirosa

    2016-01-01

    Although development of next generation sequencing (NGS) has substantially improved our understanding of the microbial ecology of animal feces, previous studies have mostly focused on freshly excreted feces. There is still limited understanding of the aging process dynamics of fecal microbiomes in intact cowpats exposed to natural environments. Fresh cowpats were sampled at multiple time points for 57 days under field conditions; half the samples were exposed to sunlight (unshaded) while the other half was protected from sunlight (shaded). The 16SRNA hypervariable region 4 was amplified from each sample and sequenced on an Illumina MiSeq Platform. While Clostridia, Bacteroidia, and Sphingobacteria were dominant classes of bacteria in fresh cowpats, Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacilli were the dominant classes by the end of the study, indicating a general shift from anaerobic to aerobic bacterial populations. This change was most likely influenced by the shift from cattle gut (anaerobic) to pasture ground (aerobic). Reduced moisture in cowpats may also contribute to the community shift since air can penetrate the dryer cowpat more easily. Twelve genera consisting pathogenic bacteria were detected, with Mycobacterium, Bacillus, and Clostridium being the most abundant; their combined abundance accounts for 90% of the total pathogenic genera. Taxonomic richness and diversity increased throughout the study for most samples, which could be due to bacteria regrowth and colonization of bacteria from the environment. In contrast to the high taxonomic diversity, the changes of PICRUSt inferred function profile were minimal for all cowpats throughout the study, which suggest that core functions predicted by PICRUSt may be too conserved to distinguish differences between aerobe and anaerobe. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating that cowpat exposure to air and sunlight can cause drastic microbiome changes soon

  11. Rapid enzyme kinetic assays of individual Drosophila and comparisons of field-caught D. melanogaster and D. simulans.

    PubMed

    Clark, A G; Keith, L E

    1989-06-01

    Techniques for performing numerous enzyme kinetic assays with minimum time and effort would be valuable to studies of the evolutionary genetics of metabolic control and the quantitative genetics of determinants of kinetic parameters. Microtiter plate readers have been used for a variety of repetitious analytical techniques, and instruments are available that can take repetitive readings with sufficient speed to perform kinetic assays. The ability of these instruments to assay rapidly the kinetic properties of small samples makes them potentially useful for a number of problems in population genetics. While the ability to handle large numbers of samples is very attractive, the small sample volumes and optical imprecision of microtiter plates result in some sacrifice in accuracy. This paper presents methods for performing kinetic assays on individual field-caught Drosophila, quantifies the precision of these methods, and characterizes differences among Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans from samples caught in California and Pennsylvania. Comparisons between field-caught and laboratory reared D. melanogaster show that most of the characters are very similar, with the exception of alpha GPDH, which has a threefold higher mean activity among field-caught flies. The phenotypic correlations are presented with a brief discussion of their relevance to assessing the evolution of metabolic control of these enzymes. PMID:2508620

  12. Rapid evaluation of a protein-based voltage probe using a field-induced membrane potential change.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Hidekazu; Jinno, Yuka; Tomita, Akiko; Okamura, Yasushi

    2014-07-01

    The development of a high performance protein probe for the measurement of membrane potential will allow elucidation of spatiotemporal regulation of electrical signals within a network of excitable cells. Engineering such a probe requires a functional screen of many candidates. Although the glass-microelectrode technique generally provides an accurate measure of a given test probe, throughputs are limited. In this study, we focused on an approach that uses the membrane potential changes induced by an external electric field in a geometrically simple mammalian cell. For quantitative evaluation of membrane voltage probes that rely on the structural transition of the S1-S4 voltage sensor domain and hence have non-linear voltage dependencies, it was crucial to introduce exogenous inwardly rectifying potassium conductance to reduce cell-to-cell variability in resting membrane potentials. Importantly, the addition of the exogenous conductance drastically altered the profile of the field-induced potential. Following a site-directed random mutagenesis and the rapid screen, we identified a mutant of a voltage probe Mermaid, exhibiting positively shifted voltage sensitivity. Due to its simplicity, the current approach will be applicable under a microfluidic configuration to carry out an efficient screen. Additionally, we demonstrate another interesting aspect of the field-induced optical signals, ability to visualize electrical couplings between cells. PMID:24642225

  13. Auditory evoked fields measured noninvasively with small-animal MEG reveal rapid repetition suppression in the guinea pig

    PubMed Central

    Christianson, G. Björn; Chait, Maria; de Cheveigné, Alain

    2014-01-01

    In animal models, single-neuron response properties such as stimulus-specific adaptation have been described as possible precursors to mismatch negativity, a human brain response to stimulus change. In the present study, we attempted to bridge the gap between human and animal studies by characterising responses to changes in the frequency of repeated tone series in the anesthetised guinea pig using small-animal magnetoencephalography (MEG). We showed that 1) auditory evoked fields (AEFs) qualitatively similar to those observed in human MEG studies can be detected noninvasively in rodents using small-animal MEG; 2) guinea pig AEF amplitudes reduce rapidly with tone repetition, and this AEF reduction is largely complete by the second tone in a repeated series; and 3) differences between responses to the first (deviant) and later (standard) tones after a frequency transition resemble those previously observed in awake humans using a similar stimulus paradigm. PMID:25231619

  14. A hybrid CFD-DSMC model designed to simulate rapidly rarefying flow fields and its application to physical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gott, Kevin

    This research endeavors to better understand the physical vapor deposition (PVD) vapor transport process by determining the most appropriate fluidic model to design PVD coating manufacturing. An initial analysis was completed based on the calculation of Knudsen number from titanium vapor properties. The results show a dense Navier-Stokes solver best describes flow near the evaporative source, but the material properties suggest expansion into the chamber may result in a strong drop in density and a rarefied flow close to the substrate. A hybrid CFD-DSMC solver is constructed in OpenFOAM for rapidly rarefying flow fields such as PVD vapor transport. The models are patched together combined using a new patching methodology designed to take advantage of the one-way motion of vapor from the CFD region to the DSMC region. Particles do not return to the dense CFD region, therefore the temperature and velocity can be solved independently in each domain. This novel technique allows a hybrid method to be applied to rapidly rarefying PVD flow fields in a stable manner. Parameter studies are performed on a CFD, Navier-Stokes continuum based compressible solver, a Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) rarefied particle solver, a collisionless free molecular solver and the hybrid CFD-DSMC solver. The radial momentum at the inlet and radial diffusion characteristics in the flow field are shown to be the most important to achieve an accurate deposition profile. The hybrid model also shows sensitivity to the shape of the CFD region and rarefied regions shows sensitivity to the Knudsen number. The models are also compared to each other and appropriate experimental data to determine which model is most likely to accurately describe PVD coating deposition processes. The Navier-Stokes solvers are expected to yield backflow across the majority of realistic inlet conditions, making their physics unrealistic for PVD flow fields. A DSMC with improved collision model may yield an accurate

  15. Growing Unculturable Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The bacteria that can be grown in the laboratory are only a small fraction of the total diversity that exists in nature. At all levels of bacterial phylogeny, uncultured clades that do not grow on standard media are playing critical roles in cycling carbon, nitrogen, and other elements, synthesizing novel natural products, and impacting the surrounding organisms and environment. While molecular techniques, such as metagenomic sequencing, can provide some information independent of our ability to culture these organisms, it is essentially impossible to learn new gene and pathway functions from pure sequence data. A true understanding of the physiology of these bacteria and their roles in ecology, host health, and natural product production requires their cultivation in the laboratory. Recent advances in growing these species include coculture with other bacteria, recreating the environment in the laboratory, and combining these approaches with microcultivation technology to increase throughput and access rare species. These studies are unraveling the molecular mechanisms of unculturability and are identifying growth factors that promote the growth of previously unculturable organisms. This minireview summarizes the recent discoveries in this area and discusses the potential future of the field. PMID:22661685

  16. A rapid and high-throughput microplate spectrophotometric method for field measurement of nitrate in seawater and freshwater

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jiapeng; Hong, Yiguo; Guan, Fengjie; Wang, Yan; Tan, Yehui; Yue, Weizhong; Wu, Meilin; Bin, Liying; Wang, Jiaping; Wen, Jiali

    2016-01-01

    The well-known zinc-cadmium reduction method is frequently used for determination of nitrate. However, this method is seldom to be applied on field research of nitrate due to the long time consuming and large sample volume demand. Here, we reported a modified zinc-cadmium reduction method (MZCRM) for measurement of nitrate at natural-abundance level in both seawater and freshwater. The main improvements of MZCRM include using small volume disposable tubes for reaction, a vortex apparatus for shaking to increase reduction rate, and a microplate reader for high-throughput spectrophotometric measurements. Considering salt effect, two salinity sections (5~10 psu and 20~35 psu) were set up for more accurate determination of nitrate in low and high salinity condition respectively. Under optimized experimental conditions, the reduction rates were stabilized on 72% and 63% on the salinity of 5 and 20 psu respectively. The lowest detection limit for nitrate was 0.5 μM and was linear up to 100 μM (RSDs was 4.8%). Environmental samples assay demonstrated that MZCRM was well consistent with conventional zinc-cadmium reduction method. In total, this modified method improved accuracy and efficiency of operations greatly, and would be realized a rapid and high-throughput determination of nitrate in field analysis of nitrate with low cost. PMID:26832984

  17. A rapid and high-throughput microplate spectrophotometric method for field measurement of nitrate in seawater and freshwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jiapeng; Hong, Yiguo; Guan, Fengjie; Wang, Yan; Tan, Yehui; Yue, Weizhong; Wu, Meilin; Bin, Liying; Wang, Jiaping; Wen, Jiali

    2016-02-01

    The well-known zinc-cadmium reduction method is frequently used for determination of nitrate. However, this method is seldom to be applied on field research of nitrate due to the long time consuming and large sample volume demand. Here, we reported a modified zinc-cadmium reduction method (MZCRM) for measurement of nitrate at natural-abundance level in both seawater and freshwater. The main improvements of MZCRM include using small volume disposable tubes for reaction, a vortex apparatus for shaking to increase reduction rate, and a microplate reader for high-throughput spectrophotometric measurements. Considering salt effect, two salinity sections (5~10 psu and 20~35 psu) were set up for more accurate determination of nitrate in low and high salinity condition respectively. Under optimized experimental conditions, the reduction rates were stabilized on 72% and 63% on the salinity of 5 and 20 psu respectively. The lowest detection limit for nitrate was 0.5 μM and was linear up to 100 μM (RSDs was 4.8%). Environmental samples assay demonstrated that MZCRM was well consistent with conventional zinc-cadmium reduction method. In total, this modified method improved accuracy and efficiency of operations greatly, and would be realized a rapid and high-throughput determination of nitrate in field analysis of nitrate with low cost.

  18. Rapid and nondestructive measurement of labile Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and As in DGT by using field portable-XRF.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zheng; Williams, Paul N; Zhang, Hao

    2013-09-01

    The technique of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) is often employed to quantify labile metals in situ; however, it is a challenge to perform the measurements in-field. This study evaluated the capability of field-portable X-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF) to swiftly generate elemental speciation information with DGT. Biologically available metal ions in environmental samples passively preconcentrate in the thin films of DGT devices, providing an ideal and uniform matrix for XRF nondestructive detection. Strong correlation coefficients (r > 0.992 for Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and As) were obtained for all elements during calibration. The limits of quantitation (LOQ) for the investigated elements of FP-XRF on DGT devices are 2.74 for Mn, 4.89 for Cu, 2.89 for Zn, 2.55 for Pb, and 0.48 for As (unit: μg cm(-2)). When Pb and As co-existed in the solution trials, As did not interfere with Pb detection when using Chelex-DGT. However, there was a significant enhancement of the Pb reading attributed to As when ferrihydrite binding gels were tested, consistent with Fe-oxyhydroxide surfaces absorbing large quantities of As. This study demonstrates the value of the FP-XRF technique to rapidly and nondestructively detect the metals accumulated in DGT devices, providing a new and simple diagnostic tool for on-site environmental monitoring of labile metals/metalloids. PMID:23912422

  19. Herbicides and herbicide degradates in shallow groundwater and the Cedar River near a municipal well field, Cedar Rapids, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyd, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    Water samples were collected near a Cedar Rapids, Iowa municipal well field from June 1998 to August 1998 and analyzed for selected triazine and acetanilide herbicides and degradates. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the occurrence of herbicides and herbicide degradates in the well field during a period following springtime application of herbicides to upstream cropland. The well field is in an alluvial aquifer adjacent to the Cedar River. Parent herbicide concentrations generally were greatest in June, and decreased in July and August. Atrazine was most frequently detected and occurred at the greatest concentrations; acetochlor, cyanazine and metolachlor also were detected, but at lesser concentrations than atrazine. Triazine degradate concentrations were relatively small (<0.50 ??g/l) and generally decreased from June to August. Although the rate of groundwater movement is relatively fast (approx. 1 m per day) in the alluvial aquifer near the Cedar River, deethylatrazine (DEA) to atrazine ratios in groundwater samples collected near the Cedar River indicate that atrazine and DEA probably are gradually transported into the alluvial aquifer from the Cedar River. Deisopropylatrazine (DIA) to DEA ratios in water samples indicate most DIA in the Cedar River and alluvial aquifer is produced by atrazine degradation, although some could be from cyanazine degradation. Acetanilide degradates were detected more frequently and at greater concentrations than their corresponding parent herbicides. Ethanesulfonic-acid (ESA) degradates comprised at least 80% of the total acetanilide-degradate concentrations in samples collected from the Cedar River and alluvial aquifer in June, July and August; oxanilic acid degradates comprised less than 20% of the total concentrations. ESA-degradate concentrations generally were smallest in June and greater in July and August. Acetanilide degradate concentrations in groundwater adjacent to the Cedar River indicate acetanilide

  20. [Low field nuclear magnetic resonance for rapid quantitation of microalgae lipid and its application in high throughput screening].

    PubMed

    Liu, Tingting; Yang, Yi; Wang, Zejian; Zhuang, Yingping; Chu, Ju; Guoi, Meijin

    2016-03-01

    A rapid and accurate determination method of lipids in microalgae plays a significant role in an efficient breeding process for high-lipid production of microalgae. Using low field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR), we developed a direct quantitative method for cellular lipids in Chlorella protothecoides cells. The LF-NMR signal had a linear relationship with the lipid content in the microalgae cells for both dry cell samples and algal broth samples (R2 > 0.99). These results indicated that we could use this method for accurate determination of microalgal lipids. Although LF-NMR is a rapid and easy lipid determination method in comparison to conventional methods, low efficiency would limit its application in high throughput screening. Therefore, we developed a novel combined high throughput screening method for high-lipid content mutants of C. protothecoides. Namely, we initially applied Nile red staining method for semi-quantification of lipid in the pre-screening process, and following with LF-NMR method for accurate lipid determination in re-screening process. Finally, we adopted this novel screening method in the breeding process of high-lipid content heterotrophic cells of C. protothecoides. From 3 098 mutated strains 108 high-lipid content strains were selected through pre-screening process, and then 9 mutants with high-lipid production were obtained in the re-screening process. In a consequence, with heterotrophical cultivation of 168 h, the lipid concentration could reach 5 g/L, and the highest lipid content exceeded 20% (W/W), which was almost two-fold to that of the wild strain. All these results demonstrated that the novel breeding process was reliable and feasible for improving the screening efficiency. PMID:27349121

  1. Fast-growing willow shrub named `Canastota`

    DOEpatents

    Abrahamson, Lawrence P.; Kopp, Richard F.; Smart, Lawrence B.; Volk, Timothy A.

    2007-05-15

    A distinct male cultivar of Salix sachalinensis.times.S. miyabeana named `Canastota`, characterized by rapid stem growth producing greater than 2.7-fold more woody biomass than its female parent (Salix sachalinensis `SX61`), 28% greater woody biomass yield than its male parent (Salix miyabeana `SX64`), and 20% greater woody biomass yield than a standard production cultivar, Salix dasyclados `SV1` when grown in the same field for the same length of time (two growing seasons after coppice) in Tully, N.Y. `Canastota` can be planted from dormant stem cuttings, produces multiple stems after coppice, and the stem biomass can be harvested when the plant is dormant. In the spring following harvest, the plant will re-sprout very vigorously, producing new stems that can be harvested after two to four years of growth. This harvest cycle can be repeated several times. `Canastota` displays a low incidence of rust disease or damage by willow sawfly.

  2. On the Electrons Dynamics during Rapid Island Coalescence in Asymmetric Magnetic Reconnection: Case With and With No Guide Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazzola, E.; Innocenti, M. E.; Markidis, S.; Goldman, M. V.; Newman, D. L.; Lapenta, G.

    2015-12-01

    We present a set of fully kinetic 2.5D simulations of electron dynamics during rapid magnetic islands coalescence in asymmetric conditions. Simulations are performed using the massively parallel fully kinetic implicit moment method code iPIC3D (Markidis et al. 2010). The domain is a double periodic box with two current sheets initially representing two different reconnection conditions with the same asymmetric ratio. In the upper sheet the conventional hyperbolic continuous functions for magnetic field and density are initialised across the layer (e.g. Pritchett 2008). In the lower layer the same asymmetric conditions are used the presence of an extremely steep gradient describing a pure tangential discontinuity.Cases with and without guide field are compared. While the upper layer shows the typical reconnection evolution of an asymmetric configuration, the lower layer very soon develops not-uniformly distributed multiple reconnection points which rapidly evolve in a series of magnetic islands. Quick islands coalescence follows. Even though the electrons dynamics during island merging has been studied in both symmetric and asymmetric conditions (e.g. Pritchett 2007, 2008b, Drake et al. 2006, Oka et al. 2010, Huang et al. 2014), these simulations show new interesting features such as the presence of three distinct regions, here named X, M and D, with very different properties. Regions X and M manifest typical signatures of ongoing reconnection, distinguishable thanks to the direct comparison with the outcomes of the upper layer. In particular, M-type regions are different because reconnection occurs between two merging islands in a vertical fashion with respect to the direction of the current sheets initially set. In contrast, regions D present a quite diverse features, not showing the typical signatures of a occurring reconnection. The present work is supported by the NASA MMS Grant NNX08AO84G. Additional support for the KULeuven team is provided by the European

  3. Rapid uplift during 2007-2012 at Laguna del Maule volcanic field, Andean Southern Volcanic Zone, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Mevel, H.; Feigl, K.; Ali, T.; Cordova V., M. L.; DeMets, C.; Singer, B. S.

    2012-12-01

    The Laguna del Maule (LdM) volcanic field includes an unusual concentration of post-glacial rhyolitic lava coulees and domes, dated between 24 to 2 thousand years old that cover more than 100 square kilometers and erupted from 24 vents that encircle a 20-km-diameter lake basin on the range crest. The recent concentration of rhyolite is unparalleled in the Southern Volcanic Zone of the Andes. Moreover, the western portion of the LdM volcanic field has experienced rapid uplift since 2007, leading to questions about the current configuration of the magmatic system and processes that drive the ongoing inflation. We aim to quantify the active deformation of the LdM volcanic field and its evolution with time. To do so, we use interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data acquired by three satellite missions: Envisat in 2003 and 2004, ALOS between 2007 and 2010, and TerraSAR-X in 2012. An interferogram spanning March 2003 to February 2004 "shows no deformation" (Fournier et al., 2010). From 2007 through 2012, however, the shortening of the satellite-to-ground distance revealed a range change rate of greater than 200 mm/yr along the radar line of sight. The deformation includes a circular area 20 km in diameter centered on the western portion of the circle of young rhyolite domes. To analyze the InSAR results, we employ the General Inversion for Phase Technique (GIPhT; Feigl and Thurber, 2009; Ali and Feigl, 2012). We have considered several hypotheses to interpret this deformation. Artefacts such as orbital errors, atmospheric perturbations or topographic contribution cannot account for the observed signal. We also reject the hypothesis of uplift due to gravitational unloading of the crust based on our modeling of independently measured lake level variations over the observed time interval. We thus attribute the deformation to the intrusion of magma into the upper crust below the southwest region of the LdM volcanic field. The best fit to the InSAR data is

  4. Rapid prediction of total petroleum hydrocarbons in soil using a hand-held mid-infrared field instrument.

    PubMed

    Webster, Grant T; Soriano-Disla, José M; Kirk, Joel; Janik, Leslie J; Forrester, Sean T; McLaughlin, Mike J; Stewart, Richard J

    2016-11-01

    This manuscript reports on the performance of a hand-held diffuse reflectance (mid)-infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectrometer for the prediction of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in three different diesel-contaminated soils. These soils include: a carbonate dominated clay, a kaolinite dominated clay and a loam from Padova Italy, north Western Australia and southern Nigeria, respectively. Soils were analysed for TPH concentration using a standard laboratory methods and scanned in DRIFT mode with the hand-held spectrometer to determine TPH calibration models. Successful partial least square regression (PLSR) predictions, with coefficient of determination (R(2)) ~0.99 and root mean square error (RMSE) <200mg/kg, were obtained for the low range TPH concentrations of 0 to ~3,000mg/kg. These predictions were carried out using a set of independent samples for each soil type. Prediction models were also tested for the full concentration range (0-60,000mg/kg) for each soil type model with R(2) and RMSE values of ~0.99 and <1,255mg/kg, respectively. Furthermore, a number of intermediate concentration range models were also generated for each soil type with similar R(2) values of ~0.99 and RMSE values <800mg/kg. This study shows the capability of using a portable mid-infrared (MIR) DRIFT spectrometer for predicting TPH in a variety of soil types and the potential for being a rapid in-field screening method for TPH concentration levels at common regulatory thresholds. A novel hand-held mid-infrared instrument can accurately detect TPH across different soil types and concentrations, which paves the way for a variety of applications in the field. PMID:27591631

  5. An Extensive Field Survey Combined with a Phylogenetic Analysis Reveals Rapid and Widespread Invasion of Two Alien Whiteflies in China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jian; De Barro, Paul; Zhao, Hua; Wang, Jia; Nardi, Francesco; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Background To understand the processes of invasions by alien insects is a pre-requisite for improving management. The whitefly Bemisia tabaci is a cryptic species complex that contains some of the most invasive pests worldwide. However, extensive field data to show the geographic distribution of the members of this species complex as well as the invasion by some of its members are scarce. Methodology/Principal Findings We used field surveys and published data to assess the current diversity and distribution of B. tabaci cryptic species in China and relate the indigenous members to other Asian and Australian members of the complex. The survey covered the 16 provinces where indigenous B. tabaci occur and extends this with published data for the whole of China. We used molecular markers to identify cryptic species. The evolutionary relationships between the different Asian B. tabaci were reconstructed using Bayesian methods. We show that whereas in the past the exotic invader Middle East-Asia Minor 1 was predominant across China, another newer invader Mediterranean is now the dominant species in the Yangtze River Valley and eastern coastal areas, and Middle East-Asia Minor 1 is now predominant only in the south and south eastern coastal areas. Based on mtCO1 we identified four new cryptic species, and in total we have recorded 13 indigenous and two invasive species from China. Diversity was highest in the southern and southeastern provinces and declined to north and west. Only the two invasive species were found in the northern part of the country where they occur primarily in protected cropping. By 2009, indigenous species were mainly found in remote mountainous areas and were mostly absent from extensive agricultural areas. Conclusions/Significance Invasions by some members of the whitefly B. tabaci species complex can be rapid and widespread, and indigenous species closely related to the invaders are replaced. PMID:21283707

  6. TransRapid TR-07 maglev-spectrum magnetic field effects on daily pineal indoleamine metabolic rhythms in rodents

    SciTech Connect

    Groh, K.R.

    1993-06-01

    This study examined the effects on pineal function of magnetic field (MF) exposures (ac and dc components) similar to those produced by the TransRapid TR-07 and other electromagnetic maglev systems (EMS). Rats were entrained to a light-dark cycle and then exposed to a continuous, or to an inverted, intermittent (on = 45 s, off = 15 s, induced current = 267 G/s) simulated multifrequency ac and dc magnetic field (MF) at 1 or 7 times the TR-07 maglev vehicle MF intensity for 2 hr. Other groups of rats were exposed to only the ac or the dc-component of the maglev MF. For comparison, one group was exposed to an inverted, intermittent 60-Hz MF. Each group was compared to an unexposed group of rats for changes in pineal melatonin and serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (NAT). MF exposures at an intensity equivalent to that produced by the TR-07 vehicle had no effect on melatonin or NAT compared with sham-exposed animals under any of the conditions examined. However, 7X TR-07-level continuous 2-h MF exposures significantly depressed pineal NAT by 45%. Pineal melatonin was also depressed 33--43% by a continuous 7X TR-07 MF exposure and 28% by an intermittent 60-Hz 850-mG MF, but the results were not statically significant. This study demonstrates that intermittent, combined ac and dc MFs similar to those produced by the TR-07 EMS maglev vehicle alter the normal circadian rhythm of pineal indoleamine metabolism. The pineal regulatory enzyme NAT was more sensitive to MF exposure than melatonin and may be a more desirable measure of the biological effects of MF exposure.

  7. TransRapid TR-07 maglev-spectrum magnetic field effects on daily pineal indoleamine metabolic rhythms in rodents

    SciTech Connect

    Groh, K.R.

    1993-01-01

    This study examined the effects on pineal function of magnetic field (MF) exposures (ac and dc components) similar to those produced by the TransRapid TR-07 and other electromagnetic maglev systems (EMS). Rats were entrained to a light-dark cycle and then exposed to a continuous, or to an inverted, intermittent (on = 45 s, off = 15 s, induced current = 267 G/s) simulated multifrequency ac and dc magnetic field (MF) at 1 or 7 times the TR-07 maglev vehicle MF intensity for 2 hr. Other groups of rats were exposed to only the ac or the dc-component of the maglev MF. For comparison, one group was exposed to an inverted, intermittent 60-Hz MF. Each group was compared to an unexposed group of rats for changes in pineal melatonin and serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (NAT). MF exposures at an intensity equivalent to that produced by the TR-07 vehicle had no effect on melatonin or NAT compared with sham-exposed animals under any of the conditions examined. However, 7X TR-07-level continuous 2-h MF exposures significantly depressed pineal NAT by 45%. Pineal melatonin was also depressed 33--43% by a continuous 7X TR-07 MF exposure and 28% by an intermittent 60-Hz 850-mG MF, but the results were not statically significant. This study demonstrates that intermittent, combined ac and dc MFs similar to those produced by the TR-07 EMS maglev vehicle alter the normal circadian rhythm of pineal indoleamine metabolism. The pineal regulatory enzyme NAT was more sensitive to MF exposure than melatonin and may be a more desirable measure of the biological effects of MF exposure.

  8. Rapid field identification of subjects involved in firearm-related crimes based on electroanalysis coupled with advanced chemometric data treatment.

    PubMed

    Cetó, Xavier; O'Mahony, Aoife M; Samek, Izabela A; Windmiller, Joshua R; del Valle, Manel; Wang, Joseph

    2012-12-01

    We demonstrate a novel system for the detection and discrimination of varying levels of exposure to gunshot residue from subjects in various control scenarios. Our aim is to address the key challenge of minimizing the false positive identification of individuals suspected of discharging a firearm. The chemometric treatment of voltammetric data from different controls using Canonical Variate Analysis (CVA) provides several distinct clusters for each scenario examined. Multiple samples were taken from subjects in controlled tests such as secondary contact with gunshot residue (GSR), loading a firearm, and postdischarge of a firearm. These controls were examined at both bare carbon and gold-modified screen-printed electrodes using different sampling methods: the 'swipe' method with integrated sampling and electroanalysis and a more traditional acid-assisted q-tip swabbing method. The electroanalytical fingerprint of each sample was examined using square-wave voltammetry; the resulting data were preprocessed with Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), followed by CVA treatment. High levels of discrimination were thus achieved in each case over 3 classes of samples (reflecting different levels of involvement), achieving maximum accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity values of 100% employing the leave-one-out validation method. Further validation with the 'jack-knife' technique was performed, and the resulting values were in good agreement with the former method. Additionally, samples from subjects in daily contact with relevant metallic constituents were analyzed to assess possible false positives. This system may serve as a potential method for a portable, field-deployable system aimed at rapidly identifying a subject who has loaded or discharged a firearm to verify involvement in a crime, hence providing law enforcement personnel with an invaluable forensic tool in the field. PMID:23121395

  9. Rapid-thermal-annealing surface treatment for restoring the intrinsic properties of graphene field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Chan Wook; Kim, Ju Hwan; Kim, Jong Min; Shin, Dong Hee; Kim, Sung; Choi, Suk-Ho

    2013-10-01

    Graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs) were fabricated by photolithography and lift-off processes, and subsequently heated in a rapid-thermal-annealing (RTA) apparatus at temperatures (TA) from 200 to 400 ° C for 10 min under nitrogen to eliminate the residues adsorbed on the graphene during the GFET fabrication processes. Raman-scattering, current-voltage (I-V), and sheet resistance measurements showed that, after annealing at 250 ° C, graphene in GFETs regained its intrinsic properties, such as very small intensity ratios of D to G and G to 2D Raman bands, a symmetric I-V curve with respect to ˜0 V, and very low sheet resistance. Atomic force microscopy images and height profiles also showed that the surface roughness of graphene was almost minimized at TA = 250 ° C. By annealing at 250 ° C, the electron and hole mobilities reached their maxima of 4587 and 4605 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively, the highest ever reported for chemical-vapor-deposition-grown graphene. Annealing was also performed under vacuum or hydrogen, but this was not so effective as under nitrogen. These results suggest that the RTA technique is very useful for eliminating the surface residues of graphene in GFETs, in that it employs a relatively low thermal budget of 250 ° C and 10 min.

  10. Characterizing ground water flow in the municipal well fields of Cedar Rapids, Iowa, with selected environmental tracers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyd, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    Cedar Rapids obtains its municipal water supply from a shallow alluvial aquifer along the Cedar River in east-central Iowa. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected isotopes and chlorofluorocarbons to characterize the ground-water flow system near the municipal well fields. Analyses of deuterium and oxygen-18 indicate that water in the alluvial aquifer and in the underlying carbonate bedrock aquifer was recharged from precipitation during modern climatic conditions. Analyses of tritium indicate modern, post-1952, water in the alluvial aquifer and older, pre-1952, water in the bedrock aquifer. Mixing of the modern and older waters occurs in areas where (1) the confining layer between the two aquifers is discontinuous, (2) the bedrock aquifer is fractured, or (3) pumping of supply wells induces the flow of water between aquifers. Analyses of chlorofluorocarbons were used to determine the date of recharge of water samples. Water in the bedrock aquifer likely was recharged prior to the 1950s. Water in the alluvial aquifer likely was recharged from the 1960s to 1990s. Biodegradation or sorption probably affected some of the ground water analyzed for chlorofluorocarbons. These processes reduce the concentrations of CFCs, which results in older than actual calculated dates of recharge.

  11. Rapid estimation of chromosomal damage in yeast due to the effects of environmental chemicals using pulsed field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, J; Tosch, M; AlBaz, I; Lochmann, E R

    1991-10-01

    We present a procedure to rapidly estimate the damage to yeast chromosomes by toxic chemicals. This procedure employs the following steps: incubation of yeast cells with the chemicals, DNA preparation in an agarose matrix, separation of chromosome-sized DNA molecules into reproducible band patterns by pulsed field gel electrophoresis, and quantification of the intensity of chromosomal bands by densitometry. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells have been treated with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and cis-Platinum(II) diamminedichloride (cisPT), both of which are known to interact with DNA, and trichlorethylen (TCE), for which such an effect has not been shown in yeast. Treatment of cells with MNNG and cisPt led to an impairment of the intensity of the band pattern to an extent dependent on the concentration of the chemicals applied. For TCE a similar effect could not be discerned. This procedure will be useful as a screening test for the estimation of the biological hazards of toxic chemicals. PMID:1769347

  12. Rapid and sensitive determination of tellurium in soil and plant samples by sector-field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guosheng; Zheng, Jian; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2013-11-15

    In this work, we report a rapid and highly sensitive analytical method for the determination of tellurium in soil and plant samples using sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SF-ICP-MS). Soil and plant samples were digested using Aqua regia. After appropriate dilution, Te in soil and plant samples was directly analyzed without any separation and preconcentration. This simple sample preparation approach avoided to a maximum extent any contamination and loss of Te prior to the analysis. The developed analytical method was validated by the analysis of soil/sediment and plant reference materials. Satisfactory detection limits of 0.17 ng g(-1) for soil and 0.02 ng g(-1) for plant samples were achieved, which meant that the developed method was applicable to studying the soil-to-plant transfer factor of Te. Our work represents for the first time that data on the soil-to-plant transfer factor of Te were obtained for Japanese samples which can be used for the estimation of internal radiation dose of radioactive tellurium due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. PMID:24148390

  13. Monitoring and modeling growing season dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Michael Aaron

    Phenology, the study of recurring biological cycles and their connection to climate, is a growing field of global change research. Vegetation phenology exerts a strong control over carbon cycles, weather, and global radiation partitioning between sensible and latent heat fluxes. Phenological monitors of the timing and length of the growing season can also be used as barometers of vegetation responses to climatic variability. In the following chapters, I present research investigating the monitoring and interpretation of growing season dynamics. Ecological modeling is limited more by data availability than by model theory. In particular, the description of vegetation functional types (biomes) for distributed modeling has been lacking. In chapter 1, I present a documented description and sensitivity analysis of the 34 parameters used in the ecosystem model, BIOME-BGC, for major temperate biomes. I applied BIOME-BGC in the eastern U.S. deciduous broad leaf forest and found that minor phenological variation created large impacts on simulated net ecosystem exchange of carbon (chapter 2). In addition to simulating the effects of growing season variability, it is also important to develop accurate field monitoring techniques, both as a means of testing modeling activities and as a validation of satellite remote sensing estimates. I conducted an intercomparison of field techniques that could be used to monitor phenological dynamics in and ecosystems (chapter 3). I found that methodological barriers to rapid, low cost monitoring were severe, but that a digital camera with both visible and near-infrared channels was a viable option. Satellite remote sensing provides the only means of obtaining consistent estimates of phenological variation at a global scale, yet our understanding of these data has been limited by a lack of ground observations. To address this problem, I proposed, developed, and wrote a phenology measurement protocol for the Global Learning and Observations

  14. Rapid evolution and gene expression: a rapidly evolving Mendelian trait that silences field crickets has widespread effects on mRNA and protein expression.

    PubMed

    Pascoal, S; Liu, X; Ly, T; Fang, Y; Rockliffe, N; Paterson, S; Shirran, S L; Botting, C H; Bailey, N W

    2016-06-01

    A major advance in modern evolutionary biology is the ability to start linking phenotypic evolution in the wild with genomic changes that underlie that evolution. We capitalized on a rapidly evolving Hawaiian population of crickets (Teleogryllus oceanicus) to test hypotheses about the genomic consequences of a recent Mendelian mutation of large effect which disrupts the development of sound-producing structures on male forewings. The resulting silent phenotype, flatwing, persists because of natural selection imposed by an acoustically orienting parasitoid, but it interferes with mate attraction. We examined gene expression differences in developing wing buds of wild-type and flatwing male crickets using RNA-seq and quantitative proteomics. Most differentially expressed (DE) transcripts were down-regulated in flatwing males (625 up vs. 1716 down), whereas up- and down-regulated proteins were equally represented (30 up and 34 down). Differences between morphs were clearly not restricted to a single pathway, and we recovered annotations associated with a broad array of functions that would not be predicted a priori. Using a candidate gene detection test based on homology, we identified 30% of putative Drosophila wing development genes in the cricket transcriptome, but only 10% were DE. In addition to wing-related annotations, endocrine pathways and several biological processes such as reproduction, immunity and locomotion were DE in the mutant crickets at both biological levels. Our results illuminate the breadth of genetic pathways that are potentially affected in the early stages of adaptation. PMID:26999731

  15. Potential of E.coli O157:H7 to grow on field-cored lettuce as impacted by postharvest storage time and temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recent development in iceberg lettuce production is field coring where the outer leaves and the cores of the lettuce heads are removed at the time of harvesting in order to reduce shipping waste and maximize production yield. Using a coring knife contaminated with 2 x 105 cells of E. coli O157:H7,...

  16. Growing for different ends.

    PubMed

    Catts, Oron; Zurr, Ionat

    2014-11-01

    Tissue engineering and regenerative biology are usually discussed in relation to biomedical research and applications. However, hand in hand with developments of this field in the biomedical context, other approaches and uses for non-medical ends have been explored. There is a growing interest in exploring spin off tissue engineering and regenerative biology technologies in areas such as consumer products, art and design. This paper outlines developments regarding in vitro meat and leather, actuators and bio-mechanic interfaces, speculative design and contemporary artistic practices. The authors draw on their extensive experience of using tissue engineering for non-medical ends to speculate about what lead to these applications and their possible future development and uses. Avoiding utopian and dystopian postures and using the notion of the contestable, this paper also mentions some philosophical and ethical consideration stemming from the use of non-medical approaches to tissue constructs. This article is part of a directed issue entitled: Regenerative Medicine: the challenge of translation. PMID:25286303

  17. Primer modification improves rapid and sensitive in vitro and field-deployable assays for detection of high plains virus variants.

    PubMed

    Arif, M; Aguilar-Moreno, G S; Wayadande, A; Fletcher, J; Ochoa-Corona, F M

    2014-01-01

    A high consequence pathogen, High plains virus (HPV) causes considerable damage to wheat if the crop is infected during early stages of development. Methods for the early, accurate, and sensitive detection of HPV in plant tissues are needed for the management of disease outbreaks and reservoir hosts. In this study, the effectiveness of five methods-real-time SYBR green and TaqMan reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), endpoint RT-PCR, RT-helicase dependent amplification (RT-HDA) and the Razor Ex BioDetection System (Razor Ex)-for the broad-range detection of HPV variants was evaluated. Specific PCR primer sets and probes were designed to target the HPV nucleoprotein gene. Primer set HPV6F and HPV4R, which amplifies a product of 96 bp, was validated in silico against published sequences and in vitro against an inclusivity panel of infected plant samples and an exclusivity panel of near-neighbor viruses. The primers were modified by adding a customized 22 nucleotide long tail at the 5' terminus, raising the primers' melting temperature (Tm; ca. 10°C) to make them compatible with RT-HDA (required optimal Tm = 68°C), in which the use of primers lacking such tails gave no amplification. All of the methods allowed the detection of as little as 1 fg of either plasmid DNA carrying the target gene sequence or of infected plant samples. The described in vitro and in-field assays are accurate, rapid, sensitive, and useful for pathogen detection and disease diagnosis, microbial quantification, and certification and breeding programs, as well as for biosecurity and microbial forensics applications. PMID:24162574

  18. Rapid and high-resolution imaging of human liver specimens by full-field optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yue; Gao, Wanrong; Zhou, Yuan; Guo, Yingcheng; Guo, Feng; He, Yong

    2015-11-01

    We report rapid and high-resolution tomographic en face imaging of human liver specimens by full-field optical coherence tomography (FF-OCT). First, the arrangement of the FF-OCT system was described and the performance of the system was measured. The measured axial and lateral resolutions of the system are 0.8 and 0.9 μm, respectively. The system has a sensitivity of ˜60 dB and can achieve an imaging rate of 7 fps and a penetration depth of ˜80 μm. The histological structures of normal liver can be seen clearly in the en face tomographic images, including central veins, cords of hepatocytes separated by sinusoidal spaces, and portal area (portal vein, the hepatic arteriole, and the bile duct). A wide variety of histological subtypes of hepatocellular carcinoma was observed in en face tomographic images, revealing notable cancerous features, including the nuclear atypia (enlarged convoluted nuclei), the polygonal tumor cells with obvious resemblance to hepatocytes with enlarged nuclei. In addition, thicker fibrous bands, which make the cytoplasmic plump vesicular nuclei indistinct, were also seen in the images. Finally, comparison between the portal vein in a normal specimen versus that seen in the rare type of cholangiocarcinoma was made. The results show that the cholangiocarcinoma presents with a blurred pattern of portal vein in the lateral direction and an aggregated distribution in the axial direction; the surrounding sinusoidal spaces and nuclei of cholangiocarcinoma are absent. The findings in this work may be used as additional signs of liver cancer or cholangiocarcinoma, demonstrating capacity of FF-OCT device for early cancer diagnosis and many other tumor-related studies in biopsy.

  19. Field Application of SD Bioline Malaria Ag Pf/Pan Rapid Diagnostic Test for Malaria in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Tseroni, Maria; Pervanidou, Danai; Tserkezou, Persefoni; Rachiotis, George; Pinaka, Ourania; Baka, Agoritsa; Georgakopoulou, Theano; Vakali, Annita; Dionysopoulou, Martha; Terzaki, Irene; Marka, Andriani; Detsis, Marios; Evlampidou, Zafiroula; Mpimpa, Anastasia; Vassalou, Evdokia; Tsiodras, Sotirios; Tsakris, Athanasios; Kremastinou, Jenny; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Greece, a malaria-free country since 1974, has experienced re-emergence of Plasmodium vivax autochthonous malaria cases in some agriculture areas over the last three years. In early 2012, an integrated control programme (MALWEST Project) was launched in order to prevent re-establishment of the disease. In the context of this project, the rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) of SD Bioline Malaria Ag Pf/Pan that detects hrp-2 and pan-LDH antigens were used. The aim of this study was to assess the field application of the RDT for the P. vivax diagnosis in comparison to light microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 955 samples were tested with all three diagnostic tools. Agreement of RDT against microscopy and PCR for the diagnosis of P. vivax was satisfactory (K value: 0.849 and 0.976, respectively). The sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of RDT against PCR was 95.6% (95% C.I.: 84.8-99.3), 100% (95% C.I.: 99.6-100.0) and 100% (95% CI: 91.7-100.0) respectively, while the sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of RDT against microscopic examination was 97.4% (95% C.I.: 86.1-99.6), 99.4% (95% C.I.: 98.6-99.8) and 86.1% (95% CI: 72.1-94.7), respectively. Our results indicate that RDT performed satisfactory in a non-endemic country and therefore is recommended for malaria diagnosis, especially in areas where health professionals lack experience on light microscopy. PMID:25803815

  20. Primer Modification Improves Rapid and Sensitive In Vitro and Field-Deployable Assays for Detection of High Plains Virus Variants

    PubMed Central

    Arif, M.; Aguilar-Moreno, G. S.; Wayadande, A.; Fletcher, J.

    2014-01-01

    A high consequence pathogen, High plains virus (HPV) causes considerable damage to wheat if the crop is infected during early stages of development. Methods for the early, accurate, and sensitive detection of HPV in plant tissues are needed for the management of disease outbreaks and reservoir hosts. In this study, the effectiveness of five methods—real-time SYBR green and TaqMan reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), endpoint RT-PCR, RT-helicase dependent amplification (RT-HDA) and the Razor Ex BioDetection System (Razor Ex)—for the broad-range detection of HPV variants was evaluated. Specific PCR primer sets and probes were designed to target the HPV nucleoprotein gene. Primer set HPV6F and HPV4R, which amplifies a product of 96 bp, was validated in silico against published sequences and in vitro against an inclusivity panel of infected plant samples and an exclusivity panel of near-neighbor viruses. The primers were modified by adding a customized 22 nucleotide long tail at the 5′ terminus, raising the primers' melting temperature (Tm; ca. 10°C) to make them compatible with RT-HDA (required optimal Tm = 68°C), in which the use of primers lacking such tails gave no amplification. All of the methods allowed the detection of as little as 1 fg of either plasmid DNA carrying the target gene sequence or of infected plant samples. The described in vitro and in-field assays are accurate, rapid, sensitive, and useful for pathogen detection and disease diagnosis, microbial quantification, and certification and breeding programs, as well as for biosecurity and microbial forensics applications. PMID:24162574

  1. Field and laboratory comparative evaluation of rapid malaria diagnostic tests versus traditional and molecular techniques in India

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Malaria presents a diagnostic challenge in most tropical countries. Microscopy remains the gold standard for diagnosing malaria infections in clinical practice and research. However, microscopy is labour intensive, requires significant skills and time, which causes therapeutic delays. The objective of obtaining result quickly from the examination of blood samples from patients with suspected malaria is now made possible with the introduction of rapid malaria diagnostic tests (RDTs). Several RDTs are available, which are fast, reliable and simple to use and can detect Plasmodium falciparum and non-falciparum infections or both. A study was conducted in tribal areas of central India to measure the overall performance of several RDTs for diagnosis of P. falciparum and non-falciparum infections in comparison with traditional and molecular techniques. Such data will be used to guide procurement decisions of policy makers and programme managers. Methods Five commercially available RDTs were tested simultaneously in field in parallel with peripheral blood smears in outbreak-affected areas. The evaluation is designed to provide comparative data on the performance of each RDT. In addition, molecular method i.e. polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was also carried out to compare all three methods. Results A total of 372 patients with a clinical suspicion of malaria from Bajag Primary Health Centre (PHC) of district Dindori and Satanwada PHC of district Shivpuri attending the field clinics of Regional Medical Research Centre were included in the study. The analysis revealed that the First Response Malaria Antigen pLDH/HRP2 combo test was 94.7% sensitive (95% CI 89.5-97.7) and 69.9% specific (95% CI 63.6-75.6) for P. falciparum. However, for non-falciparum infections (Plasmodium vivax) the test was 84.2% sensitive (95% CI 72.1-92.5) and 96.5% specific (95% CI 93.8-98.2). The Parascreen represented a good alternative. All other RDTs were relatively less sensitive for

  2. A validation study of a rapid field-based rating system for discriminating among flow permanence classes of headwater streams in South Carolina

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rapid field-based protocols for classifying flow permanence of headwater streams are needed to inform timely regulatory decisions. Such an existing method was developed for and has been used in North Carolina since 1997. The method uses ordinal scoring of 26 geomorphology, hydr...

  3. Growing Pains (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Joints affected by more serious diseases are swollen, red, tender, or warm — the joints of kids having growing pains look normal. Although growing pains often strike in late afternoon or early evening before bed, pain can sometimes wake a sleeping child. The ...

  4. Nutritional value of raw and micronised field beans (Vicia faba L. var. minor) with and without enzyme supplementation containing tannase for growing chickens.

    PubMed

    Abdulla, Jalil Mahmwd; Rose, Stephen Paul; Mackenzie, Alexander Mackay; Ivanova, Sonya Georgieva; Staykova, Genoveva Petrova; Pirgozliev, Vasil Radoslavov

    2016-10-01

    An experiment examined the effects of two field bean cultivar samples with different tannin contents, the effect of heat treatment (micronising) and the effect of dietary supplementation of a proprietary enzyme preparation containing tannase, pectinase, and xylanase activities on metabolisable energy (ME), total tract dry matter digestibility (DMD) and ether extract digestibility (EED), nitrogen retention (NR), tannin degradability, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development, and endogenous mucin losses excretion in broiler chickens. The Control diet contained per kg 221 g crude protein and 12.83 MJ ME. Four additional diets contained 300 g/kg of each of the two untreated or micronised experimental field bean cultivar samples. Each diet was then split into two batches and one of them was supplemented with 3400 units tannase per kg diet resulting in 10 diets in total. Each diet was fed to seven pens with two randomly selected male broilers each. Birds fed the high tannin bean sample had a lower weight gain (p < 0.001), and a lower determined apparent ME (p < 0.05), and DMD (p < 0.001) but a higher tannin degradability (p < 0.001). Compared to the Control diet, feeding field beans increased (p < 0.001) the weights of the proventriculus and gizzard of the birds, and also increased endogenous mucin losses (p < 0.05). Supplementing diets with the tannase-containing enzyme preparation improved dietary ME (p < 0.001), DMD (p < 0.001), NR (p < 0.001) and DEE (p < 0.05), but did not change tannin degradability. Heat treatment of the beans reduced the degradability of condensed tannins and increased endogenous mucin losses (p < 0.05). The differences in the feeding value of the different field bean samples were not improved by heat treatment, but enzyme supplementation improved the feeding value of all diets regardless of the bean samples or heat treatment. Further research is warranted to study the effectiveness of tannase supplementation in poultry

  5. Rapid fault model estimation based on RTK-GPS and its application to near-field tsunami forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Ohta, Y.; Miura, S.; Tsushima, H.; Hino, R.; Takasu, T.; Fujimoto, H.

    2011-12-01

    The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake (Mw 9.0) generated a huge tsunami that inflicted enormous damage on the Pacific side of Tohoku region. Three minutes after the earthquake, the Japan Meteorological Agency issued a tsunami warning based on the seismic data. The estimated maximum tsunami heights (up to 6 m), however, were clearly smaller than the observed one (more than 10 m) because of underestimation of the earthquake magnitude. The magnitude can be derived within a short period following the earthquake, which can saturate for such great earthquakes. This example clearly shows necessity of accurate tsunami early warning system and importance of the rapid determination of reliable earthquake sizes. Blewitt et al. [GRL, 2006] already pointed out that a true earthquake size and its tsunamigenic potential could be determined using GPS data. The permanent displacement directly tells us the true earthquake size information. It is the great advantage of the GPS compared with the seismometer even though the signal-to-noise ratio is lower than it. Based on these backgrounds, we newly developed an algorithm to detect/estimate static ground displacement due to earthquake faulting from real time kinematic GPS (RTK-GPS) time series for quasi real-time determination of seismic fault model. We use the method using comparison between short-term and long-term average, which is generally used for automatic detection of seismic waves. Before its practical application, we assessed the noise property of the RTK-GPS time series with various conditions such as baseline lengths, GPS satellites ephemerides, etc., with analysis software "RTKLIB 2.4.0" [http://www.rtklib.com] to show that the ultra-rapid ephemerides distributed by the international GNSS Service result in enough precision for the crustal deformation monitoring with long baselines up to 1,000 km. We applied the algorithm to the GPS data obtained in the Tohoku Earthquake to assess its ability of event

  6. Utilizing Biopsychosocial and Strengths-Based Approaches Within the Field of Child Health: What We Know and Where We Can Grow

    PubMed Central

    Black, Jessica M.; Hoeft, Fumiko

    2015-01-01

    We continue to increase our understanding of the experiences and settings that contribute to positive developmental outcomes in childhood, and those that confer greater risk. Although the mechanisms by which the risk and protective factors affect developmental outcomes need to be further elucidated through research, converging findings from the field of child health (spanning both physical and mental health) indicate that a biopsychosocial approach is useful. Here, we examine the evidence that early experiences confer both risk and protective processes on biopsychosocial development in childhood, and touch on some implications for the life course. Although this interdisciplinary field of research has already garnered substantial attention, here we aim to highlight the opportunity to use a strengths-based approach with the biopsychosocial model, with particular focus on children who experience prolonged stress. We close with consideration for future directions with an emphasis on policy and practice in clinical and educational settings to improve well-being in these early stages of the life course. PMID:25732011

  7. Field measurement of erosion rates: time-lapse monitoring of rapid stone flaking at Howden Minster, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doehne, E.; Pinchin, S.

    2012-04-01

    The use of a solar-powered, field time-lapse camera and environmental monitoring system enabled measurements of the pattern and rate of loss of stone from the surface of Howden Minster, an abandoned monastery in Yorkshire dating to 1380 AD. Acquiring a photograph every 1-3 hours allowed the stone damage to be correlated with local environmental conditions. Image comparison techniques borrowed from observational astronomy, such as blink comparison, were used to determine what elements had changed from image to image. Results indicate that loss is episodic rather than continuous and in several cases is related to specific environmental conditions, such as condensation/dew formation or high winds. Damage was found also to be synchronous, with surface change (flaking, granular disintegration, and loss of flakes) occurring at the same time on different stone blocks. Crystallization pressure from magnesium sulfate phase transitions appear to be the main cause of the loss of stone surfaces. Significant variation in surface loss rates was observed and appears to be related to variations in salt concentration. An examination of stone texture by ESEM/EDS revealed signification variations and suggests that salt concentrations are controlled in part by stone micromorphology. Quantitative data on rates of surface loss are not available from most monuments. Time-lapse methods permit the relatively inexpensive acquisition of this type of data, which is needed to aid conservation decision-making and the evaluation of interventions. Such tools should also prove useful to geomorphologists studying honeycomb weathering, the moving rocks on Death Valley's Racetrack Playa, and other phenomena that are otherwise difficult to study. Context: The rapid deterioration of magnesian limestone structures in the north of England has been a serious problem for more than one hundred years. While air quality in England has improved during this period, the rate of stone loss in these carved stone

  8. Utility of point of care test devices for infectious disease testing of blood and oral fluid and application to rapid testing in the field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Stephen R.; Kardos, Keith W.; Yearwood, Graham D.; Guillon, Geraldine B.; Kurtz, Lisa A.; Mokkapati, Vijaya K.

    2008-04-01

    Rapid, point of care (POC) testing has been increasingly deployed as an aid in the diagnosis of infectious disease, due to its ability to deliver rapid, actionable results. In the case of HIV, a number of rapid test devices have been FDA approved and CLIA-waived in order to enable diagnosis of HIV infection outside of traditional laboratory settings. These settings include STD clinics, community outreach centers and mobile testing units, as well as identifying HIV infection among pregnant women and managing occupational exposure to infection. The OraQuick ® rapid test platform has been widely used to identify HIV in POC settings, due to its simplicity, ease of use and the ability to utilize oral fluid as an alternative specimen to blood. More recently, a rapid test for antibodies to hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been developed on the same test platform which uses serum, plasma, finger-stick blood, venous blood and oral fluid. Clinical testing using this POC test device has shown that performance is equivalent to state of the art, laboratory based tests. These devices may be suitable for rapid field testing of blood and other body fluids for the presence of infectious agents.

  9. How Your Baby Grows

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain, the heart and lungs, are forming. The placenta grows in your uterus and supplies the baby ... like alcohol, cigarette smoke and drugs through the placenta, too. So don’t drink alcohol , smoke , use ...

  10. Apparatus for growing crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasinski, Thomas J. (Inventor); Witt, August F. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    An improved apparatus and method for growing crystals from a melt employing a heat pipe, consisting of one or more sections, each section serving to control temperature and thermal gradients in the crystal as it forms inside the pipe.

  11. Fjord circulation and hydrographic structure associated with a rapidly-retreating glacier in the Patagonian Ice Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffat, C. F.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the structure of buoyant plumes originating from melting glaciers and their interaction with the hydrographic structure and circulation of the surrounding ocean is key to elucidating the role of the ocean in modulating freshwater loss from the continents and to appropriately estimate present and future sea-level rise. Here, hydrographic and current velocity surveys are used to study the freshwater outflow in a fjord adjacent to Jorge Montt, an until recently rapidly (1 km/year) retreating glacier in the southern Patagonian Ice Fields. Surveys were conducted in the Summer of 2010 to 2012, Winter of 2011 and Fall 2012 to provide constraints on seasonal-scale changes. Montt fjord is approximately 20 km long, and is composed of a deep, proximal (to the ice) sub-basin of 350 m maximum depth and a shallower, distal sub-basin of around 100 m depth. Exchange with the 120-km long Baker Channel, the main conduit of exchange for the fjord with the South Eastern Pacific is severely constrained by a v-shaped, 45-m deep sill. During Summer, the freshwater outflow from the glacier mixes with the deep oceanic water found in the fjord to form a buoyant plume. This plume splits into a branch that reaches the surface and forms a relatively thick (10-20 m) brackish layer with salinities of 5 or less, and at least one subsurface branch that forms a horizontally coherent lateral intrusion found everywhere in the deep sub-basin. Results from using a thermodynamical melting model in combination with a linear mixing model suggest that the meltwater in the plume is dominated by subsurface runoff (10 %) with a smaller proportion of submarine melt (1-3 %). The fraction of subsurface runoff is higher in the top 100 m and it increases monotonically towards the surface, while subsurface melting also has a subsurface concentration maximum between 100 and 150 m. Velocity measurements show flow away from the glacier at the surface layer (top 10-20 m) and also at mid-depth, below the

  12. Planning for Growing Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassen, Robert, Ed.; Wolfson, Margaret, Ed.

    The basic needs and services that the vast masses of the population in developing countries must have to improve their quality of life are examined. Chapter 1 of nine chapters discusses implications of rapid population growth for social and economic planning. Rapid population growth in the developing countries is discussed in chapter 2. Food…

  13. SCALE-UP OF RAPID SMALL-SCALE ADSORPTION TESTS TO FIELD-SCALE ADSORBERS: THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL BASIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Design of full-scale adsorption systems typically includes expensive and time-consuming pilot studies to simulate full-scale adsorber performance. Accordingly, the rapid small-scale column test (RSSCT) was developed and evaluated experimentally. The RSSCT can simulate months of f...

  14. Evaluation of a rapid immunodiagnostic rabies field surveillance test on samples collected from military operations in Africa, Europe, and the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Voehl, Kristen M; Saturday, Greg A

    2014-01-01

    The Anigen Rapid Rabies Antigen Test Kit (Bionote, Inc, Hwaseong, Korea) was evaluated using 80 clinical samples collected by US military veterinary units. Samples for the study were obtained from brain specimens of domestic and wildlife animals that were submitted to the US Army Public Health Command's Veterinary Laboratory Europe in Landstuhl, Germany, for rabies testing with the direct fluorescent antibody test. The rapid immunodiagnostic test was able to detect rabies virus antigen in clinical samples of brain tissue. The rapid immunodiagnostic test had an overall sensitivity of 96.9% and specificity of 100% when compared to the direct fluorescent antibody test. The rapid immunodiagnostic test for rabies virus antigen detection is a straightforward test that can be run under field conditions and without a microscope or electricity, and yield results in 5 to 10 minutes. This rapid immunodiagnostic test is a quick, inexpensive, and easy to use surveillance tool that can identify rabies positive animals and help focus targeted control measures with the goal of reducing the rabies burden. PMID:25074599

  15. Electric and Magnetic Fields (EMF) RAPID Program Engineering Project 8: FINAL REPORT, Evaluation of Field Reduction Technologies, Volume 1 (Report) and Volume 2 (Appendices)

    SciTech Connect

    Commonwealth Associates, Inc.; IIT Research Institute

    1997-08-01

    This draft report consists of two volumes. Volume 1, the main body, contains an introducto~ sectionj an overview of magnetic fields sectio~ and field reduction technology evaluation section. Magnetic field reduction methods are evalpated for transmission lines, distribution Iines,sulxtations, building wiring applkmd machinery, and transportation systems. The evaluation considers effectiveness, co% and other ftiors. Volume 2 contains five appendices, Append~ A presents magnetic field shielding information. Appendices B and C present design assumptions and magnetic field plots for transmission and distribution lines, respectively. Appendices D and E present cost estimate details for transmission and distribution limes, respectively.

  16. Cultural systems for growing potatoes in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, T.; Bula, R.; Corey, R.; Morrow, R.

    1988-01-01

    Higher plants are being evaluated for life support to provide needed food, oxygen and water as well as removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The successful utilization of plants in space will require the development of not only highly productive growing systems but also highly efficient bioregenerative systems. It will be necessary to recycle all inedible plant parts and all human wastes so that the entire complement of elemental compounds can be reused. Potatoes have been proposed as one of the desirable crops because they are 1) extremely productive, yielding more than 100 metric tons per hectare from field plantings, 2) the edible tubers are high in digestible starch (70%) and protein (10%) on a dry weight basis, 3) up to 80% of the total plant production is in tubers and thus edible, 4) the plants are easily propagated either from tubers or from tissue culture plantlets, 5) the tubers can be utilized with a minimum of processing, and 6) potatoes can be prepared in a variety of different forms for the human diet (Tibbitts et al., 1982). However potatoes have a growth pattern that complicates the development of growing the plants in controlled systems. Tubers are borne on underground stems that are botanically termed 'rhizomes', but in common usage termed 'stolons'. The stolons must be maintained in a dark, moist area with sufficient provision for enlargement of tubers. Stems rapidly terminate in flowers forcing extensive branching and spreading of plants so that individual plants will cover 0.2 m2 or more area. Thus the growing system must be developed to provide an area that is darkened for tuber and root growth and of sufficient size for plant spread. A system developed for growing potatoes, or any plants, in space will have certain requirements that must be met to make them a useful part of a life support system. The system must 1) be constructed of materials, and involve media, that can be reused for many successive cycles of plant growth, 2

  17. Development of a Multiplexed, Bead-Based Assessment Tool for Rapid Identification and Quantitation of Microorganisms in Field Samples. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, M.; Halden, R.

    2002-10-09

    This was the final report for DOE NABIR grant DE-FG02-01ER63264 (PI Mary Lowe). The grant was entitled ''Development of a Multiplexed Bead-Based Assessment Tool for Rapid Identification and Quantitation of Microorganisms in Field Samples.'' The grant duration was one year. The purpose was to develop a bead-based assay for measuring analyte DNAs in environmental PCR products and to apply the method to a field experiment. The primary experiment was located at the UMTRA Old Rifle site.

  18. Discovery of a magnetic field in the rapidly rotating O-type secondary of the colliding-wind binary HD 47129 (Plaskett's star)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunhut, J. H.; Wade, G. A.; Leutenegger, M.; Petit, V.; Rauw, G.; Neiner, C.; Martins, F.; Cohen, D. H.; Gagné, M.; Ignace, R.; Mathis, S.; de Mink, S. E.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Owocki, S.; Shultz, M.; Sundqvist, J.; MiMeS Collaboration

    2013-01-01

    We report the detection of a strong, organized magnetic field in the secondary component of the massive O8III/I+O7.5V/III double-lined spectroscopic binary system HD 47129 (Plaskett's star) in the context of the Magnetism in Massive Stars survey. Eight independent Stokes V observations were acquired using the Echelle SpectroPolarimetric Device for the Observations of Stars (ESPaDOnS) spectropolarimeter at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope and the Narval spectropolarimeter at the Télescope Bernard Lyot. Using least-squares deconvolution we obtain definite detections of signal in Stokes V in three observations. No significant signal is detected in the diagnostic null (N) spectra. The Zeeman signatures are broad and track the radial velocity of the secondary component; we therefore conclude that the rapidly rotating secondary component is the magnetized star. Correcting the polarized spectra for the line and continuum of the (sharp-lined) primary, we measured the longitudinal magnetic field from each observation. The longitudinal field of the secondary is variable and exhibits extreme values of -810 ± 150 and +680 ± 190 G, implying a minimum surface dipole polar strength of 2850 ± 500 G. In contrast, we derive an upper limit (3σ) to the primary's surface magnetic field of 230 G. The combination of a strong magnetic field and rapid rotation leads us to conclude that the secondary hosts a centrifugal magnetosphere fed through a magnetically confined wind. We revisit the properties of the optical line profiles and X-ray emission - previously interpreted as a consequence of colliding stellar winds - in this context. We conclude that HD 47129 represents a heretofore unique stellar system - a close, massive binary with a rapidly rotating, magnetized component - that will be a rich target for further study.

  19. Growing Up with "1984."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franza, August

    1983-01-01

    Relates changing student reaction to George Orwell's "1984" over 20 years of teaching. Finds present high school students' acceptance of Orwell's bleak world vision both a sign of student honesty and a frightening indication of the growing reality of the book. (MM)

  20. Growing through Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Barbara J.

    "Growing through Literature" is a curriculum using Joan M. and Erik H. Erikson's theory of the Life Cycle as a structure for selecting and teaching literature to inner-city high school students at Brighton High School in Massachusetts. The program consists of four component parts: Journals, Selected Stories, Discussion, and Autobiography. By…

  1. GROWING SEEDS, TEACHER'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elementary Science Study, Newton, MA.

    THIS TEACHER'S GUIDE IS DESIGNED FOR USE WITH AN ELEMENTARY SCIENCE STUDY UNIT, "GROWING SEEDS," IN WHICH SUCH BASIC SCIENCE SKILLS AND PROCESSES AS MEASUREMENT, OBSERVATION, AND HYPOTHESIS FORMATION ARE INTRODUCED THROUGH STUDENT ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SEEDS, GERMINATION, AND SEEDLING GROWTH. THE MATERIALS WERE DEVELOPED FOR USE IN ELEMENTARY…

  2. Growing Up In Appalachia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Judith

    1981-01-01

    Offers a glimpse of a Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition of 80 photographs and selected writings by first through eighth grade children growing up in Letcher County, Kentucky. Children were guided by an artist-in-residence sponsored by the Kentucky Arts Commission and Appalshop, a multimedia cooperative. (Author/RH)

  3. Growing Backyard Textiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Eleanor Hall

    1975-01-01

    For those involved in creative work with textiles, the degree of control possible in texture, finish, and color of fiber by growing and processing one's own (perhaps with students' help) can make the experience rewarding. The author describes the processes for flax and nettles and gives tips on necessary equipment. (Author/AJ)

  4. Growing Plants in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salt, Bernard

    1990-01-01

    Background information on the methods and varieties used to demonstrate the cultivation of plants without the use of chemical pesticides is provided. Discussed are species and variety selection, growing plants from seed and from seedlings, soil preparation, using cuttings, useful crops, and pest control. (CW)

  5. Growing a Nurturing Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boorn, Clare; Dunn, Paula Hopkins; Page, Claire

    2010-01-01

    "Growing a nurturing classroom" is an awareness training programme presented by educational psychologists in Leicestershire for professionals working in primary schools with the aim of promoting an optimal environment for learning and emotional well-being. The training helps primary school staff to take a holistic approach to education; see…

  6. RAPID COMMUNICATION: Effect of strain, magnetic field and field angle on the critical current density of Y Ba2Cu3O7-δ coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Laan, D. C.; Ekin, J. W.; Douglas, J. F.; Clickner, C. C.; Stauffer, T. C.; Goodrich, L. F.

    2010-07-01

    A large, magnetic-field-dependent, reversible reduction in critical current density with axial strain in Y Ba2Cu3O7-δ coated conductors at 75.9 K has been measured. This effect may have important implications for the performance of Y Ba2Cu3O7-δ coated conductors in applications where the conductor experiences large stresses in the presence of a magnetic field. Previous studies have been performed only under tensile strain and could provide only a limited understanding of the in-field strain effect. We now have constructed a device for measuring the critical current density as a function of axial compressive and tensile strain and applied magnetic field as well as magnetic field angle, in order to determine the magnitude of this effect and to create a better understanding of its origin. The reversible reduction in critical current density with strain becomes larger with increasing magnetic field at all field angles. At 76 K the critical current density is reduced by about 30% at - 0.5% strain when a magnetic field of 5 T is applied parallel to the c-axis of the conductor or 8 T is applied in the ab-plane, compared to a reduction of only 13% in self-field. Differences in the strain response of the critical current density at various magnetic field angles indicate that the pinning mechanisms in Y Ba2Cu3O7-δ coated conductors are uniquely affected by strain. Contribution of NIST, not subject to US copyright.

  7. Detection of undistorted continuous wave (CW) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra with non-adiabatic rapid sweep (NARS) of the magnetic field

    PubMed Central

    Kittell, Aaron W.; Camenisch, Theodore G.; Ratke, Joseph J.; Sidabras, Jason W.; Hyde, James S.

    2011-01-01

    A continuous wave (CW) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum is typically displayed as the first harmonic response to the application of 100 kHz magnetic field modulation, which is used to enhance sensitivity by reducing the level of 1/f noise. However, magnetic field modulation of any amplitude causes spectral broadening and sacrifices EPR spectral intensity by at least a factor of two. In the work presented here, a CW rapid-scan spectroscopic technique that avoids these compromises and also provides a means of avoiding 1/f noise is developed. This technique, termed non-adiabatic rapid sweep (NARS) EPR, consists of repetitively sweeping the polarizing magnetic field in a linear manner over a spectral fragment with a small coil at a repetition rate that is sufficiently high that receiver noise, microwave phase noise, and environmental microphonics, each of which has 1/f characteristics, are overcome. Nevertheless, the rate of sweep is sufficiently slow that adiabatic responses are avoided and the spin system is always close to thermal equilibrium. The repetitively acquired spectra from the spectral fragment are averaged. Under these conditions, undistorted pure absorption spectra are obtained without broadening or loss of signal intensity. A digital filter such as a moving average is applied to remove high frequency noise, which is approximately equivalent in bandwidth to use of an integrating time constant in conventional field modulation with lock-in detection. Nitroxide spectra at L- and X-band are presented. PMID:21741868

  8. The coupling of supercritical fluid chromatography and field ionization time-of-flight high-resolution mass spectrometry for rapid and quantitative analysis of petroleum middle distillates.

    PubMed

    Qian, Kuangnan; Diehl, John W; Dechert, Gary J; DiSanzo, Frank P

    2004-01-01

    We report the first coupling of supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) with field ionization time-of-flight high-resolution mass spectrometry (FI-ToF HRMS), in parallel with ultraviolet (UV) detection and flame ionization detection (FID), for rapid and quantitative analysis of petroleum middle distillates. SFC separates petroleum middle distillates into saturates and 1- to 3-ring aromatics. FI generates molecular ions for hydrocarbon species eluted from the SFC. The high resolution and exact mass measurements by ToF mass spectrometry provide elemental compositions of the molecules in the petroleum product. The amounts of saturates and aromatic ring types were quantified using the parallel SFC-FID assisted by SFC-UV. With a proper carbon-number calibration, the detailed composition of the petroleum middle distillate was rapidly determined. PMID:15103095

  9. A Sphere-Scanning Radiometer for Rapid Directional Measurements of Sky and Ground Radiance: the PARABOLA Field Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deering, D. W.; Leone, P.

    1984-01-01

    A unique field instrument, called the PARABOLA, a collapsable support boom, which is self contained and easily transportable to remote sites to enable the acquisition of radiance data for almost the complete (4 pi) sky and ground-looking hemispheres in only 11 seconds was designed. The PARABOLA samples in 15 deg instantaneous field of view sectors in three narrow bandpass spectral channels simultaneously. Field measurement on a variety of earth surface cover types using a truck boom, a specially designed pickup truck mounting system, and a hot air balloon were studied. The PARABOLA instrument has potential for climatological and other studies which require characterization of the distribution of diffuse solar radiation within the sky hemisphere.

  10. A sphere-scanning radiometer for rapid directional measurements of sky and ground radiance: The PARABOLA field instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deering, D. W.; Leone, P.

    1984-11-01

    A unique field instrument, called the PARABOLA, a collapsable support boom, which is self contained and easily transportable to remote sites to enable the acquisition of radiance data for almost the complete (4 pi) sky and ground-looking hemispheres in only 11 seconds was designed. The PARABOLA samples in 15 deg instantaneous field of view sectors in three narrow bandpass spectral channels simultaneously. Field measurement on a variety of earth surface cover types using a truck boom, a specially designed pickup truck mounting system, and a hot air balloon were studied. The PARABOLA instrument has potential for climatological and other studies which require characterization of the distribution of diffuse solar radiation within the sky hemisphere.

  11. Marked rapid alterations in nocturnal pineal serotonin metabolism in mice and rats exposed to weak intermittent magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Lerchl, A.; Nonaka, K.O.; Stokkan, K.A.; Reiter, R.J. )

    1990-05-31

    Adult AMES mice and male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to an artificial magnetic field, generated by Helmholtz coils. 3.5 hours after the onset of darkness the coils were activated for one hour resulting in an inversion of the horizontal component of the earth's magnetic field. The coils were activated and deactivated at 5 min intervals during the 1 hour exposure period. In both mice and rats, the levels of serotonin in the pineal were markedly increased by the exposure. In rats, an increase of pineal 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid and a decrease of the activity of the pineal enzyme serotonin-N-acetyltransferase also was observed. However, pineal and serum melatonin levels were not altered. The results indicate that the metabolism of serotonin in the pineal is quickly affected by the exposure of animals to a magnetic field.

  12. Macromolecular crystal growing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Robert S. (Inventor); Herren, Blair J. (Inventor); Carter, Daniel C. (Inventor); Yost, Vaughn H. (Inventor); Bugg, Charles E. (Inventor); Delucas, Lawrence J. (Inventor); Suddath, Fred L. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A macromolecular crystal growing system especially designed for growing crystals in the low gravity of space as well as the gravity of earth includes at least one tray assembly, a carrier assembly which receives the tray, and a refrigeration-incubation module in which the carrier assembly is received. The tray assembly includes a plurality of sealed chambers with a plastic syringe and a plug means for the double tip of the syringe provided therein. Ganging mechanisms operate the syringes and plugs simultaneously in a precise and smooth operation. Preferably, the tray assemblies are mounted on ball bearing slides for smooth operation in inserting and removing the tray assemblies into the carrier assembly. The plugging mechanism also includes a loading control mechanism. A mechanism for leaving a syringe unplugged is also provided.

  13. Growing up with Retinoblastoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maley, Tom

    2005-01-01

    An account is given of growing up as a child blinded as a result of a cancer of the eye known as retinoblastoma. The role of his mother is brought out, variously as a source of objective knowledge, of one's personal worth, and of the worth of other people in one's community. The strengths and weaknesses of his first school in his home area and…

  14. Azimuthal Collimation of Long Range Rapidity Correlations by Strong Color Fields in High Multiplicity Hadron-Hadron Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusling, Kevin; Venugopalan, Raju

    2012-06-01

    The azimuthal collimation of dihadrons with large rapidity separations in high multiplicity p+p collisions at the LHC is described in the color glass condensate (CGC) effective theory [A. Dumitru, K. Dusling, F. Gelis, J. Jalilian-Marian, T. Lappi, and R. Venugopalan, Phys. Lett. B 697, 21 (2011).PYLBAJ0370-269310.1016/j.physletb.2011.01.024] by Nc2 suppressed multiladder QCD diagrams that are enhanced αS-8 due to gluon saturation in hadron wave functions. We show that quantitative computations in the CGC framework are in good agreement with data from the CMS experiment on per trigger dihadron yields and predict further systematics of these yields with varying trigger pT and charged hadron multiplicity. Radial flow generated by rescattering is strongly limited by the structure of the p+p dihadron correlations. In contrast, radial flow explains the systematics of identical measurements in heavy ion collisions.

  15. Field performance of malaria rapid diagnostic test for the detection of Plasmodium falciparum infection in Odisha State, India

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, S.S.; Gunasekaran, K.; Jambulingam, P.

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have become an essential surveillance tool in the malaria control programme in India. The current study aimed to assess the performance of ParaHIT-f, a rapid test in diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum infection through detecting its specific antigen, histidine rich protein 2 (PfHRP-2), in Odisha State, India. Methods: The study was undertaken in eight falciparum malaria endemic southern districts of Odisha State. Febrile patients included through active case detection, were diagnosed by Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) for P. falciparum infection using the RDT, ParaHIT-f. The performance of ParaHIT-f was evaluated using microscopy as the gold standard. Results: A total of 1030 febrile patients were screened by both microscopy and the RDT for P. falciparum infection. The sensitivity of ParaHIT-f was 63.6% (95% CI: 56.0-70.6) and specificity was 98.9% (95% CI: 97.9-99.5), with positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) of 92.6% (95% CI: 86.0-96.3) and 93.0% (95% CI: 91.0-94.5), respectively. When related to parasitaemia, the RDT sensitivity was 47.8% at the low parasitaemia of 4 to 40 parasites/μl of blood. Interpretation & conclusions: The results showed that the performance of the RDT, ParaHIT-f, was not as sensitive as microscopy in detecting true falciparum infections; a high specificity presented a low frequency of false-positive RDT results. The sensitivity of ParaHIT-f was around 60 per cent. It is, therefore, essential to improve the efficiency (sensitivity) of the kit so that the true falciparum infections will not be missed especially in areas where P. falciparum has been the predominant species causing cerebral malaria. PMID:26905242

  16. Field method for rapid quantification of labile organic carbon in hyper-arid desert soils validated by two thermal methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Lauren E.; Valdivia-Silva, Julio E.; Perez-Montaño, Saul; Condori-Apaza, Renee M.; Conley, Catharine A.; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; McKay, Christopher P.

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a field method for the determination of labile organic carbon in hyper-arid desert soils. Industry standard methods rely on expensive analytical equipment that are not possible to take into the field, while scientific challenges require fast turn-around of large numbers of samples in order to characterize the soils throughout this region. Here we present a method utilizing acid-hydrolysis extraction of the labile fraction of organic carbon followed by potassium permanganate oxidation, which provides a quick and inexpensive approach to investigate samples in the field. Strict reagent standardization and calibration steps within this method allowed the determination of very low levels of organic carbon in hyper-arid soils, in particular, with results similar to those determined by the alternative methods of Calcination and Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Field testing of this protocol increased the understanding of the role of organic materials in hyper-arid environments and allowed real-time, strategic decision making for planning for more detailed laboratory-based analysis.

  17. Geothermal Grows Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, William C.; Kraemer, Steven; Ormond, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Self-declared energy and carbon reduction goals on the part of progressive colleges and universities have driven ground source geothermal space heating and cooling systems into rapid evolution, as part of long-term climate action planning efforts. The period of single-building or single-well solutions is quickly being eclipsed by highly engineered…

  18. Rapid assessment of morphological change caused by catastrophic tsunamis: Integrated geological remote sensing and field investigation of the March 2011 Tohoku-oki Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, H. M.; Tappin, D. R.; Jordan, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    Rapid assessment of tsunami impact is key to hazard characterisation and disaster mitigation in the aftermath of catastrophic tsunamis. Investigation of landscape changes caused by tsunamis is also vital to better understand their process of operation and prepare for the effects of future events. However, as many of these geomorphological and geological features are ephemeral, being easily destroyed by natural and anthropogenic activity after the event, timely investigation is essential. The increasing availability of remotely-sensed data provides a means of rapidly assessing landscape changes caused by tsunamis and when integrated with targeted field investigation acts as a crucial tool in tsunami characterisation. Following the catastrophic Tohoku-oki tsunami of March 2011, the British Geological Survey obtained high resolution satellite imagery (Ikonos, Quickbird, WorldView), aerial photography and LiDAR through the International Charter on Space and Major Disasters. Comparison of pre- and post-event data allowed the identification of inundated areas; debris source and deposition sites and flow direction indicators- building a picture of tsunami flow characteristics and resultant landscape impacts. Field investigation of selected sites within the Sendai area was undertaken in June 2011 in order to validate the interpretation of remotely-sensed data and gather additional information on flow depth and sedimentological characteristics. Ruggedized laptops equipped with the BGS.SIGMAmobile digital mapping system and loaded with the pre-interpreted geological remote sensing data aided the integration of pre-field data interpretation and field-investigation. The combination of pre-fieldwork interpretation of remotely-sensed data and field investigation revealed inundation limits up to 4.5km inland, flow depths of 11m and wide-ranging transport of debris. Crucially, timely and targeted investigation of landscape changes caused by the Tohoku-oki event was possible.

  19. Rapid pulsed-field gel electrophoresis protocol for typing of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other gram-negative organisms in 1 day.

    PubMed Central

    Gautom, R K

    1997-01-01

    Genomic DNA patterns generated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis are highly specific for different strains of an organism and have significant value in epidemiologic investigations of infectious-disease outbreaks. Unfortunately, time-consuming and tedious specimen processing is an inherent problem which limits the use of this powerful technology as a real-time epidemic investigational tool. Here, I describe a rapid method to improve the response time and provide specific bacterial strain identification for the typing of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other gram-negative organisms in a single day. PMID:9350772

  20. Semi-coupled flow and thermal analysis of the field joint during rapid pressurization of the redesigned solid rocket motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Benny; Majumdar, Alok K.; Colbert, Robert; Clayton, J. L.

    1992-01-01

    A transient, semi-coupled, multi-dimensional thermal and flow analysis methodology was developed to predict the thermal/gas dynamic conditions in the field joint region of the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM). Transient temperature response, pressure history, and combustion gas flow rate (within the field joint region), were of principle interest, in the course of this study. The thermal environment in the field joint was modeled using SINDA, a finite difference based thermal network analyzer. The combustion gas flow boundary condition was generated using the FLAP code; this code performs a transient, lumped-parameter, control volume analysis to solve the mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations. The FLAP computer code was modified to account for erosion of the NBR insulation material, following ignition. An independent grid sensitivity study was conducted to determine an appropriate grid distribution near the wall. The predicted results, obtained using an optimum grid distribution and computer generated flow boundary condition, were compared with subscale test data.

  1. Rapidly growing bilateral pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia of the breast.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Eun Mi; Whang, In Yong; Chang, Eun Deok

    2010-01-01

    A tumoral pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) that causes huge breast enlargement is very rare. Only two cases of huge tumoral PASHs have been reported in the English medical literature. We report here on a surgically confirmed case of bilateral huge tumoral PASH in a 47-year-old woman, and we present the imaging and histopathology findings. We also review the relevant medical literature. PMID:20461190

  2. Simple and rapid CD4 testing based on large-field imaging system composed of microcavity array and two-dimensional photosensor.

    PubMed

    Saeki, Tatsuya; Sugamura, Yuriko; Hosokawa, Masahito; Yoshino, Tomoko; Lim, Tae-Kyu; Harada, Manabu; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi

    2015-05-15

    This study presents a novel method for CD4 testing based on one-shot large-field imaging. The large-field imaging system was fabricated by a microcavity array and a two-dimensional (2D) photosensor within the desk-top-sized instrument. The microcavity array was employed to separate leukocytes from whole blood based on differences in the size of leukocytes and other blood cells. The large-field imaging system with lower side irradiation enabled acquisition of cell signatures with high signal-to-noise ratio, because the metallic substrate of the microcavity array obstructed excessive excitation light. In this setting, dual-color imaging of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells was achieved within the entire image area (64 mm(2)) in 2s. The practical performance of the large-field imaging system was demonstrated by determining the CD4/CD8 ratio in a few microliter of control whole blood as small as those obtained by a finger prick. The CD4/CD8 ratios measured using the large-field imaging system correlated well with those measured by microscopic analysis. These results indicate that our proposed system provides a simple and rapid CD4 testing for the application of HIV/AIDS treatment. PMID:25192872

  3. Rapid Calibration of High Resolution Geologic Models to Dynamic Data Using Inverse Modeling: Field Application and Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Akhil Datta-Gupta

    2008-03-31

    Streamline-based assisted and automatic history matching techniques have shown great potential in reconciling high resolution geologic models to production data. However, a major drawback of these approaches has been incompressibility or slight compressibility assumptions that have limited applications to two-phase water-oil displacements only. We propose an approach to history matching three-phase flow using a novel compressible streamline formulation and streamline-derived analytic sensitivities. First, we utilize a generalized streamline model to account for compressible flow by introducing an 'effective density' of total fluids along streamlines. Second, we analytically compute parameter sensitivities that define the relationship between the reservoir properties and the production response, viz. water-cut and gas/oil ratio (GOR). These sensitivities are an integral part of history matching, and streamline models permit efficient computation of these sensitivities through a single flow simulation. We calibrate geologic models to production data by matching the water-cut and gas/oil ratio using our previously proposed generalized travel time inversion (GTTI) technique. For field applications, however, the highly non-monotonic profile of the gas/oil ratio data often presents a challenge to this technique. In this work we present a transformation of the field production data that makes it more amenable to GTTI. Further, we generalize the approach to incorporate bottom-hole flowing pressure during three-phase history matching. We examine the practical feasibility of the method using a field-scale synthetic example (SPE-9 comparative study) and a field application. Recently Ensemble Kalman Filtering (EnKF) has gained increased attention for history matching and continuous reservoir model updating using data from permanent downhole sensors. It is a sequential Monte-Carlo approach that works with an ensemble of reservoir models. Specifically, the method utilizes cross

  4. Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Devices: Performance Characteristics of the ParaSight F Device Determined in a Multisite Field Study

    PubMed Central

    Forney, J. Russ; Magill, Alan J.; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda; Sirichaisinthop, Jeeraphat; Bautista, Christian T.; Heppner, D. Gray; Miller, R. Scott; Ockenhouse, Christian F.; Gubanov, Alex; Shafer, Robyn; DeWitt, Caroline Cady; Quino-Ascurra, Higinio A.; Kester, Kent E.; Kain, Kevin C.; Walsh, Douglas S.; Ballou, W. Ripley; Gasser, Robert A.

    2001-01-01

    Microscopic detection of parasites has been the reference standard for malaria diagnosis for decades. However, difficulty in maintaining required technical skills and infrastructure has spurred the development of several nonmicroscopic malaria rapid diagnostic devices based on the detection of malaria parasite antigen in whole blood. The ParaSight F test is one such device. It detects the presence of Plasmodium falciparum-specific histidine-rich protein 2 by using an antigen-capture immunochromatographic strip format. The present study was conducted at outpatient malaria clinics in Iquitos, Peru, and Maesod, Thailand. Duplicate, blinded, expert microscopy was employed as the reference standard for evaluating device performance. Of 2,988 eligible patients, microscopy showed that 547 (18%) had P. falciparum, 658 (22%) had P. vivax, 2 (0.07%) had P. malariae, and 1,750 (59%) were negative for Plasmodium. Mixed infections (P. falciparum and P. vivax) were identified in 31 patients (1%). The overall sensitivity of ParaSight F for P. falciparum was 95%. When stratified by magnitude of parasitemia (no. of asexual parasites per microliter of whole blood), sensitivities were 83% (>0 to 500 parasites/μl), 87% (501 to 1,000/μl), 98% (1,001 to 5,000/μl), and 98% (>5,000/μl). Device specificity was 86%. PMID:11474008

  5. [Rapid screening and quantitative detection of 11 illegally added antidiabetics in health care products by ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/electrostatic field orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Du, Yanshan; Li, Qiang; Wu, Chunmin; Zhang, Yan

    2015-04-01

    A method for rapid screening and quantification of 11 antidiabetics (nateglinide, pioglitazone hydrochloride, gliquidone, gliclazide, glipizide, glibenclamide, metformin hydrochloride, repaglinide, phenformin hydrochloride, rosiglitazone hydrochloride, glimepiride) illegally added in health care products by ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-quadrupole/ electrostatic field orbitrap mass spectrometry was established. The samples were extracted with methanol, and separated on an Agilent Poroshell 120 SB-C18 column (100 mm x 4.6 mm, 2.7 µm) with acetonitrile-10 mmol/L ammonium acetate solution as mobile phases by gradient elution. The positive mode was used in the MS detection. The resolution of the precursor mass was 70,000, while the resolution of the product mass was 17,500. The results indicated that the linearity of all the 11 antidiabetics ranged from 0.005 mg/L to 0.5 mg/L with the correlation coefficients greater than 0.99. The limits of detection were confirmed by spiked samples, and were between 2.7 and 5.1 µg/kg for the 11 antidiabetics. The recoveries were in the range of 87.3% to 98.3%, with the relative standard deviations in the range of 2.18%-5.21%. This method is accurate, simple and rapid, and can be used in rapid screening and quantitative analysis of the 11 illegally added antidiabetics in health care products. PMID:26292406

  6. Rapid evolutionary change in a sexual signal: genetic control of the mutation 'flatwing' that renders male field crickets (Teleogryllus oceanicus) mute.

    PubMed

    Tinghitella, R M

    2008-03-01

    Colonizing events may expose organisms to physical and ecological environments found nowhere else in their range. Novel selection pressures can then influence subsequent rapid evolutionary changes. Here, I investigate the genetics of one such rapid change in the sexual signal of Polynesian field crickets, Teleogryllus oceanicus, that recently colonized the Hawaiian Islands. In Hawaii, T. oceanicus encounter a deadly parasitoid fly found nowhere else in their range. In <20 generations, a wing mutation, flatwing, that eliminates the crickets' song, an important sexual signal, but protects them from the fly, spread to >90% of males on the island of Kauai. I show, using crosses between flatwing males and females from a population that has never contained flatwings, that the song-suppressing mutation is due to a change in a single sex-linked locus. Contemporary evolution of secondary sexual characteristics has only rarely been identified as the result of single-gene changes and never before as a single sex-linked locus, but sex-linked inheritance is thought to facilitate the rapid evolution of these types of traits. Because divergence of sexual signals can influence reproductive isolation, understanding how colonization events and subsequent selection affect signals, and the genetic mechanisms of such change, can shed light on processes likely to play a role in speciation. PMID:18000520

  7. Variations of the earth's magnetic field and rapid climatic cooling: A possible link through changes in global ice volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampino, M. R.

    1979-01-01

    A possible relationship between large scale changes in global ice volume, variations in the earth's magnetic field, and short term climatic cooling is investigated through a study of the geomagnetic and climatic records of the past 300,000 years. The calculations suggest that redistribution of the Earth's water mass can cause rotational instabilities which lead to geomagnetic excursions; these magnetic variations in turn may lead to short-term coolings through upper atmosphere effects. Such double coincidences of magnetic excursions and sudden coolings at times of ice volume changes have occurred at 13,500, 30,000, 110,000, and 135,000 YBP.

  8. Rapid production of large-area deep sub-wavelength hybrid structures by femtosecond laser light-field tailoring

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lei; Chen, Qi-Dai E-mail: hbsun@jlu.edu.cn; Yang, Rui; Xu, Bin-Bin; Wang, Hai-Yu; Yang, Hai; Huo, Cheng-Song; Tu, Hai-Ling; Sun, Hong-Bo E-mail: hbsun@jlu.edu.cn

    2014-01-20

    The goal of creation of large-area deep sub-wavelength nanostructures by femtosecond laser irradiation onto various materials is being hindered by the limited coherence length. Here, we report solution of the problem by light field tailoring of the incident beam with a phase mask, which serves generation of wavelets. Direct interference between the wavelets, here the first-order diffracted beams, and interference between a wavelet and its induced waves such as surface plasmon polariton are responsible for creation of microgratings and superimposed nanogratings, respectively. The principle of wavelets interference enables extension of uniformly induced hybrid structures containing deep sub-wavelength nanofeatures to macro-dimension.

  9. Field evaluation of a rapid, visually-read colloidal dye immunofiltration assay for Schistosoma japonicum for screening in areas of low transmission.

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xiang; Wang, Tianping; Ye, Hongzhuan; Qiang, Guangxiang; Wei, Haiming; Tian, Zhigang

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the validity of a recently developed rapid test--a colloidal dye immunofiltration assay (CDIFA)--used by health workers in field settings to identify villagers infected with Schistosoma japonicum. METHODS: Health workers in the field used CDIFA to test samples from 1553 villagers in two areas of low endemicity and an area where S. japonicum was not endemic in Anhui, China. All the samples were then tested in the laboratory by laboratory staff using a standard parasitological method (Kato-Katz), an indirect haemagglutination assay (IHA), and CDIFA. The results of CDIFA performed by health workers were compared with those obtained by Kato-Katz and IHA. FINDINGS: Concordance between the results of CDIFA performed in field settings and in the laboratory was high (kappa index, 0.95; 95% confidence interval, 0.93-0.97). When Kato-Katz was used as the reference test, the overall sensitivity and specificity of CDIFA were 98.5% and 83.6%, respectively in the two villages in areas of low endemicity, while the specificity was 99.8% in the nonendemic village. Compared with IHA, the overall specificity and sensitivity of CDIFA were greater than 99% and 96%, respectively. With the combination of Kato-Katz and IHA as the reference standard, CDIFA had a sensitivity of 95.8% and a specificity of 99.5%, and an accuracy of 98.6% in the two areas of low endemicity. CONCLUSION: CDIFA is a specific, sensitive, and reliable test that can be used for rapid screening for schistosomiasis by health workers in field settings. PMID:16175827

  10. Development of a Rapid, Sensitive, and Field-Deployable Razor Ex BioDetection System and Quantitative PCR Assay for Detection of Phymatotrichopsis omnivora Using Multiple Gene Targets

    PubMed Central

    Arif, M.; Marek, S. M.; Melcher, U.

    2013-01-01

    A validated, multigene-based method using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) and the Razor Ex BioDetection system was developed for detection of Phymatotrichopsis omnivora. This soilborne fungus causes Phymatotrichopsis root rot of cotton, alfalfa, and other dicot crops in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico, leading to significant crop losses and limiting the range of crops that can be grown in soils where the fungus is established. It is on multiple lists of regulated organisms. Because P. omnivora is difficult to isolate, accurate and sensitive culture-independent diagnostic tools are needed to confirm infections by this fungus. Specific PCR primers and probes were designed based on P. omnivora nucleotide sequences of the genes encoding rRNA internal transcribed spacers, beta-tubulin, and the second-largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB2). PCR products were cloned and sequenced to confirm their identity. All primer sets allowed early detection of P. omnivora in infected but asymptomatic plants. A modified rapid DNA purification method, which facilitates a quick (∼30-min) on-site assay capability for P. omnivora detection, was developed. Combined use of three target genes increased the assay accuracy and broadened the range of detection. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a multigene-based, field-deployable, rapid, and reliable identification method for a fungal plant pathogen and should serve as a model for the development of field-deployable assays of other phytopathogens. PMID:23354717

  11. Development of a rapid, sensitive, and field-deployable razor ex BioDetection system and quantitative PCR assay for detection of Phymatotrichopsis omnivora using multiple gene targets.

    PubMed

    Arif, M; Fletcher, J; Marek, S M; Melcher, U; Ochoa-Corona, F M

    2013-04-01

    A validated, multigene-based method using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) and the Razor Ex BioDetection system was developed for detection of Phymatotrichopsis omnivora. This soilborne fungus causes Phymatotrichopsis root rot of cotton, alfalfa, and other dicot crops in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico, leading to significant crop losses and limiting the range of crops that can be grown in soils where the fungus is established. It is on multiple lists of regulated organisms. Because P. omnivora is difficult to isolate, accurate and sensitive culture-independent diagnostic tools are needed to confirm infections by this fungus. Specific PCR primers and probes were designed based on P. omnivora nucleotide sequences of the genes encoding rRNA internal transcribed spacers, beta-tubulin, and the second-largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB2). PCR products were cloned and sequenced to confirm their identity. All primer sets allowed early detection of P. omnivora in infected but asymptomatic plants. A modified rapid DNA purification method, which facilitates a quick (∼30-min) on-site assay capability for P. omnivora detection, was developed. Combined use of three target genes increased the assay accuracy and broadened the range of detection. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a multigene-based, field-deployable, rapid, and reliable identification method for a fungal plant pathogen and should serve as a model for the development of field-deployable assays of other phytopathogens. PMID:23354717

  12. Rapid mapping of visual receptive fields by filtered back projection: application to multi-neuronal electrophysiology and imaging.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Jamie; Ding, Huayu; Seibel, Sofie H; Esposti, Federico; Lagnado, Leon

    2014-11-15

    Neurons in the visual system vary widely in the spatiotemporal properties of their receptive fields (RFs), and understanding these variations is key to elucidating how visual information is processed. We present a new approach for mapping RFs based on the filtered back projection (FBP), an algorithm used for tomographic reconstructions. To estimate RFs, a series of bars were flashed across the retina at pseudo-random positions and at a minimum of five orientations. We apply this method to retinal neurons and show that it can accurately recover the spatial RF and impulse response of ganglion cells recorded on a multi-electrode array. We also demonstrate its utility for in vivo imaging by mapping the RFs of an array of bipolar cell synapses expressing a genetically encoded Ca(2+) indicator. We find that FBP offers several advantages over the commonly used spike-triggered average (STA): (i) ON and OFF components of a RF can be separated; (ii) the impulse response can be reconstructed at sample rates of 125 Hz, rather than the refresh rate of a monitor; (iii) FBP reveals the response properties of neurons that are not evident using STA, including those that display orientation selectivity, or fire at low mean spike rates; and (iv) the FBP method is fast, allowing the RFs of all the bipolar cell synaptic terminals in a field of view to be reconstructed in under 4 min. Use of the FBP will benefit investigations of the visual system that employ electrophysiology or optical reporters to measure activity across populations of neurons. PMID:25172952

  13. Rapid mapping of visual receptive fields by filtered back projection: application to multi-neuronal electrophysiology and imaging

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Jamie; Ding, Huayu; Seibel, Sofie H; Esposti, Federico; Lagnado, Leon

    2014-01-01

    Neurons in the visual system vary widely in the spatiotemporal properties of their receptive fields (RFs), and understanding these variations is key to elucidating how visual information is processed. We present a new approach for mapping RFs based on the filtered back projection (FBP), an algorithm used for tomographic reconstructions. To estimate RFs, a series of bars were flashed across the retina at pseudo-random positions and at a minimum of five orientations. We apply this method to retinal neurons and show that it can accurately recover the spatial RF and impulse response of ganglion cells recorded on a multi-electrode array. We also demonstrate its utility for in vivo imaging by mapping the RFs of an array of bipolar cell synapses expressing a genetically encoded Ca2+ indicator. We find that FBP offers several advantages over the commonly used spike-triggered average (STA): (i) ON and OFF components of a RF can be separated; (ii) the impulse response can be reconstructed at sample rates of 125 Hz, rather than the refresh rate of a monitor; (iii) FBP reveals the response properties of neurons that are not evident using STA, including those that display orientation selectivity, or fire at low mean spike rates; and (iv) the FBP method is fast, allowing the RFs of all the bipolar cell synaptic terminals in a field of view to be reconstructed in under 4 min. Use of the FBP will benefit investigations of the visual system that employ electrophysiology or optical reporters to measure activity across populations of neurons. PMID:25172952

  14. How do normal faults grow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Christopher; Bell, Rebecca; Rotevatn, Atle; Tvedt, Anette

    2016-04-01

    Normal faulting accommodates stretching of the Earth's crust, and it is arguably the most fundamental tectonic process leading to continent rupture and oceanic crust emplacement. Furthermore, the incremental and finite geometries associated with normal faulting dictate landscape evolution, sediment dispersal and hydrocarbon systems development in rifts. Displacement-length scaling relationships compiled from global datasets suggest normal faults grow via a sympathetic increase in these two parameters (the 'isolated fault model'). This model has dominated the structural geology literature for >20 years and underpins the structural and tectono-stratigraphic models developed for active rifts. However, relatively recent analysis of high-quality 3D seismic reflection data suggests faults may grow by rapid establishment of their near-final length prior to significant displacement accumulation (the 'coherent fault model'). The isolated and coherent fault models make very different predictions regarding the tectono-stratigraphic evolution of rift basin, thus assessing their applicability is important. To-date, however, very few studies have explicitly set out to critically test the coherent fault model thus, it may be argued, it has yet to be widely accepted in the structural geology community. Displacement backstripping is a simple graphical technique typically used to determine how faults lengthen and accumulate displacement; this technique should therefore allow us to test the competing fault models. However, in this talk we use several subsurface case studies to show that the most commonly used backstripping methods (the 'original' and 'modified' methods) are, however, of limited value, because application of one over the other requires an a priori assumption of the model most applicable to any given fault; we argue this is illogical given that the style of growth is exactly what the analysis is attempting to determine. We then revisit our case studies and demonstrate

  15. Growing a market economy

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, N.; Pryor, R.J.

    1997-09-01

    This report presents a microsimulation model of a transition economy. Transition is defined as the process of moving from a state-enterprise economy to a market economy. The emphasis is on growing a market economy starting from basic microprinciples. The model described in this report extends and modifies the capabilities of Aspen, a new agent-based model that is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories on a massively parallel Paragon computer. Aspen is significantly different from traditional models of the economy. Aspen`s emphasis on disequilibrium growth paths, its analysis based on evolution and emergent behavior rather than on a mechanistic view of society, and its use of learning algorithms to simulate the behavior of some agents rather than an assumption of perfect rationality make this model well-suited for analyzing economic variables of interest from transition economies. Preliminary results from several runs of the model are included.

  16. Automatic segmentation of cartilage in high-field magnetic resonance images of the knee joint with an improved voxel-classification-driven region-growing algorithm using vicinity-correlated subsampling.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Ceyda Nur; Albayrak, Songül

    2016-05-01

    Anatomical structures that can deteriorate over time, such as cartilage, can be successfully delineated with voxel-classification approaches in magnetic resonance (MR) images. However, segmentation via voxel-classification is a computationally demanding process for high-field MR images with high spatial resolutions. In this study, the whole femoral, tibial, and patellar cartilage compartments in the knee joint were automatically segmented in high-field MR images obtained from Osteoarthritis Initiative using a voxel-classification-driven region-growing algorithm with sample-expand method. Computational complexity of the classification was alleviated via subsampling of the background voxels in the training MR images and selecting a small subset of significant features by taking into consideration systems with limited memory and processing power. Although subsampling of the voxels may lead to a loss of generality of the training models and a decrease in segmentation accuracies, effective subsampling strategies can overcome these problems. Therefore, different subsampling techniques, which involve uniform, Gaussian, vicinity-correlated (VC) sparse, and VC dense subsampling, were used to generate four training models. The segmentation system was experimented using 10 training and 23 testing MR images, and the effects of different training models on segmentation accuracies were investigated. Experimental results showed that the highest mean Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) values for all compartments were obtained when the training models of VC sparse subsampling technique were used. Mean DSC values optimized with this technique were 82.6%, 83.1%, and 72.6% for femoral, tibial, and patellar cartilage compartments, respectively, when mean sensitivities were 79.9%, 84.0%, and 71.5%, and mean specificities were 99.8%, 99.9%, and 99.9%. PMID:27017069

  17. Rapid identification of dengue virus by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction using field-deployable instrumentation.

    PubMed

    McAvin, James C; Escamilla, Elizabeth M; Blow, Jamie A; Turell, Michael J; Quintana, Miguel; Bowles, David E; Swaby, James A; Barnes, William J; Huff, William B; Lohman, Kenton L; Atchley, Daniel H; Hickman, John R; Niemeyer, Debra M

    2005-12-01

    Dengue virus universal and dengue serotype 1 to 4, fluorogenic probe hydrolysis (TaqMan), reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays were developed for screening and serotype identification of infected mosquito vectors and human sera using a field-deployable, fluorometric thermocycler. Dengue universal and dengue 1 to 4 serotype assay in vitro sensitivity and specificity results were 100% concordant when tested with total nucleic acid extracts of multiple strains of dengue serotype 1 to 4, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, West Nile, and St. Louis encephalitis viruses. The in vitro sensitivity and specificity results for all five assays were concordant when tested with a blind panel of 27 dengue virus-infected mosquitoes, 21 non-dengue (yellow fever, West Nile, or St. Louis encephalitis) flavivirus-infected mosquitoes, and 11 uninfected mosquitoes and with clinical specimens consisting of a human serum panel of eight dengue viremic and 31 non-dengue-infected febrile patient serum samples. No cross-reaction occurred with vector species or human genomic DNA. Sample processing and polymerase chain reaction required <2 hours. PMID:16491947

  18. Evaluating a novel application of optical fibre evanescent field absorbance: rapid measurement of red colour in winegrape homogenates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lye, Peter G.; Bradbury, Ronald; Lamb, David W.

    Silica optical fibres were used to measure colour (mg anthocyanin/g fresh berry weight) in samples of red wine grape homogenates via optical Fibre Evanescent Field Absorbance (FEFA). Colour measurements from 126 samples of grape homogenate were compared against the standard industry spectrophotometric reference method that involves chemical extraction and subsequent optical absorption measurements of clarified samples at 520 nm. FEFA absorbance on homogenates at 520 nm (FEFA520h) was correlated with the industry reference method measurements of colour (R2 = 0.46, n = 126). Using a simple regression equation colour could be predicted with a standard error of cross-validation (SECV) of 0.21 mg/g, with a range of 0.6 to 2.2 mg anthocyanin/g and a standard deviation of 0.33 mg/g. With a Ratio of Performance Deviation (RPD) of 1.6, the technique when utilizing only a single detection wavelength, is not robust enough to apply in a diagnostic sense, however the results do demonstrate the potential of the FEFA method as a fast and low-cost assay of colour in homogenized samples.

  19. Lighting during grow-out and Salmonella in broiler flocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lighting is used during broiler grow-out to modify bird behavior to reach the goals of production. The protocols for lighting intensity vary. In a field project, we evaluated if the lighting protocol impacts the burden of Salmonella in grow-out broiler flocks. Conventional grow-out flocks reared ...

  20. Methods for rapid frequency-domain characterization of leakage currents in silicon nanowire-based field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Roinila, Tomi; Yu, Xiao; Verho, Jarmo; Li, Tie; Kallio, Pasi; Vilkko, Matti; Gao, Anran; Wang, Yuelin

    2014-01-01

    Silicon nanowire-based field-effect transistors (SiNW FETs) have demonstrated the ability of ultrasensitive detection of a wide range of biological and chemical targets. The detection is based on the variation of the conductance of a nanowire channel, which is caused by the target substance. This is seen in the voltage-current behavior between the drain and source. Some current, known as leakage current, flows between the gate and drain, and affects the current between the drain and source. Studies have shown that leakage current is frequency dependent. Measurements of such frequency characteristics can provide valuable tools in validating the functionality of the used transistor. The measurements can also be an advantage in developing new detection technologies utilizing SiNW FETs. The frequency-domain responses can be measured by using a commercial sine-sweep-based network analyzer. However, because the analyzer takes a long time, it effectively prevents the development of most practical applications. Another problem with the method is that in order to produce sinusoids the signal generator has to cope with a large number of signal levels. This may become challenging in developing low-cost applications. This paper presents fast, cost-effective frequency-domain methods with which to obtain the responses within seconds. The inverse-repeat binary sequence (IRS) is applied and the admittance spectroscopy between the drain and source is computed through Fourier methods. The methods is verified by experimental measurements from an n-type SiNW FET. PMID:25161832

  1. Field Evaluation and Impact on Clinical Management of a Rapid Diagnostic Kit That Detects Dengue NS1, IgM and IgG

    PubMed Central

    Andries, Anne-Claire; Duong, Veasna; Ngan, Chantha; Ong, Sivuth; Huy, Rekol; Sroin, Kim Kim; Te, Vantha; Y, Bunthin; Try, Patrich Lorn; Buchy, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Background Dengue diagnosis is complex and until recently only specialized laboratories were able to definitively confirm dengue infection. Rapid tests are now available commercially making biological diagnosis possible in the field. The aim of this study was to evaluate a combined dengue rapid test for the detection of NS1 and IgM/IgG antibodies. The evaluation was made prospectively in the field conditions and included the study of the impact of its use as a point-of-care test for case management as well as retrospectively against a panel of well-characterized samples in a reference laboratory. Methodology/Principal Findings During the prospective study, 157 patients hospitalized for a suspicion of dengue were enrolled. In the hospital laboratories, the overall sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of the NS1/IgM/IgG combination tests were 85.7%, 83.9%, 95.6% and 59.1% respectively, whereas they were 94,4%, 90.0%, 97.5% and 77.1% respectively in the national reference laboratory at Institut Pasteur in Cambodia. These results demonstrate that optimal performances require adequate training and quality assurance. The retrospective study showed that the sensitivity of the combined kit did not vary significantly between the serotypes and was not affected by the immune status or by the interval of time between onset of fever and sample collection. The analysis of the medical records indicates that the physicians did not take into consideration the results obtained with the rapid test including for care management and use of antibiotic therapy. Conclusions In the context of our prospective field study, we demonstrated that if the SD Bioline Dengue Duo kit is correctly used, a positive result highly suggests a dengue case but a negative result doesn't rule out a dengue infection. Nevertheless, Cambodian pediatricians in their daily practice relied on their clinical diagnosis and thus the false negative results obtained did not directly impact on the clinical management

  2. Validation of Rapid Point-of-Care (POC) Tests for Detection of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen in Field and Laboratory Settings in the Gambia, Western Africa

    PubMed Central

    Njai, Harr Freeya; Shimakawa, Yusuke; Sanneh, Bakary; Ferguson, Lynne; Ndow, Gibril; Mendy, Maimuna; Sow, Amina; Lo, Gora; Toure-Kane, Coumba; Tanaka, Junko; Taal, Makie; D'alessandro, Umberto; Njie, Ramou; Thursz, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a leading cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Point-of-care tests for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) could be an ideal tool for a large-scale HBV screening/treatment program in SSA. Using data from the PROLIFICA (Prevention of Liver Fibrosis and Cancer in Africa) program, we conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the diagnostic accuracy of three point-of-care tests (Determine, Vikia, and Espline) for the detection of HBsAg in the field or a laboratory setting in the Gambia. In the field, we used finger-prick whole blood for the Determine and Vikia tests and dried blood spots for the reference standard test (AxSYM HBsAg enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]). In the laboratory we used serum for the Determine, Espline, and reference test (Architect chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay). Of 773 participants recruited at the community and 227 known chronic HBV carriers (1,000 subjects in total), 293 were positive for HBsAg. The sensitivity and specificity of the Determine test were 88.5% and 100% in the field and 95.3% and 93.3% in the laboratory setting, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity were 90.0% and 99.8% for the Vikia test (in the field) and 93.9% and 94.7% for the Espline test (in the laboratory). There was no evidence that one kit was better than another. Most of the patients with false-negative results (18/19) were classified as inactive chronic carriers. In summary, the three point-of-care tests had acceptable ranges of diagnostic accuracy. These tests may represent accurate, rapid, and inexpensive alternatives to serology testing for the screening of HBV infection at field level in SSA. PMID:25631805

  3. Growing without Schooling, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffer, Susannah, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    These five issues provide news and support to parents who home school their children. Each issue contains news items and a substantial resource section which provides book evaluations, directory additions, resource lists, resource persons in the fields of law, psychology, and school districts, pen-pals, and advertisements. The February/March 1996…

  4. School Technology Grows Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Kathleen

    2003-01-01

    Practitioners and researchers in the education technology field asked to give their vision of the future list laptop computers, personal digital assistants, electronic testing, wireless networking, and multimedia technology among the technology advances headed soon for schools. A sidebar lists 12 online resources. (MLF)

  5. Esprit Grows in Brooklyn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Progressive Architecture, 1978

    1978-01-01

    The Brooklyn Children's Museum, the world's oldest children's museum, has a new home underground. The museum's teaching collection of artifacts is particularly strong in the areas of ethnology, natural history, and technology. Objects relating to these fields are organized according to the historic physical divisions of fire, air, earth, and…

  6. Rapid-onset/offset, variably scheduled 60 Hz electric and magnetic field exposure reduces nocturnal serum melatonin concentration in nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, W.R.; Smith, H.D.; Reiter, R.J.; Barlow-Walden, L.

    1995-12-31

    Experiments with rodents indicate that power-frequency electric field (EF) or magnetic field (MF) exposure can suppress the normal nocturnal increase in melatonin concentration in pineal gland and blood. In a separate set of three experiments conducted with nonhuman primates, the authors did not observe melatonin suppression as a result of 6 weeks of day-time exposure to combined 60 Hz electric and magnetic fields (E/MF) with regularly schedule ``slow`` E/MF onsets/offsets. The study described here used a different exposure paradigm in which two baboons were exposed to E/MF with ``rapid`` E/MF onsets/offsets accompanied by EF transients not found with slowly ramped E/MF onset/offset; profound reductions in nocturnal serum melatonin concentration were observed in this experiment. If replicated in a more extensive experiment, the observation of melatonin suppression only in the presence of E/MF transients would suggest that very specific exposure parameters determine the effects of 60 Hz E/MF on melatonin.

  7. RAPID COMMUNICATION: Large improvement in high-field critical current densities of Nb3Al conductors by the transformation-heat-based up-quenching method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, T.; Banno, N.; Fukuzaki, T.; Wada, H.

    2000-10-01

    The bcc supersaturated solid solution Nb(Al)ss obtained by rapid heating and quenching of a multifilamentary Nb/Al composite wire has shown a crystal structure change from a disordered to an ordered structure before transforming to the A15 Nb3Al phase. Such ordering of the bcc phase seems to be responsible for the A15 phase stacking faults that depress the critical temperature (Tc), the upper critical magnetic field (Bc2) and, hence, the critical current density (Jc) of Nb3Al in high fields. A heat treatment around 1000 °C, higher than conventional transformation temperatures by about 200 °C, suppresses the ordering and yields a new phenomenon termed the `transformation-heat-based up-quenching' (TRUQ). TRUQ is characterized by the self-heating of the bcc phase by the transformation heat, which propagates through the whole length of a composite wire and transforms it to Nb3Al. A subsequent annealing at 800 °C enhances the long-range ordering of the Nb3Al phase and drastically improves the high-field critical current densities of the Nb3Al conductors.

  8. Growing vortex patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowdy, Darren; Marshall, Jonathan

    2004-08-01

    This paper demonstrates that two well-known equilibrium solutions of the Euler equations—the corotating point vortex pair and the Rankine vortex—are connected by a continuous branch of exact solutions. The central idea is to "grow" new vortex patches at two stagnation points that exist in the frame of reference of the corotating point vortex pair. This is done by generalizing a mathematical technique for constructing vortex equilibria first presented by Crowdy [D. G. Crowdy, "A class of exact multipolar vortices," Phys. Fluids 11, 2556 (1999)]. The solutions exhibit several interesting features, including the merging of two separate vortex patches via the development of touching cusps. Numerical contour dynamics methods are used to verify the mathematical solutions and reveal them to be robust structures. The general issue of how simple vortex equilibria can be continued continuously to more complicated ones with very different vortical topologies is discussed. The solutions are examples of exact solutions of the Euler equations involving multiple interacting vortex patches.

  9. High-resolution hydrodynamic chromatographic separation of large DNA using narrow, bare open capillaries: a rapid and economical alternative technology to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis?

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Veerappan, Vijaykumar; Pu, Qiaosheng; Cheng, Chang; Wang, Xiayan; Lu, Liping; Allen, Randy D; Guo, Guangsheng

    2014-01-01

    A high-resolution, rapid, and economical hydrodynamic chromatographic (HDC) method for large DNA separations in free solution was developed using narrow (5 μm diameter), bare open capillaries. Size-based separation was achieved in a chromatographic format with larger DNA molecules being eluting faster than smaller ones. Lambda DNA Mono Cut Mix was baseline-separated with the percentage resolutions generally less than 9.0% for all DNA fragments (1.5 to 48.5 kbp) tested in this work. High efficiencies were achieved for large DNA from this chromatographic technique, and the number of theoretical plates reached 3.6 × 10(5) plates for the longest (48.5 kbp) and 3.7 × 10(5) plates for the shortest (1.5 kbp) fragments. HDC parameters and performances were also discussed. The method was further applied for fractionating large DNA fragments from real-world samples (SacII digested Arabidopsis plant bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) DNA and PmeI digested Rice BAC DNA) to demonstrate its feasibility for BAC DNA finger printing. Rapid separation of PmeI digested Rice BAC DNA covering from 0.44 to 119.041 kbp was achieved in less than 26 min. All DNA fragments of these samples were baseline separated in narrow bare open capillaries, while the smallest fragment (0.44 kbp) was missing in pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) separation mode. It is demonstrated that narrow bare open capillary chromatography can realize a rapid separation for a wide size range of DNA mixtures that contain both small and large DNA fragments in a single run. PMID:24274685

  10. Measurement of Rapid Amiloride-Dependent pH Changes at the Cell Surface Using a Proton-Sensitive Field-Effect Transistor

    PubMed Central

    Schaffhauser, Daniel; Fine, Michael; Tabata, Miyuki; Goda, Tatsuro; Miyahara, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel method for the rapid measurement of pH fluxes at close proximity to the surface of the plasma membrane in mammalian cells using an ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET). In conjuction with an efficient continuous superfusion system, the ISFET sensor was capable of recording rapid changes in pH at the cells’ surface induced by intervals of ammonia loading and unloading, even when using highly buffered solutions. Furthermore, the system was able to isolate physiologically relevant signals by not only detecting the transients caused by ammonia loading and unloading, but display steady-state signals as would be expected by a proton transport-mediated influence on the extracellular proton-gradient. Proof of concept was demonstrated through the use of 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)amiloride (EIPA), a small molecule inhibitor of sodium/hydrogen exchangers (NHE). As the primary transporter responsible for proton balance during cellular regulation of pH, non-electrogenic NHE transport is notoriously difficult to detect with traditional methods. Using the NHE positive cell lines, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and NHE3-reconstituted mouse skin fibroblasts (MSF), the sensor exhibited a significant response to EIPA inhibition, whereas NHE-deficient MSF cells were unaffected by application of the inhibitor. PMID:27043644

  11. Measurement of Rapid Amiloride-Dependent pH Changes at the Cell Surface Using a Proton-Sensitive Field-Effect Transistor.

    PubMed

    Schaffhauser, Daniel; Fine, Michael; Tabata, Miyuki; Goda, Tatsuro; Miyahara, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel method for the rapid measurement of pH fluxes at close proximity to the surface of the plasma membrane in mammalian cells using an ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET). In conjuction with an efficient continuous superfusion system, the ISFET sensor was capable of recording rapid changes in pH at the cells' surface induced by intervals of ammonia loading and unloading, even when using highly buffered solutions. Furthermore, the system was able to isolate physiologically relevant signals by not only detecting the transients caused by ammonia loading and unloading, but display steady-state signals as would be expected by a proton transport-mediated influence on the extracellular proton-gradient. Proof of concept was demonstrated through the use of 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)amiloride (EIPA), a small molecule inhibitor of sodium/hydrogen exchangers (NHE). As the primary transporter responsible for proton balance during cellular regulation of pH, non-electrogenic NHE transport is notoriously difficult to detect with traditional methods. Using the NHE positive cell lines, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and NHE3-reconstituted mouse skin fibroblasts (MSF), the sensor exhibited a significant response to EIPA inhibition, whereas NHE-deficient MSF cells were unaffected by application of the inhibitor. PMID:27043644

  12. Fast-growing willow shrub named `Tully Champion`

    SciTech Connect

    Abrahamson, Lawrence P.; Kopp, Richard F.; Smart, Lawrence B.; Volk, Timothy A.

    2007-08-28

    A distinct female cultivar of Salix viminalis.times.S. miyabeana named `Tully Champion`, characterized by rapid stem growth producing greater than 25% more woody biomass than two current production clones (Salix dasyclados `SV1` and Salix miyabeana `SX64`), more than 2.5-fold greater biomass than one of its parents (Salix miyabeana `SX67`), and nearly 3-fold more biomass than another production clone (Salix sacchalinensis, `SX61`) when grown in the same field for the same length of time (two growing seasons after coppice) in Tully, N.Y. `Tully Champion` can be planted from dormant stem cuttings, produces multiple stems after coppice, and the stem biomass can be harvested when the plant is dormant. In the spring following harvest, the plant will re-sprout very vigorously, producing new stems that can be harvested repeatedly after two to four years of growth. `Tully Champion` displays a low incidence of rust disease and is not damaged by potato leafhoppers.

  13. How Do Galaxies Grow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-08-01

    Astronomers have caught multiple massive galaxies in the act of merging about 4 billion years ago. This discovery, made possible by combining the power of the best ground- and space-based telescopes, uniquely supports the favoured theory of how galaxies form. ESO PR Photo 24/08 ESO PR Photo 24/08 Merging Galaxies in Groups How do galaxies form? The most widely accepted answer to this fundamental question is the model of 'hierarchical formation', a step-wise process in which small galaxies merge to build larger ones. One can think of the galaxies forming in a similar way to how streams merge to form rivers, and how these rivers, in turn, merge to form an even larger river. This theoretical model predicts that massive galaxies grow through many merging events in their lifetime. But when did their cosmological growth spurts finish? When did the most massive galaxies get most of their mass? To answer these questions, astronomers study massive galaxies in clusters, the cosmological equivalent of cities filled with galaxies. "Whether the brightest galaxies in clusters grew substantially in the last few billion years is intensely debated. Our observations show that in this time, these galaxies have increased their mass by 50%," says Kim-Vy Tran from the University of Zürich, Switzerland, who led the research. The astronomers made use of a large ensemble of telescopes and instruments, including ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) and the Hubble Space Telescope, to study in great detail galaxies located 4 billion light-years away. These galaxies lie in an extraordinary system made of four galaxy groups that will assemble into a cluster. In particular, the team took images with VIMOS and spectra with FORS2, both instruments on the VLT. From these and other observations, the astronomers could identify a total of 198 galaxies belonging to these four groups. The brightest galaxies in each group contain between 100 and 1000 billion of stars, a property that makes them comparable

  14. Growing Galaxies Gently

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-10-01

    New observations from ESO's Very Large Telescope have, for the first time, provided direct evidence that young galaxies can grow by sucking in the cool gas around them and using it as fuel for the formation of many new stars. In the first few billion years after the Big Bang the mass of a typical galaxy increased dramatically and understanding why this happened is one of the hottest problems in modern astrophysics. The results appear in the 14 October issue of the journal Nature. The first galaxies formed well before the Universe was one billion years old and were much smaller than the giant systems - including the Milky Way - that we see today. So somehow the average galaxy size has increased as the Universe has evolved. Galaxies often collide and then merge to form larger systems and this process is certainly an important growth mechanism. However, an additional, gentler way has been proposed. A European team of astronomers has used ESO's Very Large Telescope to test this very different idea - that young galaxies can also grow by sucking in cool streams of the hydrogen and helium gas that filled the early Universe and forming new stars from this primitive material. Just as a commercial company can expand either by merging with other companies, or by hiring more staff, young galaxies could perhaps also grow in two different ways - by merging with other galaxies or by accreting material. The team leader, Giovanni Cresci (Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri) says: "The new results from the VLT are the first direct evidence that the accretion of pristine gas really happened and was enough to fuel vigorous star formation and the growth of massive galaxies in the young Universe." The discovery will have a major impact on our understanding of the evolution of the Universe from the Big Bang to the present day. Theories of galaxy formation and evolution may have to be re-written. The group began by selecting three very distant galaxies to see if they could find evidence

  15. Growing Galaxies Gently

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-10-01

    New observations from ESO's Very Large Telescope have, for the first time, provided direct evidence that young galaxies can grow by sucking in the cool gas around them and using it as fuel for the formation of many new stars. In the first few billion years after the Big Bang the mass of a typical galaxy increased dramatically and understanding why this happened is one of the hottest problems in modern astrophysics. The results appear in the 14 October issue of the journal Nature. The first galaxies formed well before the Universe was one billion years old and were much smaller than the giant systems - including the Milky Way - that we see today. So somehow the average galaxy size has increased as the Universe has evolved. Galaxies often collide and then merge to form larger systems and this process is certainly an important growth mechanism. However, an additional, gentler way has been proposed. A European team of astronomers has used ESO's Very Large Telescope to test this very different idea - that young galaxies can also grow by sucking in cool streams of the hydrogen and helium gas that filled the early Universe and forming new stars from this primitive material. Just as a commercial company can expand either by merging with other companies, or by hiring more staff, young galaxies could perhaps also grow in two different ways - by merging with other galaxies or by accreting material. The team leader, Giovanni Cresci (Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri) says: "The new results from the VLT are the first direct evidence that the accretion of pristine gas really happened and was enough to fuel vigorous star formation and the growth of massive galaxies in the young Universe." The discovery will have a major impact on our understanding of the evolution of the Universe from the Big Bang to the present day. Theories of galaxy formation and evolution may have to be re-written. The group began by selecting three very distant galaxies to see if they could find evidence

  16. Growing and evolving soft robots.

    PubMed

    Rieffel, John; Knox, Davis; Smith, Schuyler; Trimmer, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Completely soft and flexible robots offer to revolutionize fields ranging from search and rescue to endoscopic surgery. One of the outstanding challenges in this burgeoning field is the chicken-and-egg problem of body-brain design: Development of locomotion requires the preexistence of a locomotion-capable body, and development of a location-capable body requires the preexistence of a locomotive gait. This problem is compounded by the high degree of coupling between the material properties of a soft body (such as stiffness or damping coefficients) and the effectiveness of a gait. This article synthesizes four years of research into soft robotics, in particular describing three approaches to the co-discovery of soft robot morphology and control. In the first, muscle placement and firing patterns are coevolved for a fixed body shape with fixed material properties. In the second, the material properties of a simulated soft body coevolve alongside locomotive gaits, with body shape and muscle placement fixed. In the third, a developmental encoding is used to scalably grow elaborate soft body shapes from a small seed structure. Considerations of the simulation time and the challenges of physically implementing soft robots in the real world are discussed. PMID:23373976

  17. Complex-plane generalization of scalar Levin transforms: A robust, rapidly convergent method to compute potentials and fields in multi-layered media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sainath, Kamalesh; Teixeira, Fernando L.; Donderici, Burkay

    2014-07-01

    We propose the complex-plane generalization of a powerful algebraic sequence acceleration algorithm, the method of weighted averages (MWA), to guarantee exponential-cum-algebraic convergence of Fourier and Fourier-Hankel (F-H) integral transforms. This “complex-plane” MWA, effected via a linear-path detour in the complex plane, results in rapid, absolute convergence of field and potential solutions in multi-layered environments regardless of the source-observer geometry and anisotropy/loss of the media present. In this work, we first introduce a new integration path used to evaluate the field contribution arising from the radiation spectra. Subsequently, we (1) exhibit the foundational relations behind the complex-plane extension to a general Levin-type sequence convergence accelerator, (2) specialize this analysis to one member of the Levin transform family (the MWA), (3) address and circumvent restrictions, arising for two-dimensional integrals associated with wave dynamics problems, through minimal complex-plane detour restrictions and a novel partition of the integration domain, (4) develop and compare two formulations based on standard/real-axis MWA variants, and (5) present validation results and convergence characteristics for one of these two formulations.

  18. Rapid detection of west nile virus from human clinical specimens, field-collected mosquitoes, and avian samples by a TaqMan reverse transcriptase-PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Lanciotti, R S; Kerst, A J; Nasci, R S; Godsey, M S; Mitchell, C J; Savage, H M; Komar, N; Panella, N A; Allen, B C; Volpe, K E; Davis, B S; Roehrig, J T

    2000-11-01

    The authors report on the development and application of a rapid TaqMan assay for the detection of West Nile (WN) virus in a variety of human clinical specimens and field-collected specimens. Oligonucleotide primers and FAM- and TAMRA-labeled WN virus-specific probes were designed by using the nucleotide sequence of the New York 1999 WN virus isolate. The TaqMan assay was compared to a traditional reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR assay and to virus isolation in Vero cells with a large number ( approximately 500) of specimens obtained from humans (serum, cerebrospinal fluid, and brain tissue), field-collected mosquitoes, and avian tissue samples. The TaqMan assay was specific for WN virus and demonstrated a greater sensitivity than the traditional RT-PCR method and correctly identified WN virus in 100% of the culture-positive mosquito pools and 98% of the culture-positive avian tissue samples. The assay should be of utility in the diagnostic laboratory to complement existing human diagnostic testing and as a tool to conduct WN virus surveillance in the United States. PMID:11060069

  19. Complex-plane generalization of scalar Levin transforms: A robust, rapidly convergent method to compute potentials and fields in multi-layered media

    SciTech Connect

    Sainath, Kamalesh; Teixeira, Fernando L.; Donderici, Burkay

    2014-07-15

    We propose the complex-plane generalization of a powerful algebraic sequence acceleration algorithm, the method of weighted averages (MWA), to guarantee exponential-cum-algebraic convergence of Fourier and Fourier–Hankel (F–H) integral transforms. This “complex-plane” MWA, effected via a linear-path detour in the complex plane, results in rapid, absolute convergence of field and potential solutions in multi-layered environments regardless of the source-observer geometry and anisotropy/loss of the media present. In this work, we first introduce a new integration path used to evaluate the field contribution arising from the radiation spectra. Subsequently, we (1) exhibit the foundational relations behind the complex-plane extension to a general Levin-type sequence convergence accelerator, (2) specialize this analysis to one member of the Levin transform family (the MWA), (3) address and circumvent restrictions, arising for two-dimensional integrals associated with wave dynamics problems, through minimal complex-plane detour restrictions and a novel partition of the integration domain, (4) develop and compare two formulations based on standard/real-axis MWA variants, and (5) present validation results and convergence characteristics for one of these two formulations.

  20. Comparison of rapid liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry methods for determination of glycoalkaloids in transgenic field-grown potatoes.

    PubMed

    Zywicki, Britta; Catchpole, Gareth; Draper, John; Fiehn, Oliver

    2005-01-15

    Two rapid methods for highly selective detection and quantification of the two major glycoalkaloids in potatoes, alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine, were compared for robustness in high-throughput operations for over 1000 analytical runs using potato tuber samples from field trials. Glycoalkaloids were analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry in multiple reaction monitoring mode. An electrospray interface was used in the detection of glycoalkaloids in positive ion mode. Classical reversed phase (RP) and hydrophilic interaction (HILIC) columns were investigated for chromatographic separation, ruggedness, recovery, precision, and accuracy. During the validation procedure both methods proved to be precise and accurate enough in relation to the high degree of endogenous biological variability found for field-grown potato tubers. However, the RP method was found to be more precise, more accurate, and, more importantly, more rugged than the HILIC method for maintaining the analytes' peak shape symmetry in high-throughput operation. When applied to the comparison of six classically bred potato cultivars to six genetically modified (GM) lines engineered to synthesize health beneficial inulins, the glycoalkaloid content in potato peels of all GM lines was found within the range of the six cultivars. We suggest complementing current unbiased metabolomic strategies by validating quantitative analytical methods for important target analytes such as the toxic glycoalkaloids in potato plants. PMID:15620882

  1. Watching how composites grow

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, S.

    1993-07-01

    This article reports on a powerful x-ray analysis technique that has been developed to let researchers see, in three dimensions and microscopic detail, inside a ceramic composite as it is forming. The high-resolution imaging technique, called X-ray tomographic microscopy (XTM), is similar to medical computed tomography (CT) in which physicians take X-ray images of a patient's body from different angles and then reconstruct the data computationally into three-dimensional pictures of organs. The new method appears to have significant application in fields ranging from materials science to medical bone studies of osteoporosis--situations in which investigators need to visualize the microscopic behavior of complex materials.

  2. Comparative Validation of Five Quantitative Rapid Test Kits for the Analysis of Salt Iodine Content: Laboratory Performance, User- and Field-Friendliness

    PubMed Central

    Rohner, Fabian; Kangambèga, Marcelline O.; Khan, Noor; Kargougou, Robert; Garnier, Denis; Sanou, Ibrahima; Ouaro, Bertine D.; Petry, Nicolai; Wirth, James P.; Jooste, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    Background Iodine deficiency has important health and development consequences and the introduction of iodized salt as national programs has been a great public health success in the past decades. To render national salt iodization programs sustainable and ensure adequate iodization levels, simple methods to quantitatively assess whether salt is adequately iodized are required. Several methods claim to be simple and reliable, and are available on the market or are in development. Objective This work has validated the currently available quantitative rapid test kits (quantRTK) in a comparative manner for both their laboratory performance and ease of use in field settings. Methods Laboratory performance parameters (linearity, detection and quantification limit, intra- and inter-assay imprecision) were conducted on 5 quantRTK. We assessed inter-operator imprecision using salt of different quality along with the comparison of 59 salt samples from across the globe; measurements were made both in a laboratory and a field setting by technicians and non-technicians. Results from the quantRTK were compared against iodometric titration for validity. An ‘ease-of-use’ rating system was developed to identify the most suitable quantRTK for a given task. Results Most of the devices showed acceptable laboratory performance, but for some of the devices, use by non-technicians revealed poorer performance when working in a routine manner. Of the quantRTK tested, the iCheck® and I-Reader® showed most consistent performance and ease of use, and a newly developed paper-based method (saltPAD) holds promise if further developed. Conclusions User- and field-friendly devices are now available and the most appropriate quantRTK can be selected depending on the number of samples and the budget available. PMID:26401655

  3. Aboveground biomass estimation using SAR-optical (Lidar, RapidEye) and field inventory datasets in Skukuza, Kruger National Park in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onyango Odipo, Victor; Hüttich, Christian; Luck, Wolfgang; Schmullius, Christiane

    2015-04-01

    African savanna covers approximately two-thirds of sub-saharan Africa, playing important roles as a carbon pool, habitat for mankind and wildlife, source of livelihood, an important tropical climate modifier, among other ecological roles. Sub-saharan Africa alone accounts for 25% of the tropical aboveground carbon stock (193 Gt C). Global and national level AGB estimates rely on extrapolations with regression models from few field inventories, leading in some cases, up to 100% uncertainty. Remote sensing has proven to provide reliable vegetation structural mapping, given the high spatial and temporal resolution allowing datasets to be availed in areas where ground based inventories are infeasible due to time and financial constraints. The availability of freely accessible optical remotely-sensed datasets has made this feat attainable. However, the heterogeneity of tropical savannas (co-existence of trees and grasses), coupled with erratic rainfall events and atmospheric clouds and aerosol in the tropics has made it difficult to extract biophysical properties of the savannas by solely using optical datasets. This has necessitated an assessment of synergies between active and passive remotely sensed datasets to benefit from the complementarities. In this study we assess the extent to which multi-level sub-centimeter Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Lidar, high resolution RapidEye and microwave (ALOS PALSAR L-band and Sentinel-1 C-band) remotely sensed datasets can be used together with tree census datasets to estimate AGB within the complex southern Africa savanna ecosystem. A random forest (RF) regression model is produced which relates the Lidar canopy-height metrics (CHM) with both synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and high resolution RapidEye datasets. As a validation, we compare our results with both national and global level ABG estimates.

  4. An insulated isothermal PCR method on a field-deployable device for rapid and sensitive detection of canine parvovirus type 2 at points of need.

    PubMed

    Wilkes, Rebecca P; Lee, Pei-Yu A; Tsai, Yun-Long; Tsai, Chuan-Fu; Chang, Hsiu-Hui; Chang, Hsiao-Fen G; Wang, Hwa-Tang T

    2015-08-01

    Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), including subtypes 2a, 2b and 2c, causes an acute enteric disease in both domestic and wild animals. Rapid and sensitive diagnosis aids effective disease management at points of need (PON). A commercially available, field-deployable and user-friendly system, designed with insulated isothermal PCR (iiPCR) technology, displays excellent sensitivity and specificity for nucleic acid detection. An iiPCR method was developed for on-site detection of all circulating CPV-2 strains. Limit of detection was determined using plasmid DNA. CPV-2a, 2b and 2c strains, a feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) strain, and nine canine pathogens were tested to evaluate assay specificity. Reaction sensitivity and performance were compared with an in-house real-time PCR using serial dilutions of a CPV-2b strain and 100 canine fecal clinical samples collected from 2010 to 2014, respectively. The 95% limit of detection of the iiPCR method was 13 copies of standard DNA and detection limits for CPV-2b DNA were equivalent for iiPCR and real-time PCR. The iiPCR reaction detected CPV-2a, 2b and 2c and FPV. Non-targeted pathogens were not detected. Test results of real-time PCR and iiPCR from 99 fecal samples agreed with each other, while one real-time PCR-positive sample tested negative by iiPCR. Therefore, excellent agreement (k = 0.98) with sensitivity of 98.41% and specificity of 100% in detecting CPV-2 in feces was found between the two methods. In conclusion, the iiPCR system has potential to serve as a useful tool for rapid and accurate PON, molecular detection of CPV-2. PMID:25889355

  5. A rapid and accurate quantification method for real-time dynamic analysis of cellular lipids during microalgal fermentation processes in Chlorella protothecoides with low field nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Liu, Tingting; Wang, Zejian; Tian, Xiwei; Yang, Yi; Guo, Meijin; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping

    2016-05-01

    The rapid and real-time lipid determination can provide valuable information on process regulation and optimization in the algal lipid mass production. In this study, a rapid, accurate and precise quantification method of in vivo cellular lipids of Chlorella protothecoides using low field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) was newly developed. LF-NMR was extremely sensitive to the algal lipids with the limits of the detection (LOD) of 0.0026g and 0.32g/L in dry lipid samples and algal broth, respectively, as well as limits of quantification (LOQ) of 0.0093g and 1.18g/L. Moreover, the LF-NMR signal was specifically proportional to the cellular lipids of C. protothecoides, thus the superior regression curves existing in a wide detection range from 0.02 to 0.42g for dry lipids and from 1.12 to 8.97gL(-1) of lipid concentration for in vivo lipid quantification were obtained with all R(2) higher than 0.99, irrespective of the lipid content and fatty acids profile variations. The accuracy of this novel method was further verified to be reliable by comparing lipid quantification results to those obtained by GC-MS. And the relative standard deviation (RSD) of LF-NMR results were smaller than 2%, suggesting the precision of this method. Finally, this method was successfully used in the on-line lipid monitoring during the algal lipid fermentation processes, making it possible for better understanding of the lipid accumulation mechanism and dynamic bioprocess control. PMID:26948045

  6. Toward a Rapid Synthesis of Field and Desktop Data for Classifying Streams in the Pacific Northwest: Guiding the Sampling and Management of Salmonid Habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasprak, A.; Wheaton, J. M.; Bouwes, N.; Weber, N. P.; Trahan, N. C.; Jordan, C. E.

    2012-12-01

    River managers often seek to understand habitat availability and quality for riverine organisms within the physical template provided by their landscape. Yet the large amount of natural heterogeneity in landscapes gives rise to stream systems which are highly variable over small spatial scales, potentially complicating site selection for surveying aquatic habitat while simultaneously making a simple, wide-reaching management strategy elusive. This is particularly true in the rugged John Day River Basin of northern Oregon, where efforts as part of the Columbia Habitat Monitoring Program to conduct site-based surveys of physical habitat for endangered steelhead salmon (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are underway. As a complete understanding of the type and distribution of habitat available to these fish would require visits to all streams in the basin (impractical due to its large size), here we develop an approach for classifying channel types which combines remote desktop GIS analyses with rapid field-based stream and landscape surveys. At the core of this method, we build off of the River Styles Framework, an open-ended and process-based approach for classifying streams and informing management decisions. This framework is combined with on-the-ground fluvial audits, which aim to quickly and continuously map sediment dynamics and channel behavior along selected channels. Validation of this classification method is completed by on-the-ground stream surveys using a digital iPad platform and by rapid small aircraft overflights to confirm or refine predictions. We further compare this method with existing channel classification approaches for the region (e.g. Beechie, Montgomery and Buffington). The results of this study will help guide both the refinement of site stratification and selection for salmonid habitat monitoring within the basin, and will be vital in designing and prioritizing restoration and management strategies tailored to the distribution of river styles found

  7. Growing evening primroses (Oenothera)

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, Stephan; Köhl, Karin

    2014-01-01

    The model plant Oenothera has contributed significantly to the biological sciences and it dominated the early development of plant genetics, cytogenetics, and evolutionary biology. The great advantage of using Oenothera as a model system is a large body of genetic, cytological, morphological, and ecological information collected over more than a century. The Oenothera system offers a well-studied taxonomy, population structure, and ecology. Cytogenetics and formal genetics at the population level are extensively developed, providing an excellent basis to study evolutionary questions. Further, Oenothera is grown as an oil seed crop for the production of essential fatty acids (gamma-linoleic acid) and is considered to be a medicinal plant due to its many pharmaceutically active secondary metabolites, such as ellagitannins. Although Oenothera has been cultivated as a laboratory organism since the end of the 19th century, there is a substantial lack of literature dealing with modern greenhouse techniques for the genus. This review compiles an overview about the growth requirements for the genus Oenothera, with a special focus on its genetically best-studied subsections Oenothera and Munzia. Requirements for greenhouse, field, and agronomic cultures are presented, together with information on substrate types, pest control, as well as vegetative and seed propagation, cross pollination, harvest, and seed storage. Particular aspects like germination, bolting, and flowering induction in taxonomically diverse material are reviewed. Methods recommended are supported by ecological and experimental data. An overview of the possibilities for wide hybridization and polyploidy induction in the genus is given. Germplasm resources are referenced. In summary, a comprehensive guideline for successful laboratory cultivation of Oenothera species is provided. PMID:24592268

  8. Volumetric-modulated arc therapy (RapidArc) vs. conventional fixed-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy for {sup 18}F-FDG-PET-guided dose escalation in oropharyngeal cancer: A planning study

    SciTech Connect

    Teoh, May; Beveridge, Sabeena; Wood, Katie; Whitaker, Stephen; Adams, Elizabeth; Rickard, Donna; Jordan, Tom; Nisbet, Andrew; Clark, Catharine H.

    2013-04-01

    Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG-PET)–guided focal dose escalation in oropharyngeal cancer may potentially improve local control. We evaluated the feasibility of this approach using volumetric-modulated arc therapy (RapidArc) and compared these plans with fixed-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) focal dose escalation plans. Materials and methods: An initial study of 20 patients compared RapidArc with fixed-field IMRT using standard dose prescriptions. From this cohort, 10 were included in a dose escalation planning study. Dose escalation was applied to {sup 18}F-FDG-PET–positive regions in the primary tumor at dose levels of 5% (DL1), 10% (DL2), and 15% (DL3) above standard radical dose (65 Gy in 30 fractions). Fixed-field IMRT and double-arc RapidArc plans were generated for each dataset. Dose-volume histograms were used for plan evaluation and comparison. The Paddick conformity index (CI{sub Paddick}) and monitor units (MU) for each plan were recorded and compared. Both IMRT and RapidArc produced clinically acceptable plans and achieved planning objectives for target volumes. Dose conformity was significantly better in the RapidArc plans, with lower CI{sub Paddick} scores in both primary (PTV1) and elective (PTV2) planning target volumes (largest difference in PTV1 at DL3; 0.81 ± 0.03 [RapidArc] vs. 0.77 ± 0.07 [IMRT], p = 0.04). Maximum dose constraints for spinal cord and brainstem were not exceeded in both RapidArc and IMRT plans, but mean doses were higher with RapidArc (by 2.7 ± 1 Gy for spinal cord and 1.9 ± 1 Gy for brainstem). Contralateral parotid mean dose was lower with RapidArc, which was statistically significant at DL1 (29.0 vs. 29.9 Gy, p = 0.01) and DL2 (29.3 vs. 30.3 Gy, p = 0.03). MU were reduced by 39.8–49.2% with RapidArc (largest difference at DL3, 641 ± 94 vs. 1261 ± 118, p < 0.01). {sup 18}F-FDG-PET–guided focal dose escalation in oropharyngeal cancer is feasible with Rapid

  9. Novel method for rapid in-situ hybridization of HER2 using non-contact alternating-current electric-field mixing

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Yoshitaro; Imai, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Ryuta; Nanjo, Hiroshi; Terata, Kaori; Konno, Hayato; Akagami, Yoichi; Minamiya, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-targeted agents are an effective approach to treating HER2-positive breast cancer patients. However, the lack of survival benefit in HER2-negative patients as well as the toxic effects and high cost of the drugs highlight the need for accurate and prompt assessment of HER2 status. Our aim was to evaluate the clinical utility of a novel rapid dual in-situ hybridization (RISH) method developed to facilitate hybridization. The method takes advantage of the non-contact mixing effect of an alternating current (AC) electric field. One hundred sixty-three specimens were used from patients diagnosed with primary breast cancers identified immunohistochemically as HER2 0/1(+), (2+) or (3+). The specimens were all tested using conventional dual in-situ hybridization (DISH), DISH with an automated slide stainer, and RISH. With RISH the HER2 test was completed within 6 h, as compared to 20–22 h needed for the standard protocol. Although RISH produced results more promptly using smaller amounts of labeled antibody, the staining and accuracy of HER2 status evaluation with RISH was equal to or greater than with DISH. These results suggest RISH could be used as a clinical tool to promptly determine HER2 status. PMID:27443187

  10. Rapid methodology for antigenic profiling of FMDV field strains and for the control of identity, purity and viral integrity in commercial virus vaccines using monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Seki, Cristina; Robiolo, Blanca; Periolo, Osvaldo; Iglesias, Marcela; D'Antuono, Alejandra; Maradei, Eduardo; Barros, Virginia; La Torre, José; Mattion, Nora

    2009-01-13

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) developed against different foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) vaccine strains were extensively used to study any possible antigenic variations during vaccine production in Argentine facilities. Additionally, a typing ELISA using strain specific MAbs was developed to detect potential cross contaminations among FMDV strains in master and working seeds with high specificity and sensitivity and to confirm strains identity in formulated vaccines. This assay was carried out for the South American strains currently in use in production facilities in Argentina (A24/Cruzeiro, A/Argentina/01, O1/Campos and C3/Indaial) and for the strain O/Taiwan, produced only for export to Asia. These non-cross reactive MAbs were also used to analyze the integrity of viral particles belonging to each one of the individual strains, following isolation of 140S virions by means of sucrose density gradients from the aqueous phase of commercial polyvalent vaccines. Antigenic profiles were defined for FMDV reference strains using panels of MAbs, and a coefficient of correlation of reactivity with these panels was calculated to establish consistent identity upon serial passages of master and production seeds. A comparison of vaccine and field strain antigenic profiles performed using coefficients of correlation allowed the rapid identification of two main groups of serotype A viruses collected during the last FMD epidemic in Argentina, whose reactivity matched closely to A/Argentina/2000 and A/Argentina/2001 strains. PMID:18774662

  11. Development of a Novel Cocktail Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and a Field-Applicable Lateral-Flow Rapid Test for Diagnosis of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia.

    PubMed

    Heller, Martin; Gicheru, Nimmo; Tjipura-Zaire, Georgina; Muriuki, Cecilia; Yu, Mingyan; Botelho, Ana; Naessens, Jan; Jores, Joerg; Liljander, Anne

    2016-06-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a severe respiratory disease that is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa. It is caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, a bacterium belonging to the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster. In the absence of an efficient CBPP vaccine, improved and easy-to-use diagnostic assays for recurrent testing combined with isolation and treatment of positive animals represent an option for CBPP control in Africa. Here we describe the comprehensive screening of 17 immunogenic Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides proteins using well-characterized bovine sera for the development of a novel cocktail enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for laboratory use. Two recombinant Mycoplasma immunogens, MSC_0136 and MSC_0636, were used to set up a standardized cocktail ELISA protocol. According to the results from more than 100 serum samples tested, the sensitivity and specificity of the novel cocktail ELISA were 85.6% and 96.4%, respectively, with an overall diagnostic accuracy comparable to that of the Office International des Epizooties (OIE)-prescribed serological assays. In addition, we provide a proof of principle for a field-applicable, easy-to-use commercially produced prototype lateral-flow test for rapid (<30-min) diagnosis of CBPP. PMID:27053669

  12. Novel method for rapid in-situ hybridization of HER2 using non-contact alternating-current electric-field mixing.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yoshitaro; Imai, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Ryuta; Nanjo, Hiroshi; Terata, Kaori; Konno, Hayato; Akagami, Yoichi; Minamiya, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-targeted agents are an effective approach to treating HER2-positive breast cancer patients. However, the lack of survival benefit in HER2-negative patients as well as the toxic effects and high cost of the drugs highlight the need for accurate and prompt assessment of HER2 status. Our aim was to evaluate the clinical utility of a novel rapid dual in-situ hybridization (RISH) method developed to facilitate hybridization. The method takes advantage of the non-contact mixing effect of an alternating current (AC) electric field. One hundred sixty-three specimens were used from patients diagnosed with primary breast cancers identified immunohistochemically as HER2 0/1(+), (2+) or (3+). The specimens were all tested using conventional dual in-situ hybridization (DISH), DISH with an automated slide stainer, and RISH. With RISH the HER2 test was completed within 6 h, as compared to 20-22 h needed for the standard protocol. Although RISH produced results more promptly using smaller amounts of labeled antibody, the staining and accuracy of HER2 status evaluation with RISH was equal to or greater than with DISH. These results suggest RISH could be used as a clinical tool to promptly determine HER2 status. PMID:27443187

  13. A validation study of a rapid field-based rating system for discriminating among flow permanence classes of headwater streams in South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Ken M; Wenerick, William R; Kostich, Mitch S

    2013-11-01

    Rapid field-based protocols for classifying flow permanence of headwater streams are needed to inform timely regulatory decisions. Such an existing method was developed for and has been used in North Carolina since 1998. The method uses ordinal scoring of 26 geomorphology, hydrology, and biology attributes of streams. The attribute scores are summed and compared to threshold scores to assign a flow permanence class. Our study objective was to evaluate the method's ability to classify the flow permanence of forested stream reaches from Piedmont and Southeastern Plains ecoregions in South Carolina. Ephemeral reaches scored significantly lower than intermittent and perennial reaches, but scores from intermittent and perennial reaches did not differ. Scores collected in the dry and wet seasons were strongly correlated, indicating that the method was seasonally stable. Scores had positive nonlinear relationships with the maximum recorded wet duration and the proportion of the record that reaches were wet, but were not related to drying frequency. Scores of the presence of baseflow in the dry season were more important in flow permanence classification than those from the wet season. Other important attributes and parameters in discriminating flow classes were macrobenthos, rooted upland plants, bankfull width, drainage area, and ecoregion. Although the North Carolina method did not consistently differentiate intermittent from perennial reaches, the indicator-based approach is a strong foundation from which to build a protocol for South Carolina. Adding measures like bankfull width and drainage area, weighting by ecoregion, or shifting thresholds may be warranted modifications for South Carolina. PMID:24000112

  14. Characterization of a two-dimensional temperature field within a rapid compression machine using a toluene planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strozzi, Camille; Sotton, Julien; Mura, Arnaud; Bellenoue, Marc

    2009-12-01

    The homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion process is an advanced operating mode for automotive engines. The self-ignition mechanisms that occur within the combustion chamber exhibit extreme temperature dependence. Therefore, the thorough understanding of corresponding phenomena requires the use of diagnostic methods featuring a sufficient thermal sensitivity, applicable in severe conditions similar to those encountered within engines. In this respect, toluene planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) is applied to the inert compression flow generated within an optical rapid compression machine (RCM). A relatively simple diagnostic system is retained: a single wavelength excitation device (266 nm) and a single (filtered) collection system. This diagnostic system is associated with an image processing strategy specifically adapted to RCM devices. Despite the severe conditions under consideration (40 bar, 700-950 K), the method allows us to obtain relatively large two-dimensional temperature fields that display a level of description seldom achieved in such devices. In particular the temperature gradients, which play a crucial role in HCCI combustion processes, can be estimated. The present experimental results confirm the good reliability and accuracy of the method. The information gathered with this toluene PLIF method puts in evidence its high potentialities for the study of aero-thermal-reactive processes as they take place in real engine conditions. The retained strategy also brings new possibilities of non-intrusive analysis for flows practically encountered within industrial devices.

  15. [Ever growing regional differences in population numbers].

    PubMed

    Van Hoorn, W D

    1995-02-01

    "The most urbanized provinces of the Netherlands are North-Holland, South-Holland and Utrecht. In these provinces, the population density (number of inhabitants per square kilometer of land) is five times that of the Northern provinces and Zeeland.... According to the Regional Population Forecasts 1994, up to 2015 all the provinces are expected to have a positive population growth. The population of the youngest province Flevoland will grow most rapidly: by about 50%. The population growth, both in relative and absolute terms, will be small in the Northern provinces and Zeeland (in the South West)." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12346255

  16. Comparison of COD and SS dynamics in a rice catchment during storms between the growing and non-growing season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin-Soo; Lee, Jeong-Beom; Lee, Jae-Yong; Li, Si-Hong

    2014-05-01

    We compared the behavior of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and suspended solid (SS) in runoff from a Korean rice field catchment during storm events between growing and non-growing seasons. The study catchment has a size of 21.9 ha with a water source of river. Fertilizers were applied at rates of 91 N kg ha-1 and 18 P kg ha-1 as basal and top dressings. The rice fields are shallowly flooded during most of the growing season, and therefore runoff water always occurs during the growing season. However, runoff water occurs only during storms in the non-growing season. Overall, COD and SS concentrations increased with discharge. Event mean concentration (EMC) of COD in runoff water from the catchment during the non-growing season was 2.6 times higher than that during the growing season. However EMC of SS in runoff water from the paddy field catchment during the non-growing season was almost the same as that during the growing season, much lower than that from the upland catchment. This may be because rice roots and residues in paddy soil during the non-growing season greatly reduce transport of SS associated with soil erosion.

  17. Rapid diagnosis of avian influenza virus in wild birds: Use of a portable rRT-PCR and freeze-dried reagents in the field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Takekawa, J.Y.; Hill, N.J.; Schultz, A.K.; Iverson, S.A.; Cardona, C.J.; Boyce, W.M.; Dudley, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Wild birds have been implicated in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) of the H5N1 subtype, prompting surveillance along migratory flyways. Sampling of wild birds for avian influenza virus (AIV) is often conducted in remote regions, but results are often delayed because of the need to transport samples to a laboratory equipped for molecular testing. Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) is a molecular technique that offers one of the most accurate and sensitive methods for diagnosis of AIV. The previously strict lab protocols needed for rRT-PCR are now being adapted for the field. Development of freeze-dried (lyophilized) reagents that do not require cold chain, with sensitivity at the level of wet reagents has brought on-site remote testing to a practical goal. Here we present a method for the rapid diagnosis of AIV in wild birds using an rRT-PCR unit (Ruggedized Advanced Pathogen Identification Device or RAPID, Idaho Technologies, Salt Lake City, UT) that employs lyophilized reagents (Influenza A Target 1 Taqman; ASAY-ASY-0109, Idaho Technologies). The reagents contain all of the necessary components for testing at appropriate concentrations in a single tube: primers, probes, enzymes, buffers and internal positive controls, eliminating errors associated with improper storage or handling of wet reagents. The portable unit performs a screen for Influenza A by targeting the matrix gene and yields results in 2-3 hours. Genetic subtyping is also possible with H5 and H7 primer sets that target the hemagglutinin gene. The system is suitable for use on cloacal and oropharyngeal samples collected from wild birds, as demonstrated here on the migratory shorebird species, the western sandpiper (Calidrus mauri) captured in Northern California. Animal handling followed protocols approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee of the U.S. Geological Survey Western Ecological Research Center and permits of the U.S. Geological Survey

  18. Rapid Arctic Transitions in Relation to Infrastructure and Climate Change: Comparison of the Permafrost and Geoecological Conditions in the Bovanenkovo Gas Field, Russia and the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, D. A.; Raynolds, M. K.; Kumpula, T.; Shur, Y.; Kanevskiy, M. Z.; Kofinas, G.; Leibman, M. O.; Matyshak, G. V.; Epstein, H. E.; Buchhorn, M.; Wirth, L.; Forbes, B. C.

    2014-12-01

    Many areas of the Arctic are undergoing rapid permafrost and ecosystem transitions resulting from a combination of industrial development and climate change as summer sea ice retreats and abundant Arctic natural resources become more accessible for extraction. The Bovanenkovo Gas Field (BGF) in Russia and the Prudhoe Bay Oilfield (PBO) in Alaska are among the oldest and most extensive industrial complexes in the Arctic, situated in areas with extensive ice-rich permafrost. Ongoing studies of cumulative effects in both regions are part of the Northern Eurasia Earth-Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) and NASA's Land-Cover Land-Use Change (LCLUC) research. Comparative analysis is focused on changes occurring due to different climate, permafrost, land-use, and disturbance regimes in the BGF and PBO and along bioclimate transects that contain both fields. Documentation of the changes in relationship to the different geoecological and social-economic conditions will help inform management approaches to minimize the effects of future activities. We compare the area of disturbance in the two fields and some of the key differences in the permafrost conditions. Detailed remote sensing and geoecological mapping in both areas reveal major differences in permafrost conditions that have implications for total ecological function. At BGF, highly erodible sands and the presence of massive tabular ground ice near the surface contributes to landslides and thermo-denudation of slopes. At PBO, ice-wedge degradation is the most noticeable change, where thermokarst is expanding rapidly along ice-wedges adjacent to roads and in areas away from roads. Between 1990 and 2001, coincident with strong atmospheric warming during the 1990s, natural thermokarst resulted in conversion of low-centered ice-wedge polygons to high-centered polygons, more active lakeshore erosion and increased landscape and habitat heterogeneity. These geoecololgical changes have local and regional consequences to

  19. From Rings to Bulges: Evidence for Rapid Secular Galaxy Evolution at z ~ 2 from Integral Field Spectroscopy in the SINS Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genzel, R.; Burkert, A.; Bouché, N.; Cresci, G.; Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Shapley, A.; Shapiro, K.; Tacconi, L. J.; Buschkamp, P.; Cimatti, A.; Daddi, E.; Davies, R.; Eisenhauer, F.; Erb, D. K.; Genel, S.; Gerhard, O.; Hicks, E.; Lutz, D.; Naab, T.; Ott, T.; Rabien, S.; Renzini, A.; Steidel, C. C.; Sternberg, A.; Lilly, S. J.

    2008-11-01

    We present Hα integral field spectroscopy of well-resolved, UV/optically selected z ~ 2 star-forming galaxies as part of the SINS survey with SINFONI on the ESO VLT. Our laser guide star adaptive optics and good seeing data show the presence of turbulent rotating star-forming outer rings/disks, plus central bulge/inner disk components, whose mass fractions relative to the total dynamical mass appear to scale with the [N II]/Hα flux ratio and the star formation age. We propose that the buildup of the central disks and bulges of massive galaxies at z ~ 2 can be driven by the early secular evolution of gas-rich proto-disks. High-redshift disks exhibit large random motions. This turbulence may in part be stirred up by the release of gravitational energy in the rapid "cold" accretion flows along the filaments of the cosmic web. As a result, dynamical friction and viscous processes proceed on a timescale of <1 Gyr, at least an order of magnitude faster than in z ~ 0 disk galaxies. Early secular evolution thus drives gas and stars into the central regions and can build up exponential disks and massive bulges, even without major mergers. Secular evolution along with increased efficiency of star formation at high surface densities may also help to account for the short timescales of the stellar buildup observed in massive galaxies at z ~ 2. Based on observations at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) of the European Southern Observatory (ESO), Paranal, Chile.

  20. Rapid and specific detection of Sin Nombre virus antibodies in patients with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome by a strip immunoblot assay suitable for field diagnosis.

    PubMed Central

    Hjelle, B; Jenison, S; Torrez-Martinez, N; Herring, B; Quan, S; Polito, A; Pichuantes, S; Yamada, T; Morris, C; Elgh, F; Lee, H W; Artsob, H; Dinello, R

    1997-01-01

    To develop a rapid antibody test for Sin Nombre hantavirus (SNV) infection for diagnosis of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in field settings where advanced instrumentation is not available, a strip immunoblot assay bearing four immobilized antigens for SNV and a recombinant nucleocapsid protein antigen of Seoul hantavirus (SEOV) was prepared. The SNV antigens included a full-length recombinant-expressed nucleocapsid (N) protein (rN), a recombinant-expressed G1 protein (residues 35 to 117), and synthetic peptides derived from N (residues 17 to 59) and G1 (residues 55 to 88). On the basis of the observed reactivities of hantavirus-infected patient and control sera, we determined that a positive assay requires reactivity with SNV or SEOV rN antigen and at least one other antigen. Isolated reactivity to either viral rN antigen is indeterminate, and any pattern of reactivity that does not include reactivity to an rN antigen is considered indeterminate but is unlikely to represent hantavirus infection. Fifty-eight of 59 samples from patients with acute SNV-associated HPS were positive according to these criteria, and one was initially indeterminate. Four of four samples from patients with HPS due to other hantaviruses were positive, as were most samples from patients with SEOV and Puumala virus infections. Of 192 control serum samples, 2 (1%) were positive and 2 were indeterminate. Acute SNV infection was distinguishable from remote SNV infection or infection with hantaviruses other than SNV by the presence of G1 peptide antigen reactivities in the former. The strip immunoblot assay shows promise for the detection of SNV antibodies early in the course of HPS. PMID:9041397

  1. Linking Modern, Rapid, Surface Uplift at the Laguna del Maule Volcanic Field, Chilean Andes, to Rhyolitic Magma-Driven Uplift Spanning the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, B. S.; Tikoff, B.; Le Mével, H.; Andersen, N. L.; Cordova, L.; Licciardi, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Laguna del Maule Volcanic Field includes an unusually large and recent concentration of silicic eruptions across a 23x17 km lake basin atop the southern Andes. We present findings that allow us to link currently observed deformation with a geological record of surface change spanning the Holocene. Since 2007 the crust here has been inflating at more than 20 cm/y. Geological, petrological, and geophysical findings have led to the hypothesis that the silicic vents have tapped an extensive, but ephemeral, layer of crystal-poor rhyolitic melt that began to form atop a mush zone that was established by ~20 ka, with a renewed phase of rhyolite eruptions concentrated around the southern flank of the basin during the Holocene (Singer et al., 2014). One of the earliest rhyolites, the 1 km3 Espejos coulée, 40Ar/39Ar-dated at 19 ka, dammed the northern outlet of Laguna del Maule raising the lake level ~200 m to form a prominent basin-wide shoreline. This shoreline was abandoned during an outbreak flood in the earliest Holocene. Surface exposure and 14C dating underway aims to refine the timing of the drop in lake level. Using an initial series of 40 short static GPS measurements around the basin, referenced to a set of 5 continuous GPS receivers, the elevation of this paleo-shoreline was determined to be 67 m higher at the southern end of the lake compared to the north. Interpretations of current surface deformation (Le Mével et al., in press), magnetotelluric data, earthquake distribution, and gravity changes suggest that magma is currently intruding at about 0.03 km3/yr at ~5 km depth. The amount of magma required to raise the surface 2 m during 8 yr is ~0.25 km3. If similar episodes of intrusion raised the roof of the magma reservoir by >60 m during the Holocene, it implies: (1) rapid accumulation of ~6 km3 of magma within the shallow crust, and (2) the locus of magma intrusion has shifted northward several km during the last 10 ky. It remains unclear whether any of

  2. Sociology: The growing climate divide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Andrew J.

    2011-07-01

    Climate change has reached the level of a 'scientific consensus', but is not yet a 'social consensus'. New analysis highlights that a growing divide between liberals and conservatives in the American public is a major obstacle to achieving this end.

  3. Birth of space plant growing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mashinskiy, A.; Nechitaylo, G.

    1983-01-01

    The attempts, and successes, to grow plants in space, and get them to fully develop, bloom and produce seeds using orchids are presented. The psychological advantages of the presence of plants onboard space vehicles and space stations is indicated.

  4. Growing self-organizing trees for autonomous hierarchical clustering.

    PubMed

    Doan, Nhat-Quang; Azzag, Hanane; Lebbah, Mustapha

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents a new unsupervised learning method based on growing processes and autonomous self-assembly rules. This method, called Growing Self-organizing Trees (GSoT), can grow both network size and tree topology to represent the topological and hierarchical dataset organization, allowing a rapid and interactive visualization. Tree construction rules draw inspiration from elusive properties of biological organization to build hierarchical structures. Experiments conducted on real datasets demonstrate good GSoT performance and provide visual results that are generated during the training process. PMID:23041056

  5. Rotating Vessels for Growing Protein Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cottingham, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Rotating vessels have been proposed as means of growing larger, more nearly uniform protein crystals than would otherwise be possible in the presence of normal Earth gravitation. Heretofore, nonrotating vessels have been used. It is difficult to grow high-quality protein crystals in the terrestrial gravitational field because of convection plumes created by the interaction between gravitation and density gradients in protein-solution depletion layers around growing crystals. The density gradients and the associated convection plumes cause the surfaces of growing crystals to be exposed to nonuniform solution densities, thereby causing the crystals to form in irregular shapes. The microgravitational environment of outer space has been utilized to eliminate gravitation-induced convection, but this approach is generally not favorable because of the high cost and limited availability of space flight. The use of a rotating vessel according to the proposal is intended to ameliorate the effects of gravitation and the resultant convection, relative to the corresponding effects in a non-rotating vessel. The rotation would exert an averaging effect over time, distributing the convective force on the depletion layer. Therefore, the depletion layer would be more nearly uniform and, as a result, the growing crystal would be more nearly perfect. The proposal admits of variations (see figure), including the following: The growing crystal could be rotated about its own central axis or an external axis. The crystal-growth vessel could be of any of various shapes, including cylindrical, hemispherical, conical, and combinations thereof. The crystal-growth vessel could be suspended in a viscous fluid in an outer vessel to isolate the growing crystal from both ambient vibrations and vibrations induced by a mechanism that drives the rotation. The rotation could be coupled to the crystal-growth vessel by viscous or magnetic means. The crystal-growth vessel could be supported within the

  6. The nonlinear development of Gortler vortices in growing boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Philip

    1986-01-01

    The development of Gortler vortices in boundary layers over curved walls in the nonlinear regime is investigated. The growth of the boundary layer makes a parallel flow analysis impossible except in the high wavenumber regime so in general the instability equations must be integrated numerically. Here the spanwise dependence of the basic flow is described using Fourier series expansion whilst the normal and streamwise variations are taken into account using finite differences. The calculations suggest that a given disturbance imposed at some position along the wall will eventually reach a local equilibrium state essentially independent of the initial conditions. In fact, the equilibrium state reached is qualitatively similar to the large amplitude high wave-number solution described asymptotically by Hall (1982). In general, it is found that the nonlinear interactions are dominated by a mean field type of interaction between the mean flow and the fundamental. Thus, even though higher harmonics of the fundamental are necessarily generated, most of the disturbance energy is confined to the mean flow correction and the fundamental. A major result of the calculations is finding that the downstream velocity field develops a strongly inflection character as the flow moves downstream. The latter result suggests that the major effect of Gortler vortices on boundary layers of practical importance might be to make them highly receptive to rapidly growing Rayleigh modes of instability.

  7. QUANTIFICATION AND INTERPRETATION OF TOTAL PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS IN SEDIMENT SAMPLES BY A GC/MS METHOD AND COMPARISON WITH EPA 418.1 AND A RAPID FIELD METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT: Total Petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) as a lumped parameter can be easily and rapidly measured or monitored. Despite interpretational problems, it has become an accepted regulatory benchmark used widely to evaluate the extent of petroleum product contamination. Three cu...

  8. On the Electron Dynamics during Rapid Asymmetric Magnetic Island Coalescence: Insights on the Electrons Agyrotropy with the Presence of a Guide Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazzola, Emanuele; Lapenta, Giovanni; Innocenti, Maria Elena; Goldman, Martin; Newman, David; Markidis, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    The work presents a fully kinetic analysis of the electrons dynamics during rapid island coalescence in asymmetric magnetic reconnection, especially focused on the comparison between the case with and with no initial guide field. Formation and growth of the islands are caused by an intentionally unstable initial configuration across the current sheet with the same asymmetric profiles as those traditionally proposed in the literature (e.g. Pritchett, 2008). Particular attentions is given to the different evolution of the presumed reconnection sites. Three main regions are eventually identified, named by X-, D- and M-regions, which describe, respectively, the regions featuring a traditional reconnection event, those showing an opposite behavior with respect to the former and the reconnection regions occurring between two magnetic islands (Cazzola et al., 2015). Further analysis is mainly addressed to evaluate both the electrons departure from the isotropic and gyrotropic behavior. Whether the first quantity has been clearly established and confirmed by observations, the latter has always appeared of difficult interpretation, and an ultimate accepted method on how to render it from PIC simulations still seems far to be achieved. In light of the upcoming data from the freshly launched MMS NASA mission, outcomes from some of the main techniques to spot agyrotropic regions are here compared to highligh the presence of possible relevant differences (Scudder and Daughton, 2008; Swisdak, 2015). References [1] P. Pritchett, "Collisionless magnetic reconnection in an asymmetric current sheet," Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics (1978-2012), vol. 113, no. A6, 2008. [2] E. Cazzola, M. E. Innocenti, S. Markidis, M. V. Goldman, D. L. Newman, and G. Lapenta, "On the electron dynamics during island coalescence in asymmetric magnetic reconnection," Physics of Plasmas (1994-present), vol. 22, no. 9, p. 092901, 2015. [3] J. Scudder and W. Daughton, "Illuminating electron

  9. Near-Field Tsunami Models with Rapid Earthquake Source Inversions from Land and Ocean-Based Observations: The Potential for Forecast and Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melgar, D.; Bock, Y.; Crowell, B. W.; Haase, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Computation of predicted tsunami wave heights and runup in the regions adjacent to large earthquakes immediately after rupture initiation remains a challenging problem. Limitations of traditional seismological instrumentation in the near field which cannot be objectively employed for real-time inversions and the non-unique source inversion results are a major concern for tsunami modelers. Employing near-field seismic, GPS and wave gauge data from the Mw 9.0 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake, we test the capacity of static finite fault slip models obtained from newly developed algorithms to produce reliable tsunami forecasts. First we demonstrate the ability of seismogeodetic source models determined from combined land-based GPS and strong motion seismometers to forecast near-source tsunamis in ~3 minutes after earthquake origin time (OT). We show that these models, based on land-borne sensors only tend to underestimate the tsunami but are good enough to provide a realistic first warning. We then demonstrate that rapid ingestion of offshore shallow water (100 - 1000 m) wave gauge data significantly improves the model forecasts and possible warnings. We ingest data from 2 near-source ocean-bottom pressure sensors and 6 GPS buoys into the earthquake source inversion process. Tsunami Green functions (tGFs) are generated using the GeoClaw package, a benchmarked finite volume code with adaptive mesh refinement. These tGFs are used for a joint inversion with the land-based data and substantially improve the earthquake source and tsunami forecast. Model skill is assessed by detailed comparisons of the simulation output to 2000+ tsunami runup survey measurements collected after the event. We update the source model and tsunami forecast and warning at 10 min intervals. We show that by 20 min after OT the tsunami is well-predicted with a high variance reduction to the survey data and by ~30 minutes a model that can be considered final, since little changed is observed afterwards, is

  10. Scene segmentation through region growing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latty, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    A computer algorithm to segment Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images into areas representing surface features is described. The algorithm is based on a region growing approach and uses edge elements and edge element orientation to define the limits of the surface features. Adjacent regions which are not separated by edges are linked to form larger regions. Some of the advantages of scene segmentation over conventional TM image extraction algorithms are discussed, including surface feature analysis on a pixel-by-pixel basis, and faster identification of the pixels in each region. A detailed flow diagram of region growing algorithm is provided.

  11. Kinderland in the Fatherland: Growing Children in Imperial Berlin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brian, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation explores the milieu in which children of Imperial Berlin were raised. When contemporaries in the rapidly expanding capital of the Second German Empire (1871-1918) looked at children, this milieu darkened. The city, they argued, threatened children's growing bodies, and such institutions as the home, the clinic, and the school…

  12. Growing Ideas, 1990-1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pranis, Eve, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This series of journals includes volumes 1-4 of "Growing Ideas," a journal of garden-based learning. Each issue provides instructional ideas, horticultural information and a forum for exchange among teachers using classroom gardening to stimulate learning. Ideas in each issue are separated into three sections. The "Green Tips" section presents…

  13. Exploring Classroom Hydroponics. Growing Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Gardening Association, Burlington, VT.

    Growing Ideas, the National Gardening Association's series for elementary, middle, and junior high school educators, helps teachers engage students in using plants and gardens as contexts for developing a deeper, richer understanding of the world around them. This volume's focus is on hydroponics. It presents basic hydroponics information along…

  14. Growing an Emerging Research University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birx, Donald L.; Anderson-Fletcher, Elizabeth; Whitney, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The emerging research college or university is one of the most formidable resources a region has to reinvent and grow its economy. This paper is the first of two that outlines a process of building research universities that enhance regional technology development and facilitate flexible networks of collaboration and resource sharing. Although the…

  15. Growing Patterns: Seeing beyond Counting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markworth, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades, mathematical patterns have been acknowledged as important early components of children's development of algebraic reasoning (NCTM 2000). In particular, growing patterns have attracted significant attention as a context that helps students develop an understanding of functional relationships (Lee and Freiman 2006; Moss et…

  16. Consequences of Growing Up Poor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J., Ed.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne, Ed.

    The consequences and correlates of growing up poor as well as the mechanisms through which poverty influences children are explored. This book is organized with a primary focus on research findings and a secondary concern with policy implications. The chapters are: (1) "Poor Families, Poor Outcomes: The Well-Being of Children and Youth" (Jeanne…

  17. Colleges' Earmarks Grow, Amid Criticism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainard, Jeffrey; Hermes, J. J.

    2008-01-01

    A record-breaking number of Congressional pork-barrel projects this year has loaded college and university plates with more earmarks than ever before, despite growing worries that the noncompetitive grants undermine the American scientific enterprise, and in spite of promises by some lawmakers to cut back. An analysis by "The Chronicle" shows that…

  18. How the pilidium larva grows

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background For animal cells, ciliation and mitosis appear to be mutually exclusive. While uniciliated cells can resorb their cilium to undergo mitosis, multiciliated cells apparently can never divide again. Nevertheless, many multiciliated epithelia in animals must grow or undergo renewal. The larval epidermis in a number of marine invertebrate larvae, such as those of annelids, mollusks and nemerteans, consists wholly or in part of multiciliated epithelial cells, generally organized into a swimming and feeding apparatus. Many of these larvae must grow substantially to reach metamorphosis. Do individual epithelial cells simply expand to accommodate an increase in body size, or are there dividing cells amongst them? If some cells divide, where are they located? Results We show that the nemertean pilidium larva, which is almost entirely composed of multiciliated cells, retains pockets of proliferative cells in certain regions of the body. Most of these are found near the larval ciliated band in the recesses between the larval lobes and lappets, which we refer to as axils. Cells in the axils contribute both to the growing larval body and to the imaginal discs that form the juvenile worm inside the pilidium. Conclusions Our findings not only explain how the almost-entirely multiciliated pilidium can grow, but also demonstrate direct coupling of larval and juvenile growth in a maximally-indirect life history. PMID:24690541

  19. Growing Crystals on the Ceiling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christman, Robert A.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a method of studying growing crystals in a classroom utilizing a carrousel projector standing vertically. A saturated salt solution is placed on a slide on the lens of the projector and the heat from the projector causes the water to evaporate and salt to crystalize. (Author/DS)

  20. Organization of growing random networks

    SciTech Connect

    Krapivsky, P. L.; Redner, S.

    2001-06-01

    The organizational development of growing random networks is investigated. These growing networks are built by adding nodes successively, and linking each to an earlier node of degree k with an attachment probability A{sub k}. When A{sub k} grows more slowly than linearly with k, the number of nodes with k links, N{sub k}(t), decays faster than a power law in k, while for A{sub k} growing faster than linearly in k, a single node emerges which connects to nearly all other nodes. When A{sub k} is asymptotically linear, N{sub k}(t){similar_to}tk{sup {minus}{nu}}, with {nu} dependent on details of the attachment probability, but in the range 2{lt}{nu}{lt}{infinity}. The combined age and degree distribution of nodes shows that old nodes typically have a large degree. There is also a significant correlation in the degrees of neighboring nodes, so that nodes of similar degree are more likely to be connected. The size distributions of the in and out components of the network with respect to a given node{emdash}namely, its {open_quotes}descendants{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}ancestors{close_quotes}{emdash}are also determined. The in component exhibits a robust s{sup {minus}2} power-law tail, where s is the component size. The out component has a typical size of order lnt, and it provides basic insights into the genealogy of the network.

  1. Extreme Mechanics of Growing Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhl, Ellen

    2013-03-01

    Growth is a distinguishing feature of all living things. Unlike standard materials, living matter can autonomously respond to alterations in its environment. As a result of a continuous ultrastructural turnover and renewal of cells and extracellular matrix, living matter can undergo extreme changes in composition, size, and shape within the order of months, weeks, or days. While hard matter typically adapts by increasing its density to grow strong, soft matter adapts by increasing its volume to grow large. Here we provide a state-of-the-art review of growing matter, and compare existing mathematical models for growth and remodeling of living systems. Applications are plentiful ranging from plant growth to tumor growth, from asthma in the lungs to restenosis in the vasculature, from plastic to reconstructive surgery, and from skeletal muscle adaptation to heart failure. Using these examples, we discuss current challenges and potential future directions. We hope to initiate critical discussions around the biophysical modeling of growing matter as a powerful tool to better understand biological systems in health and disease. This research has been supported by the NSF CAREER award CMMI 0952021.

  2. Elastic-plastic analysis of growing cracks

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, J.R.; Drugan, W.J.; Sham, T.L.

    1980-01-01

    The elastic-plastic stress and deformation fields at the tip of a crack which grow in an ideally plastic solid under plane strain, small-scale yielding conditions is discussed. Asymptotic analysis suggests a crack-tip stress state similar to that of the classical Prandtl field, but containing elastic unloading between the centered fan region and the trailing constant stress plastic region. The near tip expression for the rate of opening displacement delta at distance r from the growing tip is found to have the same form suggested by Rice and Sorensen, delta = ..cap alpha..J/sigma/sub 0/ + ..beta..(sigma/sub 0//E)a ln (R/r), but now the presence of the elastic wedge causes ..beta.. to have the revised value of 5.08 (for Poisson ratio ..nu.. = 0.3). Here, a = crack length, sigma/sub 0/ = yield strength, E = elastic modulus, and J denotes the far-field value (1 - ..nu../sup 2/) K/sup 2//E for the small scale yielding conditions considered. The parameters ..cap alpha.. and R cannot be determined from the asymptotic analysis, but ..cap alpha.. is approximately the same for stationary and growing cracks, and R scales approximately with the size of the plastic zone, being about 15 to 30% larger. For large scale yielding, a similar form applies with possible variations in ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.., at least in cases which maintain triaxial constraint at the crack tip, but in the fully yielded case R is expected to be proportional to the dimension of the uncracked ligament. The model crack growth criterion of Rice and Sorensen, requiring a critical delta at some fixed r from the tip, is reexamined. Results suggest that the J versus ..delta..a relation describing growth will be dependent on the extent of yielding, although it is suggested that this dependency might be small for highly ductile materials, provided that a similar triaxial constraint is maintained in all cases.

  3. Rapid Antibiotic Resistance Evolution of GASP Mutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiucen; Kim, Hyunsung; Pourmand, Nader; Austin, Robert

    2012-02-01

    The GASP phenotype in bacteria is due to a mutation which enables the bacteria to grow under high stress conditions where other bacteria stop growing. We probe using our Death Galaxy microenvironment how rapidly the GASP mutant can evolve resistance to mutagenic antibiotics compared to wild-type bacteria, and explore the genomic landscape changes due to the evolution of resistance.

  4. Buoyancy effects of a growing, isolated dendrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canright, D.; Davis, S. H.

    1991-01-01

    The buoyancy effect of a growing isolated dendrite on the solidification process in the undercooling liquid material was investigated by developing an analytic solution to the growth/convection problem in powers of a buoyancy parameter G. The solution depends on the Prandtl number P and the Stefan number S (undercooling) for the local velocity and thermal fields and also the buoyant alteration of the interface shape. Results suggest that buoyancy effect for metals (low P) may be qualitatively different from that for organics (high P).

  5. SCALE-UP OF RAPID SMALL-SCALE ADSORPTION TESTS TO FIELD-SCALE ADSORBERS: THEORETICAL BASIS AND EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS FOR A CONSTANT DIFFUSIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) is an effective treatment technique for the removal of some toxic organics from drinking water or wastewater, however, it can be a relatively expensive process, especially if it is designed improperly. A rapid method for the design of large-scale f...

  6. BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF WHEAT TAKE-ALL DISEASE: II – RAPID SELECTION OF BACTERIA SUPPRESSIVE TO GAEUMANNOMYCES GRAMINIS VAR. TRITICI IN LABORATORY WITH GREENHOUSE AND FIELD CONFIRMATION TRIALS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Screening large collections of bacteria for potential biological control activity on economically important diseases is often difficult. A quick test tube assay was developed to rapidly screen selected bacterial isolates for their ability to suppress take-all disease of wheat, caused by Gaeumannomyc...

  7. Silicone Granulomas, a Growing Problem?

    PubMed

    Park, Michelle E; Curreri, Alexis T; Taylor, Gina A; Burris, Katy

    2016-05-01

    The formation of granulomas is known to be a possible adverse effect of liquid silicone administration, used for soft tissue augmentation. Its plumping effects provide enhancement of certain body parts, such as the lips, hips, and buttocks. The desire for enhancement, perhaps influenced by popular culture and an unrealistic standard of beauty, leads individuals to seek silicone injections. There is a growing population of women and men receiving injections by unlicensed, unskilled "practitioners" not related to the healthcare profession. Complications under such circumstances are not uncommon, particularly the emergence of silicone granulomas, and the authors' medical center has seen an increase in such cases. In this case report, the authors illustrate a young patient with significant complications from her silicone injections, review current therapies for silicone granulomas, and discuss this growing medical problem. PMID:27386046

  8. Silicone Granulomas, a Growing Problem?

    PubMed Central

    Curreri, Alexis T.; Taylor, Gina A.; Burris, Katy

    2016-01-01

    The formation of granulomas is known to be a possible adverse effect of liquid silicone administration, used for soft tissue augmentation. Its plumping effects provide enhancement of certain body parts, such as the lips, hips, and buttocks. The desire for enhancement, perhaps influenced by popular culture and an unrealistic standard of beauty, leads individuals to seek silicone injections. There is a growing population of women and men receiving injections by unlicensed, unskilled “practitioners” not related to the healthcare profession. Complications under such circumstances are not uncommon, particularly the emergence of silicone granulomas, and the authors’ medical center has seen an increase in such cases. In this case report, the authors illustrate a young patient with significant complications from her silicone injections, review current therapies for silicone granulomas, and discuss this growing medical problem. PMID:27386046

  9. Growing a miracle in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Farruggia, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    A Kenyan woman, a retired nurse, and a nurse executive in America are miraculously led together to start a library in Kima, Kenya. Small beginnings grow into the Heather May-MashoodAbiola Children's Resource Centre (HEMAMA). Named after two infant children lost by the Kenyan woman and the nurse executive, HEMAMA is making a difference in the lives of children in the Kima, Kenya community. PMID:24282879

  10. Growing Yeast into Cylindrical Colonies

    PubMed Central

    Vulin, Clément; Di Meglio, Jean-Marc; Lindner, Ariel B.; Daerr, Adrian; Murray, Andrew; Hersen, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms often form complex multicellular assemblies such as biofilms and colonies. Understanding the interplay between assembly expansion, metabolic yield, and nutrient diffusion within a freely growing colony remains a challenge. Most available data on microorganisms are from planktonic cultures, due to the lack of experimental tools to control the growth of multicellular assemblies. Here, we propose a method to constrain the growth of yeast colonies into simple geometric shapes such as cylinders. To this end, we designed a simple, versatile culture system to control the location of nutrient delivery below a growing colony. Under such culture conditions, yeast colonies grow vertically and only at the locations where nutrients are delivered. Colonies increase in height at a steady growth rate that is inversely proportional to the cylinder radius. We show that the vertical growth rate of cylindrical colonies is not defined by the single-cell division rate, but rather by the colony metabolic yield. This contrasts with cells in liquid culture, in which the single-cell division rate is the only parameter that defines the population growth rate. This method also provides a direct, simple method to estimate the metabolic yield of a colony. Our study further demonstrates the importance of the shape of colonies on setting their expansion. We anticipate that our approach will be a starting point for elaborate studies of the population dynamics, evolution, and ecology of microbial colonies in complex landscapes. PMID:24853750

  11. Rapid Prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  12. Growing the Nuclear Workforce Through Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilburn, Micha

    2015-10-01

    Many students don't encounter physics in the classroom until college or the end of high school. Most college students never encounter nuclear physics in the classroom. In order to grow the nuclear science workforce, students need to be aware of the field much earlier in the education. However, teaching teens about nuclear science can be a daunting task at the outset. I will present and describe successful outreach curricula and programs that can be duplicated by any college, university or laboratory. These include workshops for boy scouts and girl scouts as well as teaching nuclear science with magnetic marbles. I will also present some results from assessments of JINA-CEE's more intensive programs aimed at recruiting youth to the field. JINA-CEE

  13. A rapid field detection system for citrus huanglongbing associated ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ from the psyllid vector, diaphorina citri kuwayama and its implications in disease management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the development of an affordable detection kit for the detection of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las) from the psyllid vector, Diaphorina citri, which can provide real time test results in the field or field laboratory within 30-40 minutes without the need for expensive laboratory ...

  14. Field Evaluation of Malaria Microscopy, Rapid Malaria Tests and Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification in a Rural Hospital in South Western Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Prieto-Pérez, Laura; Martin-Martin, Ines; Berzosa, Pedro; González, Vicenta; Tisiano, Gebre; Balcha, Seble; Ramos, José Manuel; Górgolas, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Background In up to one third of the hospitals in some rural areas of Africa, laboratory services in malaria diagnosis are limited to microscopy by thin film, as no capability to perform thick film exists (gold standard in terms of sensitivity for malaria diagnosis). A new rapid molecular malaria diagnostic test called Loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification (LAMP) has been recently validated in clinical trials showing exceptional sensitivity and specificity features. It could be a reliable diagnostic tool to be implemented without special equipment or training. Objective The objective of this proof of concept study was to confirm the feasibility of using LAMP technique for diagnosis of malaria in a rural Ethiopian hospital with limited resources. Methodology/Principal Findings This study was carried out in Gambo General Hospital, West Arsi Province (Ethiopia), from November 1st to December 31st 2013. A total of 162 patients with a non-focal febrile syndrome were investigated. The diagnostic capability (sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive and negative predictive values) of rapid malaria tests and microscopy by thin film was evaluated in comparison with LAMP. Eleven (6.79%) out of the 162 patients with fever and suspected malaria, tested positive for LAMP, 3 (1.85%) for rapid malaria tests and none of the eleven cases was detected by thin film microscopy. Conclusions/Significance LAMP can be performed in basic rural laboratories without the need for specialized infrastructure and it may set a reliable tool for malaria control to detect a low level parasitemia. PMID:26555068

  15. Irreversible rapid changes of magnetic field associated with the 2012 October 23 circular near-limb X1.8 Flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Dan-Dan; Liu, Chang; Wang, Haimin

    2016-06-01

    It has been found that photospheric magnetic fields can change in accordance with restructuring of the three-dimensional magnetic field following solar eruptions. Previous studies mainly use vector magnetic field data taken for events near the disk center. In this paper, we analyze the magnetic field evolution associated with the 2012 October 23 X1.8 flare in NOAA AR 11598 that is close to the solar limb, using both the 45 s cadence line-of-sight and 12 min cadence vector magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board Solar Dynamics Observatory. This flare is classified as a circular-ribbon flare with spine-fan type magnetic topology containing a null point. In the line-of-sight magnetograms, there are two apparent polarity inversion lines (PILs). The PIL closer to the limb is affected more by the projection effect. Between these two PILs there lie positive polarity magnetic fields, which are surrounded by negative polarity fields outside the PILs. We find that after the flare, both the apparent limb-ward and disk-ward negative fluxes decrease, while the positive flux in-between increases. We also find that the horizontal magnetic fields have a significant increase along the disk-ward PIL, but in the surrounding area, they decrease. Synthesizing the observed field changes, we conclude that the magnetic fields collapse toward the surface above the disk-ward PIL as depicted in the coronal implosion scenario, while the peripheral field turns to a more vertical configuration after the flare. We also suggest that this event is an asymmetric circular-ribbon flare: a flux rope is likely present above the disk-ward PIL. Its eruption causes instability of the entire fan-spine structure and the implosion near that PIL.

  16. Growing Hemorrhagic Choroidal Fissure Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Gelal, Fazıl; Gurkan, Gokhan; Feran, Hamit

    2016-01-01

    Choroidal fissure cysts are often incidentally discovered. They are usually asymptomatic. The authors report a case of growing and hemorrhagic choroidal fissure cyst which was treated surgically. A 22-year-old female presented with headache. Cranial MRI showed a left-sided choroidal fissure cyst. Follow-up MRI showed that the size of the cyst had increased gradually. Twenty months later, the patient was admitted to our emergency department with severe headache. MRI and CT showed an intracystic hematoma. Although such cysts usually have a benign course without symptoms and progression, they may rarely present with intracystic hemorrhage, enlargement of the cyst and increasing symptomatology. PMID:26962426

  17. Rapid revegetation by sowing seed mixtures of shrub and herbaceous species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, J.; Zhang, C.; Zhao, T.; Zhang, Q.

    2015-05-01

    Fast revegetation by means of sowing seed mixtures of shrub and herbaceous species is a measure to prevent bare soils from wind and water erosion. A field experiment was used to test the effect of species selection and the ratio of shrub to herbaceous species on vegetation formation and shrub growth. Results showed that herbaceous species hastened cover formation and maintained a high coverage for a longer period. However, the growth of shrubs was hindered. In the North China Plain or where the soil and climate are similar, the ratio of shrub to herbaceous seeds is proposed to be 6 : 4-7 : 3 (weight ratio). Among the herbaceous species tested, Festuca arundinacea Schreb. grows relatively slow, so it should be mixed with other fast-growing species in the practice of rapid revegetation, and a seeding density lower than 6 g m-2 is proposed when applied; Orychophragmus violaceus O. E. Schulz. wilts when the seeds are ripe, leading to a significant decrease of coverage, so other species with different phenology should be involved when it is applied; Viola philippica Car. is a good ground cover plant which grows fast and maintains a stable coverage from July to October, and a seeding density of 1.5 g m-2 is proposed for rapid revegetation. Herbaceous species have different traits. Three different types of herbs were found in our experiment: slow-growing stable species (F. arundinacea), fast-growing unstable species (O. violaceus) and fast-growing stable species (V. philippica). Shrubs, slow-growing stable species and fast-growing unstable species should not be used alone because they cannot cover the ground fast or they cannot maintain a long period of good coverage. A small seeding rate of fast-growing stable species should be used to ensure a fair coverage against erosion. Because natural environmental conditions are heterogeneous and stochastic, more species should be added to enhance the stability of plant community.

  18. Growing matter: a review of growth in living systems.

    PubMed

    Kuhl, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Living systems can grow, develop, adapt, and evolve. These phenomena are non-intuitive to traditional engineers and often difficult to understand. Yet, classical engineering tools can provide valuable insight into the mechanisms of growth in health and disease. Within the past decade, the concept of incompatible configurations has evolved as a powerful tool to model growing systems within the framework of nonlinear continuum mechanics. However, there is still a substantial disconnect between the individual disciplines, which explore the phenomenon of growth from different angles. Here we show that the nonlinear field theories of mechanics provide a unified concept to model finite growth by means of a single tensorial internal variable, the second order growth tensor. We review the literature and categorize existing growth models by means of two criteria: the microstructural appearance of growth, either isotropic or anisotropic; and the microenvironmental cues that drive the growth process, either chemical or mechanical. We demonstrate that this generic concept is applicable to a broad range of phenomena such as growing arteries, growing tumors, growing skin, growing airway walls, growing heart valve leaflets, growing skeletal muscle, growing plant stems, growing heart valve annuli, and growing cardiac muscle. The proposed approach has important biological and clinical applications in atherosclerosis, in-stent restenosis, tumor invasion, tissue expansion, chronic bronchitis, mitral regurgitation, limb lengthening, tendon tear, plant physiology, dilated and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and heart failure. Understanding the mechanisms of growth in these chronic conditions may open new avenues in medical device design and personalized medicine to surgically or pharmacologically manipulate development and alter, control, or revert disease progression. PMID:24239171

  19. The use of field dependence of AC susceptibility for the interpretation of magnetic mineralogy and magnetic fabrics in the HSDP-2 basalts, Hawaii [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahle, Carsten; Kontny, Agnes

    2005-09-01

    We applied the field dependence parameter χHd (%) = [( k300A/m - k30A/m) / k300A/m] × 100 given by de Wall for the subaerial and submarine basalts drilled by the 3109 m deep HSDP-2 borehole on Hawaii in order to verify the hypothesis that mainly composition controls the field dependence of AC susceptibility in titanomagnetite of natural occurrences. When we used this parameter, our data showed a significant scattering compared to data presented in earlier studies. In addition to composition, the effect of measurement temperature, grain size and anisotropy on the field dependent susceptibility were examined and found to be critical. The impact of grain size is weaker than the other effects. It cannot be totally excluded that the observed effects arise indirectly through an overlap of the other effects for the investigated basalts. The most important factor for the variation of field dependence is the degree of oxidation, causing a modification of the titanomagnetite composition or formation of titanomaghemite, and the mixing of Ti-rich with Ti-poor titanomagnetites, which strongly reduces the χHd parameter. Field dependence is not only related to titanomagnetite composition, especially for intermediate titanomagnetites with TCs between 100 and 300 °C. Temperature dependent susceptibility measurements at different field amplitudes for these intermediate types showed at constant geometry of the k( T) curve great differences in susceptibility, resulting in significant changes of the field dependence parameter over the temperature interval from - 100 to 260 °C. Therefore variations of the ambient measurement temperatures are able to influence the field dependence. The second important effect is the degree of particle shape and alignment, which controls the field dependence in different orientations especially for the intermediate titanomagnetite, which is intensively intergrown with elongated hemoilmenite grains. As a consequence, samples with higher degrees of

  20. Effects of rapid thermal annealing on the electrical properties of the AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors with Ti/Al/Ni/Au gate electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Jingtao; Lin, Zhaojun Luan, Chongbiao; Zhou, Yang; Yang, Ming; Lv, Yuanjie; Feng, Zhihong

    2014-08-25

    In this study, we investigated the electrical properties of the AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors (HFETs) with Ti/Al/Ni/Au gate electrodes using the measured capacitance-voltage, current-voltage characteristics, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. We found that the uneven distribution of the strain caused by the Schottky metals was a major factor that generates the polarization Coulomb field scattering in AlGaN/AlN/GaN HFETs, and after appropriate rapid thermal annealing (RTA) processes, the polarization Coulomb field scattering was greatly weakened and the two-dimensional electron gas electron mobility was improved. We also found that the Schottky barrier height and the DC characteristics of the devices became better after appropriate RTA. Of course, the electrical performances mentioned above became deteriorated after excessive annealing.

  1. What a Pain! Kids and Growing Pains

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes What a Pain! Kids and Growing Pains KidsHealth > For Kids > What a Pain! Kids and ... something doctors call growing pains . What Are Growing Pains? Growing pains aren't a disease. You probably ...

  2. Rapid prototype and test

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, D.L.; Hansche, B.D.

    1996-06-01

    In order to support advanced manufacturing, Sandia has acquired the capability to produce plastic prototypes using stereolithography. Currently, these prototypes are used mainly to verify part geometry and ``fit and form`` checks. This project investigates methods for rapidly testing these plastic prototypes, and inferring from prototype test data actual metal part performance and behavior. Performances examined include static load/stress response, and structural dynamic (modal) and vibration behavior. The integration of advanced non-contacting measurement techniques including scanning laser velocimetry, laser holography, and thermoelasticity into testing of these prototypes is described. Photoelastic properties of the epoxy prototypes to reveal full field stress/strain fields are also explored.

  3. One simple DNA extraction device and its combination with modified visual loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid on-field detection of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Miao; Liu, Yinan; Chen, Lili; Quan, Sheng; Jiang, Shimeng; Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Litao

    2013-01-01

    Quickness, simplicity, and effectiveness are the three major criteria for establishing a good molecular diagnosis method in many fields. Herein we report a novel detection system for genetically modified organisms (GMOs), which can be utilized to perform both on-field quick screening and routine laboratory diagnosis. In this system, a newly designed inexpensive DNA extraction device was used in combination with a modified visual loop-mediated isothermal amplification (vLAMP) assay. The main parts of the DNA extraction device included a silica gel membrane filtration column and a modified syringe. The DNA extraction device could be easily operated without using other laboratory instruments, making it applicable to an on-field GMO test. High-quality genomic DNA (gDNA) suitable for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and isothermal amplification could be quickly isolated from plant tissues using this device within 15 min. In the modified vLAMP assay, a microcrystalline wax encapsulated detection bead containing SYBR green fluorescent dye was introduced to avoid dye inhibition and cross-contaminations from post-LAMP operation. The system was successfully applied and validated in screening and identification of GM rice, soybean, and maize samples collected from both field testing and the Grain Inspection, Packers, and Stockyards Administration (GIPSA) proficiency test program, which demonstrated that it was well-adapted to both on-field testing and/or routine laboratory analysis of GMOs. PMID:23181490

  4. Growing hair on black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, S. ); Preskill, J. ); Wilczek, F. )

    1991-10-07

    A black hole can carry quantum numbers that are {ital not} associated with massless gauge fields, contrary to the spirit of the no-hair'' theorems. In the Higgs phase of a gauge theory, electric charge on a black hole generates a nonzero electric field outside the event horizon. This field is nonperturbative in {h bar} and is exponentially screened far from the hole. It arises from the cloud of virtual cosmic strings that surround the black hole. In the confinement phase, a magnetic charge on a black hole generates a {ital classical} field that is screened at long range by nonperturbative effects. Despite the sharp difference in their formal descriptions, the electric and magnetic cases are closely similar physically.

  5. Growing Vertical in the Flatland.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Joshua A

    2016-01-26

    The world of two-dimensional (2D) heterostructures continues to expand at a rate much greater than anyone could have predicted 10 years ago, but if we are to make the leap from science to technology, many materials challenges must still be overcome. Recent advances, such as those by Liu et al. in this issue of ACS Nano, demonstrate that it is possible to grow rotationally commensurate 2D heterostructures, which could pave the way toward single crystal van der Waals solids. In this Perspective, I provide some insight into a few of the challenges associated with growth of heterostructures, and discuss some of the recent works that help us better understand synthetic realization of 2D heterostructures. PMID:26762232

  6. How to grow great leaders.

    PubMed

    Ready, Douglas A

    2004-12-01

    Few leaders excel at both the unit and enterprise levels. More than ever, though, corporations need people capable of running business units, functions, or regions and focusing on broader company goals. It's up to organizations to develop leaders who can manage the inherent tensions between unit and enterprise priorities. Take the example of RBC Financial Group, one of the largest, most profitable companies in Canada. In the mid-1990's, RBC revamped its competitive strategy in a couple of ways. After the government announced that the Big Six banks in Canada could neither merge with nor acquire one another, RBC decided to grow through cross-border acquisitions. Additionally, because customers were starting to seek bundled products and services, RBC reached across its traditional stand-alone businesses to offer integrated solutions. These changes in strategy didn't elicit immediate companywide support. Instinctively, employees reacted against what would amount to a delicate balancing act: They would have to lift their focus out of their silos while continuing to meet unit goals. However, by communicating extensively with staff members, cross-fertilizing talent across unit boundaries, and targeting rewards to shape performance, RBC was able to cultivate rising leaders with the unit expertise and the enterprise vision to help the company fulfill its new aims. Growing such well-rounded leaders takes sustained effort because unit-enterprise tensions are quite real. Three common conditions reinforce these tensions. First, most organizational structures foster silo thinking and unimaginative career paths. Second, most companies lack venues for airing and resolving conflicts that arise when there are competing priorities. Third, many have misguided reward systems that pit unit performance against enterprise considerations. Such long-established patterns of organizational behavior are tough to break. Fortunately, as RBC discovered, people can be trained to think and work

  7. Assessment of Preparation of Samples Under the Field Conditions and a Portable Real-Time RT-PCR Assay for the Rapid On-Site Detection of Newcastle Disease Virus.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Benyeda, Z; Zohari, S; Yacoub, A; Isaksson, M; Leijon, M; LeBlanc, N; Benyeda, J; Belák, S

    2016-04-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV), also known as virulent forms of avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (AMPV-1), is the causative agent of Newcastle disease affecting many species of birds and causing heavy losses to the poultry industry worldwide. Early, rapid and sensitive detection of the viruses or the viral nucleic acids is very important for disease diagnosis and control. This study aimed to evaluate sample preparation under field conditions and the application of a real-time RT-PCR method in the portable T-COR4 platform for the rapid, on-site detection of NDV on a farm. In the laboratory setting, the portable real-time RT-PCR assay had a similar performance compared with that obtained with a larger, stationary Rotor Gene real-time thermocycler. In the field conditions, viral nucleic acids were manually extracted just outside of animal units with minimal equipment and real-time RT-PCR detection was performed with the portable thermocycler T-COR4 placed in a nearby room. The portable assay at the farm detected viral RNA in 15 samples and reached an agreement of 83% (39/47) when the same RNA preparations were tested in the Rotor Gene thermocycler under the laboratory setting. The results demonstrated the feasibility of performing field detection but also the need to improve and further simplify sample preparation procedures. PMID:25209697

  8. A rapid, controlled-environment seedling root screen for wheat correlates well with rooting depths at vegetative, but not reproductive, stages at two field sites

    PubMed Central

    Watt, M.; Moosavi, S.; Cunningham, S. C.; Kirkegaard, J. A.; Rebetzke, G. J.; Richards, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Root length and depth determine capture of water and nutrients by plants, and are targets for crop improvement. Here we assess a controlled-environment wheat seedling screen to determine speed, repeatability and relatedness to performance of young and adult plants in the field. Methods Recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and diverse genotypes were grown in rolled, moist germination paper in growth cabinets, and primary root number and length were measured when leaf 1 or 2 were fully expanded. For comparison, plants were grown in the field and root systems were harvested at the two-leaf stage with either a shovel or a soil core. From about the four-leaf stage, roots were extracted with a steel coring tube only, placed directly over the plant and pushed to the required depth with a hydraulic ram attached to a tractor. Key Results In growth cabinets, repeatability was greatest (r = 0·8, P < 0·01) when the paper was maintained moist and seed weight, pathogens and germination times were controlled. Scanned total root length (slow) was strongly correlated (r = 0·7, P < 0·01) with length of the two longest seminal axile roots measured with a ruler (fast), such that 100–200 genotypes were measured per day. Correlation to field-grown roots at two sites at two leaves was positive and significant within the RILs and cultivars (r = 0·6, P = 0·01), and at one of the two sites at the five-leaf stage within the RILs (r = 0·8, P = 0·05). Measurements made in the field with a shovel or extracted soil cores were fast (5 min per core) and had significant positive correlations to scanner measurements after root washing and cleaning (>2 h per core). Field measurements at two- and five-leaf stages did not correlate with root depth at flowering. Conclusions The seedling screen was fast, repeatable and reliable for selecting lines with greater total root length in the young vegetative phase in the field. Lack of significant correlation with reproductive stage

  9. A decision support system (GesCoN) for managing fertigation in vegetable crops. Part II-model calibration and validation under different environmental growing conditions on field grown tomato.

    PubMed

    Conversa, Giulia; Bonasia, Anna; Di Gioia, Francesco; Elia, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The GesCoN model was evaluated for its capability to simulate growth, nitrogen uptake, and productivity of open field tomato grown under different environmental and cultural conditions. Five datasets collected from experimental trials carried out in Foggia (IT) were used for calibration and 13 datasets collected from trials conducted in Foggia, Perugia (IT), and Florida (USA) were used for validation. The goodness of fitting was performed by comparing the observed and simulated shoot dry weight (SDW) and N crop uptake during crop seasons, total dry weight (TDW), N uptake and fresh yield (TFY). In SDW model calibration, the relative RMSE values fell within the good 10-15% range, percent BIAS (PBIAS) ranged between -11.5 and 7.4%. The Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) was very close to the optimal value 1. In the N uptake calibration RRMSE and PBIAS were very low (7%, and -1.78, respectively) and NSE close to 1. The validation of SDW (RRMSE = 16.7%; NSE = 0.96) and N uptake (RRMSE = 16.8%; NSE = 0.96) showed the good accuracy of GesCoN. A model under- or overestimation of the SDW and N uptake occurred when higher or a lower N rates and/or a more or less efficient system were used compared to the calibration trial. The in-season adjustment, using the "SDWcheck" procedure, greatly improved model simulations both in the calibration and in the validation phases. The TFY prediction was quite good except in Florida, where a large overestimation (+16%) was linked to a different harvest index (0.53) compared to the cultivars used for model calibration and validation in Italian areas. The soil water content at the 10-30 cm depth appears to be well-simulated by the software, and the GesCoN proved to be able to adaptively control potential yield and DW accumulation under limited N soil availability scenarios and consequently to modify fertilizer application. The DSSwell simulate SDW accumulation and N uptake of different tomato genotypes grown under Mediterranean and subtropical

  10. A decision support system (GesCoN) for managing fertigation in vegetable crops. Part II—model calibration and validation under different environmental growing conditions on field grown tomato

    PubMed Central

    Conversa, Giulia; Bonasia, Anna; Di Gioia, Francesco; Elia, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The GesCoN model was evaluated for its capability to simulate growth, nitrogen uptake, and productivity of open field tomato grown under different environmental and cultural conditions. Five datasets collected from experimental trials carried out in Foggia (IT) were used for calibration and 13 datasets collected from trials conducted in Foggia, Perugia (IT), and Florida (USA) were used for validation. The goodness of fitting was performed by comparing the observed and simulated shoot dry weight (SDW) and N crop uptake during crop seasons, total dry weight (TDW), N uptake and fresh yield (TFY). In SDW model calibration, the relative RMSE values fell within the good 10–15% range, percent BIAS (PBIAS) ranged between −11.5 and 7.4%. The Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) was very close to the optimal value 1. In the N uptake calibration RRMSE and PBIAS were very low (7%, and −1.78, respectively) and NSE close to 1. The validation of SDW (RRMSE = 16.7%; NSE = 0.96) and N uptake (RRMSE = 16.8%; NSE = 0.96) showed the good accuracy of GesCoN. A model under- or overestimation of the SDW and N uptake occurred when higher or a lower N rates and/or a more or less efficient system were used compared to the calibration trial. The in-season adjustment, using the “SDWcheck” procedure, greatly improved model simulations both in the calibration and in the validation phases. The TFY prediction was quite good except in Florida, where a large overestimation (+16%) was linked to a different harvest index (0.53) compared to the cultivars used for model calibration and validation in Italian areas. The soil water content at the 10–30 cm depth appears to be well-simulated by the software, and the GesCoN proved to be able to adaptively control potential yield and DW accumulation under limited N soil availability scenarios and consequently to modify fertilizer application. The DSSwell simulate SDW accumulation and N uptake of different tomato genotypes grown under Mediterranean and

  11. Modeling of subglacial hydrological development following rapid supraglacial lake drainage

    PubMed Central

    Dow, C F; Kulessa, B; Rutt, I C; Tsai, V C; Pimentel, S; Doyle, S H; van As, D; Lindbäck, K; Pettersson, R; Jones, G A; Hubbard, A

    2015-01-01

    The rapid drainage of supraglacial lakes injects substantial volumes of water to the bed of the Greenland ice sheet over short timescales. The effect of these water pulses on the development of basal hydrological systems is largely unknown. To address this, we develop a lake drainage model incorporating both (1) a subglacial radial flux element driven by elastic hydraulic jacking and (2) downstream drainage through a linked channelized and distributed system. Here we present the model and examine whether substantial, efficient subglacial channels can form during or following lake drainage events and their effect on the water pressure in the surrounding distributed system. We force the model with field data from a lake drainage site, 70 km from the terminus of Russell Glacier in West Greenland. The model outputs suggest that efficient subglacial channels do not readily form in the vicinity of the lake during rapid drainage and instead water is evacuated primarily by a transient turbulent sheet and the distributed system. Following lake drainage, channels grow but are not large enough to reduce the water pressure in the surrounding distributed system, unless preexisting channels are present throughout the domain. Our results have implications for the analysis of subglacial hydrological systems in regions where rapid lake drainage provides the primary mechanism for surface-to-bed connections. Key Points Model for subglacial hydrological analysis of rapid lake drainage events Limited subglacial channel growth during and following rapid lake drainage Persistence of distributed drainage in inland areas where channel growth is limited PMID:26640746

  12. School Choice by Default? Understanding the Growing Demand for Private Tutoring in Canada. NALL Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Scott

    This paper describes a study that examined the demand for tutoring within a context of heightened credential competition and a growing private-education sector consisting of private schools, charter schools, homeschoolers, and a burgeoning entrepreneurial education industry. The number of private-tutoring businesses is rapidly growing in Canada,…

  13. Effect of protozoan predation on relative abundance of fast- and slow-growing bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, J.L.; Alexander, M.

    1989-01-01

    Survival of six bacterial species with different growth rates was tested in raw sewage and sewage rendered free of protozoa. When the six species were inoculated at the same densities into sewage containing protozoa, the three slow-growing species were rapidly eliminated, and two of the three fast-growing species survived in detectable numbers. It is suggested that in environments with intense protozoan predation, protozoa may alter composition of bacterial communities by eliminating slow-growing bacteria.

  14. How Children Grow--Musically.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Carol Rogel

    1989-01-01

    Reviews current research findings in the field of music in early childhood. Focuses on the musical development of the average child, citing evidence of music cognition and of music production. Reports some model programs established by music educators to work with parents and preschools to encourage musical development in the young child. (LS)

  15. Growing plants on atoll soils

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, E L; Migvar, L; Robison, W L

    2000-02-16

    Many years ago people living on atolls depended entirely on foods gathered from the sea and reefs and grown on land. Only a few plants, such as coconut (ni), Pandanus (bob), and arrowroot (mok-mok), could be grown on the lower rainfall atolls, although adequate groundwater conditions also allowed taro (iaraj, kotak, wot) to be cultivated. On higher rainfall atolls, breadfruit (ma) was a major food source, and banana (binana, kepran), lime (laim), and taros (iaraj, kotak, wot) could be grown. The early atoll populations were experts in growing plants that were vital to sustaining their nutrition requirements and to providing materials for thatch, basketry, cordage, canoe construction, flowers, and medicine. They knew which varieties of food plants grew well or poorly on their atolls, how to propagate them, and where on their atoll they grew best. They knew the uses of most native plants and what the various woods were well suited for. Many varieties of Pandanus (bob) and breadfruit (ma) grew well with high rainfall, but only a few produced well on drier atolls. Such information had been passed down through the generations although some of it has been lost in the last century. Today there are new plants and new varieties of existing plants that can be grown on atolls. There are also new materials and information on how to grow both the old and new plants more effectively. However, there are also introduced weeds and pests to control. Today, there is also an acute need to grow more of the useful plants adapted to atolls. Increasing numbers of people living on an atoll without an equal increase in income or food production stretches the available food supplies. Much has been written about the poor conditions for plant growth on atolls. As compared with many places in the world where crops are grown, however, atolls can provide some highly favorable conditions. For instance, the driving force for plant growth is sunlight, and on atolls light is abundant throughout the

  16. Esophageal malignancy: A growing concern

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Jianyuan; Jamal, M Mazen

    2012-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is mainly found in Asia and east Africa and is one of the deadliest cancers in the world. However, it has not garnered much attention in the Western world due to its low incidence rate. An increasing amount of data indicate that esophageal cancer, particularly esophageal adenocarcinoma, has been rising by 6-fold annually and is now becoming the fastest growing cancer in the United States. This rise has been associated with the increase of the obese population, as abdominal fat puts extra pressure on the stomach and causes gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Long standing GERD can induce esophagitis and metaplasia and, ultimately, leads to adenocarcinoma. Acid suppression has been the main strategy to treat GERD; however, it has not been proven to control esophageal malignancy effectively. In fact, its side effects have triggered multiple warnings from regulatory agencies. The high mortality and fast growth of esophageal cancer demand more vigorous efforts to look into its deeper mechanisms and come up with better therapeutic options. PMID:23236223

  17. [Growing old differently: Transdisciplinary perspective].

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, H-P

    2015-04-01

    Growing old differently: the phrase is intended to call something other to mind than merely the fact that images and forms of old age and aging have multiplied and diversified to an enormous extent. The suggestion put forward here is that otherness (as opposed to mere differences) should be positively reinforced. In other words, it is not just a matter of noting different forms of old age and aging but more than this, of seeking out opportunities for aging differently. In order to explore this, the article follows an older strand of theory, which has recently come to be frequently quoted in gerontology: the phenomenology of difference as reasoned analytically by Lévinas and Sartre and applied to gerontology by Améry and de Beauvoir. Here, opportunities for aging crucially depend on the way we look at it, how we observe and describe it and not least, how gerontology frames it. A distinction is made between two perspectives and their associated consequences for old age: alienation and alterity. Alienation means looking at old age above all as a disconcerting "other", as a perplexing, problematic deviation from the norm of vitality. Alterity, by contrast, refers to different options for living life in old age: options to be explored and opened up in contradistinction to cultural or academic alienation. Not least, the article appeals for diversity in scholarly approaches and for cross-disciplinary perspectives. PMID:25801518

  18. Fighting Back, Bedbugs Grow a Thicker Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Grow a Thicker Skin It helps protect against pesticides and may explain why population is growing worldwide, ... developing thicker "skins" that help them resist common pesticides, a new study suggests. This might explain why ...

  19. Assessment by Ames test and comet assay of toxicity potential of polymer used to develop field-capable rapid-detection device to analyze environmental samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebert, Amanda; Bishop, Michelle; Bhattacharyya, Dhiman; Gleason, Karen; Torosian, Stephen

    2015-08-01

    There is need for devices that decrease detection time of food-borne pathogens from days to real-time. In this study, a rapid-detection device is being developed and assessed for potential cytotoxicity. The device is comprised of melt-spun polypropylene coupons coated via oxidative chemical vapor deposition (oCVD) with 3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT), for conductivity and 3-Thiopheneethanol (3TE), allowing antibody attachment. The Ames test and comet assay have been used in this study to examine the toxicity potentials of EDOT, 3TE, and polymerized EDOT-co-3TE. For this study, Salmonella typhimurium strain TA1535 was used to assess the mutagenic potential of EDOT, 3TE and the copolymer. The average mutagenic potential of EDOT, 3TE and copolymer was calculated to be 0.86, 0.56, and 0.92, respectively. For mutagenic potential, on a scale from 0 to 1, close to 1 indicates low potential for toxicity, whereas a value of 0 indicates a high potential for toxicity. The comet assay is a single-cell gel electrophoresis technique that is widely used for this purpose. This assay measures toxicity based on the area or intensity of the comet-like shape that DNA fragments produce when DNA damage has occurred. Three cell lines were assessed; FRhK-4, BHK-21, and Vero cells. After averaging the results of all three strains, the tail intensity of the copolymer was 8.8 % and tail moment was 3.0, and is most similar to the untreated control, with average tail intensity of 5.7 % and tail moment of 1.7. The assays conducted in this study provide evidence that the copolymer is non-toxic to humans.

  20. Measurement of mesoscopic Si:P delta-doped devices fabricated by rapid STM hydrogen depassivation lithography via field-emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolph, M.; Carr, S. M.; Subramania, G.; Ten Eyck, G.; Dominguez, J.; Lilly, M. P.; Carroll, M. S.; Bussmann, E.

    2014-03-01

    Recently, a method to fabricate nanoelectronic and quantum devices has been developed that utilizes scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to place dopants (P) into Si with deterministic atomic-precision. Dopant placement is achieved via STM hydrogen depassivation lithography (HDL). Typically HDL is performed in a low-voltage tunneling mode where electrons desorb one H at a time, which requires extremely slow scan rates. Here, we introduce a high-voltage field-emission HDL, increasing patterning scan rate by an order of magnitude. Using the field-emission mode, we fabricated several HDL-patterned Si:P delta-doped devices, including a microscale multi-terminal Hall Effect device and a nanoscale quantum point contact. Low temperature transport measurements of the Hall device reveal a dopant density of 1014 cm-2, resistance of 2 k Ω/square, and mobility of 30 cm2/Vs. The quantum point contact showed a blockaded voltage range of 80 mV, comparable to other similar devices patterned using conventional HDL. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. The work was supported by the Sandia National Laboratories Directed Research and Development Program. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  1. How High Do Sandbars Grow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, J. S.; McElroy, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    Bar forms in wide sandy rivers store sediment, control channel hydraulics, and are fundamental units of riverine ecosystems. Bar form height is often used as a measure of channel depth in ancient fluvial deposits and is also a crucially important measure of habitat quality in modern rivers. In the Great Plains of North America, priority bird species use emergent bars to nest, and sandbar heights are a direct predictor of flood hazard for bird nests. Our current understanding of controls on bar height are limited to few datasets and ad hoc observations from specific settings. We here examine a new dataset of bar heights and explore models of bar growth. We present bar a height dataset from the Platte and Niobrara Rivers in Nebraska, and an unchannelized reach of the Missouri River along the Nebraska-South Dakota border. Bar height data are normalized by flow frequency, and we examine parsimonious statistical models between expected controls (depth, stage, discharge, flow duration, work etc.) and maximum bar heights. From this we generate empirical-statistical models of maximum bar height for wide, sand-bedded rivers in the Great Plains of the United States and rivers of similar morphology elsewhere. Migration of bar forms is driven by downstream slip-face additions of sediment sourced from their stoss sides, but bars also sequester sediment and grow vertically and longitudinally. We explore our empirical data with a geometric-kinematic model of bar growth driven by sediment transport from smaller-scale bedforms. Our goal is to understand physical limitations on bar growth and geometry, with implications for interpreting the rock record and predicting physically-driven riverine habitat variables.

  2. Rapid weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... loss-rapid weight loss; Overweight-rapid weight loss; Obesity-rapid weight loss; Diet-rapid weight loss ... for people who have health problems because of obesity. For these people, losing a lot of weight ...

  3. Administrative Costs in Higher Education: How Fast Are They Really Growing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedrick, David W.; Wassell, Charles S., Jr.; Henson, Steven E.

    2009-01-01

    It is widely believed that administrative expenditures in US higher education are growing too rapidly, particularly in relation to expenditures that are directly related to instruction, and that this so-called "administrative bloat" is a major factor in the rising cost of higher education. We argue that this perception of rapid growth is…

  4. Teacher-Student Relationships: A Growing Field of Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein-Yamashiro, Beth; Noam, Gil G.

    2013-01-01

    A substantial percentage of students come to school with a number of stress factors from life circumstances, personal clinical attributes, and typical adolescent challenges. As a result, some students become disengaged from school, are unsuccessful, or drop out of school. School structures are not always equipped to respond to such problems. A…

  5. Oceanic Impacts: A Growing Field of Fundamental Geoscience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gersonde, Rainer; Deutsch, Alexander; Ivanov, Boris A.; Kyte, Frank T.

    2002-01-01

    The importance of oceanic impacts of collisional events and resulting energy release, are briefly described. Data collection methods from the Eltanin (a mesosiderite projectile) deep water impact, are presented.

  6. El Nino Continues to Grow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The latest image from NASA's Jason oceanography satellite, taken during a 10-day collection cycle ending December 2, 2002, shows the Pacific dominated by two significant areas of higher-than-normal sealevel (warmer ocean temperatures). In the central equatorial Pacific, the large area of higher than normal sea surface heights(warmer than normal sea surface temperatures) associated with growing El Nino conditions has recently migrated eastward toward the coast of South America. Meanwhile, the influence of the 20- to 30-year larger than El Nino/La Nina pattern called the Pacific Decadal Oscillation continues to create warm, higher-than-normal sea-surface heights in the north Pacific that are connected in a warm horseshoe pattern with the western and southern Pacific. Sea-surface heights are a measure of how much heat is stored in the ocean below. This heat influences both present weather and future planetary climate events.

    The image shows red areas in the north Pacific and at the equator that are about 10 centimeters (4 inches) above normal; white areas indicate sea surface heights between 14 and 32 centimeters (6 to 13 inches) above normal. These regions contrast with the western tropical Pacific, where lower-than-normal sea levels (blue areas) have developed that are between 5 and 13 centimeters (2 and 5 inches) below normal, while purple areas range from 14 to 18 centimeters (6 to 7 inches) below normal. Along the equator, the red sea surface heights equate to sea surface temperature departures greater than one degree Celsius (two degrees Fahrenheit) and the white sea surface heights are sea surface temperatures 1.5 to 2.5 degrees Celsius(three to five degrees Fahrenheit) above normal.

    The U.S. portion of the Jason mission is managed by JPL for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C. Research on Earth's oceans using Jason and other space-based capabilities is conducted by NASA's Earth Science Enterprise to better understand and protect our

  7. Field Evaluation of Capillary Blood Samples as a Collection Specimen for the Rapid Diagnosis of Ebola Virus Infection During an Outbreak Emergency

    PubMed Central

    Strecker, Thomas; Palyi, Bernadett; Ellerbrok, Heinz; Jonckheere, Sylvie; de Clerck, Hilde; Bore, Joseph Akoi; Gabriel, Martin; Stoecker, Kilian; Eickmann, Markus; van Herp, Michel; Formenty, Pierre; Di Caro, Antonino; Becker, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Background. Reliable reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)–based diagnosis of Ebola virus infection currently requires a blood sample obtained by intravenous puncture. During the current Ebola outbreak in Guinea, we evaluated the usability of capillary blood samples collected from fingersticks of patients suspected of having Ebola virus disease (EVD) for field diagnostics during an outbreak emergency. Methods. A total of 120 venous and capillary blood samples were collected from 53 patients admitted to the Ebola Treatment Centre in Guéckédou, Guinea, between July and August 2014. All sample specimens were analyzed by RT-PCR using the RealStar Filovirus Screen RT-PCR Kit 1.0 from altona Diagnostics (Germany). We compared samples obtained by venipuncture and those obtained by capillary blood sampling absorbed onto swab devices. Results. The resulting sensitivity and specificity of tests performed with capillary blood samples were 86.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 71.9%–95.6%; 33/38 patients) and 100% (95% CI, 84.6%–100%; 22/22 patients), respectively. Conclusions. Our data suggest that capillary blood samples could serve as an alternative to venous blood samples for the diagnosis of EVD in resource-limited settings during a crisis. This can be of particular advantage in cases when venipuncture is difficult to perform—for example, with newborns and infants or when adult patients reject venipuncture for cultural or religious reasons. PMID:25991465

  8. Rapid speciation and determination of vanadium compounds using ion-pair reversed-phase ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kilibarda, Nikola; Afton, Scott E; Harrington, James M; Yan, Fei; Levine, Keith E

    2013-08-23

    Environmental vanadium contamination is a potential concern to public health, as evidenced by its place on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List as a priority contaminant. Vanadium toxicity varies significantly between different oxidation states; therefore, it is crucial to be able to monitor the speciation of vanadium in environmental samples. In this study, a novel method is described that utilizes ion-pair reversed-phase ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry (IP-RP-UHPLC-ICP-SFMS) to separate vanadyl and vanadate ions and resolve a major polyatomic spectral interference ((35)Cl(16)O(+)) in less than a minute. Detection limits were obtained in the low ngL(-1) (part per trillion) range with linear calibrations across several orders of magnitude (50ngL(-1)-100μgL(-1)). The mechanism of chromatographic retention was elucidated through investigation of the role of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, tetrabutylammonium ion and pH on elution. The optimized method was then applied to the speciation of vanadium in local lake water samples. PMID:23871564

  9. Lighting during grow-out and Salmonella in broiler flocks

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Lighting is used during conventional broiler grow-out to modify bird behaviour to reach the goals of production and improve bird welfare. The protocols for lighting intensity vary. In a field study, we evaluated if the lighting practices impact the burden of Salmonella in broiler flocks. Methods Conventional grow-out flocks reared in the states of Alabama, Mississippi and Texas, USA in 2003 to 2006 were sampled 1 week before harvest (n = 58) and upon arrival for processing (n = 56) by collecting feathered carcass rinsate, crop and one cecum from each of 30 birds, and during processing by collecting rinsate of 30 carcasses at pre-chilling (n = 56) and post-chilling points (n = 54). Litter samples and drag swabs of litter were collected from the grow-out houses after bird harvest (n = 56). Lighting practices for these flocks were obtained with a questionnaire completed by the growers. Associations between the lighting practices and the burden of Salmonella in the flocks were tested while accounting for variation between the grow-out farms, their production complexes and companies. Results Longer relative duration of reduced lights during the grow-out period was associated with reduced detection of Salmonella on the exterior of birds 1 week before harvest and on the broiler carcasses at the post-chilling point of processing. In addition, starting reduced lights for ≥18 hours per day later in the grow-out period was associated with decreased detection of Salmonella on the exterior of broilers arriving for processing and in the post-harvest drag swabs of litter from the grow-out house. Conclusions The results of this field study show that lighting practices implemented during broiler rearing can impact the burden of Salmonella in the flock. The underlying mechanisms are likely to be interactive. PMID:20587037

  10. Rapid real-time PCR methods to distinguish Salmonella Enteritidis wildtype field isolates from vaccine strains Salmovac SE/Gallivac SE and AviPro SALMONELLA VAC E.

    PubMed

    Maurischat, Sven; Szabo, Istvan; Baumann, Beatrice; Malorny, Burkhard

    2015-05-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is a major non-typhoid Salmonella serovar causing human salmonellosis mainly associated with the consumption of poultry and products thereof. To reduce infections in poultry, S. Enteritidis live vaccine strains AviPro SALMONELLA VAC E and Salmovac SE/Gallivac SE have been licensed and used in several countries worldwide. To definitively diagnose a S. Enteritidis contamination in vaccinated herds a reliable and fast method for the differentiation between vaccine and wildtype field isolates is required. In this study, we developed and validated real-time PCR (qPCR) assays to distinguish those variants genetically. Suitable target sequences were identified by whole genome sequencing (WGS) using the Illumina MiSeq system. SNP regions in kdpA and nhaA proved to be most useful for differentiation of AviPro SALMONELLA VAC E and Salmovac SE/Gallivac SE, respectively, from wildtype strains. For each vaccine strain one TaqMan-qPCR assay and one alternative approach using High Resolution Melting (HRM) analysis was designed. All 30 Salmovac SE and 7 AviPro SALMONELLA VAC E vaccine strain reisolates tested were correctly identified by both approaches (100% inclusivity). Furthermore, all 137 (TaqMan) and 97 (HRM) Salmonella non-vaccine and related Enterobacteriaceae strains tested were excluded (100% exclusivity). The analytical detection limits were determined to be approx. 10(2) genome copies/reaction for the TaqMan and 10(4) genome copies/reaction for the HRM approach. The real-time PCR assays proved to be a reliable and fast alternative to the cultural vaccine strain identification tests helping decision makers in control measurements to take action within a shorter period of time. PMID:25794902

  11. Rapid skin profiling with non-contact full-field optical coherence tomography: study of patients with diabetes mellitus type I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, P.; Talary, M. S.; Kolm, I.; Caduff, A.

    2009-07-01

    The application of the full-field optical coherence tomography (OCT) microscope to the characterisation of skin morphology is described. An automated procedure for analysis and interpretation of the OCT data has been developed which provides measures of the laterally averaged depth profiles of the skin reflectance. The skin at the dorsal side of the upper arm of 22 patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus has been characterised in a non-contact way. The OCT signal profile was compared with the optical histological data obtained with a commercial confocal microscope (CM). The highest correlation to the epidermal thickness (ET) obtained using CM was found for the distance from the entrance OCT peak to the first minimum of the reflection profile (R2=0.657, p<0.0001). The distance to the second OCT reflection peak was found to be less correlated to ET (R2=0.403, p=0.0009). A further analysis was undertaken to explore the relation between the subjects' demographical data and the OCT reflection profile. The distance to the second OCT peak demonstrated a correlation with a marginal statistical significance for the body-mass index (positive correlation with p=0.01) and age (negative correlation with p=0.062). At the same time the amplitude of the OCT signal, when compensated for signal attenuation with depth, is negatively correlated with age (p<0.0002). We suggest that this may be an effect of photo degradation of the dermal collagen. In the patient population studied, no relation could be determined between the measured skin morphology and the duration of diabetes or concentration of glycated haemoglobin in the blood.

  12. Disc Golf, a Growing Sport

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Joseph T.; Jones, Richard E.; Runstrom, Michael; Hardy, Jolene

    2015-01-01

    Background Disc golf is a sport played much like traditional golf, but rather than using a ball and club, players throw flying discs with various throwing motions. It has been played by an estimated 8 to 12 million people in the United States. Like all sports, injuries sustained while playing disc golf are not uncommon. Although formalized in the 1970s, it has grown at a rapid pace; however, disc golf–related injuries have yet to be described in the medical literature. Purpose To describe the most common injuries incurred by disc golf players while comparing the different types of throwing styles. Study Design Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods The data in this study were collected from 883 disc golf players who responded to an online survey collected over a 1-month period. Respondents answered 49 questions related to demographics, experience, style of play, and injury details. Using a chi-square analysis, common injuries sustained in players using backhand and forehand throwing styles were compared. Results More than 81% of respondents stated that they had sustained an injury playing disc golf, including injuries to the elbow (n = 325), shoulder (n = 305), back (n = 218), and knee (n = 199). The injuries were most commonly described as a muscle strain (n = 241), sprain (n = 162), and tendinitis (n = 145). The type of throw primarily used by players varied, with 86.2% using backhand, 12.7% using forehand, and 1.1% using an overhead throw. Players using a forehand throw were more likely to sustain an elbow injury (P = .014). Many players (n = 115) stated they had undergone surgery due to a disc golf–related injury, with the most common surgeries including meniscal, shoulder, spine, and foot/ankle surgeries. Conclusion The majority of surveyed disc golfers sustained at least 1 injury while playing disc golf, with many requiring surgery. The types of injuries sustained by players varied by the types of throw primarily used. As the sport of disc golf continues

  13. Rapid frequency scan EPR.

    PubMed

    Tseitlin, Mark; Rinard, George A; Quine, Richard W; Eaton, Sandra S; Eaton, Gareth R

    2011-08-01

    In rapid frequency scan EPR with triangular scans, sufficient time must be allowed to insure that the magnetization in the x, y plane decays to baseline at the end of the scan, which typically is about 5T(2) after the spins are excited. To permit relaxation of signals excited toward the extremes of the scan the total scan time required may be much longer than 5T(2). However, with periodic, saw-tooth excitation, the slow-scan EPR spectrum can be recovered by Fourier deconvolution of data recorded with a total scan period of 5T(2), even if some spins are excited later in the scan. This scan time is similar to polyphase excitation methods. The peak power required for either polyphase excitation or rapid frequency scans is substantially smaller than for pulsed EPR. The use of an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) and cross loop resonator facilitated implementation of the rapid frequency scan experiments reported here. The use of constant continuous low B(1), periodic excitation waveform, and constant external magnetic field is similar to polyphase excitation, but could be implemented without the AWG that is required for polyphase excitation. PMID:21664848

  14. Rapid Frequency Scan EPR

    PubMed Central

    Tseitlin, Mark; Rinard, George A.; Quine, Richard W.; Eaton, Sandra S.; Eaton, Gareth R.

    2011-01-01

    In rapid frequency scan EPR with triangular scans, sufficient time must be allowed to insure that the magnetization in the x,y plane decays to baseline at the end of the scan, which typically is about 5 T2 after the spins are excited. To permit relaxation of signals excited toward the extremes of the scan the total scan time required may be much longer than 5 T2. However, with periodic, saw-tooth excitation, the slow-scan EPR spectrum can be recovered by Fourier deconvolution of data recorded with a total scan period of 5 T2, even if some spins are excited later in the scan. This scan time is similar to polyphase excitation methods. The peak power required for either polyphase excitation or rapid frequency scans is substantially smaller than for pulsed EPR. The use of an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) and cross loop resonator facilitated implementation of the rapid frequency scan experiments reported here. The use of constant continuous low B1, periodic excitation waveform, and constant external magnetic field is similar to polyphase excitation, but could be implemented without the AWG that is required for polyphase excitation. PMID:21664848

  15. Rapid adhesive bonding concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, B. A.; Tyeryar, J. R.; Hodges, W. T.

    1984-01-01

    Adhesive bonding in the aerospace industry typically utilizes autoclaves or presses which have considerable thermal mass. As a consequence, the rates of heatup and cooldown of the bonded parts are limited and the total time and cost of the bonding process is often relatively high. Many of the adhesives themselves do not inherently require long processing times. Bonding could be performed rapidly if the heat was concentrated in the bond lines or at least in the adherends. Rapid adhesive bonding concepts were developed to utilize induction heating techniques to provide heat directly to the bond line and/or adherends without heating the entire structure, supports, and fixtures of a bonding assembly. Bonding times for specimens are cut by a factor of 10 to 100 compared to standard press bonding. The development of rapid adhesive bonding for lap shear specimens (per ASTM D1003 and D3163), for aerospace panel bonding, and for field repair needs of metallic and advanced fiber reinforced polymeric matrix composite structures are reviewed.

  16. A growing-drop technique for measuring dynamic interfacial tension

    SciTech Connect

    MacLeod, C.A.; Radke, C.J.

    1993-10-01

    A novel, growing-drop technique is described for measuring dynamic interfacial tension due to sorption of surface-active solutes. The proposed method relates the instantaneous pressure and size of expanding liquid drops to interfacial tension and is useful for measuring both liquid/gas and liquid/liquid tensions over a wide range of time scales, currently from 10 ms to several hours. Growing-drop measurements on surfactant-free water/air and water/octanol interfaces yield constant tensions equal to their known literature values. For surfactant-laden, liquid drops, the growing-drop technique captures the actual transient tension evolution of a single interface, rather than interval times as with the classic maximum-drop-pressure and drop.-volume tension measurements. Dynamic tensions measured for 0.25 mM aqueous 1-decanol solution/air and 0.02 kg/m{sup 3} aqueous Triton X-100 solution/dodecane interfaces show nonmonotonic behavior, indicating slow surfactant transport relative to the imposed rates of interfacial dilatation. The dynamic tension of a purified and fresh 6 mM aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solution/air interface shows only a monotonic decrease, indicating rapid surfactant transport relative to the imposed rates of dilatation. ConverselY, an aged SDS solution, naturally containing trace dodecanol impurities, exhibits dynamic tensions which reflect a superposition of the rapidly equilibrating SDS and the slowly adsorbing dodecanol.

  17. Stress Induced Branching of Growing Crystals on Curved Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Christian; Backofen, Rainer; Voigt, Axel

    2016-04-01

    If two-dimensional crystals grow on a curved surface, the Gaussian curvature of the surface induces elastic stress and affects the growth pathway. The elastic stress can be alleviated by incorporating defects or, if this is energetically unfavorable, via an elastic instability which leads to anisotropic growth with branched ribbonlike structures. This instability provides a generic route to grow defect-free crystals on curved surfaces. Depending on the elastic properties of the crystal and the geometric properties of the surface, different growth morphologies with two-, four-, and sixfold symmetry develop. Using a phase field crystal type modeling approach, we provide a microscopic understanding of the morphology selection. PMID:27081988

  18. Stress Induced Branching of Growing Crystals on Curved Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, Christian; Backofen, Rainer; Voigt, Axel

    2016-04-01

    If two-dimensional crystals grow on a curved surface, the Gaussian curvature of the surface induces elastic stress and affects the growth pathway. The elastic stress can be alleviated by incorporating defects or, if this is energetically unfavorable, via an elastic instability which leads to anisotropic growth with branched ribbonlike structures. This instability provides a generic route to grow defect-free crystals on curved surfaces. Depending on the elastic properties of the crystal and the geometric properties of the surface, different growth morphologies with two-, four-, and sixfold symmetry develop. Using a phase field crystal type modeling approach, we provide a microscopic understanding of the morphology selection.

  19. Watching Faults Grow in Sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    Accretionary sandbox experiments provide a rich environment for investigating the processes of fault development. These experiments engage students because 1) they enable direct observation of fault growth, which is impossible in the crust (type 1 physical model), 2) they are not only representational but can also be manipulated (type 2 physical model), 3) they can be used to test hypotheses (type 3 physical model) and 4) they resemble experiments performed by structural geology researchers around the world. The structural geology courses at UMass Amherst utilize a series of accretionary sandboxes experiments where students first watch a video of an experiment and then perform a group experiment. The experiments motivate discussions of what conditions they would change and what outcomes they would expect from these changes; hypothesis development. These discussions inevitably lead to calculations of the scaling relationships between model and crustal fault growth and provide insight into the crustal processes represented within the dry sand. Sketching of the experiments has been shown to be a very effective assessment method as the students reveal which features they are analyzing. Another approach used at UMass is to set up a forensic experiment. The experiment is set up with spatially varying basal friction before the meeting and students must figure out what the basal conditions are through the experiment. This experiment leads to discussions of equilibrium and force balance within the accretionary wedge. Displacement fields can be captured throughout the experiment using inexpensive digital image correlation techniques to foster quantitative analysis of the experiments.

  20. Comparison of breast milk vitamin A concentration measured in fresh milk by a rapid field assay (the iCheck FLUORO) with standard measurement of stored milk by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Engle-Stone, R; Haskell, M J; La Frano, M R; Ndjebayi, A O; Nankap, M; Brown, K H

    2014-08-01

    Availability of rapid, point-of-contact analytical methods would facilitate the use of breast milk vitamin A concentration (BMVA) to assess vitamin A (VA) status. We compared BMVA concentrations measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (the standard technique) with those by iCheck FLUORO, a new portable fluorometer that can rapidly quantify BMVA. Casual breast milk samples (n=154) were collected during a representative survey in Yaoundé and Douala, Cameroon. Milk fat and BMVA concentrations (by iCheck) were measured in fresh milk in the field. After storage at <-20 °C, BMVA concentrations were also measured by HPLC. BMVA values from the two methods were highly correlated (R(2)=0.72 for BMVA/l; R(2)=0.62 for BMVA/g fat, both P<0.0001). HPLC values were greater than iCheck values on average, and the difference increased with increasing BMVA. The iCheck FLUORO could be useful for monitoring fortification programs, but before-after surveys to assess change in BMVA concentrations should use one method consistently. PMID:24736678

  1. Rapid Evaporation of microbubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Jitendra; Esmaeeli, Asghar

    2008-11-01

    When a liquid is heated to a temperature far above its boiling point, it evaporates abruptly. Boiling of liquid at high temperatures can be explosive and destructive, and poses a potential hazard for a host of industrial processes. Explosive boiling may occur if a cold and volatile liquid is brought into contact with a hot and non-volatile liquid, or if a liquid is superheated or depressurized rapidly. Such possibilities are realized, for example, in the depressurization of low boiling point liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the pipelines or storage tanks as a result of a leak. While boiling of highly heated liquids can be destructive at macroscale, the (nearly) instantaneous pace of the process and the release of large amount of kinetic energy make the phenomena extremely attractive at microscale where it is possible to utilize the released energy to derive micromechanical systems. For instance, there is currently a growing interest in micro-explosion of liquid for generation of micro bubbles for actuation purposes. The aim of the current study is to gain a fundamental understanding of the subject using direct numerical simulations. In particular, we seek to investigate the boundary between stable and unstable nucleus growth in terms of the degree of liquid superheat and to compare the dynamics of unstable and stable growth.

  2. Problems of rapid growth.

    PubMed

    Kim, T D

    1980-01-01

    South Korea's export-oriented development strategy has achieved a remarkable growth record, but it has also brought 2 different problems: 1) since the country's exports accounted for about 1% of total world export volume, the 1st world has become fearful about Korea's aggressive export drive; and 2) the fact that exports account for over 30% of its total gross national product (GNP) exposes the vulnerability of South Korea's economy itself. South Korea continues to be a poor nation, although it is rated as 1 of the most rapidly growing middle income economies. A World Bank 1978 report shows Korea to be 28th of 58 middle income countries in terms of per capita GNP in 1976. Of 11 newly industrializing countries (NIC), 5 in the European continent are more advanced than the others. A recent emphasis on the basic human needs approach has tended to downgrade the concept of GNP. Korea has only an abundant labor force and is without any natural resources. Consequently, Korea utilized an export-oriented development strategy. Oil requirements are met with imports, and almost all raw materials to be processed into exportable products must be imported. To pay import bills Korea must export and earn foreign exchange. It must be emphasized that foreign trade must always be 2-way traffic. In order to export more to middle income countries like Korea, the countries of the 1st world need to ease their protectionist measures against imports from developing countries. PMID:12336527

  3. Rapid shallow breathing

    MedlinePlus

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the lung Choking Chronic obstructive ...

  4. Growing Vegetables. People on the Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of Governmental and Public Affairs.

    This booklet, one in a series about life on modern farms, describes farm operations and some activities in the lives of six vegetable farmers throughout the United States. The booklet visits the tomato growing of Carl Schneider and his partners and the lettuce growing farm of Norman Martella, both in California. It then includes brief accounts of…

  5. Geometric Growing Patterns: What's the Rule?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hourigan, Mairéad; Leavy, Aisling

    2015-01-01

    While within a geometric repeating pattern, there is an identifiable core which is made up of objects that repeat in a predictable manner, a geometric growing pattern (also called visual or pictorial growing patterns in other curricula) "is a pattern that is made from a sequence of figures [or objects] that change from one term to the next in…

  6. Using Inorganic Crystals To Grow Protein Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shlichta, Paul J.; Mcpherson, Alexander A.

    1989-01-01

    Solid materials serve as nucleating agents. Protein crystals induced by heterogeneous nucleation and in some cases by epitaxy to grow at lower supersaturations than needed for spontaneous nucleation. Heterogeneous nucleation makes possible to grow large, defect-free single crystals of protein more readily. Such protein crystals benefits research in biochemistry and pharmacology.

  7. Rapid Polymer Sequencer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolc, Viktor (Inventor); Brock, Mathew W. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Method and system for rapid and accurate determination of each of a sequence of unknown polymer components, such as nucleic acid components. A self-assembling monolayer of a selected substance is optionally provided on an interior surface of a pipette tip, and the interior surface is immersed in a selected liquid. A selected electrical field is impressed in a longitudinal or transverse direction at the tip, a polymer sequence is passed through the tip, and a change in an electrical current signal is measured as each polymer component passes through the tip. Each measured change in electrical current signals is compared with a database of reference signals, with each reference signal identified with a polymer component, to identify the unknown polymer component. The tip preferably has a pore inner diameter of no more than about 40 nm and is prepared by heating and pulling a very small section of a glass tubing.

  8. Meeting the Growing Need for Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine Physicians.

    PubMed

    Houtrow, Amy J; Pruitt, David W

    2016-04-01

    Disability in childhood is on the rise. In light of the national shortage of pediatric rehabilitation medicine physicians to provide care for the growing population of children with disabilities, the field of pediatric rehabilitation medicine should consider allowing pediatric trainees into pediatric rehabilitation medicine fellowships. There are concerns about how best to train these fellows. This commentary discusses the issues and concludes that training opportunities should be developed to allow pediatricians to become pediatric rehabilitation medicine physicians. PMID:26772528

  9. Modeling of subglacial hydrological development following rapid supraglacial lake drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dow, C. F.; Kulessa, B.; Rutt, I. C.; Tsai, V. C.; Pimentel, S.; Doyle, S. H.; As, D.; Lindbäck, K.; Pettersson, R.; Jones, G. A.; Hubbard, A.

    2015-06-01

    The rapid drainage of supraglacial lakes injects substantial volumes of water to the bed of the Greenland ice sheet over short timescales. The effect of these water pulses on the development of basal hydrological systems is largely unknown. To address this, we develop a lake drainage model incorporating both (1) a subglacial radial flux element driven by elastic hydraulic jacking and (2) downstream drainage through a linked channelized and distributed system. Here we present the model and examine whether substantial, efficient subglacial channels can form during or following lake drainage events and their effect on the water pressure in the surrounding distributed system. We force the model with field data from a lake drainage site, 70 km from the terminus of Russell Glacier in West Greenland. The model outputs suggest that efficient subglacial channels do not readily form in the vicinity of the lake during rapid drainage and instead water is evacuated primarily by a transient turbulent sheet and the distributed system. Following lake drainage, channels grow but are not large enough to reduce the water pressure in the surrounding distributed system, unless preexisting channels are present throughout the domain. Our results have implications for the analysis of subglacial hydrological systems in regions where rapid lake drainage provides the primary mechanism for surface-to-bed connections.

  10. Growing single crystals in silica gel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, B.

    1970-01-01

    Two types of chemical reactions for crystal growing are discussed. The first is a metathetical reaction to produce calcium tartrate tetrahydrate crystals, the second is a decomplexation reaction to produce cuprous chloride crystals.

  11. Plants growing in Apollo 15 lunar material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A close view of germ free plants - lettuce (left), tomato (right center and left center) and citrus (right). This type of testing is an effort at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) to grow germ-free plants.

  12. Astrophysics: Growing planet brought to light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhaohuan

    2015-11-01

    Thousands of extrasolar planets have been discovered, but none is a planet in its infancy. Observations have finally been made of a young planet growing in its birthplace -- opening the way to many more such discoveries. See Letter p.342

  13. The magnetic field of the Large Magellanic Cloud revealed through Faraday rotation.

    PubMed

    Gaensler, B M; Haverkorn, M; Staveley-Smith, L; Dickey, J M; McClure-Griffiths, N M; Dickel, J R; Wolleben, M

    2005-03-11

    We have measured the Faraday rotation toward a large sample of polarized radio sources behind the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) to determine the structure of this galaxy's magnetic field. The magnetic field of the LMC consists of a coherent axisymmetric spiral of field strength approximately 1 microgauss. Strong fluctuations in the magnetic field are also seen on small (<0.5 parsec) and large (approximately 100 parsecs) scales. The large bursts of recent star formation and supernova activity in the LMC argue against standard dynamo theory, adding to the growing evidence for rapid field amplification in galaxies. PMID:15761149

  14. PUBLISHER'S NOTE: Rapid Communications Rapid Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Tom

    2009-09-01

    As part of a general review of Superconductor Science and Technology, we have been examining the scope for Rapid Communications (RAPs). We recognize these articles make up an important part of the journal representing the latest state-of-the-art research in superconductivity. To reflect this, we have devised a new scope for this article type: 'Rapid Communications. The journal offers open access to outstanding short articles (no longer than 5 journal pages or 4500 words including figures) reporting new and timely developments in superconductivity and its applications. These articles should report very substantial new advances in superconductivity to the readers of Superconductor Science and Technology, but are not expected to meet any requirement of 'general interest'. RAPs will be processed quickly (average receipt to online publication for RAPs is around 60 days) and are permanently free to read in the electronic journal. Authors submitting a RAP should provide reasons why the work is urgent and requires rapid publication. Each RAP will be assessed for suitability by our Reviews and Rapid Communications Editor before full peer review takes place.' The essential points are: They should report very substantial new advances in superconductivity and its application; They must be no longer than 5 journal pages long (approx. 4500 words); Average publication time for a Rapid Communication is 60 days; They are free to read. As mentioned in the previous publisher's announcement (2009 Supercond. Sci. Technol. 22 010101), each submitted Rapid Communication must come with a letter justifying why it should be prioritized over regular papers and will be pre-assessed by our Reviews and Rapid Communications Editor. In addition, we will work with the authors of any Rapid Communication to promote and raise the visibility of the work presented in it. We will be making further changes to the journal in the near future and we write to you accordingly. Thank you for your kind

  15. Monitoring Southern African Rainfall Season Utilizing Growing Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husak, G. J.; Magadzire, T.

    2005-12-01

    Variability in timing and amount of rainfall during the growing season in southern Africa can have a dramatic impact on livelihoods in the region. This research integrates satellite model rainfall amounts with expectations for the remainder of the season to provide an envelope of likely outcomes for different growing regions. Satellite information combined with station observations combine to make the African Rainfall Climatology (ARC), which is used to estimate the start of season (SOS) and monitor the season-to-date rainfall accumulations at a pixel level. The Collaborative Historical African Rainfall Model (CHARM) - a 36-year climatology based on available station fields, global climate models and an orographic component - is used to estimate various scenarios for the remainder of the season. The season length is defined by location specific length of growing period provided by the Southern African Development Community (SADC). Once the SOS is observed according to the ARC, seasonal accumulations for each pixel begin and are evaluated at a dekadal interval. These accumulations can be compared to historical accumulations after an equal number of dekads to evaluate the progression of the season as a percentage of historical season-to-date totals for each pixel. Rainfall accumulations for the remainder of the growing period can be tallied for each year of the CHARM dataset, and Gamma probability distribution parameters can be fit to these values. Using these distribution parameters, it is possible to evaluate scenarios for the remainder of the season and combine them with the accumulations from the ARC to arrive at total rainfall accumulated during a growing period. Analysis of these totals can be compared with long-term mean accumulations for the growing period to estimate how crops will fare relative to past performance. Evaluation of various wet and dry scenarios for the remainder of the season, defined here as the 80th percentile and 20th percentile, provide an

  16. Peptostreptococcus productus strain that grows rapidly with CO as the energy source.

    PubMed Central

    Lorowitz, W H; Bryant, M P

    1984-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria were enriched with a sewage digestor sludge inoculum and a mineral medium supplemented with B-vitamins and 0.05% yeast extract and with a 50% CO-30% N2-20% CO2 (2 atm [202 kPa]) gas phase. Microscopic observation revealed an abundance of gram-positive cocci, 1.0 by 1.4 micron, which occurred in pairs or chains. The coccus, strain U-1, was isolated by using roll tubes with CO as the energy source. Based on morphology, sugars fermented, fermentation products from glucose (H2, acetate, lactate, and succinate), and other features, strain U-1 was identified as Peptostreptococcus productus IIb (similar to the type strain). The doubling time with up to 50% CO was 1.5 h; acetate and CO2 were the major products. In addition, no significant change in the doubling time was observed with 90% CO. Some stock strains were also able to use CO, although not as well. Strain U-1 produced acetate during growth with H2-CO2. Other C1 compounds did not support growth. Most probable numbers of CO utilizers morphologically identical with strain U-1 were 7.5 X 10(6) and 1.1 X 10(5) cells per g for anaerobic digestor sludge and human feces, respectively. PMID:6430231

  17. Two pine endo-beta-1,4-glucanases are associated with rapidly growing reproductive structures.

    PubMed

    Loopstra, C A; Mouradov, A; Vivian-Smith, A; Glassick, T V; Gale, B V; Southerton, S G; Marshall, H; Teasdale, R D

    1998-03-01

    Two cDNA clones encoding endo-beta-1,4-glucanases (EGases) were isolated from a radiata pine (Pinus radiata) cDNA library prepared from immature female strobili. The cDNAs PrCel1 (inus adiata cellulase ) and PrCel2 encode proteins 509 and 515 amino acids in length, respectively, including putative signal peptides. Both proteins contain domains conserved in plant and bacterial EGases. The proteins PRCEL1 and PRCEL2 showed strong similarity to each other (76% amino acid identity), and higher similarity to TPP18 (73 and 67%, respectively), an EGase cloned from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) pistils, than to any other reported EGases. Northern-blot analyses indicated that both genes displayed a similar pattern of expression. The only significant difference was in the level of expression. In situ hybridizations were used to demonstrate that, within differentiating pine reproductive structures, PrCel1 expression was greatest in microsporangia in pollen strobili and near the developing ovule in the seed strobili. Expression was also found in vegetative tissues, especially in regions experiencing cell elongation, such as the elongating region of root tips. Both proteins have an ability to degrade carboxymethylcellulose in vitro. Genomic-blot analysis indicated the presence of a family of EGase genes in the radiata pine genome, and that PrCel1 and PrCel2 are transcribed from distinct one-copy genes. PMID:9501128

  18. Two Pine Endo-β-1,4-Glucanases Are Associated with Rapidly Growing Reproductive Structures

    PubMed Central

    Loopstra, Carol A.; Mouradov, Aidyn; Vivian-Smith, Adam; Glassick, Tina V.; Gale, Beth V.; Southerton, Simon G.; Marshall, Heidi; Teasdale, Robert D.

    1998-01-01

    Two cDNA clones encoding endo-β-1,4-glucanases (EGases) were isolated from a radiata pine (Pinus radiata) cDNA library prepared from immature female strobili. The cDNAs PrCel1 (Pinus radiata cellulase 1) and PrCel2 encode proteins 509 and 515 amino acids in length, respectively, including putative signal peptides. Both proteins contain domains conserved in plant and bacterial EGases. The proteins PRCEL1 and PRCEL2 showed strong similarity to each other (76% amino acid identity), and higher similarity to TPP18 (73 and 67%, respectively), an EGase cloned from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) pistils, than to any other reported EGases. Northern-blot analyses indicated that both genes displayed a similar pattern of expression. The only significant difference was in the level of expression. In situ hybridizations were used to demonstrate that, within differentiating pine reproductive structures, PrCel1 expression was greatest in microsporangia in pollen strobili and near the developing ovule in the seed strobili. Expression was also found in vegetative tissues, especially in regions experiencing cell elongation, such as the elongating region of root tips. Both proteins have an ability to degrade carboxymethylcellulose in vitro. Genomic-blot analysis indicated the presence of a family of EGase genes in the radiata pine genome, and that PrCel1 and PrCel2 are transcribed from distinct one-copy genes. PMID:9501128

  19. Report on immediate irradiation of a rapidly growing sarcoma of the scalp prior to wound closure.

    PubMed

    Müller, Cornelia Sigrid Lissi; Jungmann, Janina; Pföhler, Claudia; Mohammad, Farid; Rübe, Christian; Vogt, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Cutaneous sarcomas are primarily treated with extensive surgery, and occasionally require adjuvant radiation therapy following complete wound healing. Thus, sarcoma surgery leads to large and deep wounds, and the initiation of adjuvant radiation therapy depends on the time required for defect closure. We present the case of a male patient with pleomorphic sarcoma of the temporal skin, which was treated with multiple wide and deep excisions, instant application of an Integra(®) bilayer, and immediate radiation therapy prior to wound closure. The objective was to investigate the usefulness of a dermal substitute (Integra(®) ) in accelerating the effect of adjuvant radiation therapy on scalp defects after tumor surgery. A ring-shaped skin area - at risk for recurrence - around the Integra(®) bilayer was irradiated with a total of 59.4 Gy. No necrosis, infection, or major radiotoxicity was observed, and a subsequent split skin graft following radiation therapy remained fully vital until complete healing. In conclusion, a combined procedure consisting of sequential tumor surgery and subsequent application of a dermal substitute in conjunction with immediate initiation of adjuvant radiation therapy is, in principle, possible, and may permit innovative therapeutic options in dermatooncology and dermatosurgery. PMID:27119488

  20. Complexity in Quality Assurance in a Rapidly Growing Free Economic Environment: A UAE Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawazik, Wessen; Carroll, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The Knowledge and Human Development Authority in Dubai has developed an innovative system of quality assurance designed to ensure that the appropriate international standards are being maintained through this cross-border method of delivery. This paper describes and provides the strategic rationale for this new model of "validation" and sets it in…

  1. Evapotranspiration from rapidly growing young saltcedar in the Gila River Valley of Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leppanen, O.E.

    1981-01-01

    Estimates of evapotranspiration by young saltcedar, based on energy budget measurements, were made for an unfilled portion of the San Carlos Reservoir in east-central Arizona. Foty-eight days of record were obtained before the site was inundated. The young saltcedar, which had grown from seed earlier in the season , had an average daily evapotranspiration of 5.8 millimeters of water during the period August 17, 1971, to October 3, 1971. Daily values ranged from 9.2 millimeters to a low of 0.23 millimeters which occurred during a stormy day. (USGS)

  2. Impairment of osteoclastic bone resorption in rapidly growing female p47phox knockout mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bone formation is dependent on the activity and differentiation of osteoblasts; whereas resorption of preexisting mineralized bone matrix by osteoclasts is necessary not only for bone development but also for regeneration and remodeling. Bone remodeling is a process in which osteoblasts and osteocla...

  3. Analytically Derived Neighborhoods in a Rapidly Growing West African City: The Case of Accra, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Getis, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    Large numbers of people are currently migrating from the poor, inland areas of West Coast Africa to the major cities of Lagos, Accra, Abidjan, and other budding metropolises (Figures 1 and 2). The infrastructure of the Sub-Saharan African cities is inadequate to service their burgeoning populations. An argument is presented for using scientifically derived neighborhoods as the building blocks for current African urban understanding and planning. In this paper, I will explore the neighborhood concept and use available data and new heterogeneity statistics to derive homogeneous neighborhoods. The statistics are explained and maps of Accra neighborhoods are given. PMID:25435640

  4. Structures of nuclear phosphoproteins characteristic of rapidly growing HeLa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Arezzo, F.; Choi, Y.C.

    1986-05-01

    To study characteristic events of phosphorylation in cell growth, phosphoproteins were labeled with (/sup 32/P)-phosphate at mid-logarithmic phase of HeLa cell proliferation. Among a number of nuclear phosphoproteins isolated, three characteristic classes of most highly labeled phosphoproteins were identified by DEAE-column chromatography (0.2-0.25 M NaCl gradient, pH 6.0), followed by 7.5% SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Chemical characterization of their structures showed that they contained three different forms of post-translational modifications: Class I with phosphoserine, Class II with phosphoserine and oligonulceotides (5-10 nucleotides long), and Class III with phosphoserine, 5'-GMP and poly(ADP-ribose). Class I is represented by nucleolar C-23. Class II is represented by nucleolar 125 kDa and nucleoplasmic 50 kDa with GC rich sequences (G = 30%, C = 40%) and 5'-linking pCp. Class III is represented by nucleoplasmic poly(ADP-ribose) proteins (18 different species, MW ranges 30 kDa-200 kDa) with branched poly(ADP-ribose) longer than tRNA. When HeLa cells were labeled at non-mid-logarithmic phase, labeling of these classes were 4 fold less efficient, indicating their functional importance in cell proliferation.

  5. Rapid geophysical surveyor

    SciTech Connect

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sties where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed due to refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was one of several projects funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) on the INEL in September of 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 inches along survey lines spaced 1 foot apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 man-days using conventional ground survey techniques. This report documents the design and demonstration of the RGS concept including the presentation of magnetic data collected at the SDA. The surveys were able to show pit and trench boundaries and determine details of their spatial orientation never before achieved.

  6. Rapid geophysical surveyor

    SciTech Connect

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-07-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sties where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed due to refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was one of several projects funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) on the INEL in September of 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 inches along survey lines spaced 1 foot apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 man-days using conventional ground survey techniques. This report documents the design and demonstration of the RGS concept including the presentation of magnetic data collected at the SDA. The surveys were able to show pit and trench boundaries and determine details of their spatial orientation never before achieved.

  7. Growing local likelihood network: Emergence of communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S.; Small, M.

    2015-10-01

    In many real situations, networks grow only via local interactions. New nodes are added to the growing network with information only pertaining to a small subset of existing nodes. Multilevel marketing, social networks, and disease models can all be depicted as growing networks based on local (network path-length) distance information. In these examples, all nodes whose distance from a chosen center is less than d form a subgraph. Hence, we grow networks with information only from these subgraphs. Moreover, we use a likelihood-based method, where at each step we modify the networks by changing their likelihood to be closer to the expected degree distribution. Combining the local information and the likelihood method, we grow networks that exhibit novel features. We discover that the likelihood method, over certain parameter ranges, can generate networks with highly modulated communities, even when global information is not available. Communities and clusters are abundant in real-life networks, and the method proposed here provides a natural mechanism for the emergence of communities in scale-free networks. In addition, the algorithmic implementation of network growth via local information is substantially faster than global methods and allows for the exploration of much larger networks.

  8. Projected changes in Malawi's growing season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vizy, Edward K.; Cook, Kerry H.; Chimphamba, James; McCusker, Brent

    2015-09-01

    Regional climate model projections at 30-km resolution are used to predict future mid-century and late-century growing season changes over Malawi due to global warming under the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 business-as-usual emissions forcing scenario. Three different methods for estimating growing season characteristics are applied and evaluated. All three methods yield reasonable growing season length, onset, and demise date estimates over Malawi given the wide range of uncertainty of the observations. The projections indicate the likelihood for a shorter growing season in the future over Malawi south of 13.5°S. At mid-century the growing season length is predicted to be 20-40 % (20-55 days) shorter over the southernmost districts and 5-20 % (5-30 days) shorter over the central districts. By late-century the length is predicted to be 25-55 % (20-70 days) shorter with significant differences extending into northern Malawi. The shorter growing season is primarily associated with an earlier demise date, as no significant change in the onset date is predicted. Analysis of the regional circulation and horizontal moisture flux transport indicates that the earlier demise is associated with an intensification of the thermal low over the Kalahari Desert to the south and west of Malawi and an expansion of the mid-tropospheric Kalahari anticyclone over southern Africa. The stronger thermal low/anticyclone enhances the moisture flux divergence over Malawi suppressing the convective activity at the end of the wet season.

  9. Implementation of a Multichannel Serial Data Streaming Algorithm using the Xilinx Serial RapidIO Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doxley, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    In the current world of applications that use reconfigurable technology implemented on field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), there is a need for flexible architectures that can grow as the systems evolve. A project has limited resources and a fixed set of requirements that development efforts are tasked to meet. Designers must develop robust solutions that practically meet the current customer demands and also have the ability to grow for future performance. This paper describes the development of a high speed serial data streaming algorithm that allows for transmission of multiple data channels over a single serial link. The technique has the ability to change to meet new applications developed for future design considerations. This approach uses the Xilinx Serial RapidIO LOGICORE Solution to implement a flexible infrastructure to meet the current project requirements with the ability to adapt future system designs.

  10. Rapid Active Sampling Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    A field-deployable, battery-powered Rapid Active Sampling Package (RASP), originally designed for sampling strong materials during lunar and planetary missions, shows strong utility for terrestrial geological use. The technology is proving to be simple and effective for sampling and processing materials of strength. Although this originally was intended for planetary and lunar applications, the RASP is very useful as a powered hand tool for geologists and the mining industry to quickly sample and process rocks in the field on Earth. The RASP allows geologists to surgically acquire samples of rock for later laboratory analysis. This tool, roughly the size of a wrench, allows the user to cut away swaths of weathering rinds, revealing pristine rock surfaces for observation and subsequent sampling with the same tool. RASPing deeper (.3.5 cm) exposes single rock strata in-situ. Where a geologist fs hammer can only expose unweathered layers of rock, the RASP can do the same, and then has the added ability to capture and process samples into powder with particle sizes less than 150 microns, making it easier for XRD/XRF (x-ray diffraction/x-ray fluorescence). The tool uses a rotating rasp bit (or two counter-rotating bits) that resides inside or above the catch container. The container has an open slot to allow the bit to extend outside the container and to allow cuttings to enter and be caught. When the slot and rasp bit are in contact with a substrate, the bit is plunged into it in a matter of seconds to reach pristine rock. A user in the field may sample a rock multiple times at multiple depths in minutes, instead of having to cut out huge, heavy rock samples for transport back to a lab for analysis. Because of the speed and accuracy of the RASP, hundreds of samples can be taken in one day. RASP-acquired samples are small and easily carried. A user can characterize more area in less time than by using conventional methods. The field-deployable RASP used a Ni

  11. The Human Services Planning Associations Meet Social Service Needs in Growing Small Towns and Rural Counties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sills, Mark R.

    1993-01-01

    The Planning Alliance for Community Empowerment, a public-private organization, was formed to address the need for coordinated, efficiently managed social services programs in rapidly growing Henderson County, North Carolina. For small rural towns and counties, planning organizations lead to greater availability of services and efficient…

  12. EFFECT OF PROTOZOAN PREDATION ON RELATIVE ABUNDANCE OF FAST- AND SLOW-GROWING BACTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Survival of six bacterial species with different growth rates was tested in raw sewage and sewage rendered free of protozoa. hen the six species were inoculated at the same densities into sewage containing protozoa, the three slow-growing species were rapidly eliminated, and two ...

  13. A new rapid and non-destructive method to detect tephra layers and cryptotephras: applying to the first distal tephrostratigraphic record of the Chaîne des Puys volcanic field (France).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouannic, Gwénolé; Walter-Simonnet, Anne-Véronique; Bossuet, Gilles; Delabrousse, Eric; Cubizolle, Hervé

    2014-05-01

    Tephrostratigraphy has been considerably developed for 30 years, mainly in palaeo-environmental studies. In such studies, distal tephra layers are important chronological markers, but they are also tools to establish or specify record of past eruptions of a volcanic field. Nowadays, development of effective rapid methods to detect tephra layers in sedimentary records of various compositions is a challenge. Many classic methods for detection of tephra layers, like regular sampling or magnetic susceptibility measurements, have shown their limits. Regular sampling takes a long time, and finding tephra layers remains uncertain. Moreover, magnetic susceptibility maesurements, although it is a non-destructive method, is ineffective when tephra layers are made of volcanic glass shards with differentiated magma composition. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is also a non-destructive method but it takes a very long time to analyze a core with sufficient high resolution, and measurements only concern the surface of the sediment. We propose a new method allows detection of tephra layers with, for the first time, a 3D resolution: the Computed Tomography Scan (CT- Scan). This method, regularly used in medicine, allows there to obtain pictures of materials density on 3D with inframillimetric measurement ranges. Then, it is possible to detect tephras, cryptotephras (invisible by naked eye), reworked tephra layers even when tephra layers don't outcrop at the surface of the sediment (and are therefore undetectable by usual methods like XRF and magnetic susceptibility). This method has been tried out on tephras sedimented in different types of sediments (silicated, carbonated and organic matter). Our results show that this method is very efficient for peaty environment. Used on coring carried out in Forez Mountains (French Massif Central), CT-Scan allows to detect more tephra layers than usual methods (XRF and magnetic susceptibility). Results presented here allow to build the first

  14. Rapid adaptation to climate change.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Angela M

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, amid growing concerns that changing climate is affecting species distributions and ecosystems, predicting responses to rapid environmental change has become a major goal. In this issue, Franks and colleagues take a first step towards this objective (Franks et al. 2016). They examine genomewide signatures of selection in populations of Brassica rapa after a severe multiyear drought. Together with other authors, Franks had previously shown that flowering time was reduced after this particular drought and that the reduction was genetically encoded. Now, the authors have sequenced previously stored samples to compare allele frequencies before and after the drought and identify the loci with the most extreme shifts in frequencies. The loci they identify largely differ between populations, suggesting that different genetic variants may be responsible for reduction in flowering time in the two populations. PMID:27463237

  15. Rapid Polymer Sequencer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolc, Viktor (Inventor); Brock, Matthew W (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Method and system for rapid and accurate determination of each of a sequence of unknown polymer components, such as nucleic acid components. A self-assembling monolayer of a selected substance is optionally provided on an interior surface of a pipette tip, and the interior surface is immersed in a selected liquid. A selected electrical field is impressed in a longitudinal direction, or in a transverse direction, in the tip region, a polymer sequence is passed through the tip region, and a change in an electrical current signal is measured as each polymer component passes through the tip region. Each of the measured changes in electrical current signals is compared with a database of reference electrical change signals, with each reference signal corresponding to an identified polymer component, to identify the unknown polymer component with a reference polymer component. The nanopore preferably has a pore inner diameter of no more than about 40 nm and is prepared by heating and pulling a very small section of a glass tubing.

  16. Growing up as a Young Artist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, George

    2012-01-01

    "Growing Up as a Young Artist" is an illustrated book assignment that involves researching family scrapbooks, photo albums and films, and inquiring about family anecdotes for clues to one's artistic roots. Students creatively reflect on their early memories of imaginative events, as each page is filled with memories of creative activities they…

  17. Postponed Parenthood: A Growing Canadian Family Pattern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlesinger, Benjamin; Schlesinger, Rachel

    Postponed parenthood is a growing family pattern in Canada. To examine this trend, an exploratory study of 46 couples who were delayed parents was conducted in Toronto. The members of each couple had worked at least 5 years prior to the birth of their first child after the mother was age 30. Responses by both husbands and wives to a questionnaire…

  18. Pressure Points in Growing Up Indian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witt, Shirley Hill

    1980-01-01

    Describes the cultural contradictions between traditional American Indian child-rearing practices and "mainstream" Anglo expectations. Discusses the psychological consequences of growing up with such culture conflict, and condemns educational and social policies which ignore the American Indians' traditions and exacerbate their alienation. (GC)

  19. Growing Up Chicana/o: An Anthology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Tiffany Ana

    This is a collection of 20 stories that focus specifically on the experience of growing up Chicana/o. A foreword by Rudolfo Anaya provides background on the development of Chicano literature. The stories are presented in four sections that explore the themes of heritage and actual and metaphorical boundaries, the importance of grandparents and…

  20. Pueblo Girls: Growing Up in Two Worlds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keegan, Marcia

    This book portrays San Ildefonso Pueblo on the east bank of the Rio Grande river in New Mexico through the lives of Sonja, age 10, and her sister Desiree, age 8. Growing up in San Ildefonso Pueblo, the girls enjoy the same activities as other American girls, such as basketball, cheerleading, playing video games, and sending e-mail. But they also…