Science.gov

Sample records for rare cactus mammillaria

  1. Quaternary origin and genetic divergence of the endemic cactus Mammillaria pectinifera in a changing landscape in the Tehuacán Valley, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cornejo-Romero, A; Medina-Sánchez, J; Hernández-Hernández, T; Rendón-Aguilar, B; Valverde, P L; Zavala-Hurtado, A; Rivas-Arancibia, S P; Pérez-Hernández, M A; López-Ortega, G; Jiménez-Sierra, C; Vargas-Mendoza, C F

    2014-01-01

    The endemic Mexican cactus, Mammillaria pectinifera, shows low dispersal capabilities and isolated populations within the highly dissected landscape of Tehuacán Valley. These characteristics can restrict gene flow and act upon the genetic divergence and speciation in arid plants. We conducted a phylogeographic study to determine if the origin, current distribution, and genetic structure of M. pectinifera were driven by Quaternary geomorphic processes. Sequences of the plastids psbA-trnH and trnT-trnL obtained from 66 individuals from seven populations were used to estimate genetic diversity. Population differentiation was assessed by an analysis of molecular variance. We applied a stepwise phylogenetic calibration test to determine whether species origin and genetic divergence among haplotypes were temporally concordant with recognizable episodes of geomorphic evolution. The combination of plastid markers yielded six haplotypes, with high levels of haplotype diversity (h = 0.622) and low nucleotide diversity (π = 0.00085). The populations were found to be genetically structured (F(ST) = 0.682; P < 0.00001), indicating that geographic isolation and limited dispersal were the primary causes of genetic population differentiation. The estimated origin and divergence time among haplotypes were 0.017-2.39 and 0.019-1.237 mya, respectively, which correlates with Pleistocene tectonics and erosion events, supporting a hypothesis of geomorphically-driven geographical isolation. Based on a Bayesian skyline plot, these populations showed long term demographic stability, indicating that persistence in confined habitats has been the main response of this species to landscape changes. We conclude that the origin and haplotype divergence of M. pectinifera were a response to local Quaternary geomorphic evolution. PMID:24446289

  2. Cactus

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, R.L.

    1983-03-01

    The CACTUS project (computer-aided control, tracking, and updating system) was initiated by the Bendix Kansas City Division to address specific work-in-process problems encountered in a cable department. Since then, the project has been expanded to additional electrical manufacturing departments because of potential productivity gains from the system. The philosophy of CACTUS is to add an element of distributed data proessing to the centralized data processing system currently in use for control of work in process. Under this system, the existing chain of communications between the host computer and the CRT terminals in a department is severed. A mini-computer established in the department communicates directly with the central system, and departmental communication is then established with the mini-computer. The advantages, disadvantages, operation performance, and economics of the system are discussed.

  3. Genomic relations among 31 species of Mammillaria haworth (Cactaceae) using random amplified polymorphic DNA.

    PubMed

    Mattagajasingh, Ilwola; Mukherjee, Arup Kumar; Das, Premananda

    2006-01-01

    Thirty-one species of Mammillaria were selected to study the molecular phylogeny using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. High amount of mucilage (gelling polysaccharides) present in Mammillaria was a major obstacle in isolating good quality genomic DNA. The CTAB (cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide) method was modified to obtain good quality genomic DNA. Twenty-two random decamer primers resulted in 621 bands, all of which were polymorphic. The similarity matrix value varied from 0.109 to 0.622 indicating wide variability among the studied species. The dendrogram obtained from the unweighted pair group method using arithmetic averages (UPGMA) analysis revealed that some of the species did not follow the conventional classification. The present work shows the usefulness of RAPD markers for genetic characterization to establish phylogenetic relations among Mammillaria species. PMID:16989321

  4. Cactus: a medicinal food.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Anoop A; Rana, M K; Preetham, S P

    2012-10-01

    With excellent quality and flavour of fresh fruits, young leaves of cactus serve as nutritious vegetable and salad dish and the immature fruits for making mock-gherkins. Cactus, with high water use efficiency produce forage for animals, vegetables, and fruits with 14% glucose. Traditionally cactus used as a valuable health supporting nutrient and it also has applications in pharmaceutical industries. Cactus with number of uses has immense potential to be the food of future. PMID:24082263

  5. Cactus spine injuries.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, D; Lindsey, W E

    1988-07-01

    Cactus spines produce injuries whose clinical significance is loosely in inverse proportion to the dimensions of the spine. Long and medium spines of saguaro and barrel cacti seldom result in embedded fragments, but when they do they are difficult to locate and remove. Other medium spines, those of prickly pear and cholla, are a nuisance but they can be removed readily by traction, as can the smaller spines (glochids) of the prickly pear. The very small spines (also glochids) of the polka dot or bunny's ear cactus (Opuntia microdasys) and the beavertail cactus (Opuntia basilaris) offer the most frustrating problem of all, but can be peeled off with a dried film of a professional facial gel. PMID:3390256

  6. Cactus Graphs for Genome Comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paten, Benedict; Diekhans, Mark; Earl, Dent; St. John, John; Ma, Jian; Suh, Bernard; Haussler, David

    We introduce a data structure, analysis and visualization scheme called a cactus graph for comparing sets of related genomes. Cactus graphs capture some of the advantages of de Bruijn and breakpoint graphs in one unified framework. They naturally decompose the common substructures in a set of related genomes into a hierarchy of chains that can be visualized as multiple alignments and nets that can be visualized in circular genome plots.

  7. Hierarchical structures of cactus spines that aid in the directional movement of dew droplets.

    PubMed

    Malik, F T; Clement, R M; Gethin, D T; Kiernan, M; Goral, T; Griffiths, P; Beynon, D; Parker, A R

    2016-08-01

    Three species of cactus whose spines act as dew harvesters were chosen for this study: Copiapoa cinerea var. haseltoniana, Mammillaria columbiana subsp. yucatanensis and Parodia mammulosa and compared with Ferocactus wislizenii whose spines do not perform as dew harvesters. Time-lapse snapshots of C. cinerea showed movement of dew droplets from spine tips to their base, even against gravity. Spines emanating from one of the areoles of C. cinerea were submerged in water laced with fluorescent nanoparticles and this particular areole with its spines and a small area of stem was removed and imaged. These images clearly showed that fluorescent water had moved into the stem of the plant. Lines of vascular bundles radiating inwards from the surface areoles (from where the spines emanate) to the core of the stem were detected using magnetic resonance imaging, with the exception of F. wislizenii that does not harvest dew on its spines. Spine microstructures were examined using SEM images and surface roughness measurements (Ra and Rz) taken of the spines of C. cinerea It was found that a roughness gradient created by tapered microgrooves existed that could potentially direct surface water from a spine tip to its base.This article is part of the themed issue 'Bioinspired hierarchically structured surfaces for green science'. PMID:27354735

  8. Cactus: HPC infrastructure and programming tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collaborative Effort

    2011-02-01

    Cactus provides computational scientists and engineers with a collaborative, modular and portable programming environment for parallel high performance computing. Cactus can make use of many other technologies for HPC, such as Samrai, HDF5, PETSc and PAPI, and several application domains such as numerical relativity, computational fluid dynamics and quantum gravity are developing open community toolkits for Cactus.

  9. The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum: Lessons in Biological Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus moth was one of the success stories in classical biological control. In the 1920s, the prickly pear cactus was a serious pest in Australia. The cactus moth was imported from its native habitat in South America and proved so successful in controlling cactus that it was mass reared and exp...

  10. CACTUS SPRING ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matti, Jonathan C.; Kuizon, Lucia

    1984-01-01

    Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies together with a review of historic mining and prospecting activities indicate that the Cactus Spring Roadless Area in California has little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Marble bodies occur in the northern part of the roadless area and are possible resources for building stone, crushed and quarried aggregate, and lime and magnesium for Portland cement and industrial applications. It is recommended that the terrane of marble be mapped and sampled carefully in order to evaluate the quantity and quality of the carbonate resources.

  11. Use of cactus in mortars and concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, S.; Eklund, L.; Villarreal, R.R.

    1998-01-01

    Natural polymers have been used in ancient times to improve the durability of lime-based mortars and concretes. The natural polymers used were locally available. In this work, cactus extract from Mexico has been tested in a Portland cement mortar. It is seen that cactus extract increases the plasticity of the mortar and improves water absorption and freeze-salt resistance. Calcium hydroxide produced by Portland cement hydration interacts with the components of cactus extract, polysaccharides or proteins, and forms complexes. It affects the crystallization process. Painting of the concrete with this extract has also shown improved water resistance.

  12. Mineral resources of Cactus Plain and East Cactus Plain Wilderness Study Areas, La Paz County, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Tosdal, R.M.; Eppinger, R.G.; Erdman, J.A.; Hanna, W.F.; Pitkin, J.A.; Blank, H.R. Jr.; O'Leary, R.M.; Watterson, J.R. ); Kreidler, T.J. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies in the Cactus Plain and East Cactus Plain Wilderness Study Areas outlined in areas with moderate to high potential for gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, barite, fluorite, manganese, and sand suitable for foundry, fracturing, and abrasive uses and low resource potential for beryllium, uranium and bentonitic clays.

  13. 75 FR 41073 - South American Cactus Moth Regulations; Quarantined Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... attacks primarily prickly pear cacti in arid and coastal areas. In the continental United States, the... United States belong to the genus Opuntia, also known as the prickly pear cactus. Opuntia cactus...

  14. CACTUS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Hartley

    1992-01-01

    Utilizes LOGO to teach the concept of inequalities by programing the turtle to take random walks in the coordinate plane restricted to predetermined regions defined by inequalities. The students task is to discover the inequalities that define the illegal areas into which the turtle must not move. Provides examples and corresponding computer…

  15. Cactus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Hartley

    2007-01-01

    The transfer of data from one part of a computer to another has always been a complex task in which speed is traded against accuracy and the time required for error correction. Much more complex therefore is the transfer of information from one machine to another of a different type. Difficulties arise when machines are updated, when file formats…

  16. Fish and wildlife to determine endangered status of San Rafael Cactus

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    The US Fish and Wildlife Service has proposed to determine the endangered status of the San Rafael Cactus. Although the only known occurrences of the species do not appear to fall within the boundaries of the San Rafael Swell Special Tar Sands Area, nearby combined hydrocarbon leasing could be impacted. There are two known populations of Pediocactus despainii, about 25 miles apart and each containing 2000 to 3000 individuals. Both occur in central Utah (Emery County), mainly in areas administered by the Bureau of Land Management. This rare species is being sought be cactus collectors, one population is heavily impacted by recreational off-road vehicles, and approximately one-half of each population is in areas covered by oil and gas leases and/or mining claims for gypsum. If the species is determined to be endangered, then the Fish and Wildlife Service could define a critical habitat for its preservation.

  17. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Cactus Wren

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Short, Henry L.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  18. Biology and population dynamics of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, was a successful biological control agent against prickly pear cacti in Australia in the 1920’s. Since then, it was introduced to other countries including the Carribean islands. In 1989, the cactus moth was reported in Florida and has continued to spread nort...

  19. Phenology of blue cactus moth Melitara prodenialis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Native cactus plants (Opuntia stricta Haw. [Cactaceae]) were sampled weekly at St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, St. Marks, Florida (30.16 - 30° 1' N, -84.21 - 84° 1' W) from September 2006 to September 2007 for the native blue cactus moth, Melitara prodenialis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Meli...

  20. POPULATION DYNAMICS OF THE CACTUS MOTH, CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM IN FLORIDA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field populations of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum were surveyed weekly beginning in July 2006. We sampled the native cactus, Opuntia stricta visually to determine the densities and development of immature stages. Adult males were collected using a synthetic pheromone and a sticky wing trap...

  1. Ecology and control of an invasive pest, the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, was one of the success stories in classical biological control. In the 1920s, the prickly pear cactus was a serious pest in Australia. The cactus moth was imported from its native habitat in South America and proved so successful in controlling cactus that it ...

  2. Basal cactus phylogeny: implications of Pereskia (Cactaceae) paraphyly for the transition to the cactus life form.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Erika J; Nyffeler, Reto; Donoghue, Michael J

    2005-07-01

    The cacti are well-known desert plants, widely recognized by their specialized growth form and essentially leafless condition. Pereskia, a group of 17 species with regular leaf development and function, is generally viewed as representing the "ancestral cactus," although its placement within Cactaceae has remained uncertain. Here we present a new hypothesis of phylogenetic relationships at the base of the Cactaceae, inferred from DNA sequence data from five gene regions representing all three plant genomes. Our data support a basal split in Cactaceae between a clade of eight Pereskia species, centered around the Caribbean basin, and all other cacti. Two other Pereskia clades, distributed mostly in the southern half of South America, are part of a major clade comprising Maihuenia plus Cactoideae, and Opuntioideae. This result highlights several events in the early evolution of the cacti. First, during the transition to stem-based photosynthesis, the evolution of stem stomata and delayed bark formation preceded the evolution of the stem cortex into a specialized photosynthetic tissue system. Second, the basal split in cacti separates a northern from an initially southern cactus clade, and the major cactus lineages probably originated in southern or west-central South America. PMID:21646140

  3. DISPERSAL OF SEEDS AS NEST MATERIAL BY THE CACTUS WREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus) nests from the southern Chihuahuan Desert contained viable seeds of grasses, forbs, and shrubs. The most common plants used as construction material in these nests were Muhlenbergia porteri, Boerhavia spicata, and the alien grass Era...

  4. Comparative cactus architecture and par interception

    SciTech Connect

    Geller, G.N.; Nobel, P.S. )

    1987-07-01

    Because CO{sup 2} uptake by cacti can be limited by low levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and because plant form affects PAR interception, various cactus forms were studied using a computer model, field measurements, and laboratory phototropic studies. Model predictions indicated that CO{sub 2} uptake by individual stems at an equinox was greatest when the stem were vertical, but at the summer and the winter solstice CO{sub 2} uptake was greatest for stems titled 30{degree} away from the equator. Stem tilting depended on form and taxonomic group. Not only can the shape of cacti be affected by PAR, but also shape influences PAR interception and hence CO{sub 2} uptake.

  5. Annealing a magnetic cactus into phyllotaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisoli, Cristiano; Gabor, Nathaniel M.; Lammert, Paul E.; Maynard, J. D.; Crespi, Vincent H.

    2010-04-01

    The appearance of mathematical regularities in the disposition of leaves on a stem, scales on a pine-cone, and spines on a cactus has puzzled scholars for millennia; similar so-called phyllotactic patterns are seen in self-organized growth, polypeptides, convection, magnetic flux lattices and ion beams. Levitov showed that a cylindrical lattice of repulsive particles can reproduce phyllotaxis under the (unproved) assumption that minimum of energy would be achieved by two-dimensional Bravais lattices. Here we provide experimental and numerical evidence that the Phyllotactic lattice is actually a ground state. When mechanically annealed, our experimental “magnetic cactus” precisely reproduces botanical phyllotaxis, along with domain boundaries (called transitions in Botany) between different phyllotactic patterns. We employ a structural genetic algorithm to explore the more general axially unconstrained case, which reveals multijugate (multiple spirals) as well as monojugate (single-spiral) phyllotaxis.

  6. Reproduction, longevity and survival of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Screened potted cactus plants (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) containing pairs of adult male and female cactus moths, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were placed in a cactus field in St. Marks, Florida to measure oviposition patterns under field-realistic conditions. Results...

  7. COMPARATIVE PHENOLOGY OF CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM AND MELITARA PRODENIALIS (LEPIDOPTERA): PESTS OF CACTUS IN FLORIDA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We surveyed native cactus plants (Opuntia stricta) at St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, St. Marks, FL from September 2006 – September 2007 for the invasive cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum and the native blue cactus moth, Melitara prodenialis. Every week, we visually counted the numbers and reco...

  8. Corrective action investigation plan: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    This Correction Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains environmental sample collection objectives and logic for the CAU No. 426, which includes the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, CAS No. RG-08-001-RG-CS. The Cactus Spring Waste Trenches are located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) which is part of the Nellis Air Force Range, approximately 255 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air. The purpose of this investigation is to generate sufficient data to establish the types of waste buried in the trenches, identify the presence and nature of contamination, determine the vertical extent of contaminant migration below the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, and determine the appropriate course of action for the site. The potential courses of action for the site are clean closure, closure in place (with or without remediation), or no further action.

  9. Measurement of the flow past a cactus-inspired cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oweis, Ghanem F.; El-Makdah, Adnan M.

    2012-11-01

    Desert cacti are tall cylindrical plants characterized by longitudinal u- or v-shaped grooves that run parallel to the plant axis, covering its surface area. We study the wake flow modifications resulting from the introduction of cactus-inspired surface grooves to a circular cylinder. Particle image velocimetry PIV is implemented in a wind tunnel to visualize and quantify the wake flow from a cactus cylinder in cross wind and an equivalent circular cylinder at Re O(1E5). The cactus wake exhibits superior behavior over its circular counterpart as seen from the mean and turbulent velocity profiles. The surface flow within the grooves is also probed to elucidate the origins of the wake alterations. Lastly, we use simple statistical analysis based only on the wake velocity fields, under the assumption of periodicity of the shedding, to recover the time varying flow from the randomly acquired PIV snapshots.

  10. Theoretical Exploration of Barrel-Shaped Drops on Cactus Spines.

    PubMed

    Luo, Cheng

    2015-11-01

    To survive an arid environment, desert cacti are capable of harvesting water from fog by transporting condensed water drops using their spines. Cactus spines have a conical shape. In this work, on the basis of the difference of liquid pressure, a new theoretical model has been developed for a barrel-shaped liquid drop on a conical wire. This model is further simplified to interpret the effects of contact angles, conical angle, surface microgrooves, and gravity on the drop movement along a cactus spine. PMID:26473466

  11. Identification, Characterization, and Function Analysis of the Cactus Gene from Litopenaeus vannamei

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuang; Lü, Ling; Chen, Yi-Hong; Chai, Jiaoting; Weng, Shaoping; Chen, Yong-Gui; He, Jianguo; Xu, Xiaopeng

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathways play important roles in innate immune responses. IκB is the main cytoplasmic inhibitor of NF-κB. In this study, we identified the LvCactus gene from Litopenaeus vannamei, which is the first cloned IκB homologue in subphylum Crustacea. LvCactus contains six predicted ankyrin repeats, which show similarities to those of Cactus proteins from insects. LvCactus localizes in cytoplasm and interacts with LvDorsal, an L. vannamei homologue to Drosophila melanogaster Dorsal belonging to class II NF-κB family, to prevent its nuclear translocation. Contrary to that of LvDorsal, over-expression of LvCactus down-regulates the activities of shrimp antimicrobial peptides promoters, suggesting LvCactus is an inhibitor of LvDorsal. The promoter of LvCactus was predicted to contain five putative NF-κB binding motifs, among which four were proved to be bound by LvDorsal by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Dual-luciferase reporter assays also showed that transcription of LvCactus was promoted by LvDorsal but inhibited by LvCactus itself, indicating a feedback regulatory pathway between LvCactus and LvDorsal. Expression of LvCactus was up-regulated after Lipopolysaccharides, poly (I:C), Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Staphylococcus aureus injections, suggesting an activation response of LvCactus to bacterial and immune stimulant challenges. Differently, the LvCactus expression levels obviously decreased during white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection, indicating the feedback regulatory pathway of LvCactus/LvDorsal could be modified by WSSV. PMID:23185415

  12. CACTUS: Command and Control Training Using Knowledge-Based Simulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, J. R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes a computer simulation, CACTUS, that was developed in the United Kingdom to help police with command and control training for large crowd control incidents. Use of the simulation for pre-event planning and decision making is discussed, debriefing is described, and the role of the trainer is considered. (LRW)

  13. CACTUS: Command and Control Training Using Knowledge-Based Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Roger; Ravenscroft, Andrew; Williams, R. J.

    2008-01-01

    The CACTUS project was concerned with command and control training of large incidents where public order may be at risk, such as large demonstrations and marches. The training requirements and objectives of the project are first summarized justifying the use of knowledge-based computer methods to support and extend conventional training…

  14. Cactus pear fruit: a new source for a natural sweetner.

    PubMed

    Sáenz, C; Estévez, A M; Sepúlveda, E; Mecklenburg, P

    1998-01-01

    The use of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus indica L.) to obtain a new natural liquid sweetener was studied. The juice of the fruit (16.5 degrees Brix) was clarified with enzymes, treated with active carbon to take out the color and vacuum concentrated to obtain a 60 degrees Brix syrup or liquid sweetener. Physical and chemical characteristics determined included: a(w); reducing sugars (as inverted sugar); glucose (%); ash content (%); sugar composition by TLC; OD (420 nm) and Y, x, y chromaticity coordinates; viscosity (cps) and density (g/ml). Sensory analyses to determine the relative sweetness were also conducted. Cactus pear syrup contained 52.38% reducing sugar. The syrup had a pH of 4.31, a viscosity of 27.05 cps, an Aw of 0.83, a density of 1.2900 g/ml, an acidity (as citric acid) of 0.74% and an ash content of 1.4%. Compared with traditional sweeteners such as fructose and glucose syrup, the acidity was greater than that of HFCS (high fructose corn syrup) of 0.035%, and the ash values were considered a little high compared to glucose syrup which is 1.0%; these disparities can be attributed to the different processing conditions employed. Sensory evaluation revealed the same relative sweetness for cactus pear syrup and glucose, but lower than fructose; cactus pear syrup had a relative sweetness value of 67 with respect to sucrose (100). PMID:9839813

  15. Pereskia and the origin of the cactus life-form.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Erika J; Donoghue, Michael J

    2006-06-01

    The cactus life-form is cited as an example of a tight relationship between organism form and function: a succulent, long-lived, photosynthetic stem allows cacti to survive long periods of drought while maintaining a positive tissue water status. Pereskia (Cactaceae) comprises 17 species of leafy shrubs and trees that are thought to represent the original cactus condition. Recent phylogenetic work has shown that there are two separate clades of Pereskia species, which are basal and paraphyletic with respect to the rest of the cacti. We selected seven Pereskia species, representing both clades, and characterized their water relations by measuring a suite of physiological traits in wild populations. Additionally, we estimated basic climate parameters from collection localities for all 17 Pereskia species. Extant Pereskia species exhibit ecological water use patterns that are very similar to those of the leafless, stem-succulent cacti. Ancestral trait reconstruction for the physiological and environmental data provides a preliminary assessment of the ecology and water relations of the earliest cacti and suggests that several key elements of the cactus ecological niche were established before the evolution of the cactus life-form. We interpret these ecological traits as potentially important drivers of evolutionary innovation in the cacti. PMID:16649155

  16. Leaf and stem CO/sub 2/ uptake in the three subfamilies of the Cactaceae. [Pereskia aculeata; Pereskia grandifolia; Maihuenia poeppigii; Carnegiea gigantea; Ferocactus acanthodes; Coryphantha vivipara; Mammillaria dioica; Opuntia ficus-inidica; Pereskiopsis porteri; Quiabentia chacoensis; Austrocylindropuntia subulata

    SciTech Connect

    Nobel, P.S.; Hartsock, T.L.

    1986-04-01

    Net CO/sub 2/ uptake over 24-hour periods was examined for the leaves and for the stems of 11 species of cacti representing all three subfamilies. For Pereskia aculeata, Pereskia grandifolia, and Maihuenia poeppigii (subfamily Pereskioideae), all the net shoot CO/sub 2/ uptake was by the leaves and during the daytime. In contrast, for the leafless species Carnegiea gigantea, Ferocactus acanthodes, Coryphantha vivipara, and Mammillaria dioica (subfamily Cactoideae), all the shoot net CO/sub 2/ uptake was by the stems and at night. Similarly, for leafless Opuntia ficus-indica (subfamily Opuntioideae), all net CO/sub 2/ uptake occurred at night. For leafy members of the Opuntioideae (Pereskiopsis porteri, Quiabentia chacoensis, Austrocylindropuntia subulata), at least 88% of the shoot CO/sub 2/ uptake over 24 hours was by the leaves and some CO/sub 2/ uptake occurred at night. Leaves responded to the instantaneous level of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) during the daytime, as occurs for C/sub 3/ plants, whereas nocturnal CO/sub 2/ uptake by stems of O. ficus-indica and F. acanthodes responded to the total daily PAR, as occurs for Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants. Thus, under the well-watered conditions employed, the Pereskioideae behaved as C/sub 3/ plants, the Cactoideae behaved as CAM plants, and the Opuntioideae exhibited characteristics of both pathways.

  17. Search for Dark Matter Annihilations in Draco with CACTUS

    SciTech Connect

    Chertok, M.; Afonso, P.; Lizarazo, J.; Marleau, P.; Maruyama, S.; Stilley, J.; Tripathi, S. M.

    2006-07-11

    CACTUS is a ground-based Air Cherenkov Telescope (ACT) at the Solar 2 facility located near Barstow, California, and operated by UC Davis. It uses an array of 160 large solar tracking mirrors (heliostats) and a camera with 80 photomultiplier tubes, which, in a multiplexed fashion provides an effective camera with about 300 channels. By incorporating novel techniques of time projection imaging and triggering, CACTUS improves upon the first generation sampling arrays of its kind. We have recently completed observations of Draco, a dwarf spheroidal galaxy that is known to be rich in dark matter content. Supersymmetry-inspired models for dark matter predict observable annihilation rates producing gamma rays. We present the first results from our Draco campaign.

  18. Direct numerical simulation of flow past cactus--shaped cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, Pradeep; Mahesh, Krishnan

    2006-11-01

    The Saguaro cacti are tall, have short root systems and can withstand high wind velocities (Bulk 1984, Talley et al. 2002). Their trunks are essentially cylindrical with V--shaped longitudinal cavities. The size and number of cavities on the Saguaro cacti vary so that they have a near--constant fraction cavity depth (l/D ratio of about 0.07, Geller & Nobel 1984). Direct numerical simulations is used to assess the aerodynamic effect of the grooves on the cactus. DNS is performed for cactus shaped cylinders with l/d ratio's of 0.07 and 0.105, and smooth cylinders (l/d=0) at the same Reynolds number. Presence of the V--shaped cavities is found to decrease the drag on the cylindrical trunk as well as affect the fluctuating lift forces. The talk will quantify these differences, and discuss the physical mechanisms by which V--shaped cavities on the surface influence the flow.

  19. The flow past a cactus-inspired grooved cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Makdah, Adnan M.; Oweis, Ghanem F.

    2013-02-01

    The star-shaped cross section of giant cylindrical cactus plants is thought to be aerodynamically favorable for protection against toppling by strong winds. Particle image velocimetry is used to investigate the flow details within the surface grooves and in the immediate wake of a cactus-inspired model cylinder with eight longitudinal grooves, at biologically relevant Reynolds numbers between 50 × 103 and 170 × 103. The wake flow is analyzed and compared to a similarly sized circular cylinder. At the lowest Re tested, the wakes from the two geometries are similar. At higher Re, the cactus wake exhibits superior behavior as seen from the mean and turbulent velocities, suggesting that the flow mechanisms are Re dependent. The flow within the surface grooves reveals counter rotating rollers, while the geometrical ridges act as vortex generators known to help with the surface flow attachment. Lastly, a simplistic analysis is described to recover, qualitatively, certain time-dependent flow features from the randomly acquired PIV realizations.

  20. Corrective action investigation plan: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    This Correction Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains environmental sample collection objectives and logic for the Corrective Action Unit No. 426, which includes the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, located at the Tonopah Test Range. The purpose of this investigation is to generate sufficient data to establish the types of waste buried in the trenches, identify the presence and nature of contamination, determine the vertical extent of contaminant migration below the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, and determine the appropriate course of action for the site. The potential courses of action for the site are clean closure, closure in place (with or without remediation), or no further action. The scope of this investigation will include drilling and collecting subsurface samples from within and below the trenches. Sampling locations will be biased toward the areas most likely to be contaminated. The Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Site is identified as one of three potential locations for buried, radioactively contaminated materials from the Double Tracks Test. This test was the first of four storage-transportation tests conducted in 1963 as part of Operation Roller Coaster. The experiment involved the use of live animals to assess the inhalation intake of a plutonium aerosol.

  1. miRNA expression during prickly pear cactus fruit development.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Cárdenas, Flor de Fátima; Caballero-Pérez, Juan; Gutiérrez-Ramos, Ximena; Marsch-Martínez, Nayelli; Cruz-Hernández, Andrés; de Folter, Stefan

    2015-02-01

    miRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression. They are involved in the control of many developmental processes, including fruit development. The increasing amount of information on miRNAs, on their expression, abundance, and conservation between various species, provides a new opportunity to study the role of miRNAs in non-model plant species. In this work, we used a combination of Northern blot and tissue print hybridization analysis to identify conserved miRNAs expressed during prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) fruit development. Comparative profiling detected the expression of 34 miRNAs, which were clustered in three different groups that were associated with the different phases of fruit development. Variation in the level of miRNA expression was observed. Gradual expression increase of several miRNAs was observed during fruit development, including miR164. miR164 was selected for stem-loop RT-PCR and for a detailed spatial-temporal expression analysis. At early floral stages, miR164 was mainly localized in meristematic tissues, boundaries and fusion zones, while it was more homogenously expressed in fruit tissues. Our results provide the first evidence of miRNA expression in the prickly pear cactus and provide the basis for future research on miRNAs in Opuntia. Moreover, our analyses suggest that miR164 plays different roles during prickly pear cactus fruit development. PMID:25366556

  2. 75 FR 70897 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; South American Cactus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... Collection; South American Cactus Moth; Quarantine and Regulations AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... regulations for the interstate movement of regulated articles to prevent the spread of South American cactus... American cactus moth, contact Dr. Robyn Rose, Program Manager, Emergency and Domestic Programs, PPQ,...

  3. Field Survey of Cactus Crater Storage Facility (Runit Dome)

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas Miller, Terence Holland

    2008-10-31

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Health and Safety (DOE/HS-10), requested that National Security Technologies, LLC, Environmental Management directorate (NSTec/EM) perform a field survey of the Cactus Crater Storage Facility (Runit Dome), similar to past surveys conducted at their request. This field survey was conducted in conjunction with a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) mission on Runit Island in the Enewetak Atoll in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). The survey was strictly a visual survey, backed up by digital photos and a written description of the current condition.

  4. Introduced and invasive cactus species: a global review.

    PubMed

    Novoa, Ana; Le Roux, Johannes J; Robertson, Mark P; Wilson, John R U; Richardson, David M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding which species are introduced and become invasive, and why, are central questions in invasion science. Comparative studies on model taxa have provided important insights, but much more needs to be done to unravel the context dependencies of these findings. The cactus family (Cactaceae), one of the most popular horticultural plant groups, is an interesting case study. Hundreds of cactus species have been introduced outside their native ranges; a few of them are among the most damaging invasive plant species in the world. We reviewed the drivers of introductions and invasions in the family and seek insights that can be used to minimize future risks. We compiled a list of species in the family and determined which have been recorded as invasive. We also mapped current global distributions and modelled the potential global distributions based on distribution data of known invasive taxa. Finally, we identified whether invasiveness is phylogenetically clustered for cacti and whether particular traits are correlated with invasiveness. Only 57 of the 1922 cactus species recognized in this treatment have been recorded as invasive. There are three invasion hotspots: South Africa (35 invasive species recorded), Australia (26 species) and Spain (24 species). However, there are large areas of the world with climates suitable for cacti that are at risk of future invasion-in particular, parts of China, eastern Asia and central Africa. The invasive taxa represent an interesting subset of the total species pool. There is a significant phylogenetic signal: invasive species occur in 2 of the 3 major phylogenetic clades and in 13 of the 130 genera. This phylogenetic signal is not driven by human preference, i.e. horticultural trade, but all invasive species are from 5 of the 12 cactus growth forms. Finally, invasive species tend to have significantly larger native ranges than non-invasive species, and none of the invasive species are of conservation concern in their

  5. Error-correcting code on a cactus: A solvable model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicente, R.; Saad, D.; Kabashima, Y.

    2000-09-01

    An exact solution to a family of parity check error-correcting codes is provided by mapping the problem onto a Husimi cactus. The solution obtained in the thermodynamic limit recovers the replica-symmetric theory results and provides a very good approximation to finite systems of moderate size. The probability propagation decoding algorithm emerges naturally from the analysis. A phase transition between decoding success and failure phases is found to coincide with an information-theoretic upper bound. The method is employed to compare Gallager and MN codes.

  6. Introduced and invasive cactus species: a global review

    PubMed Central

    Novoa, Ana; Le Roux, Johannes J.; Robertson, Mark P.; Wilson, John R.U.; Richardson, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding which species are introduced and become invasive, and why, are central questions in invasion science. Comparative studies on model taxa have provided important insights, but much more needs to be done to unravel the context dependencies of these findings. The cactus family (Cactaceae), one of the most popular horticultural plant groups, is an interesting case study. Hundreds of cactus species have been introduced outside their native ranges; a few of them are among the most damaging invasive plant species in the world. We reviewed the drivers of introductions and invasions in the family and seek insights that can be used to minimize future risks. We compiled a list of species in the family and determined which have been recorded as invasive. We also mapped current global distributions and modelled the potential global distributions based on distribution data of known invasive taxa. Finally, we identified whether invasiveness is phylogenetically clustered for cacti and whether particular traits are correlated with invasiveness. Only 57 of the 1922 cactus species recognized in this treatment have been recorded as invasive. There are three invasion hotspots: South Africa (35 invasive species recorded), Australia (26 species) and Spain (24 species). However, there are large areas of the world with climates suitable for cacti that are at risk of future invasion—in particular, parts of China, eastern Asia and central Africa. The invasive taxa represent an interesting subset of the total species pool. There is a significant phylogenetic signal: invasive species occur in 2 of the 3 major phylogenetic clades and in 13 of the 130 genera. This phylogenetic signal is not driven by human preference, i.e. horticultural trade, but all invasive species are from 5 of the 12 cactus growth forms. Finally, invasive species tend to have significantly larger native ranges than non-invasive species, and none of the invasive species are of conservation concern in their

  7. Betalain, Acid Ascorbic, Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Properties of Purple, Red, Yellow and White Cactus Pears

    PubMed Central

    Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Cruz-Jaime, Sandra; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; García-Paredes, Juan Diego; Cariño-Cortés, Raquel; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Valadez-Vega, Carmen; Martinez-Cardenas, Leonardo; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Commercialization of cactus pears based on their antioxidant properties can generate competitive advantages, and these can turn into business opportunities and the development of new products and a high-value ingredient for the food industry. This work evaluated the antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging, protection against oxidation of a β-carotene-linoleic acid emulsion, and iron (II) chelation), the content of total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, betacyanin, betaxanthin and the stability of betacyanin pigments in presence of Cu (II)-dependent hydroxyl radicals (OH•), in 18 cultivars of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pear from six Mexican states. Our results indicated that the antiradical activities from yellow and white cactus pear cultivars were not significantly different (p < 0.05) and were lower than the average antiradical activities in red and purple cultivars. The red cactus pear from the state of Zacatecas showed the highest antioxidant activity. The free radical scavenging activity for red cactus pears was significantly correlated (p < 0.05) to the concentration of total phenolic compounds (R2 = 0.90) and ascorbic acid (R2 = 0.86). All 18 cultivars of cactus pears studied showed significant chelating activity of ferrous ions. The red and purple cactus pears showed a great stability when exposed to OH•. PMID:22072899

  8. Betalain, Acid ascorbic, phenolic contents and antioxidant properties of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pears.

    PubMed

    Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Cruz-Jaime, Sandra; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; García-Paredes, Juan Diego; Cariño-Cortés, Raquel; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Valadez-Vega, Carmen; Martinez-Cardenas, Leonardo; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Commercialization of cactus pears based on their antioxidant properties can generate competitive advantages, and these can turn into business opportunities and the development of new products and a high-value ingredient for the food industry. This work evaluated the antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging, protection against oxidation of a β-carotene-linoleic acid emulsion, and iron (II) chelation), the content of total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, betacyanin, betaxanthin and the stability of betacyanin pigments in presence of Cu (II)-dependent hydroxyl radicals (OH•), in 18 cultivars of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pear from six Mexican states. Our results indicated that the antiradical activities from yellow and white cactus pear cultivars were not significantly different (p < 0.05) and were lower than the average antiradical activities in red and purple cultivars. The red cactus pear from the state of Zacatecas showed the highest antioxidant activity. The free radical scavenging activity for red cactus pears was significantly correlated (p < 0.05) to the concentration of total phenolic compounds (R(2) = 0.90) and ascorbic acid (R(2) = 0.86). All 18 cultivars of cactus pears studied showed significant chelating activity of ferrous ions. The red and purple cactus pears showed a great stability when exposed to OH•. PMID:22072899

  9. Calpain A modulates Toll responses by limited Cactus/IκB proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Fontenele, Marcio; Lim, Bomyi; Oliveira, Danielle; Buffolo, Márcio; Perlman, David H.; Schupbach, Trudi; Araujo, Helena

    2013-01-01

    Calcium-dependent cysteine proteases of the calpain family are modulatory proteases that cleave their substrates in a limited manner. Among their substrates, calpains target vertebrate and invertebrate IκB proteins. Because proteolysis by calpains potentially generates novel protein functions, it is important to understand how this affects NFκB activity. We investigate the action of Calpain A (CalpA) on the Drosophila melanogaster IκB homologue Cactus in vivo. CalpA alters the absolute amounts of Cactus protein. Our data indicate, however, that CalpA uses additional mechanisms to regulate NFκB function. We provide evidence that CalpA interacts physically with Cactus, recognizing a Cactus pool that is not bound to Dorsal, a fly NFκB/Rel homologue. We show that proteolytic cleavage by CalpA generates Cactus fragments lacking an N-terminal region required for Toll responsiveness. These fragments are generated in vivo and display properties distinct from those of full-length Cactus. We propose that CalpA targets free Cactus, which is incorporated into and modulates Toll-responsive complexes in the embryo and immune system. PMID:23864715

  10. The population dynamics of an endemic collectible cactus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandujano, María C.; Bravo, Yolotzin; Verhulst, Johannes; Carrillo-Angeles, Israel; Golubov, Jordan

    2015-02-01

    Astrophytum is one of most collected genera in the cactus family. Around the world several species are maintained in collections and yearly, several plants are taken from their natural habitats. Populations of Astorphytum capricorne are found in the northern Chihuahuan desert, Mexico, and as many endemic cactus species, it has a highly restricted habitat. We conducted a demographic study from 2008 to 2010 of the northern populations found at Cuatro Ciénegas, Mexico. We applied matrix population models, included simulations, life table response experiments and descriptions of the population dynamics to evaluate the current status of the species, and detect key life table stages and demographic processes. Population growth rate decreased in both years and only 4% individual mortality can be attributed to looting, and a massive effort is needed to increase seedling recruitment and reduce adult mortality. The fate of individuals differed between years even having the same annual rainfall mainly in accentuated stasis, retrogression and high mortality in all size classes, which coupled with low seed production, no recruitment and collection of plants are the causes contributing to population decline, and hence, increase the risk in which A. capricorne populations are found. Reintroduction of seedlings and lowering adult mortality are urgently needed to revert the alarming demographic condition of A. capricorne populations.

  11. Trail Marking by Larvae of the Cactus Moth, Cactoblastis cactorum

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Terrence D.; Wolfin, Michael; Rossi, Frank; Carpenter, James E.; Pescador-Rubio, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), spends most of its larval life feeding within the cladodes of Opuntia cactuses, but the gregarious caterpillars begin their life outside the plant, and in the later instars make intermittent excursions over plant surfaces to access new cladodes and to thermoregulate. The study reported here showed that when the caterpillars move en masse, they mark and follow trails that serve to keep the cohort together. Artificial trails prepared from hexane extracts of the caterpillar's paired mandibular glands were readily followed by the caterpillars. The glands are remarkably large, and their fluid contents, which constitute approximately 1% of the total wet mass of a caterpillar, are secreted onto the substrate as they move. Although the caterpillars also lay down copious quantities of silk, the material in itself neither elicits trail following nor is it a requisite component of pathways that elicit trail following. Previous analyses of the mandibular glands of other species of pyralid caterpillars showed that they contain a series of structurally distinct 2-acyl-1,3 cyclohexane diones. Chemical analysis indicates that the glands of C. cactorum contain structurally similar compounds, and bioassays indicate that trail following occurs in response to these chemicals. While the mandibular glands' fluids have been shown to act as semiochemicals, effecting both interspecific and intraspecific behavior in other species of pyralids, the present study is the first to report their use as a trail pheromone. PMID:25373211

  12. Plant population and habitat characteristics of the endemic Sonoran Desert cactus Peniocereus striatus in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Greta; Rutman, Sue; Munson, Seth M.

    2010-01-01

    Peniocereus striatus (Brandegee) Buxb. (Cactaceae) is an endemic Sonoran Desert cactus that reaches its northern range limit in southwestern Arizona. One U.S. population occupies a small area of Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument near the U.S./Mexico international boundary, which has been monitored since 1939. An extensive survey conducted in 2002, covering 177 ha, resulted in the discovery of 88 new plants, in addition to the relocation of 57 plants found in previous surveys. Despite potential increases in population size and spatial distribution, mean plant height and number of basal stems has not significantly changed in recent years. Bud scars revealed that a majority of the population was sexually mature. Peniocereus striatus occurrence increased with decreasing slope, spanned every slope aspect, and was highest on rocky soils, but was noticeably low on west and northwest slopes and areas where severe land degradation had previously occurred. Over half of P. striatus plants were nursed by shrubs and subshrubs, while 40% occurred under leguminous trees. A severe frost in January 2002 top-killed 19% of the population, with the greatest damage in drainage bottoms. However, long-term (1944–2002) climate records show that there has been an overall increase in the number of frost free days in the region, which, coupled with land use change, has implications for the future health of this population.

  13. Effect of ultrasound on survival and growth of Escherichia coli in cactus pear juice during storage.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Cansino, Nelly Del Socorro; Reyes-Hernández, Isidro; Delgado-Olivares, Luis; Jaramillo-Bustos, Diana Pamela; Ariza-Ortega, José Alberto; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of ultrasound as a conservation method for the inactivation of Escherichia coli inoculated into cactus pear juices (green and purple). Total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, and the kinetics of E. coli in cactus pear juices treated by ultrasound (60%, 70%, 80% and 90% amplitude levels for 1, 3 and 5min) were evaluated over 5 days. Total inactivation was observed in both fruit juices after 5min of ultrasound treatment at most amplitude levels (with the exception of 60% and 80%). After one and two days of storage, the recovery of bacteria counts was observed in all cactus pear juices. Ultrasound treatment at 90% amplitude for 5min resulted in non-detectable levels of E. coli in cactus pear juice for 2 days. The parameters of pH, titratable acidity and soluble solids were unaffected. PMID:26991288

  14. Physicochemical characterization of cactus pads from Opuntia dillenii and Opuntia ficus indica.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Lorena Pérez; Flores, Fidel Tejera; Martín, Jacinto Darias; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena M; Díaz Romero, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    Physicochemical characteristics (weight, length, width, thickness, moisture, Brix degree, total fiber, protein, ash, pH, acidity, ascorbic acid, total phenolic compounds, P, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn and Cr) were determined in cactus pads from Opuntia dillenii and Opuntia ficus indica. The physicochemical characteristics of both species were clearly different. There were important differences between the orange and green fruit pulp of O. ficus indica; the cactus pads of O. dillenii could be differentiated according to the region (North and South). Consumption of cactus pads contributes to the intake of dietary fiber, total phenolic compounds, K, Mg, Mn and Cr. Applying factor and/or discriminant analysis, the cactus pad samples were clearly differentiated according to the species, the fruit pulp color and production region. PMID:26041209

  15. Identification and ecology of bacterial communities associated with necroses of three cactus species.

    PubMed

    Foster, J L; Fogleman, J C

    1993-01-01

    To compare the bacterial communities residing in necrotic tissues of columnar cacti of the Sonoran Desert, isolates from 39 organ pipe, 19 saguaro, and 16 senita cacti were obtained. The isolates were clustered into 28 conspecific groups on the basis of their fatty acid profiles. The distributions of the individual bacterial isolates varied among cactus species. Seven of the 28 species groups were unique to a particular cactus species, whereas 8 species groups were found in all three cacti. The effective number of bacterial species for each cactus species was positively correlated with both the chemical complexity and glucose concentration of the plant tissues. The effective number of bacterial species and bacterial distribution patterns were compared with those known for communities of cactophilic yeasts. The observed bacterial distribution patterns are most likely due to differences in the chemical compositions of the three cactus species. PMID:8439142

  16. Shock-induced effects in calcite from Cactus Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vizgirda, J.; Ahrens, T. J.; Tsay, F.-D.

    1980-01-01

    The paper discusses shock metamorphism of calcite from coralline limestone samples retrieved from a borehole drilled into rocks beneath Cactus Crater, a nuclear explosion crater at Eniwetok Atoll. The metamorphism was detected and quantified using electron spin resonance (ESR); the ESR spectra of Mn(+) present as a trace constituent in the coral samples, show a consistent decrease in hyperfine peak splitting with decreasing depth of sample. It is suggested that the decrease in hyperfine peak splitting reflects a decrease in crystal field splitting, and therefore, small increases on cation-anion distances produced by mechanical energy input during the shock process. Two alternative crater models suggested by the ESR results are a depiction of a steady decay of the shock wave, and a delineation of a breccia lens with a breccia-bedrock interface at 20 plus or minus 5 m.

  17. Alcohol dehydrogenase polymorphism in barrel cactus populations of Drosophila mojavensis.

    PubMed

    Cleland, S; Hocutt, G D; Breitmeyer, C M; Markow, T A; Pfeiler, E

    1996-07-01

    Starch gel electrophoresis revealed that the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-2) locus was polymorphic in two populations (from Agua Caliente, California and the Grand Canyon, Arizona) of cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis that utilize barrel cactus (Ferocactus acanthodes) as a host plant. Electromorphs representing products of a slow (S) and a fast (F) allele were found in adult flies. The frequency of the slow allele was 0.448 in flies from Agua Caliente and 0.659 in flies from the Grand Canyon. These frequencies were intermediate to those of the low (Baja California peninsula, Mexico) and high (Sonora, Mexico and southern Arizona) frequency Adh-2S populations of D. mojavensis that utilize different species of host cacti. PMID:8765684

  18. An international cooperative effort to protect Opuntia cactus resources in the American Southwest and Mexico from the South American cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The South American Cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, was intentionally introduced to an island in the Caribbean in the 1950’s and eventually made its way to the Florida peninsula by 1989. In 2004, the United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APH...

  19. The cactus webworm, Loxomorpha flavidissimalis (Grote, 1878) (Pyraloidea, Crambidae): its distribution and a potential pest in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report Loxomorpha flavidissimalis, the cactus webworm, for the first time from Tamaulipas, Mexico, as an herbivore of the cultivated cactus, Opuntia ficus-indica. We observed larvae over a four year period (2010-2014) during the months of March to November and found young cladode losses attributa...

  20. Revealing the elusive sex pheromone of the renowned cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae): A tribute to Robert Heath

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The South American cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), became famous as a biocontrol agent during campaigns in Australia and South Africa to control exotic weedy Opuntia spp. During these campaigns, monitoring the impact and success of the cactus moth did not requir...

  1. 77 FR 26000 - Cactus Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Cactus Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding of Cactus Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  2. Allozyme diversity and genetic structure of the leafy cactus (Pereskia guamacho [Cactaceae]).

    PubMed

    Nassar, J M; Hamrick, J L; Fleming, T H

    2002-01-01

    We examined levels of genetic variation and genetic structure in the leafy cactus (Pereskia guamacho) in arid and semiarid zones in Venezuela. We surveyed genetic diversity within 17 populations using 19 allozyme loci. Genetic diversity was relatively high at both the species (P(s) = 89%, A(s) = 3.26, AP(s) = 3.53, H(es) = 0.24) and population (P(p) = 63%, A(p) = 1.90, AP(p) = 2.42, H(ep) = 0.20) levels. A significant deficit of heterozygote individuals was detected within populations in the Paraguana Peninsula region (F(IS) = 0.301). Relatively low levels of population differentiation were detected at macrogeographic (G(ST) = 0.112) and regional levels (G(ST) = 0.044 for peninsula region and G(ST) = 0.074 for mainland region), suggesting substantial genetic exchange among populations; however, gene flow in this species seems to be regulated by the distance among populations. Overall, estimates of genetic diversity found in P. guamacho are concordant with the pattern observed for other cacti surveyed, namely high levels of polymorphism and genetic diversity with one common allele and several rare alleles per locus. Differences in gene dispersal systems between this species and other cacti studied were not reflected in the patterns of genetic diversity observed. The concentration of the highest estimates of genetic variation in northwestern Venezuela suggests a potential reservoir of plant genetic diversity within xerophilous ecosystems in northern South America. PMID:12195035

  3. Effects of ultrasound treatment in purple cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) juice.

    PubMed

    Zafra-Rojas, Quinatzin Yadira; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; Delgado-Olivares, Luis; Villanueva-Sánchez, Javier; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2013-09-01

    Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit is a berry with a tasty pulp full of seeds that constitutes about 10-15% of the edible pulp. In Mexico, cactus pear is mainly consumed fresh, but also has the potential to be processed in other products such as juice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different ultrasound conditions at amplitude levels ranging (40% and 60% for 10, 15, 25 min; 80% for 3, 5, 8, 10, 15 and 25 min) on the characteristics of purple cactus pear juice. The evaluated parameters were related with the quality (stability, °Brix, pH), microbial growth, total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity (ABTS, DPPH and % chelating activity) of purple cactus pear juices. The ultrasound treatment for time period of 15 and 25 min significantly reduced the microbial count in 15 and 25 min, without affecting the juice quality and its antioxidant properties. Juice treated at 80% of amplitude level showed an increased of antioxidant compounds. Our results demonstrated that sonication is a suitable technique for cactus pear processing. This technology allows the achievement of juice safety and quality standards without compromising the retention of antioxidant compounds. PMID:23545106

  4. Phytochemicals, nutritionals and antioxidant properties of two prickly pear cactus cultivars (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.) growing in Taif, KSA.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hameed, El-Sayed S; Nagaty, Mohamed A; Salman, Mahmood S; Bazaid, Salih A

    2014-10-01

    The antioxidant properties, some phytochemicals and nutritionals were characterized in two prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.) cultivars; red and yellow; growing in Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The antioxidant properties of red cactus cultivar were higher than the yellow cactus cultivar. Linear correlation appeared between the antioxidant properties and total phenolics. All samples nearly have the same quantity of iron, copper, sodium and potassium. Some phenolic compounds were detected by HPLC-UV analysis. HPLC-RI analysis of all samples revealed the absence of sucrose and the presence of glucose and fructose. According to the above results, this study gave a good indication about the nutritional and pharmaceutical potential of the two cactus cultivars that must be widespread cultivated in arid and semiarid regions as KSA accompanying with establishment of industries beside the cactus farms that used all parts of plants. PMID:24799205

  5. Agglomerative percolation on the Bethe lattice and the triangular cactus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Huiseung; Yook, Soon-Hyung; Kim, Yup

    2013-08-01

    Agglomerative percolation (AP) on the Bethe lattice and the triangular cactus is studied to establish the exact mean-field theory for AP. Using the self-consistent simulation method based on the exact self-consistent equations, the order parameter P∞ and the average cluster size S are measured. From the measured P∞ and S, the critical exponents βk and γk for k = 2 and 3 are evaluated. Here, βk and γk are the critical exponents for P∞ and S when the growth of clusters spontaneously breaks the Zk symmetry of the k-partite graph. The obtained values are β2 = 1.79(3), γ2 = 0.88(1), β3 = 1.35(5) and γ3 = 0.94(2). By comparing these exponents with those for ordinary percolation (β∞ = 1 and γ∞ = 1), we also find β∞ < β3 < β2 and γ∞ > γ3 > γ2. These results quantitatively verify the conjecture that the AP model belongs to a new universality class if the Zk symmetry is broken spontaneously, and the new universality class depends on k.

  6. Acoustic emissions correlated with hydration of Saguaro Cactus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardell, L. J.; Rowe, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    For some years it has been demonstrated that hardwood trees produce acoustic emissions during periods of drought, which arise from cavitation in the xylem as water is withdrawn. These emissions not only provide insights into the fluid transport behavior within these trees, but also the degree to which cavitation can proceed before inevitable tree mortality. Such studies can have significant impact on our understanding of forest die-off in the face of climate change. Plant mortality is not limited to woody trees, however, and it is not only the coniferous and deciduous forests whose response to climate and rainfall changes are important. In the desert Southwest we observe changes to survival rates of numerous species of flora. One of the most conspicuous of these plants is the iconic Saguaro Cactus (Carnegiea gigantean). These behemoths of the Sonoran Desert are very sensitive to small perturbations in their environment. Specifically, during the summer monsoon season when the cacti become well-hydrated, they can absorb hundreds of gallons of water within a very short time frame. We have obtained a juvenile saguaro on which we are conducting experiments to monitor acoustic emissions during hydration and dessication cycles. We will report on our observations obtained using piezoelectric ceramic accelerometers whose signals are digitized up to 44 Khz and recorded during hydration.

  7. Acoustic emissions correlated with hydration of Saguaro Cactus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardell, L. J.; Rowe, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    For some years it has been demonstrated that hardwood trees produce acoustic emissions during periods of drought, which arise from cavitation in the xylem as water is withdrawn. These emissions not only provide insights into the fluid transport behavior within these trees, but also the degree to which cavitation can proceed before inevitable tree mortality. Such studies can have significant impact on our understanding of forest die-off in the face of climate change. Plant mortality is not limited to woody trees, however, and it is not only the coniferous and deciduous forests whose response to climate and rainfall changes are important. In the desert Southwest we observe changes to survival rates of numerous species of flora. One of the most conspicuous of these plants is the iconic Saguaro Cactus (Carnegiea gigantean). These behemoths of the Sonoran Desert are very sensitive to small perturbations in their environment. Specifically, during the summer monsoon season when the cacti become well-hydrated, they can absorb hundreds of gallons of water within a very short time frame. We have obtained a juvenile saguaro on which we are conducting experiments to monitor acoustic emissions during hydration and dessication cycles. We will report on our observations obtained using piezoelectric ceramic accelerometers whose signals are digitized up to 44 Khz and recorded during hydration.

  8. Soil compaction vulnerability at Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, Robert H.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Carmichael, Shinji; Esque, Todd C.

    2014-01-01

    Compaction vulnerability of different types of soils by hikers and vehicles is poorly known, particularly for soils of arid and semiarid regions. Engineering analyses have long shown that poorly sorted soils (for example, sandy loams) compact to high densities, whereas well-sorted soils (for example, eolian sand) do not compact, and high gravel content may reduce compaction. Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument (ORPI) in southwestern Arizona, is affected greatly by illicit activities associated with the United States–Mexico border, and has many soils that resource managers consider to be highly vulnerable to compaction. Using geospatial soils data for ORPI, compaction vulnerability was estimated qualitatively based on the amount of gravel and the degree of sorting of sand and finer particles. To test this qualitative assessment, soil samples were collected from 48 sites across all soil map units, and undisturbed bulk densities were measured. A scoring system was used to create a vulnerability index for soils on the basis of particle-size sorting, soil properties derived from Proctor compaction analyses, and the field undisturbed bulk densities. The results of the laboratory analyses indicated that the qualitative assessments of soil compaction vulnerability underestimated the area of high vulnerability soils by 73 percent. The results showed that compaction vulnerability of desert soils, such as those at ORPI, can be quantified using laboratory tests and evaluated using geographic information system analyses, providing a management tool that managers potentially could use to inform decisions about activities that reduce this type of soil disruption in protected areas.

  9. A multi-structural and multi-functional integrated fog collection system in cactus

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Jie; Bai, Hao; Zheng, Yongmei; Zhao, Tianyi; Fang, Ruochen; Jiang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Multiple biological structures have demonstrated fog collection abilities, such as beetle backs with bumps and spider silks with periodic spindle-knots and joints. Many Cactaceae species live in arid environments and are extremely drought-tolerant. Here we report that one of the survival systems of the cactus Opuntia microdasys lies in its efficient fog collection system. This unique system is composed of well-distributed clusters of conical spines and trichomes on the cactus stem; each spine contains three integrated parts that have different roles in the fog collection process according to their surface structural features. The gradient of the Laplace pressure, the gradient of the surface-free energy and multi-function integration endow the cactus with an efficient fog collection system. Investigations of the structure–function relationship in this system may help us to design novel materials and devices to collect water from fog with high efficiencies. PMID:23212376

  10. Genome organization and gene expression of saguaro cactus carmovirus.

    PubMed

    Weng, Z; Xiong, Z

    1997-03-01

    The complete sequence of the single-stranded, (+)-sense RNA genome of saguaro cactus carmovirus (SCV) has been determined. The 3879 nucleotide genome contains five open reading frames (ORFs). The 5'-proximal ORF encodes a 26 kDa protein (p26) and terminates with an amber codon which is readthrough into an in-frame p57 ORF to generate an 86 kDa fusion protein (p86). Two small, centrally located ORFs encode a 6 kDa protein (p6) and a 9 kDa protein (p9), respectively. The 3'-proximal ORF encodes a 37 kDa (p37) capsid protein (CP). Analysis of the nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences supports the classification of SCV in the genus Carmovirus in the family Tombusviridae. All predicted SCV proteins are expressed in an in vitro translation system. SCV p26 and the readthrough fusion protein p86 are synthesized from the genomic RNA while p6, p9 and p37 CP ORFs at the 3' half of the genome are expressed from two subgenomic (sg) RNAs. The 5' termini of both sg RNAs have been mapped. The large 1614 nucleotide sg RNA contains the p6 and p9 ORFs as the first and the second ORFs respectively from its 5' end. It directs the synthesis of abundant p6 but a small amount of p9. While a synthetic transcript with the p9 ORF at the 5' end is a more efficient messenger for p9, no corresponding sg RNA has been identified in vivo. The smaller 1396 nucleotide sg RNA contains only the p37 ORF and directs the synthesis of SCV CP. PMID:9049400

  11. Phylogeographic analysis of Harrisia cactus mealybug, Hypogeococcus pungens (Hemiptera: Pseudoccidae) populations: work in progress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harrisia cactus mealybug (HCM), Hypogeococcus pungens (Hemiptera: Pseudoccidae) Granara de Willink (1981) is infesting and killing cacti in the southern coast of Puerto Rico, covering an area of about 1,400 km2. The 13 species of cacti occurring in Puerto Rico are threatened by this new pest; three...

  12. Trail marking by the larvae of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) spends most of its larval life feeding within the cladodes of Opuntia cactuses, but the gregarious caterpillars begin their life outside the plant, and in the later instars make intermittent excursions over plant surfaces to access new cladodes and to t...

  13. Biology, Distribution And Control Of The Cactus Moth, Cactoblastis Cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralide)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) became a textbook example of successful classical biological control after it was imported from Argentina into Australia in 1926 to control invasive Opuntia cacti. To date, the moth continues to play an active role in controlling...

  14. Mating frequency of the male cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae), under laboratory conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the number of times that males of the invasive cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) mate under laboratory conditions. Virgin females were provided to each male at 24 h intervals until male death. Females removed from the containers were dissected to ascertain their mating ...

  15. Diversity of unavailable polysaccharides and dietary fiber in domesticated nopalito and cactus pear fruit (Opuntia spp.).

    PubMed

    Peña-Valdivia, Cecilia Beatriz; Trejo, Carlos; Arroyo-Peña, V Baruch; Sánchez Urdaneta, Adriana Beatriz; Balois Morales, Rosendo

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify mucilages, pectins, hemicelluloses, and cellulose of nopalitos (edible, as vegetable, young cladodes of flat-stemmed spiny cacti) of most consumed Mexican cultivars, and sweet and acid cactus pear fruits of Opuntia spp. The hypothesis is that, regardless of their unavailable polysaccharides diversity, nopalitos and cactus pear fruits are rich sources of soluble and insoluble dietary fiber. Twelve cultivars of Opuntia spp. were used. Nopalitos had a significant variation in structural polysaccharides among the cultivars: mucilages (from 3.8 to 8.6% dry matter (DM)) averaged near a half of pectins content (from 6.1 to 14.2% DM) and tightly bound hemicelluloses (from 2.2 to 4.7% DM), which were the less abundant polysaccharides, amounted 50% of the loosely bound hemicelluloses (from 4.3 to 10.7% DM). Acid fruits (or 'xoconostle') had significantly higher unavailable polysaccharides content than sweet fruit, and contain similar proportions than nopalitos. Unavailable polysaccharides represent a high proportion of dry tissues of nopalitos and cactus pear fruits, composition of both of these soluble and insoluble polysaccharides (total dietary fiber) widely vary among cultivars without an evident pattern. Nopalitos and cactus pear fruit can be considered an excellent source of dietary fiber. PMID:22899620

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTROL TACTICS AGAINST THE INVASIVE CACTUS MOTH, CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM, IN NORTH AMERICA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most successful classical biocontrol of weeds program has been the control of invasive prickly-pears (Opuntia spp.) by the Argentine cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum. However, the moth has invaded North America and its ability to control its host plant raises concerns for the safety and surviva...

  17. Mating frequency of the male cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), under laboratory conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the effects of three constant temperatures (20°, 25° and 30°C) on the rate of development and life history of the invasive cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg). Results from these laboratory experiments were used to predict C. cactorum rate of development in the field during...

  18. Nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) as a source of bioactive compounds for nutrition, health and disease.

    PubMed

    El-Mostafa, Karym; El Kharrassi, Youssef; Badreddine, Asmaa; Andreoletti, Pierre; Vamecq, Joseph; El Kebbaj, M'Hammed Saïd; Latruffe, Norbert; Lizard, Gérard; Nasser, Boubker; Cherkaoui-Malki, Mustapha

    2014-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica, commonly referred to as prickly pear or nopal cactus, is a dicotyledonous angiosperm plant. It belongs to the Cactaceae family and is characterized by its remarkable adaptation to arid and semi-arid climates in tropical and subtropical regions of the globe. In the last decade, compelling evidence for the nutritional and health benefit potential of this cactus has been provided by academic scientists and private companies. Notably, its rich composition in polyphenols, vitamins, polyunsaturated fatty acids and amino acids has been highlighted through the use of a large panel of extraction methods. The identified natural cactus compounds and derivatives were shown to be endowed with biologically relevant activities including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, antimicrobial and neuroprotective properties. The present review is aimed at stressing the major classes of cactus components and their medical interest through emphasis on some of their biological effects, particularly those having the most promising expected health benefit and therapeutic impacts. PMID:25232708

  19. Divergence in Olfactory Host Plant Preference in D. mojavensis in Response to Cactus Host Use

    PubMed Central

    Stensmyr, Marcus C.; Shann, Jodi; Hansson, Bill S.; Rollmann, Stephanie M.

    2013-01-01

    Divergence in host adaptive traits has been well studied from an ecological and evolutionary perspective, but identification of the proximate mechanisms underlying such divergence is less well understood. Behavioral preferences for host plants are often mediated by olfaction and shifts in preference may be accompanied by changes in the olfactory system. In this study, we examine the evolution of host plant preferences in cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis that feeds and breeds on different cacti throughout its range. We show divergence in electrophysiological responses and olfactory behavior among populations with host plant shifts. Specifically, significant divergence was observed in the Mojave Desert population that specializes on barrel cactus. Differences were observed in electrophysiological responses of the olfactory organs and in behavioral responses to barrel cactus volatiles. Together our results suggest that the peripheral nervous system has changed in response to different ecological environments and that these changes likely contribute to divergence among D. mojavensis populations. PMID:23936137

  20. Divergence in olfactory host plant preference in D. mojavensis in response to cactus host use.

    PubMed

    Date, Priya; Dweck, Hany K M; Stensmyr, Marcus C; Shann, Jodi; Hansson, Bill S; Rollmann, Stephanie M

    2013-01-01

    Divergence in host adaptive traits has been well studied from an ecological and evolutionary perspective, but identification of the proximate mechanisms underlying such divergence is less well understood. Behavioral preferences for host plants are often mediated by olfaction and shifts in preference may be accompanied by changes in the olfactory system. In this study, we examine the evolution of host plant preferences in cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis that feeds and breeds on different cacti throughout its range. We show divergence in electrophysiological responses and olfactory behavior among populations with host plant shifts. Specifically, significant divergence was observed in the Mojave Desert population that specializes on barrel cactus. Differences were observed in electrophysiological responses of the olfactory organs and in behavioral responses to barrel cactus volatiles. Together our results suggest that the peripheral nervous system has changed in response to different ecological environments and that these changes likely contribute to divergence among D. mojavensis populations. PMID:23936137

  1. Analysis of core soil and water samples from the Cactus Crater Disposal Site at Enewetak atoll

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W.L.; Noshkin, V.E.

    1981-02-18

    Core soil samples and water samples were collected from the Cactus Crater Disposal Site at Enewetak for analysis of /sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 239 +240/Pu and /sup 241/Am by both gamma spectroscopy and, through a contractor laboratory, by wet chemistry procedures. The samples processing methods, the analytical methods and the analytical quality control are all procedures developed for the continuing Marshall Island radioecology and dose assessment work.

  2. Color, betalain pattern, and antioxidant properties of cactus pear (Opuntia spp.) clones.

    PubMed

    Stintzing, Florian C; Herbach, Kirsten M; Mosshammer, Markus R; Carle, Reinhold; Yi, Weiguang; Sellappan, Subramani; Akoh, Casimir C; Bunch, Ron; Felker, Peter

    2005-01-26

    Total phenolics, ascorbic acid, and betalain contents of differently colored cactus pear clones (nine Opuntia ficus-indica [L.] Mill. clones and one O. robusta Wendl. clone) were investigated and related to their respective antioxidant potential assessed by Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. TEAC and ORAC values were very highly correlated with each other and also with values for total phenolics, betalain contents, and ascorbic acid concentrations. Total phenolics had the greatest contribution to ORAC and TEAC values. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-diode array detector (DAD)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) measurements of cactus pear juices permitted the differentiation of the clones based on variations in pigment patterns and betalain concentrations. The red and yellow betalains were absent in lime green colored cactus fruits. The ratio and concentration of these pigments were responsible for the yellow, orange, red, and purple colors in the other clones. Progeny of purple and lime green colored parents were characterized by 12% and 88% of plants bearing lime green and purple fruit, respectively. This implies that the genes for betalain production were lacking in the lime green fruits but could be provided by a parent with a complete set of genes, that is, purple fruits. Besides known pigments typical of Cactaceae, two unexpected betalains were identified. Whereas gomphrenin I was found for the first time in tissues of cactus plants, methionine-betaxanthin has never been described before as a genuine betalain. In addition to their alleged health-promoting properties, various combinations of yellow betaxanthins and red-purple betacyanins may allow the development of new food products without using artificial colorants. PMID:15656686

  3. Dark matter and gamma-rays from Draco: MAGIC, GLAST and CACTUS

    SciTech Connect

    Bergstrom, Lars; Hooper, Dan; /Fermilab

    2005-12-01

    The dwarf spheroidal galaxy Draco has long been considered likely to be one of the brightest point sources of gamma-rays generated through dark matter annihilations. Recent studies of this object have found that it remains largely intact from tidal striping, and may be more massive than previously thought. In this article, we revisit Draco as a source of dark matter annihilation radiation, with these new observational constraints in mind. We discuss the prospects for the experiments MAGIC and GLAST to detect dark matter in Draco, as well as constraints from the observations of EGRET. We also discuss the possibility that the CACTUS experiment has already detected gamma-rays from Draco. We find that it is difficult to generate the flux reported by CACTUS without resorting to non-thermally produced WIMPs and/or a density spike in Draco's dark matter distribution due to the presence of an intermediate mass black hole. We also find that for most annihilation modes, a positive detection of Draco by CACTUS would be inconsistent with the lack of events seen by EGRET.

  4. Habitat fragmentation in coastal southern California disrupts genetic connectivity in the cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, Kelly R.; Kus, Barbara E.; Preston, Kristine; Howell, Scarlett; Perkins, Emily; Vandergast, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Achieving long-term persistence of species in urbanized landscapes requires characterizing population genetic structure to understand and manage the effects of anthropogenic disturbance on connectivity. Urbanization over the past century in coastal southern California has caused both precipitous loss of coastal sage scrub habitat and declines in populations of the cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus). Using 22 microsatellite loci, we found that remnant cactus wren aggregations in coastal southern California comprised 20 populations based on strict exact tests for population differentiation, and 12 genetic clusters with hierarchical Bayesian clustering analyses. Genetic structure patterns largely mirrored underlying habitat availability, with cluster and population boundaries coinciding with fragmentation caused primarily by urbanization. Using a habitat model we developed, we detected stronger associations between habitat-based distances and genetic distances than Euclidean geographic distance. Within populations, we detected a positive association between available local habitat and allelic richness and a negative association with relatedness. Isolation-by-distance patterns varied over the study area, which we attribute to temporal differences in anthropogenic landscape development. We also found that genetic bottleneck signals were associated with wildfire frequency. These results indicate that habitat fragmentation and alterations have reduced genetic connectivity and diversity of cactus wren populations in coastal southern California. Management efforts focused on improving connectivity among remaining populations may help to ensure population persistence.

  5. Dark matter and gamma rays from Draco: MAGIC, GLAST and CACTUS

    SciTech Connect

    Bergstroem, Lars; Hooper, Dan

    2006-03-15

    The dwarf spheroidal galaxy Draco has long been considered likely to be one of the brightest point sources of gamma rays generated through dark matter annihilations. Recent studies of this object have found that it remains largely intact from tidal striping, and may be more massive than previously thought. In this article, we revisit Draco as a source of dark matter annihilation radiation, with these new observational constraints in mind. We discuss the prospects for the experiments MAGIC and GLAST to detect dark matter in Draco, as well as constraints from the observations of EGRET. We also discuss the possibility that the CACTUS experiment has already detected gamma rays from Draco. We find that it is difficult to generate the flux reported by CACTUS without resorting to nonthermally produced WIMPs and/or a density spike in Draco's dark matter distribution due to the presence of an intermediate mass black hole. We also find that for most annihilation modes, a positive detection of Draco by CACTUS would be inconsistent with the lack of events seen by EGRET.

  6. Bacteria Associated with Copestylum (Diptera, Syrphidae) Larvae and Their Cactus Host Isolatocereus dumortieri

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Falcón, Ana Paola; Durbán, Ana; Latorre, Amparo; Antón, Josefa; Marcos-García, María de los Ángeles

    2011-01-01

    We describe the gut bacterial diversity inhabiting two saprophagous syrphids and their breeding substrate (decayed tissues of the columnar cactus Isolatocereus dumortieri). We analyzed the gut microbiota of Copestylum latum (scooping larvae that feed on decayed cactus tissues) and Copestylum limbipenne (whose larvae can also feed on semiliquid tissues) using molecular techniques. DNA was extracted from larval guts and cactus tissues. The V1-V3 region of the 16S rRNA genes was amplified and sequenced. A total of 31079 sequences were obtained. The main findings are: C. limbipenne is dominated by several Enterobacteriaceae, including putative nitrogen-fixing genera and pectinolitic species and some denitrifying species, whereas in C. latum unclassified Gammaproteobacteria predominate. Decayed tissues have a dominant lactic acid bacterial community. The bacterial communities were more similar between larval species than between each larva and its breeding substrate. The results suggest that the gut bacterial community in these insects is not strongly affected by diet and must be dependent on other factors, such as vertical transmission, evolutionary history and host innate immunity. PMID:22132101

  7. Transcriptional variation associated with cactus host plant adaptation in Drosophila mettleri populations.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Kim; Matzkin, Luciano M; Bono, Jeremy M

    2015-10-01

    Although the importance of host plant chemistry in plant-insect interactions is widely accepted, the genetic basis of adaptation to host plants is not well understood. Here, we investigate transcriptional changes associated with a host plant shift in Drosophila mettleri. While D. mettleri is distributed mainly throughout the Sonoran Desert where it specializes on columnar cacti (Carnegiea gigantea and Pachycereus pringleii), a population on Santa Catalina Island has shifted to chemically divergent coastal prickly pear cactus (Opuntia littoralis). We compared gene expression of larvae from the Sonoran Desert and Santa Catalina Island when reared on saguaro (C. gigantea), coastal prickly pear and laboratory food. Consistent with expectations based on the complexity and toxicity of cactus relative to laboratory food, within-population comparisons between larvae reared on these food sources revealed transcriptional differences in detoxification and other metabolic pathways. The majority of transcriptional differences between populations on the cactus hosts were independent of the rearing environment and included a disproportionate number of genes involved in processes relevant to host plant adaptation (e.g. detoxification, central metabolism and chemosensory pathways). Comparisons of transcriptional reaction norms between the two populations revealed extensive shared plasticity that likely allowed colonization of coastal prickly pear on Santa Catalina Island. We also found that while plasticity may have facilitated subsequent adaptive divergence in gene expression between populations, the majority of genes that differed in expression on the novel host were not transcriptionally plastic in the presumed ancestral state. PMID:26384860

  8. Phenology and egg production of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum(Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): comparison of field census data and life stage development in the field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural phenology and development of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was studied under field conditions in St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, St. Marks, FL. from July 2006 to September 2007. Cactus pads (Opuntia stricta Haw. [Cactaceae]) were visually surveyed...

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF THE STERILE INSECT TECHNIQUE TO MANAGE AN INVASIVE INSECT PEST, CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM, ATTACKING PRICKLY PEAR CACTUS IN QUINTANA ROO, MEXICO, AND SOUTHEASTERN USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most successful classical biological control of weeds program has been the control of invasive prickly-pear cactus (Opuntia spp.) by the Argentine cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum. However, the moth has now become an invasive pest in the southeastern USA and its ability to dramatically control ...

  10. Differential Response to Soil Salinity in Endangered Key Tree Cactus: Implications for Survival in a Changing Climate

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Joie; Maschinski, Joyce; Hughes, Phillip; McAuliffe, Joe; Roncal, Julissa; Powell, Devon; Sternberg, Leonel O'reilly

    2012-01-01

    Understanding reasons for biodiversity loss is essential for developing conservation and management strategies and is becoming increasingly urgent with climate change. Growing at elevations <1.4 m in the Florida Keys, USA, the endangered Key tree cactus (Pilosocereus robinii) experienced 84 percent loss of total stems from 1994 to 2007. The most severe losses of 99 and 88 percent stems occurred in the largest populations in the Lower Keys, where nine storms with high wind velocities and storm surges, occurred during this period. In contrast, three populations had substantial stem proliferation. To evaluate possible mortality factors related to changes in climate or forest structure, we examined habitat variables: soil salinity, elevation, canopy cover, and habitat structure near 16 dying or dead and 18 living plants growing in the Lower Keys. Soil salinity and elevation were the preliminary factors that discriminated live and dead plants. Soil salinity was 1.5 times greater, but elevation was 12 cm higher near dead plants than near live plants. However, distribution-wide stem loss was not significantly related to salinity or elevation. Controlled salinity trials indicated that salt tolerance to levels above 40 mM NaCl was related to maternal origin. Salt sensitive plants from the Lower Keys had less stem growth, lower root:shoot ratios, lower potassium: sodium ratios and lower recovery rate, but higher δ 13C than a salt tolerant lineage of unknown origin. Unraveling the genetic structure of salt tolerant and salt sensitive lineages in the Florida Keys will require further genetic tests. Worldwide rare species restricted to fragmented, low-elevation island habitats, with little or no connection to higher ground will face challenges from climate change-related factors. These great conservation challenges will require traditional conservation actions and possibly managed relocation that must be informed by studies such as these. PMID:22403670

  11. Effects of an invasive grass on the demography of the Caribbean cactus Harrisia portoricensis: Implications for cacti conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas-Sandoval, Julissa; Meléndez-Ackerman, Elvia

    2012-05-01

    The impact of exotic species around the world is among the primary threats to the conservation and management of rare and endangered species. In this work we asked whether or not the presence of the African grass Megathyrsus maximus on Mona Island was associated with negative impacts on the demography of the endangered Caribbean cactus Harrisia portoricensis. To address this question we performed field observations where we compared demographic data collected at un-manipulated areas invaded by Megathyrsus with un-manipulated areas non-invaded by this exotic grass. Additionally, demographic data were also collected in areas in which we removed the exotic grass biomass using two alternative treatments: complete and partial grass removal. Results demonstrated that the presence of Megathyrsus has negative effects on demographic parameters of Harrisia at various stages throughout its life cycle. In general, the survival, growth, and reproduction of Harrisia plants were depressed under the presence of Megathyrsus. Growth and survival of seedlings and juveniles of Harrisia were more impacted by the presence of Megathyrsus than adult performance and seedling recruitment only occurred in areas with grass absence. Our combined results suggest that modifications of the micro-environment by the presence of Megathyrsus may add an additional level of vulnerability to the persistence of Harrisia, and as such this factor must be considered when designing conservation strategies for this endangered species. This study highlights the need for a greater emphasis on understanding the interactions between invasive grass species and native cacti, and the importance of such information in designing conservation strategies for cacti species elsewhere.

  12. Review of samples of sediment, tailings, and waters adjacent to the Cactus Queen gold mine, Kern County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rytuba, James J.; Kim, Christopher S.; Goldstein, Daniel N.

    2011-01-01

    The Cactus Queen Mine is located in the western Mojave Desert in Kern County, California. The Cactus Queen gold-silver (Au-Ag) deposit is similar to other Au-Ag deposits hosted in Miocene volcanic rocks that consist of silicic domes and associated flows, pyroclastic rocks, and subvolcanic intrusions. The volcanic rocks were emplaced onto a basement of Mesozoic silicic intrusive rocks. A part of the Cactus Queen Mine is located on Federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Staff from the BLM initially sampled the mine area and documented elevated concentrations of arsenic (As) in tailings and sediment. BLM then requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with Chapman University, measure and characterize As and other geochemical constituents in sediment, tailings, and waters on the part of the mine on Federal lands. This report is made in response to the request by the BLM, the lead agency mandated to conduct a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) - Removal Site Investigation (RSI). The RSI applies to the potential removal of As-contaminated mine waste from the Cactus Queen Mine as a means of reducing As release and exposure to humans and biota. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of sediments, mine tailings, and surface waters at the Cactus Queen Mine on January 27, 2008. Our results provide a preliminary assessment of the sources of As and associated chemical constituents that could potentially impact humans and biota.

  13. Synthesis of "cactus" top-decorated aligned carbon nanotubes and their third-order nonlinear optical properties.

    PubMed

    Li, P H; Qu, Y L; Xu, X J; Zhu, Y W; Yu, T; Chin, K C; Mi, J; Gao, X Y; Lim, C T; Shen, Z X; Wee, A T S; Ji, W; Sow, C H

    2006-04-01

    We report a new morphology of "cactus" top-decorated aligned carbon nanotubes grown by the PECVD method using pure C2H2 gas. Unlike most previous reports, no additional carrier gas is used for pretreatment. Carbon nanotubes can still grow and maintain the tubular structure underneath the "cactus" tops. It is proposed that the H atoms produced by the dissociation of C2H2 activate the catalyst nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that the top "cactus" morphology is composed of a large quantity of small nanosheets. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals the amorphous carbon nature of these "cactus" structures. The formation of these "cactus" structures is possibly due to covalent absorption and reconstruction of carbon atoms on the broken graphite layers of nanotubes produced by the strong ion bombardment under plasma. The third-order optical nonlinearities and nonlinear dynamics are also investigated. The third-order nonlinear susceptibility magnitude /chi(3)/ is found to be 2.2 x 10(-11) esu, and the relaxation process takes place in about 1.8 ps. PMID:16736755

  14. Validation of CME Detection Software (CACTus) by Means of Simulated Data, and Analysis of Projection Effects on CME Velocity Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonte, K.; Jacobs, C.; Robbrecht, E.; de Groof, A.; Berghmans, D.; Poedts, S.

    2011-05-01

    In the context of space weather forecasting, an automated detection of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) becomes more and more important for efficiently handling a large data flow which is expected from recently-launched and future solar missions. In this paper we validate the detection software package "CACTus" by applying the program to synthetic data from our 3D time-dependent CME simulations instead of observational data. The main strength of this study is that we know in advance what should be detected. We describe the sensitivities and strengths of automated detection, more specific for the CACTus program, resulting in a better understanding of CME detection on one hand and the calibration of the CACTus software on the other hand, suggesting possible improvements of the package. In addition, the simulation is an ideal tool to investigate projection effects on CME velocity measurements.

  15. Microbial populations and activities in the rhizoplane of rock-weathering desert plants. II. Growth promotion of cactus seedlings.

    PubMed

    Puente, M E; Li, C Y; Bashan, Y

    2004-09-01

    Four bacterial species isolated from the rhizoplane of cacti growing in bare lava rocks were assessed for growth promotion of giant cardon cactus seedlings (Pachycereus pringlei). These bacteria fixed N(2), dissolved P, weathered extrusive igneous rock, marble, and limestone, and significantly mobilized useful minerals, such as P, K, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn in rock minerals. Cardon cactus seeds inoculated with these bacteria were able to sprout and grow normally without added nutrients for at least 12 months in pulverized extrusive igneous rock (ancient lava flows) mixed with perlite. Cacti that were not inoculated grew less vigorously and some died. The amount of useful minerals (P, K, Fe, Mg) for plant growth extracted from the pulverized lava, measured after cultivation of inoculated plants, was significant. This study shows that rhizoplane bacteria isolated from rock-growing cacti promote growth of a cactus species, and can help supply essential minerals for a prolonged period of time. PMID:15375736

  16. Microencapsulation of betalains obtained from cactus fruit (Opuntia ficus-indica) by spray drying using cactus cladode mucilage and maltodextrin as encapsulating agents.

    PubMed

    Otálora, María Carolina; Carriazo, José Gregorio; Iturriaga, Laura; Nazareno, Mónica Azucena; Osorio, Coralia

    2015-11-15

    The microencapsulation of betalains from cactus fruit by spray drying was evaluated as a stabilization strategy for these pigments. The betalains used as active agent were extracted from purple fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica (BE) and encapsulated with maltodextrin and cladode mucilage MD-CM and only with MD. The microcapsulates were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal analysis (TGA-DSC), tristimulus colorimetry, as well as, their humidity, water activity and dietary fiber content were also determined. The active agent content was measured by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and its composition confirmed by HPLC-ESIMS. A pigment storage stability test was performed at 18 °C and different relative humidities. The addition of CM in the formulation increased the encapsulation efficiency, diminished the moisture content, and allowed to obtain more uniform size and spherical particles, with high dietary fiber content. These microencapsulates are promising functional additive to be used as natural colorant in the food industry. PMID:25977013

  17. Dating Cactus: Annual and Sub-annual Variations of Oxygen-18, Carbon-13 and Radiocarbon in Spines of a Columnar Cactus, Carnegiea gigantea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dettman, D. L.; English, N. B.; Sandquist, D. R.; Williams, D. G.

    2006-12-01

    We measured δ18O, δ13C and F14C of spines from a long-lived columnar cactus, Carnegiea gigantea (saguaro), to resolve a record of plant physiological responses to annual and sub-annual climate variation in the eastern Sonoran Desert. Spines grow from the apex of the cactus and are arranged serially along the side of the cactus oldest at the base, youngest at the apex. To establish the age of the spine series, we measured F14C of spines collected at 8 different heights from the apex (3.77 m) to the base of a naturally occurring saguaro. These spines yielded fractions of modern carbon (F14C) from 0.9679 and 1.5537, indicating the presence of carbon in spine tissue derived from atmospheric nuclear testing. We used the F14C of spine tissue to calculate the year of spine emergence for each of the 11 spines, assuming minimal re-allocation of stored carbon to growing spines. At the same 8 heights, we interpolated the date of spine emergence from observed height measurements made between 1964 and 2002. A very strong positive correlation (linear regression, r2 = 0.99, P < 0.0001) between the F14C age of spines and ages determined from direct height measurements was observed, with a two year offset suggesting incorporation of carbon from fossil fuel combustion sources in the Tucson basin. Additionally, spine tips from 97 spines collected serially from the top half of the same saguaro (between 1.77 and 3.50 m) and representing ~15 years of growth, yielded δ18O variations in spine bulk organic material from 38° to 50° (VSMOW) and in δ13C from ° to 11.5° (VPDB). The δ18O and δ13C values were positively correlated over the entire record (linear regression, r2 = 0.22, P < 0.0001). These variations occurred at or near an annual frequency. The most negative δ18O and δ13C values in bulk spine organic material from the naturally occurring cactus were observed in spines grown shortly following the 1983 and 1993 strong El Niño winter precipitation events in Tucson

  18. Biocontrol Characteristics of Bacillus Species in Suppressing Stem Rot of Grafted Cactus Caused by Bipolaris cactivora

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Sooil; Kim, Sang Gyu; Kim, Young Ho

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important limiting factors for the production of the grafted cactus in Korea is the qualitative and quantitative yield loss derived from stem rots especially caused by Bipolaris cactivora. This study is aimed to develop microbial control agents useful for the control of the bipolaris stem rot. Two bacteria (GA1-23 and GA4-4) selected out of 943 microbial isolates because of their strong antibiotic activity against B. cactivora were identified as Bacillus subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens, respectively, by the cultural characteristics, Biolog program and 16S rRNA sequencing analyses. Both bacterial isolates significantly inhibited the conidial germination and mycelial growth of the pathogen with no significant difference between the two, of which the inhibitory efficacies varied depending on the cultural conditions such as temperature, nutritional compositions and concentrations. Light and electron microscopy of the pathogen treated with the bacterial isolates showed the inhibition of spore germination with initial malformation of germ tubes and later formation of circle-like vesicles with no hyphal growth and hyphal disruption sometimes accompanied by hyphal swellings and shrinkages adjacent to the bacteria, suggesting their antibiotic mode of antagonistic activity. Control efficacy of B. subtilis GA1-23 and B. amyloliquefaciens GA4-4 on the cactus stem rot were not as high as but comparable to that of fungicide difenoconazole when they were treated simultaneously at the time of pathogen inoculation. All of these results suggest the two bacterial isolates have a good potential to be developed as biocontrol agents for the bipolaris stem rot of the grafted cactus. PMID:25288927

  19. The development of CACTUS : a wind and marine turbine performance simulation code.

    SciTech Connect

    Barone, Matthew Franklin; Murray, Jonathan

    2010-12-01

    CACTUS (Code for Axial and Cross-flow TUrbine Simulation) is a turbine performance simulation code, based on a free wake vortex method, under development at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as part of a Department of Energy program to study marine hydrokinetic (MHK) devices. The current effort builds upon work previously done at SNL in the area of vertical axis wind turbine simulation, and aims to add models to handle generic device geometry and physical models specific to the marine environment. An overview of the current state of the project and validation effort is provided.

  20. Increased acidification in the rhizosphere of cactus seedlings induced by Azospirillum brasilense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrillo, Angel; Li, Ching; Bashan, Yoav

    2002-08-01

    Acidification of the rhizosphere of cactus seedlings (giant cardon, Pachycereus pringlei) after inoculation with the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense Cd, in the presence or absence of ammonium and nitrate, was studied to understand how to increase growth of cardon seedlings in poor desert soils. While ammonium enhanced rhizosphere and liquid culture acidification, inoculation with the bacteria enhanced it further. On the other hand, nitrate increased pH of the rhizosphere, but combined with the bacterial inoculation, increase in pH was significantly smaller. Bacterial inoculation with ammonium enhanced plant growth.

  1. Are cactus growth forms related to germination responses to light? A test using Echinopsis species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega-Baes, Pablo; Aparicio-González, Mónica; Galíndez, Guadalupe; del Fueyo, Patricia; Sühring, Silvia; Rojas-Aréchiga, Mariana

    2010-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of light regimen (white light vs. darkness) on the germination of 12 species of the Echinopsis genus (tribe Trichocereeae, Cactaceae). This genus presents a variety of growth forms and relatively small and uniform seed size. These traits allowed us to test, within the same linage and removing seed mass effect, the hypothesis that the germination response to light (indifferent to light or positive photoblastic) is related to growth form. Our results reject this hypothesis since no seeds germinated in darkness, so all of the species can be classified as being positively photoblastic. The proportion of seed germination with white light was significantly different among cactus growth forms. Columnar cacti (arborescent, creeping and short) showed a greater proportion of seed germination than barrel and globose cacti. The germination rate differed among growth forms and species. At constant temperatures, creeping columnar cacti presented a significantly higher germination rate than the other growth forms. With alternating temperatures, columnar cacti showed higher germination rates than the other growth forms. The low proportion of seeds that germinated for some species indicates that they show seed dormancy. Our results suggest that germination responses to light in the cactus family could be related to seed mass and phylogenetic constraints.

  2. Not all the infected develop the disease - A "Lotus and Cactus" model.

    PubMed

    Pitchappan, Ramasamy M

    2016-06-01

    The immunogenetic dictum "not all the infected develop the disease" can best be explained by a "Lotus and Cactus" model. Lotuses grow in ponds and cacti in deserts: analogously, we can say that tubercle patient's lung (genetic makeup) functions as an ideal 'broth' for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) germs to grow, but not the lungs of an endemic control. HLA association studies from Europe to Asia since 1983 till date, have shown a persistent HLA DR2 (15) association. Further, HLA DR2 and non-DR2 endemic controls showed disparate patterns of immune responses and gene expressions. The host and pathogen MHC diversities, Th1-Th2 paradigm and cytokine circuits all may play a crucial role in TB susceptibility. It is possible to decipher the protective immunity by controlling the known confounders - epidemiological, demographic, socio-biological and also host and pathogen diversities. This has become significant with our understanding on the 'out of Africa' migration and neolithic co-dispersal of M.tb with modern human. Divergence and expansion of various MHCs (eg HLA-DRB1*15, HLA-B*57) and non-MHC alleles in various continents might be responsible for the skewed transmission and distribution of the infectious diseases around the globe. The 'Lotus and Cactus' model proposed here exemplifies this. A holistic genetic epidemiology approach employing modern tools is the need of the hour to better understand infectious disease susceptibility. PMID:26611827

  3. Intake, performance, and carcass characteristics of lambs fed spineless cactus replacing wheat bran.

    PubMed

    Felix, Sabrina Carla Rodrigues; Pessoa, Ricardo Alexandre Silva; Ferreira, Marcelo de Andrade; Soares, Luciana Felizardo Pereira; Silva, Janaina de Lima; de Abreu, Karen Santos Felix; de Melo, Ana Caroline Cerqueira

    2016-02-01

    To assess the intake, digestibility of nutrients, ingestive behavior, performance, and carcass characteristics of feedlot lambs, 36 F1 Santa Ines × Dorper male lambs with an initial average weight of 19.5 ± 0.27 kg were fed with different levels of spineless cactus (0, 33, 66, and 100 %) as a replacement of the wheat bran. The replacement diets had no effect on the intake of dry matter (DM) or crude protein (CP), whose average values were 962 and 140 g/day, respectively. There was a quadratic effect on the intake of digestible organic matter (OM) and the digestibility of DM, CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC). The highest average daily gain (ADG) of 168 g/day was achieved at 58.7 % replacement level. The highest hot and cold carcass weights of 15.4 and 14.5 kg were achieved at 62.4 and 56.9 % replacement levels. For lambs in the feedlot, we recommend replacing wheat bran with up to 58.7 % spineless cactus. PMID:26676244

  4. Effective directional self-gathering of drops on spine of cactus with splayed capillary arrays.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chengcheng; Xue, Yan; Chen, Yuan; Zheng, Yongmei

    2015-01-01

    We report that the fast droplet transport without additional energy expenditure can be achieved on the spine of cactus (Gymnocalycium baldianum) with the assistance of its special surface structure: the cactus spine exhibits a cone-like structure covered with tilted scales. A single scale and the spine surface under it cooperatively construct a splayed capillary tube. The arrays of capillary tube formed by the overlapping scales build up the out layer of the spine. The serial drops would be driven by the asymmetric structure resulted from tilt-up scales-by-scales on the cone-shaped spine, and move directionally toward the bottom from top of spine, by means of the Laplace pressure in differences. In addition, after the past of the first droplet, thin liquid film of drop is trapped in the splayed capillary micro-tube on the surface of spine, which greatly reduces the friction of subsequential droplet transport in efficiency. This finding provides a new biological model which could be used to transport droplet spontaneously and directionally. Also this work offers a way to reduce the surface adhesion by constructing liquid film on the surface, which has great significance in prompting droplet transport efficiency. PMID:26639758

  5. Effective directional self-gathering of drops on spine of cactus with splayed capillary arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chengcheng; Xue, Yan; Chen, Yuan; Zheng, Yongmei

    2015-12-01

    We report that the fast droplet transport without additional energy expenditure can be achieved on the spine of cactus (Gymnocalycium baldianum) with the assistance of its special surface structure: the cactus spine exhibits a cone-like structure covered with tilted scales. A single scale and the spine surface under it cooperatively construct a splayed capillary tube. The arrays of capillary tube formed by the overlapping scales build up the out layer of the spine. The serial drops would be driven by the asymmetric structure resulted from tilt-up scales-by-scales on the cone-shaped spine, and move directionally toward the bottom from top of spine, by means of the Laplace pressure in differences. In addition, after the past of the first droplet, thin liquid film of drop is trapped in the splayed capillary micro-tube on the surface of spine, which greatly reduces the friction of subsequential droplet transport in efficiency. This finding provides a new biological model which could be used to transport droplet spontaneously and directionally. Also this work offers a way to reduce the surface adhesion by constructing liquid film on the surface, which has great significance in prompting droplet transport efficiency.

  6. The cactus worm : experiments with dynamic resource discovery and allocation in a grid environment.

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, G.; Angulo, D.; Foster, I.; Lanfermann, G.; Liu, C.; Radke, T.; Seidel, E.; Shalf, J.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Albert-Einstein-Inst.; Univ. of Chicago; LBNL

    2001-01-01

    The ability to harness heterogeneous, dynamically available grid resources is attractive to typically resource-starved computational scientists and engineers, as in principle it can increase, by significant factors, the number of cycles that can be delivered to applications. However, new adaptive application structures and dynamic runtime system mechanisms are required if we are to operate effectively in grid environments. To explore some of these issues in a practical setting, the authors are developing an experimental framework, called Cactus, that incorporates both adaptive application structures for dealing with changing resource characteristics and adaptive resource selection mechanisms that allow applications to change their resource allocations (e.g., via migration) when performance falls outside specified limits. The authors describe the adaptive resource selection mechanisms and describe how they are used to achieve automatic application migration to 'better' resources following performance degradation. The results provide insights into the architectural structures required to support adaptive resource selection. In addition, the authors suggest that the Cactus Worm affords many opportunities for grid computing.

  7. Population Genetic Structure of a Widespread Bat-Pollinated Columnar Cactus.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Enriquena; Búrquez, Alberto; Scheinvar, Enrique; Eguiarte, Luis Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Bats are the main pollinators and seed dispersers of Stenocereus thurberi, a xenogamous columnar cactus of northwestern Mexico and a good model to illustrate spatial dynamics of gene flow in long-lived species. Previous studies in this cactus showed differences among populations in the type and abundance of pollinators, and in the timing of flowering and fruiting. In this study we analyzed genetic variability and population differentiation among populations. We used three primers of ISSR to analyze within and among populations genetic variation from eight widely separated populations of S. thurberi in Sonora, Mexico. Sixty-six out of 99 of the ISSR bands (P = 66.7%) were polymorphic. Total heterozygosity for all populations sampled revealed high genetic diversity (Hsp = 0.207, HBT = 0.224). The AMOVA showed that most of the genetic variation was within populations (80.5%). At the species level, estimates of population differentiation, θ = 0.175 and θB = 0.194, indicated moderate gene flow among populations. The absence of a significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances indicated little isolation by geographic distance. The large genetic variation and diversity found in S. thurberi is consistent with its open reproductive system and the high mobility of bats, a major pollinator. However, small changes in number or kind of pollinators and seed dispersal agents, in the directionality of migratory routes, and/or in the timing of flowering and fruiting among populations, can critically affect gene flow dynamics. PMID:27015281

  8. Marketability of ready-to-eat cactus pear as affected by temperature and modified atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Cefola, Maria; Renna, Massimiliano; Pace, Bernardo

    2014-01-01

    In order to increase the diffusion of cactus pear fruits, in this study, the proper maturity index for peeling and processing them as ready-to-eat product was evaluated and characterized. Thereafter, the effects of different storage temperatures and modified atmosphere conditions on the marketability of ready-to-eat cactus pear were studied. The storage of ready-to-eat fruits at 4 °C in both passive (air) and semi-active (10 kPa O2 and 10 kPa CO2) modified atmosphere improved the marketability by 30%, whereas the storage at 8 °C caused a dangerous reduction in O2 partial pressure inside modified atmosphere packages, due to fruits' increased metabolic activity. A very low level of initial microbial growth was detected, while a severe increase in mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria was shown in control samples at both temperatures during storage; an inhibitory effect of modified atmosphere on microbial growth was also observed. In conclusion, modified atmosphere improved only the marketability of fruits stored at 4 °C; whereas the storage at 8 °C resulted in deleterious effects on the ready-to-eat fruits, whether stored in air or in modified atmosphere. PMID:24426044

  9. Effect of extrusion cooking on bioactive compounds in encapsulated red cactus pear powder.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Martha G; Amaya-Guerra, Carlos A; Quintero-Ramos, Armando; Pérez-Carrillo, Esther; Ruiz-Anchondo, Teresita de J; Báez-González, Juan G; Meléndez-Pizarro, Carmen O

    2015-01-01

    Red cactus pear has significant antioxidant activity and potential as a colorant in food, due to the presence of betalains. However, the betalains are highly thermolabile, and their application in thermal process, as extrusion cooking, should be evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of extrusion conditions on the chemical components of red cactus pear encapsulated powder. Cornstarch and encapsulated powder (2.5% w/w) were mixed and processed by extrusion at different barrel temperatures (80, 100, 120, 140 °C) and screw speeds (225, 275, 325 rpm) using a twin-screw extruder. Mean residence time (trm), color (L*, a*, b*), antioxidant activity, total polyphenol, betacyanin, and betaxanthin contents were determined on extrudates, and pigment degradation reaction rate constants (k) and activation energies (Ea) were calculated. Increases in barrel temperature and screw speed decreased the trm, and this was associated with better retentions of antioxidant activity, total polyphenol, betalain contents. The betacyanins k values ranged the -0.0188 to -0.0206/s and for betaxanthins ranged of -0.0122 to -0.0167/s, while Ea values were 1.5888 to 6.1815 kJ/mol, respectively. The bioactive compounds retention suggests that encapsulated powder can be used as pigments and to provide antioxidant properties to extruded products. PMID:25993418

  10. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities in extracts of fully grown cladodes of 8 cultivars of cactus pear.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, E; Dávila-Aviña, J; Castillo, S L; Heredia, N; Vázquez-Alvarado, R; García, S

    2014-04-01

    The antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of some cultivars of the nopal cactus have not been determined. In this study, 8 cultivars of nopal cacti from Mexico were assayed for phenolic content, antioxidant activities, and antimicrobial activities against Campylobacter Jejuni, Vibrio cholera, and Clostridium Perfringens. Plant material was washed, dried, and macerated in methanol. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were determined using the broth microdilution method. Antioxidant activities were quantitatively determined using spectrophotometric methods. The MCBs of the nopal cacti ranged from 1.1 to 12.5 mg/mL for c. jejuni, 4.4 to 30 mg/mL for V. cholera, and 0.8 to 16 mg/mL for C. perfringens in the cultivars Cardon Blanco, Real de Catorce, and Jalpa, respectively. High quantities of total phenols and total flavonoids were found in the Jalpa cacti (3.80 mg of gallic acid equivalent GAE/g dry weight [DW] and 36.64 mg of quercetin equivalents [QE]/g DW, respectively). 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities (RSA) were correlated to bioactive compound contents. The Villanueva cacti had the highest %RSA at 42.31%, and the lowest activity was recorded in Copena V1 at 19.98%. In conclusion, we found that some of the 8 cactus pear cultivars studied may be used for their antioxidant compounds or antimicrobials to control or prevent the contamination of foods. PMID:24621296

  11. Population Genetic Structure of a Widespread Bat-Pollinated Columnar Cactus

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, Enriquena; Búrquez, Alberto; Scheinvar, Enrique; Eguiarte, Luis Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Bats are the main pollinators and seed dispersers of Stenocereus thurberi, a xenogamous columnar cactus of northwestern Mexico and a good model to illustrate spatial dynamics of gene flow in long-lived species. Previous studies in this cactus showed differences among populations in the type and abundance of pollinators, and in the timing of flowering and fruiting. In this study we analyzed genetic variability and population differentiation among populations. We used three primers of ISSR to analyze within and among populations genetic variation from eight widely separated populations of S. thurberi in Sonora, Mexico. Sixty-six out of 99 of the ISSR bands (P = 66.7%) were polymorphic. Total heterozygosity for all populations sampled revealed high genetic diversity (Hsp = 0.207, HBT = 0.224). The AMOVA showed that most of the genetic variation was within populations (80.5%). At the species level, estimates of population differentiation, θ = 0.175 and θB = 0.194, indicated moderate gene flow among populations. The absence of a significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances indicated little isolation by geographic distance. The large genetic variation and diversity found in S. thurberi is consistent with its open reproductive system and the high mobility of bats, a major pollinator. However, small changes in number or kind of pollinators and seed dispersal agents, in the directionality of migratory routes, and/or in the timing of flowering and fruiting among populations, can critically affect gene flow dynamics. PMID:27015281

  12. Effective directional self-gathering of drops on spine of cactus with splayed capillary arrays

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chengcheng; Xue, Yan; Chen, Yuan; Zheng, Yongmei

    2015-01-01

    We report that the fast droplet transport without additional energy expenditure can be achieved on the spine of cactus (Gymnocalycium baldianum) with the assistance of its special surface structure: the cactus spine exhibits a cone-like structure covered with tilted scales. A single scale and the spine surface under it cooperatively construct a splayed capillary tube. The arrays of capillary tube formed by the overlapping scales build up the out layer of the spine. The serial drops would be driven by the asymmetric structure resulted from tilt-up scales-by-scales on the cone-shaped spine, and move directionally toward the bottom from top of spine, by means of the Laplace pressure in differences. In addition, after the past of the first droplet, thin liquid film of drop is trapped in the splayed capillary micro-tube on the surface of spine, which greatly reduces the friction of subsequential droplet transport in efficiency. This finding provides a new biological model which could be used to transport droplet spontaneously and directionally. Also this work offers a way to reduce the surface adhesion by constructing liquid film on the surface, which has great significance in prompting droplet transport efficiency. PMID:26639758

  13. Factors affecting establishment success of the endangered Caribbean cactus Harrisia portoricensis (Cactaceae).

    PubMed

    Rojas-Sandoval, Julissa; Meléndez-Ackerman, Elvia

    2012-06-01

    Early plant stages may be the most vulnerable within the life cycle of plants especially in arid ecosystems. Interference from exotic species may exacerbate this condition. We evaluated germination, seedling survival and growth in the endangered Caribbean cactus Harrisia portoricensis, as a function of sunlight exposure (i.e., growing under open and shaded areas), different shade providers (i.e., growing under two native shrubs and one exotic grass species), two levels of predation (i.e., exclusion and non-exclusion) and variable microenvironmental conditions (i.e., temperature, PAR, humidity). Field experiments demonstrated that suitable conditions for germination and establishment of H. portoricensis seedling are optimal in shaded areas beneath the canopy of established species, but experiments also demonstrated that the identity of the shade provider can have a significant influence on the outcome of these processes. Harrisia portoricensis seedlings had higher probabilities of survival and grew better (i.e., larger diameters) when they were transplanted beneath the canopy of native shrubs, than beneath the exotic grass species, where temperature and solar radiation values were on average much higher than those obtained under the canopies of native shrubs. We also detected that exclusion from potential predators did not increase seedling survival. Our combined results for H. portoricensis suggested that the modification of microenvironmental conditions by the exotic grass may lower the probability of recruitment and establishment of this endangered cactus species. PMID:23894952

  14. Analysis of factors that affect the potential of star fruit (Averhoa Bilimbi) and cactus (Gymnocalycium Hossei) extracts as alternative battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmawati, Sitti; Agnesstacia

    2014-03-01

    This research analyzes the factors that affect the work of the battery from the star fruit extract and the cactus extract. The value voltage and current generated are measure the work of the battery. Voltage measurement based on the electrode distance function, and electrode surface area. Voltage as a surface area electrode function and electrode distance function determined the current density and the voltage generated. From the experimental results obtained that the battery voltage is large enough, it is about 1.8 V for the extract of star fruit, and 1.7 V for the extract of cactus, which means that the juice extract from star fruit and the juice extract of cactus can become an alternative as battery replacement. The measurements with different electrode surface area on the star fruit and cactus extract which has the depth of the electrode 0.5 cm to 4 cm causes a decrease in the electric current generated from 12.5 mA to 1.0 mA, but obtained the same voltage.

  15. Anonymous nuclear markers data supporting species tree phylogeny and divergence time estimates in a cactus species complex in South America.

    PubMed

    Perez, Manolo F; Carstens, Bryan C; Rodrigues, Gustavo L; Moraes, Evandro M

    2016-03-01

    Supportive data related to the article "Anonymous nuclear markers reveal taxonomic incongruence and long-term disjunction in a cactus species complex with continental-island distribution in South America" (Perez et al., 2016) [1]. Here, we present pyrosequencing results, primer sequences, a cpDNA phylogeny, and a species tree phylogeny. PMID:26900589

  16. Rearing a native cactus moth, Melitara prodenialis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), on artificial diet and Opuntia cladodes: Preliminary comparisons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compared several biological parameters of native cactus moth, Melitara prodenialis, reared on an artificial versus the natural diet of Opuntia spp. cladodes. Results suggest that the current artificial diet developed for mass rearing C. cactorum can provide nutritional value for the rear...

  17. Current management efforts against Cactoblastis cactorum as a pest of North American prickly pear cactus, Opuntia spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The unintentional arrival of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) to Florida changed the scope of this celebrated weed biological control agent from savior to pest. Based on this insects’ substantial control of non-native Opuntia spp. (prickly pear cactus) in Australia and other parts of ...

  18. External morphology of the egg of the native (Melitara prodenialis) and exotic (Cactoblastis cactorum) cactus moths (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the morphology of the chorionic surface of two pyralids that feed on Opuntia cactus. The chorionic surface of Cactoblastis cactorum has a reticulate pattern due to the ridges on the surface and aeropyles. The surface has a granular appearance at low m...

  19. Influence of radiation dose on the level of F1 sterility in the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined inherited sterility effects on the F1 and F2 generations of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg), in order to identify the dose of gamma radiation that would fully sterilize F1-generation moths, which would result in no viable offspring when F1 males were inbred- or out-crossed ...

  20. Growing Opuntia (cactus) and Brassica species for the long-term remediation of selenium-contaminated soil under field conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identifying alternative crops for planting in Se-containing agricultural soils of western central California will depend upon the plants’ ability to tolerate high salt and boron (B) conditions. Multi-year field studies were conducted on Se-laden soils with different cactus clones (Opuntia-ficus indi...

  1. Betalains, Phenols and Antioxidant Capacity in Cactus Pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.] Fruits from Apulia (South Italy) Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Albano, Clara; Negro, Carmine; Tommasi, Noemi; Gerardi, Carmela; Mita, Giovanni; Miceli, Antonio; De Bellis, Luigi; Blando, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Betacyanin (betanin), total phenolics, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity (by Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays) were investigated in two differently colored cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) genotypes, one with purple fruit and the other with orange fruit, from the Salento area, in Apulia (South Italy). In order to quantitate betanin in cactus pear fruit extracts (which is difficult by HPLC because of the presence of two isomers, betanin and isobetanin, and the lack of commercial standard with high purity), betanin was purified from Amaranthus retroflexus inflorescence, characterized by the presence of a single isomer. The purple cactus pear variety showed very high betanin content, with higher levels of phenolics, vitamin C, and antioxidant capacity (TEAC) than the orange variety. These findings confirm the potential for exploiting the autochthonous biodiversity of cactus pear fruits. In particular, the purple variety could be an interesting source of colored bioactive compounds which not only have coloring potential, but are also an excellent source of dietary antioxidant components which may have beneficial effects on consumers’ health. PMID:26783704

  2. Betalains, Phenols and Antioxidant Capacity in Cactus Pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.] Fruits from Apulia (South Italy) Genotypes.

    PubMed

    Albano, Clara; Negro, Carmine; Tommasi, Noemi; Gerardi, Carmela; Mita, Giovanni; Miceli, Antonio; De Bellis, Luigi; Blando, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Betacyanin (betanin), total phenolics, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity (by Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays) were investigated in two differently colored cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) genotypes, one with purple fruit and the other with orange fruit, from the Salento area, in Apulia (South Italy). In order to quantitate betanin in cactus pear fruit extracts (which is difficult by HPLC because of the presence of two isomers, betanin and isobetanin, and the lack of commercial standard with high purity), betanin was purified from Amaranthus retroflexus inflorescence, characterized by the presence of a single isomer. The purple cactus pear variety showed very high betanin content, with higher levels of phenolics, vitamin C, and antioxidant capacity (TEAC) than the orange variety. These findings confirm the potential for exploiting the autochthonous biodiversity of cactus pear fruits. In particular, the purple variety could be an interesting source of colored bioactive compounds which not only have coloring potential, but are also an excellent source of dietary antioxidant components which may have beneficial effects on consumers' health. PMID:26783704

  3. Not so Rare, Rare Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldman, H. Barry; Perlman, Steven P.; Munter, Beverly L.; Chaudhry, Ramiz A.

    2008-01-01

    A rare disease or condition is defined by federal legislation such that it: (1) affects less than 200,000 persons in the U.S.; or (2) affects more than 200,000 persons in the U.S. but for which there is no reasonable expectation that the cost of developing and making available in the U.S. a drug for such disease or condition will be recovered from…

  4. The effects of cactus inspired spines on the aerodynamics of a cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Benjamin; Liu, Yingzheng

    2013-05-01

    The effect of cactus-like spines on the topology and the dynamics of the flow past a stationary or pivoted cylinder are experimentally studied. The experiments are performed either in a water channel or a wind tunnel at low to moderate Reynolds number (390-12 500). The instantaneous velocity field is recorded using TR-PIV and investigated for three different configurations: no spines, short spines (0.1D) and long spines (0.2D). The results show how the spines are able to slow the flow past the cylinder and then increase the recirculation area by up to 128% while the maximum fluctuating kinetic energy intensity is decreased by up to 35%. Moreover, the spines have a significant effect on the vortex shedding and the dynamic pressure at the surface of the cylinder, thus significantly reducing both the amplitude and the frequency at which a pivoted cylinder oscillates.

  5. Corrective action plan for CAU 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, Tonopah Test Range

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) provides the selected corrective action alternative and proposes the closure implementation methodology for the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 426. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The US Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) verbally requested approval for the schedule to be accelerated from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) in July 1997. Currently, field closure activities are anticipated to be completed by September 30, 1997. CAU 426 consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS) comprised of four waste trenches. The trenches were excavated to receive solid waste generated in support of Operation Roller Coaster, primarily the Double Tracks Test in 1963.

  6. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Opuntia ficus-indica f. inermis (cactus pear) flowers.

    PubMed

    Ennouri, Monia; Ammar, Imene; Khemakhem, Bassem; Attia, Hamadi

    2014-08-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica f. inermis (cactus pear) flowers have wide application in folk medicine. However, there are few reports focusing on their biological activity and were no reports on their chemical composition. The nutrient composition and hexane extracts of Opuntia flowers at 4 flowering stages and their antibacterial and antifungal activities were investigated. The chemical composition showed considerable amounts of fiber, protein, and minerals. Potassium (K) was the predominant mineral followed by calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn). The main compounds in the various hexane extracts were 9.12-octadecadienoic acid (29-44%) and hexadecanoic acid (8.6-32%). The antibacterial activity tests showed that O. inermis hexane extracts have high effectiveness against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, making this botanical source a potential contender as a food preservative or food control additive. PMID:24650181

  7. Cactus stems (Opuntia spp.): a review on their chemistry, technology, and uses.

    PubMed

    Stintzing, Florian C; Carle, Reinhold

    2005-02-01

    Although traditionally used as a valuable health supporting nutrient, the vegetative parts of Opuntia spp. plants are scarcely used in modern nutrition and medicine. While all kinds of different Opuntia spp. have been studied, a systematic approach regarding the inter-relationships between the composition and the pre- and postharvest conditions is still missing. Therefore, the present review compiles and discusses literature on the chemical composition of cactus stems, the knowledge on uses in food, medicine, and cosmetics. It is concluded that much research is needed to get an insight into the multitude of bioactivities reported in the traditional literature but also to take advantage of the respective constituents for food and pharmaceutical applications. PMID:15729672

  8. Cactus and Visapult: A case study of ultra-high performance distributed visualization using connectionless protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Shalf, John; Bethel, E. Wes

    2002-05-07

    This past decade has seen rapid growth in the size, resolution, and complexity of Grand Challenge simulation codes. Many such problems still require interactive visualization tools to make sense of multi-terabyte data stores. Visapult is a parallel volume rendering tool that employs distributed components, latency tolerant algorithms, and high performance network I/O for effective remote visualization of massive datasets. In this paper we discuss using connectionless protocols to accelerate Visapult network I/O and interfacing Visapult to the Cactus General Relativity code to enable scalable remote monitoring and steering capabilities. With these modifications, network utilization has moved from 25 percent of line-rate using tuned multi-streamed TCP to sustaining 88 percent of line rate using the new UDP-based transport protocol.

  9. Ultrastructure of turnip crinkle- and saguaro cactus virus-infected tissues.

    PubMed

    Russo, M; Martelli, G P

    1982-04-15

    An electron microscope study of different hosts infected with turnip crinkle (TCV) and saguaro cactus (SCV) viruses, two tentative members of the tombusvirus group, was carried out. Particles of both viruses were readily detected in cells of different tissues, in the cytoplasm of which they occurred in great numbers, though not in crystalline arrays. Cytological modifications of various types were also observed. The most striking of these was an extensive peripheral vesiculation of mitochondria in TCV-infected cells, which was accompanied by plastic activity of the organelles that often engulfed portions of ground cytoplasm and virus particles. Cytoplasmic inclusion bodies were not present. Likewise, none of the cytopathological features characterizing tombusvirus infections was observed. No indications were obtained to support the idea that TCV and SCV may continue to be considered members, even though tentative, of the tombusvirus group. PMID:18635129

  10. A cactus-derived toxin-like cystine knot Peptide with selective antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Aboye, Teshome L; Strömstedt, Adam A; Gunasekera, Sunithi; Bruhn, Jan G; El-Seedi, Hesham; Rosengren, K Johan; Göransson, Ulf

    2015-05-01

    Naturally occurring cystine knot peptides show a wide range of biological activity, and as they have inherent stability they represent potential scaffolds for peptide-based drug design and biomolecular engineering. Here we report the discovery, sequencing, chemical synthesis, three-dimensional solution structure determination and bioactivity of the first cystine knot peptide from Cactaceae (cactus) family: Ep-AMP1 from Echinopsis pachanoi. The structure of Ep-AMP1 (35 amino acids) conforms to that of the inhibitor cystine knot (or knottin) family but represents a novel diverse sequence; its activity was more than 500 times higher against bacterial than against eukaryotic cells. Rapid bactericidal action and liposome leakage implicate membrane permeabilisation as the mechanism of action. Sequence homology places Ec-AMP1 in the plant C6-type of antimicrobial peptides, but the three dimensional structure is highly similar to that of a spider neurotoxin. PMID:25821084

  11. Viruses in laboratory-reared cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Marti, O.G.; Myers, R.E.; Carpenter, J.E.; Styer, E.L.

    2007-03-15

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Phycitinae), is a non-native species threatening a variety of native cacti, particularly endangered species of Opuntia (Zimmerman et al. 2001), on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Cactoblastis cactorum populations have expanded from Florida northward along the Atlantic coast as far as Charleston, SC, and westward along the Gulf of Mexico to Dauphin Island, south of Mobile, AL. It is feared that further movement to the west will allow C. cactorum to enter the US desert Southwest and Mexico, particularly the latter. Numerous cactus species, especially those of the genera Opuntia and Nopalea, are native to the U.S. and Mexico. Local economies based on agricultural and horticultural uses of cacti could be devastated by C. cactorum (Vigueras and Portillo 2001). A bi-national control program between the US and Mexico is being developed, utilizing the sterile insect technique (SIT). In the SIT program, newly emerged moths are irradiated with a {sup 60}Co source and released to mate with wild individuals. The radiation dose completely sterilizes the females and partially sterilizes the males. When irradiated males mate with wild females, the F1 progeny of these matings are sterile. In order for the SIT program to succeed, large numbers of moths must be reared from egg to adult on artificial diet in a quarantined rearing facility (Carpenter et al. 2001). Irradiated insects must then be released in large numbers at the leading edge of the invasive population and at times which coincide with the presence of wild individuals available for mating. Mortality from disease in the rearing colony disrupts the SIT program by reducing the numbers of insects available for release.

  12. Differences in Tolerance to Host Cactus Alkaloids in Drosophila koepferae and D. buzzatii

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Ignacio M.; Carreira, Valeria P.; Corio, Cristian; Padró, Julián; Soto, Eduardo M.; Hasson, Esteban

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of cactophily in the genus Drosophila was a major ecological transition involving over a hundred species in the Americas that acquired the capacity to cope with a variety of toxic metabolites evolved as feeding deterrents in Cactaceae. D. buzzatii and D. koepferae are sibling cactophilic species in the D. repleta group. The former is mainly associated with the relatively toxic-free habitat offered by prickly pears (Opuntia sulphurea) and the latter has evolved the ability to use columnar cacti of the genera Trichocereus and Cereus that contain an array of alkaloid secondary compounds. We assessed the effects of cactus alkaloids on fitness-related traits and evaluated the ability of D. buzzatii and D. koepferae to exploit an artificial novel toxic host. Larvae of both species were raised in laboratory culture media to which we added increasing doses of an alkaloid fraction extracted from the columnar cactus T. terschekii. In addition, we evaluated performance on an artificial novel host by rearing larvae in a seminatural medium that combined the nutritional quality of O. sulphurea plus amounts of alkaloids found in fresh T. terschekii. Performance scores in each rearing treatment were calculated using an index that took into account viability, developmental time, and adult body size. Only D. buzzatii suffered the effects of increasing doses of alkaloids and the artificial host impaired viability in D. koepferae, but did not affect performance in D. buzzatii. These results provide the first direct evidence that alkaloids are key determinants of host plant use in these species. However, the results regarding the artificial novel host suggest that the effects of alkaloids on performance are not straightforward as D. koepferae was heavily affected. We discuss these results in the light of patterns of host plan evolution in the Drosophila repleta group. PMID:24520377

  13. Corrrective action decision document for the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (Corrective Action Unit No. 426). Revision No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] No. 426) has been prepared for the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Nevada Environmental Restoration Project. This CADD has been developed to meet the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996, stated in Appendix VI, {open_quotes}Corrective Action Strategy{close_quotes} (FFACO, 1996). The Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Corrective Action Site (CAS) No. RG-08-001-RG-CS is included in CAU No. 426 (also referred to as the {open_quotes}trenches{close_quotes}); it has been identified as one of three potential locations for buried, radioactively contaminated materials from the Double Tracks Test. The trenches are located on the east flank of the Cactus Range in the eastern portion of the Cactus Spring Ranch at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nye County, Nevada, on the northern portion of Nellis Air Force Range. The TTR is approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air and approximately 56 km (35 mi) southeast of Tonopah, Nevada, by road. The trenches were dug for the purpose of receiving waste generated during Operation Roller Coaster, primarily the Double Tracks Test. This test, conducted in 1963, involved the use of live animals to assess the biological hazards associated with non-nuclear detonation of plutonium-bearing devices (i.e., inhalation uptake of plutonium aerosol). The CAS consists of four trenches that received solid waste and had an overall impacted area of approximately 36 meters (m) (120 feet [ft]) long x 24 m (80 ft) wide x 3 to 4.5 m (10 to 15 ft) deep. The average depressions at the trenches are approximately 0.3 m (1 ft) below land surface.

  14. Effects of Bermudagrass hay and soybean hulls inclusion on performance of sheep fed cactus-based diets.

    PubMed

    Santos, A O A; Batista, Angela M V; Mustafa, Arif; Amorim, G L; Guim, A; Moraes, A C; de Lucena, R B; de Andrade, R

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of replacing corn with soybean hulls (SH) or Bermudagrass tifton hay (TH) on performance of sheep fed cactus-based diets. Three ruminally fistulated sheep were used in a 3 x 3 Latin square experiment with 21-day periods. All diets contained 75% spineless cactus (dry matter basis, DM) and formulated to be isonitrogenous. Fiber source had no influence on nutrient intakes except for the intake of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) which was lower (p<0.05) for animals fed corn relative to those fed SH or TH. Time expended in rumination and total chewing time were higher (p<0.05) for animals fed TH than those fed SH or corn. In vivo nutrient digestibilities were similar for all dietary treatments and averaged 69.6%, 74.8%, 69.9%, and 61.8% for DM, organic matter, crude protein, and NDF, respectively. Feeding SH relative to TH and corn decreased ruminal pH (p<0.05) and increased concentration of total volatile fatty acids (p<0.05). However, ruminal NH3-N concentration was higher (p<0.05) for animal fed TH than for those fed SH or corn. Abdominal distension and ruminal biofilm production were greater (p<0.05) in animals fed corn or SH than in those fed TH. It was concluded that replacing corn with SH or TH up to 15% of the diet DM in a cactus-based diet had no effect on nutrient intakes or total tract nutrient utilization. Changes in ruminal fermentation parameters reflected differences in ruminal degradability between the two fiber sources. Bermudagrass tifton hay was more effective than SH in reducing the risk of bloat associated with feeding high levels of spineless cactus to ruminants. PMID:19731062

  15. Daily to decadal patterns of precipitation, humidity, and photosynthetic physiology recorded in the spines of the columnar cactus, Carnegiea gigantea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, Nathan B.; Dettman, David L.; Sandquist, Darren R.; Williams, David G.

    2010-06-01

    Isotopic analyses of cactus spines grown serially from the apex of long-lived columnar cactuses may be useful for climatological and ecological studies if time series can be reliably determined from spines. To characterize the timescales over which spines may record this information, we measured spine growth in saguaro cactus over days, months, and years with time-lapse photography, periodic marking, and postbomb radiocarbon dating and then analyzed isotopic variability over these same timescales and compared these measurements to local climate. We used daily increments of growth, visible as transverse bands of light and dark tissue in spines, as chronometers to develop diurnally resolved δ13C and δ18O records from three spines grown in series over a 70 day period. We also constructed a 22 year record of δ13C variations from spine tips arranged in chronological sequence along the side of a 4 m tall, single-stemmed saguaro. We evaluated two mechanisms potentially responsible for daily, weekly, and annual variability in δ13C values of spines; both related to vapor pressure deficit (VPD). Our data suggest that stomatal conductance is unlikely to be the determinant of δ13C variation in spines. We suggest that either VPD-induced changes in the balance of nighttime- and daytime-assimilated CO2 or mesophyll-limited diffusion of CO2 at night are the most likely determinant of δ13C variation in spines. Intra-annual and interannual variability of δ18O in spine tissue appears to be controlled by the mass balance of 18O-depleted water taken up after rain events and evaporative enrichment of 18O in tissue water between rains. We were able to estimate the annual growth and areole generation rate of a saguaro cactus from its 22 yearlong isotopic record because VPD, rainfall, and evaporation exhibit strong annual cycles in the Sonoran Desert and these variations are recorded in the oxygen and carbon isotope ratios of spines.

  16. Protective role of cactus cladodes extract on sodium dichromate-induced testicular injury and oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Hfaiedh, Mbarka; Brahmi, Dalel; Zourgui, Lazhar

    2014-06-01

    Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) is a xerophyte plant that belongs to the Cactaceae family. The present study was designed to investigate the possible protective effects of cactus cladodes extract (CCE) on sodium dichromate-induced testis damage in adult male Wistar rats. For this purpose, CCE at a dose of 100 mg/kg was orally administrated, followed by 10 mg/kg sodium dichromate (intraperitoneal injection). After 40 days of treatment, the rats were sacrificed, and the testes were excised for histological, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and antioxidant enzyme analyses. Sodium dichromate treatment significantly (P<0.01) decreased the body, testis, and accessory sex organ weights, sperm count and motility, and serum testosterone level. In addition, histological analysis revealed pronounced morphological alterations with tubular necrosis and reduction in the number of gametes in the lumen of the seminiferous tubules of sodium dichromate-intoxicated rats. Furthermore, exposure to sodium dichromate significantly (P<0.01) increased LPO level and decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities in testis. Interestingly, pretreatment with CCE significantly (P<0.01) restored the serum testosterone level, sperm count, and motility to the levels of the control group. Moreover, CCE administration was capable of reducing the elevated level of LPO and significantly (P<0.01) increased SOD, CAT, and GPx activities in testis. Cactus cladodes supplementation minimized oxidative damage and reversed the impairment of spermatogenesis and testosterone production induced by sodium dichromate in the rat testis. PMID:24752970

  17. Performance of goats fed on low quality veld hay supplemented with fresh spiny cactus (Opuntia megacantha) mixed with browse legumes hay in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Gusha, Jacob; Halimani, Tinyiko Edward; Katsande, Simbarashe; Zvinorova, Plaxedis Ivy

    2014-10-01

    Nutrition is a major constraint in smallholder livestock production; hence, the use of alternative sources which are adaptive to long dry seasons is imperative. The study was conducted to establish options of improving nutrition and palatability and also to determine the performance of goats fed on cactus-browse hay as dry season supplements. Palatability and adequacy of nutrition was investigated using 32 castrated male goat kids. The kids were housed in individual metabolism cages for 84 days in a complete randomised design (CRD) with eight replicates for the four treatment diets. Daily experimental diet, basal diet and water intake were measured, and live mass was measured at weekly intervals. Daily diet intake was significantly different (P < 0.05) among treatments. Kids that were supplemented with cactus-Leucaena leucocephala meal (CLLM) consumed more than those on cactus-Acacia angustissima meal (CAAM), cactus-Gliricidia sepium meal (CGSM) and cactus-Pennisetum purpureum meal (CPPM) in that order. CGSM was not readily palatable as goat kids refused to take it when mixed with fresh cactus. Animals that were not supplemented with a source of nitrogen together with those that were supplemented with less palatable diet of CGSM lost weight significantly (P < 0.05) initially but gained weight slightly towards the end of the study. Significantly higher weight gains (P < 0.05) were observed in animals in CLLM and CAAM treatment. It was concluded that fresh cactus could be used to improve poor quality roughage intakes in goats, and therefore, there is need to promote its use in periods of feed deficit especially in smallholder sector. PMID:25023231

  18. Use of Spineless Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis) for Dairy Goats and Growing Kids: Impacts on Milk Production, Kid's Growth, and Meat Quality

    PubMed Central

    Mahouachi, M.; Atti, N.; Hajji, H.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of spineless cactus incorporation in food of dairy goats and growing kids on milk production and composition and on kid's growth and meat characteristics. Two experiments were conducted on Tunisian local goats. In the first, 30 females were divided into two groups; goats of Control group were reared on grazing pasture receiving indoor 0.5 kg of hay and 0.4 kg of concentrate. Goats for the second group (Cac-FL) were kept in feedlot and fed cactus ad libitum more 0.5 kg of hay and 0.4 kg of concentrate. In the second experiment, 14 kids were divided into 2 groups receiving 600 g of hay. The Control group received ad libitum a concentrate containing 130 g crude protein (CP) per kg of dry matter. The second group received cactus ad-libitum plus the half concentrate quantity of control one with 260 g CP/kg DM (Cactus). The daily milk production averaged 485 ml for Control group and 407 ml for Cac-FL one. The milk fat content was significantly higher for Control than Cac-FL group. In the second experiment, animals in Control and Cactus groups had similar growth rate. Carcass fat was significantly lower in Cactus than in the Control group. Cactus in the diet was associated with more C18:2 and conjugated linoleic acid as well as a higher proportion of PUFA than Control ones. PMID:22536135

  19. Effects of Cactus Fiber on the Excretion of Dietary Fat in Healthy Subjects: A Double Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Clinical Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Uebelhack, Ralf; Busch, Regina; Alt, Felix; Beah, Zhi-Ming; Chong, Pee-Win

    2014-01-01

    Background Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) fiber was shown to promote weight loss in a 3-month clinical investigation. As demonstrated by in vitro studies, cactus fiber binds to dietary fat and its use results in reduced absorption, which in turn leads to reduced energy absorption and ultimately the reduction of body weight. Objective The objective of our study was to elucidate the dietary fat binding capacity of cactus fiber through determination of fecal fat excretion in healthy volunteers. Subjects and Methods This clinical investigation was performed as a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study in healthy subjects for a period of approximately 45 days. Twenty healthy volunteer subjects were randomized to receive cactus fiber or placebo, 2 tablets thrice daily with main meals. All subjects were provided with meals during the study period (except washout) according to a standardized meal plan, with 35% of daily energy need coming from fat. Two 24-hour feces samples were collected during both the baseline and treatment periods for analysis of the fat content. Results Cactus fiber showed an increased fecal fat excretion compared with placebo (mean [SD] = 15.79% [5.79%] vs 4.56% [3.09%]; P < 0.001). No adverse events were reported throughout the study period. Conclusions Cactus fiber has been shown to significantly promote fecal fat excretion in healthy adults. The results of our study support the hypothesis that cactus fiber helps in reducing body weight by binding to dietary fat and increasing its excretion, thus reducing dietary fat available for absorption. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01590667. PMID:25067985

  20. Past climate changes and ecophysiological responses recorded in the isotope ratios of saguaro cactus spines.

    PubMed

    English, Nathan B; Dettman, David L; Sandquist, Darren R; Williams, David G

    2007-11-01

    The stable isotope composition of spines produced serially from the apex of columnar cacti has the potential to be used as a record of changes in climate and physiology. To investigate this potential, we measured the delta(18)O, delta(13)C and F(14)C values of spines from a long-lived columnar cactus, saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea). To determine plant age, we collected spines at 11 different heights along one rib from the stem apex (3.77 m height) to the base of a naturally occurring saguaro. Fractions of modern carbon (F(14)C) ranged from 0.9679 to 1.5537, which is consistent with ages between 1950 and 2004. We observed a very strong positive correlation (r = 0.997) between the F(14)C age of spines and the age of spines determined from direct and repeated height measurements taken on this individual over the past 37 years. A series of 96 spines collected from this individual had delta(18)O values ranging from 38 per thousand to 50 per thousand [Vienna standard mean ocean water (VSMOW)] and delta(13)C values from -11.5 per thousand to -8.5 per thousand [Vienna Peedee belemnite (VPDB)]. The delta(18)O and delta(13)C values of spines were positively correlated (r = 0.45, P < 0.0001) and showed near-annual oscillations over the approximately 15-year record. This pattern suggests that seasonal periods of reduced evaporative demand or greater precipitation input may correspond to increased daytime CO(2) uptake. The lowest delta(18)O and delta(13)C values of spines observed occurred during the 1983 and 1993 El Niño years, suggesting that the stable isotope composition recorded in spine tissue may serve as a proxy for these climate events. We compared empirical models and data from potted experimental cacti to validate these observations and test our hypotheses. The isotopic records presented here are the first ever reported from a chronosequence of cactus spines and demonstrate that tissues of columnar cacti, and potentially other long-lived succulents, may contain a

  1. Resolving a Prickly Situation: Involving Stakeholders in Invasive Cactus Management in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Novoa, Ana; Kaplan, Haylee; Wilson, John R U; Richardson, David M

    2016-05-01

    The regulation and management of alien species can be contentious, particularly when the stakeholders who benefit from alien species are different from those who suffer the costs. We propose a consultative process involving relevant stakeholders in invasive species management decisions. The process involves (1) the identification of relevant stakeholders, (2) assessing their perceptions, (3) enhancing interaction between stakeholders, (4) assessing changes in stakeholders' perceptions following interactions with other stakeholders, and (5) developing management recommendations in collaboration with stakeholders. We demonstrate the application of the process using the family Cactaceae ('cacti') in South Africa. Many species of cacti have been introduced to the country over the past two centuries, mostly for horticulture, food and fodder, and hundreds of other species have been introduced in the past few decades (or are likely to be introduced soon) for horticulture. Using the proposed process enabled the negotiation and participation of all stakeholders in decision making and helped minimize contentious situations by clarifying stakeholder's beliefs and exploring consensus solutions. Consequently, management objectives were broadly supported by all stakeholders. These results will be included in a national cactus management strategy for South Africa. PMID:26935429

  2. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Dave Madsen

    1998-08-01

    This Closure Report provides the documentation for closure of the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 426. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 225 kilometers northwest of Las Vegas, NV. CAU 426 consists of one corrective action site (CAS) which is comprised of four waste trenches. The trenches were excavated to receive solid waste generated in support of Operation Roller Coaster, primary the Double Tracks Test in 1963, and were subsequently backfilled. The Double Tracks Test involved use of live animals to assess the biological hazards associated with the nonnuclear detonation of plutonium-bearing devices. The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP)which proposed ''capping'' methodology. The closure activities were completed in accordance with the approved CAP and consisted of constructing an engineered cover in the area of the trenches, constructing/planting a vegetative cover, installing a perimeter fence and signs, implementing restrictions on future use, and preparing a Post-Closure Monitoring Plan.

  3. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Dave D. Madsen

    1998-08-08

    This closure report provides the documentation for closure of the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 426. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range,approximately 225 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 426 consists of one Corrective Action Site which is comprised of four waste trenches. The trenches were excavated to receive solid waste generated in support of Operation Roller Coaster, primarily the Double Tracks Test in 1963, and were subsequently backfilled. The Double Tracks Test involved the use of live animals to assess the biological hazards associated with the non-nuclear detonation of plutonium-bearing devices (i.e., inhalation uptake of plutonium aerosol) (DOE, 1996). The remedial alternative proposed Nevada Division of Environmental Protection proposed the capping method. The closure activities were completed in accordance with the approved Corrective Action Plan and consisted of constructing an engineered cover in the ar ea of the trenches, constructing/planning a vegetative cover, installing a perimeter fence and signs, implementing restrictions on future use, and preparing a post-closure monitoring plan. Closure activities for CAU 426 have been completed in accordance with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection approved Corrective Action Plan as documented in this Closure Report.

  4. Micromorphology of cactus-pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill) cladodes based on scanning microscopies.

    PubMed

    Ben Salem-Fnayou, Asma; Zemni, Hassène; Nefzaoui, Ali; Ghorbel, Abdelwahed

    2014-01-01

    Cladode ultrastructural features of two prickly and two spineless Opuntia ficus-indica cultivars were examined using environmental scanning electron and atomic force microscopies. Observations focused on cladode as well as spine and glochid surface micromorphologies. Prickly cultivars were characterized by abundant cracked epicuticular wax deposits covering the cladode surface, with an amorphous structure as observed by AFM, while less abundant waxy plates were observed by ESEM on spineless cultivar cladodes. Further AFM observations allowed a rough granular and crystalloid epicuticular wax structure to be distinguished in spineless cultivars. Regarding spine micromorphology, prickly cultivars had strong persistent spines, observed by ESEM as a compact arrangement of oblong epidermal cells with a rough granular structure. However, deciduous spines in spineless cultivars had a broken transversely fissured epidermis covering a parallel arrangement of fibres. Through AFM, the deciduous spine surface presented an irregular hilly and smooth microrelief while persistent spines exhibited rough helical filamentous prints. ESEM and AFM studies of cladode surfaces from prickly and spineless cactus pear cultivars revealed valuable micro-morphological details that ought to be extended to a large number of O. ficus-indica cultivars. PMID:24210248

  5. Removing heavy metals in water: the interaction of cactus mucilage and arsenate (As (V)).

    PubMed

    Fox, Dawn I; Pichler, Thomas; Yeh, Daniel H; Alcantar, Norma A

    2012-04-17

    High concentrations of arsenic in groundwater continue to present health threats to millions of consumers worldwide. Particularly, affected communities in the developing world need accessible technologies for arsenic removal from drinking water. We explore the application of cactus mucilage, pectic polysaccharide extracts from Opuntia ficus-indica for arsenic removal. Synthetic arsenate (As (V)) solutions were treated with two extracts, a gelling extract (GE) and a nongelling extract (NE) in batch trials. The arsenic concentration at the air-water interface was measured after equilibration. The GE and NE treated solutions showed on average 14% and 9% increases in arsenic concentration at the air-water interface respectively indicating that the mucilage bonded and transported the arsenic to the air-water interface. FTIR studies showed that the -CO groups (carboxyl and carbonyl groups) and -OH (hydroxyl) functional groups of the mucilage were involved in the interaction with the arsenate. Mucilage activity was greater in weakly basic (pH 9) and weakly acidic (pH 5.5) pH. This interaction can be optimized and harnessed for the removal of arsenic from drinking water. This work breaks the ground for the application of natural pectic materials to the removal of anionic metallic species from water. PMID:22401577

  6. Resolving a Prickly Situation: Involving Stakeholders in Invasive Cactus Management in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novoa, Ana; Kaplan, Haylee; Wilson, John R. U.; Richardson, David M.

    2016-05-01

    The regulation and management of alien species can be contentious, particularly when the stakeholders who benefit from alien species are different from those who suffer the costs. We propose a consultative process involving relevant stakeholders in invasive species management decisions. The process involves (1) the identification of relevant stakeholders, (2) assessing their perceptions, (3) enhancing interaction between stakeholders, (4) assessing changes in stakeholders' perceptions following interactions with other stakeholders, and (5) developing management recommendations in collaboration with stakeholders. We demonstrate the application of the process using the family Cactaceae (`cacti') in South Africa. Many species of cacti have been introduced to the country over the past two centuries, mostly for horticulture, food and fodder, and hundreds of other species have been introduced in the past few decades (or are likely to be introduced soon) for horticulture. Using the proposed process enabled the negotiation and participation of all stakeholders in decision making and helped minimize contentious situations by clarifying stakeholder's beliefs and exploring consensus solutions. Consequently, management objectives were broadly supported by all stakeholders. These results will be included in a national cactus management strategy for South Africa.

  7. Combining Ferric Salt and Cactus Mucilage for Arsenic Removal from Water.

    PubMed

    Fox, Dawn I; Stebbins, Daniela M; Alcantar, Norma A

    2016-03-01

    New methods to remediate arsenic-contaminated water continue to be studied, particularly to fill the need for accessible methods that can significantly impact developing communities. A combination of cactus mucilage and ferric (Fe(III)) salt was investigated as a flocculation-coagulation system to remove arsenic (As) from water. As(V) solutions, ferric nitrate, and mucilage suspensions were mixed and left to stand for various periods of time. Visual and SEM observations confirmed the flocculation action of the mucilage as visible flocs formed and settled to the bottom of the tubes within 3 min. The colloidal suspensions without mucilage were stable for up to 1 week. Sample aliquots were tested for dissolved and total arsenic by ICP-MS and HGAFS. Mucilage treatment improved As removal (over Fe(III)-only treatment); the system removed 75-96% As in 30 min. At neutral pH, removal was dependent on Fe(III) and mucilage concentration and the age of the Fe(III) solution. The process is fast, achieving maximum removal in 30 min, with the majority of As removed in 10-15 min. Standard jar tests with 1000 μg/L As(III) showed that arsenic removal and settling rates were pH-dependent; As removal was between 52% (high pH) and 66% (low pH). PMID:26824141

  8. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, Cecilia A.; Powell, Brian F.; Halvorson, William L.

    2007-01-01

    Executive Summary We summarized inventory and monitoring efforts for plants and vertebrates at Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument (NM) in Arizona. We used data from previous research to compile complete species lists for the monument and to assess inventory completeness. There have been 1,031 species of plants and vertebrates observed at the monument. Most of the species on the list are documented by voucher specimens. There are 59 non-native species established in the monument: one mammal, three birds, and 55 non-native plants. Most non-native plant species were first recorded along roads. In each taxon-specific chapter, we highlight areas that contribute disproportionately to species richness or that have unique species for the monument. Of particular importance are Quitobaquito Springs and Pond, which are responsible for the monument having one of the highest number of bird species in the Sonoran Desert Network of parks. Quitobaquito also contains the only fish in the monument, the endangered Quitobaquito pupfish (Cyprinodon eremus). Other important resources for the plants and vertebrates include the xeroriparian washes (e.g., Alamo Canyon) and the Ajo Mountains. Based on the review of past studies, we believe the inventories of vascular plants and vertebrates are nearly complete and that the monument has one of the most complete inventories of any unit in the Sonoran Desert Network.

  9. Cavity and end effects on flow past cactus-shaped cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talley, Sharon; Mungal, Godfrey

    2002-11-01

    Motivation for this study is the saguaro cactus, which is a leafless cylindrical tree that grows in the Sonaron Desert of the United States. Saguaros have an average diameter of 0.5 m, and at the highest wind velocities in their natural habitat, they experience flows up to a Re of 10^6. These giant trees have longitudinal cavities that span the length of the trunk. Typical cavity depths have a cavity depth ratio (l/d - cavity depth divided by diameter of the stem) of 0.07. Experimental measurements of pressure distribution, unsteady drag and lift, and vortex shedding are performed in a low speed wind tunnel over a over a range of Reynolds numbers from 1 × 10^4 to 2 × 10^5. We compare cylinders that differ in their surface geometry: a smooth cylinder, sandpaper roughened cylinders (k_s/d = 1.74 × 10-3 and 8.41 × 10-3), and cylinders with different cavity depths (l/d of 0.035, 0.07, and 0.105). For each of the test cylinders, we examine the effects of flat and hemispherical ends on a free end while the other end is attached. The benefits of cavity depth and hemispherical ends will be discussed.

  10. Parenchyma–Chlorenchyma Water Movement during Drought for the Hemiepiphytic Cactus Hylocereus undatus

    PubMed Central

    NOBEL, PARK S.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Hylocereus undatus, a hemiepiphytic cactus cultivated in 20 countries for its fruit, has fleshy stems whose water storage is crucial for surviving drought. Inter-tissue water transfer during drought was therefore analysed based on cell volumes and water potential components. • Methods In addition to determining cell dimensions, osmotic pressures and water potentials, a novel but simple procedure leading to an external water potential of zero was devised by which cells in thin sections were perfused with distilled water. The resulting volume changes indicated that the parenchyma–chlorenchyma water movement was related to more flexible cell walls in the water-storage parenchyma with its lower internal turgor pressure (P) than in the chlorenchyma. • Key Results Under wet conditions, P was 0·45 MPa in the chlorenchyma but only 0·10 MPa in the water-storage parenchyma. During 6 weeks of drought, the stems lost one-third of their water content, becoming flaccid. About 95 % of the water lost came from cells in the water-storage parenchyma, which decreased by 44 % in length and volume, whereas cells in the adjacent chlorenchyma decreased by only 6 %; the osmotic pressure concomitantly increased by only 10 % in the chlorenchyma but by 75 % in the water-storage parenchyma. • Conclusions The concentrating effect that occurred as cellular volume decreased indicated no change in cellular solute amounts during 6 weeks of drought. The ability to shift water from the parenchyma to the chlorenchyma allowed the latter tissue to maintain a positive net CO2 uptake rate during such a drought. PMID:16390846

  11. Sun/shade conditions affect recruitment and local adaptation of a columnar cactus in dry forests

    PubMed Central

    Miranda-Jácome, Antonio; Montaña, Carlos; Fornoni, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Facilitation among plants in water-limited environments (i.e. where evapotranspiration overcomes the availability of water during the growing season) has been considered a local adaptation to water and light conditions. Among cacti, early life-history stages can benefit from the facilitative effects of nurse plants that reduce solar radiation and water stress. However, whether light condition itself acts as an agent of selection through facilitation remains untested. The aim of this study was to determine (1) whether light conditions affect seedling recruitment, (2) whether the positive effect of shade on seedling recruitment is more intense under more stressful conditions and (3) whether shade condition (facilitation) reduces the magnitude of local adaptation on seedling recruitment relative to full sunlight conditions. Methods A reciprocal transplant experiment, coupled with the artificial manipulation of sun/shade conditions, was performed to test for the effects of local adaptation on germination, seedling survival and growth, using two demes of the columnar cactus Pilosocereus leucocephalus, representing different intensities of stressful conditions. Key Results Full sunlight conditions reduced recruitment success and supported the expectation of lower recruitment in more stressful environments. Significant local adaptation was mainly detected under full sunlight conditions, indicating that this environmental factor acts as an agent of selection at both sites. Conclusions The results supported the expectation that the magnitude of local adaptation, driven by the effects of facilitative nurse plants, is less intense under reduced stressful conditions. This study is the first to demonstrate that sun/shade conditions act as a selective agent accounting for local adaptation in water-limited environments, and that facilitation provided by nurse plants in these environments can attenuate the patterns of local adaptation among plants benefiting

  12. RARE DISEASES LIST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rare disease list includes rare diseases and conditions for which information requests have been made to the Office of Rare Diseases. A rare disease is defined as a disease or condition for which there are fewer than 200,000 affected persons alive in the United States. The Of...

  13. New evidence for persistent or transient seed banks in three Sonoran Desert cacti

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowers, Janice E.

    2005-01-01

    Seedlings of Ferocactus wislizeni and Mammillaria grahamii, 2 common cactus species in the northern Sonoran Desert, emerged under protective cages that had been left in place for 6 years after an initial sowing of numerous Carnegiea gigantea and F. wislizeni seeds. Because no seeds were sown in the interim, Mammillaria and Ferocactus seedlings must have emerged from persistent seed banks. Mammillaria seeds evidently survived in or on the soil as long as 6 years, forming a long-term persistent seed bank, and Ferocactus seeds apparently survived up to 3 years, forming a short-term persistent seed bank. No Carnegiea seedlings emerged, confirming that this species has a transient seed bank This is the first evidence for a between-year seed bank in M. grahamii and the first confirmation of a between-year seed bank in F. wislizeni.

  14. A new fission-fragment detector to complement the CACTUS-SiRi setup at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tornyi, T. G.; Görgen, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Siem, S.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Csige, L.

    2014-02-01

    An array of Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters (PPAC) for the detection of heavy ions has been developed. The new device, NIFF (Nuclear Instrument for Fission Fragments), consists of four individual detectors and covers 60% of 2π. It was designed to be used in conjunction with the SiRi array of ΔE-E silicon telescopes for light charged particles and fits into the CACTUS array of 28 large-volume NaI scintillation detectors at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory. The low-pressure gas-filled PPACs are sensitive for the detection of fission fragments, but are insensitive to scattered beam particles of light ions or light-ion ejectiles. The PPAC detectors of NIFF have good time resolution and can be used either to select or to veto fission events in in-beam experiments with light-ion beams and actinide targets. The powerful combination of SiRi, CACTUS, and NIFF provides new research opportunities for the study of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions in the actinide region. The new setup is particularly well suited to study the competition of fission and γ decay as a function of excitation energy.

  15. Microbial colonization of injured cactus tissue (Stenocereus gummosus) and its relationship to the ecology of cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis.

    PubMed Central

    Fogleman, J C; Foster, J L

    1989-01-01

    Necrotic tissue of agria cactus (Stenocereus gummosus) serves as a feeding and breeding substrate for Drosophila mojavensis. This fly species is one of the four endemic Drosophila species in the Sonoran Desert. Freeze injuries were created in arms of agria cactus in Mexico to study the events of microbial colonization. Facultative anaerobic bacteria were the first microbes to be detected, and the exclusion of large arthropods by covering the injuries with netting did not affect bacterial colonization. Yeast growth lagged behind bacterial growth by 2 days, and excluding arthropods delayed the detection of yeasts by an additional 2 days. Thus, insects (such as Drosophila species) and other arthropods do play a role in the colonization of agria rots by yeasts. All injuries were attractive to D. mojavensis within 5 days, and these flies were shown to be carrying significant densities of both bacteria and yeasts. Analysis of the volatile compounds present in the developing rots over time indicated that the volatile pattern is dynamic. Ethanol and acetic acid were the two volatile substances most likely responsible for the initial attraction of the injuries for Drosophila species. PMID:2705763

  16. The Dorsal/miR-1959/Cactus feedback loop facilitates the infection of WSSV in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaopeng; Yuan, Jia; Yang, Linwei; Weng, Shaoping; He, Jianguo; Zuo, Hongliang

    2016-09-01

    miR-1959, a novel microRNA identified from Litopenaeus vannamei, mediates a positive feedback loop between Dorsal and Cactus that can continuously maintain the activation of the NF-κB pathway. It has been known that miR-1959 is involved in antibacterial immunity in shrimp, but its function in antiviral responses is still unknown. In this study, we focused on the role of miR-1959 in infection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), the major viral pathogen in shrimp worldwide. The expression of miR-1959 in shrimp hemocytes, gill, and hepatopancreas was significantly up-regulated upon WSSV infection. Dual-luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that miR-1959 could enhance the activity of the promoter of WSSV immediate early gene ie1. In vivo experiments also showed that inhibition of miR-1959 led to decrease of the mortality of WSSV-infected shrimp and the genome copies of WSSV in tissues, meanwhile the expression of WSSV ie1 and VP28 genes was down-regulated. In contrast, increase of the miR-1959 level in shrimp by injection of miR-1959 mimics produced opposite results. These suggested that the Dorsal/miR-1959/Cactus feedback loop could favor the infection of WSSV in shrimp. Thus, our study helps further reveal the interaction between WSSV and shrimp immune system. PMID:27492121

  17. Asynchronous ripening behavior of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) cultivars with respect to physicochemical and physiological attributes.

    PubMed

    Kyriacou, M C; Emmanouilidou, M G; Soteriou, G A

    2016-11-15

    Physicochemical and physiological ripening events in cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit of cultivars 'Ntopia' and 'Hercules' were profiled against skin coloration from mature-green (S1) to over-mature (S5). Fructose and glucose accumulation were linear in 'Ntopia' but peaked near S3 in 'Hercules' synchronously to the appearance of sucrose. Betalains increased steadily in 'Ntopia' (103.2mg/l) but peaked before full skin coloration in 'Hercules' (49.7mg/l); whereas phenolic content remained invariable and ascorbate content peaked near S5 in both 'Ntopia' (108.6μg/g) and 'Hercules' (163.1μg/g). Cell wall material diminished with maturity though textural changes with ripening appeared not related to pectin solubilization but to weakening of glycan bonding and loss of neutral sugars. Fruit firmness rather was correlated to seed weight (r=0.89) and seed-to-pulp ratio (r=0.73). Cultivar differences highlighted in the chronology of ripening events are critical for defining optimum harvest maturity and postharvest handling protocols for premium quality cactus pear fruit. PMID:27283673

  18. Diversity and antifungal activity of the endophytic fungi associated with the native medicinal cactus Opuntia humifusa (Cactaceae) from the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The endophytic fungal community associated with the native cactus Opuntia humifusa in the United States was investigated and its potential for providing antifungal compounds. A total of 108 endophytic fungal isolates were obtained and identified by molecular methods into 17 different taxa of the gen...

  19. Selenium accumulation, distribution and speciation in spineless prickly pear cactus: a salt, boron, and drought tolerant, selenium-enriched nutraceutical fruit crop.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prickly pear cactus (Opuntia) may be an alternative crop to grow in drainage-impacted regions of the westside of California, where high levels of salinity, selenium (Se), and boron (B) are present. Preliminary trials have demonstrated that Opuntia can tolerate the adverse soil conditions, while accu...

  20. Characterization of the nutritional components in fruit and cladode of selenium-enriched nutraceutical cactus pear fruit varieties grown on agricultural sediment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Different accessions of different colored cactus pear (Opuntia ficus Indica) were grown in soils high in salts, boron and selenium (Se) located in the Westside of central California. The changes in the nutritional status and biological transformation of the absorbed inorganic Se from the soils into ...

  1. Preliminary Assessment for CAU 485: Cactus Spring Ranch Pu and DU Site CAS No. TA-39-001-TAGR: Soil Contamination, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    Corrective Action Unit 485, Corrective Action Site TA-39-001-TAGR, the Cactus Spring Ranch Soil Contamination Area, is located approximately six miles southwest of the Area 3 Compound at the eastern mouth of Sleeping Column Canyon in the Cactus Range on the Tonopah Test Range. This site was used in conjunction with animal studies involving the biological effects of radionuclides (specifically plutonium) associated with Operation Roofer Coaster. The location had been used as a ranch by private citizens prior to government control of the area. According to historical records, Operation Roofer Coaster activities involved assessing the inhalation uptake of plutonium in animals from the nonnuclear detonation of nuclear weapons. Operation Roofer Coaster consisted of four nonnuclear destruction tests of a nuclear device. The four tests all took place during May and June 1963 and consisted of Double Tracks and Clean Slate 1, 11, and 111. Eighty-four dogs, 84 burros, and 136 sheep were used for the Double Tracks test, and ten sheep and ten dogs were used for Clean Slate 11. These animals were housed at Cactus Spring Ranch. Before detonation, all animals were placed in cages and transported to the field. After the shot, they were taken to the decontamination area where some may have been sacrificed immediately. All animals, including those sacrificed, were returned to Cactus Spring Ranch at this point to have autopsies performed or to await being sacrificed at a later date. A description of the Cactus Spring Ranch activities found in project files indicates the ranch was used solely for the purpose of the Roofer Coaster tests and bioaccumulation studies and was never used for any other project. No decontamination or cleanup had been conducted at Cactus Spring Ranch prior to the start of the project. When the project was complete, the pits at Cactus Spring Ranch were filled with soil, and trailers where dogs were housed and animal autopsies had been performed were removed

  2. Mitogenomic analysis of Montipora cactus and Anacropora matthai (cnidaria; scleractinia; acroporidae) indicates an unequal rate of mitochondrial evolution among Acroporidae corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Ching-Chih; Wallace, Carden C.; Chen, Chaolun Allen

    2005-11-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial (mt) genome was determined for specimens of the coral species Montipora cactus (Bernard 1897) and Anacropora matthai (Pillai 1973), representing two morphologically distinct genera of the family Acroporidae. These sequences were compared with the published mt genome sequence for the confamilial species, Acropora tenuis (Dana 1846). The size of the mt genome was 17,887 bp and 17,888 bp for M. cactus and A. matthai. Gene content and organization was found to be very similar among the three Acroporidae mt genomes with a group I intron occurring in the NADH dehyrogenase 5 ( nad5) gene. The intergenic regions were also similar in length among the three corals. The control region located between the small ribosomal RNA ( ms) and the cytochrome oxidase 3 ( cox3) gene was significantly smaller in M. cactus and A. matthai (both 627 bp) than in A. tenuis (1086 bp). Only one set of repeated sequences was identified at the 3'-end of the control regions in M. cactus and A. matthai. A lack of the abundant repetitive elements which have been reported for A. tenuis, accounts for the relatively short control regions in M. cactus and A. matthai. Pairwise distances and relative rate analyses of 13 protein coding genes, the group I intron and the largest intergenic region, igr3, revealed significant differences in the rate of molecular evolution of the mt genome among the three species, with an extremely slow rate being seen between Montipora and Anacropora. It is concluded that rapid mt genome evolution is taking place in genus Acropora relative to the confamilial genera Montipora and Anacropora although all are within the relatively slow range thought to be typical of Anthozoa.

  3. Chemopreventive effect of cactus Opuntia ficus indica on oxidative stress and genotoxicity of aflatoxin B1

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic agent. In aflatoxicosis, oxidative stress is a common mechanism contributing to initiation and progression of hepatic damage. The aim of this work was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of cactus cladode extract (CCE) on aflatoxin B1-induced liver damage in mice by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) level, the protein carbonyls generation and the heat shock proteins Hsp 70 and Hsp 27 expressions in liver. We also looked for an eventual protective effect against AFB1-induced genotoxicity as determined by chromosome aberrations test, SOS Chromotest and DNA fragmentation assay. We further evaluated the modulation of p53, bax and bcl2 protein expressions in liver. Methods Adult, healthy balbC (20-25 g) male mice were pre-treated by intraperitonial administration of CCE (50 mg/Kg.b.w) for 2 weeks. Control animals were treated 3 days a week for 4 weeks by intraperitonial administration of 250 μg/Kg.b.w AFB1. Animals treated by AFB1 and CCE were divided into two groups: the first group was administrated CCE 2 hours before each treatment with AFB1 3 days a week for 4 weeks. The second group was administrated without pre-treatment with CCE but this extract was administrated 24 hours after each treatment with AFB1 3 days a week for 4 weeks. Results Our results clearly showed that AFB1 induced significant alterations in oxidative stress markers. In addition, it has a genotoxic potential and it increased the expression of pro apoptotic proteins p53 and bax and decreased the expression of bcl2. The treatment of CCE before or after treatment with AFB1, showed (i) a total reduction of AFB1 induced oxidative damage markers, (ii) an anti-genotoxic effect resulting in an efficient prevention of chromosomal aberrations and DNA fragmentation compared to the group treated with AFB1 alone (iii) restriction of the effect of AFB1 by differential modulation of the expression of p53 which decreased as well as its

  4. Rare Disorders and Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umlauf, Mary; Monaco, Jana; FitzZaland, Mary; FitzZaland, Richard; Novitsky, Scott

    2008-01-01

    According to the National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD), a rare or "orphan" disease affects fewer than 200,000 people in the United States. There are more than 6,000 rare disorders that, taken together, affect approximately 25 million Americans. "Exceptional Parent" ("EP") recognizes that when a disorder affects a child or adult, it…

  5. Genetic variability of an unusual apomictic triploid cactus--Haageocereus tenuis Ritter--from the Coast of Central Peru.

    PubMed

    Arakaki, Mónica; Speranza, Pablo; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E

    2013-01-01

    Haageocereus tenuis is a prostrate cactus restricted to a small area of 2 km(2) near the city of Lima, Peru. The species is triploid and propagates mainly through stem fragmentation. In addition, propagation via agamospermy is documented and adventitious embryony is also inferred as a mechanism. Although seedling recruitment has not been observed in nature, we have shown that asexually produced seeds are viable. About 45 adult individuals, plus 9 individuals obtained from seeds, were sampled and 5 microsatellite markers were used to assess genetic variability. Microsatellite analysis confirms that individuals from the only existing population are genetically identical and that the population likely represents a single clone. The absence of mutations in any individual, even in highly variable microsatellite loci, may indicate that the species is also of recent origin. Other prostrate species of Haageocereus are suspected to be occasional apomicts. This phenomenon has significant implications for the evolutionary biology and ecology of Haageocereus and other clonal Cactaceae. PMID:23028024

  6. Floral visitation by the Argentine ant reduces pollinator visitation and seed set in the coast barrel cactus, Ferocactus viridescens.

    PubMed

    LeVan, Katherine E; Hung, Keng-Lou James; McCann, Kyle R; Ludka, John T; Holway, David A

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that trade-offs between plant defense and reproduction arise not only from resource allocation but also from interactions among mutualists. Indirect costs of plant defense by ants, for example, can outweigh benefits if ants deter pollinators. Plants can dissuade ants from occupying flowers, but such arrangements may break down when novel ant partners infiltrate mutualisms. Here, we examine how floral visitation by ants affects pollination services when the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) replaces a native ant species in a food-for-protection mutualism with the coast barrel cactus (Ferocactus viridescens), which, like certain other barrel cacti, produces extrafloral nectar. We compared the effects of floral visitation by the Argentine ant with those of the most prevalent native ant species (Crematogaster californica). Compared to C. californica, the Argentine ant was present in higher numbers in flowers. Cactus bees (Diadasia spp.), the key pollinators in this system, spent less time in flowers when cacti were occupied by the Argentine ant compared to when cacti were occupied by C. californica. Presumably as a consequence of decreased duration of floral visits by Diadasia, cacti occupied by L. humile set fewer seeds per fruit and produced fewer seeds overall compared to cacti occupied by C. californica. These data illustrate the importance of mutualist identity in cases where plants balance multiple mutualisms. Moreover, as habitats become increasingly infiltrated by introduced species, the loss of native mutualists and their replacement by non-native species may alter the shape of trade-offs between plant defense and reproduction. PMID:23892582

  7. Technological characteristics and selected bioactive compounds of Opuntia dillenii cactus fruit juice following the impact of pulsed electric field pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Moussa-Ayoub, Tamer E; Jaeger, Henry; Youssef, Khaled; Knorr, Dietrich; El-Samahy, Salah; Kroh, Lothar W; Rohn, Sascha

    2016-11-01

    Selected technological characteristics and bioactive compounds of juice pressed directly from the mash of whole Opuntia dillenii cactus fruits have been investigated. The impact of pulsed electric fields (PEF) for a non-thermal disintegration on the important juice characteristics has been evaluated in comparison to microwave heating and use of pectinases. Results showed that the cactus juice exhibited desirable technological characteristics. Besides, it also contained a high amount of phenolic compounds being the major contributors to the overall antioxidant activity of juice. HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS(n) measurements in the fruits' peel and pulp showed that isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside was determined as the single flavonol found only in the fruit's peel. Treating fruit mash with a moderate electric field strength increased juice yield and improved juice characteristics. Promisingly, the highest release of isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside from fruit's peel into juice was maximally achieved by PEF. PMID:27211645

  8. Replacement of wheat bran with spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill cv Gigante) and urea in the diets of Holstein x Gyr heifers.

    PubMed

    de Figueiredo Monteiro, Carolina Corrêa; Silva de Melo, Airon Aparecido; Ferreira, Marcelo Andrade; de Souza Campos, José Mauricio; Rodrigues Souza, Julyana Sena; Dos Santos Silva, Evannielly Thuanny; de Paula Xavier de Andrade, Rafael; da Silva, Emmanuelle Cordeiro

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the replacement effect of wheat bran with spineless cactus and urea in heifers. Twenty-four heifers with an average initial weight of 185 ± 13 kg were used in this experiment. Four levels of spineless cactus corrected with urea and ammonium sulfate (9:1) were studied: 0, 33, 66, and 100 % replacement with wheat bran. Samples of feed, orts, and feces were analyzed to estimate the intake and digestibility of dry matter (DM) and nutrients. Indigestible neutral detergent fiber was used as an internal marker. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design. Dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrient intake demonstrated a quadratic effect (P < 0.05). Rumen degradable protein intake increased linearly (P < 0.05). The maximum DM digestibility was estimated to be 0.67 with a 43 % replacement. Crude protein and NDF digestibility increased linearly (P < 0.05). The total body weight gain and average daily gain decreased linearly with the replacement. Thus, it is practical to replace wheat bran with spineless cactus containing urea and ammonium sulfate up to 66 % in sugar cane-based diets. PMID:24839899

  9. Ag Nanoparticles Decorated Cactus-Like Ag Dendrites/Si Nanoneedles as Highly Efficient 3D Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Substrates toward Sensitive Sensing.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian; Ma, Dayan; Chen, Feng; Bai, Min; Xu, Kewei; Zhao, Yongxi

    2015-10-20

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has been considered as a promising sensing technique to detect low-level analytes. However, its practical application was hindered owing to the lack of uniform SERS substrates for ultrasensitive and reproducible assay. Herein, inspired by the natural cactus structure, we developed a cactus-like 3D nanostructure with uniform and high-density hotspots for highly efficient SERS sensing by both grafting the silicon nanoneedles onto Ag dendrites and subsequent decoration with Ag nanoparticles. The hierarchical scaffolds and high-density hotspots throughout the whole substrate result in great amplification of SERS signal. A high Raman enhancement factor of crystal violet up to 6.6 × 10(7) was achieved. Using malachite green (MG) as a model target, the fabricated SERS substrates exhibited good reproducibility (RSD ∼ 9.3%) and pushed the detection limit down to 10(-13) M with a wide linear range of 10(-12) M to 10(-7) M. Excellent selectivity was also demonstrated by facilely distinguishing MG from its derivative, some organics, and coexistent metal ions. Finally, the practicality and reliability of the 3D SERS substrates were confirmed by the quantitative analysis of spiked MG in environmental water with high recoveries (91.2% to 109.6%). By virtue of the excellent performance (good reproducibility, high sensitivity, and selectivity), the cactus-like 3D SERS substrate has great potential to become a versatile sensing platform in environmental monitoring, food safety, and medical diagnostics. PMID:26406111

  10. Biological activities of Schottenol and Spinasterol, two natural phytosterols present in argan oil and in cactus pear seed oil, on murine miroglial BV2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    El Kharrassi, Youssef; Samadi, Mohammad; Lopez, Tatiana; Nury, Thomas; El Kebbaj, Riad; Andreoletti, Pierre; El Hajj, Hammam I.; Vamecq, Joseph; Moustaid, Khadija; Latruffe, Norbert; El Kebbaj, M’Hammed Saïd; Masson, David; and others

    2014-04-11

    Highlights: • Sterol composition in argan oil and in cactus seed oil. • Chemical synthesis of two sterols: Schottenol and Spinasterol. • Sterols from argan oil or from cactus seed oil show no toxicity on BV2 cells. • Schottenol and Spinasterol modulate the activation and the expression of two nuclear receptors, LXRα and LXRβ. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the biological activities of the major phytosterols present in argan oil (AO) and in cactus seed oil (CSO) in BV2 microglial cells. Accordingly, we first determined the sterol composition of AO and CSO, showing the presence of Schottenol and Spinasterol as major sterols in AO. While in CSO, in addition to these two sterols, we found mainly another sterol, the Sitosterol. The chemical synthesis of Schottenol and Spinasterol was performed. Our results showed that these two phytosterols, as well as sterol extracts from AO or CSO, are not toxic to microglial BV2 cells. However, treatments by these phytosterols impact the mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, both Schottenol and Spinasterol can modulate the gene expression of two nuclear receptors, liver X receptor (LXR)-α and LXRβ, their target genes ABCA1 and ABCG1. Nonetheless, only Schottenol exhibited a differential activation vis-à-vis the nuclear receptor LXRβ. Thus Schottenol and Spinasterol can be considered as new LXR agonists, which may play protective roles by the modulation of cholesterol metabolism.

  11. Rare Parotid Gland Diseases.

    PubMed

    Sanan, Akshay; Cognetti, David M

    2016-04-01

    The differential diagnosis for "rare" parotid gland diseases is broad and encompasses infectious, neoplastic, autoimmune, metabolic, and iatrogenic etiologies. The body of knowledge of parotid gland diseases has grown owing to advances in imaging and pathologic analysis and molecular technology. This article reviews rare parotid diseases, discussing the respective disease's clinical presentation, diagnosis, imaging, pathogenesis, treatment, and prognosis. PMID:26902981

  12. Identifying rare events in rare diseases.

    PubMed

    Attiyeh, Edward F; Maris, John M

    2015-04-15

    Utilizing genomic signatures from diagnostic tumor samples to forecast clinical behavior and response to therapy has long been a goal, and we are now poised to further refine how we can identify the relatively rare patients with aggressive neuroblastoma masquerading as patients with a more benign form of the disease. Clin Cancer Res; 21(8); 1782-5. ©2014 AACR. See related article by Oberthuer et al., p. 1904. PMID:25424848

  13. Reproductive response of fat-tailed Barbarine ewes subjected to short-term nutritional treatments including spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica f. inermis) cladodes.

    PubMed

    Sakly, C; Rekik, M; Ben Salem, I; Lassoued, N; Gonzalez-Bulnes, A; Ben Salem, H

    2014-02-01

    Reproductive outputs in fat-tailed Barbarine sheep in central Tunisia are often low because of feed shortage and the low nutritive value of diets. Supplementation with conventional concentrates is economically unsuitable in central Tunisia, so more cost-effective and sustainable alternative feeding strategies need to be developed. We tested effects of short-term nutritional treatments including cactus cladodes during the induction of 'male effect' on fertility and prolificacy parameters (follicular growth, ovulatory response and early embryo losses). One hundred and twenty ewes were distributed in 4 equal groups balanced for live weight grazed natural pastures and were supplemented for 21 days, starting day 10 after introduction of rams, with cactus cladodes (CA), cactus cladodes and soybean meal (CAS), concentrate (CC) or only soybean meal (S). Nutritional treatment did not affect live weight in this experiment. Ewes receiving cactus had higher number of large pre-ovulatory follicles (≥6 mm; 1.08 ± 0.05), between days 14 and 19 after introduction of rams, than females in the CC and S ewes (0.64 ± 0.06; p < 0.05). However, there were no differences in the onset of oestrous behaviour in response to 'male effect' or in the number of corpora lutea. Average ovulation rates were 1.42 ± 0.16 for CC, 1.47 ± 0.13 for CAS, 1.31 ± 0.15 for CA and 1.31 ± 0.13 for S groups respectively. Finally, reproductive wastages at day 35 after mating were not different between groups being 0.33 ± 0.19 for CC, 0.60 ± 0.17 for CAS, 0.43 ± 0.16 for CA and 0.31 ± 0.15 for S groups respectively. It is concluded that Barbarine ewes fed nutritional treatments including cactus performed similarly to those receiving diets including conventional concentrate feeds. PMID:23301658

  14. Blooming rhythms of cactus Cereus peruvianus with nocturnal peak at full moon during seasons of prolonged daytime photoperiod.

    PubMed

    Ben-Attia, Mossadok; Reinberg, Alain; Smolensky, Michael H; Gadacha, Wafa; Khedaier, Achraf; Sani, Mamane; Touitou, Yvan; Boughamni, Néziha Ghanem

    2016-01-01

    Cereus peruvianus (Peruvian apple cactus) is a large erect and thorny succulent cactus characterized by column-like (cereus [L]: column), that is, candle-shaped, appendages. For three successive years (1100 days), between early April and late November, we studied the flowering patterns of eight cacti growing in public gardens and rural areas of north and central Tunisia, far from nighttime artificial illumination, in relation to natural environmental light, temperature, relative humidity and precipitation parameters. Flower blooming was assessed nightly between 23:00 h and until at least 02:00 h, and additionally around-the-clock at ~1 h intervals for 30 consecutive days during the late summer of each year of study to quantify both nyctohemeral (day-night) and lunar patterns. During the summer months of prolonged daytime photoperiod, flower blooming of C. peruvianus exhibited predictable-in-time variation as "waves" with average period of 29.5 days synchronized by the light of the full moon. The large-sized flower (~16 cm diameter) opens almost exclusively at night, between sunset and sunrise, as a 24 h rhythm during a specific 3-4-day span of the lunar cycle (full moon), with a strong correlation between moon phase and number and proportion of flowers in bloom (ranging from r = +0.59 to +0.91). Black, blue and red cotton sheets were used to filter specific spectral bands of nighttime moonlight from illuminating randomly selected plant appendages as a means to test the hypothesis of a "gating" 24 h rhythm phenomenon of photoreceptors at the bud level. Relative to control conditions (no light filtering), black sheet covering inhibited flower bud induction by 87.5%, red sheet covering by 46.6% and blue sheet covering by 34%, and the respective inhibiting effects on number of flowers in bloom were essentially 100%, ~81% and ~44%. C. peruvianus is a unique example of a terrestrial plant that exhibits a circadian flowering rhythm (peak ~00:00 h) "gated" by 24 h, lunar

  15. Rare earth gas laser

    DOEpatents

    Krupke, W.F.

    1975-10-31

    A high energy gas laser with light output in the infrared or visible region of the spectrum is described. Laser action is obtained by generating vapors of rare earth halides, particularly neodymium iodide or, to a lesser extent, neodymium bromide, and disposing the rare earth vapor medium in a resonant cavity at elevated temperatures; e.g., approximately 1200/sup 0/ to 1400/sup 0/K. A particularly preferred gaseous medium is one involving a complex of aluminum chloride and neodymium chloride, which exhibits tremendously enhanced vapor pressure compared to the rare earth halides per se, and provides comparable increases in stored energy densities.

  16. A rare opportunity beckons

    SciTech Connect

    Gschneidner, K

    2011-02-01

    There is a great deal of uncertainty for the future of rare-earth production. Rare-earths are a collection of 17 chemical elements in the periodic table, which include scandium and yttrium as well as the 15 lanthanides, such as dysprosium and ytterbium. China has a stranglehold on today's rare-earth market, which was worth about $3bn in 2010, with the country accounting for about 95% of worldwide production. Yet China's future actions can only be guessed at best. In September it halted shipments of rare-earth elements to Japan over a diplomatic spat concerning the detention of a Chinese trawler captain. Although the ban was later lifted, the episode raised concerns around the world about China's rare-earth monopoly and its use in diplomacy. China has already warned that it will not export any rare-earth material in the coming years as it expects its own consumption of rare-earth metals to increase. The country has introduced export taxes as well as production and export quotas, and also refused to grant any new rare-earth mining licences. Furthermore, because its reserves are limited and China's internal markets are growing so rapidly, the country has suggested it will no longer export products that require rare-earth elements, especially those that need heavy rare-earth elements, such as terbium and dysprosium. China's actions have led to huge rises in the cost of rare-earth materials and products. Dysprosium oxide, for example, has shot up from $36 per kilogram in 2005 to a massive $305 per kilogram by late last year. This could have a huge impact on much of today's electronics industry, given that rare-earth elements are ubiquitous in electric motors, computers, batteries, liquid-crystal displays (LCDs) and mobile phones. Neodymium-iron-boron permanent magnets, for example, are used as computer spindle drives. The question is: what can be done to ensure that China's dominance of the rare-earth industry does not affect the military and energy security of the US

  17. Collecting rare diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ekins, Sean

    2014-01-01

    This editorial introduces the F1000Research rare disease collection. It is common knowledge that for new treatments to be successful there has to be a partnership between the many interested parties such as the patient, advocate, disease foundations, the academic scientists, venture funding organizations, biotech companies, pharmaceutical companies, NIH, and the FDA. Our intention is to provide a forum for discussion and dissemination of any rare disease related topics that will advance scientific understanding and progress to treatments. PMID:25580231

  18. Medical rare book provenance.

    PubMed Central

    Overmier, J A; Sentz, L

    1987-01-01

    Provenance is defined as the record of a book's ownership history. Its value and uses are explored. A survey of provenance practices in medical school rare book libraries found that only 21% of the reporting libraries maintain this important file. Examples of the uses and value of a provenance file in a medical rare book collection are presented. Decisions necessary to institute and maintain such a file are outlined and discussed. PMID:3828606

  19. The cuticle of the cactus Cereus peruvianus as a source of a homo-{alpha}-D-galacturonan

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, M.; Costa, S.C.; Huber, A.

    1995-12-31

    The waxy pecto-cellulosic cuticle of cladodes of the columnar cactus Cereus peruvianus (19% of the whole phytobiomass; dry wt) is a source of an {alpha}-D-polygalacturonic or pectic acid (35-40% yield, on a dry wt based on the wax-free pectocellulose layer). Warm EDTA/oxalate or room temperature strong acid/alkali cycles are efficient for pectic acid extraction, since divalent cation (mainly Ca{sup 2+}) is a barrier to be removed within the native and compact architecture of the cuticle. Despite some molecular dispersion arising from the application of strong mineral acid in the first extraction step, the pectic material appears to be quite homogeneous and, on acid or enzymatic analyses, was shown to contain only D-galacturonic acid as its monomer. Cereus cuticle pectate (sodium salt) tends to gel above a concentration of 1%, a useful property that can be more easily obtained by the inclusion of sucrose, light addition of calcium salt, and/or mild acidification.

  20. Microencapsulation of pulp and ultrafiltered cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) extracts and betanin stability during storage.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Cristina; Saavedra, Jorge; Sáenz, Carmen; García, Paula; Robert, Paz

    2014-08-15

    Pulp (CP) and ultrafiltered (UF) cactus pear extracts were encapsulated with Capsul (C) by applying a central composite design (CP-C and UF-C systems) by spray-drying. To evaluate the effect of the extract, microparticles obtained under optimal conditions were characterised and stored at 60 °C. Betacyanin and betaxanthin encapsulation efficiency reached values above 98% for both systems studied. This efficiency was attributed to strong interactions between betalains and the polymer. Betalain degradation in CP-C and UF-C microparticles followed pseudo-first order kinetics. The betacyanin degradation rate constant was significantly higher for CP-C than for UF-C. These results suggested that the mucilage or higher sugar content of CP increased the hygroscopicity of the CP-C microparticles, leading to the degradation of betalain. The hydrolysis pathway was the main mechanism of betanin degradation during microparticle storage. These results demonstrate the potential utility of both CP-C and UF-C microparticles as natural colourants for healthy foods. PMID:24679777

  1. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship among Tunisian cactus species (Opuntia) as revealed by random amplified microsatellite polymorphism markers.

    PubMed

    Bendhifi Zarroug, M; Baraket, G; Zourgui, L; Souid, S; Salhi Hannachi, A

    2015-01-01

    Opuntia ficus indica is one of the most economically important species in the Cactaceae family. Increased interest in this crop stems from its potential contribution to agricultural diversification, application in the exploitation of marginal lands, and utility as additional income sources for farmers. In Tunisia, O. ficus indica has been affected by drastic genetic erosion resulting from biotic and abiotic stresses. Thus, it is imperative to identify and preserve this germplasm. In this study, we focused on the use of random amplified microsatellite polymorphisms to assess genetic diversity among 25 representatives of Tunisian Opuntia species maintained in the collection of the National Institute of Agronomic Research of Tunisia. Seventy-two DNA markers were screened to discriminate accessions using 16 successful primer combinations. The high percentage of polymorphic band (100%), the resolving power value (5.68), the polymorphic information content (0.94), and the marker index (7.2) demonstrated the efficiency of the primers tested. Therefore, appropriate cluster analysis used in this study illustrated a divergence among the cultivars studied and exhibited continuous variation that occurred independently of geographic origin. O. ficus indica accessions did not cluster separately from the other cactus pear species, indicating that their current taxonomical classifications are not well aligned with their genetic variability or locality of origin. PMID:25730081

  2. Activated biochar derived from cactus fibres--preparation, characterization and application on Cu(II) removal from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Hadjittofi, Loukia; Prodromou, Melpomeni; Pashalidis, Ioannis

    2014-05-01

    The adsorption efficiency of activated biochar prepared from cactus fibres regarding the removal of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions has been investigated as a function of various physicochemical parameters (e.g. pH, initial metal concentration, ionic strength, temperature and contact time). Activation of the biochar took place using nitric acid oxidation and characterisation was performed by SEM analysis, FTIR spectroscopy, N2 adsorption and acid-base titrations. The results show that laminar structures constitute the material and carboxylic moieties are the predominant binding sites. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich adsorption models and the monolayer adsorption capacity was found to be 3.5 mol kg(-1). The effect of ionic strength and temperature on the adsorption efficiency indicates that at low pH outer-sphere and at near neutral pH inner-sphere complexes are the predominant surface species and the kinetic data obtained were fitted very well by the Lagergren rate expression. PMID:24718356

  3. An experimental and computational investigation of the effect of cavity depth on flow past cactus-shaped cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talley, Sharon; Iaccarino, Gianluca; Mungal, Godfrey; Mansour, Nagi

    2001-11-01

    This study is motivated by the shape of the saguaro cactus and other tall arborescent succulents that withstand high wind velocities. These biological organisms have longitudinal cavities with a fractional cavity depth of 0.07 (the ratio of the cavity depth to the diameter of the stem). In this study, we compare the flow around a smooth cylinder and cylinders with three different fractional cavity depths of 0.035, 0.07, and 0.105. Experimental measurements of pressure distribution, vortex shedding and direct drag are performed in a low speed wind tunnel over a range of Reynolds numbers from 1x10^4 to 2x10^5, and 2D simulations are attained using unsteady RANS over a range of Reynolds numbers from 10^4 to 10^6. Preliminary results suggest that there is a reduction in drag with increasing cavity depth. The influence of cylinder cavity depth on other flow characteristics and differences between the experimental and numerical studies will be presented. The significance of the flow phenomena in terms of the saguaro ecology will be discussed.

  4. Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network

    MedlinePlus

    ... RDCRN? Aims of the Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network Contact Us RDCRN Members Login Accessibility Disclaimer The Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network is an initiative of the Office of Rare ...

  5. A 26-year Composite Stable Isotope Record of Precipitation, Humidity and El Niño in the Spines of Saguaro Cactus, Carnegiea gigantea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, N. B.; Dettman, D. L.; Williams, D. G.

    2008-12-01

    Seasonal cycles of rainfall and humidity are recorded by stable isotopes in the spines of columnar cactuses. Multi-decadal δ18O and δ13C records of spine series from five saguaro cactuses, dated using bomb radiocarbon and semi-annual variations in δ13C, demonstrate the reproducibility of a climate signal. For δ18O and δ13C, the expressed population signal between 1980 and 2006 is 0.68 and 0.66, respectively, but 0.76 and 0.59 between 1980 and 1997, suggesting that age/height related effects are present in isotopic spine series. Composite δ18O and δ13C records constructed from five spine series show significant relationships to external climate forcing. Once dating errors are corrected, mean annual spine δ18O is negatively correlated with total annual precipitation (TAP) from November through October (P < 0.001) and positively correlated with mean annual nighttime vapor pressure deficit (VPD) (P < 0.01). Year to year decreases (> 2‰) in the maximum annual spine δ18O are positively correlated with the Southern Oscillation Index (P < 0.01). We hypothesize these decreases are caused by El Niño enhanced winter rainfall. While less significant, minimum annual δ13C is negatively correlated with TAP (P < 0.05) and mean nighttime VPD (P < 0.05). These results bolster proposed mechanistic models of isotopic variation in the spines of columnar cactuses and demonstrate the use of isotopic spine series as climate proxies.

  6. The Genetics of a Small Autosomal Region of Drosophila Melanogaster Containing the Structural Gene for Alcohol Dehydrogenase. VII. Characterization of the Region around the Snail and Cactus Loci

    PubMed Central

    Ashburner, M.; Thompson, P.; Roote, J.; Lasko, P. F.; Grau, Y.; Messal, M. E.; Roth, S.; Simpson, P.

    1990-01-01

    The genetic interval 35C to 36A on chromosome arm 2L of Drosophila melanogaster has been saturated for mutations with visible or lethal phenotypes. 38 loci have been characterized, including several maternal-effect lethals (vasa, Bic-C, chiffon, cactus and cornichon) and several early embryonic lethals, including snail and fizzy. About 130 deletions have been used to order these loci. Complex interactions between mutant alleles have been uncovered in the immediate genetic environs of the snail gene, as has further evidence for an interaction between this region and that including the nearby genes no-ocelli and elbow. PMID:2123463

  7. CLUSTERING OF RARE EVENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The clustering of cases of a rare disease is considered. The number of events observed for each unit is assumed to have a Poisson distribution, the mean of which depends upon the population size and the cluster membership of that unit. Here a cluster consists of those units that ...

  8. Channel Islands rare plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEachern, K.

    1999-01-01

    Database contains information on 65 rare plant taxa on six islands from archive searches and field surveys, including population location, size and extent 1920-1999, population and habitat conditions, census data, phenological information, associated species. USGS-BRD, Channel Islands Field Station, Ventura, CA.

  9. The rare bacterial biosphere.

    PubMed

    Pedrós-Alió, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    All communities are dominated by a few species that account for most of the biomass and carbon cycling. On the other hand, a large number of species are represented by only a few individuals. In the case of bacteria, these rare species were until recently invisible. Owing to their low numbers, conventional molecular techniques could not retrieve them. Isolation in pure culture was the only way to identify some of them, but current culturing techniques are unable to isolate most of the bacteria in nature. The recent development of fast and cheap high-throughput sequencing has begun to allow access to the rare species. In the case of bacteria, the exploration of this rare biosphere has several points of interest. First, it will eventually produce a reasonable estimate of the total number of bacterial taxa in the oceans; right now, we do not even know the right order of magnitude. Second, it will answer the question of whether "everything is everywhere." Third, it will require hypothesizing and testing the ecological mechanisms that allow subsistence of many species in low numbers. And fourth, it will open an avenue of research into the immense reserve of genes with potential applications hidden in the rare biosphere. PMID:22457983

  10. Rare lung cancers.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    There are several different kinds of lung cancer, often referred to as lung cancer subtypes. Some of these occur more often than others. In this factsheet we will specifically look at the subtypes of cancers that do not happen very often and are considered 'rare'. PMID:27066129

  11. Rare Copy Number Variants

    PubMed Central

    Grozeva, Detelina; Kirov, George; Ivanov, Dobril; Jones, Ian R.; Jones, Lisa; Green, Elaine K.; St Clair, David M.; Young, Allan H.; Ferrier, Nicol; Farmer, Anne E.; McGuffin, Peter; Holmans, Peter A.; Owen, Michael J.; O’Donovan, Michael C.; Craddock, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Context Recent studies suggest that copy number variation in the human genome is extensive and may play an important role in susceptibility to disease, including neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. The possible involvement of copy number variants (CNVs) in bipolar disorder has received little attention to date. Objectives To determine whether large (>100 000 base pairs) and rare (found in <1% of the population) CNVs are associated with susceptibility to bipolar disorder and to compare with findings in schizophrenia. Design A genome-wide survey of large, rare CNVs in a case-control sample using a high-density microarray. Setting The Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium. Participants There were 1697 cases of bipolar disorder and 2806 nonpsychiatric controls. All participants were white UK residents. Main Outcome Measures Overall load of CNVs and presence of rare CNVs. Results The burden of CNVs in bipolar disorder was not increased compared with controls and was significantly less than in schizophrenia cases. The CNVs previously implicated in the etiology of schizophrenia were not more common in cases with bipolar disorder. Conclusions Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder differ with respect to CNV burden in general and association with specific CNVs in particular. Our data are consistent with the possibility that possession of large, rare deletions may modify the phenotype in those at risk of psychosis: those possessing such events are more likely to be diagnosed as having schizophrenia, and those without them are more likely to be diagnosed as having bipolar disorder. PMID:20368508

  12. Endangered Species: Wild & Rare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Endangered Species: Wild and Rare." Contents are organized into the following…

  13. Hydrogeology of the Quitobaquito Springs and La Abra Plain area, Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona, and Sonora, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carruth, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    Quitobaquito Springs, in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument near the south end of the northwestward-trending Quitobaquito Hills, are less than 0.25 mile north of the international boundary between the United States and Mexico. The National Park Service is concerned that the natural flow from Quitobaquito Springs might be reduced by ground-water withdrawals in the adjacent State of Sonora, Mexico. Quitobaquito and other nearby springs flow from a highly fractured granite that forms the Quitobaquito Hills. Fractures in the granitic intrusive rocks provide conduits for ground water to flow from an alluvial flow system along Aguajita Wash to a line of springs on the southwest side of Quitobaquito Hills. The chemical composition of water from all the springs is similar. Carbon-14 analysis of water from Quitobaquito Springs indicates that the spring water probably is between 500 and several thousand years old. Discharge at Quitobaquito Springs averaged 28 gallons per minute and ranged from 15 to 40 gallons per minute for 1981-92. Rainfall at two gages in the area of recharge to the northeast of Quitobaquito Hills averaged 6.6 inches per year during the 11-year monitoring program ending in September 1992. The lack of correlation between spring discharge and local rainfall indicates that local annual recharge may be small relative to the total quantity of ground water in storage. Surface-geophysical data indicate that a thin alluvial aquifer overlies the shallow crystalline rocks northeast of Quitobaquito Hills along Aguajita Wash. Results of the study indicate that the ground-water flow system along Aguajita Wash provides a source of water to the springs and may be hydraulically connected to the ground-water system that is pumped for agricultural purposes in Mexico. The altitude and low permeability of the granite bedrock near the international boundary, however, may provide a barrier to and (or) delay the effect of a northwestward propagation of water- level declines

  14. Shelf life, physicochemical, microbiological and antioxidant properties of purple cactus pear (Opuntia ficus indica) juice after thermoultrasound treatment.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Cansino, Nelly del Socorro; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; León-Rivera, Jesús Ernesto; Delgado-Olivares, Luis; Alanís-García, Ernesto; Ariza-Ortega, José Alberto; Manríquez-Torres, José de Jesús; Jaramillo-Bustos, Diana Pamela

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in color, betalain content, browning index, viscosity, physical stability, microbiological growth, antioxidant content and antioxidant activity of purple cactus pear juice during storage after thermoultrasonication at 80% amplitude level for 15 and 25 min in comparison with pasteurized juice. Thermoultrasound treatment for 25 min increased color stability and viscosity compared to treatment for 15 min (6.83 and 6.72 MPa, respectively), but this last parameter was significantly lower (p<0.05) compared to the control and pasteurized juices (22.47 and 26.32 MPa, respectively). Experimental treatment reduced significantly (p<0.05) sediment solids in juices. Total plate counts decreased from the first day of storage exhibiting values of 1.38 and 1.43 logCFU/mL, for 15 and 25 min treatment, respectively. Compared to the control, both treatments reduced enterobacteria counts (1.54 logCFU/mL), and compared to pasteurized juice decreased pectinmethylesterase activity (3.76 and 3.82 UPE/mL), maintained high values of ascorbic acid (252.05 and 257.18 mg AA/L) and antioxidant activity (by ABTS: 124.8 and 115.6 mg VCEAC/100 mL; and DPPH: 3114.2 and 2757.1 μmol TE/L). During storage thermoultrasonicated juices had a minimum increase in pectinmethylesterase activity (from day 14), and exhibited similar total plate counts to pasteurized juice. An increase of phenolic content was observed after 14 days of storage, particularly for treatment at 80%, 25 min, and an increase in antioxidant activity (ABTS, DPPH) by the end of storage. PMID:26186846

  15. Extreme variation in floral characters and its consequences for pollinator attraction among populations of an Andean cactus

    PubMed Central

    Schlumpberger, Boris O.; Cocucci, Andrea A.; Moré, Marcela; Sérsic, Alicia N.; Raguso, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Background and aims A South American cactus species, Echinopsis ancistrophora (Cactaceae), with dramatic among-population variation in floral traits is presented. Methods Eleven populations of E. ancistrophora were studied in their habitats in northern Argentina, and comparisons were made of relevant floral traits such as depth, stigma position, nectar volume and sugar concentration, and anthesis time. Diurnal and nocturnal pollinator assemblages were evaluated for populations with different floral trait combinations. Key Results Remarkable geographical variations in floral traits were recorded among the 11 populations throughout the distribution range of E. ancistrophora, with flower lengths ranging from 4·5 to 24·1 cm. Other floral traits associated with pollinator attraction also varied in a population-specific manner, in concert with floral depth. Populations with the shortest flowers showed morning anthesis and those with the longest flowers opened at dusk, whereas those with flowers of intermediate length opened at unusual times (2300–0600 h). Nectar production varied non-linearly with floral length; it was absent to low (population means up to 15 µL) in short- to intermediate-length flowers, but was high (population means up to 170 µL) in the longest tubed flowers. Evidence from light-trapping of moths, pollen carriage on their bodies and moth scale deposition on stigmas suggests that sphingid pollination is prevalent only in the four populations with the longest flowers, in which floral morphological traits and nectar volumes match the classic expectations for the hawkmoth pollination syndrome. All other populations, with flowers 4·5–15 cm long, were pollinated exclusively by solitary bees. Conclusions The results suggest incipient differentiation at the population level and local adaptation to either bee or hawkmoth (potentially plus bee) pollination. PMID:19342397

  16. Seasonal photosynthetic gas exchange and water-use efficiency in a constitutive CAM plant, the giant saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantea).

    PubMed

    Bronson, Dustin R; English, Nathan B; Dettman, David L; Williams, David G

    2011-11-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) and the capacity to store large quantities of water are thought to confer high water use efficiency (WUE) and survival of succulent plants in warm desert environments. Yet the highly variable precipitation, temperature and humidity conditions in these environments likely have unique impacts on underlying processes regulating photosynthetic gas exchange and WUE, limiting our ability to predict growth and survival responses of desert CAM plants to climate change. We monitored net CO(2) assimilation (A(net)), stomatal conductance (g(s)), and transpiration (E) rates periodically over 2 years in a natural population of the giant columnar cactus Carnegiea gigantea (saguaro) near Tucson, Arizona USA to investigate environmental and physiological controls over carbon gain and water loss in this ecologically important plant. We hypothesized that seasonal changes in daily integrated water use efficiency (WUE(day)) in this constitutive CAM species would be driven largely by stomatal regulation of nighttime transpiration and CO(2) uptake responding to shifts in nighttime air temperature and humidity. The lowest WUE(day) occurred during time periods with extreme high and low air vapor pressure deficit (D(a)). The diurnal with the highest D(a) had low WUE(day) due to minimal net carbon gain across the 24 h period. Low WUE(day) was also observed under conditions of low D(a); however, it was due to significant transpiration losses. Gas exchange measurements on potted saguaro plants exposed to experimental changes in D(a) confirmed the relationship between D(a) and g(s). Our results suggest that climatic changes involving shifts in air temperature and humidity will have large impacts on the water and carbon economy of the giant saguaro and potentially other succulent CAM plants of warm desert environments. PMID:21822726

  17. Significance of saguaro cactus alkaloids in ecology ofDrosophila mettleri, a soil-breeding, cactophilic drosophilid.

    PubMed

    Meyer, J M; Fogleman, J C

    1987-11-01

    Drosophila mettleri is a soil-breeding, cactophilic drosophilid which lives in the Sonoran Desert. Several chemical constituents of cacti in this region have been identified as having major roles in insect-host plant relationships involvingDrosophila. For example, isoquinoline alkaloids, which are present in senita cactus, have been shown to be toxic to seven of the nine species tested. The two tolerant species areD. pachea, the normal resident, andD. mettleri. Necroses of senita cacti are often used as feeding substrates byD. mettleri adults, but this species has never been reared from senita rots. Soil, which have been soaked by juice from saguaro and cardón rots, are the typical breeding substrates of this species. The tissues of both of these cacti also contain alkaloids, chemically related to those in senita, but at much lower concentrations. Alkaloid concentration in saguaro-soaked soil was found to be 1.4-27 times the average concentration in fresh tissue. Alkaloids were extracted from saguaro tissue and used in tests of larva-to-adult viability, developmental rate, and adult longevity. Elevated concentrations of saguaro alkaloids had no significant effect on the longevity ofD. mettleri, but significantly reduced the longevity ofD. nigrospiracula andD. mojavensis, two nonsoil breeding cactophilic species. Viability and developmental rates of all three species were affected, but the effect onD. nigrospiracula was comparatively greater. It is argued that the adaptations that allowD. mettleri to utilize the saguaro soil niche also convey tolerance to alkaloids present in senita tissue. The ability to utilize senita necroses as feeding substrates represents an ecological advantage to D. mettleri, in that the density of potential feeding sites is increased as compared to species which are more specific in their host-plant relationships. PMID:24301541

  18. Effect of different film packaging on microbial growth in minimally processed cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica).

    PubMed

    Palma, A; Mangia, N P; Fadda, A; Barberis, A; Schirra, M; D'Aquino, S

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms are natural contaminants of fresh produce and minimally processed products, and contamination arises from a number of sources, including the environment, postharvest handling and processing. Fresh-cut products are particularly susceptible to microbial contaminations because of the changes occurring in the tissues during processing. In package gas composition of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) in combination with low storage temperatures besides reducing physiological activity of packaged produce, can also delay pathogen growth. Present study investigated on the effect of MAPs, achieved with different plastic films, on microbial growth of minimally processed cactus pear (Opuntio ficus-indica) fruit. Five different plastic materials were used for packaging the manually peeled fruit. That is: a) polypropylene film (Termoplast MY 40 micron thickness, O2 transmission rate 300 cc/m2/24h); b) polyethylene film (Bolphane BHE, 11 micron thickness, O2 transmission rate 19000 cc/m2/24h); c) polypropylene laser-perforated films (Mach Packaging) with 8, 16 or 32 100-micron holes. Total aerobic psychrophilic, mesophilic microorganisms, Enterobacteriaceae, yeast, mould populations and in-package CO2, O2 and C2H4 were determined at each storage time. Different final gas compositions, ranging from 7.8 KPa to 17.1 KPa O2, and 12.7 KPa to 2.6 KPa CO2, were achieved with MY and micro perforated films, respectively. Differences were detected in the mesophilic, Enterobacteriaceae and yeast loads, while no difference was detected in psychrophilic microorganisms. At the end of storage, microbial load in fruits sealed with MY film was significantly lower than in those sealed with BHE and micro perforated films. Furthermore, fruits packed with micro-perforated films showed the highest microbial load. This occurrence may in part be related to in-package gas composition and in part to a continuous contamination of microorganisms through micro-holes. PMID:25145227

  19. Rare Isotope Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savard, Guy

    2002-04-01

    The next frontier for low-energy nuclear physics involves experimentation with accelerated beams of short-lived radioactive isotopes. A new facility, the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA), is proposed to produce large amount of these rare isotopes and post-accelerate them to energies relevant for studies in nuclear physics, astrophysics and the study of fundamental interactions at low energy. The basic science motivation for this facility will be introduced. The general facility layout, from the 400 kW heavy-ion superconducting linac used for production of the required isotopes to the novel production and extraction schemes and the highly efficient post-accelerator, will be presented. Special emphasis will be put on a number of technical breakthroughs and recent R&D results that enable this new facility.

  20. EVALUATION OF FREEZE DRIED ALOE VERA AND NOPAL CACTUS FOR POSSIBLE HEALTH TREATMENTS BY COMPARISON OF ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES AND FREE RADICAL INHIBITION

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Anthony E.; Belmont, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this project was to characterize the antioxidant powers of lyophilized Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis) and Nopal Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) by quantifying the phenolics content and radical scavenging abilities of preparations derived from these plants. Extracts of these lyophylized succulents were assayed for phenolic compounds by the Folin Ciocalteau method and compared for free radical scavenging capability by the DPPH method. We found that even though the Aloe lyophilizate extract contained more phenolic content, the Nopal lyophilizate exhibited better free radical scavenging ability. Aloe Vera extract contained 0.278 g/L of phenolic content and exhibited 11.1% free radical inhibition, with a free radical scavenging rate constant of 0.177±0.015 min−1. Nopal Cactus extract contained 0.174 g/L of phenolic content and exhibited 13.2% free radical inhibition, with a free radical scavenging rate constant of 0.155±0.009 min−1. These results showed Nopal to have greater antioxidant potency than Aloe. PMID:27284273

  1. Post-Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Tonopah Test Range, Nevada Calendar Year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    K. B. Campbell

    2001-06-01

    Post-closure monitoring requirements for the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (Corrective Action Unit [CAW 426]) (Figure 1) are described in Closure Report for corrective Action Unit 426, Cactus Spring Waste Trenches. Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, report number DOE/NV--226. The Closure Report (CR) was submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on August 14, 1998. Permeability results of soils adjacent to the engineered cover and a request for closure of CAU 404 were transmitted to the NDEP on April 29, 1999. The CR (containing the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan) was approved by the NDEP on May 13, 1999. Post-closure monitoring at CAU 426 consists of the following: (1) Site inspections done twice a year to evaluate the condition of the unit; (2) Verification that the site is secure; (3) Notice of any subsidence or deficiencies that may compromise the integrity of the unit; (4) Remedy of any deficiencies within 90 days of discovery; and (5) Preparation and submittal of an annual report. Site inspections were conducted on June 19, 2000, and November 21, 2000. All inspections were made after NDEP approval of the CR, and were conducted in accordance with the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan in the NDEP-approved CR. This report includes copies of the inspection checklists, photographs, recommendations, and conclusions. The Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are found in Attachment A, a copy of the field notes is found in Attachment B, and copies of the inspection photographs are found in Attachment C.

  2. Nurse Plants vs. Nurse Objects: Effects of Woody Plants and Rocky Cavities on the Recruitment of the Pilosocereus leucocephalus Columnar Cactus

    PubMed Central

    Munguía-Rosas, Miguel Angel; Sosa, Vinicio J.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Most studies on cactus recruitment have focused on the role of woody plants as seedling facilitators. Although the spatial association of cacti with objects had been described, the mechanisms underlying this association remain unknown. The aims of this study were to identify which mechanisms facilitate the establishment of a columnar cactus under the shade and protection of objects and to compare these mechanisms with those involved in plant–plant facilitation. Methods Three split-split-plot field experiments were conducted to compare the effects of two microhabitats (inside rocky cavities and beneath plant canopies) on seed removal, germination, seedling survivorship and dry weight. Flat, open spaces were used as the control. For each microhabitat, the effect of seed or seedling protection and substrate limitation were explored; aboveground microclimate and some soil properties were also characterized. Key Results The permanence of superficial seeds was greater inside rocky cavities than beneath woody plant canopies or on flat, open areas. Germination was similar in cavities and beneath plant canopies, but significantly higher than on flat, open areas. Seedling survivorship was greater beneath plant canopies than inside cavities or on flat, open spaces. Conclusions The mechanisms of plant facilitation are different from those of object facilitation. There are seed–seedling conflicts involved in the recruitment of P. leucocephalus: nurse plants favour mainly seedling survivorship by providing a suitable microenvironment, while nurse objects mainly favour seed permanence, by protecting them from predators. PMID:18056054

  3. Rare causes of osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Marcucci, Gemma; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Summary Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease characterized by loss of bone mass and strength, resulting in increased risk of fractures. It is classically divided into primary (post-menopausal or senile), secondary and idiopathic forms. There are many rare diseases, that cause directly or indirectly osteoporosis. The identification and classification of most of these rare causes of osteoporosis is crucial for the specialists in endocrinology and not, in order to prevent this bone complication and to provide for an early therapy. Several pathogenic mechanisms are involved, including various aspects of bone metabolism such as: decreased bone formation, increased bone resorption, altered calcium, phosphorus and/or vitamin D homeostasis, and abnormal collagen synthesis. In this review, less common forms of primary and secondary osteoporosis are described, specifying, if applicable: genetic causes, epidemiology, clinical features, and pathogenic mechanisms causing osteoporosis. A greater awareness of all rare causes of osteoporosis could reduce the number of cases classified as idiopathic osteoporosis and allow the introduction of appropriate and timely treatments. PMID:26604941

  4. Rare B Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, P.D.; /Victoria U.

    2006-02-24

    Recent results from Belle and BaBar on rare B decays involving flavor-changing neutral currents or purely leptonic final states are presented. Measurements of the CP asymmetries in B {yields} K*{gamma} and b {yields} s{gamma} are reported. Also reported are updated limits on B{sup +} {yields} K{sup +}{nu}{bar {nu}}, B{sup +} {yields} {tau}{sup +}{nu}, B{sup +} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{nu} and the recent measurement of B {yields} X{sub s}{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}.

  5. Ames Lab 101: Rare Earths

    SciTech Connect

    Gschneidner, Karl

    2010-01-01

    "Mr. Rare Earth," Ames Laboratory scientist Karl Gschneidner Jr., explains the importance of rare-earth materials in many of the technologies we use today -- ranging from computers to hybrid cars to wind turbines. Gschneidner is a world renowned rare-earths expert at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory.

  6. Ames Lab 101: Rare Earths

    ScienceCinema

    Gschneidner, Karl

    2012-08-29

    "Mr. Rare Earth," Ames Laboratory scientist Karl Gschneidner Jr., explains the importance of rare-earth materials in many of the technologies we use today -- ranging from computers to hybrid cars to wind turbines. Gschneidner is a world renowned rare-earths expert at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory.

  7. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 485: Cactus Spring Ranch Pu and DU Site, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office

    1998-09-18

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 485: Cactus Spring Ranch Plutonium (Pu) and Depleted Uranium (DU) Site, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located at the Cactus Spring Ranch on the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, CAU 485 consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) TA-39-001-TAGR. This CADD/CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's recommendation that no corrective action is deemed necessary for CAU 485. The Corrective Action Decision Document and Closure Report have been combined into one report because sample data collected during the preliminary assessment investigation (PAI) performed in January and February 1998 showed no evidence of contamination at the site. In the past, this CAU included holding pens which housed sheep and burros used to test inhalation uptake from atmospheric releases of Pu and DU, and the animals were sacrificed after the tests. Specifically, the investigation focused on data to determine: if surface activities of alpha, beta, and gamma-emitting radionuclides were present; if potential contaminants of concern (COCs) such as Pu and DU were present; and if plutonium was present in the soil and dung at levels significantly above background levels. Investigation results concluded that surface radiological activities of alpha, beta, and gamma-emitting radionuclides were within range of typical background levels. Evaluation of process knowledge determined plutonium to be the only potential COC, but soil and dung samples tested were not positive for plutonium-238 and only two samples had positive concentrations of plutonium 239/240 (subsequent plutonium alpha spectroscopy results demonstrated that there was no plutonium contamination in the Cactus Spring surface soil or dung). Therefore, the DOE/NV recommended that no corrective action was required at CAU 485; further, no Corrective Action

  8. Lactic Acid Fermentation of Cactus Cladodes (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) Generates Flavonoid Derivatives with Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties

    PubMed Central

    Filannino, Pasquale; Cavoski, Ivana; Thlien, Nadia; Vincentini, Olimpia; De Angelis, Maria; Silano, Marco; Gobbetti, Marco; Di Cagno, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) is widely distributed in the arid and semi-arid regions throughout the world. In the last decades, the interest towards vegetative crop increased, and cladodes are exploited for nutraceutical and health-promoting properties. This study aimed at investigating the capacity of selected lactic acid bacteria to increase the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of cactus cladodes pulp, with the perspective of producing a functional ingredient, dietary supplement or pharmaceutical preparation. Preliminarily, the antioxidant activity was determined through in vitro assays. Further, it was confirmed through ex vivo analysis on intestinal Caco-2/TC7 cells, and the profile of flavonoids was characterized. Cactus cladode pulp was fermented with lactic acid bacteria, which were previously selected from plant materials. Chemically acidified suspension, without bacterial inoculum and incubated under the same conditions, was used as the control. Lactobacillus plantarum CIL6, POM1 and 1MR20, Lactobacillus brevis POM2 and POM4, Lactobacillus rossiae 2LC8 and Pediococcus pentosaceus CILSWE5 were the best growing strains. Fermentation of cladode pulp with L. brevis POM2 and POM4 allowed the highest concentration of γ-amino butyric acid. Lactic acid fermentation had preservative effects (P<0.05) on the levels of vitamin C and carotenoids. Two flavonoid derivatives (kaemferol and isorhamnetin) were identified in the ethyl acetate extracts, which were considered to be the major compounds responsible for the increased radical scavenging activity. After inducing oxidative stress by IL-1β, the increased antioxidant activity (P<0.05) of fermented cladode pulp was confirmed using Caco-2/TC7 cells. Fermented cladode pulp had also immune-modulatory effects towards Caco-2 cells. Compared to the control, fermented cladode pulp exhibited a significantly (P<0.05) higher inhibition of IL-8, TNFα and prostaglandins PGE2 synthesis. The highest

  9. Lactic Acid Fermentation of Cactus Cladodes (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) Generates Flavonoid Derivatives with Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties.

    PubMed

    Filannino, Pasquale; Cavoski, Ivana; Thlien, Nadia; Vincentini, Olimpia; De Angelis, Maria; Silano, Marco; Gobbetti, Marco; Di Cagno, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) is widely distributed in the arid and semi-arid regions throughout the world. In the last decades, the interest towards vegetative crop increased, and cladodes are exploited for nutraceutical and health-promoting properties. This study aimed at investigating the capacity of selected lactic acid bacteria to increase the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of cactus cladodes pulp, with the perspective of producing a functional ingredient, dietary supplement or pharmaceutical preparation. Preliminarily, the antioxidant activity was determined through in vitro assays. Further, it was confirmed through ex vivo analysis on intestinal Caco-2/TC7 cells, and the profile of flavonoids was characterized. Cactus cladode pulp was fermented with lactic acid bacteria, which were previously selected from plant materials. Chemically acidified suspension, without bacterial inoculum and incubated under the same conditions, was used as the control. Lactobacillus plantarum CIL6, POM1 and 1MR20, Lactobacillus brevis POM2 and POM4, Lactobacillus rossiae 2LC8 and Pediococcus pentosaceus CILSWE5 were the best growing strains. Fermentation of cladode pulp with L. brevis POM2 and POM4 allowed the highest concentration of γ-amino butyric acid. Lactic acid fermentation had preservative effects (P<0.05) on the levels of vitamin C and carotenoids. Two flavonoid derivatives (kaemferol and isorhamnetin) were identified in the ethyl acetate extracts, which were considered to be the major compounds responsible for the increased radical scavenging activity. After inducing oxidative stress by IL-1β, the increased antioxidant activity (P<0.05) of fermented cladode pulp was confirmed using Caco-2/TC7 cells. Fermented cladode pulp had also immune-modulatory effects towards Caco-2 cells. Compared to the control, fermented cladode pulp exhibited a significantly (P<0.05) higher inhibition of IL-8, TNFα and prostaglandins PGE2 synthesis. The highest

  10. Rare Upper Airway Anomalies.

    PubMed

    Windsor, Alanna; Clemmens, Clarice; Jacobs, Ian N

    2016-01-01

    A broad spectrum of congenital upper airway anomalies can occur as a result of errors during embryologic development. In this review, we will describe the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management strategies for a few select, rare congenital malformations of this system. The diagnostic tools used in workup of these disorders range from prenatal tests to radiological imaging, swallowing evaluations, indirect or direct laryngoscopy, and rigid bronchoscopy. While these congenital defects can occur in isolation, they are often associated with disorders of other organ systems or may present as part of a syndrome. Therefore workup and treatment planning for patients with these disorders often involves a team of multiple specialists, including paediatricians, otolaryngologists, pulmonologists, speech pathologists, gastroenterologists, and geneticists. PMID:26277452

  11. The Relationship Between CME Properties in the CDAW, CACTUS and SEEDS Catalogs and ?25 MeV Solar Proton Event Intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, I. G.; von Rosenvinge, T. T.; Cane, H. V.

    2013-12-01

    The existence of a correlation between the intensity of solar energetic proton (SEP) events and the speed of the associated coronal mass ejection near the Sun is well known, and is often interpreted as evidence for particle acceleration at CME-driven shocks. However, this correlation is far from perfect and might be improved by taking other parameters into consideration (e.g., CME width). In studies of cycle 23 SEP events, values of CME speed, width and other parameters were typically taken from the CDAWWeb LASCO CME catalog. This is compiled 'by hand' from examination of LASCO images by experienced observers. Other automated LASCO CME catalogs have now been developed, e.g., CACTUS (Royal Observatory of Belgium) and SEEDS (George Mason University), but the basic CME parameters do not always agree with those from the CDAWweb catalog since they are not determined in the same way. For example the 'CME speed' might be measured at a specific position angle against the plane of the sky in one catalog, or be the average of speeds taken along the CME front in another. Speeds may also be based on linear or higher order fits to the coronagraph images. There will also be projection effects in these plane of the sky speeds. Similarly, CME widths can vary between catalogs and are dependent on how they are defined. For example, the CDAW catalog lists any CME that surrounds the occulting disk as a 'halo' (360 deg. width) CME even though the CME may be highly-asymmetric and originate from a solar event far from central meridian. Another catalog may give a smaller width for the same CME. The problem of obtaining the 'true' CME width is especially acute for assessing the relationship between CME width and SEP properties when using the CDAW catalog since a significant fraction, if not the majority, of the CMEs associated with major SEP events are reported to be halo CMEs. In principle, observations of CMEs from the STEREO A and B spacecraft, launched in late 2006, might be used to

  12. An aerial radiological survey of the Tonopah Test Range including Clean Slate 1,2,3, Roller Coaster, decontamination area, Cactus Springs Ranch target areas. Central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, A.E.; Hendricks, T.J.

    1995-08-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted of major sections of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in central Nevada from August through October 1993. The survey consisted of aerial measurements of both natural and man-made gamma radiation emanating from the terrestrial surface. The initial purpose of the survey was to locate depleted uranium (detecting {sup 238}U) from projectiles which had impacted on the TTR. The examination of areas near Cactus Springs Ranch (located near the western boundary of the TTR) and an animal burial area near the Double Track site were secondary objectives. When more widespread than expected {sup 241}Am contamination was found around the Clean Slates sites, the survey was expanded to cover the area surrounding the Clean Slates and also the Double Track site. Results are reported as radiation isopleths superimposed on aerial photographs of the area.

  13. Long-distance kissing loop interactions between a 3' proximal Y-shaped structure and apical loops of 5' hairpins enhance translation of Saguaro cactus virus.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Maitreyi; Shi, Kerong; Yuan, Xuefeng; Simon, Anne E

    2011-08-15

    Circularization of cellular mRNAs is a key event prior to translation initiation. We report that efficient translation of Saguaro cactus virus (SCV) requires a 3' translational enhancer (PTE) located partially in coding sequences. Unlike a similar PTE reported in the 3' UTR of Pea enation mosaic virus that does not engage in an RNA:RNA interaction (Wang Z. et al., J. Biol. Chem. 284, 14189-14202, 2009), the SCV PTE participates in long distance RNA:RNA interactions with hairpins located in the p26 ORF and in the 5' UTR of one subgenomic RNA. At least two additional RNA:RNA interactions are also present, one of which involves the p26 initiation codon. Similar PTE can be found in six additional carmoviruses that can putatively form long-distance interactions with 5' hairpins located in comparable positions. PMID:21664637

  14. Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke like episodes (MELAS) with prominent degeneration of the intestinal wall and cactus-like cerebellar pathology.

    PubMed

    Mori, O; Yamazaki, M; Ohaki, Y; Arai, Y; Oguro, T; Shimizu, H; Asano, G

    2000-12-01

    A 67-year-old woman had frequent subacute ileus, hearing difficulty, muscle atrophy and stroke-like episodes. Computed tomography revealed multiple low-density areas, which did not correlate with the vascular supply, in the cerebral cortex. She had metabolic disturbance comprising lactic acidosis and elevated pyruvate level. Her skeletal muscle biopsy specimen showed ragged-red fibers, and mitochondrial DNA analysis revealed a point mutation at position 3243, findings consistent with MELAS. Examination of her small intestine revealed a necrotic zone and numerous abnormal large mitochondria in the smooth muscle cells, vascular media and endothelium, and intestinal ganglion cells. The cerebral cortex showed multiple microcystic necrotic foci in cerebral cortex. Cactus-like pathology resembling the changes associated with Menkes' kinky hair disease and torpedoes were observed in the cerebellar Purkinje cells. The intestinal dysmotility due to MELAS and cerebellar changes were presumed to be associated with a disturbance of copper metabolism. PMID:11078225

  15. Post-Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Tonopah Test Range, Nevada Calendar Year 2001

    SciTech Connect

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-02-01

    Post-closure monitoring requirements for the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] 426) (Figure 1) are described in Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 426, Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, Tonopah Test Range. Nevada, report number DOE/NV--226, August 1998. The Closure Report (CR) was submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on August 14, 1998. Permeability results of soils adjacent to the engineered cover and a request for closure of CAU 404 were transmitted to the NDEP on April 29, 1999. The CR (containing the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan) was approved by the NDEP on May 13, 1999. As stated in Section 5.0 of the NDEP-approved CRY Post-Closure Monitoring Plan, site monitoring at CAU 426 consists of the following: (1) Visual site inspections done twice a year to evaluate the condition of the cover and plant development. (2) Verification that the site is secure and condition of the fence and posted warning signs. (3) Notice of any subsidence, erosion, unauthorized excavation, etc., deficiencies that may compromise the integrity of the unit. (4) Remedy of any deficiencies within 90 days of discovery. (5) Preparation and submittal of an annual report. Site inspections were conducted on May 16, 2001, and November 6, 2001. All inspections were made after NDEP approval of the CR, and were conducted in accordance with the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan in the NDEP-approved CR. This report includes copies of the inspection checklists, photographs, recommendations, and conclusions. The Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are found in Attachment A, a copy of the field notes is found in Attachment B, and copies of the inspection photographs are found in Attachment C.

  16. Preliminary Assessment for CAU 485: Cactus Spring Ranch Pu and Du Site, CAS No. TA-39-001-TAGR: Soil Contamination, Tonapah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    ITLV

    1998-07-01

    Corrective Action Unit 485, Corrective Action Site TA-39-001-TAGR, the Cactus Spring Ranch Soil Contamination Area, is located approximately six miles southwest of the Area 3 Compound at the eastern mouth of Sleeping Column Canyon in the Cactus Range on the Tonopah Test Range. This site was used in conjunction with animal studies involving the biological effects of radionuclides (specifically plutonium) associated with Operation Roller Coaster. According to field records, a hardened layer of livestock feces ranging from 2.54 centimeters (cm) (1 inch [in.]) to 10.2 cm (4 in.) thick is present in each of the main sheds. IT personnel conducted a field visit on December 3, 1997, and noted that the only visible feces were located within the east shed, the previously fenced area near the east shed, and a small area southwest of the west shed. Other historical records indicate that other areas may still be covered with animal feces, but heavy vegetation now covers it. It is possible that radionuclides are present in this layer, given the history of operations in this area. Chemicals of concern may include plutonium and depleted uranium. Surface soil sampling was conducted on February 18, 1998. An evaluation of historical documentation indicated that plutonium should not be and depleted uranium could not be present at levels significantly above background as the result of test animals being penned at the site. The samples were analyzed for isotopic plutonium using method NAS-NS-3058. The results of the analysis indicated that plutonium levels of the feces and surface soil were not significantly elevated above background.

  17. Saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea) Mortality and Population Regeneration in the Cactus Forest of Saguaro National Park: Seventy-Five Years and Counting.

    PubMed

    Orum, Thomas V; Ferguson, Nancy; Mihail, Jeanne D

    2016-01-01

    Annual census data spanning seventy-five years document mortality and regeneration in a population of saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantea) in the Cactus Forest of the Rincon Mountain District of Saguaro National Park near Tucson, AZ. On 6 four-hectare plots, each saguaro was censused and a methodical search for new saguaros was conducted annually each year from 1942 through 2016, with the exception of 1955. Regeneration has been episodic with 828 plants established from 1959 through 1993 compared with 34 plants established between 1942 and 1958 and only three plants established after 1993. The years preceding 1959 and following 1993, include some of the driest decades in centuries in southern Arizona. While woodcutting and cattle grazing are believed to be among the causes of decades of failed regeneration prior to 1958, neither of these factors contributed to the failed regeneration following 1993. The height structure of the population from 1942 to 2016 shifted dramatically from a population dominated by large saguaros (> 5.4 m tall) in the first three decades of the study to a population dominated by small saguaros (< 1.8 m tall) in the most recent two decades. Mortality is shown to be strongly age dependent. In the year following the 2011 catastrophic freeze, 21 of 59 plants older than 80 years died compared with zero deaths in 270 plants between the ages of 29 and 80 years. Saguaros under 40 years old, growing under small shrubs or in the open, have a lower probability of survival than better protected saguaros. Long-term population monitoring is essential to understanding the complex impacts of human and environmental factors on the population dynamics of long-lived species. PMID:27505437

  18. Saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea) Mortality and Population Regeneration in the Cactus Forest of Saguaro National Park: Seventy-Five Years and Counting

    PubMed Central

    Orum, Thomas V.; Ferguson, Nancy; Mihail, Jeanne D.

    2016-01-01

    Annual census data spanning seventy-five years document mortality and regeneration in a population of saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantea) in the Cactus Forest of the Rincon Mountain District of Saguaro National Park near Tucson, AZ. On 6 four-hectare plots, each saguaro was censused and a methodical search for new saguaros was conducted annually each year from 1942 through 2016, with the exception of 1955. Regeneration has been episodic with 828 plants established from 1959 through 1993 compared with 34 plants established between 1942 and 1958 and only three plants established after 1993. The years preceding 1959 and following 1993, include some of the driest decades in centuries in southern Arizona. While woodcutting and cattle grazing are believed to be among the causes of decades of failed regeneration prior to 1958, neither of these factors contributed to the failed regeneration following 1993. The height structure of the population from 1942 to 2016 shifted dramatically from a population dominated by large saguaros (> 5.4 m tall) in the first three decades of the study to a population dominated by small saguaros (< 1.8 m tall) in the most recent two decades. Mortality is shown to be strongly age dependent. In the year following the 2011 catastrophic freeze, 21 of 59 plants older than 80 years died compared with zero deaths in 270 plants between the ages of 29 and 80 years. Saguaros under 40 years old, growing under small shrubs or in the open, have a lower probability of survival than better protected saguaros. Long-term population monitoring is essential to understanding the complex impacts of human and environmental factors on the population dynamics of long-lived species. PMID:27505437

  19. Identification of betalains from yellow beet (Beta vulgaris L.) and cactus pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.] by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Stintzing, Florian C; Schieber, Andreas; Carle, Reinhold

    2002-04-10

    Betaxanthins, the yellow-orange water-soluble pigments from yellow beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris cv. Bejo Zaden) and cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica cv. Gialla) have been investigated using an HPLC system compatible with mass spectrometry. Five novel betaxanthins were found and characterized as the immonium adducts of betalamic acid with serine, gamma-aminobutyric acid, valine, isoleucine, and phenylalanine. To enable concentration of betalain samples, desalting was performed by solid-phase extraction. With this technique, betacyanins could be separated from the betaxanthins using the pH-dependent retention characteristics of red and yellow betalains. The betaxanthin fraction was taken for the preparation of betalamic acid as a precursor for semisynthetic standards. The HPLC method was applied to yellow beet and cactus pear, revealing a more complex betalain profile than described earlier, thus proving its suitability for screening of betaxanthin-containing plants as potential sources for natural food colors. PMID:11929288

  20. Cactus: Software Priorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Hartley

    2009-01-01

    The early eighties saw a period of rapid change in computing and teachers lost control of how they used computers in their classrooms. Software companies produced computer tools that looked so good that teachers forgot about writing their own classroom materials and happily purchased software--that offered much more than teachers needed--from…

  1. Classroom in the Cactus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocker, Joseph

    1977-01-01

    The Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum uses such quaint teaching tools as the Gila monster and the boojum tree to tell the story of its vast and fascinating but often misunderstood desert environment. (Editor)

  2. Cactus: Writing an Article

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Hartley; Spencer, Toby

    2010-01-01

    Some people became mathematics or science teachers by default. There was once such a limited range of subjects that students who could not write essays did mathematics and science. Computers changed that. Word processor software helped some people overcome huge spelling and grammar hurdles and made it easy to edit and manipulate text. Would-be…

  3. China's rare-earth industry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tse, Pui-Kwan

    2011-01-01

    Introduction China's dominant position as the producer of over 95 percent of the world output of rare-earth minerals and rapid increases in the consumption of rare earths owing to the emergence of new clean-energy and defense-related technologies, combined with China's decisions to restrict exports of rare earths, have resulted in heightened concerns about the future availability of rare earths. As a result, industrial countries such as Japan, the United States, and countries of the European Union face tighter supplies and higher prices for rare earths. This paper briefly reviews China's rare-earth production, consumption, and reserves and the important policies and regulations regarding the production and trade of rare earths, including recently announced export quotas. The 15 lanthanide elements-lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium, and lutetium (atomic numbers 57-71)-were originally known as the rare earths from their occurrence in oxides mixtures. Recently, some researchers have included two other elements-scandium and yttrium-in their discussion of rare earths. Yttrium (atomic number 39), which lies above lanthanum in transition group III of the periodic table and has a similar 3+ ion with a noble gas core, has both atomic and ionic radii similar in size to those of terbium and dysprosium and is generally found in nature with lanthanides. Scandium (atomic number 21) has a smaller ionic radius than yttrium and the lanthanides, and its chemical behavior is intermediate between that of aluminum and the lanthanides. It is found in nature with the lanthanides and yttrium. Rare earths are used widely in high-technology and clean-energy products because they impart special properties of magnetism, luminescence, and strength. Rare earths are also used in weapon systems to obtain the same properties.

  4. Ethical issues in rare diseases.

    PubMed

    Borski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Scientific, technical and medical advances continue to raise consequential ethical questions and dilemmas also in the field of rare diseases. Difficult and complex issues of medical ethics in rare diseases are presented and several different ethical problems, like those regarding inborn errors of metabolism, are discussed. PMID:26982768

  5. Phase stable rare earth garnets

    SciTech Connect

    Kuntz, Joshua D.; Cherepy, Nerine J.; Roberts, Jeffery J.; Payne, Stephen A.

    2013-06-11

    A transparent ceramic according to one embodiment includes a rare earth garnet comprising A.sub.hB.sub.iC.sub.jO.sub.12, where h is 3.+-.10%, i is 2.+-.10%, and j is 3.+-.10%. A includes a rare earth element or a mixture of rare earth elements, B includes at least one of aluminum, gallium and scandium, and C includes at least one of aluminum, gallium and scandium, where A is at a dodecahedral site of the garnet, B is at an octahedral site of the garnet, and C is at a tetrahedral site of the garnet. In one embodiment, the rare earth garment has scintillation properties. A radiation detector in one embodiment includes a transparent ceramic as described above and a photo detector optically coupled to the rare earth garnet.

  6. Rare Down Quark Decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, Kwong-Kwai Humphrey

    1992-01-01

    The rare decays bto sX are sensitive to strong interaction corrections. The effects can be estimated by a renormalization group technique which requires the evaluation of QCD mixing among effective operators. In the dimensional reduction and the naive dimensional regularization methods, there are discrepancies in evaluating the QCD mixing of the four-quark operators with the bto sgamma and bto s+gluon dipole operators. In this thesis, the problem is investigated by considering the contributions of the epsilon -scalar field and the epsilon -dimensional operators that distinguish between the two methods. The discrepancies are shown to come from the epsilon-dimensional four-quark operators in dimensional reduction and not from the epsilon -scalar field. In the decay bto sl^+l^ -, the intermediate of cc pairs in the charm-penguin diagram can form the resonance states J/psi and psi^'. In the published literature, there is a sign discrepancy in the Breit-Wigner amplitude for the resonance effects. Here, the sign difference is settled by considering the unitarity limit of the amplitude in the Argand diagram. The effects of the resonances are quite substantial on the invariant mass spectrum for this decay. However, they are shown to be negligible on the dilepton energy spectrum below 0.95 GeV. The energy spectrum is, thus, more useful than the invariant mass spectrum for measurements of the top -quark mass. The decays Bto K^*X are well modeled by the quark-level decays bto sX. In the quark model, the hadronization is done using a nonrelativistic wave function. In the decay B to K^*gamma, the large K ^* recoil creates an uncertainty in calculating the branching ratio using the quark model. The problem is explored by considering other meson processes where data exist. The data on the pi form factor and the omegapi^0 transition form factor suggest the necessity to retain relativistic spinor and meson normalizations in the quark -model; however, the data do not resolve the

  7. Characteristics and Patterns of Rare Malignancies Published in Rare Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Habboush, Jacob; Hollant, Laeticia; Smart, Brigit; Single, Megan; Gaines, Katherine; Patel, Ajaykumar; Miller, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Rare Tumors is an international peer-reviewed medical journal established in 2009. The journal is focused on rare cancers and aims to expand upon current knowledge on their presentation, diagnosis, management, and outcomes. We reviewed the 335 case reports published from 2009 to 2015. We found great diversity in both the country of origin as well as specialty of first authors. Outside of the United States (US) and European Union (EU), there were 20 countries with contributions to the journal. Similarly, there was representation from twelve medical specialties with first authorship of reports. Rare Tumors continues to encourage involvement from physicians across the globe and from all medical disciplines. PMID:27441071

  8. Characteristics and Patterns of Rare Malignancies Published in Rare Tumors.

    PubMed

    Habboush, Jacob; Hollant, Laeticia; Smart, Brigit; Single, Megan; Gaines, Katherine; Patel, Ajaykumar; Miller, Robert

    2016-06-28

    Rare Tumors is an international peer-reviewed medical journal established in 2009. The journal is focused on rare cancers and aims to expand upon current knowledge on their presentation, diagnosis, management, and outcomes. We reviewed the 335 case reports published from 2009 to 2015. We found great diversity in both the country of origin as well as specialty of first authors. Outside of the United States (US) and European Union (EU), there were 20 countries with contributions to the journal. Similarly, there was representation from twelve medical specialties with first authorship of reports. Rare Tumors continues to encourage involvement from physicians across the globe and from all medical disciplines. PMID:27441071

  9. Rare times rare: The hyponatremia, rhabdomyolysis, anterior compartment syndrome sequence

    PubMed Central

    Dubin, Ina; Gelber, Moshe

    2016-01-01

    Lesson Primary polydipsia occurs in up to 25% of patients with chronic psychiatric disorders (especially schizophrenia), related to the disease, its treatment or both. Urine output fails to match intake >10 L/day and water intoxication may develop. Rhabdomyolysis is a rare complication of hyponatremia, and an acute anterior compartment syndrome of the leg, an emergency, may be very rarely associated. PMID:27186379

  10. Rare Presentation of Ophthalmia Nodosa

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Shimna Clara; Korah, Sanita

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of ophthalmia nodosa, presenting as a painless swelling in the lower palpebral conjunctiva for 2 years with no signs of inflammation. Excision biopsy confirmed the diagnosis. PMID:26692729

  11. Rare Presentation of Ophthalmia Nodosa.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Shimna Clara; Korah, Sanita

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of ophthalmia nodosa, presenting as a painless swelling in the lower palpebral conjunctiva for 2 years with no signs of inflammation. Excision biopsy confirmed the diagnosis. PMID:26692729

  12. The Not-So-Rare Earths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muecke, Gunter K.; Moller, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of rare earth elements. Details the physical chemistry of rare earths. Reviews the history of rare earth chemistry and mineralogy. Discusses the mineralogy and crystallography of the formation of rare earth laden minerals found in the earth's crust. Characterizes the geologic history of rare earth elements. (CW)

  13. Rare Earth Optical Temperature Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L. (Inventor); Jenkins, Phillip (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A rare earth optical temperature sensor is disclosed for measuring high temperatures. Optical temperature sensors exist that channel emissions from a sensor to a detector using a light pipe. The invention uses a rare earth emitter to transform the sensed thermal energy into a narrow band width optical signal that travels to a detector using a light pipe. An optical bandpass filter at the detector removes any noise signal outside of the band width of the signal from the emitter.

  14. Craniopagus parasiticus: A rare case.

    PubMed

    Kansal, Ritesh; Kale, Chirag; Goel, Atul

    2010-10-01

    Conjoined twins or Siamese twins are identical twins whose bodies are joined in the uterus. Craniopagus is a condition in which the heads of the two twins are joined. Craniopagus parasiticus is a rare condition in which one of the twins is rudimentary in form and parasitic on the other. Few cases of craniopagus parasiticus are reported in literature; here, we present one such rare occurrence. PMID:20655232

  15. [Adult-onset rare diseases].

    PubMed

    Pfliegler, György; Kovács, Erzsébet; Kovács, György; Urbán, Krisztián; Nagy, Valéria; Brúgós, Boglárka

    2014-03-01

    The present paper is focusing on rare diseases manifesting in late childhood or adulthood. A part of these syndromes are not of genetic origin, such as relatively or absolutely rare infections, autoimmune diseases, tumours, or diseases due to rare environmental toxic agents. In addition, even a large proportion of genetic disorders may develop in adulthood or may have adult forms as well, affecting are almost each medical specialization. Examples are storage disorders (e.g. adult form of Tay-Sachs disease, Gaucher-disease), enzyme deficiencies (e.g. ornithin-transcarbamylase deficiency of the urea cycle disorders), rare thrombophilias (e.g. homozygous factor V. Leiden mutation, antithrombin deficiency), or some rare monogenic disorders such as Huntington-chorea and many others. It is now generally accepted that at least half of the 6-8000 "rare diseases" belong either to the scope of adult-care (e.g. internal medicine, neurology), or to "age-neutral" specialities such as ophtalmology, dermatology etc.). PMID:24566697

  16. The Lombardy Rare Donor Programme

    PubMed Central

    Revelli, Nicoletta; Villa, Maria Antonietta; Paccapelo, Cinzia; Manera, Maria Cristina; Rebulla, Paolo; Migliaccio, Anna Rita; Marconi, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2005, the government of Lombardy, an Italian region with an ethnically varied population of approximately 9.8 million inhabitants including 250,000 blood donors, founded the Lombardy Rare Donor Programme, a regional network of 15 blood transfusion departments coordinated by the Immunohaematology Reference Laboratory of the Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico in Milan. During 2005 to 2012, Lombardy funded LORD-P with 14.1 million euros. Materials and methods During 2005–2012 the Lombardy Rare Donor Programme members developed a registry of blood donors and a bank of red blood cell units with either rare blood group phenotypes or IgA deficiency. To do this, the Immunohaematology Reference Laboratory performed extensive serological and molecular red blood cell typing in 59,738 group O or A, Rh CCDee, ccdee, ccDEE, ccDee, K− or k− donors aged 18–55 with a record of two or more blood donations, including both Caucasians and ethnic minorities. In parallel, the Immunohaematology Reference Laboratory implemented a 24/7 service of consultation, testing and distribution of rare units for anticipated or emergent transfusion needs in patients developing complex red blood cell alloimmunisation and lacking local compatible red blood cell or showing IgA deficiency. Results Red blood cell typing identified 8,747, 538 and 33 donors rare for a combination of common antigens, negative for high-frequency antigens and with a rare Rh phenotype, respectively. In June 2012, the Lombardy Rare Donor Programme frozen inventory included 1,157 red blood cell units. From March 2010 to June 2012 one IgA-deficient donor was detected among 1,941 screened donors and IgA deficiency was confirmed in four previously identified donors. From 2005 to June 2012, the Immunohaematology Reference Laboratory provided 281 complex red blood cell alloimmunisation consultations and distributed 8,008 Lombardy Rare Donor Programme red blood cell units within and outside the region

  17. Bayesian analysis of rare events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Daniel; Papaioannou, Iason; Betz, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    In many areas of engineering and science there is an interest in predicting the probability of rare events, in particular in applications related to safety and security. Increasingly, such predictions are made through computer models of physical systems in an uncertainty quantification framework. Additionally, with advances in IT, monitoring and sensor technology, an increasing amount of data on the performance of the systems is collected. This data can be used to reduce uncertainty, improve the probability estimates and consequently enhance the management of rare events and associated risks. Bayesian analysis is the ideal method to include the data into the probabilistic model. It ensures a consistent probabilistic treatment of uncertainty, which is central in the prediction of rare events, where extrapolation from the domain of observation is common. We present a framework for performing Bayesian updating of rare event probabilities, termed BUS. It is based on a reinterpretation of the classical rejection-sampling approach to Bayesian analysis, which enables the use of established methods for estimating probabilities of rare events. By drawing upon these methods, the framework makes use of their computational efficiency. These methods include the First-Order Reliability Method (FORM), tailored importance sampling (IS) methods and Subset Simulation (SuS). In this contribution, we briefly review these methods in the context of the BUS framework and investigate their applicability to Bayesian analysis of rare events in different settings. We find that, for some applications, FORM can be highly efficient and is surprisingly accurate, enabling Bayesian analysis of rare events with just a few model evaluations. In a general setting, BUS implemented through IS and SuS is more robust and flexible.

  18. Resource quality affects weapon and testis size and the ability of these traits to respond to selection in the leaf-footed cactus bug, Narnia femorata.

    PubMed

    Sasson, Daniel A; Munoz, Patricio R; Gezan, Salvador A; Miller, Christine W

    2016-04-01

    The size of weapons and testes can be central to male reproductive success. Yet, the expression of these traits is often extremely variable. Studies are needed that take a more complete organism perspective, investigating the sources of variation in both traits simultaneously and using developmental conditions that mimic those in nature. In this study, we investigated the components of variation in weapon and testis sizes using the leaf-footed cactus bug, Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae) on three natural developmental diets. We show that the developmental diet has profound effects on both weapon and testis expression and scaling. Intriguingly, males in the medium-quality diet express large weapons but have relatively tiny testes, suggesting complex allocation decisions. We also find that heritability, evolvability, and additive genetic variation are highest in the high-quality diet for testis and body mass. This result suggests that these traits may have an enhanced ability to respond to selection during a small window of time each year when this diet is available. Taken together, these results illustrate that normal, seasonal fluctuations in the nutritional environment may play a large role in the expression of sexually selected traits and the ability of these traits to respond to selection. PMID:27066225

  19. Complex processing of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia sp.) by free-ranging long-tailed macaques: preliminary analysis for hierarchical organisation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Amanda W Y; Luncz, Lydia; Haslam, Michael; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Gumert, Michael D

    2016-04-01

    Complex food-processing techniques by gorillas, chimpanzees, and orangutans have allowed comparisons of complex hierarchical cognition between great apes and humans. Here, we analyse preliminary observations of free-ranging long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) (n = 3) in Thailand processing Opuntia sp. cactus fruits. From our observations, we suggest that there is potential to extend the analyses of hierarchical cognition to Old World monkeys. We found that the macaques used six behavioural sequences to obtain Opuntia fruits, remove irritant hairs from the skin of the fruits, and break open, and consume the fruits, each a unique combination of 17 action elements. Removing irritant hairs involved abrading fruits on a sand or rock substrate, and washing fruit in water. The behavioural sequences that macaques use to process Opuntia potentially show features of hierarchical organisation described in the leaf-processing behaviours of great apes. Our observations highlight the need for closer study of complex food-processing behaviour in monkeys to better understand the organisational capacities involved. PMID:26921023

  20. Model-based analysis supports interglacial refugia over long-dispersal events in the diversification of two South American cactus species.

    PubMed

    Perez, M F; Bonatelli, I A S; Moraes, E M; Carstens, B C

    2016-06-01

    Pilosocereus machrisii and P. aurisetus are cactus species within the P. aurisetus complex, a group of eight cacti that are restricted to rocky habitats within the Neotropical savannas of eastern South America. Previous studies have suggested that diversification within this complex was driven by distributional fragmentation, isolation leading to allopatric differentiation, and secondary contact among divergent lineages. These events have been associated with Quaternary climatic cycles, leading to the hypothesis that the xerophytic vegetation patches which presently harbor these populations operate as refugia during the current interglacial. However, owing to limitations of the standard phylogeographic approaches used in these studies, this hypothesis was not explicitly tested. Here we use Approximate Bayesian Computation to refine the previous inferences and test the role of different events in the diversification of two species within P. aurisetus group. We used molecular data from chloroplast DNA and simple sequence repeats loci of P. machrisii and P. aurisetus, the two species with broadest distribution in the complex, in order to test if the diversification in each species was driven mostly by vicariance or by long-dispersal events. We found that both species were affected primarily by vicariance, with a refuge model as the most likely scenario for P. aurisetus and a soft vicariance scenario most probable for P. machrisii. These results emphasize the importance of distributional fragmentation in these species, and add support to the hypothesis of long-term isolation in interglacial refugia previously proposed for the P. aurisetus species complex diversification. PMID:27071846

  1. Morphology-controlled cactus-like branched anatase TiO2 arrays with high light-harvesting efficiency for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wu-Qiang; Rao, Hua-Shang; Feng, Hao-Lin; Guo, Xin-Dong; Su, Cheng-Yong; Kuang, Dai-Bin

    2014-08-01

    The present work establishes a facile process for one-step hydrothermal growth of vertically aligned anatase cactus-like branched TiO2 (CBT) arrays on a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) substrate. Various CBT morphologies are obtained by adjusting the potassium titanium oxide oxalate (PTO) reactant concentration (from 0.05 M to 0.15 M) and this yields a morphologically-controllable branched TiO2 arrays geometry. The CBT arrays consist of a vertically oriented nanowire (NW) or nanosheet (NS) stem and a host of short nanorod (NR) branches. The hierarchical CBT arrays demonstrate their excellent candidatures as photoanodes, which are capable of exhibiting high light-harvesting efficiency in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Consequently, DSSCs based on 7 μm long optimized CBT arrays (0.05 M PTO), which are assembled with high density and high aspect-ratio NR branches, exhibit an impressive power conversion efficiency of 6.43% under AM 1.5G one sun illumination. The high performance can be attributed to the prominent light-harvesting efficiency, resulting from larger surface area and superior light-scattering capability.

  2. Adult nutrition, but not inbreeding, affects male primary sexual traits in the leaf-footed cactus bug Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae).

    PubMed

    Joseph, Paul N; Sasson, Daniel A; Allen, Pablo E; Somjee, Ummat; Miller, Christine W

    2016-07-01

    Adverse conditions may be the norm rather than the exception in natural populations. Many populations experience poor nutrition on a seasonal basis. Further, brief interludes of inbreeding can be common as population density fluctuates and because of habitat fragmentation. Here, we investigated the effects of poor nutrition and inbreeding on traits that can be very important to reproductive success and fitness in males: testes mass, sperm concentration, and sperm viability. Our study species was Narnia femorata, a species introduced to north-central Florida in the 1950s. This species encounters regular, seasonal changes in diet that can have profound phenotypic effects on morphology and behavior. We generated inbred and outbred individuals through a single generation of full-sibling mating or outcrossing, respectively. All juveniles were provided a natural, high-quality diet of Opuntia humifusa cactus cladode with fruit until they reached adulthood. New adult males were put on a high- or low-quality diet for at least 21 days before measurements were taken. As expected, the low-quality diet led to significantly decreased testes mass in both inbred and outbred males, although there were surprisingly no detectable effects on sperm traits. We did not find evidence that inbreeding affected testes mass, sperm concentration, and sperm viability. Our results highlight the immediate and overwhelming effects of nutrition on testes mass, while suggesting that a single generation of inbreeding might not be detrimental for primary sexual traits in this particular population. PMID:27547313

  3. Biological activities of Schottenol and Spinasterol, two natural phytosterols present in argan oil and in cactus pear seed oil, on murine miroglial BV2 cells.

    PubMed

    El Kharrassi, Youssef; Samadi, Mohammad; Lopez, Tatiana; Nury, Thomas; El Kebbaj, Riad; Andreoletti, Pierre; El Hajj, Hammam I; Vamecq, Joseph; Moustaid, Khadija; Latruffe, Norbert; El Kebbaj, M'Hammed Saïd; Masson, David; Lizard, Gérard; Nasser, Boubker; Cherkaoui-Malki, Mustapha

    2014-04-11

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the biological activities of the major phytosterols present in argan oil (AO) and in cactus seed oil (CSO) in BV2 microglial cells. Accordingly, we first determined the sterol composition of AO and CSO, showing the presence of Schottenol and Spinasterol as major sterols in AO. While in CSO, in addition to these two sterols, we found mainly another sterol, the Sitosterol. The chemical synthesis of Schottenol and Spinasterol was performed. Our results showed that these two phytosterols, as well as sterol extracts from AO or CSO, are not toxic to microglial BV2 cells. However, treatments by these phytosterols impact the mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, both Schottenol and Spinasterol can modulate the gene expression of two nuclear receptors, liver X receptor (LXR)-α and LXRβ, their target genes ABCA1 and ABCG1. Nonetheless, only Schottenol exhibited a differential activation vis-à-vis the nuclear receptor LXRβ. Thus Schottenol and Spinasterol can be considered as new LXR agonists, which may play protective roles by the modulation of cholesterol metabolism. PMID:24582563

  4. Anonymous nuclear markers reveal taxonomic incongruence and long-term disjunction in a cactus species complex with continental-island distribution in South America.

    PubMed

    Perez, Manolo F; Carstens, Bryan C; Rodrigues, Gustavo L; Moraes, Evandro M

    2016-02-01

    The Pilosocereus aurisetus complex consists of eight cactus species with a fragmented distribution associated to xeric enclaves within the Cerrado biome in eastern South America. The phylogeny of these species is incompletely resolved, and this instability complicates evolutionary analyses. Previous analyses based on both plastid and microsatellite markers suggested that this complex contained species with inherent phylogeographic structure, which was attributed to recent diversification and recurring range shifts. However, limitations of the molecular markers used in these analyses prevented some questions from being properly addressed. In order to better understand the relationship among these species and make a preliminary assessment of the genetic structure within them, we developed anonymous nuclear loci from pyrosequencing data of 40 individuals from four species in the P. aurisetus complex. The data obtained from these loci were used to identify genetic clusters within species, and to investigate the phylogenetic relationship among these inferred clusters using a species tree methodology. Coupled with a palaeodistributional modelling, our results reveal a deep phylogenetic and climatic disjunction between two geographic lineages. Our results highlight the importance of sampling more regions from the genome to gain better insights on the evolution of species with an intricate evolutionary history. The methodology used here provides a feasible approach to develop numerous genealogical molecular markers throughout the genome for non-model species. These data provide a more robust hypothesis for the relationship among the lineages of the P. aurisetus complex. PMID:26582125

  5. Building treasures for rare disorders.

    PubMed

    Baas, Melanie; Huisman, Sylvia; van Heukelingen, John; Koekkoek, Gerritjan; Laan, Henk-Willem; Hennekam, Raoul C

    2015-01-01

    The internet pre-eminently marks an era with unprecedented chances for patient care. Especially individuals with rare disorders and their families can benefit. Their handicap of low numbers vanishes and can become a strength, as small, motivated and well-organized international support groups allow easily fruitful collaborations with physicians and researchers. Jointly setting research agendas and building wikipedias has eventually led to building of multi-lingual databases of longitudinal data on physical and behavioural characteristics of individuals with several rare disorders which we call waihonapedias (waihona meaning treasure in Hawaiian). There are hurdles to take, like online security and reliability of diagnoses, but sharing experiences and true collaborations will allow better research and patient care for fewer costs to patients with rare disorders. PMID:25449139

  6. DGTI Register of Rare Donors

    PubMed Central

    Hustinx, Hein

    2014-01-01

    Summary For patients with antibodies against the most common blood groups a rapid and efficient supply of compatible erythrocyte concentrates is self-evident. But typically we have to make the greatest effort providing blood for these patients, which have made antibodies against common blood groups. There are however patients with antibodies against rare blood group antigens that need special blood. The supply of such blood can be very difficult and mostly time-consuming. For this reason we set up a database of blood donors with rare blood groups. Since 2005 the BTS SRC Berne Ltd. has run this database on behalf of the Swiss BTS SRC. After a reorganization and extension of the database, conducted during 2011/2012, the data file was renamed ‘DGTI Register of Rare Donors’ and is now run under the patronage of the German Society for Transfusion Medicine and Immunohematology (DGTI). PMID:25538534

  7. Ainhum - A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, Ravi; Vinoth, Sundaresan; Praveen, Chinnappan Balasubramanian

    2016-01-01

    The term ‘AINHUM’ is derived from the African word meaning ‘to saw or cut’. True ainhum otherwise called dactylolysis spontanea is a condition involving soft tissue or digits with constricting rings commonly presenting in fifth toes, usually bilateral. It is to be differentiated from Pseudo-ainhum that occurs secondary to some hereditary and nonhereditary diseases that lead to annular constriction of digits. We report a rare case of true ainhum involving the left fourth toe only. It is a very rare case and a very few were reported worldwide. The highest incidence of ainhum has been reported in South Africa and South America. It is rarely reported in India. Ainhum when diagnosed and treated in early stages can be prevented from progressing to mutilating deformities. PMID:27190888

  8. Ainhum - A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Ravi; Kannan, Narayanasamy Subbaraju; Vinoth, Sundaresan; Praveen, Chinnappan Balasubramanian

    2016-04-01

    The term 'AINHUM' is derived from the African word meaning 'to saw or cut'. True ainhum otherwise called dactylolysis spontanea is a condition involving soft tissue or digits with constricting rings commonly presenting in fifth toes, usually bilateral. It is to be differentiated from Pseudo-ainhum that occurs secondary to some hereditary and nonhereditary diseases that lead to annular constriction of digits. We report a rare case of true ainhum involving the left fourth toe only. It is a very rare case and a very few were reported worldwide. The highest incidence of ainhum has been reported in South Africa and South America. It is rarely reported in India. Ainhum when diagnosed and treated in early stages can be prevented from progressing to mutilating deformities. PMID:27190888

  9. A rare urinary bladder tumour

    PubMed Central

    Haddad-Lacle, Judella Edwina Maria; Haddad, Charles Joseph; Villas, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    This case report describes a 54-year-old man who presented to his primary care physician with low back pain. During his workup, an incidental finding of a bladder mass was diagnosed. He underwent transurethral resection of the bladder tumour and the resulting pathology was consistent with extra nodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma). Presentation of MALT lymphoma in the urinary bladder is rare. This malignancy is more commonly found in the stomach. The prognosis for this rare tumour is excellent. Our patient showed no sign of recurrence with transurethral excision and radiation alone. PMID:24835803

  10. Dioctophymiasis: A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Sapna; Kaval, Sunil; Tewari, Swati

    2016-02-01

    Dioctophyma renale commonly known as "giant kidney worm' is found in the kidney of carnivorous mammals. Human infestation is rare, but results in destruction of the kidneys. Very few cases have been reported worldwide. We are here reporting a case of Dioctophymiasis in a 35-year-old male patient who presented with retention of urine and subsequent passage of worm and blood in urine. The worm was confirmed as Dioctophyma renale based on its morphology and clinical presentation. This is a very rare case report and to best of our knowledge only two cases have been reported from India. PMID:27042466

  11. Dioctophymiasis: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kaval, Sunil; Tewari, Swati

    2016-01-01

    Dioctophyma renale commonly known as “giant kidney worm’ is found in the kidney of carnivorous mammals. Human infestation is rare, but results in destruction of the kidneys. Very few cases have been reported worldwide. We are here reporting a case of Dioctophymiasis in a 35-year-old male patient who presented with retention of urine and subsequent passage of worm and blood in urine. The worm was confirmed as Dioctophyma renale based on its morphology and clinical presentation. This is a very rare case report and to best of our knowledge only two cases have been reported from India. PMID:27042466

  12. Selective Emitter Pumped Rare Earth Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L. (Inventor); Patton, Martin O. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A selective emitter pumped rare earth laser provides an additional type of laser for use in many laser applications. Rare earth doped lasers exist which are pumped with flashtubes or laser diodes. The invention uses a rare earth emitter to transform thermal energy input to a spectral band matching the absorption band of a rare earth in the laser in order to produce lasing.

  13. Rare B decays at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Farrington, Sinead M.; /Liverpool U.

    2006-10-01

    The confidence level limits of the CDF search for the B{sub s}{sup 0} and B{sub d}{sup 0} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} rare decays and the branching ratio measurement of B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup +} D{sub s}{sup -} are presented.

  14. Rare-event recorder interface

    SciTech Connect

    Kuts, V.N.

    1984-03-01

    The author describes an interface for a BPA2-95 analog-digital computer with PL-80 and a Perfomom 30 perferator for rare event recording. This interface allows the height of each pulse that passes through the analog-digital converter to be recorded on punch tape. A series of three block diagrams illustrates in thorough detail the system described.

  15. RARE II: The Administration's View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutler, M. Rupert

    1977-01-01

    RARE II is a new Roadless Area Review and Evaluation of the National Forest system. Administrators are attempting to inventory existing wilderness areas and to determine criteria for setting aside additional ones. This information will be used for the required 1980 update of the national assessment of forests and rangelands. (MA)

  16. Cardiofaciocutaneous Syndrome: A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Pavithra, S; Mallya, H; Pai, G S

    2012-01-01

    The cardiofaciocutaneous (CFC) syndrome is a condition of sporadic occurrence, with patients showing multiple congenital anomalies and mental retardation and characteristic dysmorphic features. We, thus, report a rare case of this syndrome in a 1-year-old child who presented with typical features of CFC syndrome. PMID:22837569

  17. Rare events: a state of the art

    SciTech Connect

    Uppuluri, V.R.R.

    1980-12-01

    The study of rare events has become increasingly important in the context of nuclear safety. Some philosophical considerations, such as the framework for the definition of a rare event, rare events and science, rare events and trans-science, and rare events and public perception, are discussed. The technical work of the Task Force on problems of Rare Events in the Reliability Analysis of Nuclear Plants (1976-1978), sponsored by OECD, is reviewed. Some recent technical considerations are discussed, and conclusions are drawn. The appendix contains an essay written by Anne E. Beachey, under the title: A Study of Rare Events - Problems and Promises.

  18. Quantifying metastatic inefficiency: rare genotypes versus rare dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisneros, Luis H.; Newman, Timothy J.

    2014-08-01

    We introduce and solve a ‘null model’ of stochastic metastatic colonization. The model is described by a single parameter θ: the ratio of the rate of cell division to the rate of cell death for a disseminated tumour cell in a given secondary tissue environment. We are primarily interested in the case in which colonizing cells are poorly adapted for proliferation in the local tissue environment, so that cell death is more likely than cell division, i.e. \\theta \\lt 1. We quantify the rare event statistics for the successful establishment of a metastatic colony of size N. For N\\gg 1, we find that the probability of establishment is exponentially rare, as expected, and yet the mean time for such rare events is of the form \\sim log (N)/(1-\\theta ) while the standard deviation of colonization times is \\sim 1/(1-\\theta ). Thus, counter to naive expectation, for \\theta \\lt 1, the average time for establishment of successful metastatic colonies decreases with decreasing cell fitness, and colonies seeded from lower fitness cells show less stochastic variation in their growth. These results indicate that metastatic growth from poorly adapted cells is rare, exponentially explosive and essentially deterministic. These statements are brought into sharper focus by the finding that the temporal statistics of the early stages of metastatic colonization from low-fitness cells (\\theta \\lt 1) are statistically indistinguishable from those initiated from high-fitness cells (\\theta \\gt 1), i.e. the statistics show a duality mapping (1-\\theta )\\to (\\theta -1). We conclude our analysis with a study of heterogeneity in the fitness of colonising cells, and describe a phase diagram delineating parameter regions in which metastatic colonization is dominated either by low or high fitness cells, showing that both are plausible given our current knowledge of physiological conditions in human cancer.

  19. Rare Earth Garnet Selective Emitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowe, Roland A.; Chubb, Donald L.; Farmer, Serene C.; Good, Brian S.

    1994-01-01

    Thin film Ho-YAG and Er-YAG emitters with a platinum substrate exhibit high spectral emittance in the emission band (epsilon(sub lambda) approx. = 0.75, sup 4)|(sub 15/2) - (sup 4)|(sub 13/2),for Er-YAG and epsilon(sub lambda) approx. = 0.65, (sup 5)|(sub 7) - (sup 5)|(sub 8) for Ho-YAG) at 1500 K. In addition, low out-of-band spectral emittance, epsilon(sub lambda) less than 0.2, suggest these materials would be excellent candidates for high efficiency selective emitters in thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems operating at moderate temperatures (1200-1500 K). Spectral emittance measurements of the thin films were made (1.2 less than lambda less than 3.0 microns) and compared to the theoretical emittances calculated using measured values of the spectral extinction coefficient. In this paper we present the results for a new class of rare earth ion selective emitters. These emitters are thin sections (less than 1 mm) of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) single crystal with a rare earth substitutional impurity. Selective emitters in the near IR are of special interest for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion. The most promising solid selective emitters for use in a TPV system are rare earth oxides. Early spectral emittance work on rare earth oxides showed strong emission bands in the infrared (0.9 - 3 microns). However, the emittance outside the emission band was also significant and the efficiency of these emitters was low. Recent improvements in efficiency have been made with emitters fabricated from fine (5 - 10 microns) rare earth oxide fibers similar to the Welsbach mantle used in gas lanterns. However, the rare earth garnet emitters are more rugged than the mantle type emitters. A thin film selective emitter on a low emissivity substrate such as gold, platinum etc., is rugged and easily adapted to a wide variety of thermal sources. The garnet structure and its many subgroups have been successfully used as hosts for rare earth ions, introduced as substitutional

  20. Rare essentials: drugs for rare diseases as essential medicines.

    PubMed

    Stolk, Pieter; Willemen, Marjolein J C; Leufkens, Hubert G M

    2006-09-01

    Since 1977, the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (EML), published by WHO, has provided advice for Member States that struggle to decide which pharmaceutical technologies should be provided to patients within their public health systems. Originating from outside WHO, an incentive system has been put in place by various governments for the development of medicines for rare diseases ("orphan drugs"). With progress in pharmaceutical research (e.g. drugs targeted for narrower indications), these medicines will feature more often on future public health agendas. However, when current definitions for selecting essential medicines are applied strictly, orphan drugs cannot be part of the WHO Essential Medicines Programme, creating the risk that WHO may lose touch with this field. In our opinion WHO should explicitly include orphan drugs in its policy sphere by composing a complementary Orphan Medicines Model List as an addition to the EML. This complementary list of "rare essentials" could aid policy-makers and patients in, for example, emerging countries to improve access to these drugs and stimulate relevant policies. Furthermore, inconsistencies in the current EML with regard to medicines for rare diseases can be resolved. In this paper we propose selection criteria for an Orphan Medicines Model List that could form a departure point for future work towards an extensive WHO Orphan Medicines Programme. PMID:17128345

  1. Selenium Accumulation, Distribution, and Speciation in Spineless Prickly Pear Cactus: A Drought- and Salt-Tolerant, Selenium-Enriched Nutraceutical Fruit Crop for Biofortified Foods

    SciTech Connect

    Banuelos, Gary S.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Walse, Spencer S.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Yang, Soo In; Pickering, Ingrid J.; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A.H.; Freeman, John L.

    2011-07-01

    The organ-specific accumulation, spatial distribution, and chemical speciation of selenium (Se) were previously unknown for any species of cactus. We investigated Se in Opuntia ficus-indica using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, microfocused x-ray fluorescence elemental and chemical mapping ({micro}XRF), Se K-edge x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). {micro}XRF showed Se concentrated inside small conic, vestigial leaves (cladode tips), the cladode vasculature, and the seed embryos. Se K-edge XANES demonstrated that approximately 96% of total Se in cladode, fruit juice, fruit pulp, and seed is carbon-Se-carbon (C-Se-C). Micro and bulk XANES analysis showed that cladode tips contained both selenate and C-Se-C forms. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry quantification of Se in high-performance liquid chromatography fractions followed by LC-MS structural identification showed selenocystathionine-to-selenomethionine (SeMet) ratios of 75:25, 71:29, and 32:68, respectively in cladode, fruit, and seed. Enzymatic digestions and subsequent analysis confirmed that Se was mainly present in a 'free' nonproteinaceous form inside cladode and fruit, while in the seed, Se was incorporated into proteins associated with lipids. {micro}XRF chemical mapping illuminated the specific location of Se reduction and assimilation from selenate accumulated in the cladode tips into the two LC-MS-identified C-Se-C forms before they were transported into the cladode mesophyll. We conclude that Opuntia is a secondary Se-accumulating plant whose fruit and cladode contain mostly free selenocystathionine and SeMet, while seeds contain mainly SeMet in protein. When eaten, the organic Se forms in Opuntia fruit, cladode, and seed may improve health, increase Se mineral nutrition, and help prevent multiple human cancers.

  2. Conserved and Divergent Rhythms of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism-Related and Core Clock Gene Expression in the Cactus Opuntia ficus-indica1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Mallona, Izaskun; Egea-Cortines, Marcos; Weiss, Julia

    2011-01-01

    The cactus Opuntia ficus-indica is a constitutive Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species. Current knowledge of CAM metabolism suggests that the enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase kinase (PPCK) is circadian regulated at the transcriptional level, whereas phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME), and pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK) are posttranslationally controlled. As little transcriptomic data are available from obligate CAM plants, we created an expressed sequence tag database derived from different organs and developmental stages. Sequences were assembled, compared with sequences in the National Center for Biotechnology Information nonredundant database for identification of putative orthologs, and mapped using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Orthology and Gene Ontology. We identified genes involved in circadian regulation and CAM metabolism for transcriptomic analysis in plants grown in long days. We identified stable reference genes for quantitative polymerase chain reaction and found that OfiSAND, like its counterpart in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), and OfiTUB are generally appropriate standards for use in the quantification of gene expression in O. ficus-indica. Three kinds of expression profiles were found: transcripts of OfiPPCK oscillated with a 24-h periodicity; transcripts of the light-active OfiNADP-ME and OfiPPDK genes adapted to 12-h cycles, while transcript accumulation patterns of OfiPEPC and OfiMDH were arrhythmic. Expression of the circadian clock gene OfiTOC1, similar to Arabidopsis, oscillated with a 24-h periodicity, peaking at night. Expression of OfiCCA1 and OfiPRR9, unlike in Arabidopsis, adapted best to a 12-h rhythm, suggesting that circadian clock gene interactions differ from those of Arabidopsis. Our results indicate that the evolution of CAM metabolism could be the result of modified circadian regulation at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional

  3. The effect of cactus spines on light interception and Photosystem II for three sympatric species of Opuntia from the Mojave Desert.

    PubMed

    Loik, Michael E

    2008-09-01

    Cactus spines reduce herbivory, direct water toward roots and reduce the impacts of high- and low-temperature extremes. Yet, shading of stems by spines reduces incident photosynthetic photon flux density (PFD), photosynthesis and growth. This study compared spinescence, PFD interception, stem temperature, Photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry and xanthophyll pigment composition for three species of cacti from the Mojave Desert, CA. The species vary in spinescence: Opuntia basilaris, which has no central or radial spines; Opuntia erinacea, which is densely covered with spines; and Opuntia phaeacantha, which has an intermediate coverage of spines. The role of spines was tested by removing spines from stems of O. erinacea. PFD interception was similar for both O. basilaris and O. phaeacantha, and about three times that for densely spined O. erinacea; removal of spines increased incident PFD three-fold. There were no effects of spines on stem temperatures. Steady-state light-response curves of chlorophyll a fluorescence from PSII indicated that PhiPSII, photochemical quenching (qP) and electron flux within PSII were lower, and non-photochemical quenching was higher, for O. erinacea in comparison to the other two species with less spines. After 2 months, qP was higher and electron flux lower, and xanthophyll pigment pool size was higher, for stems from which spines had been removed compared with intact stems. These three species allocate different amounts of biomass to spines, resulting in species-specific PFD interception, PSII photochemistry and xanthophyll pigment pool size, which may help maintain rates of photosynthesis during the hot, dry Mojave Desert summer. PMID:18507791

  4. Selenium Accumulation, Distribution, and Speciation in Spineless Prickly Pear Cactus: A Drought- and Salt-Tolerant, Selenium-Enriched Nutraceutical Fruit Crop for Biofortified Foods1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Bañuelos, Gary S.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Walse, Spencer S.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Yang, Soo In; Pickering, Ingrid J.; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A.H.; Freeman, John L.

    2011-01-01

    The organ-specific accumulation, spatial distribution, and chemical speciation of selenium (Se) were previously unknown for any species of cactus. We investigated Se in Opuntia ficus-indica using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, microfocused x-ray fluorescence elemental and chemical mapping (μXRF), Se K-edge x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). μXRF showed Se concentrated inside small conic, vestigial leaves (cladode tips), the cladode vasculature, and the seed embryos. Se K-edge XANES demonstrated that approximately 96% of total Se in cladode, fruit juice, fruit pulp, and seed is carbon-Se-carbon (C-Se-C). Micro and bulk XANES analysis showed that cladode tips contained both selenate and C-Se-C forms. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry quantification of Se in high-performance liquid chromatography fractions followed by LC-MS structural identification showed selenocystathionine-to-selenomethionine (SeMet) ratios of 75:25, 71:29, and 32:68, respectively in cladode, fruit, and seed. Enzymatic digestions and subsequent analysis confirmed that Se was mainly present in a “free” nonproteinaceous form inside cladode and fruit, while in the seed, Se was incorporated into proteins associated with lipids. μXRF chemical mapping illuminated the specific location of Se reduction and assimilation from selenate accumulated in the cladode tips into the two LC-MS-identified C-Se-C forms before they were transported into the cladode mesophyll. We conclude that Opuntia is a secondary Se-accumulating plant whose fruit and cladode contain mostly free selenocystathionine and SeMet, while seeds contain mainly SeMet in protein. When eaten, the organic Se forms in Opuntia fruit, cladode, and seed may improve health, increase Se mineral nutrition, and help prevent multiple human cancers. PMID:21059825

  5. Testicular calculus: A rare case

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Volkan; Bozkurt, Ozan; Demir, Omer; Tuna, Burcin; Yorukoglu, Kutsal; Esen, Adil

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Testicular calculus is an extremely rare case with unknown etiology and pathogenesis. To our knowledge, here we report the third case of testicular calculus. A 31-year-old man was admitted to our clinic with painful solid mass in left testis. After diagnostic work-up for a possible testicular tumour, he underwent inguinal orchiectomy and histopathologic examination showed a testicular calculus. Case hypothesis: Solid testicular lesions in young adults generally correspond to testicular cancer. Differential diagnosis should be done carefully. Future implications: In young adults with painful and solid testicular mass with hyperechogenic appearance on scrotal ultrasonography, testicular calculus must be kept in mind in differential diagnosis. Further reports on this topic may let us do more clear recommendations about the etiology and treatment of this rare disease. PMID:26200556

  6. The rare benign liver tumors.

    PubMed

    Skalicky, T; Treska, V; Liska, V; Sutnar, A; Molacek, J; Mirka, H; Ferda, J; Ohlidalova, K

    2007-01-01

    As opposed to malignant secondary tumors, metastases of the colorectal carcinoma are benign tumors of the liver that are quite rare in the Czech Republic. From the 55 patients operated on since 2000 at our department for benign liver tumors, the most frequent are haemangiomas, focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) and hepatocelular adenoma. Only 7.3% of them form a different histological type of a tumor than this most frequently occurring trio of tumors. The authors describe three cases of rather rare liver tumors with benign behavior that have the potential of becoming malignant. It concerns mucin producing biliary tumors, which correspond to the pancreatic intraductal papillary mucin tumor, hepatic cystadenoma with ovarian stroma and a liver hamartoma in an adult patient (Ref 13). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk. PMID:17694811

  7. A rare benign ovarian tumour.

    PubMed

    Palmeiro, Marta Morna; Cunha, Teresa Margarida; Loureiro, Ana Luisa; Esteves, Gonçalo

    2016-01-01

    Sclerosing stromal tumour (SST) of the ovary is an extremely rare and benign ovarian neoplasm, accounting for 6% of the sex cord stromal ovarian tumours subtype. Usually, it is found during the second and third decades of life. Patients commonly present with pelvic pain, a palpable pelvic mass or menstrual irregularity. We report a case of a 20-year-old woman reporting of mild pelvic pain, with normal laboratory data. On imaging examinations, a large right adnexal tumour was found, with features suggesting an ovarian sex cord tumour. The patient underwent right salpingo-oophorectomy, diagnosing a SST of the ovary. This paper also reviews the literature, and emphasises the typical pathological and imaging characteristics of these rare benign ovarian lesions, and their impact, in a conservative surgery. PMID:26933186

  8. Rare Earth Optical Temperature Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Wolford, David S.

    2000-01-01

    A new optical temperature sensor suitable for high temperatures (greater than 1700 K) and harsh environments is introduced. The key component of the sensor is the rare earth material contained at the end of a sensor that is in contact with the sample being measured. The measured narrow wavelength band emission from the rare earth is used to deduce the sample temperature. A simplified relation between the temperature and measured radiation was verified experimentally. The upper temperature limit of the sensor is determined by material limits to be approximately 2000 C. The lower limit, determined by the minimum detectable radiation, is found to be approximately 700 K. At high temperatures 1 K resolution is predicted. Also, millisecond response times are calculated.

  9. Intracranial chondroma: a rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Maheshwari, Veena; Mehdi, Ghazala; Varshney, Manoranjan; Jain, Anshu; Vashishtha, Sonal; Gaur, Kavita; Srivastava, Vinod Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Intracranial chondroma is a rare benign cartilaginous tumour with an incidence of less than 1% of all primary intracranial tumours. The authors are reporting here a case of intracranial chondroma in a 40-year-old man who presented with 5-month history of headache and gradual diminution of vision. A tentative diagnosis of chondroma was made on imprint cytology which was confirmed on histopathological examination. PMID:22696735

  10. Perilymph Fistula: Rare but Real

    PubMed Central

    Gleeson, Susan E.; Williams, D. Malcolm

    1989-01-01

    Although perilymph fistula is a rare diagnosis, it is important that family physicians be aware of the signs and symptoms that suggest its presence. When a patient develops sudden loss of hearing and/or vestibular dysfunction after experiencing trauma to the head or ears, after barotrauma, or after performing a vigorous Valsalva manoeuvre, he should be referred promptly to an otolaryngologist for assessment and proper management of the condition. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:21249027

  11. An expeditious synthesis of spinasterol and schottenol, two phytosterols present in argan oil and in cactus pear seed oil, and evaluation of their biological activities on cells of the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Badreddine, Asmaa; Karym, El Mostafa; Zarrouk, Amira; Nury, Thomas; El Kharrassi, Youssef; Nasser, Boubker; Cherkaoui Malki, Mustapha; Lizard, Gérard; Samadi, Mohammad

    2015-07-01

    Spinasterol and schottenol, two phytosterols present in argan oil and in cactus pear seed oil, were synthesized from commercially available stigmasterol by a four steps reactions. In addition, the effects of these phytosterols on cell growth and mitochondrial activity were evaluated on 158N murine oligodendrocytes, C6 rat glioma cells, and SK-N-BE human neuronal cells with the crystal violet test and the MTT test, respectively. The effects of spinasterol and schottenol were compared with 7-ketocholesterol (7KC) and ferulic acid, which is also present in argan and cactus pear seed oil. Whatever the cells considered, dose dependent cytotoxic effects of 7KC were observed whereas no or slight effects of ferulic acid were found. With spinasterol and schottenol, no or slight effects on cell growth were detected. With spinasterol, reduced mitochondrial activities (30-50%) were found on 158N and C6 cells; no effect was found on SK-N-BE. With schottenol, reduced mitochondrial activity were revealed on 158N (50%) and C6 (10-20%) cells; no effect was found on SK-N-BE. Altogether, these data suggest that spinasterol and schottenol can modulate mitochondrial activity and might therefore influence cell metabolism. PMID:25595450

  12. Software Engineering Support of the Third Round of Scientific Grand Challenge Investigations: An Earth Modeling System Software Framework Strawman Design that Integrates Cactus and UCLA/UCB Distributed Data Broker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talbot, Bryan; Zhou, Shu-Jia; Higgins, Glenn

    2002-01-01

    One of the most significant challenges in large-scale climate modeling, as well as in high-performance computing in other scientific fields, is that of effectively integrating many software models from multiple contributors. A software framework facilitates the integration task. both in the development and runtime stages of the simulation. Effective software frameworks reduce the programming burden for the investigators, freeing them to focus more on the science and less on the parallel communication implementation, while maintaining high performance across numerous supercomputer and workstation architectures. This document proposes a strawman framework design for the climate community based on the integration of Cactus, from the relativistic physics community, and UCLA/UCB Distributed Data Broker (DDB) from the climate community. This design is the result of an extensive survey of climate models and frameworks in the climate community as well as frameworks from many other scientific communities. The design addresses fundamental development and runtime needs using Cactus, a framework with interfaces for FORTRAN and C-based languages, and high-performance model communication needs using DDB. This document also specifically explores object-oriented design issues in the context of climate modeling as well as climate modeling issues in terms of object-oriented design.

  13. Rare Tumors in Children: Progress Through Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Furman, Wayne L.; Schultz, Kris A.; Ferrari, Andrea; Helman, Lee; Krailo, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Rare pediatric tumors account for approximately 10% of all childhood cancers, which in themselves are a rare entity. The diverse histologies and clinical behaviors of rare pediatric tumors pose challenges to the investigation of their biologic and clinical features. National and international cooperative groups such as the Rare Tumor Committee of the Children's Oncology Group, Rare Tumors in Pediatric Age Project, and European Cooperative Study Group for Pediatric Rare Tumors have developed several initiatives to advance knowledge about rare pediatric cancers. However, these programs have been only partially effective, necessitating the development of alternative mechanisms to study these challenging diseases. In this article, we review the current national and international collaborative strategies to study rare pediatric cancers and alternative methods under exploration to enhance those efforts, such as independent registries and disease-specific, National Cancer Institute–sponsored clinics. PMID:26304909

  14. Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center

    MedlinePlus

    ... GARD Information Specialists can provide you with current, reliable, and easy to understand information about rare or ... GARD provides the public with access to current, reliable, and easy-to-understand information about rare or ...

  15. Hopes Dashed for Rare Bone Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_160652.html Hopes Dashed for Rare Bone Cancer Treatment Extra chemo drugs failed to change course ... t benefit patients with a rare type of bone cancer, according to a new study. Osteosarcoma is diagnosed ...

  16. Esophageal Lipoma: A Rare Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Jeremy; Tejerina, Manfred; Hallowell, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Esophageal lipomas are rare tumors, making up 0.4% of all digestive tract benign neoplasms. Most of these lesions are clinically silent as a result of their small size, however, the majority of lesions over 4 cm have been reported to cause dysphagia, regurgitation and/or epigastralgia. We report a case of a 53 year-old African American female who presented with dysphagia. Computed tomography of the chest and esophagram confirmed esophageal lipoma as the cause of the patient’s symptoms. Accurately diagnosing an esophageal lipoma is crucial in order to rule out potential malignant lesions, relieve patient symptoms and plan the appropriate treatment. PMID:23365708

  17. Parasitic and rare spinal infections.

    PubMed

    do Amaral, Lázaro Luís Faria; Nunes, Renato Hoffmann; da Rocha, Antonio Jose

    2015-05-01

    The imaging features of spinal parasitic diseases and other rare infections are herein discussed. These diseases are distributed worldwide, with increased prevalence in areas with poor sanitary conditions and in developing countries. In nonendemic areas, sporadic cases may occur, consequent to increased international travel and immunocompromising conditions. Infectious diseases are usually treatable, and early detection is often crucial. A thorough comprehension of the imaging patterns associated with the clinical features, epidemiology, and laboratory results allows the radiologist to narrow down the options for differential diagnosis and facilitates the timely implementation of appropriate therapies. PMID:25952177

  18. Rare emerging malignant skin tumours.

    PubMed

    Rongioletti, F; Ferreli, C; Pinna, A L; Atzori, L

    2015-08-01

    As clinical skills improve and innovative diagnostic techniques become available in the field of dermatology and dermatopathology, new types or additional variants of malignant skin tumors are described. This article reviews the current nomenclature, clinico-pathological features, differential diagnosis, prognostic and therapeutic implications of some new dermato(patho)logical rare emerging skin tumors, including epithelial tumors (squamous cell carcinoma with mucinous metaplasia), adnexal tumors (endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma), soft tissue tumors of vascular differentiation (pseudolymphomatous cutaneous angiosarcoma, pseudomyogenic hemangioendothelioma), hematopoietic tumors (blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm) and mixed epithelial/melanocytic tumor (squamomelanocytic tumor). PMID:26086411

  19. The study of rare decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Wan-Li; Wang, Guo-Li; Fu, Hui-Feng; Wang, Tian-Hong; Jiang, Yue

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we study rare decays within the Standard Model. The penguin, box, annihilation, color-favored cascade and color-suppressed cascade contributions are included. Based on our calculation, the annihilation and color-favored cascade diagrams play important roles in the differential branching fractions, forward-backward asymmetries, longitudinal polarizations of the final vector mesons and leptonic longitudinal polarization asymmetries. More importantly, color-favored cascade decays largely enhance the resonance cascade contributions. To avoid the resonance cascade contribution pollution, new cutting regions are put forward.

  20. Rare earth garnet selective emitter

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, R.A.; Chubb, D.L.; Farmer, S.C.; Good, B.S.

    1994-09-01

    Thin film Ho-YAG and Er-YAG emitters with a platinum substrate exhibit high spectral emittance in the emission band (epsilon{sub {lambda}}) approximately equal to 0.74, ((4)l{sub 15/2}) - ((4)l{sub 13/2}), for Er-YAG and epsilon{sub {lambda}} approximately equal to 0.65, ((5)l{sub 7})-((5)l{sub 8}) for (Ho-YAG) at excellent candidates for high efficiency selective emitters in the thermophotovoltaics (TPV) systems operating at moderate temperatures (1200-1500K). Spectral emittance measurements of the thin films were made (1.2 less than lambda less than 3.0 microns) and compared to the theoretical emittances calculated using measured values of the spectral extinction coefficient. In this paper the authors present the results for a new class of rare earth ion selective emitters. These emitters are thin sections (less than 1 mm) of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) single crystal with a rare earth substitutional impurity. This paper presents normal spectral emittance, epsilon{sub {lambda}} measurements of holmium (Ho), and erbium (Er) doped YAG thin film selective emitters at 1500 K, and compares those results with the theoretical spectral emittance.

  1. Scarcity of rare earth elements.

    PubMed

    de Boer, M A; Lammertsma, K

    2013-11-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are important for green and a large variety of high-tech technologies and are, therefore, in high demand. As a result, supply with REEs is likely to be disrupted (the degree of depends on the REE) in the near future. The 17 REEs are divided into heavy and light REEs. Other critical elements besides REEs, identified by the European Commission, are also becoming less easily available. Although there is no deficiency in the earth's crust of rare earth oxides, the economic accessibility is limited. The increased demand for REEs, the decreasing export from China, and geopolitical concerns on availability contributed to the (re)opening of mines in Australia and the USA and other mines are slow to follow. As a result, short supply of particularly terbium, dysprosium, praseodymium, and neodymium is expected to be problematic for at least the short term, also because they cannot be substituted. Recycling REEs from electronic waste would be a solution, but so far there are hardly any established REE recycling methods. Decreasing the dependency on REEs, for example, by identifying possible replacements or increasing their efficient use, represents another possibility. PMID:24009098

  2. Rare earth garnet selective emitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowe, Roland A.; Chubb, Donald L.; Farmer, Serene C.; Good, Brian S.

    1994-01-01

    Thin film Ho-YAG and Er-YAG emitters with a platinum substrate exhibit high spectral emittance in the emission band (epsilon(sub lambda) approximately equal to 0.74, ((4)l(sub 15/2)) - ( (4)l(sub13/2)), for Er-YAG and epsilon(sub lambda) approximately equal to 0.65, ((5)l(sub 7))-((5)l(sub 8)) for Ho-YAG) at excellent candidates for high efficiency selective emitters in the thermophotovoltaics (TPV) systems operating at moderate temperatures (1200-1500K). Spectral emittance measurements of the thin films were made (1.2 less than lambda less than 3.0 microns) and compared to the theoretical emittances calculated using measured values of the spectral extinction coefficient. In this paper we present the results for a new class of rare earth ion selective emitters. These emitters are thin sections (less than 1 mm) of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) single crystal with a rare earth substitutional impurity. This paper presents normal spectral emittance, epsilon(sub lambda), measurements of holmium (Ho), and erbium (Er) doped YAG thin film selective emitters at 1500 K, and compares those results with the theoretical spectral emittance.

  3. Purdue Rare Isotope Measurement Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caffee, M.; Elmore, D.; Granger, D.; Muzikar, P.

    2002-12-01

    The Purdue Rare Isotope Measurement Laboratory (PRIME Lab) is a dedicated research and service facility for accelerator mass spectrometry. AMS is an ultra-sensitive analytical technique used to measure low levels of long-lived cosmic-ray-produced and anthropogenic radionuclides, and rare trace elements. We measure 10Be (T1/2 = 1.5 My), 26Al (.702 My), 36Cl (.301 My), and 129I (16 My), in geologic samples. Applications include dating the cosmic-ray-exposure time of rocks on Earth's surface, determining rock and sediment burial ages, measuring the erosion rates of rocks and soils, and tracing and dating ground water. We perform sample preparation and separation chemistries for these radio-nuclides for our internal research activities and for those external researchers not possessing this capability. Our chemical preparation laboratories also serve as training sites for members of the geoscience community developing these techniques at their institutions. Research at Purdue involves collaborators among members of the Purdue Departments of Physics, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Chemistry, Agronomy, and Anthropology. We also collaborate and serve numerous scientists from other institutions. We are currently in the process of modernizing the facility with the goals of higher precision for routinely measured radio-nuclides, increased sample throughput, and the development of new measurement capabilities for the geoscience community.

  4. Rare earths, the lanthanides, yttrium and scandium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedrick, J.B.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, rare earths were not mined in the United States. The major supplier, Molycorp, continued to maintain a large stockpile of rare-earth concentrates and compounds. Consumption decreased of refined rare-earth products. The United States remained a major importer and exporter of rare earths in 2005. During the same period, yttrium was not mined or refined in the US. Hence, supply of yttrium compounds for refined yttrium products came from China, France and Japan. Scandium was not also mined. World production was primarily in China, Russia and Ukraine. Demand for rare earths in 2006 is expected to be closely tied to economic conditions in the US.

  5. Production method for making rare earth compounds

    DOEpatents

    McCallum, R.W.; Ellis, T.W.; Dennis, K.W.; Hofer, R.J.; Branagan, D.J.

    1997-11-25

    A method of making a rare earth compound, such as a earth-transition metal permanent magnet compound, without the need for producing rare earth metal as a process step, comprises carbothermically reacting a rare earth oxide to form a rare earth carbide and heating the rare earth carbide, a compound-forming reactant (e.g., a transition metal and optional boron), and a carbide-forming element (e.g., a refractory metal) that forms a carbide that is more thermodynamically favorable than the rare earth carbide whereby the rare earth compound (e.g., Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B or LaNi{sub 5}) and a carbide of the carbide-forming element are formed.

  6. Production method for making rare earth compounds

    DOEpatents

    McCallum, R. William; Ellis, Timothy W.; Dennis, Kevin W.; Hofer, Robert J.; Branagan, Daniel J.

    1997-11-25

    A method of making a rare earth compound, such as a earth-transition metal permanent magnet compound, without the need for producing rare earth metal as a process step, comprises carbothermically reacting a rare earth oxide to form a rare earth carbide and heating the rare earth carbide, a compound-forming reactant (e.g. a transition metal and optional boron), and a carbide-forming element (e.g. a refractory metal) that forms a carbide that is more thermodynamically favorable than the rare earth carbide whereby the rare earth compound (e.g. Nd.sub.2 Fe.sub.14 B or LaNi.sub.5) and a carbide of the carbide-forming element are formed.

  7. Buccal Exostosis: A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Medsinge, Sonali V; Kohad, Ramesh; Budhiraja, Harmeeta; Singh, Atamjeet; Gurha, Shradha; Sharma, Akash

    2015-01-01

    Buccal exostoses are broad-based, non-malignant surface growth occurring on the outer or facial surface of the maxilla and/or mandible, found usually in the premolar and molar region. Etiology is still not established, but it has been suggested that the bony overgrowth can be because of abnormally increased masticatory forces to the teeth. They tend to appear in early adolescence and may very slowly increase in size with time. They are painless, self-limiting and may increase patient concern about poor esthetics, inability to perform oral hygiene procedures, and compromised periodontal health by causing food lodgment. The following article presents a very rare case of bilateral buccal-sided maxillary exostoses and its management with surgical exploration. PMID:26028907

  8. Overview of rare K decays

    SciTech Connect

    Littenberg, L.

    1995-05-01

    The status and future prospects of searches for and studies of forbidden and highly suppressed K decays are reviewed. Here the author discusses three areas of recent activity in rare K decay. These are lepton-flavor violating decays, which are entirely forbidden in the Standard Model, K{sub S} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}}{pi}{sup 0}, which is of interest from the point of view of CP-violation, and `one loop` decays of the form K{sup 0,{+-}} {yields} ({pi}{sup 0,{+-}})l{bar l}, that can throw light on Standard Model CP-violation and determine parameters such as V{sub td}.

  9. Rare cause of oesophagus perforation

    PubMed Central

    Sabuncuoglu, Mehmet Zafer; Benzin, Mehmet Fatih; Dandin, Ozgur; Cakir, Tugrul; Sozen, Isa; Sabuncuoglu, Aylin; Teomete, Uygar

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Oesophagus perforations, which are generally caused by iatrogenic injuries, are a serious clinical event. There are still high rates of mortality and morbidity and there is no gold standard of surgical treatment. PRESENTATION OF CASE The case is here presented of a 54-year old female with complaints of dysphagia after having swallowed a bone in food, who was determined with oesophagus perforation on CT examination. DISCUSSION Oesophagus perforation generally occurs secondary to interventional procedures and rarely develops associated with foreign bodies. Treatment depends on the perforation site and dimension. CONCLUSION While conservative primary surgical repair may be chosen for cervical lesions, more aggressive approaches such as resection and delayed reconstruction are recommended for thoracic lesions. Early determination and appropriate treatment are life-saving. PMID:25541369

  10. Robinow Syndrome: A Rare Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Agarwalla, Sunil Kumar; Pradhan, Swayanprava

    2015-01-01

    Robinow syndrome is a rare entity characterized by short stature and abnormalities of the head, face and external genitalia. It is otherwise called ‘fetal face syndrome’ due to its resemblance with fetal face. We present an eight-year-old female child who came with mesomelic short stature, abnormal facial features, multiple sets of teeth (both deciduous and permanent), pectus excavatum, umbilical hernia, limb abnormalities like shortening of fore arm, simian crease, broad thumbs and other fingers, clinodactyly, abnormal carrying angle, absent labia minora, absent clitoris. Apart from physical appearance she was having diversification of recti and umbilical hernia. Due to the several physical presentation mild systemic involvement it was diagnosed as autosomal dominant robinow syndrome. She is now on follow up and planned for a cosmetic surgery to repair facial defects. PMID:26816964

  11. Epidemiological analysis of rare polydactylies

    SciTech Connect

    Castilla, E.E.; Fonseca, R.L. da; Dutra, M.G. da

    1996-11-11

    This work includes all cases with extra digits (polydactyly) registered from a birth sample of over four million births aggregated from two comparable birth series: the Latin-American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations: ECLAMC (3,128,957 live and still births from the 1967 to 1993 period), and the Spanish Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations: ECEMC. All but 2 of 6,912 registered polydactyly cases fit well into one of the following 11 preestablished polydactyly types (observed number of cases in parentheses): Postaxial hexadactyly (5,345), Preaxial-I hexadactyly (1,018), Seven or more digits (57), synpolydactyly (15), crossed polydactyly (45), 1st digit triphalangism (33), 2nd digit duplication (39), 3rd digit duplication (18), 4th digit duplication (22), Haas polysyndactyly (3), and high degree of duplication (4). The birth prevalence rates observed in both series were similar except for postaxial polydactyly, which was more frequent in the ECLAMC (150.2/100,000) than in the ECEMC (67.4/100,000), as expected due to the higher African Black ethnic extraction of the South-American than of the Spanish populations. This similar frequency for the rare polydactylies (5.4 per 100,000 in South America and 5.7 in Spain), and for each one of the 9 categories, suggests that the values reported here are valid for most populations. The rare polydactylies are frequently syndromal: one third of them (77/236) were found in association with other congenital anomalies, 11.0% (26/236) in MCA cases and 21.6% (51/236) in recognized syndromes. 19 refs., 7 tabs.

  12. Rare insights into cancer biology.

    PubMed

    Adam, J; Yang, M; Soga, T; Pollard, P J

    2014-05-15

    Cancer-associated mutations have been identified in the metabolic genes succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), fumarate hydratase (FH) and isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), advancing and challenging our understanding of cellular function and disease mechanisms and providing direct links between dysregulated metabolism and cancer. Some striking parallels exist in the cellular consequences of the genetic mutations within this triad of cancer syndromes, including accumulation of oncometabolites and competitive inhibition of 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases, particularly, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylases, JmjC domain-containing histone demethylases (part of the JMJD family) and the ten-eleven translocation (TET) family of 5methyl cytosine (5mC) DNA hydroxylases. These lead to activation of HIF-dependent oncogenic pathways and inhibition of histone and DNA demethylation. Mutations in FH, resulting in loss of enzyme activity, predispose affected individuals to a rare cancer, hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC), characterised by benign smooth muscle cutaneous and uterine tumours (leiomyomata) and an aggressive form of collecting duct and type 2 papillary renal cancer. Interestingly, loss of FH activity results in the accumulation of high levels of fumarate that can lead to the non-enzymatic modification of cysteine residues in multiple proteins (succination) and in some cases to their disrupted function. Here we consider that the study of rare diseases such as HLRCC, combining analyses of human tumours and cell lines with in vitro and in vivo murine models has provided novel insights into cancer biology associated with dysregulated metabolism and represents a useful paradigm for cancer research. PMID:23812428

  13. Gastric lactobezoar - a rare disorder?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Gastric lactobezoar, a pathological conglomeration of milk and mucus in the stomach of milk-fed infants often causing gastric outlet obstruction, is a rarely reported disorder (96 cases since its first description in 1959). While most patients were described 1975-1985 only 26 children have been published since 1986. Clinically, gastric lactobezoars frequently manifest as acute abdomen with abdominal distension (61.0% of 96 patients), vomiting (54.2%), diarrhea (21.9%), and/or a palpable abdominal mass (19.8%). Respiratory (23.0%) and cardiocirculatory (16.7%) symptoms are not uncommon. The pathogenesis of lactobezoar formation is multifactorial: exogenous influences such as high casein content (54.2%), medium chain triglycerides (54.2%) or enhanced caloric density (65.6%) of infant milk as well as endogenous factors including immature gastrointestinal functions (66.0%), dehydration (27.5%) and many other mechanisms have been suggested. Diagnosis is easy if the potential presence of a gastric lactobezoar is thought of, and is based on a history of inappropriate milk feeding, signs of acute abdomen and characteristic features of diagnostic imaging. Previously, plain and/or air-, clear fluid- or opaque contrast medium radiography techniques were used to demonstrate a mass free-floating in the lumen of the stomach. This feature differentiates a gastric lactobezoar from intussusception or an abdominal neoplasm. Currently, abdominal ultrasound, showing highly echogenic intrabezoaric air trapping, is the diagnostic method of choice. However, identifying a gastric lactobezoar requires an investigator experienced in gastrointestinal problems of infancy as can be appreciated from the results of our review which show that in not even a single patient gastric lactobezoar was initially considered as a possible differential diagnosis. Furthermore, in over 30% of plain radiographs reported, diagnosis was initially missed although a lactobezoar was clearly demonstrable on repeat

  14. How to model rare events?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grieser, J.; Jewson, S.

    2009-04-01

    The risk of extreme meteorological events is often estimated using extreme value theory (EVT). However, EVT can't be expected to work well in all cases. Two examples are (a) very rare events which are not adequately captured in short observational records and (b) nonstationary situations where observations alone cannot provide risk estimates for the future. For these reasons Risk Management Solutions (RMS) develops models of extreme weather risks that are based on a combination of both, physics and statistics, rather than just statistics. One example is the RMS TC-Rain model. In addition to wind and storm surge, tropical cyclones (TCs) can lead to torrential rain that may cause widespread flooding and landslides. The most prominent recent historical example is tropical storm Alison (2001) which inundated Houston and caused roughly US 5bn of damage. Since Alison was only tropical storm, rather than a hurricane, no damage due to wind and storm surge was expected and no serious warnings were issued. RMS now has developed a TC-Rain Model which is based on a combination of observations, experience and physical parameterizations. It is an example on how the use of physical principles helps to estimate the risk of rare and devastating events. Based on an event set of TC tracks it allows the calculation of several hundred thousand TC rain footprints which can then be used for the estimation of flood levels and their return periods via a complex dynamical hydrological model. The TC-Rain Model takes a number of physical mechanisms into account, including (a) the effect of surface roughness change at land fall, (b) orographic rain enhancement, (c) drift of rain due to strong horizontal winds, (d) asymmetry, (e) outer rain bands and (f) the dependence on sea surface temperature. It is calibrated using 35 US-landfalling tropical cyclones from 1998 to the 2008, and verified against all US-landfalling TCs since 1948. The model is not designed as a forecasting tool, but rather a

  15. Rare earths, the lanthanides, yttrium and scandium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bedinger, G.; Bleiwas, D.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, rare earths were recovered from bastnasite concentrates at the Mountain Pass Mine in California. Consumption of refined rare-earth products decreased in 2011 from 2010. U.S. rare-earth imports originated primarily from China, with lesser amounts from Austria, Estonia, France and Japan. The United States imported all of its demand for yttrium metal and yttrium compounds, with most of it originating from China. Scandium was imported in various forms and processed domestically.

  16. TRICARE; rare diseases definition. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2010-08-01

    This final rule revises the definition of rare diseases to adopt the definition of a rare disease as promulgated by the National Institutes of Health, Office of Rare Diseases. The rule modification will result in the definition used by the TRICARE program for a rare disease to be consistent with the definition used by the National Institutes of Health and the Food and Drug Administration. TRICARE has generally been applying the broader National Institutes of Health and Food and Drug Administration definitions when making coverage decisions for treatments; therefore, there will be no practical changes for beneficiaries. PMID:20690233

  17. Mass Measurement with Rare-RI Rin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, Akira

    2014-09-01

    Mass measurement with Rare-RI Ring in RIKEN RI Beam Factory (RIBF) will be presented. The main purpose of Rare-RI Ring is to measure the mass for very neutron-rich nuclei, the production rate of which is very small (rare RI) and the life-time of which is predicted to be very short (less than 10 ms). In Rare-RI Ring, mass measurements will be performed based on isochronous mass spectrometry. There are two innovative apparatus in Rare-RI Ring: individual injection, which can realize the injection of 200 A MeV rare RI one-by-one, and a cyclotron-like storage ring, which allows high isochronous magnetic fields with large angular and momentum acceptances (~1%). By these apparatus, we will achieve a 10-6 mass resolution, and will be able to access rare RI, the production rate of which is down to 1 event/day/pnA in RIBF. Construction of Rare-RI Ring has started from the 2012 fiscal year. Construction of the storage ring itself was almost completed. In this fiscal year, we succeeded to store alphas from 241Am source and to check the production of isochronous fields in the storage ring. In this talk, present status of Rare-RI Ring and the possible mass measurement there will be presented.

  18. Improved method for preparing rare earth sesquichalcogenides

    DOEpatents

    Takeshita, T.; Beaudry, B.J.; Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.

    1982-04-14

    An improved method for the preparation of high purity rare earth sesquichalcogenides is described. The rare earth, as one or more pieces of the metal, is sealed under a vacuum with a stoichiometric amount of sulfur or selenium and a small amount of iodine into a quartz reaction vessel. The sealed vessel is then heated to above the vaporization temperature of the chalcogen and below the melting temperature of the rare earth metal and maintained until the product has been formed. The iodine is then vaporized off leaving a pure product. The rare earth sulfides and selenides thus formed are useful as semiconductors and as thermoelectric generators. 3 tables.

  19. Alaska's rare earth deposits and resource potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, James C.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2012-01-01

    Alaska’s known mineral endowment includes some of the largest and highest grade deposits of various metals, including gold, copper and zinc. Recently, Alaska has also been active in the worldwide search for sources of rare earth elements (REE) to replace exports now being limitedby China. Driven by limited supply of the rare earths, combined with their increasing use in new ‘green’ energy, lighting, transportation, and many other technological applications, the rare earth metals neodymium, europium and, in particular, the heavy rare earth elements terbium, dysprosium and yttrium are forecast to soon be in critical short supply (U.S. Department of Energy, 2010).

  20. [Rare diseases from a life insurance perspective].

    PubMed

    Senn, A; Filzmaier, K

    2015-12-01

    A rare disease is defined as a disease that affects a maximum of 5 in 10,000 people. As of today there are roughly 7000 different rare diseases known. On account of this one can say that "rare diseases are rare, but people affected by them are common". For Germany this amounts to: 4 million people that are affected by a rare disease. Diagnosis, therapeutic options and prognosis have substantially improved for some of the rare diseases. Besides the general medical advances--especially in the area of genetics--this is also due to networking and sharing information by so-called Centres of Competence on a national and international scale. This results in a better medical care for the corresponding group of patients. Against this backdrop, the number of people applying for life assurance who are suffering from a complex or rare disease has risen steadily in the last years. Due to the scarce availability of data regarding long-term prognosis of many rare diseases, a biomathematical, medical and actuarial expertise on the part of the insurer is necessary in order to adequately assess the risk of mortality and morbidity. Furthermore there is quite a focus on the issue of rare diseases from not only politics but society as well. Therefore evidence based medical assessment by insurers is especially important in this group of applicants--thinking of legal compliance and reputational risk. PMID:26775306

  1. Thrombosis in rare bleeding disorders.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Sáez, Arlette

    2012-04-01

    Inherited deficiencies of blood coagulation factors are usually associated with lifelong bleeding tendency. In addition to Haemophilias A and B and von Willebrand disease, congenital deficiencies of such factors as fibrinogen, prothrombin (FII)), FV, FVII, FX, FXI, FXIII, and combined deficiencies occur and can lead to a diversity of clinical conditions. Paradoxically, for some of these disorders associated with significant bleeding tendency there are reports of thrombotic events, both arterial and venous. Thrombosis in hemophilia patients has a multifactorial pathogenesis and the main conditions associated with this complication are the use of long-term central venous catheters, intensive replacement therapy usually in the setting of surgical procedures, the use of bypassing agents or the coexistence of acquired or inherited prothrombotic risk factors. Regarding other rare bleeding disorders, thrombotic phenomena has been described particularly in patients with afibrinogenemia, FXI and FVII deficiency and the events can occur even in young patients, in the presence of concomitant risk factors or spontaneously. Replacement therapy must be individualized and should take into account past history of haemostatic challenges, family history of bleeding and thrombosis, just like the level of factor. For mild deficiencies when patients are asymptomatic the use of antithrombotic prophylaxis must be considered with or without concomitant use of replacement therapy. In patients with history of thrombosis it may be helpful to perform a thrombophilia screening to exclude coexisting prothrombotic defects and for all patients it is recommended to control known cardiovascular disease risk factors. PMID:22507808

  2. Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    York, R. C.

    2006-07-01

    The proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) Project will provide world-class intensities of radioactive beams created by any of the known production mechanisms. A driver linac will be used to accelerate any stable isotope from protons through uranium to energies of ⩾400 MeV/u and intensities of ⩾100 kW. Lighter elements will be used to produce radioactive ion beams by the isotope separation on line (ISOL) method. Typically heavier elements will be used to produce radioactive ion beams by the particle fragmentation (PF) method. A hybrid method of stopping radioactive ion beams produced by the PF method in a gas cell will also be employed. The RIA project has strong support from the nuclear science community as evidenced by RIA being the highest priority for major new construction in the most recent Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) Long Range Plan [2002 NSAC Long-Range Plan: Opportunities in Nuclear Science, A long-range plan for the next decade, April 2002]. In addition, RIA is tied for third position for the near term priorities of the Department of Energy (DoE) 20-year plan [DOE Office of Science, Facilities for the future of science: a twenty-year outlook. http://www.sc.doe.gov/Sub/Facilities_for_future/facilities_future.htm]. The status of the RIA design is presented.

  3. Protective effect of cactus cladode extract against cisplatin induced oxidative stress, genotoxicity and apoptosis in balb/c mice: combination with phytochemical composition

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cis-Platinum (II) (cis-diammine dichloroplatinum; CDDP) is a potent antitumor compound widely used for the treatment of many malignancies. An important side-effect of CDDP is nephrotoxicity. The cytotoxic action of this drug is often thought to induce oxidative stress and be associated with its ability to bind DNA to form CDDP–DNA adducts and apoptosis in kidney cells. In this study, the protective effect of cactus cladode extract (CCE) against CDDP-induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity were investigated in mice. We also looked for levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, chromosome aberrations (CA) test, SOS Chromotest, expressions of p53, bax and bcl2 in kidney and we also analyzed several parameters of renal function markers toxicity such as serum biochemical analysis. Methods Adult, healthy balb/c (20–25 g) male mice aged of 4–5 weeks were pre-treated by intraperitonial administration of CCE (50 mg/Kg.b.w) for 2 weeks. Control animals were treated 3 days a week for 4 weeks by intraperitonial administration of 100 μg/Kg.b.w CDDP. Animals which treated by CDDP and CCE were divided into two groups: the first group was administrated CCE 2 hours before each treatment with CDDP 3 days a week for 4 weeks. The second group was administrated without pre-treatment with CCE but this extract was administrated 24 hours after each treatment with CDDP 3 days a week for 4 weeks. Results Our results showed that CDDP induced significant alterations in all tested oxidative stress markers. In addition it induced CA in bone morrow cells, increased the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins p53 and bax and decreased the expression of anti-apoptotic protein bcl2 in kidney. On the other hand, CDDP significantly increased the levels of urea and creatinine and decreased the levels of albumin and total protein.The treatment of CCE before or after treatment with CDDP showed, (i) a total reduction

  4. Soluble rare-earth chalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pernin, Christopher G.

    1999-11-01

    The cluster Eu8(DMF)13(mu4-O)(mu 3-OH)12(Se3)(Se4)2(Se 5)2 was synthesized from the reaction of EuCl3 dissolved in tetrahydrofaran with K2Se4 dissolved in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). The Eu8(O)(OH)12 10+ core is the first example such a polyoxometallo-core. The compound is further unusual in that it contains three different polyselenide chain lengths attaching adjacent Eu atoms. A similar reaction between Ln Cl3·6H2O and K2Se4 in DMF was found to produce the cluster compounds Gd8(DMF) 13(mu4-O)(mu3-OH)12(Se3)(Se 4)2(Se5)2, Yb8 (DMF) 11(mu4-O)(mu3-OH)12(Se4) 2(Se5)2Cl2·(DMF), and Y 8(DMF)12(mu4-O)(mu3-OH)12 (Se4)4Cl2·(DMF)6. Each of these clusters has a similar Ln8(mu 4-OH)(mu3-OH)1210+ core coordinated by a variety of polyselenide and chloride ligands. The organometallic rare-earth chalcogenide compounds (C5H 5)2Y [N( Q PPh2)2] ( Q = S, Se) have been prepared in good yield from the protonolysis reaction between CP3Y and HN( Q PPh2)2 in THF. In both compounds, the [N( Q PPh2)2]-- ligand is bound eta 3 to the Y center. The Y atom is also coordinated to two (C5 H5)-- ligands and so is formally 9-coordinate. 1H, 31P, 77Se, and 89Y NMR data indicate that the solid state connectivity is retained in solution. The compounds (C5H5)2Ln[N( Q PPh2)2] (Ln = La, Gd, Er, Yb, for Q = Se; Ln = Yb for Q = S) were synthesized. The series of compounds indicates that the smaller rare-earth elements cannot accommodate eta3-bonding from the imidodiphosphinochalcogenido ligand. The compounds Y[N( Q PPh2)2]3 ( Q = S (1), Se(2)) have been synthesized from the reactions between Y[N(SiMe3)2]3 and HN( Q PPh2)2. In 1, the Y atom is surrounded by three similar [N(SPPh2)2]-- ligands bound eta3 through two S atoms and an N atom. In 2 , the Y atom is surrounded again by three [N(SePPh2) 2]-- ligands, but two are bound eta2 through the two Se atoms and the other ligand is bound eta3 through the two Se atoms and an N atom. Although a fluxional process is detected in the 31P and 77Se NMR spectra

  5. Why are metapopulations so rare?

    PubMed

    Fronhofer, Emanuel A; Kubisch, Alexander; Hilker, Frank M; Hovestadt, Thomas; Poethke, Hans Joachim

    2012-08-01

    Roughly 40 years after its introduction, the metapopulation concept is central to population ecology. The notion that local populations and their dynamics may be coupled by dispersal is without any doubt of great importance for our understanding of population-level processes. A metapopulation describes a set of subpopulations linked by (rare) dispersal events in a dynamic equilibrium of extinctions and recolonizations. In the large body of literature that has accumulated, the term "metapopulation" is often used in a very broad sense; most of the time it simply implies spatial heterogeneity. A number of reviews have recently addressed this problem and have pointed out that, despite the large and still growing popularity of the metapopulation concept, there are only very few empirical examples that conform with the strict classical metapopulation (CM) definition. In order to understand this discrepancy between theory and observation, we use an individual-based modeling approach that allows us to pinpoint the environmental conditions and the life-history attributes required for the emergence of a CM structure. We find that CM dynamics are restricted to a specific parameter range at the border between spatially structured but completely occupied and globally extinct populations. Considering general life-history attributes, our simulations suggest that CMs are more likely to occur in arthropod species than in (large) vertebrates. Since the specific type of spatial population structure determines conservation concepts, our findings have important implications for conservation biology. Our model suggests that most spatially structured populations are panmictic, patchy, or of mainland-island type, which makes efforts spent on increasing connectivity (e.g., corridors) questionable. If one does observe a true CM structure, this means that the focal metapopulation is on the brink of extinction and that drastic conservation measures are needed. PMID:22928424

  6. Rare Books As Teaching Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gino, M. C.; Wise, G.

    2003-05-01

    The use of historic science illustrations in the classroom offers unique opportunities to meet the National Science Standard that "students should develop understanding of science as a human endeavor, of the nature of scientific knowledge, and of historical perspectives" (Content Standard G, Science Education Standards, 1996, National Academy Press, Washington, DC). The Dudley Observatory has launched an effort to use its outstanding collection of rare astronomy books to meet this challenge. The example featured here is the illustration "Systema Solare et Planetarium" from the book Atlas novus coelestis (1742) by Johann Gabriel Doppelmayr (1671-1750). This illustration is significant in the evolution of astronomy because it is one of the first popular depictions of the solar system picturing the planets in their accurate relative sizes and providing numerical estimates of planetary and solar dimensions and distances. Perhaps at least as important, from the educational viewpoint, it is visually appealing, culturally intriguing and filled with puzzling items that might serve as the basis for inquiry-based learning. For example, why is the page sprinkled with what appear to be appeals to theology ("Ex His Creatorem") and expressions of wonder or even horror ("perceptum horridem")? Why does its map of the world depict California as an island? A structure for using this and other historic illustrations in the classroom might be based on the following general questions: What is the purpose of the illustration? What is included that a modern scientist might leave out, or left out that a modern scientist might include? How accurate are the quantitative results presented? How does the conceptual treatment resemble and differ from modern treatments? Viewing the heavens as an 18th century astronomer wanted his public to see them is an excellent approach to achieving the humanistic and historical perspective that the educational standard seeks.

  7. [RARE DISEASES DTC: DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT AND CARE].

    PubMed

    Mendlovic, Joseph; Barash, Hila; Yardeni, Hadar; Banet-Levi, Yonit; Yonath, Hagith; Raas-Rothschild, Annick

    2016-04-01

    Rare diseases are chronic, progressive genetic disorders, which affect around 6-8% of the general population, mainly children. Therefore, in Israel approximately 500,000 people are probably affected by a rare disease. In this article, we review some of the issues pertaining to rare diseases, such as the need for accurate diagnosis which is necessary not only for specific care and treatment but also for informed family planning. In addition, we review the impact of the activities of patients' organizations on the awareness of rare diseases and their involvement in the creation of the Orphan Drug Act, which was the leading point on the way to drug development worldwide. During the last few years networks for reaching leading specialists' opinions on the way to proper diagnosis were created. Thereafter, the next generation genetic technologies, such as exome sequencing, have been a revolution in terms of options and hope for patients with rare undiagnosed diseases. Patients with rare diseases and their families are a challenge to the health care system, not only in terms of diagnosis and therapy, but also in terms of special needs. In addition, deciphering molecular pathways of rare diseases might be the key for understanding molecular events involved in common disorders. We emphasize the duty to ensure appropriate capacity and equal access to follow-up and clinical management of patients with rare diseases in Israel. PMID:27323543

  8. A rare variant of knee dislocation

    PubMed Central

    HUSSIN, P.; MAWARDI, M.; AB HALIM, A.H.

    2016-01-01

    Knee dislocation is a rare injury. It represents less than 0.2% of orthopaedic injuries. This case reports a rare form of knee dislocation caused by the impact of a high-energy trauma. In these cases the appropriate assessment and management is needed to ensure that patient receives the proper treatment. PMID:27381692

  9. Ternary rare earth-lanthanide sulfides

    DOEpatents

    Takeshita, Takuo; Gschneidner JR., Karl A.; Beaudry, Bernard J.

    1987-01-06

    A new ternary rare earth sulfur compound having the formula: where M is a rare earth element selected from the group europium, samarium and ytterbium and x=0.15 to 0.8. The compound has good high-temperature thermoelectric properties and exhibits long-term structural stability up to 1000.degree. C.

  10. Discovery of rare variants for complex phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Kosmicki, Jack A; Churchhouse, Claire L; Rivas, Manuel A; Neale, Benjamin M

    2016-06-01

    With the rise of sequencing technologies, it is now feasible to assess the role rare variants play in the genetic contribution to complex trait variation. While some of the earlier targeted sequencing studies successfully identified rare variants of large effect, unbiased gene discovery using exome sequencing has experienced limited success for complex traits. Nevertheless, rare variant association studies have demonstrated that rare variants do contribute to phenotypic variability, but sample sizes will likely have to be even larger than those of common variant association studies to be powered for the detection of genes and loci. Large-scale sequencing efforts of tens of thousands of individuals, such as the UK10K Project and aggregation efforts such as the Exome Aggregation Consortium, have made great strides in advancing our knowledge of the landscape of rare variation, but there remain many considerations when studying rare variation in the context of complex traits. We discuss these considerations in this review, presenting a broad range of topics at a high level as an introduction to rare variant analysis in complex traits including the issues of power, study design, sample ascertainment, de novo variation, and statistical testing approaches. Ultimately, as sequencing costs continue to decline, larger sequencing studies will yield clearer insights into the biological consequence of rare mutations and may reveal which genes play a role in the etiology of complex traits. PMID:27221085

  11. Ames Lab 101: Rare-Earth Recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan Ott

    2012-09-05

    Recycling keeps paper, plastics, and even jeans out of landfills. Could recycling rare-earth magnets do the same? Perhaps, if the recycling process can be improved. Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory are working to more effectively remove the neodymium, a rare earth, from the mix of other materials in a magnet.

  12. Double Eye Brow: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Sudipta; Ghosh, Chiranjit; Bazmi, Badruddin Ahamed; Sarkar, Subrata

    2013-01-01

    Eye brows are essential for esthetic and functional purposes. Various kinds of eye brows are found in human species. Protective function is one of the important functions of eye brows. Double eye brow is a very rare condition found in human. This case report describes one of the rare cases of double eye brow. PMID:24574697

  13. 75 FR 47458 - TRICARE; Rare Diseases Definition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... Register (62 FR 627-631) clarifying the TRICARE exclusion of unproven drugs, devices and medical treatments... July 24, 2009 (74 FR 36639-36640). No comments were received on the proposed rule before the comment... promote research and collaboration on rare and orphan diseases. The Rare Diseases Act of 2002 (Pub. L....

  14. A rare case of petrous apex osteoma.

    PubMed

    Cece, Hasan; Yildiz, Sema; Iynen, Ismail; Karakas, Omer; Karakas, Ekrem; Dogan, Ferit

    2012-06-01

    Osteomas are the most common tumours of the cranial vault and facial skeleton. Temporal bone osteoma is a rare entity. An osteoma arising from the petrous apex is extremely rare. We present a case of osteoma arising from the petrous apex followed by a discussion of the etiology, presentation, and radiologic findings. PMID:22755351

  15. Rare Malignant Tumors of the Breast

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Trevor; Albarracin, Constance; Carkaci, Selin; Whitman, Gary J; Adrada, Beatriz E

    2015-01-01

    While the more common forms of breast cancer are well understood and recognized, there are many important rare malignancies that are less appreciated. Many of these cancers have imaging findings that, when understood, help to formulate a more educated differential diagnosis. In this article, the clinical features, imaging, and pathologic findings of rare breast malignancies will be discussed. PMID:26664775

  16. Omphalocele with dextrotardia-A rare association.

    PubMed

    Shakya, V C; Agrawal, C S; Shrestha, N R; Dhungel, K; Adhikary, S

    2009-01-01

    Omphalocele is frequently associated with many other congenital malformations. In cardiac anomalies, association of omphalocele with dextrocardia has been rarely noticed before. We present here a child with dextrocardia and omphalocele alongwith a brief review of the literature on this rare association. PMID:20795468

  17. A rare case of giant vaginal fibromyoma

    PubMed Central

    Asnani, Mona; Srivastava, Kumkum; Gupta, Hem Prabha; Kunwar, Shipra; Srivastava, A N

    2016-01-01

    Summary Vaginal fibroids rarely exist as a primary vaginal tumor. Approximately 300 cases have been reported in the literature. Here we are reporting a rare case of giant vaginal fibromyoma. It was diagnosed as cervical fibroid polyp preoperatively but found to be vaginal fibromyoma peroperatively. PMID:26989649

  18. Classification and generation of terrestrial rare gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saito, K.

    1978-01-01

    A Kr-84/Xe-130 versus Ne-20/Ar-36 diagram is a very useful format with which to study the elemental ratios of rare gases from terrestrial materials. It can separate not only the three types of rare gases which Ozima and Alexander (1976) classified but also the 'planetary' type rare gases from the other three types of rare gases. When all the available terrestrial rare gas data are plotted in a Kr-84/Xe-130 versus Ne-20/Ar-36 diagram, several observations can be made. First, most of the analyses of rare gases from shales yield Kr-84/Xe-130 ratios between the 'planetary' and atmospheric values. If, however, the atmosphere's high Kr-84/Xe-130 ratio was produced by the selective adsorption of xenon onto shales from an initially 'planetary' atmosphere, as is widely accepted, then the Kr-84/Xe-130 ratio in shales should be even lower than the 'planetary' value. Second, the rare gas pattern in the quenched rims of submarine basalts may be explained as fractionated samples of the rare gases in sea water.

  19. Ames Lab 101: Rare-Earth Recycling

    ScienceCinema

    Ryan Ott

    2013-06-05

    Recycling keeps paper, plastics, and even jeans out of landfills. Could recycling rare-earth magnets do the same? Perhaps, if the recycling process can be improved. Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory are working to more effectively remove the neodymium, a rare earth, from the mix of other materials in a magnet.

  20. Cactus: An Introduction to Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Hartley

    2008-01-01

    When the author first used "VisiCalc," the author thought it a very useful tool when he had the formulas. But how could he design a spreadsheet if there was no known formula for the quantities he was trying to predict? A few months later, the author relates he learned to use multiple linear regression software and suddenly it all clicked into…

  1. Hypoglycemic effect of Opuntia cactus.

    PubMed

    Ibañez-Camacho, R; Roman-Ramos, R

    1979-01-01

    Nopal (Opuntia sp.) has been traditionally used by the Mexican population for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this work is to describe effects produced by directly liquified nopal and extracts from this plant in healthy and pancreatectomized rabbits. Preliminary results allow us to conclude that Opuntia streptacantha, Lemaire, has hypoglycemic properties when orally administered, in animals with experimentally induced diabetes as well as in healthy ones with physiologic hyperglycemia. PMID:539865

  2. Rare Earth Metals: Resourcefulness and Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shijie

    2013-10-01

    When we appreciate the digital revolution carried over from the twentieth century with mobile communication and the Internet, and when we enjoy our high-tech lifestyle filled with iDevices, hybrid cars, wind turbines, and solar cells in this new century, we should also appreciate that all of these advanced products depend on rare earth metals to function. Although there are only 136,000 tons of annual worldwide demand, (Cho, Rare Earth Metals, Will We Have Enough?)1 rare earth metals are becoming such hot commodities on international markets, due to not only to their increasing uses, including in most critical military hardware, but also to Chinese growth, which accounts for 95% of global rare earth metal production. Hence, the 2013 technical calendar topic, planned by the TMS/Hydrometallurgy and Electrometallurgy Committee, is particularly relevant, with four articles (including this commentary) contributed to the JOM October Issue discussing rare earth metals' resourcefulness and recovery.

  3. The Italian National Rare Diseases Registry

    PubMed Central

    Taruscio, Domenica; Kodra, Yllka; Ferrari, Gianluca; Vittozzi, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Rare disease registries are a priority at European level and specific actions are being implemented by the European Commission to support their development. In Italy, a National Registry of rare diseases has been established in 2001 as a network of regional registries. The latter have gradually been established and the full coverage of the Italian territory was attained during 2011. Methods Here we describe the basic features of the National Registry of rare diseases; the activities carried out to promote consistent operations in the regional registries; and the overall quality and composition of the records collected. Results After a validation process, including removal of duplicate records, 110,841 records of patients with rare diseases, single and with group denominations, are stored in the National Registry of rare diseases. They correspond to the overall diagnoses communicated to national registry by regional registries up to 30 June 2012. The quality of the data collected by the the National Registry of rare diseases has been assessed with respect to completeness and consistency of procedures. Variables characterising case and diagnosis showed a very limited number of missing values. Records reported at least one case of 485 rare conditions. Discussion To date, the National Registry of rare diseases is a surveillance system with the main objective of producing epidemiologic evidence on rare diseases in Italy, and of supporting policy making and health services planning. Data quality still represents a limitation for any sound epidemiological estimate of rare diseases in Italy. However, improvements of the quality of collected data and the completeness of case notifications should be strengthened. PMID:24922301

  4. Mouse Models of Rare Craniofacial Disorders.

    PubMed

    Achilleos, Annita; Trainor, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    A rare disease is defined as a condition that affects less than 1 in 2000 individuals. Currently more than 7000 rare diseases have been documented, and most are thought to be of genetic origin. Rare diseases primarily affect children, and congenital craniofacial syndromes and disorders constitute a significant proportion of rare diseases, with over 700 having been described to date. Modeling craniofacial disorders in animal models has been instrumental in uncovering the etiology and pathogenesis of numerous conditions and in some cases has even led to potential therapeutic avenues for their prevention. In this chapter, we focus primarily on two general classes of rare disorders, ribosomopathies and ciliopathies, and the surprising finding that the disruption of fundamental, global processes can result in tissue-specific craniofacial defects. In addition, we discuss recent advances in understanding the pathogenesis of an extremely rare and specific craniofacial condition known as syngnathia, based on the first mouse models for this condition. Approximately 1% of all babies are born with a minor or major developmental anomaly, and individuals suffering from rare diseases deserve the same quality of treatment and care and attention to their disease as other patients. PMID:26589934

  5. Rare Relativistic Configuration Interaction Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinov, Konstantin Dimitrov

    1995-01-01

    Valence shell Relativistic Configuration Interaction (RCI) Calculations for several Rare Earth elements resulted the following electron affinities: (1) Ce^ - 6p attachment to the 4f 5d 6s^2 ^1G_sp{4 }{circ} ground state: (2J,EA) = (9,259 meV), (7,147 meV), [7_ {rm first exc.},55 rm meV], (5,105 meV), (3,43 meV). The electron affinity of the 5d attachment in 4f 5d^2 6s^2 ^5H _{7/2} is 178 meV. (2) Pr ^- 6p attachment to the 4f^3 6s^2 ^4I_sp {9/2}{circ} ground state gives 128 meV for the 4f^3 6s^2 6p J = 5 state (^5K 60%), and 110 meV for the J = 4 state (^5I 42%). No evidence for 5d attachment was found. (3) U^- 7p attachment to the 5f ^3 6d 7s^2 ^5L _sp{6}{circ} ground state gives: 175 meV for the 2J = 13 state (^6M 54%). No other 7p or 6d bound states were found. The hyperfine structure constants for the 5f^3 6d 7s^2 7p, 2J = 13 state are A = -72.4 MHz, B = 2644 MHz. No evidence is found to support f attachment in these species. We investigated two low lying 4f ^2 thresholds in Ce, to which one could attach s or p electron, but neither attachment gives enough energy to bind the negative ion. The missing core-valence effects may reduce the EAs by 0.06 eV, based on the difference between the theoretical predictions and experimental measurements for the electron affinity of Strontium. These results correspond to the observed negative ion yields: high for Ce^ -, moderate for Pr^-, and small for U^-.. The REDUCE method was extensively used for the U^- case. The current version of the RCI program allows up to 7 000 vectors (10M elements) in RAM. The enhancement of the computer programs is by a speed factor of 6, and 7 times bigger matrices. A parallel version of the RCI programs was developed. All of these systems are unbound at the MCDF level (single manifold). By far the biggest contributor to the binding is nsto (n-1)d correlation, while the biggest unbinding comes from ns^2 to np^2 correlation. Other important correlations are: ns^2to (n-1)d^2, (n-1)d nsto np^2 & np

  6. Mediastinal angiomatosis: a rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Pak, Min Gyoung; Choi, Phil Jo; Choi, Won Suk; Kang, Eun Ju

    2015-01-01

    Angiomatosis refers to a rare condition of large hamartomatous vascular lesions that extensively affect a region of the body or several different tissue types in a contiguous way. Several cases have been reported in the mediastinum. We experienced a histologically proven case of mediastinal angiomatosis in a 56-year-old woman that was incidentally detected as multiple conglomerated masses mimicking metastatic lymph nodes on chest radiography. Despite its rareness, our case emphasizes that pathologists and radiologists need to be aware of the rare diagnosis of angiomatosis in the mediastinum. PMID:26793386

  7. Ovarian haemangioma: A rare case report☆

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Bhaskar; Sengupta, Subhalakshmi; Rai, Anshita; Mehta, Jay; Quader, Aruna Rai; Roy, Subhendu; Borges, Anita

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Haemangioma of ovary is a rare tumour. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report an ovarian haemangioma which presented as an acute abdomen due to an adnexal mass. DISCUSSION We report an ovarian haemangioma which presented as an acute abdomen due to an adnexal mass. Haemangiomas have been reported in other organs but ovarian haemangioma is a rare tumor, usually asymptomatic and presenting as an incidental finding. Large lesions tend to present clinically with pain. A few cases have been described in the literature. CONCLUSION Considering their rare occurrence such tumors are a diagnostic challenge. PMID:24091074

  8. Rare kaon, muon, and pion decay

    SciTech Connect

    Littenberg, L.

    1998-12-01

    The author discusses the status of and prospects for the study of rare decays of kaons, muons, and pions. Studies of rare kaon decays are entering an interesting new phase wherein they can deliver important short-distance information. It should be possible to construct an alternative unitarity triangle to that determined in the B sector, and thus perform a critical check of the Standard Model by comparing the two. Rare muon decays are beginning to constrain supersymmetric models in a significant way, and future experiments should reach sensitivities which this kind of model must show effects, or become far less appealing.

  9. Pericardial Synovial Sarcoma: A Rare Clinical Entity.

    PubMed

    Goldblatt, Joshua; Saxena, Pankaj; McGiffin, David C; Zimmet, Adam

    2015-11-01

    Synovial sarcoma is an extremely rare form of primary malignancy of the pericardium. We present a case of primary synovial sarcoma of the pericardium followed by a review of the literature. PMID:26347295

  10. Rare Decays at the LHCb Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pescatore, L.

    2015-06-01

    Rare decays of beauty and charm hadrons offer a rich playground to make precise tests of the Standard Model and look for New Physics at the level of quantum corrections. A review of recent LHCb results will be presented.

  11. High temperature rare earth solid lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, H. E.

    1970-01-01

    Rare earth trifluorides have potential use as lubricating fillers for mechanical carbons and as coatings on metallic substrates. Friction experiments show that they are effective in reducing metallic wear.

  12. The BNL rare kaon decay program

    SciTech Connect

    Littenberg, L.

    1996-12-31

    The rare kaon decay program at Brookhaven National Laboratory is reviewed. Results from the last round of experiments are briefly discussed. The three experiments currently collecting data are described. Prospects for future experiments are discussed.

  13. International Rare Histiocytic Disorders Registry (IRHDR)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-25

    Rare Histiocytic Disorders (RHDs); Juvenile Xanthogranuloma (JXG); Reticulohistiocytoma (Epithelioid Histiocytoma); Xanthoma Disseminatum (XD); Multicentric Reticulohistiocytosis (MRH); Systemic Juvenile Xanthogranuloma; Erdheim-Chester Disease (ECD); Multi-system Rosai-Dorfman Disease (RDD)

  14. Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Students guides/pages/99/teachers-and-students Teaching Resources News 1 In The Spotlight News Archive ... about rare or genetic diseases in English or Spanish. text go Browse Diseases View diseases by alphabetical ...

  15. Sirenomelia with oesophageal atresia: a rare association.

    PubMed

    Sathe, Pragati Aditya; Ghodke, Ratnaprabha Kundlikrao; Kandalkar, Bhuvaneshwari Mahendra

    2014-02-01

    We are reporting a rare case of sirenomelia with oesophageal atresia. Sirenomelia is a lethal sporadic defect of which lower gastrointestinal tract anomalies are characteristic findings. Respiratory and upper gastrointestinal tract malformations like oesophageal atresia occur in about 20-35% of cases. Though its occurrence has been described, it has been reported only rarely. This report aims at describing this uncommon association along with its histological features. PMID:24701519

  16. Hemorrhagic sarcoid pleural effusion: A rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Onkar; Nair, Vidya; Talwar, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Involvement of pleura by sarcoidosis remains a rare manifestation and varies from pleural effusion, pneumothorax, pleural thickening, hydropneumothorax, trapped lung, hemothorax, or chylothorax. Sarcoid pleural effusions presenting as hemorrhagic effusions are even more rare. We report a case of active pulmonary sarcoidosis presenting as hemorrhagic pleural effusion requiring tissue diagnosis to rule out malignancy. The rarity of the presentation prompted us to report this case.

  17. Ternary rare earth-lanthanide sulfides

    DOEpatents

    Takeshita, Takuo; Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A.; Beaudry, Bernard J.

    1987-01-06

    A new ternary rare earth sulfur compound having the formula: La.sub.3-x M.sub.x S.sub.4 where M is a rare earth element selected from the group europium, samarium and ytterbium and x=0.15 to 0.8. The compound has good high-temperature thermoelectric properties and exhibits long-term structural stability up to 1000.degree. C.

  18. Hemorrhagic sarcoid pleural effusion: A rare entity.

    PubMed

    Jha, Onkar; Nair, Vidya; Talwar, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Involvement of pleura by sarcoidosis remains a rare manifestation and varies from pleural effusion, pneumothorax, pleural thickening, hydropneumothorax, trapped lung, hemothorax, or chylothorax. Sarcoid pleural effusions presenting as hemorrhagic effusions are even more rare. We report a case of active pulmonary sarcoidosis presenting as hemorrhagic pleural effusion requiring tissue diagnosis to rule out malignancy. The rarity of the presentation prompted us to report this case. PMID:27625449

  19. Osteopetrosis-A rare entity with osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Bedi, R. S.; Goel, Poonam; Pasricha, Navbir; Sachin; Goel, Ashish

    2011-01-01

    Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disorder that causes generalized sclerosis of the bone due to defect in bone resorption and remodeling. Albergs-Schonberg disease or autosomal dominant osteopetrosis type II is a rare form of osteopetrosis. Osteomyelitis is a well-documented complication of osteopetrosis. Any associated dental abnormality may be attributed to the pathological changes in bone remodeling. This case report discusses a case of osteopetrosis with osteomyelitis as a complication in a 8-year-old boy. PMID:23482851

  20. Floral double mesiodentes: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Singaraju, Gowri Sankar; Reddy, B. Rama Mohan; Supraja, G.; Reddy, K. Narayana

    2015-01-01

    Mesiodens is the most commonly erupting supernumerary in the midline between two maxillary central incisors. Mesiodentes is a rare condition when mesiodens erupt in multiples, which may present as either labial or palatal to permanent central incisors. We report a rare case of double mesiodentes (non-syndromic mesiodentes) with floret like appearance. The presence of mesiodens has functional and esthetic implications. Careful radiographic evaluation should be done to prevent complications during their extraction. PMID:25810670

  1. A rare complication of tracheal intubation.

    PubMed

    Shukeri, Wan Fadzlina Wan Muhd; Hassan, Wan Mohd Nazaruddin Wan; Nadarajan, Chandran

    2016-05-01

    Accidental endobronchial intubation is a frequent complication in critically ill patients requiring tracheal intubation (TI). If such complication occurs, it is more often the right main bronchus that is intubated due to anatomical reasons. Left main bronchus (LMB) intubation is rare. Here, we report a case with auscultatory, bronchoscopic, and radiographic evidence of accidental LMB intubation in a pregnant woman with dengue shock syndrome. We highlight this case to increase awareness about this possible-but-rare complication of TI. PMID:27275080

  2. A rare complication of tracheal intubation

    PubMed Central

    Shukeri, Wan Fadzlina Wan Muhd; Hassan, Wan Mohd Nazaruddin Wan; Nadarajan, Chandran

    2016-01-01

    Accidental endobronchial intubation is a frequent complication in critically ill patients requiring tracheal intubation (TI). If such complication occurs, it is more often the right main bronchus that is intubated due to anatomical reasons. Left main bronchus (LMB) intubation is rare. Here, we report a case with auscultatory, bronchoscopic, and radiographic evidence of accidental LMB intubation in a pregnant woman with dengue shock syndrome. We highlight this case to increase awareness about this possible-but-rare complication of TI. PMID:27275080

  3. Rare Z decays and neutrino flavor universality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durieux, Gauthier; Grossman, Yuval; König, Matthias; Kuflik, Eric; Ray, Shamayita

    2016-05-01

    We study rare four-body decays of the Z -boson involving at least one neutrino and one charged lepton. Large destructive interferences make these decays very sensitive to the Z couplings to neutrinos. As the identified charged leptons can determine the neutrino flavors, these decays probe the universality of the Z couplings to neutrinos. The rare four-body processes could be accurately measured at future lepton colliders, leading to percent level precision.

  4. International rare donor panels: a review.

    PubMed

    Nance, S; Scharberg, E A; Thornton, N; Yahalom, V; Sareneva, I; Lomas-Francis, C

    2016-04-01

    International rare blood donor panels or registries are important in the consistent availability of rare blood for patients who need this scarce resource. In countries where it has been possible to commit resources to this effort and often where the need is great, donors have been entered into a registry. The ISBT leadership recognized the importance of this very challenging inventory management activity and created a Working Party to support it. Individual countries support the WHO International Rare Donor Panel by submitting their donors' phenotype or genotype information to be catalogued into the database. It is extremely important that this database be cultivated and grown. The contributing countries keep their list updated and supply the blood product as they can when requested. It is known that some blood types are extremely scarce worldwide and requests for these are particularly difficult to fulfil. Thus, it is important to have a protocol to identify and recruit donors with rare blood types. It is equally or perhaps more important to ensure that the patients who need the rare blood are being managed appropriately in the presence and absence of rare blood products being available. PMID:26689301

  5. Rare cell isolation and analysis in microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuchao; Li, Peng; Huang, Po-Hsun; Xie, Yuliang; Mai, John D.; Wang, Lin; Nguyen, Nam-Trung; Huang, Tony Jun

    2014-01-01

    Rare cells are low-abundance cells in a much larger population of background cells. Conventional benchtop techniques have limited capabilities to isolate and analyze rare cells because of their generally low selectivity and significant sample loss. Recent rapid advances in microfluidics have been providing robust solutions to the challenges in the isolation and analysis of rare cells. In addition to the apparent performance enhancements resulting in higher efficiencies and sensitivity levels, microfluidics provides other advanced features such as simpler handling of small sample volumes and multiplexing capabilities for high-throughput processing. All of these advantages make microfluidics an excellent platform to deal with the transport, isolation, and analysis of rare cells. Various cellular biomarkers, including physical properties, dielectric properties, as well as immunoaffinities, have been explored for isolating rare cells. In this Focus article, we discuss the design considerations of representative microfluidic devices for rare cell isolation and analysis. Examples from recently published works are discussed to highlight the advantages and limitations of the different techniques. Various applications of these techniques are then introduced. Finally, a perspective on the development trends and promising research directions in this field are proposed. PMID:24406985

  6. California Rare Endemics and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinoza, M.

    2010-12-01

    California is known for its wide variety of endemic flora, from its annuals such as the Eschscholzia californica (California poppy) to the perennials like the Arctostaphylos pallida (Alameda manzanita), which happens to be a rare species. Each species plays an important role in the biodiversity of California, yet there are species that are threatened, not only by human interaction and urbanization, but by climate change. Species that we seldom see are now on the verge of becoming eradicated; rare endemics similar to Arctostaphylos pallida are now facing a new challenge that may severely impair their survival. The climate has changed significantly over the twentieth century and it has affected the distribution of rare endemics in California, both geographically as well as within their climatic and edaphic niches. Lilaeopsis masonii is just one rare endemic, however it serves as a representative of the other 23 species that were studied. Using Maxent, a climate-modeling program, it was viable to construct two climate envelopes of the masonii species: the early century envelope (1930-1959) and the later century envelope (1990-2009). When these two climate envelopes were compared, it became clear that the later century climate envelope had contracted radically, reshaping the climate niche of all rare endemics in California due to an increase in temperature. It is possible to conclude that the future of rare endemics hangs in the balance, where one degree higher in temperature is enough to topple the scale.

  7. Refined potentials for rare gas atom adsorption on rare gas and alkali-halide surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Heinbockel, J. H.; Outlaw, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    The utilization of models of interatomic potential for physical interaction to estimate the long range attractive potential for rare gases and ions is discussed. The long range attractive force is calculated in terms of the atomic dispersion properties. A data base of atomic dispersion parameters for rare gas atoms, alkali ion, and halogen ions is applied to the study of the repulsive core; the procedure for evaluating the repulsive core of ion interactions is described. The interaction of rare gas atoms on ideal rare gas solid and alkali-halide surfaces is analyzed; zero coverage absorption potentials are derived.

  8. Rare earth element scavenging in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, Robert H.; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    1990-10-01

    Examinations of rare earth element (REE) adsorption in seawater, using a variety of surface-types, indicated that, for most surfaces, light rare earth elements (LREEs) are preferentially adsorbed compared to the heavy rare earths (HREEs). Exceptions to this behavior were observed only for silica phases (glass surfaces, acid-cleaned diatomaceous earth, and synthetic SiO 2). The affinity of the rare earths for surfaces can be strongly affected by thin organic coatings. Glass surfaces which acquired an organic coating through immersion in Tampa Bay exhibited adsorptive behavior typical of organic-rich, rather than glass, surfaces. Models of rare earth distributions between seawater and carboxylate-rich surfaces indicate that scavenging processes which involve such surfaces should exhibit a strong dependence on pH and carbonate complexation. Scavenging models involving carboxylate surfaces produce relative REE abundance patterns in good general agreement with observed shale-normalized REE abundances in seawater. Scavenging by carboxylate-rich surfaces should produce HREE enrichments in seawater relative to the LREEs and may produce enrichments of lanthanum relative to its immediate trivalent neighbors. Due to the origin of distribution coefficients as a difference between REE solution complexation (which increases strongly with atomic number) and surface complexation (which apparently also increases with atomic number) the relative solution abundance patterns of the REEs produced by scavenging reactions can be quite complex.

  9. Locally rare species influence grassland ecosystem multifunctionality.

    PubMed

    Soliveres, Santiago; Manning, Peter; Prati, Daniel; Gossner, Martin M; Alt, Fabian; Arndt, Hartmut; Baumgartner, Vanessa; Binkenstein, Julia; Birkhofer, Klaus; Blaser, Stefan; Blüthgen, Nico; Boch, Steffen; Böhm, Stefan; Börschig, Carmen; Buscot, Francois; Diekötter, Tim; Heinze, Johannes; Hölzel, Norbert; Jung, Kirsten; Klaus, Valentin H; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Kleinebecker, Till; Klemmer, Sandra; Krauss, Jochen; Lange, Markus; Morris, E Kathryn; Müller, Jörg; Oelmann, Yvonne; Overmann, Jörg; Pašalić, Esther; Renner, Swen C; Rillig, Matthias C; Schaefer, H Martin; Schloter, Michael; Schmitt, Barbara; Schöning, Ingo; Schrumpf, Marion; Sikorski, Johannes; Socher, Stephanie A; Solly, Emily F; Sonnemann, Ilja; Sorkau, Elisabeth; Steckel, Juliane; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Stempfhuber, Barbara; Tschapka, Marco; Türke, Manfred; Venter, Paul; Weiner, Christiane N; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Werner, Michael; Westphal, Catrin; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Wolters, Volkmar; Wubet, Tesfaye; Wurst, Susanne; Fischer, Markus; Allan, Eric

    2016-05-19

    Species diversity promotes the delivery of multiple ecosystem functions (multifunctionality). However, the relative functional importance of rare and common species in driving the biodiversity-multifunctionality relationship remains unknown. We studied the relationship between the diversity of rare and common species (according to their local abundances and across nine different trophic groups), and multifunctionality indices derived from 14 ecosystem functions on 150 grasslands across a land-use intensity (LUI) gradient. The diversity of above- and below-ground rare species had opposite effects, with rare above-ground species being associated with high levels of multifunctionality, probably because their effects on different functions did not trade off against each other. Conversely, common species were only related to average, not high, levels of multifunctionality, and their functional effects declined with LUI. Apart from the community-level effects of diversity, we found significant positive associations between the abundance of individual species and multifunctionality in 6% of the species tested. Species-specific functional effects were best predicted by their response to LUI: species that declined in abundance with land use intensification were those associated with higher levels of multifunctionality. Our results highlight the importance of rare species for ecosystem multifunctionality and help guiding future conservation priorities. PMID:27114572

  10. Rare Suprathermal Heavy Ions in Saturn's Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christon, S. P.; Hamilton, D. C.; Mitchell, D. G.; Krimigis, S. M.; DiFabio, R. D.

    2013-12-01

    The Cassini/MIMI/CHEMS ion spectrometer has measured suprathermal (~83-167 keV/e) ions in Saturn's magnetosphere since mid-2004. We report on three rare, heavy ion groups measured in Saturn's ~4-20 Rs magnetosphere at ~40, ~46, and ~56 amu/e, with the separation from other species best at higher mass. These masses suggest possible singly-charged ion identifications as Ar+, CO2+, and Fe+, respectively. The presence of these species or compounds containing them has been suggested in composition studies of Saturn's particle populations using data from other instruments on Cassini. The observed rare ion intensities are highly variable in time and space. Broad temporal and spatial averaging is needed to examine these rare ion groups because their detection levels are much lower than the dominant water ion group, W+ (which includes O+, OH+, H2O+, and H3O+). W+ itself can be quite variable. We show that these rare ions display unique spatial and temporal variations, with similarities and differences from the dominant ion group W+ as well as O2+ and M28+, all local origin ions. We compare and contrast these rare, heavy ion species to W+ and the recently characterized [Christon et al., 2013, 10.1002/jgra.50383] minor ions M28+ (C2H5+, HCNH+, N2+, and/or CO+) and O2+ (M32+).

  11. Translational benefits from research on rare genodermatoses.

    PubMed

    McGrath, John A

    2004-05-01

    Significant new discoveries about many of the genodermatoses have been made recently through an improved knowledge of the human genome, advances in molecular screening strategies and also through more comprehensive Internet DNA databases. By 2003, over 350 single gene skin disorders had been characterized at a molecular level. These new data provide more detailed information for patients, allow for more accurate diagnoses, and help improve genetic counselling. Other benefits include the feasibility of carrier screening and DNA-based prenatal testing, as well as a platform for devising new treatments, including somatic gene therapy. Research on rare single gene disorders also provides new insight into more common skin conditions. For example, new ideas about photosensitivity are emerging from discoveries of mutations in a novel component of the actin cytoskeleton (kindlin-1) in the rare inherited poikiloderma disorder, Kindler syndrome. Likewise, new clues to understanding disease pathology in lichen sclerosus have been gleaned from the discovery of pathogenic mutations in the skin protein, extracellular matrix protein 1, in the rare sclerosing inherited skin disorder, lipoid proteinosis. Finally, new insight into what can cause exuberant granulation tissue in chronic wounds has been provided by the discovery of specific mutations in the basement membrane protein, laminin 5, in the rare inherited condition, laryngo-onychocutaneous syndrome. It is clear that a precise research focus on the rare genodermatoses is providing practical benefits for sufferers of these disorders, as well as new lessons and ideas about more common acquired skin conditions. PMID:15068453

  12. Rare earth elements and permanent magnets (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dent, Peter C.

    2012-04-01

    Rare earth (RE) magnets have become virtually indispensible in a wide variety of industries such as aerospace, automotive, electronics, medical, and military. RE elements are essential ingredients in these high performance magnets based on intermetallic compounds RECo5, RE2TM17 (TM: transition metal), and RE2TM14B. Rare earth magnets are known for their superior magnetic properties—high induction, and coercive force. These properties arise due to the extremely high magnetocrystalline anisotropy made possible by unique 3d-4f interactions between transition metals and rare earths. For more than 40 years, these magnets remain the number one choice in applications that require high magnetic fields in extreme operating conditions—high demagnetization forces and high temperature. EEC produces and specializes in RECo5 and RE2TM17 type sintered magnets. Samarium and gadolinium are key RE ingredients in the powder metallurgical magnet production processes which include melting, crushing, jet milling, pressing, sintering, and heat treating. The magnetic properties and applications of these magnets will be discussed. We will also briefly discuss the past, current, and future of the permanent magnet business. Currently, over 95% of all pure rare earth oxides are sourced from China, which currently controls the market. We will provide insights regarding current and potential new magnet technologies and designer choices, which may mitigate rare earth supply chain issues now and into the future.

  13. Preparation and processing of rare earth chalcogenides

    SciTech Connect

    Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.

    1998-10-01

    Rare earth chalcogenides are initially prepared by a direct combination of the pure rare earth metal and the pure chalcogen element with or without a catalyst. The use of iodine (10 to 100 mg) as a fluxing agent (catalyst), especially to prepare heavy lanthanide chalcogenides, greatly speeds up the formation of the rare earth chalcogenide. The resultant powders are consolidated by melting, pressure assisted sintering (PAS), or pressure assisted reaction sintering (PARS) to obtain near theoretical density solids. Mechanical alloying is a useful technique for preparing ternary alloys. In addition, mechanical alloying and mechanical milling can be used to form metastable allotropic forms of the yttrium and heavy lanthanide sulfides. Chemical analysis techniques are also described because it is strongly recommended that samples prepared by melting should have their chemical compositions verified because of chalcogen losses in the melting step.

  14. Rare gases in cyclosilicates and cogenetic minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saito, K.; Alexander, E. C., Jr.; Dragon, J. C.; Zashu, S.

    1984-01-01

    The cyclosilicate minerals, beryl, tourmaline, and cordierite, typically contain large amounts of He-4 and Ar-40 which are not in situ radiogenic products. In the study of excess rare gases in cyclosilicates, one of the most enigmatic observations is the age effect, a qualitative tendency for geologically older samples to contain more excess He-4 and Ar-40 than younger samples. The present investigation is concerned with measurements regarding the abundance and isotopic composition of all five rare gases in a number of cyclosilicates as well as in their cogenetic minerals. The significance of the obtained data is discussed. The data indicate that cyclosilicates sample the rare gases present in the environment in which they crystallize. This 'sampling' involves major elemental fractionations which are variable but mineral specific. Cyclosilicates can, therefore, be used to probe the isotopic ratios and elemental compositions.

  15. Tuberculosis of Navicular Bone - A Rare Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Kadu, Vikram V; Saindane, K A; Godghate, Ninad; Godghate, Neha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Tuberculosis of Navicular bone is a rare entity. Osteoarticular tuberculosis of foot is uncommon and that of navicular bone is extremely rare. It is important to recognize skeletal tuberculosis in the initial stages as early treatment can effectively eliminate long-term morbidity. Case presentation: A 42 yrs old male presented to OPD with swelling and dull aching pain over dorsum of left foot. Radiograph of foot showed lytic puctate lesion in the navicular bone. Further investigations in the form of aspiration biopsy and ZN staining showed presence of multiple tuberculous bacilli. Anti-Kochs treatment was started immediately and patient was treated conservatively. Four drugs (HRZE) were given for a period of 12 months. Radiographs at 2 years follow-up showed a healed lesion. Conclusion: TB navicular bone is a very rare condition and can be treated conservatively unless associated with metastatic changes or any other complications. Conservative treatment with AKT has excellent results without any complications PMID:27299135

  16. Material efficiency: rare and critical metals.

    PubMed

    Ayres, Robert U; Peiró, Laura Talens

    2013-03-13

    In the last few decades, progress in electronics, especially, has resulted in important new uses for a number of geologically rare metals, some of which were mere curiosities in the past. Most of them are not mined for their own sake (gold, the platinum group metals and the rare Earth elements are exceptions) but are found mainly in the ores of the major industrial metals, such as aluminium, copper, zinc and nickel. We call these major metals 'attractors' and the rare accompanying metals 'hitch-hikers'. The key implication is that rising prices do not necessarily call forth greater output because that would normally require greater output of the attractor metal. We trace the geological relationships and the functional uses of these metals. Some of these metals appear to be irreplaceable in the sense that there are no known substitutes for them in their current functional uses. Recycling is going to be increasingly important, notwithstanding a number of barriers. PMID:23359734

  17. An Erupted Dilated Odontoma: A Rare Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Gaurav; Nagra, Amritpreet; Singh, Gurkeerat; Nagpal, Archna; Soin, Atul; Bhardwaj, Vishal

    2016-01-01

    A dilated odontoma is an extremely rare developmental anomaly represented as a dilatation of the crown and root as a consequence of a deep, enamel-lined invagination and is considered a severe variant of dens invaginatus. An oval shape of the tooth lacking morphological characteristics of a crown or root implies that the invagination happened in the initial stages of morphodifferentiation. Spontaneous eruption of an odontoma is a rare occurrence and the occurrence of a dilated odontoma in a supernumerary tooth is even rarer with only a few case reports documented in the English literature. We present an extremely rare case of erupted dilated odontoma occurring in the supernumerary tooth in anterior maxillary region in an 18-year-old male, which, to the best of our knowledge, is the first ever case reported in English literature. PMID:26989523

  18. Rare earth phosphors and phosphor screens

    DOEpatents

    Buchanan, Robert A.; Maple, T. Grant; Sklensky, Alden F.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to rare earth phosphor screens for converting image carrying incident radiation to image carrying visible or near-visible radiation and to the rare earth phosphor materials utilized in such screens. The invention further relates to methods for converting image carrying charged particles to image carrying radiation principally in the blue and near-ultraviolet region of the spectrum and to stabilized rare earth phosphors characterized by having a continuous surface layer of the phosphors of the invention. More particularly, the phosphors of the invention are oxychlorides and oxybromides of yttrium, lanthanum and gadolinium activated with trivalent cerium and the conversion screens are of the type illustratively including x-ray conversion screens, image amplifier tube screens, neutron imaging screens, cathode ray tube screens, high energy gamma ray screens, scintillation detector screens and screens for real-time translation of image carrying high energy radiation to image carrying visible or near-visible radiation.

  19. An Erupted Dilated Odontoma: A Rare Presentation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Gaurav; Nagra, Amritpreet; Singh, Gurkeerat; Nagpal, Archna; Soin, Atul; Bhardwaj, Vishal

    2016-01-01

    A dilated odontoma is an extremely rare developmental anomaly represented as a dilatation of the crown and root as a consequence of a deep, enamel-lined invagination and is considered a severe variant of dens invaginatus. An oval shape of the tooth lacking morphological characteristics of a crown or root implies that the invagination happened in the initial stages of morphodifferentiation. Spontaneous eruption of an odontoma is a rare occurrence and the occurrence of a dilated odontoma in a supernumerary tooth is even rarer with only a few case reports documented in the English literature. We present an extremely rare case of erupted dilated odontoma occurring in the supernumerary tooth in anterior maxillary region in an 18-year-old male, which, to the best of our knowledge, is the first ever case reported in English literature. PMID:26989523

  20. Dietary indicaxanthin from cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L. Mill) fruit prevents eryptosis induced by oxysterols in a hypercholesterolaemia-relevant proportion and adhesion of human erythrocytes to endothelial cell layers.

    PubMed

    Tesoriere, Luisa; Attanzio, Alessandro; Allegra, Mario; Livrea, Maria A

    2015-08-14

    Toxic oxysterols in a hypercholesterolaemia-relevant proportion cause suicidal death of human erythrocytes or eryptosis. This process proceeds through early production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), release of prostaglandin (PGE2) and opening of PGE2-dependent Ca channels, membrane phosphatidylserine (PS) externalisation, and cell shrinkage. The present study was the first to reveal that a bioavailable phytochemical, indicaxanthin (Ind) from cactus pear fruit, in a concentration range (1.0-5.0 μM) consistent with its plasma level after a fruit meal, prevents PS externalisation and cell shrinkage in a dose-dependent manner when incubated with isolated healthy human erythrocytes exposed to an oxysterol mixture for 48 h. Dietary Ind inhibited ROS production, glutathione (GSH) depletion, PGE2 release and Ca2+ entry. Ind alone did not modify the erythrocyte redox environment or affect other parameters. Ex vivo spiking of normal human blood with the oxysterol mixture for 48 h induced eryptosis, resulting in the production of ROS and decreased levels of GSH, which was prevented by concurrent exposure to 5 μm-Ind. The adherence of eryptotic erythrocytes to the endothelium causes vascular tissue injury. Erythrocytes isolated from blood incubated with the oxysterol mixture plus 5 μm-Ind did not adhere to endothelial cell monolayers. Eryptotic erythrocytes may contribute to thrombotic complications in hypercholesterolaemia. Our findings suggest the positive effects of diets containing Ind on erythrocytes in hypercholesterolaemic subjects. PMID:26169206

  1. Collaboration for rare disease drug discovery research

    PubMed Central

    Litterman, Nadia K.; Rhee, Michele; Swinney, David C.; Ekins, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Rare disease research has reached a tipping point, with the confluence of scientific and technologic developments that if appropriately harnessed, could lead to key breakthroughs and treatments for this set of devastating disorders. Industry-wide trends have revealed that the traditional drug discovery research and development (R&D) model is no longer viable, and drug companies are evolving their approach. Rather than only pursue blockbuster therapeutics for heterogeneous, common diseases, drug companies have increasingly begun to shift their focus to rare diseases. In academia, advances in genetics analyses and disease mechanisms have allowed scientific understanding to mature, but the lack of funding and translational capability severely limits the rare disease research that leads to clinical trials. Simultaneously, there is a movement towards increased research collaboration, more data sharing, and heightened engagement and active involvement by patients, advocates, and foundations. The growth in networks and social networking tools presents an opportunity to help reach other patients but also find researchers and build collaborations. The growth of collaborative software that can enable researchers to share their data could also enable rare disease patients and foundations to manage their portfolio of funded projects for developing new therapeutics and suggest drug repurposing opportunities. Still there are many thousands of diseases without treatments and with only fragmented research efforts. We will describe some recent progress in several rare diseases used as examples and propose how collaborations could be facilitated. We propose that the development of a center of excellence that integrates and shares informatics resources for rare diseases sponsored by all of the stakeholders would help foster these initiatives. PMID:25685324

  2. Urinothorax: A Rare Postoperative Complication of Adrenalectomy

    PubMed Central

    Puthenveedu, Deepa Kalikavil; Subramanian, Arul Rajamurugan Ponniah; Baluchamy, Palani Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Urinothorax is a rare condition defined by the presence of urine in the pleural cavity. Here we report a case of a patient with left sided transudative pleural effusion which developed following left adrenalectomy with perisplenic collection. The pleural fluid to serum creatinine ratio was found to be greater than one which confirmed the diagnosis. The objective of this case report was to describe this rare case and to alert the physicians to include urinothorax in their differential diagnosis of transudative pleural effusion especially following abdominal surgery. PMID:27437279

  3. Zosteriform spiradenoma with spiradenocarcinoma: A rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Adulkar, Satish A.; Dongre, Atul M.; Khopkar, Uday S.; Maddala, Raghuram; Gole, Prachi V.; Chikhalkar, Siddhi

    2015-01-01

    Eccrine spiradenoma (ES) is an uncommon well-differentiated benign tumor originating from the sweat glands. It usually occurs as a single lesion in adults. Multiple ES in a linear or zosteriform distribution are rare. Spiradenomacarcinoma is an extremely rare tumor, which develops in an existing benign spiradenoma of several years of duration. We report a case of a 23-year-old- female patient with multiple spiradenomas arranged in zosteriform pattern and malignant transformation occurred in one of the lesions over a period of 10 years. PMID:26904446

  4. Zosteriform spiradenoma with spiradenocarcinoma: A rare entity.

    PubMed

    Adulkar, Satish A; Dongre, Atul M; Khopkar, Uday S; Maddala, Raghuram; Gole, Prachi V; Chikhalkar, Siddhi

    2015-12-01

    Eccrine spiradenoma (ES) is an uncommon well-differentiated benign tumor originating from the sweat glands. It usually occurs as a single lesion in adults. Multiple ES in a linear or zosteriform distribution are rare. Spiradenomacarcinoma is an extremely rare tumor, which develops in an existing benign spiradenoma of several years of duration. We report a case of a 23-year-old- female patient with multiple spiradenomas arranged in zosteriform pattern and malignant transformation occurred in one of the lesions over a period of 10 years. PMID:26904446

  5. Penile Sarcoma: Report of a Rare Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vijay; Chaturvedi, Arun; Vishnoi, Jeevan Ram; Dontula, Prashant

    2016-01-01

    Penile cancer is an uncommon malignancy. Squamous cell carcinoma constitutes approximately 95% of all histology. Non-squamous malignancies are rare in penis. Sarcomas of penis are rarer among them. Spindle cell sarcoma is one of the extremely rare sarcoma of penis. To best of our knowledge, only two cases have been reported so far, one in English literature and other in Japanese. We are presenting this uncommon case of spindle cell sarcoma of penis, which was diagnosed with microscopy with its characteristic immunohistochemistry. The disease had an aggressive course with multiple recurrences in a short duration despite margin negative resection. Disease responded poorly with the chemotherapy and patient succumbed to the disease.

  6. [Rare disease at a primary care facility].

    PubMed

    Ortega Calvo, M; García de la Corte, F; Iglesias Bonilla, P

    2007-11-01

    A pragmatic classification. Rare diseases (RD) might be a research target on primary care because their gift of scientific knowledge building. A rational scheme would be necessary for clinical and scientific findings. Retrospective long-term report of the most important RD achieved for a ten years period by a general practitioner at a non-urban primary care facility (Andalusia-Spain). Our results are classified as: a) rare adverse drug reactions (RADR); b) accurate RD diagnosis (RDD); and c) RD prevalence study (RDP). PMID:18275262

  7. Replacing the Rare Earth Intellectual Capital

    SciTech Connect

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl

    2011-04-01

    The rare earth crisis slowly evolved during a 10 to 15 year period beginning in the mid-1980s, when the Chinese began to export mixed rare earth concentrates. In the early 1990s, they started to move up the supply chain and began to export the individual rare earth oxides and metals. By the late 1990s the Chinese exported higher value products, such as magnets, phosphors, polishing compounds, catalysts; and in the 21st century they supplied finished products including electric motors, computers, batteries, liquid-crystal displays (LCDs), TVs and monitors, mobile phones, iPods and compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) light bulbs. As they moved to higher value products, the Chinese slowly drove the various industrial producers and commercial enterprises in the US, Europe and Japan out of business by manipulating the rare earth commodity prices. Because of this, the technically trained rare earth engineers and scientists who worked in areas from mining to separations, to processing to production, to manufacturing of semifinished and final products, were laid-off and moved to other fields or they retired. However, in the past year the Chinese have changed their philosophy of the 1970s and 1980s of forming a rare earth cartel to control the rare earth markets to one in which they will no longer supply the rest of the world (ROW) with their precious rare earths, but instead will use them internally to meet the growing demand as the Chinese standard of living increases. To this end, they have implemented and occasionally increased export restrictions and added an export tariff on many of the high demand rare earth elements. Now the ROW is quickly trying to start up rare earth mines, e.g. Molycorp Minerals in the US and Lynas Corp. in Australia, to cover this shortfall in the worldwide market, but it will take about five years for the supply to meet the demand, even as other mines in the ROW become productive. Unfortunately, today there is a serious lack of technically trained

  8. Computer-Assisted Rare Book Cataloguing: Problems and Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Victoria

    This study proposes answers to questions of how and why computers can be used to catalog rare books. Divided into two parts, the first examines the nature of rare book cataloging needs and considers problems associated with machine-readable rare book cataloging. The question of how rare book cataloging differs from standard cataloging is analyzed…

  9. What about the rare-earth elements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is insufficient understanding of the nutritional physiology of pecan trees and orchards; thus, affecting nutmeat yield and quality, disease resistance and alternate bearing. An analysis of the rare-earth element composition of pecan and related hickory cousins found that they hyperaccumulate ...

  10. Rare earths in nanocrystalline glass ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahoz, F.; Martín, I. R.; Rodríguez-Mendoza, U. R.; Iparraguirre, I.; Azkargorta, J.; Mendioroz, A.; Balda, R.; Fernández, J.; Lavín, V.

    2005-10-01

    The optical spectroscopic analysis of rare earth ions in transparent oxyfluoride glass-ceramics obtained from SiO2-Al2O3-PbF2-CdF2 based precursor glasses is presented. The oscillator strengths of the optical transitions were measured from the absorption spectra of glasses and glass-ceramics doped with rare earth ions. The results were analysed in the framework of the Judd-Ofelt theory giving the values of the three Ω2, Ω4 and Ω6 intensity parameters over the rare earth series. On the other hand, high efficient infrared-to-blue upconversion has been observed in Tm3+-Yb3+ codoped glass and glass-ceramic compared to the Tm3+ single doped matrices. The contributions to the upconversion process of the rare earth ions in the nanocrystalline and in the vitreous phase of the glass-ceramics have been distinguished. Finally, laser action in Nd3+-doped glass-ceramic has been studied. Losses due to UV and visible upconverted emissions inside the laser cavity have been also estimated.

  11. Focal Dermal Hypoplasia: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Srinivas, Sahana M; Hiremagalore, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Focal dermal hypoplasia (Goltz syndrome) is a rare genetic multisystem disorder primarily involving the skin, skeletal system, eyes, and face. We report the case of an eight-month-old female child who presented with multiple hypopigmented atrophic macules along the lines of blaschko, skeletal anomalies, umbilical hernia, developmental delay, hypoplastic nails, syndactyly, and lobster claw deformity characteristic of Goltz syndrome. PMID:25657436

  12. Familial dyskeratotic comedones: A rare entity.

    PubMed

    Maddala, Raghu Ram; Ghorpade, Ashok; Polavarpu, Mercy; Adulkar, Satish A; Das, Manbendra

    2016-01-01

    Familial dyskeratotic comedones is an inherited disorder with distinctive clinical features and a disease course that is refractory to treatment. It is clinically characterized by numerous, discrete, disseminate, hyperkeratotic papules and comedones. On histopathology, it shows crater-like invaginations filled with keratinous material and evidence of dyskeratosis. We report here one family from central India with this rare disorder. PMID:26953840

  13. Crystalline rare-earth activated oxyorthosilicate phosphor

    DOEpatents

    McClellan, Kenneth J.; Cooke, D. Wayne

    2004-02-10

    Crystalline, transparent, rare-earth activated lutetium oxyorthosilicate phosphor. The phosphor consists essentially of lutetium yttrium oxyorthosilicate activated with a rare-earth metal dopant M and having the general formula Lu(.sub.2-x-z)Y.sub.x M.sub.z SiO.sub.5, wherein 0.00.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1.95, wherein 0.001.ltoreq.z.ltoreq.0.02, and wherein M is selected from Sm, Tb, Tm, Eu, Yb, and Pr. The phosphor also consists essentially of lutetium gadolinium oxyorthosilicate activated with a rare-earth metal dopant M and having the general formula Lu(.sub.2-x-z)Gd.sub.x M.sub.z SiO.sub.5, wherein 0.00.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1.95, wherein 0.001.ltoreq.z.ltoreq.0.02, and wherein M is selected from Sm, Tb, Tm, Eu, Yb, and Pr. The phosphor also consists essentially of gadolinium yttrium oxyorthosilicate activated with a rare-earth metal dopant M and having the general formula Gd(.sub.2-x-z)Y.sub.x M.sub.z SiO.sub.5, wherein 0.00.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1.95, wherein 0.001.ltoreq.z.ltoreq.0.02, and wherein M is selected from Sm, Tb, Tm, Eu, Yb, and Pr. The phosphor may be optically coupled to a photodetector to provide a radiation detector.

  14. Coronary Artery Fistula: Two Rare Cases.

    PubMed

    Wehbe, Mahmoud Sleiman; Vondran, Maximilian; Sauer, Matthias; Mohr, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Schroeter, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Coronary artery fistula (CAF) is an incidental finding in up to 0.2% of cardiac catheterization studies and is a rare pathologic condition affecting up to 1% of the general population. We report two cases of CAF diagnosed by coronary angiography and managed by surgical ligation, with excellent postoperative outcome. Anatomic location, clinical presentation, investigation, and treatment of CAF are discussed. PMID:26522575

  15. Progress in methods for rare variant association.

    PubMed

    Santorico, Stephanie A; Hendricks, Audrey E

    2016-01-01

    Empirical studies and evolutionary theory support a role for rare variants in the etiology of complex traits. Given this motivation and increasing affordability of whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing, methods for rare variant association have been an active area of research for the past decade. Here, we provide a survey of the current literature and developments from the Genetics Analysis Workshop 19 (GAW19) Collapsing Rare Variants working group. In particular, we present the generalized linear regression framework and associated score statistic for the 2 major types of methods: burden and variance components methods. We further show that by simply modifying weights within these frameworks we arrive at many of the popular existing methods, for example, the cohort allelic sums test and sequence kernel association test. Meta-analysis techniques are also described. Next, we describe the 6 contributions from the GAW19 Collapsing Rare Variants working group. These included development of new methods, such as a retrospective likelihood for family data, a method using genomic structure to compare cases and controls, a haplotype-based meta-analysis, and a permutation-based method for combining different statistical tests. In addition, one contribution compared a mega-analysis of family-based and population-based data to meta-analysis. Finally, the power of existing family-based methods for binary traits was compared. We conclude with suggestions for open research questions. PMID:26866487

  16. Masson's hemangioma: A rare intraoral presentation

    PubMed Central

    Narwal, Anjali; Sen, Rajeev; Singh, Virender; Gupta, Ambika

    2013-01-01

    An otherwise healthy 19-year-old female patient had painless swelling in her left buccal mucosa. No precipitating factors were identified. Pathological analysis demonstrated the mass to be a Masson's hemangioma, a papillary proliferation of thin-walled capillaries intimately associated with thrombus. A very rare tumor occurring in oral cavity with only 80 cases being published in literature until date. PMID:24124316

  17. Aging in Rare Intellectual Disability Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    This review highlights several methodological challenges involved in research on aging, health, and mortality in adults with rare intellectual disability syndromes. Few studies have been performed in this area, with research obstacles that include: the ascertainment of older adults with genetic versus clinical diagnoses; likelihood that adults…

  18. Rare tumors of the rectum. Narrative review.

    PubMed

    Errasti Alustiza, José; Espín Basany, Eloy; Reina Duarte, Angel

    2014-11-01

    Most rectal neoplasms are adenocarcinomas, but there is a small percentage of tumors which are of other histological cell lines such as neuroendocrine tumors, sarcomas, lymphomas and squamous cell carcinomas, which have special characteristics and different treatments. We have reviewed these rare tumors of the rectum from a clinical and surgical point of view. PMID:24629769

  19. Focal dermal hypoplasia: a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, Sahana M; Hiremagalore, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Focal dermal hypoplasia (Goltz syndrome) is a rare genetic multisystem disorder primarily involving the skin, skeletal system, eyes, and face. We report the case of an eight-month-old female child who presented with multiple hypopigmented atrophic macules along the lines of blaschko, skeletal anomalies, umbilical hernia, developmental delay, hypoplastic nails, syndactyly, and lobster claw deformity characteristic of Goltz syndrome. PMID:25657436

  20. Malignant Myopericytoma of Shoulder: A Rare Lesion.

    PubMed

    Binesh, Fariba; Moghadam, Reza Nafisi; Shabani, Masoud; Mortazavizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Zare, Saeedeh

    2016-01-01

    Myopericytoma is a soft tissue tumor with perivascular myoid differentiation. It accounts for 1% of the vascular tumors and involves mostly cutaneous or subcutaneous tissue of the limbs in adults. Malignant myopericytoma is exceedingly rare. A 15-year old girl presented with slowly progressive mass over left shoulder region. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry after complete excision revealed it as malignant myopericytoma. PMID:27398322

  1. Why trees and shrubs but rarely trubs?

    PubMed

    Scheffer, Marten; Vergnon, Remi; Cornelissen, J Hans C; Hantson, Stijn; Holmgren, Milena; van Nes, Egbert H; Xu, Chi

    2014-08-01

    An analysis of the maximum height of woody plant species across the globe reveals that an intermediate size is remarkably rare. We speculate that this may be due to intrinsic suboptimality or to ecosystem bistability with open landscapes favouring shrubs, and closed canopies propelling trees to excessive tallness. PMID:24951396

  2. Fournier gangrene: rare complication of rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ossibi, Pierlesky Elion; Souiki, Tarik; Majdoub, Karim Ibn; Toughrai, Imane; Laalim, Said Ait; Mazaz, Khalid; Tenkorang, Somuah; Farih, My Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Fournier's Gangrene is a rare complication of rectal cancer. Its discovery is often delayed. It's incidence is about 0.3/100 000 populations in Western countries. We report a patient with peritoneal perforation of rectal cancer revealed by scrotal and perineal necrotizing fasciitis. PMID:26161211

  3. Histoid leprosy: a rare exuberant case.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Pedro Jose Secchin de; Messias, Sulamita Dos Santos Nascimento Dutra; Ferreira, Paola Cristina Brandão Oliveira; Sales, Anna Maria; Machado, Alice de Miranda; Nery, José Augusto da Costa

    2015-01-01

    Leprosy is a neglected disease. We point up the need of recognizing the unusual clinical presentations of the disease in order to make early diagnosis and proper treatment possible, and break the transmission chain. The authors report a rare type of multibacillary leprosy: histoid leprosy and present images of numerous well-circumscribed indurated papules and nodules distributed throughout the entire body. PMID:26560226

  4. Investing in Rare Books and Manuscripts

    PubMed Central

    Liebert, Herman W.

    1981-01-01

    The lecture treats the rapidly escalating values of rare books and manuscripts both as financial and as scholarly investments. The text suggests new areas for collecting which may be pursued in today's market with an eye to an increasing intellectual and monetary return. PMID:7324508

  5. A rare case of intratesticular leiomyoma

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Zhan Peng; Liu, Zhen Bang; Chau, Cora; Chong, Kian Tai

    2015-01-01

    A 47-year-old man presented with a scrotal swelling. Ultrasonography of the testes showed that it was an extratesticular swelling. However, the swelling was intraoperatively found to be intratesticular. Histology showed an intratesticular leiomyoma, which is extremely rare. PMID:26451060

  6. A rare case of dicyclomine abuse

    PubMed Central

    Das, Saibal; Mondal, Somnath; Datta, Ankur; Bandyopadhyay, Sanjib

    2013-01-01

    This report highlights an extremely rare case of dicyclomine abuse for 1.5 years by an 18-year old female resulting in overt features of anticholinergic toxicity. Strict abstinence and rehabilitation measures were employed to revert back the altered physiological state. PMID:24396252

  7. [Vulval tuberculosis: a rare case report].

    PubMed

    Amhager, N; Bouguern, H; Jayi, S; Bouchikhi, C; Belkheiri, M; Chaara, H; Bannani, A; Melhouf, M-A

    2007-02-01

    The authors report an observation of a rare case of vulvar tuberculosis in its hypertrophic form it is observed in a 16-years-old girl. The diagnosis was retained on a beam of arguments anamnestic, clinical, histological and evolutionary. A medical treatment based on antibacillar was founded supplemented of a surgical reduction for aesthetic concern. PMID:17293256

  8. Tuberculosis of Calcaneum – A Rare presentation

    PubMed Central

    Kadu, Vikram V; Saindane, K A; Godghate, Ninad; Godghate, Neha N

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Tuberculosis of calcaneum is a rare entity. Osteoarticular tuberculosis of foot is uncommon and that of calcaneum is very rare. In children, diagnosis is often delayed as clinical presentation is non-specific and awareness is low due to its rare presentation. Also pediatric tuberculosis has traditionally received a lower priority than adult TB in National TB programmes. Case presentation: 8 yr old girl presented to OPD with swelling and dull aching pain over left heel. Radiograph of calcaneum showed small lytic puctate lesions in the calcaneum. Further investigations showed presence of multiple tuberculous bacilli. Anti-Kochs treatment was started immediately and patient was treated conservatively. Four drugs (HRZE) were prescribed for a period of 12 months. Radiographs at 2 years follow-up showed a healed lesion. Conclusion: Rare and unusual locations of osteoarticular TB often pose a problem of differential diagnosis. Meticulous history and clinical examination helps in reaching the diagnosis. Start of AKT drugs as soon as reports show presence of tubercular bacilli plays a vital role in treatment as well as functional outcome of the patient. PMID:27299130

  9. Cold agglutinin disease in fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma: a rare association with a rare cancer variant.

    PubMed

    Al-Matham, Khalid; Alabed, Iehab; Zaidi, Syed Z A; Qushmaq, Khalid A

    2011-01-01

    Cold agglutinin disease (CAD) is a rare autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Although it can occur secondary to lymphoproliferative disorders and autoimmune or infectious diseases, CAD is rarely reported as secondary to solid tumors. We report a case of a woman aged 18 years diagnosed with a well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma of the fibrolamellar subtype, who was shown to have CAD also. Her general condition, including CAD, improved after targeted therapy with sorafenib for the hepatocellular carcinoma and only conservative measures for the CAD that consisted of avoidance of cold. In summary, although it is an extremely rare association and less common than lymphoproliferative disorders, CAD can be associated with solid tumors. PMID:21293066

  10. Primary renal teratoma: a rare entity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Teratomas are neoplasms that arise from pluripotent cells and can differentiate along one or more embryonic germ lines. Renal teratoma is an exceedingly rare condition. Teratomas commonly arise in the gonads, sacrococcygeal region, pineal gland, and retroperitoneum. They present mainly as an abdominal mass with few other symptoms. Majority of the tumors are benign, situated on the left side and para renal, occasional lesions are bilateral. If diagnosed early, they are amenable to curative excision. Renal teratomas are rare and most have been dismissed as cases of teratoid nephroblastomas or retroperitoneal teratomas secondarily invading the kidney. The differentiation between these two neoplasms in the kidney is often problematic. We present a case of intrarenal immature teratoma in a six-month-old baby girl. Virtual slides The virtual slides for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1746249869599954. PMID:23800134

  11. A rare case of synchronous saree cancer.

    PubMed

    Naveen, N; Kumar, M Kamal; Babu, Ramesh K; Dhanraj, Prema

    2014-07-01

    Skin cancers are rather uncommon malignancies comprising less than 1% of all the cancers in India. Saree cancer is a rare type of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Saree and dhoti are traditional male and female costumes respectively, which is unique to the Indian subcontinent. Constant wear of this clothing tightly around the waist results in changes in pigmentation and scaling of the skin, acanthosis, scar and ulceration and subsequent, gradual malignant changes. The process of repeated trauma over a long time and consequent interference with the healing process may rationalise the reason for malignant transformation. Few papers have been published on saree cancer, in main stream medical journals. We are presenting a rare case of saree cancer in a 68-year-old woman, with two distant bilateral ulceroproliferative growths in loin (Synchronous), along the waistline, which showed well-differentiated SCC on biopsy. Wide excision with rhomboid transposition flap was done bilaterally. PMID:25538441

  12. Massively parallel sequencing and rare disease

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Sarah B.; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Bamshad, Michael J.; Shendure, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Massively parallel sequencing has enabled the rapid, systematic identification of variants on a large scale. This has, in turn, accelerated the pace of gene discovery and disease diagnosis on a molecular level and has the potential to revolutionize methods particularly for the analysis of Mendelian disease. Using massively parallel sequencing has enabled investigators to interrogate variants both in the context of linkage intervals and also on a genome-wide scale, in the absence of linkage information entirely. The primary challenge now is to distinguish between background polymorphisms and pathogenic mutations. Recently developed strategies for rare monogenic disorders have met with some early success. These strategies include filtering for potential causal variants based on frequency and function, and also ranking variants based on conservation scores and predicted deleteriousness to protein structure. Here, we review the recent literature in the use of high-throughput sequence data and its analysis in the discovery of causal mutations for rare disorders. PMID:20846941

  13. Rare decays experimental summary and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Littenberg, L.

    1996-12-31

    I review the status and future prospects of searches for forbidden and highly kaon suppressed decays. This workshop comes as we are poised at the threshold of a new generation of rare K decay experiments. There are new experiments running or about to run at KEK, BNL, FNAL, and CERN. In another year or so these will be joined by the KLOE experiment at DA{Phi}NE. The good news is that it`s a very exciting time. The bad news, at least for a reviewer, is that there aren`t too many new results. Thus I`ll be giving a little more attention than usual to what the experimenters expect to do. My discussion of rare K decays covers processes that are forbidden in the Standard Model, those that highly suppressed and to a smaller extent, those that are merely discouraged.

  14. Bioproduction strategies for rare hexose sugars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumori, Ken

    2002-03-01

    A new strategy for the bioproduction of all ketohexoses was developed using hexitols as intermediates. Biocatalysts used to employ the strategy were D-tagatose 3-epimerase, which epimerizes ketohexoses at the C-3 position, and oxidoreductases, which catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions between ketohexoses and the corresponding hexitols. Arranging all the ketohexoses and hexitols in a symmetric ring and connecting them with 20 biochemical reactions, I was able to construct a design for the bioproduction of all the rare ketohexoses. Various aldose isomerases transform ketohexoses into the corresponding aldohexoses, so the strategy is useful for the bioproduction of all the rare hexose sugars. Furthermore, the design revealed that there are four routes to the L-hexose world from the D-hexose one.

  15. Ameloblastic carcinoma: Report of a rare case

    PubMed Central

    Srikanth, Mandadi Dakshinamurthy; Radhika, Besta; Metta, Kiran; Renuka, Nukala Valli

    2014-01-01

    Ameloblastic carcinoma is a rare odontogenic tumor exhibiting histological evidence of malignancy in the primary or recurrent tumor. It is characterized by rapid, painful expansion of the jaw, unlike conventional ameloblastomas. The tumor most frequently involves the mandible. The expanding lesion causes perforation of the buccal and lingual plates of the jaw and invades the surrounding soft tissue. Rapidly growing large tumor mass may cause tooth mobility. A mandibular tumor involving the mental nerve leads to paresthesia of the nerve. A maxillary tumor can produce a fistula in the palate and paresthesia of the infraorbital nerve. Most ameloblastic carcinomas are presumed to have arisen de novo with a few cases of malignant transformation of ameloblastomas. Although rare, these lesions have been known to metastasize, mostly to the regional lymph nodes or lungs. A case of ameloblastic carcinoma in a 60-year-old man is reported here and its clinical, radiological and histological features are discussed. PMID:24579073

  16. The rare isotope accelerator (RIA) facility project

    SciTech Connect

    Christoph Leemann

    2000-08-01

    The envisioned Rare-Isotope Accelerator (RIA) facility would add substantially to research opportunities for nuclear physics and astrophysics by combining increased intensities with a greatly expanded variety of high-quality rare-isotope beams. A flexible superconducting driver linac would provide 100 kW, 400 MeV/nucleon beams of any stable isotope from hydrogen to uranium onto production targets. Combinations of projectile fragmentation, target fragmentation, fission, and spallation would produce the needed broad assortment of short-lived secondary beams. This paper describes the project's background, purpose, and status, the envisioned facility, and the key subsystem, the driver linac. RIA's scientific purposes are to advance current theoretical models, reveal new manifestations of nuclear behavior, and probe the limits of nuclear existence [3]. Figures 1 and 2 show, respectively, examples of RIA research opportunities and the yields projected for pursuing them. Figure 3 outlines a conceptual approach for delivering the needed beams.

  17. Applying complement therapeutics to rare diseases.

    PubMed

    Reis, Edimara S; Mastellos, Dimitrios C; Yancopoulou, Despina; Risitano, Antonio M; Ricklin, Daniel; Lambris, John D

    2015-12-01

    Around 350 million people worldwide suffer from rare diseases. These may have a genetic, infectious, or autoimmune basis, and several include an inflammatory component. Launching of effective treatments can be very challenging when there is a low disease prevalence and limited scientific insights into the disease mechanisms. As a key trigger of inflammatory processes, complement has been associated with a variety of diseases and has become an attractive therapeutic target for conditions involving inflammation. In view of the clinical experience acquired with drugs licensed for the treatment of rare diseases such as hereditary angioedema and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, growing evidence supports the safety and efficacy of complement therapeutics in restoring immune balance and preventing aggravation of clinical outcomes. This review provides an overview of the candidates currently in the pharmaceutical pipeline with potential to treat orphan diseases and discusses the molecular mechanisms triggered by complement involved with the disease pathogenesis. PMID:26341313

  18. Rare-earth pneumoconiosis: a new case

    SciTech Connect

    Sulotto, F.; Romano, C.; Berra, A.; Botta, G.C.; Rubino, G.F.; Sabbioni, E.; Pietra, R.

    1986-01-01

    A new case of rare-earth (RE) pneumoconiosis is described. The subject had worked as a photoengraver for 13 years and had not been exposed for 17 years. Chest X-ray showed a diffuse nodular pattern (q 2/3-ILO/1980). The patient was asymptomatic despite a restrictive spirometric impairment. The diagnosis derived from the finding, in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, of abnormal levels of La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Tb, Yb, and Lu. The presence of these elements was demonstrated by two methods: the neutron activation analysis and (as regards Ce alone) the X-ray energy spectrometry of mineral particles observed with electron microscope. Abnormal levels of rare earths were demonstrated also in the nails, suggesting an absorption of the RE from the lung.

  19. A rare pulmonary hamartoma: fibroleiomyomatous hamartoma.

    PubMed

    Ichiki, Yoshinobu; Kawasaki, Junji; Hamatsu, Takayuki; Suehiro, Taketoshi; Shibuya, Ryo; Matsuyama, Atsuji; Tanaka, Fumihiro; Hisaoka, Masanori; Sugimachi, Keizo

    2016-12-01

    Pulmonary hamartomas are more common than expected because they are usually asymptomatic and are either discovered on routine chest radiography or when they are noted incidentally in approximately 0.25 % of autopsies. In contrast, pulmonary fibroleiomyomatous hamartoma, which consists of interlacing bundles of smooth muscle cells admixed with fibrous tissue and numerous tubular or cleft-like epithelial inclusions, is a rare type of hamartoma. Controversy exists regarding the pathogenesis of this tumor. We herein present a rare case of a 68-year-old male patient without a pre-existing smooth muscle tumor, who underwent resection for a tumor that was considered to be a true pulmonary fibroleiomyomatous hamartoma. PMID:27256331

  20. Rare Occurrence of Lip Spindle Cell Lipoma

    PubMed Central

    Girgis, Sandra; Cheng, Leo

    2015-01-01

    Spindle cell lipoma (SCL) is a rare distinct variant of lipoma, which presents as a painless, circumscribed, slow-growing, superficial lesion on the lip and can mimic a minor salivary gland tumour. We present a slow growing lower lip lesion and its management. Case Report. A 38-year-old female gave an eight-year history of a slow-growing mass on her lower lip with intermittent change in size. She presented with a submucosal nodule and thin overlying mucosa adjacent to the vermilion border. Surgical excision was carried as the diagnostic and therapeutic approach. Conclusion. Lip SCL is rare, and surgical excision is advocated in order to exclude underlying pathology and minor salivary gland tumours. PMID:25815220

  1. Oral lymphangioma: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Bhayya, Harsha; Pavani, D.; Avinash Tejasvi, M. L.; Geetha, P.

    2015-01-01

    Lymphangiomas are benign hamartomatous tumors of the lymphatic channels which present as developmental malformations arising from sequestration of lymphatic tissue that do not communicate with the rest of the lymphatic channels. Lymphatic vessels are filled with a clear protein-rich fluid containing few lymph cells. It can also occur in association with hemangioma. The onset of lymphangiomas are either at birth (60% to 70%) or up to two years of age (90%) and rare in adults. Lymphangiomas have marked predilection for the head and neck region (50-70%). The most common location in the mouth is the dorsum of tongue, followed by lips, buccal mucosa, soft palate, and floor of the mouth. On tongue, they may present as a localized or a diffused growth which may enlarge to cause macroglossia, impaired speech and difficulty in mastication. Herewith, we present a rare case of lymphangioma of tongue leading to macroglossia in a 8-year-old boy. PMID:26681873

  2. Ectomesenchymal chondromyxoid tumor: A rare case report.

    PubMed

    Kale, Hemant; Mistry, Devang M; Vasant, Richa K; Jadeja, Nileshwari R; Baranwal, Malaykumar

    2014-10-01

    Ectomesenchymal chondromyxoid tumor (ECMT) is a rare benign neoplasm of uncertain histogenesis, which exclusively involves the oral cavity, particularly the tongue. Clinically, it presents as slow growing, painless, firm, submucosal swelling exclusively occurring on the anterior dorsum of the tongue. Histopathologically, it comprised well circumscribed, unencapsulated lobular proliferation of fusiform and polygonal cells, with varying degree of cellularity, with neoplastic cells often seen in a myxoid, chondroid or hyalinized background. Until date, only 40 cases have been reported in the literature. Most documented lesions involve anterior tongue, however 2 cases in posterior tongue and one palatal tumor has been described. Here, we present a rare case diagnosed clinically and histopathologically as (ECMT) in a 7-year-old girl with the size of the lesion 5.0 cm making this case even rarer and throwing some light on this distinct entity. PMID:25395780

  3. Ectomesenchymal chondromyxoid tumor: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Kale, Hemant; Mistry, Devang M.; Vasant, Richa K.; Jadeja, Nileshwari R.; Baranwal, Malaykumar

    2014-01-01

    Ectomesenchymal chondromyxoid tumor (ECMT) is a rare benign neoplasm of uncertain histogenesis, which exclusively involves the oral cavity, particularly the tongue. Clinically, it presents as slow growing, painless, firm, submucosal swelling exclusively occurring on the anterior dorsum of the tongue. Histopathologically, it comprised well circumscribed, unencapsulated lobular proliferation of fusiform and polygonal cells, with varying degree of cellularity, with neoplastic cells often seen in a myxoid, chondroid or hyalinized background. Until date, only 40 cases have been reported in the literature. Most documented lesions involve anterior tongue, however 2 cases in posterior tongue and one palatal tumor has been described. Here, we present a rare case diagnosed clinically and histopathologically as (ECMT) in a 7-year-old girl with the size of the lesion 5.0 cm making this case even rarer and throwing some light on this distinct entity. PMID:25395780

  4. The discovery of medicines for rare diseases

    PubMed Central

    Swinney, David C; Xia, Shuangluo

    2015-01-01

    There is a pressing need for new medicines (new molecular entities; NMEs) for rare diseases as few of the 6800 rare diseases (according to the NIH) have approved treatments. Drug discovery strategies for the 102 orphan NMEs approved by the US FDA between 1999 and 2012 were analyzed to learn from past success: 46 NMEs were first in class; 51 were followers; and five were imaging agents. First-in-class medicines were discovered with phenotypic assays (15), target-based approaches (12) and biologic strategies (18). Identification of genetic causes in areas with more basic and translational research such as cancer and in-born errors in metabolism contributed to success regardless of discovery strategy. In conclusion, greater knowledge increases the chance of success and empirical solutions can be effective when knowledge is incomplete. PMID:25068983

  5. A rare-cell detector for cancer

    PubMed Central

    Krivacic, Robert T.; Ladanyi, Andras; Curry, Douglas N.; Hsieh, H. B.; Kuhn, Peter; Bergsrud, Danielle E.; Kepros, Jane F.; Barbera, Todd; Ho, Michael Y.; Chen, Lan Bo; Lerner, Richard A.; Bruce, Richard H.

    2004-01-01

    Although a reliable method for detection of cancer cells in blood would be an important tool for diagnosis and monitoring of solid tumors in early stages, current technologies cannot reliably detect the extremely low concentrations of these rare cells. The preferred method of detection, automated digital microscopy (ADM), is too slow to scan the large substrate areas. Here we report an approach that uses fiber-optic array scanning technology (FAST), which applies laser-printing techniques to the rare-cell detection problem. With FAST cytometry, laser-printing optics are used to excite 300,000 cells per sec, and emission is collected in an extremely wide field of view, enabling a 500-fold speed-up over ADM with comparable sensitivity and superior specificity. The combination of FAST enrichment and ADM imaging has the performance required for reliable detection of early-stage cancer in blood. PMID:15249663

  6. Knuckle pads – a rare finding

    PubMed Central

    Gengenbacher, Michael; Bianchi, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Knuckle pads are rare harmless subcutaneous nodules that must be differentiated from joint disease of the proximal interphalangeal or rarely of the metacarpophalangeal joints as well as from other masses of the paraarticular tissues. We present a case of an otherwise healthy 36-year-old woman presenting with bilateral knuckle pads located at the dorsal aspect of the proximal interphalangeal joints. No predisposition to a specific musculoskeletal disorder was noted. Ultrasound revealed well-delimited subcutaneous hypoechoic masses without internal flow signals at color Doppler. Histology showed proliferation of myofibroblasts with a decrease of elastic filaments in the deep dermis. The clinical picture, the family history in addition to the histology allowed us to make the diagnosis of knuckle pads. We present the ultrasound findings of knuckle pads and discuss the differential diagnosis of a “swelling” in the dorsal region of proximal interphalangeal joints and metacarpophalangeal joints. PMID:26672439

  7. A rare cause of lower GI bleeding.

    PubMed

    Waleed, Mohammad; Ali, A Mohamed; Saraj, Othman; Babu, Sathish; Morgan, Russell

    2012-01-01

    The authors present a rare case of lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleed due to GI amyloidosis secondary to multiple myeloma. A 79-year-old lady who presented with bloody diarrhoea for 4 weeks. Flexible sigmoidoscopy showed slight oedematous mucosa extending up to the sigmoid colon. CT abdomen showed lytic lesions in the vertebral bodies. 24 h protein analysis and serum electrophoresis suggestive of multiple myeloma, which was confirmed with bone marrow biopsy, revealed plasma cell myeloma. PMID:22962379

  8. Mast cell leukemia: an extremely rare disease.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dai-Yin; Gau, Jyh-Pyng; Hong, Ying-Chung; Liu, Chun-Yu; Yu, Yuan-Bin; Hsiao, Liang-Tsai; Liu, Jin-Hwang; Chen, Po-Min; Chiou, Tzeon-Jye; Tzeng, Cheng-Hwai

    2014-08-01

    Systemic mastocytosis is characterized by pathologic proliferation and accumulation of mast cells in at least one extracutaneous organ such as liver, spleen, bone marrow, or lymph nodes. The clinical features are highly variable depending on impairment of the involved organ systems. It often raises diagnostic challenges. Here we report a case of a 78-year-old patient with mast cell leukemia. The literature is reviewed regarding the diagnosis and updated management of this rare disease. PMID:25028296

  9. A Rare Case of Imitation Injury

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Paakhi; Gupta, Rishab; Varshney, Mohit; Sharan, Pratap

    2014-01-01

    The impact of media on cognitions and behaviors of adolescents is well-known. High frequency of exposure to media may distort the reality testing among predisposed youth, hence the rise in risk taking behaviors among this population. We present a rare manifestation of risk taking behavior in an adolescent who injected mercury in his body after exposure to a Hollywood film. The results of investigations and possible explanation to understand risk taking behavior in the present case are discussed. PMID:24860231

  10. Osteopetrosis in pregnancy: a rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Peer, Michaela; O'Donoghue, Keelin

    2011-01-01

    Osteopetrosis is a genetic syndrome characterized by the failure of osteoclasts to resorb bone. This leads to skeletal fragility despite increased bone mass, with fractures, dental abscesses, osteoarthritis and scoliosis being the most common complications. There are few reports of patients with type II osteopetrosis undergoing pregnancy and delivery. This case outlines the management of pregnancy and a successful delivery in a woman with this rare condition.

  11. Probing supersymmetry in rare B decays

    SciTech Connect

    Hewett, J.L.

    1996-10-01

    We determine the ability of future experiments to observe supersymmetric contributions to the rare decays B {r_arrow} X{sub s}{gamma} and B {r_arrow} X{sub s}l{sup +}l{sup -}. A global fit to the Wilson coefficients which contribute to these decays is performed from Monte Carlo generated data. This fit is then compared to supersymmetric predictions for several different patterns of the superpartner spectrum.

  12. Structural properties of rare earth chalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, Ramakant; Bhardwaj, Purvee; Singh, Sadhna

    2016-05-01

    The pressure induced NaCl (B1) to CsCl (B2) structural phase transition of rare earth mono-chalcogenide (PuTe) has been investigated in this paper. A modified interaction potential model (MIPM) (including the covalency effect) has been developed. Phase transition pressures are associated with a sudden collapse in volume. The phase transition pressures and associated volume collapses obtained from present potential model show a generally good agreement with available experimental data than others.

  13. Rare earth element systematics in hydrothermal fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Michard, A. )

    1989-03-01

    Rare earth element concentrations have been measured in hydrothermal solutions from geothermal fields in Italy, Dominica, Valles Caldera, Salton Sea and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The measured abundances show that hydrothermal activity is not expected to affect the REE balance of either continental or oceanic rocks. The REE enrichment of the solutions increases when the pH decreases. High-temperature solutions (> 230{degree}C) percolating through different rock types may show similar REE patterns.

  14. Impact of rare diseases in oral health

    PubMed Central

    Molina-García, Ana; Castellanos-Cosano, Lizett; Posada-de la Paz, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Background Rare diseases (RD) are those that present a lower prevalence than 5 cases per 10.000 population. The main objective of this review was to study the effect on oral health in rare diseases, while the secondary objective of the study is theme upgrade. Material and Methods Comparative observational case-control studies were analysed and a systematic review was conducted in PubMed. Each rare disease listed on the statistical data record of the Health Portal of the Ministry of Equality, Health and Social Policies Board of Andalusia was associated with “oral health”. The variables studied included dental, oral mucosa and occlusion alterations, oral pathologies (caries, periodontal disease) and other alterations (mouth breathing, parafunctional habits, etc). A bias analysis of the variable caries was conducted. Results Six RD were selected through our inclusion and exclusion criteria (hypogammaglobulinemia, Rett syndrome, Marfan syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, cystic fibrosis and Cri du chat syndrome) in a total of 8 publications, of which four trials were classified as high risk of bias and one of them as medium risk. There were not trials with low risk of bias. Conclusions The main statistically significant differences found by Syndrome compared to a control group were in Hypogammaglobulinemia with a greater tendency to enamel hypoplasia and dry mouth. The Rett syndrome had, as well, a greater tendency to an anterior open bite, ogival palate, bruxism, mouth breathing and tongue thrusting. Prader-Willi syndrome had a tendency of dental erosion, and Cri du chat syndrome showed a higher association to Tannerella forsythia. Key words:Rare diseases, oral health. PMID:27475682

  15. Jackstone: A rare entity of vesical calculus

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kamal Jeet; Tiwari, Anuj; Goyal, Adarsh

    2011-01-01

    Jackstone calculi are urinary tract stones that have a specific appearance resembling toy jacks. They are almost always composed of calcium oxalate dihydrate consist of a dense central core and radiating spicules. They are usually light brown with dark patches and are usually described to occur in the urinary bladder and rarely in the upper urinary tract. Their appearance on plain radiographs and computed tomography in human patients has been described. PMID:22279326

  16. SEPARATION OF RARE EARTHS BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Peppard, D.F.; Mason, G.W.

    1960-10-11

    A process is given for separating lanthanide rare earths from each other from an aqueous mineral acid solution, e.g., hydrochloric or nitric acid of a concentration of above 3 M, preferably 12 to 16 M, by extraction with a water- immiscible alkyl phosphate, such as tributyl phosphate or a mixture of mono-, di- and tributyl phosphate, and fractional back-extraction with mineral acid whereby the lanthanides are taken up by the acid in the order of increasing atomic number.

  17. Probing new physics in rare charm processes

    SciTech Connect

    Hewett, J.L.

    1994-09-01

    The possibility of using the charm system to search for new physics is addressed. Phenomena such as D{sup 0} - {bar D}{sup 0} mixing and rare decays of charmed mesons are first examined in the Standard Model to test the present understanding and to serve as benchmarks for signals from new sources. The effects of new physics from various classes of non-standard dynamical models on D{sup 0} - {bar D}{sup 0} mixing are investigated.

  18. Dual Primary Malignancy: A Rare Organ Combination

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Preetam; Ramakrishna, Anand; Kanchan, Tanuj; Magazine, Rahul

    2014-01-01

    A 63-year-old female smoker was evaluated for lump over the right breast, fine needle aspiration cytology of which showed infiltrating ductal carcinoma. Investigations also revealed the presence of left upper lobe mass lesion, the biopsy of which suggested small cell carcinoma. The existence of two malignancies having different histopathologies at anatomically distinct sites suggests the diagnosis of dual primary malignancy involving the breast and the lung which, being a rare combination, prompted us to report the case. PMID:25400968

  19. Carcinoma caecum--a rare presentation.

    PubMed

    Chohan, Tahir Ali; Mudasser, Syed; Sarwar, Mohamed

    2010-10-01

    Caecal and right sided colonic cancers mostly present with fatigue, weakness and iron deficiency anemia. Such tumours rarely perforate posteriorly and involve the retroperitoneum. We report a case of an old Omani lady who came with insidious sign and symptoms of perforated caecum leading to retroperitoneal collection and necrotizing fasciitis of abdominal wall due to carcinoma of caecum. She underwent surgery but despite active intervention, she died because of septicemic shock. PMID:20943115

  20. A rare case of Fournier's Gangrene.

    PubMed

    Sheehy, Sally-Ann; Kelly, Michael E; Francis, Eamon C; Sweeney, Karl J; Hussey, Alan

    2016-01-01

    We report a rare case that highlights acute pancreatitis as the protagonist of Fournier's Gangrene. This patient was treated with a radical debridement of his perineum at presentation and subsequently reconstructed with split thickness skin grafting. This is an unusual aetiology of necrotizing fasciitis with only one other case reported in the literature. This serves to emphasize to physicians that acute pancreatitis is a potential source when investigating and treating patients with Fournier's Gangrene. PMID:27150281

  1. Instabilities of rare rotating cold molecular clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Nekrasov, A. K.

    2009-03-15

    New electromagnetic streaming instabilities of rare rotating molecular clouds induced by the relative drift of ions, electrons, and dust grains in the equilibrium state are studied. The cases of a weak and strong collisional coupling of neutrals and ions in the perturbed state are involved. The dust grains are considered as unmagnetized having weak collisional coupling with neutrals in perturbations. The compressibility is taken into account. Axisymmetric perturbations with growth rates much larger than the rotation frequency are found.

  2. Concerning the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams

    ScienceCinema

    Symons, James

    2013-05-29

    James Symons, Nuclear Science Division Director at Lawrence Berkeley Lab, and Daniela Leitner, head of operations at Berkeley Lab's 88-Inch Cyclotron, discuss major contributions to the new Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) at Michigan State University, including ion source, which will based on the VENUS source built for the 88-Inch Cyclotron, and the GRETA gamma-ray detector now under construction there.

  3. FIBULAR HEMIMELIA: A RARE CASE REPORT.

    PubMed

    Sisay, Samuel; Admassie, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    Fibular hemimelia is a rare congenital absence of the fibula that may occur as an isolated anomaly or as a part of a malformation syndrome. Shortening of the extremity is obvious at birth with leg-length discrepancy. On plain radiograph of the leg and foot, significant deficiency or absence of the fibula can be seen. In this case report, a 6 year old boy with fibular hemimelia is presented. Radiological diagnosis and differential diagnosis are discussed. PMID:26677527

  4. Acardiac anceps: a rare congenital anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Nigam, Aruna; Agarwal, Rohini; Saxena, Pikee; Barla, Jaya

    2014-01-01

    Acardiac twin is a rare congenital anomaly and is exclusively associated with monochorionic twin pregnancies. The abnormalities occur due to abnormal communication between the two fetuses in the form of arterioarterial and venovenous communications, resulting in a grossly abnormal acardiac twin with reduction anomalies mainly of the upper body and gross oedema. Since no two acardiac twins are alike, this case report will add to the acardiac twin anomaly spectrum. PMID:24717594

  5. A Case of Pleuroparenchymal Metastasis: Rare Aetiology

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Radhika; Narasimhan, Meenakshi; Shanmuganathan, Aruna; Rajendran, Adhithyan

    2016-01-01

    A phyllodes tumour is a malignancy of both mesenchymal and epithelial origin affecting the breast. The malignant course of this breast tumour causing lung metastasis is rare. Here we report a treated case of borderline phyllodes tumour that presented with pleuroparenchymal metastasis. Our case highlights the possibility of recurrence of borderline phyllodes tumour as pleuroparenchymal metastasis even after a long disease free interval. PMID:27190865

  6. Tuberculosis, a rare cause of haematuria.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Joshua Anton; Patel, Kunal; Hotston, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis of the bladder is a rare pathology in the western world and often not considered as a differential when seeing patients with common urological presentations. This case illustrates a 69-year-old woman in rural England who presented with visible haematuria and was subsequently diagnosed with tuberculosis of the bladder. The case aims to highlight the significance of early diagnosis and treatment, which in turn may help prevent disease progression and organ dysfunction. PMID:27440856

  7. Corynebacterium minutissimum infecting pseudomeningocele: a rare case.

    PubMed

    Eshwara, Vandana Kalwaje; Munim, Frenil; Shetty, Arjun; Gupta, Anurag; Nitin, Jagadhane; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjay

    2014-04-01

    Invasive infections by Corynebacterium minutissimum are rarely documented. The significance of laboratory isolation of this bacterium from a sterile specimen such as cerebrospinal fluid is difficult to determine as it usually colonizes the skin. However, repeated isolation in a clinical setting should be treated appropriately. Here we report a first case of infected pseudomeningocele by C. minutissimum in an adult woman operated on for falcotentorial psammomatous meningioma. The patient was treated successfully with linezolid. PMID:23010538

  8. Phenotypic extremes in rare variant study designs.

    PubMed

    Peloso, Gina M; Rader, Daniel J; Gabriel, Stacey; Kathiresan, Sekar; Daly, Mark J; Neale, Benjamin M

    2016-06-01

    Currently, next-generation sequencing studies aim to identify rare and low-frequency variation that may contribute to disease. For a given effect size, as the allele frequency decreases, the power to detect genes or variants of interest also decreases. Although many methods have been proposed for the analysis of such data, study design and analytic issues still persist in data interpretation. In this study we present sequencing data for ABCA1 that has known rare variants associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). We contrast empirical findings from two study designs: a phenotypic extreme sample and a population-based random sample. We found differing strengths of association with HDL-C across the two study designs (P=0.0006 with n=701 phenotypic extremes vs P=0.03 with n=1600 randomly sampled individuals). To explore this apparent difference in evidence for association, we performed a simulation study focused on the impact of phenotypic selection on power. We demonstrate that the power gain for an extreme phenotypic selection study design is much greater in rare variant studies than for studies of common variants. Our study confirms that studying phenotypic extremes is critical in rare variant studies because it boosts power in two ways: the typical increases from extreme sampling and increasing the proportion of relevant functional variants ascertained and thereby tested for association. Furthermore, we show that when combining statistical evidence through meta-analysis from an extreme-selected sample and a second separate population-based random sample, power is lower when a traditional sample size weighting is used compared with weighting by the noncentrality parameter. PMID:26350511

  9. [Pneumomediastinum during a dermatomyositis: a rare entity].

    PubMed

    Majdoub, Senda; Zemni, Houcem; Zaghouani, Houneida; Salem, Halima Houda Ben; Amara, Habib; Bakir, Dajla; Kraeim, Chakib

    2016-01-01

    Dermatomyositis is a connective characterized by inflammation of skeletal muscle with cutaneous manifestations. Their etiologies, still unknown, associate environmental and genetic factors. Among lung complications described, interstitial pneumopathies are common complications. Other complications are rarely reported as pneumomediastinum. We report a case of pneumomediastinum with aeric in massive skin dissection occurred in a patient with dermatomyositis. We will discuss the frequency, causes and pathophysiology of the disease according to the literature. PMID:27200145

  10. Rare B Meson Decays at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Rare B meson decays are an excellent probe for beyond the Standard Model physics. Two very sensitive processes are the b {yields} s{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} and B{sub s,d}{sup 0} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} decays. We report recent results at a center of mass energy of {radical}s = 1.96 TeV from CDF II using 7 fb{sup -1} at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider.

  11. Measurements of Rare B Decays at BABAR

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, Paul C.

    2003-03-05

    We present the results of searches for rare B meson decays. The measurements use all or part of a data sample of about 88 million {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} decays collected between 1999 and 2002 with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric energy B Factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. We study a variety of decays dominated by electromagnetic, electroweak and gluonic penguin transitions, and report measurements of branching fractions.

  12. Primary cryptococcal prostatitis--rare occurrence.

    PubMed

    Shah, Vinaya B; Patil, Pallavi A; Agrawa, Vipul; Kaswan, Harish K

    2012-05-01

    Cryptococcosis is a well recognized infection in immunocompromised patients. Cryptococcal infection primarily involves the lung and is hematogeneously spread to other organs. Sometimes it might affect the genitourinary tract. The prostate gland is a rare site of primary infection due to cryptococcus neoformans. We report a case of granulomatous inflammation in the prostate as a result of crypyococcus neoformans infection in a 70 year old immunocompetent patient, a non diabetic, which was diagnosed by transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy. PMID:23029729

  13. Duodenal lymphangitis carcinomatosa: A rare case

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Ilanchezhian; Radhan, Prabhu; Ramachandran, Rajoo; Anand, Rajamani; Sai, Venkata; Swaminathan, Rajendiran

    2015-01-01

    Duodenal lymphangitis carcinomatosa has been sporadically described, and little attention has been paid so far. To our knowledge, no data on radiological findings for this rare entity has been published. We report a case of duodenal lymphangitis carcinomatosa secondary to gallbladder mass in a 44-year-old Indian man to focus on the radiological diagnosis, which was further confirmed by endoscopic-guided biopsy and immunohistochemical analysis. PMID:27186245

  14. Is heterostyly rare on oceanic islands?

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kenta; Sugawara, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Heterostyly has been considered rare or absent on oceanic islands. However, there has been no comprehensive review on this issue. Is heterostyly truly rare on oceanic islands? What makes heterostyly rare on such islands? To answer these questions, we review the reproductive studies on heterostyly on oceanic islands, with special emphasis on the heterostylous genus Psychotria in the Pacific Ocean as a model system. Overall, not many reproductive studies have been performed on heterostylous species on oceanic islands. In Hawaiian Psychotria, all 11 species are thought to have evolved dioecy from distyly. In the West Pacific, three species on the oceanic Bonin and Lanyu Islands are distylous (Psychotria homalosperma, P. boninensis and P. cephalophora), whereas three species on the continental Ryukyu Islands show various breeding systems, such as distyly (P. serpens), dioecy (P. rubra) and monoecy (P. manillensis). On some other Pacific oceanic islands, possibilities of monomorphy have been reported. For many Psychotria species, breeding systems are unknown, although recent studies indicate that heterostylous species may occur on some oceanic islands. A shift from heterostyly to other sexual systems may occur on some oceanic islands. This tendency may also contribute to the rarity of heterostyly, in addition to the difficulty in colonization/autochthonous evolution of heterostylous species on oceanic islands. Further investigation of reproductive systems of Psychotria on oceanic islands using robust phylogenetic frameworks would provide new insights into plant reproduction on oceanic islands. PMID:26199401

  15. Rare Case of Rhizomelic Chondrodysplasia Punctata

    PubMed Central

    Mahale, Yashwant; Kadu, Vikram V.; Chaudhari, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata (RCDP) is a very rare disease. It impairs the normal development of many parts of the body. The features of this disorder include bony abnormalities, severe mental retardation, joint contractures, cataract and recurrent respiratory infections and breathing problems. Seizures and Distinctive facial features including prominent forehead, depressed nasal bridge and small nose is also associated with this pathology. Being rare, this is very difficult to diagnose when presented at OPD. Proper history and meticulous examination is extremely necessary. Our aim is to discuss current knowledge on etiopathogenesis as well as radiological and clinical symptoms of diseases associated with RCDP. Case Report: 5 yrs old male child presented with chest infection and periarticular swelling of all the small and large joints. The patient was walking with limp. History elicited that the child was born of a consanguineous marriage. The child was delivered at home. Birth weight was 2.4 kgs. He repeatedly had upper respiratory tract infections and was taking treatment for the same. He was further investigated in the form of clinical, biochemical and radiological assessment which stated that the patient was suffering from RCDP. Conclusion: This is a rare presentation. Though this is not curable, management of RCDP is symptomatic and supportive and may include physiotherapy and orthopedic procedures (in later stages) to improve function. The child may also undergo cataract surgery to improve vision. PMID:27299065

  16. Efficient Estimation of Rare-Event Kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trendelkamp-Schroer, Benjamin; Noé, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The efficient calculation of rare-event kinetics in complex dynamical systems, such as the rate and pathways of ligand dissociation from a protein, is a generally unsolved problem. Markov state models can systematically integrate ensembles of short simulations and thus effectively parallelize the computational effort, but the rare events of interest still need to be spontaneously sampled in the data. Enhanced sampling approaches, such as parallel tempering or umbrella sampling, can accelerate the computation of equilibrium expectations massively, but sacrifice the ability to compute dynamical expectations. In this work we establish a principle to combine knowledge of the equilibrium distribution with kinetics from fast "downhill" relaxation trajectories using reversible Markov models. This approach is general, as it does not invoke any specific dynamical model and can provide accurate estimates of the rare-event kinetics. Large gains in sampling efficiency can be achieved whenever one direction of the process occurs more rapidly than its reverse, making the approach especially attractive for downhill processes such as folding and binding in biomolecules. Our method is implemented in the PyEMMA software.

  17. A Network Approach to Rare Disease Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghiassian, Susan; Rabello, Sabrina; Sharma, Amitabh; Wiest, Olaf; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    2011-03-01

    Network approaches have been widely used to better understand different areas of natural and social sciences. Network Science had a particularly great impact on the study of biological systems. In this project, using biological networks, candidate drugs as a potential treatment of rare diseases were identified. Developing new drugs for more than 2000 rare diseases (as defined by ORPHANET) is too expensive and beyond expectation. Disease proteins do not function in isolation but in cooperation with other interacting proteins. Research on FDA approved drugs have shown that most of the drugs do not target the disease protein but a protein which is 2 or 3 steps away from the disease protein in the Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) network. We identified the already known drug targets in the disease gene's PPI subnetwork (up to the 3rd neighborhood) and among them those in the same sub cellular compartment and higher coexpression coefficient with the disease gene are expected to be stronger candidates. Out of 2177 rare diseases, 1092 were found not to have any drug target. Using the above method, we have found the strongest candidates among the rest in order to further experimental validations.

  18. Rare gene capture in predominantly androgenetic species

    PubMed Central

    Hedtke, Shannon M.; Glaubrecht, Matthias; Hillis, David M.

    2011-01-01

    The long-term persistence of completely asexual species is unexpected. Although asexuality has short-term evolutionary advantages, a lack of genetic recombination leads to the accumulation over time of deleterious mutations. The loss of individual fitness as a result of accumulated deleterious mutations is expected to lead to reduced population fitness and possible lineage extinction. Persistent lineages of asexual, all-female clones (parthenogenetic and gynogenetic species) avoid the negative effects of asexual reproduction through the production of rare males, or otherwise exhibit some degree of genetic recombination. Another form of asexuality, known as androgenesis, results in offspring that are clones of the male parent. Several species of the Asian clam genus Corbicula reproduce via androgenesis. We compared gene trees of mitochondrial and nuclear loci from multiple sexual and androgenetic species across the global distribution of Corbicula to test the hypothesis of long-term clonality of the androgenetic species. Our results indicate that low levels of genetic capture of maternal nuclear DNA from other species occur within otherwise androgenetic lineages of Corbicula. The rare capture of genetic material from other species may allow androgenetic lineages of Corbicula to mitigate the effects of deleterious mutation accumulation and increase potentially adaptive variation. Models comparing the relative advantages and disadvantages of sexual and asexual reproduction should consider the possibility of rare genetic recombination, because such events seem to be nearly ubiquitous among otherwise asexual species. PMID:21606355

  19. Electronic structure of rare-earth hexaborides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, S.; Nanba, T.; Tomikawa, M.; Kunii, S.; Kasuya, T.

    1992-11-01

    Reflectivity spectra of all rare-earth hexaboride RB6 (R=La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Yb, and Y) single crystals have been measured systematically in the energy region from 1 meV to 40 eV at 300 K in order to investigate the electronic state and the contribution of the 4f electron to the band structure. The analysis of the optical conductivity and the loss-function spectra, which were derived from the Kramers-Kronig transformation of the reflectivity spectra, allowed us to make clear the origin of the peak structure in the spectrum due to the various interband transitions. The origins of the main peaks in the spectrum were assigned to the interband transitions from the bonding to the antibonding bands of the boron 2s and 2p states and to the rare-earth 5d state. The intra-atomic transition from the 4f and the 5p to the 5d(t2g) states in the rare-earth ion was also observed.

  20. AMPK As A Target in Rare Diseases.

    PubMed

    Cotán, David; Paz, Marina Villanueva; Alcocer-Gómez, Elizabet; Garrido-Maraver, Juan; Oropesa-Ávila, Manuel; de la Mata, Mario; Pavón, Ana Delgado; de Lavera, Isabel; Galán, Fernando; Ybot-González, Patricia; Sánchez-Alcázar, José A

    2016-01-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has emerged as an important sensor of signals that control cellular energy balance in all eukaryotes. AMPK is also involved in fatty acid oxidation, glucose transport, antioxidant defense, mitochondrial biogenesis and the modulation of inflammatory processes. The numerous roles of AMPK in cell physiological and pathological states justified the notable increase in the number of publications in previous years, with almost 1500 scientific articles relative to this kinase in 2014. Due to its role in maintaining energy balance, a dysfunction in AMPK signalling pathway may result in perturbations at the systemic level that contribute to the development of many disease conditions. Among them, more than 7000 poorly-known rare diseases are particularly of social and scientific interest because they are usually chronically debilitating or even lifethreatening and lack effective and safe treatment. Several authors have demonstrated AMPK alterations and the beneficial effect of treatments with drugs regulating AMPK activity in some of these low prevalence pathologies. Among these rare diseases in which AMPK can play an important pathological role are mitochondrial disorders, muscular dystrophies, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative pathologies, or even some types of cancer for the importance of AMPK as a suppressor of cell proliferation. This review focuses on current knowledge about the pathophysiological roles of AMPK and future approaches as therapeutic targeting in rare diseases. PMID:26758671

  1. Contraception, pregnancy and rare respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Lara, Beatriz; Fornet, Inocencia; Goya, María; López, Francisco; De Miguel, José Ramón; Molina, María; Morales, Pilar; Quintana, Esther; Salicrú, Sabina; Suárez, Elena; Usetti, Piedad; Zurbano, Felipe

    2012-10-01

    Three percent of rare diseases are pneumopathies. Improvements in survival and quality of life have led to a new situation where patients with rare respiratory diseases want to plan their reproductive lives. The intention of this review is to present the experience accumulated in the field of the reproductive health of these women. In several rare respiratory diseases, a genetic base has been identified. The combination of preimplantation genetic diagnosis, assisted reproduction and molecular biology techniques enable embryos to be studied genetically before being transplanted into the uterus. Therefore, the risk for transmitting a certain disease or chromosome alteration may be avoided in high-risk couples, and prenatal diagnoses may be done by chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis. As a general rule, contraceptive methods should be personalized by evaluating the general state of female patients as well as their possibilities for pregnancy, complications and the future possibility of lung transplantation. In lymphangioleiomyomatosis and primary pulmonary hypertension, pregnancy is considered a contraindication. In the former, there is a very high risk for pneumothorax and loss of lung function. In the latter, mortality reaches 33%. In cystic fibrosis, it is estimated that each year 4% of patients become pregnant and there is no observed loss in lung function. There are special circumstances in childbirth that should be considered as well as specific anesthesia risks. The present review suggests that the decision about contraceptive methods, pregnancy as a contraindication or conditions for managing a pregnancy should be both individualized and multidisciplinary. PMID:22771004

  2. Rare tumors of the internal auditory canal.

    PubMed

    Dazert, Stefan; Aletsee, Christoph; Brors, Dominik; Mlynski, Robert; Sudhoff, Holger; Hildmann, Henning; Helms, Jan

    2005-07-01

    The study was performed to identify the incidence and histology of rare tumors with growth restricted to the internal auditory canal (IAC) that are different from vestibular schwannoma (VS). Furthermore, the question was addressed whether a preoperative diagnosis would be possible in these cases. A series of 351 patients that were operated on for IAC tumors through a transtemporal or translabyrinthine approach was investigated retrospectively. Cases with a tumor entity other than VS were analyzed for symptoms, radiological diagnosis, intraoperative findings and postoperative histolopatology to determine if a differential diagnosis to the common VS can be established prior to surgery. In 15 out of 351 cases (4.3%), uncommon processes of the IAC were determined by histology (6 lipomas, 3 hemangiomas, 2 neurofibromas, 2 menigiomas, 1 facial neuroma and 1 case of bilateral malignant lymphoma). The symptoms and the clinical manifestations were typical for patients with VS so that a preoperative differential diagnosis was not possible in the majority of cases. An analysis of the operation reports revealed that in 10 out of the 15 cases the surgeon suspected an unusual tumor of the IAC during surgery. The results of the present investigation suggest that rare lesions of the IAC can be expected in less than 5% of the cases and that preoperative diagnosis of rare IAC tumors is difficult. Intraoperative findings such as adhesion to cranial nerves and consistency of the tumor often indicate unusual processes, but histological analysis of the removed tissue is essential for the definite diagnosis. PMID:15947938

  3. Anthropogenic Cycles of Rare Earth Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, X.; Graedel, T. E.

    2009-12-01

    This research will develop quantitatively resolved anthropogenic cycles and in-use stocks for the rare earth metals specifically cerium, lanthanum and dysprosium in Japan, China, and the U.S. for the year of 2007. Rare earth elements (REE) is a group of 17 scare metals widely used in a growing number of emerging technologies and have been in high demand for emerging technologies as raw materials during past the three decades. New market participants from newly industrializing countries, primarily China, have had strong impacts on the demand of share. Consequently, the importance to sustain a reliable, steady, uninterrupted supply on global market triggered comprehensive research to recognize and understand the life cycles of rare earths. Moreover, because China plays a dominant role in mining production since 1990, it requires the assessment for the countries, which are almost completely dependent on imports from China with respect to rare earth resources. The study aims to analyze the flows and stocks of rare earth elements individually as elemental form in spite of their natural geological co-occurrence and mixed composition in applications. By applying the method of Material Flow Analysis (MFA) work has been done on evaluating current and historical flows of specific technologically significant materials, for example, copper, zinc, nickel, etc., determining the stocks available in different types of reservoirs (e.g., lithosphere, in-use) and the flows among the reservoirs, developing scenarios of possible futures of metal use, and assessing the environmental and policy implications of the results. Therefore, REE as a new target deserves inclusion because of its potential demand-supply conflict and importance to secure the competitive advantage of technical innovation in future. This work will generate a quantitatively resolved anthropogenic life cycle and in-use stocks for REE for the main target countries for a chosen year, 2007, providing flows and stocks from

  4. Recycling of rare earth metals from rare earth-transition metal alloy scrap by liquid metal extraction

    DOEpatents

    Ellis, T.W.; Schmidt, F.A.

    1995-08-01

    A method is described for treating rare earth metal-bearing scrap, waste or other material (e.g. Nd--Fe--B or Dy--Tb--Fe scrap) to recover the rare earth metal comprising melting the rare earth metal-bearing material, melting a Group IIA metal extractant, such as Mg, Ca, or Ba, in which the rare earth is soluble in the molten state, and contacting the melted material and melted extractant at a temperature and for a time effective to extract the rare earth from the melted material into the melted extractant. The rare earth metal is separated from the extractant metal by vacuum sublimation or distillation. 2 figs.

  5. Recycling of rare earth metals from rare earth-transition metal alloy scrap by liquid metal extraction

    DOEpatents

    Ellis, Timothy W.; Schmidt, Frederick A.

    1995-08-01

    Method of treating rare earth metal-bearing scrap, waste or other material (e.g. Nd--Fe--B or Dy--Tb--Fe scrap) to recover the rare earth metal comprising melting the rare earth metal-bearing material, melting a Group IIA metal extractant, such as Mg, Ca, or Ba, in which the rare earth is soluble in the molten state, and contacting the melted material and melted extractant at a temperature and for a time effective to extract the rare earth from the melted material into the melted extractant. The rare earth metal is separated from the extractant metal by vacuum sublimation or distillation.

  6. Clinical trial designs for rare diseases: Studies developed and discussed by the International Rare Cancers Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Bogaerts, Jan; Sydes, Matthew R.; Keat, Nicola; McConnell, Andrea; Benson, Al; Ho, Alan; Roth, Arnaud; Fortpied, Catherine; Eng, Cathy; Peckitt, Clare; Coens, Corneel; Pettaway, Curtis; Arnold, Dirk; Hall, Emma; Marshall, Ernie; Sclafani, Francesco; Hatcher, Helen; Earl, Helena; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle; Paul, James; Blay, Jean-Yves; Whelan, Jeremy; Panageas, Kathy; Wheatley, Keith; Harrington, Kevin; Licitra, Lisa; Billingham, Lucinda; Hensley, Martee; McCabe, Martin; Patel, Poulam M.; Carvajal, Richard; Wilson, Richard; Glynne-Jones, Rob; McWilliams, Rob; Leyvraz, Serge; Rao, Sheela; Nicholson, Steve; Filiaci, Virginia; Negrouk, Anastassia; Lacombe, Denis; Dupont, Elisabeth; Pauporté, Iris; Welch, John J.; Law, Kate; Trimble, Ted; Seymour, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Background The past three decades have seen rapid improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of most cancers and the most important contributor has been research. Progress in rare cancers has been slower, not least because of the challenges of undertaking research. Settings The International Rare Cancers Initiative (IRCI) is a partnership which aims to stimulate and facilitate the development of international clinical trials for patients with rare cancers. It is focused on interventional – usually randomised – clinical trials with the clear goal of improving outcomes for patients. The key challenges are organisational and methodological. A multi-disciplinary workshop to review the methods used in ICRI portfolio trials was held in Amsterdam in September 2013. Other as-yet unrealised methods were also discussed. Results The IRCI trials are each presented to exemplify possible approaches to designing credible trials in rare cancers. Researchers may consider these for use in future trials and understand the choices made for each design. Interpretation Trials can be designed using a wide array of possibilities. There is no ‘one size fits all’ solution. In order to make progress in the rare diseases, decisions to change practice will have to be based on less direct evidence from clinical trials than in more common diseases. PMID:25542058

  7. Rare earth deposits in a deceased movie projectionist. A new case of rare earth pneumoconiosis?

    PubMed

    Waring, P M; Watling, R J

    The subject described in this case report, a movie projectionist, had approximately 25 years of occupational exposure to carbon arc lamp fumes. The carbon arc deposits were visible in histological sections as small granules within macrophages of the tracheobronchial lymph nodes and hepatic Kupffer's cells. Electron microprobe analysis by energy dispersive analysis of x-rays showed the granules to be composed of the rare earth elements cerium, lanthanum and neodymium, which are the major constituents of carbon arc rods. Tissue concentrations, as determined by inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy, were approximately 250-2000 times those of unexposed controls, and there was evidence of their redistribution throughout the reticuloendothelial system. There were no respiratory symptoms, or radiographic or histological pulmonary changes attributable to the progressive accumulation of the rare earth elements, and as such the patient cannot be considered to have suffered from pneumoconiosis. Twenty-one published cases of rare earth pneumoconiosis, mainly in photoengravers exposed to carbon arc fumes, are reviewed and suggest that rare earth oxides are not innocuous dusts. With the increasingly widespread use of rare earth elements there is a likelhood that further occupational groups may have significant but unrecognised exposure. PMID:2247001

  8. Xalkori Approved for Rare Genetic Form of Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Xalkori Approved For Rare Genetic Form of Lung Cancer ROS-1 positive NSCLC To use the sharing ... Drug Administration to treat advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with tumors that have a rare ROS- ...

  9. New Test Helps Identify Rare Genetic Diseases in Newborns

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_159097.html New Test Helps Identify Rare Genetic Diseases in Newborns 'Next-generation gene sequencing' could ... greatly improve doctors' ability to quickly diagnose rare genetic diseases in newborns, researchers say. The new test ...

  10. Social media methods for studying rare diseases.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Kurt R; Stringer, Kathleen A; Donohue, Janet E; Yu, Sunkyung; Shaver, Ashley; Caruthers, Regine L; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J; Fifer, Carlen; Goldberg, Caren; Russell, Mark W

    2014-05-01

    For pediatric rare diseases, the number of patients available to support traditional research methods is often inadequate. However, patients who have similar diseases cluster "virtually" online via social media. This study aimed to (1) determine whether patients who have the rare diseases Fontan-associated protein losing enteropathy (PLE) and plastic bronchitis (PB) would participate in online research, and (2) explore response patterns to examine social media's role in participation compared with other referral modalities. A novel, internet-based survey querying details of potential pathogenesis, course, and treatment of PLE and PB was created. The study was available online via web and Facebook portals for 1 year. Apart from 2 study-initiated posts on patient-run Facebook pages at the study initiation, all recruitment was driven by study respondents only. Response patterns and referral sources were tracked. A total of 671 respondents with a Fontan palliation completed a valid survey, including 76 who had PLE and 46 who had PB. Responses over time demonstrated periodic, marked increases as new online populations of Fontan patients were reached. Of the responses, 574 (86%) were from the United States and 97 (14%) were international. The leading referral sources were Facebook, internet forums, and traditional websites. Overall, social media outlets referred 84% of all responses, making it the dominant modality for recruiting the largest reported contemporary cohort of Fontan patients and patients who have PLE and PB. The methodology and response patterns from this study can be used to design research applications for other rare diseases. PMID:24733869

  11. Raman Investigations of Rare-Earth Orthovanadates

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, C. C.; Silva, E. N.; Ayala, A. P.; Guedes, I.; Pizani, P. S.; Loong, C. K.; Boatner, Lynn A

    2007-01-01

    Polarized Raman spectroscopy has been used to obtain the room-temperature phonon spectra of the series of rare earth orthovanadate single crystals: SmVO4, HoVO4, YbVO4 and LuVO4. The observed Raman frequencies follow the overall mode distribution expected for RVO4 compounds with the tetragonal zircon structure. The variation of the mode frequency with atomic number across the lanthanide orthovanadate series was investigated, and the trend exhibited by the internal modes was explained by considering the force constants of VO4 tetrahedron.

  12. A rare case of cutaneous collagenous vasculopathy.

    PubMed

    Meah, Nekma; Khirwadkar, Nitin; Ellison, Judith

    2016-08-01

    Cutaneous collagenous vasculopathy is a rare microangiopathy first described by Salama and Rosenthal in 2000. Several cases have been reported to date, describing distinct histological findings of thick hyaline collagenous blood vessel walls in the superficial dermis. Clinical confusion can arise with generalised essential telangiectasia. We report a case occurring in a 76-year-old woman who presented with a 2-year history of a telangiectatic rash progressing from her knees upwards. The diagnosis was confirmed on skin biopsy and treatment with pulsed dye laser was later initiated at the patient's request. PMID:25872701

  13. Primary Axillary Porocarcinoma: A Rare Cutaneous Tumour

    PubMed Central

    Valarmathi, K.; Lilly, Mary; Satish, Selvi; Mishra, Nidhi

    2016-01-01

    Eccrine porocarcinoma, a rare cutaneous malignant tumour accounts for a fraction of sweat gland tumours. This tumour is found to originate from the intraepithelial parts of the sweat glands. It commonly involves the lower extremities in elderly patients and carries an aggressive behaviour. Cutaneous and visceral metastasis can occur and hence prompt treatment is mandatory. Surgical excision is the mainstay of treatment modality. We hereby present a case of eccrine porocarcinoma in a 50-year-old male in the right axillary region presenting as a verrucous lesion. PMID:27042472

  14. A rare case of mumps orchitis.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekar, Pavitra; Sathiasekar, Anisha Cynthia; Namaratha, K; Singarayan, Jaish Lal Mariachelliah; Gnanam, Arul Prakash Arul

    2015-08-01

    Mumps is a relatively mild short-term viral infection of the salivary glands that usually occurs during childhood. Meningitis/encephalitis is a well-known complication of mumps, but involvement and infection of the testis in adolescent boys and adult men are rare. We report a case of an 18-year-old male patient with mumps associated epididymo-orchitis on the left side. The diagnosis was confirmed clinically and serologically by IgG and IgM titers. The symptoms were resolved after the administration of anti-inflammatory and pain medications with bed rest and ice packs applied to the area. PMID:26538966

  15. Seckel syndrome: a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Sisodia, Rinky; Raj, Ravi Kadur Sundar; Goel, Vipin

    2014-01-01

    Seckel syndrome (SS) is a rare, autosomal recessive syndrome; characterized by severe intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation, microcephaly, mental retardation, and typical facial appearance with beaklike protrusion of the midface (bird headed). In addition to the characteristic craniofacial dysmorphism and skeletal defects, abnormalities have been described in the cardiovascular, hematopoietic, endocrine, gastrointestinal, and central nervous systems. Usually such patients have poor psychomotor development. This case report presents an 8-year-old child with SS born to parents, exposed in Bhopal gas disaster. PMID:24739918

  16. Multiple Mandibular Exostoses: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Mansi; Rastogi, Sanjay; Sharma, Anamika

    2013-01-01

    Multiple maxillary and mandibular exostoses are common localized overgrowths of the bone. They are non-neoplastic and are thought to be reactive or developmental in origin. These exostoses need to be accurately distinguished from the other more diagnostically significant lesions, notably from the exosteal osteomas. The aetiology of exostosis has been investigated by different authors, but no consensus has been reached so far. We are reporting a rare case of an otherwise healthy 38 year old female with multiple exostoses in the mandibular anterior region, which correlated both clinically and radiographically. PMID:24086919

  17. Bilateral discoid medial menisci: a rare phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Samal, Puspak; Bhagwat, Kishan; Panigrahi, Tapas; Gopinathan, Nirmalraj

    2014-01-01

    Discoid medial meniscus is a relatively rare pathology of the knee joint, with bilateral cases even rarer. Herein, we report the case of a 25-year-old man diagnosed with discoid medial meniscus in the right knee with a horizontal tear. Increased cupping of the medial condyle of the tibia, widening of the medial joint space and the presence of discoid meniscus in the right knee prompted investigation of the asymptomatic left knee with magnetic resonance imaging. The contralateral asymptomatic knee also showed evidence of discoid medial meniscus. The symptomatic knee was successfully treated by arthroscopic partial meniscectomy, with excellent functional outcome. PMID:25273941

  18. Rare-earth-metal dialkynyl dimethyl aluminates.

    PubMed

    Nieland, Anja; Mix, Andreas; Neumann, Beate; Stammler, Hans-Georg; Mitzel, Norbert W

    2013-06-17

    A new class of rare-earth-metal alkynyl complexes has been prepared. The reactions of the tris(tetramethylaluminate)s of lanthanum, praseodymium, samarium, yttrium, holmium, and thulium, [Ln(AlMe₄)₃], with phenylacetylene afforded compounds [Ln{(μ-C≡CPh)₂AlMe₂}₃] (Ln=La (1), Pr (2), Sm (3), Y (4), Ho (5), Tm (6)). All of these compounds have been characterized by NMR spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, and by elemental analysis. NMR spectroscopic studies of the series of para- magnetic compounds [Ln(AlMe₄)₃] and [Ln{(μ-C≡CPh)₂AlMe₂}₃] have also been performed. PMID:23616205

  19. Sweet outcome for a rare inflammatory condition.

    PubMed

    Jalil, Salah Abdel; Abdul-Kafi, Owais; Smith, James; Jalil, Ala' A Abdel

    2016-02-19

    Sweet syndrome is a rare inflammatory condition that was first described by Douglas Sweet in 1964 as an acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis. It can be associated with infections, inflammatory conditions,pregnancy, drugs, and malignancy. It is usually divided into three subtypes based on etiology: classical(idiopathic); malignancy-associated; and drug-induced. We describe a patient with classical Sweet syndrome who had a dramatic response to corticosteroids.Our patient met the major criteria for diagnosis (positive histopathology and an abrupt onset of a painful rash), along with 4 minor criteria (fever, preceding upper respiratory tract infection, dramatic response to steroids, and leukocytosis). PMID:26914425

  20. Rare Gas Viscosities: A Learning Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpern, Arthur M.

    2002-02-01

    The viscosities, h, of the rare gases and SF6 are determined in a physical chemistry laboratory experiment using the evacuation method, which is based on Poiseuille's equation. Students become aware that h does not vary monotonically with row number (or atomic mass) and confirm this behavior on the basis of the kinetic theory expression for h. They find that the collision diameters of the gases, s, which are obtained from h values, increase monotonically with molar mass, as expected. Students can show that values of s obtained from gas viscosities agree reasonably well with ab initio calculations of atomic (molecular) diameters using Gaussian 98W.

  1. Marble Bone Disease: A Rare Bone Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Harinathbabu, Maheswari; Thillaigovindan, Ranjani; Prabhu, Geetha

    2015-01-01

    Osteopetrosis, or marble bone disease, is a rare skeletal disorder due to a defective function of the osteoclasts. This defect renders bones more susceptible to osteomyelitis due to decreased vascularity. This disorder is inherited as autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive. Healthcare professionals should urge these patients to maintain their oral health as well as general health, as this condition makes these patients more susceptible to frequent infections and fractures. This case report emphasizes the signs and symptoms of marble bone disease and presents clinical and radiographic findings.  PMID:26594603

  2. Leprous macrocheilia: A rare clinical presentation.

    PubMed

    Gogri, Ajas Anil; Kadam, Sonali G; Umarji, Hemant R; Tupkari, Jagdish V

    2015-09-01

    Oral leprosy, a granulomatous disease is classified under the term oro-facial granulomatosis which comprises a group of diseases characterized by noncaseating granulomas affecting the soft tissues of the oral and maxillofacial region. The most common clinical presentation of oro-facial granulomatous conditions is persistent swelling of one or both lips. Due to its rare incidence and clinical findings overlapping with other granulomatous conditions such as sarcoidosis, Crohn's disease, and cheilitis granulomatosa; it is practically difficult for a dental surgeon to easily diagnose this condition. This study presents a case of leprosy causing macrocheilia as the only clinical presentation and diagnosed initially as Miescher's cheilitis based on exclusion criteria. PMID:26604590

  3. Leprous macrocheilia: A rare clinical presentation

    PubMed Central

    Gogri, Ajas Anil; Kadam, Sonali G.; Umarji, Hemant R.; Tupkari, Jagdish V.

    2015-01-01

    Oral leprosy, a granulomatous disease is classified under the term oro-facial granulomatosis which comprises a group of diseases characterized by noncaseating granulomas affecting the soft tissues of the oral and maxillofacial region. The most common clinical presentation of oro-facial granulomatous conditions is persistent swelling of one or both lips. Due to its rare incidence and clinical findings overlapping with other granulomatous conditions such as sarcoidosis, Crohn's disease, and cheilitis granulomatosa; it is practically difficult for a dental surgeon to easily diagnose this condition. This study presents a case of leprosy causing macrocheilia as the only clinical presentation and diagnosed initially as Miescher's cheilitis based on exclusion criteria. PMID:26604590

  4. Rare royal families in honeybees, Apis mellifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moritz, Robin F. A.; Lattorff, H. Michael G.; Neumann, Peter; Kraus, F. Bernhard; Radloff, Sarah E.; Hepburn, H. Randall

    2005-10-01

    The queen is the dominant female in the honeybee colony, Apis mellifera, and controls reproduction. Queen larvae are selected by the workers and are fed a special diet (royal jelly), which determines caste. Because queens mate with many males a large number of subfamilies coexist in the colony. As a consequence, there is a considerable potential for conflict among the subfamilies over queen rearing. Here we show that honeybee queens are not reared at random but are preferentially reared from rare “royal” subfamilies, which have extremely low frequencies in the colony's worker force but a high frequency in the queens reared.

  5. Horseshoe Appendix: An Extremely Rare Appendiceal Anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ch Gyan; Rangaswamy, Raju; Ezung, Yibenthung S.; Singh, H. Manihar

    2016-01-01

    Appendiceal anomalies are extremely rare malformations that are usually found incidentally. Agenesis and duplication of the appendix has been well documented however, the cases of horseshoe appendix reported is very limited, only four cases reported so far. Here, we report a four and half-year-old who underwent interval appendectomy. Intraoperatively both the ends of the appendix were found to be communicating with the cecum with two separate base or stump located at a sagital disposal- the so called “horseshoe appendix”. PMID:27134939

  6. Rare extrapulmonary complications of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection.

    PubMed

    Dhaliwal, Kiran; Enright, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Stevens-Johnsons syndrome (SJS) is a rare extra-pulmonary complication of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. We present the case of a 26-year-old man with fever, cough, extensive oral mucosal ulceration and a widespread truncal rash. He was diagnosed with M. pneumoniae-induced SJS. He responded well to antibiotics and steroids initially, but went on to develop pseudomembranous conjunctivitis requiring bilateral amniotic membrane grafting. SJS is most commonly drug-induced, however, M. pneumoniae is the commonest infectious cause and should be considered in the differential diagnosis. It is also important to get specialist care involved early to minimise the long-term effects of any complications. PMID:26837942

  7. Rare B meson decays at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, Walter; /Cornell U., Phys. Dept.

    2011-08-01

    Rare B meson decays are an excellent probe for beyond the Standard Model physics. Two very sensitive processes are the B{sub s,d}{sup 0} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} and b {yields} s{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} decays. We report recent results at a center of mass energy of {radical}s = 1.96 TeV from the CDF II and D0 collaborations using between 3.7 fb{sup -1} and 6.9 fb{sup -1} taken during Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider.

  8. Carbamazepine-induced hypertension: A rare case

    PubMed Central

    Kharb, Preeti; Mittal, Niti; Gupta, Mahesh C.

    2015-01-01

    A 74-year-old female with trigeminal neuralgia developed hypertension after the initiation of carbamazepine therapy. The time sequence of start of the suspected drug and onset of hypertension are consistent with the diagnosis. The hypertension did not resolve with antihypertensive therapy or dose reduction of carbamazepine. Patient recovered after the carbamazepine therapy was discontinued. The positive rechallenge and positive dechallenge showed association of carbamazepine therapy with hypertension as its adverse effect. This is a rare case that we report of carbamazepine-induced hypertension and this report may act as alerting mechanism to the health care professionals especially neurologists. PMID:26816475

  9. [A rare case of caudal appendage].

    PubMed

    Andres, S; Boisramé, T; Fritz, G; Viville, B; Kehrli, P; Langer, B; Favre, R

    2015-09-01

    Caudal appendage is a rare malformation which has since ever been interesting. We present the case of a girl in which a caudal appendage was discovered before birth. A throughout checking found an extension from this abnormality to the cordal spine. The baby is operated when 2months old. Differential diagnosis are spina bifida, teratoma and pilonidal sinus. Caudal appendage is one of the typical cutaneous finding with underlying spinal dysraphism, such as hair tuft or pigmented macule. The risk is a tethered cord syndrome that can lead to severe complication. The treatment is either surgery or expectation. PMID:25529458

  10. Cephalothoracoomphalopagus: A Rare Type of Conjoined Twin

    PubMed Central

    Koreti, Sunita; Prasad, Nitin; Patell, G. Singh

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of female cephalothoracoomphalopagus conjoind twin, which is extremely rare type of conjoined twins. We also review the contemprory knowledge regarding incidence, etiopathogenesis, antenatal diagnosis and outcone or the prognosis of conjoint twins. The case belong to hindu female, no history of consanguineous marriage, ingestion of drugs or exposure to any radiation. History of one abortion and one twin delivery present. Conjoind twin was cephalothoracoomphalopagus type, delivered vaginaly at 30 wks of gestion to a 25 yrs old multigravida. Management of conjoind twin still remain challenges because of multiple congenital anomalies and poor outcome is seen. PMID:24741542

  11. Cephalothoracoomphalopagus: a rare type of conjoined twin.

    PubMed

    Koreti, Sunita; Prasad, Nitin; Patell, G Singh

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of female cephalothoracoomphalopagus conjoind twin, which is extremely rare type of conjoined twins. We also review the contemprory knowledge regarding incidence, etiopathogenesis, antenatal diagnosis and outcone or the prognosis of conjoint twins. The case belong to hindu female, no history of consanguineous marriage, ingestion of drugs or exposure to any radiation. History of one abortion and one twin delivery present. Conjoind twin was cephalothoracoomphalopagus type, delivered vaginaly at 30 wks of gestion to a 25 yrs old multigravida. Management of conjoind twin still remain challenges because of multiple congenital anomalies and poor outcome is seen. PMID:24741542

  12. Primary Axillary Porocarcinoma: A Rare Cutaneous Tumour.

    PubMed

    Devi, Nalli R Sumitra; Valarmathi, K; Lilly, Mary; Satish, Selvi; Mishra, Nidhi

    2016-02-01

    Eccrine porocarcinoma, a rare cutaneous malignant tumour accounts for a fraction of sweat gland tumours. This tumour is found to originate from the intraepithelial parts of the sweat glands. It commonly involves the lower extremities in elderly patients and carries an aggressive behaviour. Cutaneous and visceral metastasis can occur and hence prompt treatment is mandatory. Surgical excision is the mainstay of treatment modality. We hereby present a case of eccrine porocarcinoma in a 50-year-old male in the right axillary region presenting as a verrucous lesion. PMID:27042472

  13. Jadassohn Lewandowsky Syndrome: A Rare Entity.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Anupama Manohar; Inakanti, Yugandar; Kumar, Shiva

    2015-01-01

    Pachyonychia congenita (PC) is a rare autosomal dominant genodermatosis characterized by hyperkeratosis affecting the nails and palmoplantar areas, oral leucokeratosis, and cystic lesions. It is classically subdivided into two major variants, PC-1 (Jadassohn-Lewandowski syndrome) and PC-2 (Jackson-Lawler syndrome), according to the localization of the mutations in the KRT6A/KRT16 or KRT6B/KRT17 genes, respectively. We report a 9-year-old male patient with a history of thickened, discolored nails, raised spiny skin lesions all over the body since birth with focal plantar keratoderma and absence of natal teeth. PMID:26538744

  14. Intraoral lipoma: a rare clinical entity

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Rashmi; Kumar, Vikas; Kaushal, Ambrish; Singh, Rajeev Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Lipoma is a painless soft tissue tumour of the mesenchymal origin, which is slow growing and well circumscribed. The occurrence of lipoma is rare in the oral cavity (1–4%); however, the frequency is much higher in the head and neck region. The tumour is mostly present in the buccal mucosa, lips, tongue, palate, buccal sulcus and floor of the mouth. Sometimes the tumour becomes large enough to cause difficulty in speech and mastication. Histologically, lipoma is composed of mature fat cells, surrounded by normal fat. We present two cases of intraoral lipoma in two female patients. PMID:23362064

  15. Raman investigations of rare earth orthovanadates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, C. C.; Silva, E. N.; Ayala, A. P.; Guedes, I.; Pizani, P. S.; Loong, C.-K.; Boatner, L. A.

    2007-03-01

    Polarized Raman spectroscopy has been used to obtain the room-temperature phonon spectra of the series of rare earth orthovanadate single crystals: SmVO4, HoVO4, YbVO4, and LuVO4. The observed Raman frequencies follow the overall mode distribution expected for REVO4 compounds with the tetragonal zircon structure. The variation of the mode frequency with atomic number across the lanthanide orthovanadate series was investigated, and the trend exhibited by the internal modes was explained by considering the force constants of VO4 tetrahedron.

  16. Final Report "Structure of Rare Isotopes"

    SciTech Connect

    Papenbrock, Thomas

    2012-05-09

    The Junior Investigator grant 'Structure of Rare Isotopes' (DE-FG02-07ER41529) supported research in low-energy nuclear theory from September 1, 2007 to August 31, 2010. It was the main goal of the proposed research to develop and optimize an occupation-number-based energy functional for the computation of nuclear masses, and this aim has been reached. Furthermore, progress was made in linking two and three-body forces from low-momentum interactions to pairing properties in nuclear density functionals, and in the description of deformed nuclei within an effective theory.

  17. Rare and exotic processes at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Culbertson, Ray; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    We report recent results in CDF searches for rare and exotic processes. In a signature-based search, we examine the diphoton dataset for additional energetic objects. In a second signature-based search, we search for anomalous production of a photon, a b-tagged jet, and missing E{sub T}. Finally, we search for a Fermiophobic Higgs in the two-photon decay mode, and conclude this Higgs must have mass greater than 106 GeV/c{sup 2}, at 95% confidence level.

  18. A Common Worm in a Rare Place.

    PubMed

    Sheikhian, Mohammed Reza

    2013-11-01

    A case of a 40-year-old female, in whom a 6-meter long worm (Taenia saginata) was found in stomach, is reported here. In this patient, T. saginata upward migration of the worm to the stomach, its rare phenomenon, worm mostly seen in the small intestine. This is mainly because of the high gastric acidity. In this patient, we believe proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use caused hypochlorhydria and coexistence H. pylori infection caused chronic atrophic gastritis, which resulted in the retrograde migration of the tapeworm to the stomach in our patient. PMID:26171346

  19. Rare b Hadron Decays at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, T.; Gershon, T.; Hiller, G.

    2015-10-01

    With the completion of Run I of the CERN Large Hadron Collider, particle physics has entered a new era. The production of unprecedented numbers of heavy-flavored hadrons in high-energy proton-proton collisions allows detailed studies of flavor-changing processes. The increasingly precise measurements allow the Standard Model to be tested with a new level of accuracy. Rare b hadron decays provide some of the most promising approaches for such tests because there are several observables that can be cleanly interpreted from a theoretical viewpoint. In this article, we review the status and prospects in this field, with a focus on precision measurements and null tests.

  20. Multifocal tuberculous osteomyelitis: A rare presentation.

    PubMed

    Chandiralingam, Prasanna; Arvind Kumar, S M; Krishna Kumar, S; Kailash, S

    2015-01-01

    A 29 year old lady presented with vague right lower quadrant abdomen and thigh pain for the past 4 years. X-ray pelvis with both hips was remarkably normal, and MRI was suggestive of osteomyelitis in right ilium and proximal femur. Biopsy confirmed the lesion as tubercular. Isolated bone involvement by tuberculosis without a joint or pulmonary involvement is extremely rare in immunocompetent patients and has not been reported in literature so for. Tuberculosis should be suspected in patients presenting with multiple bone lesions, especially in endemic areas. Prompt surgical drainage and ATT forms the mainstay of treatment. PMID:25857565

  1. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia: rare cause of meningitis.

    PubMed

    Correia, Cátia Rodrigues; Ferreira, Sara Tavares; Nunes, Paula

    2014-08-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a Gram-negative bacillus, which is an extremely rare cause of meningitis. To our knowledge, there are only five previous pediatrics cases. Here, we describe the case of a 4-year-old boy who developed meningitis associated with this organism, after several neurosurgical procedures and previous treatment with a broad-spectrum antibiotic. He was treated successfully with a combination of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ceftazidime and levofloxacin. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia should be considered as a potential cause of meningitis, especially among severely debilitated or immunosuppressed patients. Antimicrobial therapy is complicated by the high resistance of the organism to multiple antibiotics. PMID:25252064

  2. Triple X syndrome with rare phenotypic presentation.

    PubMed

    Jagadeesh, Sujatha; Jabeen, Gazala; Bhat, Lathaa; Vasikarla, Madhavi; Suresh, Arvind; Seshadri, Suresh; Lata, S

    2008-06-01

    Triple X syndrome is a rare numerical chromosomal anomaly, occurring as a result of non dysjunction in meiosis I. Most cases have neurodevelopmental defects and functional problems. We report two cases diagnosed in our centre. The first was a fetus with cleft lip and palate, 47, XXX was identified by Fetal Blood Sampling. The second was a child with multisystem anomaly including cleft lip and palate, whose karyotype also revealed 47, XXX. Though isolated cases of associated abnormalities have been reported there have not been consistent phenotypic changes reported with this condition. PMID:18759093

  3. Rabies: Rare Human Infection - Common Questions.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Rodney E

    2015-12-01

    Rabies is an acute, rapidly progressive encephalitis that is almost always fatal. Prophylaxis is highly effective but economics limits disease control. The mechanism of death from rabies is unclear. It is poorly cytopathic and poorly inflammatory. Rabies behaves like an acquired metabolic disorder. There may be a continuum of disease severity. History of animal bite is rare. The diagnosis is often missed. Intermittent encephalopathy, dysphagia, hydrophobia and aerophobia, and focal paresthesias or myoclonic jerks suggest rabies. Laboratory diagnosis is cumbersome but sensitive. Treatment is controversial but survivors are increasingly reported, with good outcomes in 4 of 8 survivors. PMID:26384549

  4. [A rare cause of dyspnea on exertion].

    PubMed

    Maccari, Uberto; Rosini, Costanza F; Scala, Raffaele; Magnolfi, Anna Lisa; Felici, Massimo; Bolognese, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Vascular rings are rare anomalies accounting for 1% to 3% of all congenital heart diseases with a similar frequency in both sexes, which can result in a variable degree of extrinsic compression of the trachea and esophagus. We report the case of a 46-year-old woman with symptomatic dyspnea and double aortic arch that caused esophageal tracheal compression. Considering the little impact of the functional vascular anomaly in our case, a conservative approach was adopted with clinical and functional annual follow-up. PMID:26901260

  5. MRSA as a rare cause of vaginitis.

    PubMed

    de Bree, L C J; van Rijen, M M L; Coertjens, H P M; van Wijngaarden, P

    2015-12-01

    We describe a 26-year-old otherwise healthy woman with MRSA vaginitis. Traditional MRSA risk factors were absent and additional screening sites were negative. Patient was treated successfully with oral antibiotics combined with topical lactic acid emulsion. Because her partner appeared to have solitary MRSA carriage on the glans, a suggestion of sexual transmission was made. He was treated successfully with topical mupirocin ointment. Although solitary vaginal MRSA carriage and infection seems to be rare and its clinical impact is yet undefined, clinicians should consider adding the genitourinary tract to traditional screening sites in case of recurrent MRSA infections. PMID:25764306

  6. Ambras Syndrome with Gingival Hyperplasia: A Rare Entity.

    PubMed

    Reddy Kundoor, Vinay Kumar; Maloth, Kotya Naik; Kesidi, Sunitha; Moni, Thakur

    2016-01-01

    Ambras syndrome is a rare and special form of congenital hypertrichosis, characterized by dysmorphic facial features and familial pattern of inheritance. It is rarely associated with gingival hyperplasia. We report such a rare entity in a 38-year-old female patient with a history of consanguinity and positive family history. PMID:27601862

  7. 40 CFR 721.6005 - Rare earth phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rare earth phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.6005 Rare earth phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as rare earth phophate (PMNs...

  8. 40 CFR 721.6005 - Rare earth phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rare earth phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.6005 Rare earth phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as rare earth phophate (PMNs...

  9. 40 CFR 721.6005 - Rare earth phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rare earth phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.6005 Rare earth phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as rare earth phophate (PMNs...

  10. Ambras Syndrome with Gingival Hyperplasia: A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Reddy Kundoor, Vinay Kumar; Maloth, Kotya Naik; Kesidi, Sunitha; Moni, Thakur

    2016-01-01

    Ambras syndrome is a rare and special form of congenital hypertrichosis, characterized by dysmorphic facial features and familial pattern of inheritance. It is rarely associated with gingival hyperplasia. We report such a rare entity in a 38-year-old female patient with a history of consanguinity and positive family history. PMID:27601862

  11. 40 CFR 721.6005 - Rare earth phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rare earth phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.6005 Rare earth phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as rare earth phophate (PMNs...

  12. 40 CFR 721.6005 - Rare earth phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rare earth phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.6005 Rare earth phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as rare earth phophate (PMNs...

  13. Rare earth elements materials production from apatite ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anufrieva, A. V.; Andrienko, O. S.; Buynovskiy, A. S.; Makaseev, Y. N.; Mazov, I. N.; Nefedov, R. A.; Sachkov, V. I.; Stepanova, O. B.; Valkov, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with the study of processing apatite ores with nitric acid and extraction of the rare earth elements. The rare earth elements can be successfully separated and recovered by extraction from the nitrate- phosphate solution, being an tributyl phosphate as extraction agent. The developed scheme of the processing apatite concentrate provides obtaining rare earth concentrates with high qualitative characteristics.

  14. Rare-Earth-Free Traction Motor: Rare Earth-Free Traction Motor for Electric Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    REACT Project: Baldor will develop a new type of traction motor with the potential to efficiently power future generations of EVs. Unlike today’s large, bulky EV motors which use expensive, imported rare-earth-based magnets, Baldor’s motor could be light, compact, contain no rare earth materials, and have the potential to deliver more torque at a substantially lower cost. Key innovations in this project include the use of a unique motor design, incorporation of an improved cooling system, and the development of advanced materials manufacturing techniques. These innovations could significantly reduce the cost of an electric motor.

  15. Pilomyxoid astrocytomas with rare rosenthal fibers.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaomei; Wang, Yin; Liu, Huimin; Yu, Hongyu; He, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Pilomyxoid astrocytomas (PMAs) were first officially described in 2007. Since then, intermediate pilomyxoid tumors with histopathological features typical of both PMAs and pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) have been described. However, we found evidence of tumors that are histologically like PMAs but contain rare Rosenthal fibers, which have been reported in PAs but not in PMAs. We retrospectively analyzed four such cases involving a 16-year-old adolescent with a 3-cm recurring suprasellar tumor, an 11-year-old boy with a nonrecurring 3-cm mass in the left cerebellum, an 18-year-old adolescent with a mass in the suprasellar cistern who died 2 days after total tumor resection, and a 26-year-old woman with a nonrecurring 2-cm mass in the right temporal lobe. Microscopically, the tumors were a monomorphous population of small bipolar cells in a prominent myxoid/mucoid background with rare Rosenthal fibers. The tumor cells infiltrated the adjacent brain parenchyma. Findings for glial fibrillary acidic protein and oligodendrocyte transcription factor were positive, and the Ki-67 protein proliferation index was about 2%. Our findings document the existence of tumors that are histologically like PMAs but also have Rosenthal fibers. Studies of more such cases are needed for clarification of such tumors' clinical features. PMID:26670169

  16. Hyperinsulinism Hyperammonemia Syndrome, a Rare Clinical Constellation.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Jonathan; Schlachterman, Alexander; Kamel, Amir; Gupte, Anand

    2016-01-01

    We present the unique case of adult hyperinsulinism hyperammonemia syndrome (HI/HA). This condition is rarely seen in children and even more infrequently in adults. A 27-year-old female with HI/HA, generalized tonic-clonic seizures, staring spells, and gastroesophageal reflux disease presented with diffuse abdominal pain, hypoglycemia, confusion, and sweating. She reported a history of significant nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, which had been present intermittently over the past year. On examination, she was found to have a soft, nontender, and mildly distended abdomen without splenomegaly or masses. She had a normal blood pressure and was tachycardic (130 bpm). Her initial complete blood count and basic metabolic panel, excluding glucose, were within normal limits. She was found to have an elevated peripherally drawn venous ammonia (171 mmol/L) and near hypoglycemia (blood glucose 61 mg/dL), which were drawn given her history of HI/HA. She was continued on home carglumic acid and diazoxide, glucose was supplemented intravenously, and she was started on levetiracetam for seizure prophylaxis. An upper endoscopy (esophagogastroduodenoscopy [EGD]) was performed and was unremarkable, and biopsies taken were within normal limits. Following the EGD, she underwent a gastric emptying study that showed delayed emptying (216 minutes), consistent with a new diagnosis of gastroparesis, the likely etiology of her initial abdominal pain on presentation. This was subsequently treated with azithromycin oral solution. We present this case to raise awareness of this rarely encountered syndrome and to provide the basic principles of treatment. PMID:26962538

  17. Multiple Cementoblastoma: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Iannaci, G.; Luise, R.; Iezzi, G.; Piattelli, A.; Salierno, A.

    2013-01-01

    Benign cementoblastoma is a rare ectomesenchymal odontogenic tumor that originates from the root of the tooth and that is characterized by the formation of cementum-like tissue. A 60-year old man was referred to us complaining of pain in his right jaw. The patient underwent TC dental scan of the mandible, which highlighted the presence of three well-circumscribed, round, unilocular neoformations of radiopaque appearance with a radiotransparent edge, one of which was in close contact with the roots of the lower right second molar. Microscopic examination of the greater sample consisted, in its central portion, of dense mineralized acellular trabeculae of basophilic tissue cement-like, devoid of vessels, adhering to the root of the tooth, while peripherally was observed a zone of vascularized osteoid surrounded, occasionally, by a thin rim of cementoblasts mixed with fibrous tissue and inflammatory elements. This lesion was diagnosed as cementoblastoma. The second lesion appeared radiologically and histologically entirely identical to cementoblastoma, but it did not show the intimate association with the root of involved tooth. After a careful review of the literature, the diagnosis of residual cementoblastoma was made. The clinicopathologic features, treatment, and prognosis of this rare tumor are here discussed for the young dental practitioner. PMID:24027644

  18. Rare events and the thermodynamic action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malsom, Patrick

    The purpose of this work is to develop improved mathematical methods to understand the dynamics of a system of atoms as it undergoes a conformational change. When the energy barrier separating the two stable configurations is large compared to the system's thermal energy, transitions rarely occur. Many of the standard methods, such as molecular dynamics, fail to sample such rare transitions efficiently, as the majority of the computational effort is exerted when the system is in one or the other stable configurations. In order to create a more efficient approach, I consider a complete sequence of configurations to define a path, and constrain the path to start and end at predesignated states after a fixed time. The distribution of these double-ended paths are described by a functional that is based on Brownian dynamics. In this thesis, I show that a previously-used functional, which was derived in the continuous-time limit, is inconsistent with the equilibrium Boltzmann distribution. I then derive a series of accurate expressions for the thermodynamic distribution of double-ended paths. I also create a novel approach to efficiently sample paths described by these expressions and implement them for a one-dimensional model. As a result, I show how to produce an ensemble of thermodynamically consistent paths in.

  19. Rare lung diseases I--Lymphangioleiomyomatosis.

    PubMed

    Juvet, Stephen C; Hwang, David; Downey, Gregory P

    2006-10-01

    The present article is the first in a series that will review selected rare lung diseases. The objective of this series is to promote a greater understanding and awareness of these unusual conditions among respirologists. Each article will begin with a case that serves as a focal point for a discussion of the pathophysiology and management of the particular condition. The first article is on lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM); subsequent articles will focus on pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency and primary ciliary dyskinesia. LAM is a rare, progressive and (without intervention) often fatal interstitial lung disease that predominantly affects women of childbearing age. LAM is characterized by progressive interstitial infiltration of the lung by smooth muscle cells, resulting in diffuse cystic changes of the lung parenchyma. The molecular basis of this disorder has been delineated over the past five years and LAM is now known to be a consequence of mutations in the tuberous sclerosis genes. This knowledge, combined with advances in our understanding of the signalling pathways regulated by these genes, has given rise to potential molecular therapies that hold great promise for treating this devastating disease. PMID:17036091

  20. Rare cause of odynophagia: Giant esophageal ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Veroux, Massimiliano; Aprile, Giuseppe; Amore, Francesca F; Corona, Daniela; Giaquinta, Alessia; Veroux, Pierfrancesco

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal complications are a frequent cause of morbidity after transplantation and may affect up to 40% of kidney transplant recipients. Here we report a rare case of idiopathic giant esophageal ulcer in a kidney transplant recipient. A 37-year-old female presented with a one-week history of odynophagia and weight loss. Upon admission, the patient presented cold sores, and a quantitative cytomegalovirus polymerase chain reaction was positive (105 copies/mL). An upper endoscopy demonstrated the presence of a giant ulcer. Serological test and tissue biopsies were unable to demonstrate an infectious origin of the ulcer. Immunosuppression was reduced and everolimus was introduced. An empirical i.v. therapy with acyclovir was started, resulting in a dramatic improvement in symptoms and complete healing of the ulcer. Only two cases of idiopathic giant esophageal ulcer in kidney transplant recipients have been reported in the literature; in both cases, steroid therapy was successful without recurrence of symptoms or endoscopic findings. However, this report suggests that correction of immune imbalance is mandatory to treat such a rare complication. PMID:27076774