The Kondo temperature of a two-dimensional electron gas with Rashba spin-orbit coupling.
Chen, Liang; Sun, Jinhua; Tang, Ho-Kin; Lin, Hai-Qing
2016-10-01
We use the Hirsch-Fye quantum Monte Carlo method to study the single magnetic impurity problem in a two-dimensional electron gas with Rashba spin-orbit coupling. We calculate the spin susceptibility for various values of spin-orbit coupling, Hubbard interaction, and chemical potential. The Kondo temperatures for different parameters are estimated by fitting the universal curves of spin susceptibility. We find that the Kondo temperature is almost a linear function of Rashba spin-orbit energy when the chemical potential is close to the edge of the conduction band. When the chemical potential is far away from the band edge, the Kondo temperature is independent of the spin-orbit coupling. These results demonstrate that, for single impurity problems in this system, the most important reason to change the Kondo temperature is the divergence of density of states near the band edge, and the divergence is induced by the Rashba spin-orbit coupling. PMID:27494800
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Cong; Li, Dingping
2016-06-01
Semiclassical magnetoelectric and magnetothermoelectric transport in strongly spin–orbit coupled Rashba two-dimensional electron systems is investigated. In the presence of a perpendicular classically weak magnetic field and short-range impurity scattering, we solve the linearized Boltzmann equation self-consistently. Using the solution, it is found that when Fermi energy E F locates below the band crossing point (BCP), the Hall coefficient is a nonmonotonic function of electron density n e and not inversely proportional to n e. While the magnetoresistance (MR) and Nernst coefficient vanish when E F locates above the BCP, non-zero MR and enhanced Nernst coefficient emerge when E F decreases below the BCP. Both of them are nonmonotonic functions of E F below the BCP. The different semiclassical magnetotransport behaviors between the two sides of the BCP can be helpful to experimental identifications of the band valley regime and topological change of Fermi surface in considered systems.
Xiao, Cong; Li, Dingping
2016-06-15
Semiclassical magnetoelectric and magnetothermoelectric transport in strongly spin-orbit coupled Rashba two-dimensional electron systems is investigated. In the presence of a perpendicular classically weak magnetic field and short-range impurity scattering, we solve the linearized Boltzmann equation self-consistently. Using the solution, it is found that when Fermi energy E F locates below the band crossing point (BCP), the Hall coefficient is a nonmonotonic function of electron density n e and not inversely proportional to n e. While the magnetoresistance (MR) and Nernst coefficient vanish when E F locates above the BCP, non-zero MR and enhanced Nernst coefficient emerge when E F decreases below the BCP. Both of them are nonmonotonic functions of E F below the BCP. The different semiclassical magnetotransport behaviors between the two sides of the BCP can be helpful to experimental identifications of the band valley regime and topological change of Fermi surface in considered systems. PMID:27157714
Kalinin, K. P. Krishtopenko, S. S.; Maremyanin, K. V.; Spirin, K. E.; Gavrilenko, V. I.; Biryukov, A. A.; Baidus, N. V.; Zvonkov, B. N.
2013-11-15
Cyclotron resonance and magnetic transport in InP/InGaAs/InP heterostructures with axially symmetric quantum wells are studied experimentally at 4.2 K. An increase in the cyclotron mass at the Fermi level from 0.047m{sub 0} to 0.057m{sub 0} with an increase in the concentration of two-dimensional electrons from 5.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} to 2.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} cm{sup -3} is shown. The values of the Rashba spin splitting at the Fermi level are determined from Fourier analysis of the beats of Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations. The obtained experimental data are compared with the theoretical results of self-consistent calculations of the energy spectrum and cyclotron masses of 2D electrons performed using the eight-band k {center_dot} p Hamiltonian.
Feng, W.; Tawfiq, Asya; Cao, J. C.; Zhang, C.
2013-02-04
The energy-loss rate (ELR) of a charged particle in a two-dimensional semiconductor with Rashba spin-orbit coupling is studied. Our model takes into account of the temperature and density dependence of the electronic properties of the Rashba system. The energy and temperature dependence of the ELR are presented. It is found that a finite Rashba spin-orbit coupling offers a mechanism of tuning the mean scattering time in narrow-gap semiconductors. With a change of Rashba parameter of around 3 times, the mean scattering time can change by one to two orders of magnitude.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pakmehr, Mehdi; Bruene, Christoph; Buhmann, Hartmut; Molenkamp, Laurens; McCombe, Bruce
2015-03-01
HgTe quantum wells with a gapped single Dirac cone electronic dispersion relation have been investigated by THz magneto-photoresponse (PR) and magneto-transport measurements. The HgTe has the conventional band alignment at well thickness of 6.1 nm, slightly smaller than the critical thickness for the topological phase transition. The effective gap is roughly 10 meV, and the large sheet density of electrons (nS ~ 1 . 5 × 1012 cm-2) results in a very large Fermi energy (EF ~ 160 meV). We have found several interesting effects at these high densities. We focus here on an observed beating of quantum oscillations in the PR signal (at 1.83 THz) and compare it with direct measurements of oscillations in the longitudinal magneto-resistance (Rxx). The mechanism for the PR is cyclotron resonance absorption heating of the electrons (an electron bolometric effect). We attribute the beating to Rashba splitting of the spin states, which is barely observable in direct Rxx measurements even under strong gate-induced electric fields. We will discuss the origin of the enhanced visibility of the Rashba effect in the PR and the magnitude of the Rashba coefficient (αR) from these data. The work at UB was supported by NSF-MWN 1008138 and by the Office of the Provost. The work in Würzburg was supported by the DARPA MESO project through the Contract Number N66001-11-1-4105, by the German Research Foundation (DFG Grant HA5893/4-1).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dyrdal, Anna; Barnas, Jozef; Dugaev, Vitalii
We have considered theoretically temperature dependence of non-equilibrium spin polarization of electrons that appears in a magnetized two-dimensional electron gas with Rashba spin-orbit interaction due to external electric field and/or temperature gradient. To do this we have employed the approach based on the Matsubara Green function formalism. We analyzed in detail variation of the induced spin polarization with position of the Fermi level, temperature, and Rashba coupling constant. Moreover, we analyzed the temperature dependence of the electrically and thermally induced spin polarization in the temperature regime, where the spin relaxation time can be assumed constant (independent of temperature). In contrast to the case of nonmagnetic Rashba gas, all three components of the induced spin polarization are now nonzero. The induced spin-polarization is exchange-coupled to the local equilibrium magnetization and therefore exerts a torque on the magnetization vector. We have considered in detail the temperature behavior of spin-orbit torque induced by electric field and by temperature gradient for specific relative orientation of the magnetization and electric field or temperature gradient, respectively.
Eremeev, Sergey V.; Tsirkin, Stepan S.; Nechaev, Ilya A.; Echenique, Pedro M.; Chulkov, Evgueni V.
2015-01-01
Intriguing phenomena and novel physics predicted for two-dimensional (2D) systems formed by electrons in Dirac or Rashba states motivate an active search for new materials or combinations of the already revealed ones. Being very promising ingredients in themselves, interplaying Dirac and Rashba systems can provide a base for next generation of spintronics devices, to a considerable extent, by mixing their striking properties or by improving technically significant characteristics of each other. Here, we demonstrate that in BiTeI@PbSb2Te4 composed of a BiTeI trilayer on top of the topological insulator (TI) PbSb2Te4 weakly- and strongly-coupled Dirac-Rashba hybrid systems are realized. The coupling strength depends on both interface hexagonal stacking and trilayer-stacking order. The weakly-coupled system can serve as a prototype to examine, e.g., plasmonic excitations, frictional drag, spin-polarized transport, and charge-spin separation effect in multilayer helical metals. In the strongly-coupled regime, within ~100 meV energy interval of the bulk TI projected bandgap a helical state substituting for the TI surface state appears. This new state is characterized by a larger momentum, similar velocity, and strong localization within BiTeI. We anticipate that our findings pave the way for designing a new type of spintronics devices based on Rashba-Dirac coupled systems. PMID:26239268
Eremeev, Sergey V; Tsirkin, Stepan S; Nechaev, Ilya A; Echenique, Pedro M; Chulkov, Evgueni V
2015-01-01
Intriguing phenomena and novel physics predicted for two-dimensional (2D) systems formed by electrons in Dirac or Rashba states motivate an active search for new materials or combinations of the already revealed ones. Being very promising ingredients in themselves, interplaying Dirac and Rashba systems can provide a base for next generation of spintronics devices, to a considerable extent, by mixing their striking properties or by improving technically significant characteristics of each other. Here, we demonstrate that in BiTeI@PbSb2Te4 composed of a BiTeI trilayer on top of the topological insulator (TI) PbSb2Te4 weakly- and strongly-coupled Dirac-Rashba hybrid systems are realized. The coupling strength depends on both interface hexagonal stacking and trilayer-stacking order. The weakly-coupled system can serve as a prototype to examine, e.g., plasmonic excitations, frictional drag, spin-polarized transport, and charge-spin separation effect in multilayer helical metals. In the strongly-coupled regime, within ~100 meV energy interval of the bulk TI projected bandgap a helical state substituting for the TI surface state appears. This new state is characterized by a larger momentum, similar velocity, and strong localization within BiTeI. We anticipate that our findings pave the way for designing a new type of spintronics devices based on Rashba-Dirac coupled systems. PMID:26239268
Quantum ratchet in two-dimensional semiconductors with Rashba spin-orbit interaction
Ang, Yee Sin; Ma, Zhongshui; Zhang, Chao
2015-01-01
Ratchet is a device that produces direct current of particles when driven by an unbiased force. We demonstrate a simple scattering quantum ratchet based on an asymmetrical quantum tunneling effect in two-dimensional electron gas with Rashba spin-orbit interaction (R2DEG). We consider the tunneling of electrons across a square potential barrier sandwiched by interface scattering potentials of unequal strengths on its either sides. It is found that while the intra-spin tunneling probabilities remain unchanged, the inter-spin-subband tunneling probabilities of electrons crossing the barrier in one direction is unequal to that of the opposite direction. Hence, when the system is driven by an unbiased periodic force, a directional flow of electron current is generated. The scattering quantum ratchet in R2DEG is conceptually simple and is capable of converting a.c. driving force into a rectified current without the need of additional symmetry breaking mechanism or external magnetic field. PMID:25598490
Quantum ratchet in two-dimensional semiconductors with Rashba spin-orbit interaction.
Ang, Yee Sin; Ma, Zhongshui; Zhang, Chao
2015-01-01
Ratchet is a device that produces direct current of particles when driven by an unbiased force. We demonstrate a simple scattering quantum ratchet based on an asymmetrical quantum tunneling effect in two-dimensional electron gas with Rashba spin-orbit interaction (R2DEG). We consider the tunneling of electrons across a square potential barrier sandwiched by interface scattering potentials of unequal strengths on its either sides. It is found that while the intra-spin tunneling probabilities remain unchanged, the inter-spin-subband tunneling probabilities of electrons crossing the barrier in one direction is unequal to that of the opposite direction. Hence, when the system is driven by an unbiased periodic force, a directional flow of electron current is generated. The scattering quantum ratchet in R2DEG is conceptually simple and is capable of converting a.c. driving force into a rectified current without the need of additional symmetry breaking mechanism or external magnetic field. PMID:25598490
Weak antilocalization in two-dimensional systems with large Rashba splitting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Golub, L. E.; Gornyi, I. V.; Kachorovskii, V. Yu.
2016-06-01
We develop the theory of quantum transport and magnetoconductivity for two-dimensional electrons with an arbitrarily large (even exceeding the Fermi energy), linear-in-momentum Rashba or Dresselhaus spin-orbit splitting. For short-range disorder potentials, we derive the analytical expression for the quantum conductivity correction, which accounts for interference processes with an arbitrary number of scattering events and is valid beyond the diffusion approximation. We demonstrate that the zero-field conductivity correction is given by the sum of the universal logarithmic "diffusive" term and a "ballistic" term. The latter is temperature independent and encodes information about the spectrum properties. This information can be extracted experimentally by measuring the conductivity correction at different temperatures and electron concentrations. We calculate the quantum correction in the whole range of classically weak magnetic fields and find that the magnetoconductivity is negative both in the diffusive and in the ballistic regimes, for an arbitrary relation between the Fermi energy and the spin-orbit splitting. We also demonstrate that the magnetoconductivity changes with the Fermi energy when the Fermi level is above the "Dirac point" and does not depend on the Fermi energy when it goes below this point.
Enhanced Stability of Skyrmions in Two-Dimensional Chiral Magnets with Rashba Spin-Orbit Coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banerjee, Sumilan; Rowland, James; Erten, Onur; Randeria, Mohit
2014-07-01
Recent developments have led to an explosion of activity on skyrmions in three-dimensional (3D) chiral magnets. Experiments have directly probed these topological spin textures, revealed their nontrivial properties, and led to suggestions for novel applications. However, in 3D the skyrmion crystal phase is observed only in a narrow region of the temperature-field phase diagram. We show here, using a general analysis based on symmetry, that skyrmions are much more readily stabilized in two-dimensional (2D) systems with Rashba spin-orbit coupling. This enhanced stability arises from the competition between field and easy-plane magnetic anisotropy and results in a nontrivial structure in the topological charge density in the core of the skyrmions. We further show that, in a variety of microscopic models for magnetic exchange, the required easy-plane anisotropy naturally arises from the same spin-orbit coupling that is responsible for the chiral Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions. Our results are of particular interest for 2D materials like thin films, surfaces, and oxide interfaces, where broken surface-inversion symmetry and Rashba spin-orbit coupling naturally lead to chiral exchange and easy-plane compass anisotropy. Our theory gives a clear direction for experimental studies of 2D magnetic materials to stabilize skyrmions over a large range of magnetic fields down to T=0.
Theory of Hall effect in two-dimensional giant Rashba systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuura, Hidekatsu; Ando, Tsuneya
2016-07-01
The weak-field Hall conductivity of disordered two-dimensional systems with strong Rashba spin-orbit interaction is studied in a self-consistent Born approximation. Explicit numerical results are obtained for scatterers with a Gaussian potential and for charged impurities. The singular behavior associated with a conelike crossing band appears only in the case of scatterers with a long-range Gaussian potential, which do not cause mixing with the outer band. In the case of more realistic scatterers such as charged impurities, the singularity is completely removed except the presence of a weak steplike feature. The Hall conductivity associated with the spin-Zeeman energy is also strongly reduced by interband mixing and generally remains much smaller than the orbital contribution.
Theory of magnetic response in two-dimensional giant Rashba system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuura, Hidekatsu; Ando, Tsuneya
2016-08-01
The magnetic susceptibility of a disordered two-dimensional system with strong Rashba spin-orbit interaction is calculated in a self-consistent Born approximation. In an ideal system, the response exhibits a delta-function singularity toward the diamagnetic direction at the energy where the band crossing takes place in an inner Weyl band. It is essentially paramagnetic below that energy except for the system with a certain value of g factor, while it becomes the same as that in a system free from the spin-orbit interaction above the energy. It turns out that effects of disorder are not sensitive to kinds of scatterers such as short- and long-range. Explicit numerical results are presented in the case of dominant charged-impurity scattering. The delta-function susceptibility is broadened by disorder but remains appreciable in the case of strong disorder.
Unconventional dc Transport in Rashba Electron Gases.
Brosco, Valentina; Benfatto, Lara; Cappelluti, Emmanuele; Grimaldi, Claudio
2016-04-22
We discuss the transport properties of a disordered two-dimensional electron gas with strong Rashba spin-orbit coupling. We show that in the high-density regime where the Fermi energy overcomes the energy associated with spin-orbit coupling, dc transport is accurately described by a standard Drude's law, due to a nontrivial compensation between the suppression of backscattering and the relativistic correction to the quasiparticle velocity. On the contrary, when the system enters the opposite dominant spin-orbit regime, Drude's paradigm breaks down and the dc conductivity becomes strongly sensitive to the spin-orbit coupling strength, providing a suitable tool to test the entanglement between spin and charge degrees of freedom in these systems. PMID:27152815
Unconventional dc Transport in Rashba Electron Gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brosco, Valentina; Benfatto, Lara; Cappelluti, Emmanuele; Grimaldi, Claudio
2016-04-01
We discuss the transport properties of a disordered two-dimensional electron gas with strong Rashba spin-orbit coupling. We show that in the high-density regime where the Fermi energy overcomes the energy associated with spin-orbit coupling, dc transport is accurately described by a standard Drude's law, due to a nontrivial compensation between the suppression of backscattering and the relativistic correction to the quasiparticle velocity. On the contrary, when the system enters the opposite dominant spin-orbit regime, Drude's paradigm breaks down and the dc conductivity becomes strongly sensitive to the spin-orbit coupling strength, providing a suitable tool to test the entanglement between spin and charge degrees of freedom in these systems.
Spin Hall conductivity in the impure two-dimensional Rashba s-wave superconductor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biderang, M.; Yavari, H.
2016-06-01
Based on the Kubo formula approach, the spin Hall conductivity (SHC) of a two-dimensional (2D) Rashba s-wave superconductor in the presence of nonmagnetic impurities is calculated. We will show that by increasing the superconducting gap, the SHC decreases monotonically to zero, while by decreasing the concentration of impurities at zero gap, the SHC closes to the clean limit universal value - e/8 π. As a function of the impurity relaxation rate τ at Tc = 0.1 and γ = 0.01 (γ is the spin-orbit coupling in unit of eV · m), we will show that in the dirty limit (τ → 0) the SHC vanishes, and by increasing the relaxation time (τ → ∞) the SHC depends on the value of superconducting gap (Δ = 1.76Tc√{ 1 -T/Tc }), is changed from zero for full gap to -e/8 π in zero gap. At low temperatures, the SHC goes to zero exponentially and near the critical temperature depending on the concentration of the scattering centers, the SHC will tend to the value of normal state. We will also show that the SHC is independent of spin-orbit coupling (γ) in the clean limit.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ambrosetti, A.; Lombardi, G.; Salasnich, L.; Silvestrelli, P. L.; Toigo, F.
2014-10-01
Motivated by the remarkable experimental control of synthetic gauge fields in ultracold atomic systems, we investigate the effect of an artificial Rashba spin-orbit coupling on the spin polarization of a two-dimensional repulsive Fermi gas. By using a variational many-body wave function, based on a suitable spinorial structure, we find that the polarization properties of the system are indeed controlled by the interplay between spin-orbit coupling and repulsive interaction. In particular, two main effects are found: (1) The Rashba coupling determines a gradual increase of the degree of polarization beyond the critical repulsive interaction strength, at variance with conventional two-dimensional Stoner instability. (2) The critical interaction strength, above which finite polarization is developed, shows a dependence on the Rashba coupling, i.e., it is enhanced in case the Rashba coupling exceeds a critical value. A simple analytic expression for the critical interaction strength is further derived in the context of our variational formulation, which allows for a straightforward and insightful analysis of the present problem.
Two-Dimensional Superconductor with a Giant Rashba Effect: One-Atom-Layer Tl-Pb Compound on Si(111).
Matetskiy, A V; Ichinokura, S; Bondarenko, L V; Tupchaya, A Y; Gruznev, D V; Zotov, A V; Saranin, A A; Hobara, R; Takayama, A; Hasegawa, S
2015-10-01
A one-atom-layer compound made of one monolayer of Tl and one-third monolayer of Pb on a Si(111) surface having √3×√3 periodicity was found to exhibit a giant Rashba-type spin splitting of metallic surface-state bands together with two-dimensional superconducting transport properties. Temperature-dependent angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy revealed an enhanced electron-phonon coupling for one of the spin-split bands. In situ micro-four-point-probe conductivity measurements with and without magnetic field demonstrated that the (Tl, Pb)/Si(111) system transformed into the superconducting state at 2.25 K, followed by the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless mechanism. The 2D Tl-Pb compound on Si(111) is believed to be the prototypical object for prospective studies of intriguing properties of the superconducting 2D system with lifted spin degeneracy, bearing in mind that its composition, atomic and electron band structures, and spin texture are already well established. PMID:26551819
Wang, C M; Lei, X L
2014-06-11
We study dc-current effects on the magnetoresistance oscillation in a two-dimensional electron gas with Rashba spin-orbit coupling, using the balance-equation approach to nonlinear magnetotransport. In the weak current limit the magnetoresistance exhibits periodical Shubnikov-de Haas oscillation with changing Rashba coupling strength for a fixed magnetic field. At finite dc bias, the period of the oscillation halves when the interbranch contribution to resistivity dominates. With further increasing current density, the oscillatory resistivity exhibits phase inversion, i.e., magnetoresistivity minima (maxima) invert to maxima (minima) at certain values of the dc bias, which is due to the current-induced magnetoresistance oscillation. PMID:25932474
Kirigami for Two-Dimensional Electronic Membranes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qi, Zenan; Bahamon, Dario; Campbell, David; Park, Harold
2015-03-01
Two-dimensional materials have recently drawn tremendous attention because of their unique properties. In this work, we introduce the notion of two-dimensional kirigami, where concepts that have been used almost exclusively for macroscale structures are applied to dramatically enhance their stretchability. Specifically, we show using classical molecular dynamics simulations that the yield and fracture strains of graphene and MoS2 can be enhanced by about a factor of three using kirigami as compared to standard monolayers. Finally, using graphene as an example, we demonstrate that the kirigami structure may open up interesting opportunities in coupling to the electronic behavior of 2D materials. Authors acknowledge Mechanical Engineering and Physics departments at Boston University, and Mackgrafe at Mackenzie Presbyterian University.
From coupled Rashba electron- and hole-gas layers to three-dimensional topological insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trifunovic, Luka; Loss, Daniel; Klinovaja, Jelena
2016-05-01
We introduce a system of stacked two-dimensional electron- and hole-gas layers with Rashba spin-orbit interaction and show that the tunnel coupling between the layers induces a strong three-dimensional (3D) topological insulator phase. At each of the two-dimensional bulk boundaries we find the spectrum consisting of a single anisotropic Dirac cone, which we show by analytical and numerical calculations. Our setup has a unit cell consisting of four tunnel coupled Rashba layers and presents a synthetic strong 3D topological insulator and is distinguished by its rather high experimental feasibility.
Spin transport in disordered two-dimensional hopping systems with Rashba spin-orbit interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beckmann, U.; Damker, T.; Böttger, H.
2005-05-01
The influence of Rashba spin-orbit interaction on the spin dynamics of a topologically disordered hopping system is studied in this paper. This is a significant generalization of a previous investigation, where an ordered (polaronic) hopping system has been considered instead. It is found that in the limit where the Rashba length is large compared to the typical hopping length, the spin dynamics of a disordered system can still be described by the expressions derived for an ordered system, under the provision that one takes into account the frequency dependence of the diffusion constant and the mobility (which are determined by charge transport and are independent of spin). With these results we are able to make explicit the influence of disorder on spin related quantities as, e.g., the spin lifetime in hopping systems.
Resonant spin Hall effect in two dimensional electron gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Shun-Qing
2005-03-01
Remarkable phenomena have been observed in 2DEG over last two decades, most notably, the discovery of integer and fractional quantum Hall effect. The study of spin transport provides a good opportunity to explore spin physics in two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) with spin-orbit coupling and other interaction. It is already known that the spin-orbit coupling leads to a zero-field spin splitting, and competes with the Zeeman spin splitting if the system is subjected to a magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of 2DEG. The result can be detected as beating of the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillation. Very recently the speaker and his collaborators studied transport properties of a two-dimensional electron system with Rashba spin-orbit coupling in a perpendicular magnetic field. The spin-orbit coupling competes with the Zeeman splitting to generate additional degeneracies between different Landau levels at certain magnetic fields. It is predicted theoretically that this degeneracy, if occurring at the Fermi level, gives rise to a resonant spin Hall conductance, whose height is divergent as 1/T and whose weight is divergent as -lnT at low temperatures. The charge Hall conductance changes by 2e^2/h instead of e^2/h as the magnetic field changes through the resonant point. The speaker will address the resonance condition, symmetries in the spin-orbit coupling, the singularity of magnetic susceptibility, nonlinear electric field effect, the edge effect and the disorder effect due to impurities. This work was supported by the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong under Grant No.: HKU 7088/01P. *S. Q. Shen, M. Ma, X. C. Xie, and F. C. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 256603 (2004) *S. Q. Shen, Y. J. Bao, M. Ma, X. C. Xie, and F. C. Zhang, cond-mat/0410169
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lake, Ethan; Webb, Caleb; Pesin, D. A.; Starykh, O. A.
2016-06-01
We study how the Rashba spin-orbit interaction influences unconventional superconductivity in a two-dimensional electron gas partially spin polarized by a magnetic field. Somewhat surprisingly, we find that for all field orientations, only the larger Fermi surface is superconducting. When the magnetic field is oriented out of plane, the system realizes a topological p +i p pairing state. When the field is rotated in plane, the order parameter develops nodes along the field direction and finite center-of-mass-momentum pairing is realized. We demonstrate that the pairing symmetry of the system can be easily probed experimentally due to the dependence of various thermodynamic quantities on the magnetic field geometry, and calculate the electronic specific heat as an example.
Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Courtney, Trevor L.; Fox, Zachary W.; Slenkamp, Karla M.; Khalil, Munira
2015-10-01
Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic (2D VE) spectroscopy is a femtosecond Fourier transform (FT) third-order nonlinear technique that creates a link between existing 2D FT spectroscopies in the vibrational and electronic regions of the spectrum. 2D VE spectroscopy enables a direct measurement of infrared (IR) and electronic dipole moment cross terms by utilizing mid-IR pump and optical probe fields that are resonant with vibrational and electronic transitions, respectively, in a sample of interest. We detail this newly developed 2D VE spectroscopy experiment and outline the information contained in a 2D VE spectrum. We then use this technique and its single-pump counterpart (1D VE) to probe the vibrational-electronic couplings between high frequency cyanide stretching vibrations (νCN) and either a ligand-to-metal charge transfer transition ([FeIII(CN)6]3- dissolved in formamide) or a metal-to-metal charge transfer (MMCT) transition ([(CN)5FeIICNRuIII(NH3)5]- dissolved in formamide). The 2D VE spectra of both molecules reveal peaks resulting from coupled high- and low-frequency vibrational modes to the charge transfer transition. The time-evolving amplitudes and positions of the peaks in the 2D VE spectra report on coherent and incoherent vibrational energy transfer dynamics among the coupled vibrational modes and the charge transfer transition. The selectivity of 2D VE spectroscopy to vibronic processes is evidenced from the selective coupling of specific νCN modes to the MMCT transition in the mixed valence complex. The lineshapes in 2D VE spectra report on the correlation of the frequency fluctuations between the coupled vibrational and electronic frequencies in the mixed valence complex which has a time scale of 1 ps. The details and results of this study confirm the versatility of 2D VE spectroscopy and its applicability to probe how vibrations modulate charge and energy transfer in a wide range of complex molecular, material, and biological systems.
Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic spectroscopy
Courtney, Trevor L.; Fox, Zachary W.; Slenkamp, Karla M.; Khalil, Munira
2015-10-21
Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic (2D VE) spectroscopy is a femtosecond Fourier transform (FT) third-order nonlinear technique that creates a link between existing 2D FT spectroscopies in the vibrational and electronic regions of the spectrum. 2D VE spectroscopy enables a direct measurement of infrared (IR) and electronic dipole moment cross terms by utilizing mid-IR pump and optical probe fields that are resonant with vibrational and electronic transitions, respectively, in a sample of interest. We detail this newly developed 2D VE spectroscopy experiment and outline the information contained in a 2D VE spectrum. We then use this technique and its single-pump counterpart (1D VE) to probe the vibrational-electronic couplings between high frequency cyanide stretching vibrations (ν{sub CN}) and either a ligand-to-metal charge transfer transition ([Fe{sup III}(CN){sub 6}]{sup 3−} dissolved in formamide) or a metal-to-metal charge transfer (MMCT) transition ([(CN){sub 5}Fe{sup II}CNRu{sup III}(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}]{sup −} dissolved in formamide). The 2D VE spectra of both molecules reveal peaks resulting from coupled high- and low-frequency vibrational modes to the charge transfer transition. The time-evolving amplitudes and positions of the peaks in the 2D VE spectra report on coherent and incoherent vibrational energy transfer dynamics among the coupled vibrational modes and the charge transfer transition. The selectivity of 2D VE spectroscopy to vibronic processes is evidenced from the selective coupling of specific ν{sub CN} modes to the MMCT transition in the mixed valence complex. The lineshapes in 2D VE spectra report on the correlation of the frequency fluctuations between the coupled vibrational and electronic frequencies in the mixed valence complex which has a time scale of 1 ps. The details and results of this study confirm the versatility of 2D VE spectroscopy and its applicability to probe how vibrations modulate charge and energy transfer in a
Microscopic theory of the residual surface resistivity of Rashba electrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouaziz, Juba; Lounis, Samir; Blügel, Stefan; Ishida, Hiroshi
2016-07-01
A microscopic expression of the residual electrical resistivity tensor is derived in linear response theory for Rashba electrons scattering at a magnetic impurity with cylindrical or noncylindrical potential. The behavior of the longitudinal and transversal residual resistivity is obtained analytically and computed for an Fe impurity at the Au(111) surface. We studied the evolution of the resistivity tensor elements as a function of the Rashba spin-orbit strength and the magnetization direction of the impurity. We found that the absolute values of longitudinal resistivity reduce with increasing spin-orbit strength of the substrate and that the scattering of the conduction electrons at magnetic impurities with magnetic moments pointing in directions not perpendicular to the surface plane produce a planar Hall effect and an anisotropic magnetoresistance even if the impurity carries no spin-orbit interaction. Functional forms are provided describing the anisotropy of the planar Hall effect and the anisotropic magnetoresistance with respect to the direction of the impurity moment. In the limit of no spin-orbit interaction and a nonmagnetic impurity of cylindrical symmetry, the expression of the residual resistivity of a two-dimensional electron gas has the same simplicity and form as for the three-dimensional electron gas [J. Friedel, J. Nuovo. Cim. 7, 287 (1958), 10.1007/BF02751483] and can also be expressed in terms of scattering phase shifts.
Thermopower in Two-Dimensional Electron Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chickering, William Elbridge
The subject of this thesis is the measurement and interpretation of thermopower in high-mobility two-dimensional electron systems (2DESs). These 2DESs are realized within state-of-the-art GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures that are cooled to temperatures as low as T = 20 mK. Much of this work takes place within strong magnetic fields where the single-particle density of states quantizes into discrete Landau levels (LLs), a regime best known for the quantum Hall effect (QHE). In addition, we review a novel hot-electron technique for measuring thermopower of 2DESs that dramatically reduces the influence of phonon drag. Early chapters concentrate on experimental materials and methods. A brief overview of GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures and device fabrication is followed by details of our cryogenic setup. Next, we provide a primer on thermopower that focuses on 2DESs at low temperatures. We then review our experimental devices, temperature calibration methods, as well as measurement circuits and protocols. Latter chapters focus on the physics and thermopower results in the QHE regime. After reviewing the basic phenomena associated with the QHE, we discuss thermopower in this regime. Emphasis is given to the relationship between diffusion thermopower and entropy. Experimental results demonstrate this relationship persists well into the fractional quantum Hall (FQH) regime. Several experimental results are reviewed. Unprecedented observations of the diffusion thermopower of a high-mobility 2DES at temperatures as high as T = 2 K are achieved using our hot-electron technique. The composite fermion (CF) effective mass is extracted from measurements of thermopower at LL filling factor nu = 3/2. The thermopower versus magnetic field in the FQH regime is shown to be qualitatively consistent with a simple entropic model of CFs. The thermopower at nu = 5/2 is shown to be quantitatively consistent with the presence of non-Abelian anyons. An abrupt collapse of thermopower is observed at
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sedlmayr, N.; Aguiar-Hualde, J. M.; Bena, C.
2016-04-01
We study the formation of Majorana states in quasi-one-dimensional (quasi-1D) and two-dimensional square lattices with open boundary conditions, with general anisotropic Rashba coupling, in the presence of an applied Zeeman field and in the proximity of a superconductor. For systems in which the length of the system is very large (quasi-1D) we calculate analytically the exact topological invariant, and we find a rich corresponding phase diagram which is strongly dependent on the width of the system. We compare our results with previous results based on a few-band approximation. We also investigate numerically open two-dimensional systems of finite length in both directions. We use the recently introduced generalized Majorana polarization, which can locally evaluate the Majorana character of a given state. We find that the formation of Majoranas depends strongly on the geometry of the system: for a very elongated wire the finite-size numerical phase diagram reproduces the analytical phase diagram for infinite systems, while if the length and the width are comparable, no Majorana states can form; however, one can show the formation of "quasi-Majorana" states that have a local Majorana character but no global Majorana symmetry.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cangas, R.; Hidalgo, M. A.
2015-09-01
In this paper, we review the contribution of the Rashba spin-orbit coupling to the magnetoconduction of a two-dimensional electron system (2DES) confined in an inversion layer under quantum Hall regime (low temperature and low defects and impurities). The study is based on a semi-classical model for the magnetoconductivities of the 2DES. This model reproduces the measurements of the Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations obtained in systems confined in III-V heterostructures, and also the quantum Hall magnetoconductivity (magnetoresistivity). We also discuss the Rashba and Zeeman competition and its effect on the magnetoconductivity.
Two-dimensional materials and their prospects in transistor electronics.
Schwierz, F; Pezoldt, J; Granzner, R
2015-05-14
During the past decade, two-dimensional materials have attracted incredible interest from the electronic device community. The first two-dimensional material studied in detail was graphene and, since 2007, it has intensively been explored as a material for electronic devices, in particular, transistors. While graphene transistors are still on the agenda, researchers have extended their work to two-dimensional materials beyond graphene and the number of two-dimensional materials under examination has literally exploded recently. Meanwhile several hundreds of different two-dimensional materials are known, a substantial part of them is considered useful for transistors, and experimental transistors with channels of different two-dimensional materials have been demonstrated. In spite of the rapid progress in the field, the prospects of two-dimensional transistors still remain vague and optimistic opinions face rather reserved assessments. The intention of the present paper is to shed more light on the merits and drawbacks of two-dimensional materials for transistor electronics and to add a few more facets to the ongoing discussion on the prospects of two-dimensional transistors. To this end, we compose a wish list of properties for a good transistor channel material and examine to what extent the two-dimensional materials fulfill the criteria of the list. The state-of-the-art two-dimensional transistors are reviewed and a balanced view of both the pros and cons of these devices is provided. PMID:25898786
Triola, Christopher; Badiane, Driss M; Balatsky, Alexander V; Rossi, E
2016-06-24
We obtain the general conditions for the emergence of odd-frequency superconducting pairing in a two-dimensional (2D) electronic system proximity coupled to a superconductor, making minimal assumptions about both the 2D system and the superconductor. Using our general results we show that a simple heterostructure formed by a monolayer of a group VI transition metal dichalcogenide, such as molybdenum disulfide, and an s-wave superconductor with Rashba spin-orbit coupling exhibits odd-frequency superconducting pairing. Our results allow the identification of a new class of systems among van der Waals heterostructures in which odd-frequency superconductivity should be present. PMID:27391743
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Triola, Christopher; Badiane, Driss M.; Balatsky, Alexander V.; Rossi, E.
2016-06-01
We obtain the general conditions for the emergence of odd-frequency superconducting pairing in a two-dimensional (2D) electronic system proximity coupled to a superconductor, making minimal assumptions about both the 2D system and the superconductor. Using our general results we show that a simple heterostructure formed by a monolayer of a group VI transition metal dichalcogenide, such as molybdenum disulfide, and an s -wave superconductor with Rashba spin-orbit coupling exhibits odd-frequency superconducting pairing. Our results allow the identification of a new class of systems among van der Waals heterostructures in which odd-frequency superconductivity should be present.
Rashba Spin-Orbit-Coupled Atomic Fermi Gases in a Two-Dimensional Optical Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koinov, Zlatko; Mendoza, Rafael
2015-11-01
The collective-mode excitation energy of a population-imbalanced spin-orbit-coupled atomic Fermi gas loaded in a two-dimensional optical lattice at zero temperature is calculated within the Gaussian approximation, and from the Bethe-Salpeter equation in the generalized random-phase approximation assuming the existence of a Sarma superfluid state. It is found that the Gaussian approximation overestimates the speed of sound of the Goldstone mode. More interestingly, the Gaussian approximation fails to reproduce the roton-like structure of the collective-mode dispersion which appears after the linear part of the dispersion in the Bethe-Salpeter approach. We investigate the speed of sound of a balanced spin-orbit-coupled atomic Fermi gas near the boundary of the topological phase transition driven by an out-of-plane Zeeman field. It is shown that the minimum of the speed of sound is located at the topological phase transition boundary, and this fact can be used to confirm the existence of a topological phase transition.
Terahertz rectification by periodic two-dimensional electron plasma
Popov, V. V.
2013-06-24
The physics of terahertz rectification by periodic two-dimensional electron plasma is discussed. Two different effects yielding terahertz rectification are studied: the plasmonic drag and plasmonic ratchet. Ultrahigh responsivity of terahertz rectification by periodic two-dimensional electron plasma in semiconductor heterostructures and graphene is predicted.
Herranz, Gervasi; Singh, Gyanendra; Bergeal, Nicolas; Jouan, Alexis; Lesueur, Jérôme; Gázquez, Jaume; Varela, María; Scigaj, Mateusz; Dix, Nico; Sánchez, Florencio; et al
2015-01-13
We find the discovery of two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) at oxide interfaces—involving electrons in narrow d-bands—has broken new ground, enabling the access to correlated states that are unreachable in conventional semiconductors based on s- and p- electrons. There is a growing consensus that emerging properties at these novel quantum wells—such as 2D superconductivity and magnetism—are intimately connected to specific orbital symmetries in the 2DEG sub-band structure. Here we show that crystal orientation allows selective orbital occupancy, disclosing unprecedented ways to tailor the 2DEG properties. By carrying out electrostatic gating experiments in LaAlO3/SrTiO3 wells of different crystal orientations, we show thatmore » the spatial extension and anisotropy of the 2D superconductivity and the Rashba spin–orbit field can be largely modulated by controlling the 2DEG sub-band filling. Such an orientational tuning expands the possibilities for electronic engineering of 2DEGs at LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interfaces.« less
Herranz, Gervasi; Singh, Gyanendra; Bergeal, Nicolas; Jouan, Alexis; Lesueur, Jérôme; Gázquez, Jaume; Varela, María; Scigaj, Mateusz; Dix, Nico; Sánchez, Florencio; Fontcuberta, Josep
2015-01-01
The discovery of two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) at oxide interfaces—involving electrons in narrow d-bands—has broken new ground, enabling the access to correlated states that are unreachable in conventional semiconductors based on s- and p- electrons. There is a growing consensus that emerging properties at these novel quantum wells—such as 2D superconductivity and magnetism—are intimately connected to specific orbital symmetries in the 2DEG sub-band structure. Here we show that crystal orientation allows selective orbital occupancy, disclosing unprecedented ways to tailor the 2DEG properties. By carrying out electrostatic gating experiments in LaAlO3/SrTiO3 wells of different crystal orientations, we show that the spatial extension and anisotropy of the 2D superconductivity and the Rashba spin–orbit field can be largely modulated by controlling the 2DEG sub-band filling. Such an orientational tuning expands the possibilities for electronic engineering of 2DEGs at LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interfaces. PMID:25583368
Two Dimensional Inhomogeneous Magnetic Electron Drift Modes
Shaikh, Dastgeer; Eliasson, Bengt; Shukla, P. K.
2009-11-10
We present simulations of the magnetic electron drift vortex (MEDV) mode turbulence in a magnetoplasma in the presence of inhomogeneities in the plasma temperature and density, as well as in the external magnetic field. The study shows that the influence of the magnetic field in-homogeneity is to suppress streamer-like structures observed in previous simulation studies without background magnetic fields. The MEDV mode turbulence exhibits non-universal (non-Kolmogorov type) spectra for different sets of the plasma parameters. In the presence of an inhomogeneous magnetic field, the spectrum changes to a 7/3 power law, which is flatter than without magnetic field gradients. The relevance of this work to laboratory and cosmic plasmas is briefly mentioned.
Gavrilenko, V. I.; Krishtopenko, S. S.; Goiran, M.
2011-01-15
The effect of electron-electron interaction on the spectrum of two-dimensional electron states in InAs/AlSb (001) heterostructures with a GaSb cap layer with one filled size-quantization subband. The energy spectrum of two-dimensional electrons is calculated in the Hartree and Hartree-Fock approximations. It is shown that the exchange interaction decreasing the electron energy in subbands increases the energy gap between subbands and the spin-orbit splitting of the spectrum in the entire region of electron concentrations, at which only the lower size-quantization band is filled. The nonlinear dependence of the Rashba splitting constant at the Fermi wave vector on the concentration of two-dimensional electrons is demonstrated.
Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy using incoherent light: theoretical analysis.
Turner, Daniel B; Howey, Dylan J; Sutor, Erika J; Hendrickson, Rebecca A; Gealy, M W; Ulness, Darin J
2013-07-25
Electronic energy transfer in photosynthesis occurs over a range of time scales and under a variety of intermolecular coupling conditions. Recent work has shown that electronic coupling between chromophores can lead to coherent oscillations in two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy measurements of pigment-protein complexes measured with femtosecond laser pulses. A persistent issue in the field is to reconcile the results of measurements performed using femtosecond laser pulses with physiological illumination conditions. Noisy-light spectroscopy can begin to address this question. In this work we present the theoretical analysis of incoherent two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy, I((4)) 2D ES. Simulations reveal diagonal peaks, cross peaks, and coherent oscillations similar to those observed in femtosecond two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy experiments. The results also expose fundamental differences between the femtosecond-pulse and noisy-light techniques; the differences lead to new challenges and new opportunities. PMID:23176195
General solution of the Dirac equation for quasi-two-dimensional electrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eremko, Alexander; Brizhik, Larissa; Loktev, Vadim
2016-06-01
The general solution of the Dirac equation for quasi-two-dimensional electrons confined in an asymmetric quantum well, is found. The energy spectrum of such a system is exactly calculated using special unitary operator and is shown to depend on the electron spin polarization. This solution contains free parameters, whose variation continuously transforms one known particular solution into another. As an example, two different cases are considered in detail: electron in a deep and in a strongly asymmetric shallow quantum well. The effective mass renormalized by relativistic corrections and Bychkov-Rashba coefficients are analytically obtained for both cases. It is demonstrated that the general solution transforms to the particular solutions, found previously (Eremko et al., 2015) with the use of spin invariants. The general solution allows to establish conditions at which a specific (accompanied or non-accompanied by Rashba splitting) spin state can be realized. These results can prompt the ways to control the spin degree of freedom via the synthesis of spintronic heterostructures with the required properties.
Conduction-electron spin resonance in two-dimensional structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Edelstein, Victor M.
2016-09-01
The influence of the conduction-electron spin magnetization density, induced in a two-dimensional electron layer by a microwave electromagnetic field, on the reflection and transmission of the field is considered. Because of the induced magnetization and electric current, both the electric and magnetic components of the field should have jumps on the layer. A way to match the waves on two sides of the layer, valid when the quasi-two-dimensional electron gas is in the one-mode state, is proposed. By following this way, the amplitudes of transmitted and reflected waves as well as the absorption coefficient are evaluated.
Two-dimensional optimization of free-electron-laser designs
Prosnitz, D.; Haas, R.A.
1982-05-04
Off-axis, two-dimensional designs for free electron lasers are described that maintain correspondence of a light beam with a synchronous electron at an optimal transverse radius r > 0 to achieve increased beam trapping efficiency and enhanced laser beam wavefront control so as to decrease optical beam diffraction and other deleterious effects.
Two-dimensional optimization of free electron laser designs
Prosnitz, Donald; Haas, Roger A.
1985-01-01
Off-axis, two-dimensional designs for free electron lasers that maintain correspondence of a light beam with a "synchronous electron" at an optimal transverse radius r>0 to achieve increased beam trapping efficiency and enhanced laser beam wavefront control so as to decrease optical beam diffraction and other deleterious effects.
Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Qing Hua; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh; Kis, Andras; Coleman, Jonathan N.; Strano, Michael S.
2012-11-01
The remarkable properties of graphene have renewed interest in inorganic, two-dimensional materials with unique electronic and optical attributes. Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are layered materials with strong in-plane bonding and weak out-of-plane interactions enabling exfoliation into two-dimensional layers of single unit cell thickness. Although TMDCs have been studied for decades, recent advances in nanoscale materials characterization and device fabrication have opened up new opportunities for two-dimensional layers of thin TMDCs in nanoelectronics and optoelectronics. TMDCs such as MoS2, MoSe2, WS2 and WSe2 have sizable bandgaps that change from indirect to direct in single layers, allowing applications such as transistors, photodetectors and electroluminescent devices. We review the historical development of TMDCs, methods for preparing atomically thin layers, their electronic and optical properties, and prospects for future advances in electronics and optoelectronics.
Spin-polarized dynamic transport in tubular two-dimensional electron gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rothstein, E. A.; Horovitz, B.; Entin-Wohlman, O.; Aharony, A.
2014-12-01
The ac conductance of a finite tubular two-dimensional electron gas is studied in the presence of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction. When the tube is coupled to two reservoirs, that interaction splits the steps in the dc current, introducing energy ranges with spin-polarized currents. For this setup, we calculate the current-current correlations (the noise spectrum) and show that the existence of these dc spin-polarized currents can be deduced from the shot noise. We also find that the Wigner-Smith time delay is almost unaffected by the spin-orbit interaction. When the tube is coupled to a single reservoir, we calculate the quantum capacitance and the charge-relaxation resistance, and find that they exhibit singularities near the openings of new channels.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johansson, Annika; Henk, Jürgen; Mertig, Ingrid
2016-05-01
A charge current driven through a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) with Rashba spin-orbit coupling generates a spatially homogeneous spin polarization perpendicular to the applied electric field. This phenomenon is the Aronov-Lyanda-Geller-Edelstein (ALGE) effect. For selected model systems, we consider the ALGE effect within the semiclassical Boltzmann transport theory. Its energy dependence is investigated, in particular the regime below the Dirac point of the 2DEG. In addition to an isotropic 2DEG, we analyze systems with anisotropic Fermi contours. We predict that the current-induced spin polarization vanishes if the Fermi contour passes through a Lifshitz transition. Further, we corroborate that topological insulators (TI) provide a very efficient charge-to-spin conversion.
Landau level crossing in a spin-orbit coupled two-dimensional electron gas
Wu, Xing-Jun; Li, Ting-Xin; Zhang, Chi; Du, Rui-Rui
2015-01-05
We have studied experimentally the Landau level (LL) spectrum of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in an In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As/InP quantum well structure by means of low-temperature magneto-transport coincidence measurement in vector magnetic fields. It is well known that LL crossing occurs in tilted magnetic fields due to a competition between cyclotron energy and Zeeman effect. Remarkably, here we observe an additional type of level-crossing resulting from a competition between Rashba and Zeeman splitting in a small magnetic field, consistent with the theoretical prediction for strongly spin-orbit coupled 2DEG.
Control of spin dynamics in a two-dimensional electron gas by electromagnetic dressing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pervishko, A. A.; Kibis, O. V.; Morina, S.; Shelykh, I. A.
2015-11-01
We solved the Schrödinger problem for a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) with the Rashba spin-orbit interaction in the presence of a strong high-frequency electromagnetic field (dressing field). The found eigenfunctions and eigenenergies of the problem are used to describe the spin dynamics of the dressed 2DEG within the formalism of the density matrix response function. Solving the equations of spin dynamics, we show that the dressing field can switch the spin relaxation in the 2DEG between the cases corresponding to the known Elliott-Yafet and D'yakonov-Perel' regimes. As a result, the spin properties of the 2DEG can be tuned by a high-frequency electromagnetic field. The present effect opens an unexplored way for controlling the spin with light and, therefore, forms the physical prerequisites for creating light-tuned spintronics devices.
Toward the Accurate Simulation of Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giussani, Angelo; Nenov, Artur; Segarra-Martí, Javier; Jaiswal, Vishal K.; Rivalta, Ivan; Dumont, Elise; Mukamel, Shaul; Garavelli, Marco
2015-06-01
Two-dimensional pump-probe electronic spectroscopy is a powerful technique able to provide both high spectral and temporal resolution, allowing the analysis of ultrafast complex reactions occurring via complementary pathways by the identification of decay-specific fingerprints. [1-2] The understanding of the origin of the experimentally recorded signals in a two-dimensional electronic spectrum requires the characterization of the electronic states involved in the electronic transitions photoinduced by the pump/probe pulses in the experiment. Such a goal constitutes a considerable computational challenge, since up to 100 states need to be described, for which state-of-the-art methods as RASSCF and RASPT2 have to be wisely employed. [3] With the present contribution, the main features and potentialities of two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy are presented, together with the machinery in continuous development in our groups in order to compute two-dimensional electronic spectra. The results obtained using different level of theory and simulations are shown, bringing as examples the computed two-dimensional electronic spectra for some specific cases studied. [2-4] [1] Rivalta I, Nenov A, Cerullo G, Mukamel S, Garavelli M, Int. J. Quantum Chem., 2014, 114, 85 [2] Nenov A, Segarra-Martí J, Giussani A, Conti I, Rivalta I, Dumont E, Jaiswal V K, Altavilla S, Mukamel S, Garavelli M, Faraday Discuss. 2015, DOI: 10.1039/C4FD00175C [3] Nenov A, Giussani A, Segarra-Martí J, Jaiswal V K, Rivalta I, Cerullo G, Mukamel S, Garavelli M, J. Chem. Phys. submitted [4] Nenov A, Giussani A, Fingerhut B P, Rivalta I, Dumont E, Mukamel S, Garavelli M, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. Submitted [5] Krebs N, Pugliesi I, Hauer J, Riedle E, New J. Phys., 2013,15, 08501
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kocharian, Armen N.; Fernando, Gayanath W.; Fang, Kun; Palandage, Kalum; Balatsky, Alexander V.
2016-05-01
Rashba spin-orbit effects and electron correlations in the two-dimensional cylindrical lattices of square geometries are assessed using mesoscopic two-, three- and four-leg ladder structures. Here the electron transport properties are systematically calculated by including the spin-orbit coupling in tight binding and Hubbard models threaded by a magnetic flux. These results highlight important aspects of possible symmetry breaking mechanisms in square ladder geometries driven by the combined effect of a magnetic gauge field spin-orbit interaction and temperature. The observed persistent current, spin and charge polarizations in the presence of spin-orbit coupling are driven by separation of electron and hole charges and opposite spins in real-space. The modeled spin-flip processes on the pairing mechanism induced by the spin-orbit coupling in assembled nanostructures (as arrays of clusters) engineered in various two-dimensional multi-leg structures provide an ideal playground for understanding spatial charge and spin density inhomogeneities leading to electron pairing and spontaneous phase separation instabilities in unconventional superconductors. Such studies also fall under the scope of current challenging problems in superconductivity and magnetism, topological insulators and spin dependent transport associated with numerous interfaces and heterostructures.
Colloquium: Transport in strongly correlated two dimensional electron fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spivak, B.; Kravchenko, S. V.; Kivelson, S. A.; Gao, X. P. A.
2010-04-01
An overview of the measured transport properties of the two dimensional electron fluids in high mobility semiconductor devices with low electron densities is presented as well as some of the theories that have been proposed to account for them. Many features of the observations are not easily reconciled with a description based on the well understood physics of weakly interacting quasiparticles in a disordered medium. Rather, they reflect new physics associated with strong correlation effects, which warrant further study.
Magneto-anisotropy of spin dephasing in a [001]-grown high-mobility two-dimensional electron system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korn, T.; Stich, D.; Schulz, R.; Schuh, D.; Wegscheider, W.; Schüller, C.
2010-01-01
The spin dynamics in [001]-grown two-dimensional electron systems (2DES) at low temperatures are governed by the effective spin-orbit fields, which lead to dephasing via the D'yakonov-Perel mechanism. If both the Rashba and the Dresselhaus spin-orbit fields are present and of the same order, their interference causes a large anisotropy of the spin dephasing times for spin orientation along different in-plane directions. This may be observed in time-resolved Faraday rotation measurements using in-plane magnetic fields. The dephasing anisotropy is strongly reduced for increasing carrier density by the increasing importance of the kubic Dresselhaus term.
Suspended two-dimensional electron and hole gases
Kazazis, D.; Bourhis, E.; Gierak, J.; Gennser, U.; Bourgeois, O.; Antoni, T.
2013-12-04
We report on the fabrication of fully suspended two-dimensional electron and hole gases in III-V heterostructures. Low temperature transport measurements verify that the properties of the suspended gases are only slightly degraded with respect to the non-suspended gases. Focused ion beam technology is used to pattern suspended nanostructures with minimum damage from the ion beam, due to the small width of the suspended membrane.
Two-dimensional Electronic Double-Quantum Coherence Spectroscopy
Kim, Jeongho; Mukamel, Shaul
2009-01-01
CONSPECTUS The theory of electronic structure of many-electron systems like molecules is extraordinarily complicated. A lot can be learned by considering how electron density is distributed, on average, in the average field of the other electrons in the system. That is, mean field theory. However, to describe quantitatively chemical bonds, reactions, and spectroscopy requires consideration of the way that electrons avoid each other by the way they move; this is called electron correlation (or in physics, the many-body problem for fermions). While great progress has been made in theory, there is a need for incisive experimental tests that can be undertaken for large molecular systems in the condensed phase. Here we report a two-dimensional (2D) optical coherent spectroscopy that correlates the double excited electronic states to constituent single excited states. The technique, termed two-dimensional double-coherence spectroscopy (2D-DQCS), makes use of multiple, time-ordered ultrashort coherent optical pulses to create double- and single-quantum coherences over time intervals between the pulses. The resulting two-dimensional electronic spectrum maps the energy correlation between the first excited state and two-photon allowed double-quantum states. The principle of the experiment is that when the energy of the double-quantum state, viewed in simple models as a double HOMO to LUMO excitation, equals twice that of a single excitation, then no signal is radiated. However, electron-electron interactions—a combination of exchange interactions and electron correlation—in real systems generates a signal that reveals precisely how the energy of the double-quantum resonance differs from twice the single-quantum resonance. The energy shift measured in this experiment reveals how the second excitation is perturbed by both the presence of the first excitation and the way that the other electrons in the system have responded to the presence of that first excitation. We
Electron fractionalization in two-dimensional graphenelike structures.
Hou, Chang-Yu; Chamon, Claudio; Mudry, Christopher
2007-05-01
Electron fractionalization is intimately related to topology. In one-dimensional systems, fractionally charged states exist at domain walls between degenerate vacua. In two-dimensional systems, fractionalization exists in quantum Hall fluids, where time-reversal symmetry is broken by a large external magnetic field. Recently, there has been a tremendous effort in the search for examples of fractionalization in two-dimensional systems with time-reversal symmetry. In this Letter, we show that fractionally charged topological excitations exist on graphenelike structures, where quasiparticles are described by two flavors of Dirac fermions and time-reversal symmetry is respected. The topological zero modes are mathematically similar to fractional vortices in p-wave superconductors. They correspond to a twist in the phase in the mass of the Dirac fermions, akin to cosmic strings in particle physics. PMID:17501599
Stopping power of two-dimensional spin quantum electron gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Ya; Jiang, Wei; Yi, Lin
2015-04-01
Quantum effects can contribute significantly to the electronic stopping powers in the interactions between the fast moving beams and the degenerate electron gases. From the Pauli equation, the spin quantum hydrodynamic (SQHD) model is derived and used to calculate the stopping power and the induced electron density for protons moving above a two-dimensional (2D) electron gas with considering spin effect under an external in-plane magnetic field. In our calculation, the stopping power is not only modulated by the spin direction, but also varied with the strength of the spin effect. It is demonstrated that the spin effect can obviously enhance or reduce the stopping power of a 2D electron gas within a laboratory magnetic field condition (several tens of Tesla), thus a negative stopping power appears at some specific proton velocity, which implies the protons drain energy from the Pauli gas, showing another significant example of the low-dimensional physics.
Anisotropic electronic conduction in stacked two-dimensional titanium carbide
Hu, Tao; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Jiemin; Li, Zhaojin; Hu, Minmin; Tan, Jun; Hou, Pengxiang; Li, Feng; Wang, Xiaohui
2015-01-01
Stacked two-dimensional titanium carbide is an emerging conductive material for electrochemical energy storage which requires an understanding of the intrinsic electronic conduction. Here we report the electronic conduction properties of stacked Ti3C2T2 (T = OH, O, F) with two distinct stacking sequences (Bernal and simple hexagonal). On the basis of first-principles calculations and energy band theory analysis, both stacking sequences give rise to metallic conduction with Ti 3d electrons contributing most to the conduction. The conduction is also significantly anisotropic due to the fact that the effective masses of carriers including electrons and holes are remarkably direction-dependent. Such an anisotropic electronic conduction is evidenced by the I−V curves of an individual Ti3C2T2 particulate, which demonstrates that the in-plane electrical conduction is at least one order of magnitude higher than that vertical to the basal plane. PMID:26548439
Anisotropic electronic conduction in stacked two-dimensional titanium carbide.
Hu, Tao; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Jiemin; Li, Zhaojin; Hu, Minmin; Tan, Jun; Hou, Pengxiang; Li, Feng; Wang, Xiaohui
2015-01-01
Stacked two-dimensional titanium carbide is an emerging conductive material for electrochemical energy storage which requires an understanding of the intrinsic electronic conduction. Here we report the electronic conduction properties of stacked Ti3C2T2 (T = OH, O, F) with two distinct stacking sequences (Bernal and simple hexagonal). On the basis of first-principles calculations and energy band theory analysis, both stacking sequences give rise to metallic conduction with Ti 3d electrons contributing most to the conduction. The conduction is also significantly anisotropic due to the fact that the effective masses of carriers including electrons and holes are remarkably direction-dependent. Such an anisotropic electronic conduction is evidenced by the I-V curves of an individual Ti3C2T2 particulate, which demonstrates that the in-plane electrical conduction is at least one order of magnitude higher than that vertical to the basal plane. PMID:26548439
Anisotropic electronic conduction in stacked two-dimensional titanium carbide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Tao; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Jiemin; Li, Zhaojin; Hu, Minmin; Tan, Jun; Hou, Pengxiang; Li, Feng; Wang, Xiaohui
2015-11-01
Stacked two-dimensional titanium carbide is an emerging conductive material for electrochemical energy storage which requires an understanding of the intrinsic electronic conduction. Here we report the electronic conduction properties of stacked Ti3C2T2 (T = OH, O, F) with two distinct stacking sequences (Bernal and simple hexagonal). On the basis of first-principles calculations and energy band theory analysis, both stacking sequences give rise to metallic conduction with Ti 3d electrons contributing most to the conduction. The conduction is also significantly anisotropic due to the fact that the effective masses of carriers including electrons and holes are remarkably direction-dependent. Such an anisotropic electronic conduction is evidenced by the I-V curves of an individual Ti3C2T2 particulate, which demonstrates that the in-plane electrical conduction is at least one order of magnitude higher than that vertical to the basal plane.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Hao; Rosenberg, Peter; Chiesa, Simone; Zhang, Shiwei
2016-07-01
The recent experimental realization of spin-orbit coupled Fermi gases provides a unique opportunity to study the interplay between strong interaction and spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in a tunable, disorder-free system. We present here precision ab initio numerical results on the two-dimensional, unpolarized, uniform Fermi gas with attractive interactions and Rashba SOC. Using the auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo method and incorporating recent algorithmic advances, we carry out exact calculations on sufficiently large system sizes to provide accurate results systematically as a function of experimental parameters. We obtain the equation of state, the momentum distributions, the pseudospin correlations, and the pair wave functions. Our results help illuminate the rich pairing structure induced by SOC, and provide benchmarks for theory and guidance to future experimental efforts.
Shi, Hao; Rosenberg, Peter; Chiesa, Simone; Zhang, Shiwei
2016-07-22
The recent experimental realization of spin-orbit coupled Fermi gases provides a unique opportunity to study the interplay between strong interaction and spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in a tunable, disorder-free system. We present here precision ab initio numerical results on the two-dimensional, unpolarized, uniform Fermi gas with attractive interactions and Rashba SOC. Using the auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo method and incorporating recent algorithmic advances, we carry out exact calculations on sufficiently large system sizes to provide accurate results systematically as a function of experimental parameters. We obtain the equation of state, the momentum distributions, the pseudospin correlations, and the pair wave functions. Our results help illuminate the rich pairing structure induced by SOC, and provide benchmarks for theory and guidance to future experimental efforts. PMID:27494461
Ultrabroadband two-quantum two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gellen, Tobias A.; Bizimana, Laurie A.; Carbery, William P.; Breen, Ilana; Turner, Daniel B.
2016-08-01
A recent theoretical study proposed that two-quantum (2Q) two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy should be a background-free probe of post-Hartree-Fock electronic correlations. Testing this theoretical prediction requires an instrument capable of not only detecting multiple transitions among molecular excited states but also distinguishing molecular 2Q signals from nonresonant response. Herein we describe a 2Q 2D spectrometer with a spectral range of 300 nm that is passively phase stable and uses only beamsplitters and mirrors. We developed and implemented a dual-chopping balanced-detection method to resolve the weak molecular 2Q signals. Experiments performed on cresyl violet perchlorate and rhodamine 6G revealed distinct 2Q signals convolved with nonresonant response. Density functional theory computations helped reveal the molecular origin of these signals. The experimental and computational results demonstrate that 2Q electronic spectra can provide a singular probe of highly excited electronic states.
Electron capture imaging of two-dimensional materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Labaigt, G.; Dubois, A.; Hansen, J. P.
2014-06-01
We demonstrate that electron transfer induced by fast ion impact can be used as an imaging technique of two-dimensional materials. Applied to a keV proton beam passing through a graphene surface, it is shown that coherent single-electron capture gives a sub-ångström-scale spatial resolution image of the electronic structure of a single sheet. This imaging scheme is shown to be particularly effective, resolving missing atoms (vacancies) in the lattice, in a narrow projectile 5-10-keV energy region, where the capture probability exhibits a minimum at the center of the hexagonal cells. This geometry-dependent phenomenon is caused by the coupling dynamic between the initial state and a multi-electron entangled one-hole state and is therefore highly sample selective.
Electronic properties of two-dimensional covalent organic frameworks.
Zhu, P; Meunier, V
2012-12-28
The electronic properties of a number of two-dimensional covalent organic frameworks are studied using a combination of density functional theory and quasiparticle theory calculations. The effect of composition and system size on the electronic band gap is systematically considered for a series of systems, using van der Waals corrected density functional theory calculations to determine the effect of a graphene substrate on deposited covalent frameworks. We predict that covalent organic frameworks' (COFs') electronic properties, such as their band gap can be fine tuned by appropriate modifications of their structures, specifically by increasing organic chain-links in the framework. The effect of strain on the electronic properties is also studied. The graphene substrate is shown to not significantly alter the properties of COFs, thereby indicating the robustness of COFs' intrinsic properties for practical applications. PMID:23277948
Electronic properties of two-dimensional covalent organic frameworks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, P.; Meunier, V.
2012-12-01
The electronic properties of a number of two-dimensional covalent organic frameworks are studied using a combination of density functional theory and quasiparticle theory calculations. The effect of composition and system size on the electronic band gap is systematically considered for a series of systems, using van der Waals corrected density functional theory calculations to determine the effect of a graphene substrate on deposited covalent frameworks. We predict that covalent organic frameworks' (COFs') electronic properties, such as their band gap can be fine tuned by appropriate modifications of their structures, specifically by increasing organic chain-links in the framework. The effect of strain on the electronic properties is also studied. The graphene substrate is shown to not significantly alter the properties of COFs, thereby indicating the robustness of COFs' intrinsic properties for practical applications.
High Mobility Two-Dimensional Electron Gas in Black Phosphorus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Likai; Ye, Guojun; Tran, Vy; Chen, Guorui; Wang, Huichao; Wang, Jian; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Yang, Li; Chen, Xianhui; Zhang, Yuanbo
2015-03-01
Black phosphorus has recently emerged as a new member in the family of two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystals. It is a semiconductor with a tunable bandgap and high carrier mobility - material properties that are important for potential opto-electronic and high-speed device applications. In this work, we achieve a record-high carrier mobility in black phosphorus by placing it on hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) substrate. The exceptional mobility of the 2D electron gas created at the interface allows us to observe quantum oscillations for the first time in this material. The temperature and magnetic field dependence of the oscillations yields crucial information about the black phosphorus 2DEG, such as cyclotron mass of the charge carriers and their lifetime. Our results pave the way to future research on quantum transport in black phosphorus.
Colloidal nanoplatelets with two-dimensional electronic structure.
Ithurria, S; Tessier, M D; Mahler, B; Lobo, R P S M; Dubertret, B; Efros, Al L
2011-12-01
The syntheses of strongly anisotropic nanocrystals with one dimension much smaller than the two others, such as nanoplatelets, are still greatly underdeveloped. Here, we demonstrate the formation of atomically flat quasi-two-dimensional colloidal CdSe, CdS and CdTe nanoplatelets with well-defined thicknesses ranging from 4 to 11 monolayers. These nanoplatelets have the electronic properties of two-dimensional quantum wells formed by molecular beam epitaxy, and their thickness-dependent absorption and emission spectra are described very well within an eight-band Pidgeon-Brown model. They present an extremely narrow emission spectrum with full-width at half-maximum less than 40 meV at room temperature. The radiative fluorescent lifetime measured in CdSe nanoplatelets decreases with temperature, reaching 1 ns at 6 K, two orders of magnitude less than for spherical CdSe nanoparticles. This makes the nanoplatelets the fastest colloidal fluorescent emitters and strongly suggests that they show a giant oscillator strength transition. PMID:22019946
Electronic transport in two-dimensional high dielectric constant nanosystems.
Ortuño, M; Somoza, A M; Vinokur, V M; Baturina, T I
2015-01-01
There has been remarkable recent progress in engineering high-dielectric constant two dimensional (2D) materials, which are being actively pursued for applications in nanoelectronics in capacitor and memory devices, energy storage, and high-frequency modulation in communication devices. Yet many of the unique properties of these systems are poorly understood and remain unexplored. Here we report a numerical study of hopping conductivity of the lateral network of capacitors, which models two-dimensional insulators, and demonstrate that 2D long-range Coulomb interactions lead to peculiar size effects. We find that the characteristic energy governing electronic transport scales logarithmically with either system size or electrostatic screening length depending on which one is shorter. Our results are relevant well beyond their immediate context, explaining, for example, recent experimental observations of logarithmic size dependence of electric conductivity of thin superconducting films in the critical vicinity of superconductor-insulator transition where a giant dielectric constant develops. Our findings mark a radical departure from the orthodox view of conductivity in 2D systems as a local characteristic of materials and establish its macroscopic global character as a generic property of high-dielectric constant 2D nanomaterials. PMID:25860804
Electronic transport in two-dimensional high dielectric constant nanosystems
Ortuño, M.; Somoza, A. M.; Vinokur, V. M.; Baturina, T. I.
2015-04-10
There has been remarkable recent progress in engineering high-dielectric constant two dimensional (2D) materials, which are being actively pursued for applications in nanoelectronics in capacitor and memory devices, energy storage, and high-frequency modulation in communication devices. Yet many of the unique properties of these systems are poorly understood and remain unexplored. Here we report a numerical study of hopping conductivity of the lateral network of capacitors, which models two-dimensional insulators, and demonstrate that 2D long-range Coulomb interactions lead to peculiar size effects. We find that the characteristic energy governing electronic transport scales logarithmically with either system size or electrostatic screeningmore » length depending on which one is shorter. Our results are relevant well beyond their immediate context, explaining, for example, recent experimental observations of logarithmic size dependence of electric conductivity of thin superconducting films in the critical vicinity of superconductor-insulator transition where a giant dielectric constant develops. Our findings mark a radical departure from the orthodox view of conductivity in 2D systems as a local characteristic of materials and establish its macroscopic global character as a generic property of high-dielectric constant 2D nanomaterials.« less
Electronic transport in two-dimensional high dielectric constant nanosystems
Ortuño, M.; Somoza, A. M.; Vinokur, V. M.; Baturina, T. I.
2015-04-10
There has been remarkable recent progress in engineering high-dielectric constant two dimensional (2D) materials, which are being actively pursued for applications in nanoelectronics in capacitor and memory devices, energy storage, and high-frequency modulation in communication devices. Yet many of the unique properties of these systems are poorly understood and remain unexplored. Here we report a numerical study of hopping conductivity of the lateral network of capacitors, which models two-dimensional insulators, and demonstrate that 2D long-range Coulomb interactions lead to peculiar size effects. We find that the characteristic energy governing electronic transport scales logarithmically with either system size or electrostatic screening length depending on which one is shorter. Our results are relevant well beyond their immediate context, explaining, for example, recent experimental observations of logarithmic size dependence of electric conductivity of thin superconducting films in the critical vicinity of superconductor-insulator transition where a giant dielectric constant develops. Our findings mark a radical departure from the orthodox view of conductivity in 2D systems as a local characteristic of materials and establish its macroscopic global character as a generic property of high-dielectric constant 2D nanomaterials.
Exploring two-dimensional electron gases with two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy
Paul, J.; Dey, P.; Tokumoto, T.; Reno, J. L.; Hilton, D. J.; Karaiskaj, D.
2014-10-07
The dephasing of excitons in a modulation doped single quantum well was carefully measured using time integrated four-wave mixing (FWM) and two-dimensional Fourier transform (2DFT) spectroscopy. These are the first 2DFT measurements performed on a modulation doped single quantum well. The inhomogeneous and homogeneous excitonic line widths were obtained from the diagonal and cross-diagonal profiles of the 2DFT spectra. The laser excitation density and temperature were varied and 2DFT spectra were collected. A very rapid increase of the dephasing decay, and as a result, an increase in the cross-diagonal 2DFT linewidths with temperature was observed. Furthermore, the lineshapes of themore » 2DFT spectra suggest the presence of excitation induced dephasing and excitation induced shift.« less
Exploring two-dimensional electron gases with two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy
Paul, J.; Dey, P.; Tokumoto, T.; Reno, J. L.; Hilton, D. J.; Karaiskaj, D.
2014-10-07
The dephasing of excitons in a modulation doped single quantum well was carefully measured using time integrated four-wave mixing (FWM) and two-dimensional Fourier transform (2DFT) spectroscopy. These are the first 2DFT measurements performed on a modulation doped single quantum well. The inhomogeneous and homogeneous excitonic line widths were obtained from the diagonal and cross-diagonal profiles of the 2DFT spectra. The laser excitation density and temperature were varied and 2DFT spectra were collected. A very rapid increase of the dephasing decay, and as a result, an increase in the cross-diagonal 2DFT linewidths with temperature was observed. Furthermore, the lineshapes of the 2DFT spectra suggest the presence of excitation induced dephasing and excitation induced shift.
Electron-Spin Filters Based on the Rashba Effect
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ting, David Z.-Y.; Cartoixa, Xavier; McGill, Thomas C.; Moon, Jeong S.; Chow, David H.; Schulman, Joel N.; Smith, Darryl L.
2004-01-01
Semiconductor electron-spin filters of a proposed type would be based on the Rashba effect, which is described briefly below. Electron-spin filters more precisely, sources of spin-polarized electron currents have been sought for research on, and development of, the emerging technological discipline of spintronics (spin-based electronics). There have been a number of successful demonstrations of injection of spin-polarized electrons from diluted magnetic semiconductors and from ferromagnetic metals into nonmagnetic semiconductors. In contrast, a device according to the proposal would be made from nonmagnetic semiconductor materials and would function without an applied magnetic field. The Rashba effect, named after one of its discoverers, is an energy splitting, of what would otherwise be degenerate quantum states, caused by a spin-orbit interaction in conjunction with a structural-inversion asymmetry in the presence of interfacial electric fields in a semiconductor heterostructure. The magnitude of the energy split is proportional to the electron wave number. The present proposal evolved from recent theoretical studies that suggested the possibility of devices in which electron energy states would be split by the Rashba effect and spin-polarized currents would be extracted by resonant quantum-mechanical tunneling. Accordingly, a device according to the proposal would be denoted an asymmetric resonant interband tunneling diode [a-RITD]. An a-RITD could be implemented in a variety of forms, the form favored in the proposal being a double-barrier heterostructure containing an asymmetric quantum well. It is envisioned that a-RITDs would be designed and fabricated in the InAs/GaSb/AlSb material system for several reasons: Heterostructures in this material system are strong candidates for pronounced Rashba spin splitting because InAs and GaSb exhibit large spin-orbit interactions and because both InAs and GaSb would be available for the construction of highly asymmetric
Persistent Photoconductivity in A Magnetic Two Dimensional Electron Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ray, O.; Smorchkova, I. P.; Samarth, N.
1998-03-01
Magnetic two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) based on modulation-doped (Zn,Cd,Mn)Se/ZnSe heterostructures are of current interest because of their novel transport properties (PRL 78, 3571 (1997)). Here, we examine the phenomenon of persistent photoconductivity (PPC) in these structures, with the aim of understanding the nature of defects and their role in limiting the 2DEG mobility. We have observed significant PPC at high temperatures in modulation doped magnetic 2DEGs. The clear presence of a deep trap responsible for the observed PPC is established through temperature-dependent photoconductivity, photoluminescence, deep level transient fourier spectroscopy and photo induced current transient spectroscopy. An analysis of these experiments will be presented, summarizing the specific characteristics and possible origins of this deep level.
Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with birefringent wedges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Réhault, Julien; Maiuri, Margherita; Oriana, Aurelio; Cerullo, Giulio
2014-12-01
We present a simple experimental setup for performing two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy in the partially collinear pump-probe geometry. The setup uses a sequence of birefringent wedges to create and delay a pair of phase-locked, collinear pump pulses, with extremely high phase stability and reproducibility. Continuous delay scanning is possible without any active stabilization or position tracking, and allows to record rapidly and easily 2D spectra. The setup works over a broad spectral range from the ultraviolet to the near-IR, it is compatible with few-optical-cycle pulses and can be easily reconfigured to two-colour operation. A simple method for scattering suppression is also introduced. As a proof of principle, we present degenerate and two-color 2D spectra of the light-harvesting complex 1 of purple bacteria.
A ballistic two-dimensional-electron-gas Andreev interferometer
Amado, M. Fornieri, A.; Sorba, L.; Giazotto, F.; Biasiol, G.
2014-06-16
We report the realization and investigation of a ballistic Andreev interferometer based on an InAs two dimensional electron gas coupled to a superconducting Nb loop. We observe strong magnetic modulations in the voltage drop across the device due to quasiparticle interference within the weak-link. The interferometer exhibits flux noise down to ∼80 μΦ{sub 0}/√(Hz) and a robust behavior in temperature with voltage oscillations surviving up to ∼7 K. Besides this remarkable performance, the device represents a crucial first step for the realization of a fully-tunable ballistic superconducting magnetometer and embodies a potential advanced platform for the investigation of Majorana bound states, non-local entanglement of Cooper pairs, as well as the manipulation and control of spin triplet correlations.
Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with birefringent wedges
Réhault, Julien; Maiuri, Margherita; Oriana, Aurelio; Cerullo, Giulio
2014-12-15
We present a simple experimental setup for performing two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy in the partially collinear pump-probe geometry. The setup uses a sequence of birefringent wedges to create and delay a pair of phase-locked, collinear pump pulses, with extremely high phase stability and reproducibility. Continuous delay scanning is possible without any active stabilization or position tracking, and allows to record rapidly and easily 2D spectra. The setup works over a broad spectral range from the ultraviolet to the near-IR, it is compatible with few-optical-cycle pulses and can be easily reconfigured to two-colour operation. A simple method for scattering suppression is also introduced. As a proof of principle, we present degenerate and two-color 2D spectra of the light-harvesting complex 1 of purple bacteria.
Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with birefringent wedges.
Réhault, Julien; Maiuri, Margherita; Oriana, Aurelio; Cerullo, Giulio
2014-12-01
We present a simple experimental setup for performing two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy in the partially collinear pump-probe geometry. The setup uses a sequence of birefringent wedges to create and delay a pair of phase-locked, collinear pump pulses, with extremely high phase stability and reproducibility. Continuous delay scanning is possible without any active stabilization or position tracking, and allows to record rapidly and easily 2D spectra. The setup works over a broad spectral range from the ultraviolet to the near-IR, it is compatible with few-optical-cycle pulses and can be easily reconfigured to two-colour operation. A simple method for scattering suppression is also introduced. As a proof of principle, we present degenerate and two-color 2D spectra of the light-harvesting complex 1 of purple bacteria. PMID:25554272
Compressibility sum rule for the two-dimensional electron gas.
Das, M P; Golden, K I; Green, F
2001-07-01
The authors establish formulas for the isothermal compressibility and long-wavelength static density-density response function of a weakly correlated two-dimensional electron gas in the 1
Exploring two-dimensional electron gases with two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy
Paul, J.; Dey, P.; Karaiskaj, D.; Tokumoto, T.; Hilton, D. J.; Reno, J. L.
2014-10-07
The dephasing of the Fermi edge singularity excitations in two modulation doped single quantum wells of 12 nm and 18 nm thickness and in-well carrier concentration of ∼4 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −2} was carefully measured using spectrally resolved four-wave mixing (FWM) and two-dimensional Fourier transform (2DFT) spectroscopy. Although the absorption at the Fermi edge is broad at this doping level, the spectrally resolved FWM shows narrow resonances. Two peaks are observed separated by the heavy hole/light hole energy splitting. Temperature dependent “rephasing” (S{sub 1}) 2DFT spectra show a rapid linear increase of the homogeneous linewidth with temperature. The dephasing rate increases faster with temperature in the narrower 12 nm quantum well, likely due to an increased carrier-phonon scattering rate. The S{sub 1} 2DFT spectra were measured using co-linear, cross-linear, and co-circular polarizations. Distinct 2DFT lineshapes were observed for co-linear and cross-linear polarizations, suggesting the existence of polarization dependent contributions. The “two-quantum coherence” (S{sub 3}) 2DFT spectra for the 12 nm quantum well show a single peak for both co-linear and co-circular polarizations.
Giant spin splitting of the two-dimensional electron gas at the surface of SrTiO3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santander-Syro, A. F.; Fortuna, F.; Bareille, C.; Rödel, T. C.; Landolt, G.; Plumb, N. C.; Dil, J. H.; Radović, M.
2014-12-01
Two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) forming at the interfaces of transition metal oxides exhibit a range of properties, including tunable insulator-superconductor-metal transitions, large magnetoresistance, coexisting ferromagnetism and superconductivity, and a spin splitting of a few meV (refs , ). Strontium titanate (SrTiO3), the cornerstone of such oxide-based electronics, is a transparent, non-magnetic, wide-bandgap insulator in the bulk, and has recently been found to host a surface 2DEG (refs , , , ). The most strongly confined carriers within this 2DEG comprise two subbands, separated by an energy gap of 90 meV and forming concentric circular Fermi surfaces. Using spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (SARPES), we show that the electron spins in these subbands have opposite chiralities. Although the Rashba effect might be expected to give rise to such spin textures, the giant splitting of almost 100 meV at the Fermi level is far larger than anticipated. Moreover, in contrast to a simple Rashba system, the spin-polarized subbands are non-degenerate at the Brillouin zone centre. This degeneracy can be lifted by time-reversal symmetry breaking, implying the possible existence of magnetic order. These results show that confined electronic states at oxide surfaces can be endowed with novel, non-trivial properties that are both theoretically challenging to anticipate and promising for technological applications.
Two dimensional electron systems for solid state quantum computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mondal, Sumit
Two dimensional electron systems based on GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures are extremely useful in various scientific investigations of recent times including the search for quantum computational schemes. Although significant strides have been made over the past few years to realize solid state qubits on GaAs/AlGaAs 2DEGs, there are numerous factors limiting the progress. We attempt to identify factors that have material and design-specific origin and develop ways to overcome them. The thesis is divided in two broad segments. In the first segment we describe the realization of a new field-effect induced two dimensional electron system on GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure where the novel device-design is expected to suppress the level of charge noise present in the device. Modulation-doped GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures are utilized extensively in the study of quantum transport in nanostructures, but charge fluctuations associated with remote ionized dopants often produce deleterious effects. Electric field-induced carrier systems offer an attractive alternative if certain challenges can be overcome. We demonstrate a field-effect transistor in which the active channel is locally devoid of modulation-doping, but silicon dopant atoms are retained in the ohmic contact region to facilitate low-resistance contacts. A high quality two-dimensional electron gas is induced by a field-effect that is tunable over a density range of 6.5x10 10cm-2 to 2.6x1011cm-2 . Device design, fabrication, and low temperature (T=0.3K) characterization results are discussed. The demonstrated device-design overcomes several existing limitations in the fabrication of field-induced 2DEGs and might find utility in hosting nanostructures required for making spin qubits. The second broad segment describes our effort to correlate transport parameters measured at T=0.3K to the strength of the fractional quantum Hall state observed at nu=5/2 in the second Landau level of high-mobility GaAs/AlGaAs two dimensional
Electronic nanobiosensors based on two-dimensional materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ping, Jinglei
Atomically-thick two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials have tremendous potential to be applied as transduction elements in biosensors and bioelectronics. We developed scalable methods for synthesis and large-area transfer of two-dimensional nanomaterials, particularly graphene and metal dichalcogenides (so called ``MX2'' materials). We also developed versatile fabrication methods for large arrays of field-effect transistors (FETs) and micro-electrodes with these nanomaterials based on either conventional photolithography or innovative approaches that minimize contamination of the 2D layer. By functionalizing the FETs with a computationally redesigned water-soluble mu-opioid receptor, we created selective and sensitive biosensors suitable for detection of the drug target naltrexone and the neuropeptide enkephalin at pg/mL concentrations. We also constructed DNA-functionalized biosensors and nano-particle decorated biosensors by applying related bio-nano integration techniques. Our methodology paves the way for multiplexed nanosensor arrays with all-electronic readout suitable for inexpensive point-of-care diagnostics, drug-development and biomedical research. With graphene field-effect transistors, we investigated the graphene/solution interface and developed a quantitative model for the effect of ionic screening on the graphene carrier density based on theories of the electric double layer. Finally, we have developed a technique for measuring low-level Faradaic charge-transfer current (fA) across the graphene/solution interface via real-time charge monitoring of graphene microelectrodes in ionic solution. This technique enables the development of flexible and transparent pH sensors that are promising for in vivo applications. The author acknowledges the support from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the U. S. Army Research Office under Grant Number W911NF1010093.
Two-Dimensional Halide Perovskites: Tuning Electronic Activities of Defects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yuanyue; Xiao, Hai; Goddard, William A., III
2016-05-01
Two-dimensional (2D) halide perovskites are emerging as promising candidates for nano-electronics and optoelectronics. To realize their full potential, it is important to understand the role of those defects that can strongly impact material properties. In contrast to other popular 2D semiconductors (e.g. transition metal dichalcogenides MX2) for which defects typically induce harmful traps, we show that the electronic activities of defects in 2D perovskites are significantly tunable. For example, even with a fixed lattice orientation, one can change the synthesis conditions to convert a line defect (edge or grain boundary) from electron acceptor to inactive site without deep gap states. We show that this difference originates from the enhanced ionic bonding in these perovskites compared with MX2. The donors tend to have high formation energies, and the harmful defects are difficult to form at a low halide chemical potential. Thus we unveil unique properties of defects in 2D perovskites and suggest practical routes to improve them.
Cross-peak-specific two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy
Read, Elizabeth L.; Engel, Gregory S.; Calhoun, Tessa R.; Mančal, Tomáš; Ahn, Tae Kyu; Blankenship, Robert E.; Fleming, Graham R.
2007-01-01
Intermolecular electronic coupling dictates the optical properties of molecular aggregate systems. Of particular interest are photosynthetic pigment–protein complexes that absorb sunlight then efficiently direct energy toward the photosynthetic reaction center. Two-dimensional (2D) ultrafast spectroscopy has been used widely in the infrared (IR) and increasingly in the visible to probe excitonic couplings and observe dynamics, but the off-diagonal spectral signatures of coupling are often obscured by broad diagonal peaks, especially in the visible regime. Rotating the polarizations of the laser pulses exciting the sample can highlight certain spectral features, and the use of polarized pulse sequences to elucidate cross-peaks in 2D spectra has been demonstrated in the IR for vibrational transitions. Here we develop 2D electronic spectroscopy using cross-peak-specific pulse polarization conditions in an investigation of the Fenna–Matthews–Olson light harvesting complex from green photosynthetic bacteria. Our measurements successfully highlight off-diagonal features of the 2D spectra and, in combination with an analysis based on the signs of features arising from particular energy level pathways and theoretical simulation, we characterize the dominant response pathways responsible for the spectral features. Cross-peak-specific 2D electronic spectroscopy provides insight into the interchromophore couplings, as well as into the energetic pathways giving rise to the signal. With femtosecond resolution, we also observe dynamical processes that depend on these couplings and interactions with the protein environment. PMID:17548830
Quantum holographic encoding in a two-dimensional electron gas
Moon, Christopher
2010-05-26
The advent of bottom-up atomic manipulation heralded a new horizon for attainable information density, as it allowed a bit of information to be represented by a single atom. The discrete spacing between atoms in condensed matter has thus set a rigid limit on the maximum possible information density. While modern technologies are still far from this scale, all theoretical downscaling of devices terminates at this spatial limit. Here, however, we break this barrier with electronic quantum encoding scaled to subatomic densities. We use atomic manipulation to first construct open nanostructures - 'molecular holograms' - which in turn concentrate information into a medium free of lattice constraints: the quantum states of a two-dimensional degenerate Fermi gas of electrons. The information embedded in the holograms is transcoded at even smaller length scales into an atomically uniform area of a copper surface, where it is densely projected into both two spatial degrees of freedom and a third holographic dimension mapped to energy. In analogy to optical volume holography, this requires precise amplitude and phase engineering of electron wavefunctions to assemble pages of information volumetrically. This data is read out by mapping the energy-resolved electron density of states with a scanning tunnelling microscope. As the projection and readout are both extremely near-field, and because we use native quantum states rather than an external beam, we are not limited by lensing or collimation and can create electronically projected objects with features as small as {approx}0.3 nm. These techniques reach unprecedented densities exceeding 20 bits/nm{sup 2} and place tens of bits into a single fermionic state.
Theory for two dimensional electron emission between parallel flat electrodes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torres-Cordoba, Rafael
2009-12-01
The electron emission in space charge is limited for the case of a planar cathode; such emission is generated by using an approximation that models electric field formation by a dipole, which generates an oscillatory symmetrical density current j(x ), minimum value is moved around the origin and calculated throughout the Poisson equation. Such value has been previously calculated based upon the already stated conditions for the two dimensional (2D) case. In our matter under study, it is stated that a symmetric oscillatory potential, namely, μ(x ,y) is invariably generated; because of that the boundary conditions represented by both a barrier potential and a square potential will satisfy this potential as well. For the case of the square potential, it is taking into account either a potential is attractive or repulsive. In this study one of the principal problems is discussed. It is when the space charge creates a potential barrier that prohibits steady-state beam propagation. In this paper it is claimed to have found the boundary conditions that fully satisfy the potential, and the potential satisfies approximately the Poisson equation for the 2D case, and the electron emission is generated through a finite strip due to electrical dipole formation.
Two-Dimensional Halide Perovskites: Tuning Electronic Activities of Defects.
Liu, Yuanyue; Xiao, Hai; Goddard, William A
2016-05-11
Two-dimensional (2D) halide perovskites are emerging as promising candidates for nanoelectronics and optoelectronics. To realize their full potential, it is important to understand the role of those defects that can strongly impact material properties. In contrast to other popular 2D semiconductors (e.g., transition metal dichalcogenides MX2) for which defects typically induce harmful traps, we show that the electronic activities of defects in 2D perovskites are significantly tunable. For example, even with a fixed lattice orientation one can change the synthesis conditions to convert a line defect (edge or grain boundary) from electron acceptor to inactive site without deep gap states. We show that this difference originates from the enhanced ionic bonding in these perovskites compared with MX2. The donors tend to have high formation energies and the harmful defects are difficult to form at a low halide chemical potential. Thus, we unveil unique properties of defects in 2D perovskites and suggest practical routes to improve them. PMID:27100910
Two-dimensional material electronics and photonics (Presentation Recording)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Wenjuan
2015-09-01
Two-dimensional (2D) materials has attracted intense interest in research in recent years. As compared to their bulk counterparts, these 2D materials have many unique properties due to their reduced dimensionality and symmetry. A key difference is the band structures, which lead to distinct electronic and photonic properties. The 2D nature of the materials also plays an important role in defining their exceptional properties of mechanical strength, surface sensitivity, thermal conductivity, tunable band-gap and interaction with light. These unique properties of 2D materials open up broad territories of applications in computing, communication, energy, and medicine. In this talk, I will present our work on understanding the electrical properties of graphene and MoS2, in particular current transport and band-gap engineering in graphene, interface between gate dielectrics and graphene, and gap states in MoS2. I will also present our work on the nano-scale electronic devices (RF and logic devices) and photonic devices (plasmonic devices and photo-detectors) based on graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides.
Anharmonic effects on two-dimensional electron lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mau-chung, Chang; Kazumi, Maki
1982-01-01
Making use of the Green function method, we calculate the lowest order corrections to the shear modulus due to the anharmonicitv of the two dimensional electron lattice. In the classical limit and in the low temperature region, the shear modulus is found to be C(T) = C 0{1-[3.5 1 n(0.195λr ss{1}/{2})+95]λ -1+O( λ -2)} , where C 0 is the shear modulus in the harmonic approximation, λ=e 2(r 0k bT) -1, {r s=r 0}/{a b},r 0is the average interelectron distance, and aBis the Bohr radius. Substituting rs-4.8 × 10 3 corresponding to an experiment by Grimes and Adams, we obtain the melting temperature (i.e. the Kosterlitz-Thouless temperature) of the electron solid T M = {1}/{168} e 2/(r 0k B) , which is consistent with recent experiment by Grimes et al.
Two-dimensional materials based transparent flexible electronics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Lili; Ha, Sungjae; El-Damak, Dina; McVay, Elaine; Ling, Xi; Chandrakasan, Anantha; Kong, Jing; Palacios, Tomas
2015-03-01
Two-dimensional (2D) materials have generated great interest recently as a set of tools for electronics, as these materials can push electronics beyond traditional boundaries. These materials and their heterostructures offer excellent mechanical flexibility, optical transparency, and favorable transport properties for realizing electronic, sensing, and optical systems on arbitrary surfaces. These thin, lightweight, bendable, highly rugged and low-power devices may bring dramatic changes in information processing, communications and human-electronic interaction. In this report, for the first time, we demonstrate two complex transparent flexible systems based on molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) grown by chemical vapor method: a transparent active-matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) display and a MoS2 wireless link for sensor nodes. The 1/2 x 1/2 square inch, 4 x 5 pixels AMOLED structures are built on transparent substrates, containing MoS2 back plane circuit and OLEDs integrated on top of it. The back plane circuit turns on and off the individual pixel with two MoS2 transistors and a capacitor. The device is designed and fabricated based on SPICE simulation to achieve desired DC and transient performance. We have also demonstrated a MoS2 wireless self-powered sensor node. The system consists of as energy harvester, rectifier, sensor node and logic units. AC signals from the environment, such as near-field wireless power transfer, piezoelectric film and RF signal, are harvested, then rectified into DC signal by a MoS2 diode. CIQM, CICS, SRC.
Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy of beta-carotene.
Christensson, Niklas; Milota, Franz; Nemeth, Alexandra; Sperling, Jaroslaw; Kauffmann, Harald F; Pullerits, Tönu; Hauer, Jürgen
2009-12-24
Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2D) has been applied to beta-carotene in solution to shine new light on the ultrafast energy dissipation network in carotenoids. The ability of 2D to relieve spectral congestion provides new experimental grounds for resolving the rise of the excited state absorption signal between 18,000 and 19,000 cm(-1). In this spectral region, the pump-probe signals from ground state bleach and stimulated emission overlap strongly. Combined modeling of the time-evolution of 2D spectra as well as comparison to published pump-probe data allow us to draw conclusions on both the electronic structure of beta-carotene as well as the spectral densities giving rise to the observed optical lineshapes. To account for the experimental observations on all time scales, we need to include a transition in the visible spectral range from the first optically allowed excited state (S(2)-->S(n2)). We present data from frequency resolved transient grating and pump-probe experiments confirming the importance of this transition. Furthermore, we investigate the role and nature of the S* state, controversially debated in numerous previous studies. On the basis of the analysis of Feynman diagrams, we show that the properties of S*-related signals in chi(3) techniques like pump-probe and 2D can only be accounted for if S* is an excited electronic state. Against this background, we discuss a new interpretation of pump-deplete-probe and intensity-dependent pump-probe experiments. PMID:19954155
Compact design for two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Zheng; Wang, Peng; Shen, Xiong; Yan, Tian-Min; Zhang, Yizhu; Liu, Jun
2016-03-01
We present a passively phase-stabilized two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES) with a compact size, and the ease of implementation and maintenance. Our design relies on a mask beam-splitter with four holes to form non-collinear box geometry, and a homebuilt stacked retroreflector, which introduces the phase-locked pulse sequence, remedying the instability of commonly used translation stages. The minimized size of the setup suppresses the influences of optical path-length fluctuations during measurements, improving the phase stability and precise timing of pulse sequences. In our 2DES, only few conventional optical components are used, which make this sophisticated instrumentation convenient to establish and particularly easy to conduct alignment. In data analysis, the self-referencing spectral interferometry (SRSI) method is first introduced to extract the complex-valued signal from spectral interferometry in 2DES. The alternative algorithm achieves the improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and considerable reduction of data acquisition time. The new setup is suitable over a tunable range of spectroscopic wavelength, from ultraviolet (UV) to the near-infrared (NIR) regime, and for ultra-broadband bandwidth, few-cycle laser pulses.
Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy signatures of the glass transition
Lewis, K. L. .. M.; Myers, J. A.; Fuller, F.; Tekavec, P. F.; Ogilvie, J. P.
2010-01-01
Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy is a sensitive probe of solvation dynamics. Using a pump–probe geometry with a pulse shaper [ Optics Express 15 (2007), 16681-16689; Optics Express 16 (2008), 17420-17428], we present temperature dependent 2D spectra of laser dyes dissolved in glass-forming solvents. At low waiting times, the system has not yet relaxed, resulting in a spectrum that is elongated along the diagonal. At longer times, the system loses its memory of the initial excitation frequency, and the 2D spectrum rounds out. As the temperature is lowered, the time scale of this relaxation grows, and the elongation persists for longermore » waiting times. This can be measured in the ratio of the diagonal width to the anti-diagonal width; the behavior of this ratio is representative of the frequency–frequency correlation function [ Optics Letters 31 (2006), 3354–3356]. Near the glass transition temperature, the relaxation behavior changes. Understanding this change is important for interpreting temperature-dependent dynamics of biological systems.« less
Herranz, Gervasi; Singh, Gyanendra; Bergeal, Nicolas; Jouan, Alexis; Lesueur, Jérôme; Gázquez, Jaume; Varela, María; Scigaj, Mateusz; Dix, Nico; Sánchez, Florencio; Fontcuberta, Josep
2015-01-13
We find the discovery of two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) at oxide interfaces—involving electrons in narrow d-bands—has broken new ground, enabling the access to correlated states that are unreachable in conventional semiconductors based on s- and p- electrons. There is a growing consensus that emerging properties at these novel quantum wells—such as 2D superconductivity and magnetism—are intimately connected to specific orbital symmetries in the 2DEG sub-band structure. Here we show that crystal orientation allows selective orbital occupancy, disclosing unprecedented ways to tailor the 2DEG properties. By carrying out electrostatic gating experiments in LaAlO_{3}/SrTiO_{3} wells of different crystal orientations, we show that the spatial extension and anisotropy of the 2D superconductivity and the Rashba spin–orbit field can be largely modulated by controlling the 2DEG sub-band filling. Such an orientational tuning expands the possibilities for electronic engineering of 2DEGs at LaAlO_{3}/SrTiO_{3} interfaces.
Vibronic modulation of lineshapes in two-dimensional electronic spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nemeth, Alexandra; Milota, Franz; Mančal, Tomáš; Lukeš, Vladimír; Kauffmann, Harald F.; Sperling, Jaroslaw
2008-06-01
We report and analyze oscillatory behavior of lineshapes in two-dimensional photon-echo relaxation spectra of a perylene-based dye molecule, whose four-wave-mixing signals are strongly modulated by coupling to low-frequency vibrational modes. Vibrational wavepacket motion is found to induce a pronounced beating of the anti-diagonal absorptive peak width, accompanied by orientational changes in the dispersive signal part. The effects are reproduced well by simulations based on a Brownian oscillator model, and can be assigned to periodic alternations in the relative amplitudes of rephasing and non-rephasing contributions to the spectrum.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McKeown Walker, S.; Riccò, S.; Bruno, F. Y.; de la Torre, A.; Tamai, A.; Golias, E.; Varykhalov, A.; Marchenko, D.; Hoesch, M.; Bahramy, M. S.; King, P. D. C.; Sánchez-Barriga, J.; Baumberger, F.
2016-06-01
We reinvestigate the putative giant spin splitting at the surface of SrTiO3 reported by Santander-Syro et al. [Nat. Mater. 13, 1085 (2014), 10.1038/nmat4107]. Our spin- and angle-resolved photoemission experiments on fractured (001) oriented surfaces supporting a two-dimensional electron liquid with high carrier density show no detectable spin polarization in the photocurrent. We demonstrate that this result excludes a giant spin splitting while it is consistent with the unconventional Rashba-like splitting seen in band structure calculations that reproduce the experimentally observed ladder of quantum confined subbands.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Inoshita, Takeshi; Hamada, Noriaki; Hosono, Hideo
2015-11-01
Ab initio electronic structure calculations show that the recently identified quasi-two-dimensional electride Y2C is a weak itinerant ferromagnet or is at least close to a ferromagnetic instability. The ferromagnetism is induced by the electride electrons, which are loosely bound around interstitial sites and overlap with each other to form two-dimensional interlayer conduction bands. The semimetallicity and two-dimensionality of the band structure are the keys to understanding this ferromagnetic instability.
Observation of the surface quasi-two-dimensional electron-hole condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Litovchenko, V. G.; Korbutyak, D. V.
1981-03-01
Quasi-two-dimensional electron-hole condensate has been observed at the surface of semiconductors treated by low dose Ar + ion bombardment. A number of specific surface properties of this electron-hole condensate (EHC) has been studied.
Quasiparticle dynamics and spin-orbital texture of the SrTiO3 two-dimensional electron gas.
King, P D C; McKeown Walker, S; Tamai, A; de la Torre, A; Eknapakul, T; Buaphet, P; Mo, S-K; Meevasana, W; Bahramy, M S; Baumberger, F
2014-01-01
Two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) in SrTiO3 have become model systems for engineering emergent behaviour in complex transition metal oxides. Understanding the collective interactions that enable this, however, has thus far proved elusive. Here we demonstrate that angle-resolved photoemission can directly image the quasiparticle dynamics of the d-electron subband ladder of this complex-oxide 2DEG. Combined with realistic tight-binding supercell calculations, we uncover how quantum confinement and inversion symmetry breaking collectively tune the delicate interplay of charge, spin, orbital and lattice degrees of freedom in this system. We reveal how they lead to pronounced orbital ordering, mediate an orbitally enhanced Rashba splitting with complex subband-dependent spin-orbital textures and markedly change the character of electron-phonon coupling, co-operatively shaping the low-energy electronic structure of the 2DEG. Our results allow for a unified understanding of spectroscopic and transport measurements across different classes of SrTiO3-based 2DEGs, and yield new microscopic insights on their functional properties. PMID:24572991
Quasiparticle dynamics and spin-orbital texture of the SrTiO3 two-dimensional electron gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
King, P. D. C.; McKeown Walker, S.; Tamai, A.; de la Torre, A.; Eknapakul, T.; Buaphet, P.; Mo, S.-K.; Meevasana, W.; Bahramy, M. S.; Baumberger, F.
2014-02-01
Two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) in SrTiO3 have become model systems for engineering emergent behaviour in complex transition metal oxides. Understanding the collective interactions that enable this, however, has thus far proved elusive. Here we demonstrate that angle-resolved photoemission can directly image the quasiparticle dynamics of the d-electron subband ladder of this complex-oxide 2DEG. Combined with realistic tight-binding supercell calculations, we uncover how quantum confinement and inversion symmetry breaking collectively tune the delicate interplay of charge, spin, orbital and lattice degrees of freedom in this system. We reveal how they lead to pronounced orbital ordering, mediate an orbitally enhanced Rashba splitting with complex subband-dependent spin-orbital textures and markedly change the character of electron-phonon coupling, co-operatively shaping the low-energy electronic structure of the 2DEG. Our results allow for a unified understanding of spectroscopic and transport measurements across different classes of SrTiO3-based 2DEGs, and yield new microscopic insights on their functional properties.
Polarization-dependent plasmonic photocurrents in two-dimensional electron systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Popov, V. V.
2016-06-01
Plasmonic polarization dependent photocurrents in a homogeneous two-dimensional electron system are studied. Those effects are completely different from the photon drag and electronic photogalvanic effects as well as from the plasmonic ratchet effect in a density modulated two-dimensional electron system. Linear and helicity-dependent contributions to the photocurrent are found. The linear contribution can be interpreted as caused by the longitudinal and transverse plasmon drag effect. The helicity-dependent contribution originates from the non-linear electron convection and changes its sign with reversing the plasmonic field helicity. It is shown that the helicity-dependent component of the photocurrent can exceed the linear one by several orders of magnitude in high-mobility two-dimensional electron systems. The results open possibilities for all-electronic detection of the radiation polarization states by exciting the plasmonic photocurrents in two-dimensional electron systems.
Center Line Slope Analysis in Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy
2015-01-01
Center line slope (CLS) analysis in 2D infrared spectroscopy has been extensively used to extract frequency–frequency correlation functions of vibrational transitions. We apply this concept to 2D electronic spectroscopy, where CLS is a measure of electronic gap fluctuations. The two domains, infrared and electronic, possess differences: In the infrared, the frequency fluctuations are classical, often slow and Gaussian. In contrast, electronic spectra are subject to fast spectral diffusion and affected by underdamped vibrational wavepackets in addition to Stokes shift. All these effects result in non-Gaussian peak profiles. Here, we extend CLS-analysis beyond Gaussian line shapes and test the developed methodology on a solvated molecule, zinc phthalocyanine. We find that CLS facilitates the interpretation of 2D electronic spectra by reducing their complexity to one dimension. In this way, CLS provides a highly sensitive measure of model parameters describing electronic–vibrational and electronic–solvent interaction. PMID:26463085
Quasi-two dimensional simulations of electron thermal transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holder, B.; Horton, W.
2003-10-01
There exist two leading theoretical turbulent transport models which are driven by the electron temperature gradient and induce anomalous electron transport in tokamaks: (1) electron temperature gradient (ETG) and (2) trapped-electron mode (TEM) turbulence [1,2]. In ETG turbulence, the instability leads to the formation of small scale (on the order of q ρe R/L_Te and c / ω_pe) vortices which provide transport via the toroidal curvature analog of Rayleigh-Benard convection. In contrast, the larger scale (on the order of ρ_s) TEM/ITG turbulence has no clear critical electron temperature gradient and can be driven by the density gradient alone or the ion temperature gradient. Thus, we present 2D psuedo-spectral simulations of these two models and constrast their electron transport properties. Particular attention is given to the scaling of the anomalous heat flux with the electron temperature gradient, holding other parameters fixed. 1. G. G.Craddock, et al., Phys. Plasmas 1 (6), 1877 (1994). 2. D.A. Baver, P.W. Terry, and R. Gatto, Phys. Plasmas 9 (8), 3318 (2002).
Electronic conductance of a two-dimensional electron gas in the presence of periodic potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takagaki, Y.; Ferry, D. K.
1992-04-01
We utilize mode-matching and transfer-matrix methods to study the transport properties of an electron through two-dimensionally modulated periodic potentials. The model structures treated here are finite-size one- and two-dimensional arrays of quantum boxes (lateral surface superlattice) and antidots. The structure is divided into a chain of uniform waveguide sections in the direction of current flow, and mode matching is imposed across the boundaries. The transfer-matrix technique is utilized to obtain the transmission probability for the composite superlattice structures. Energy dependences of the two-terminal conductance are presented in terms of the transition from one-dimensional to two-dimensional transport. Increasing the number of quantum boxes in the lateral surface superlattice shows that Lorentzian-shaped transmission resonances in a single quantum box are brought together to form a Bloch band structure. Complete reflections over broad energy ranges, due to the formation of minigaps, and a strong resonant behavior due to discrete states in minibands are observed in the energy dependence of the conductance. For the antidot lattice, the formation of the Bloch band structure is found to arise as a drop in the conductance. If attractive scattering centers are embedded in a two-dimensional electron gas, transmission resonances due to quasibound states are observed.
Electronic and magnetic properties of Fe and Mn doped two dimensional hexagonal germanium sheets
Soni, Himadri R. Jha, Prafulla K.
2014-04-24
Using first principles density functional theory calculations, the present paper reports systematic total energy calculations of the electronic properties such as density of states and magnetic moment of pristine and iron and manganese doped two dimensional hexagonal germanium sheets.
Magnetic properties of a two-dimensional electron gas strongly coupled to light
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dini, K.; Kibis, O. V.; Shelykh, I. A.
2016-06-01
Considering the quantum dynamics of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) exposed to both a stationary magnetic field and an intense high-frequency electromagnetic wave, we found that the wave decreases the scattering-induced broadening of Landau levels. Therefore, various magnetoelectronic properties of two-dimensional nanostructures (density of electronic states at Landau levels, magnetotransport, etc.) are sensitive to irradiation by light. Thus, the elaborated theory paves the way for optically controlling the magnetic properties of 2DEG.
Limit of the electrostatic doping in two-dimensional electron gases of LaXO3(X = Al, Ti)/SrTiO3
Biscaras, J.; Hurand, S.; Feuillet-Palma, C.; Rastogi, A.; Budhani, R. C.; Reyren, N.; Lesne, E.; Lesueur, J.; Bergeal, N.
2014-01-01
In LaTiO3/SrTiO3 and LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures, the bending of the SrTiO3 conduction band at the interface forms a quantum well that contains a superconducting two-dimensional electron gas (2-DEG). Its carrier density and electronic properties, such as superconductivity and Rashba spin-orbit coupling can be controlled by electrostatic gating. In this article we show that the Fermi energy lies intrinsically near the top of the quantum well. Beyond a filling threshold, electrons added by electrostatic gating escape from the well, hence limiting the possibility to reach a highly-doped regime. This leads to an irreversible doping regime where all the electronic properties of the 2-DEG, such as its resistivity and its superconducting transition temperature, saturate. The escape mechanism can be described by the simple analytical model we propose. PMID:25346028
Spin polarization of two-dimensional electronic gas decoupled from structural asymmetry environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pieczyrak, B.; Szary, M.; Jurczyszyn, L.; Radny, M. W.
2016-05-01
It is shown, using density functional theory, that a 2D electron gas induced in a monolayer of Pb or Tl adatoms on the Si (111 )-1 ×1 surface is insensitive to the structural asymmetry of the system and its spin polarization is governed by the interaction between the adlayer and the substrate. It is demonstrated that this interaction changes the in-plane inversion symmetry of the charge distribution within the monolayer and can either suppress [Pb/Si(111)] or enhance [Tl/Si(111)] the adatom intra-atomic spin-orbit effect on a Rashba-Bychkov-type spin splitting.
Kohda, M.; Altmann, P.; Salis, G.; Schuh, D.; Ganichev, S. D.; Wegscheider, W.
2015-10-26
A method is presented that enables the measurement of spin-orbit coefficients in a diffusive two-dimensional electron gas without the need for processing the sample structure, applying electrical currents or resolving the spatial pattern of the spin mode. It is based on the dependence of the average electron velocity on the spatial distance between local excitation and detection of spin polarization, resulting in a variation of spin precession frequency that in an external magnetic field is linear in the spatial separation. By scanning the relative positions of the exciting and probing spots in a time-resolved Kerr rotation microscope, frequency gradients along the [100] and [010] crystal axes of GaAs/AlGaAs QWs are measured to obtain the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coefficients, α and β. This simple method can be applied in a variety of materials with electron diffusion for evaluating spin-orbit coefficients.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Hui; Lewis, Nicholas H. C.; Oliver, Thomas A. A.; Fleming, Graham R.
2015-05-01
Changes in the electronic structure of pigments in protein environments and of polar molecules in solution inevitably induce a re-adaption of molecular nuclear structure. Both changes of electronic and vibrational energies can be probed with visible or infrared lasers, such as two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy or vibrational spectroscopy. The extent to which the two changes are correlated remains elusive. The recent demonstration of two-dimensional electronic-vibrational (2DEV) spectroscopy potentially enables a direct measurement of this correlation experimentally. However, it has hitherto been unclear how to characterize the correlation from the spectra. In this paper, we present a theoretical formalism to demonstrate the slope of the nodal line between the excited state absorption and ground state bleach peaks in the spectra as a characterization of the correlation between electronic and vibrational transition energies. We also show the dynamics of the nodal line slope is correlated to the vibrational spectral dynamics. Additionally, we demonstrate the fundamental 2DEV spectral line-shape of a monomer with newly developed response functions.
Dong, Hui; Lewis, Nicholas H. C.; Oliver, Thomas A. A.; Fleming, Graham R.
2015-05-07
Changes in the electronic structure of pigments in protein environments and of polar molecules in solution inevitably induce a re-adaption of molecular nuclear structure. Both changes of electronic and vibrational energies can be probed with visible or infrared lasers, such as two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy or vibrational spectroscopy. The extent to which the two changes are correlated remains elusive. The recent demonstration of two-dimensional electronic-vibrational (2DEV) spectroscopy potentially enables a direct measurement of this correlation experimentally. However, it has hitherto been unclear how to characterize the correlation from the spectra. In this paper, we present a theoretical formalism to demonstrate the slope of the nodal line between the excited state absorption and ground state bleach peaks in the spectra as a characterization of the correlation between electronic and vibrational transition energies. We also show the dynamics of the nodal line slope is correlated to the vibrational spectral dynamics. Additionally, we demonstrate the fundamental 2DEV spectral line-shape of a monomer with newly developed response functions.
Dong, Hui; Lewis, Nicholas H. C.; Oliver, Thomas A. A.; Fleming, Graham R.
2015-05-07
Changes in the electronic structure of pigments in protein environments and of polar molecules in solution inevitably induce a re-adaption of molecular nuclear structure. Both changes of electronic and vibrational energies can be probed with visible or infrared lasers, such as two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy or vibrational spectroscopy. The extent to which the two changes are correlated remains elusive. The recent demonstration of two-dimensional electronic-vibrational (2DEV) spectroscopy potentially enables a direct measurement of this correlation experimentally. However, it has hitherto been unclear how to characterize the correlation from the spectra. In this report, we present a theoretical formalism to demonstrate themore » slope of the nodal line between the excited state absorption and ground state bleach peaks in the spectra as a characterization of the correlation between electronic and vibrational transition energies. In conclusion, we also show the dynamics of the nodal line slope is correlated to the vibrational spectral dynamics. Additionally, we demonstrate the fundamental 2DEV spectral line-shape of a monomer with newly developed response functions« less
Dong, Hui; Lewis, Nicholas H. C.; Oliver, Thomas A. A.; Fleming, Graham R.
2015-05-07
Changes in the electronic structure of pigments in protein environments and of polar molecules in solution inevitably induce a re-adaption of molecular nuclear structure. Both changes of electronic and vibrational energies can be probed with visible or infrared lasers, such as two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy or vibrational spectroscopy. The extent to which the two changes are correlated remains elusive. The recent demonstration of two-dimensional electronic-vibrational (2DEV) spectroscopy potentially enables a direct measurement of this correlation experimentally. However, it has hitherto been unclear how to characterize the correlation from the spectra. In this report, we present a theoretical formalism to demonstrate the slope of the nodal line between the excited state absorption and ground state bleach peaks in the spectra as a characterization of the correlation between electronic and vibrational transition energies. In conclusion, we also show the dynamics of the nodal line slope is correlated to the vibrational spectral dynamics. Additionally, we demonstrate the fundamental 2DEV spectral line-shape of a monomer with newly developed response functions
Photoinduced amplification of phonons localized in a two-dimensional electron gas
Epshtein, E.M.
1995-09-01
This paper discusses how phonons localized within a two-dimensional electron gas are affected by the presence a strong electromagnetic wave whose electric field vector lies in the plane of the two-dimensional electron gas. A dispersion relation for the phonons is derived under the assumption and the electromagnetic wave affects the phonon subsystem only via the two-dimensional electron gas. When the energy of an electromagnetic wave quantum is large compared to the electron energies, new regimes of electron-phonon interaction become possible (which are forbidden by conservation laws in the absence of the wave), including regimes in which the {open_quotes}attenuation{close_quotes} of the phonons is negative (photoinduced gain). 7 refs.
Two-dimensional electron gas in monolayer InN quantum wells
Pan, Wei; Dimakis, Emmanouil; Wang, George T.; Moustakas, Theodore D.; Tsui, Daniel C.
2014-11-24
We report in this letter experimental results that confirm the two-dimensional nature of the electron systems in monolayer InN quantum wells embedded in GaN barriers. The electron density and mobility of the two-dimensional electron system (2DES) in these InN quantum wells are 5×1015 cm-2 and 420 cm2 /Vs, respectively. Moreover, the diagonal resistance of the 2DES shows virtually no temperature dependence in a wide temperature range, indicating the topological nature of the 2DES.
Two-dimensional electron gas in monolayer InN quantum wells
Pan, Wei; Dimakis, Emmanouil; Wang, George T.; Moustakas, Theodore D.; Tsui, Daniel C.
2014-11-24
We report in this letter experimental results that confirm the two-dimensional nature of the electron systems in monolayer InN quantum wells embedded in GaN barriers. The electron density and mobility of the two-dimensional electron system (2DES) in these InN quantum wells are 5×10^{15} cm^{-2} and 420 cm^{2 }/Vs, respectively. Moreover, the diagonal resistance of the 2DES shows virtually no temperature dependence in a wide temperature range, indicating the topological nature of the 2DES.
Taylor, R J E; Childs, D T D; Ivanov, P; Stevens, B J; Babazadeh, N; Crombie, A J; Ternent, G; Thoms, S; Zhou, H; Hogg, R A
2015-01-01
We demonstrate a semiconductor PCSEL array that uniquely combines an in-plane waveguide structure with nano-scale patterned PCSEL elements. This novel geometry allows two-dimensional electronically controllable coherent coupling of remote vertically emitting lasers. Mutual coherence of the PCSEL elements is verified through the demonstration of a two-dimensional Young's Slits experiment. In addition to allowing the all-electronic control of the interference pattern, this type of device offers new routes to power and brightness scaling in semiconductor lasers, and opportunities for all-electronic beam steering. PMID:26289621
Taylor, R. J. E.; Childs, D. T. D.; Ivanov, P.; Stevens, B. J.; Babazadeh, N.; Crombie, A. J.; Ternent, G.; Thoms, S.; Zhou, H.; Hogg, R. A.
2015-01-01
We demonstrate a semiconductor PCSEL array that uniquely combines an in-plane waveguide structure with nano-scale patterned PCSEL elements. This novel geometry allows two-dimensional electronically controllable coherent coupling of remote vertically emitting lasers. Mutual coherence of the PCSEL elements is verified through the demonstration of a two-dimensional Young’s Slits experiment. In addition to allowing the all-electronic control of the interference pattern, this type of device offers new routes to power and brightness scaling in semiconductor lasers, and opportunities for all-electronic beam steering. PMID:26289621
Spin eigen-states of Dirac equation for quasi-two-dimensional electrons
Eremko, Alexander; Brizhik, Larissa; Loktev, Vadim
2015-10-15
Dirac equation for electrons in a potential created by quantum well is solved and the three sets of the eigen-functions are obtained. In each set the wavefunction is at the same time the eigen-function of one of the three spin operators, which do not commute with each other, but do commute with the Dirac Hamiltonian. This means that the eigen-functions of Dirac equation describe three independent spin eigen-states. The energy spectrum of electrons confined by the rectangular quantum well is calculated for each of these spin states at the values of energies relevant for solid state physics. It is shown that the standard Rashba spin splitting takes place in one of such states only. In another one, 2D electron subbands remain spin degenerate, and for the third one the spin splitting is anisotropic for different directions of 2D wave vector.
Wan, Zhong; Kazakov, Aleksandr; Manfra, Michael J; Pfeiffer, Loren N; West, Ken W; Rokhinson, Leonid P
2015-01-01
Search for Majorana fermions renewed interest in semiconductor-superconductor interfaces, while a quest for higher-order non-Abelian excitations demands formation of superconducting contacts to materials with fractionalized excitations, such as a two-dimensional electron gas in a fractional quantum Hall regime. Here we report induced superconductivity in high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas in gallium arsenide heterostructures and development of highly transparent semiconductor-superconductor ohmic contacts. Supercurrent with characteristic temperature dependence of a ballistic junction has been observed across 0.6 μm, a regime previously achieved only in point contacts but essential to the formation of well separated non-Abelian states. High critical fields (>16 T) in NbN contacts enables investigation of an interplay between superconductivity and strongly correlated states in a two-dimensional electron gas at high magnetic fields. PMID:26067452
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wan, Zhong; Kazakov, Aleksandr; Manfra, Michael J.; Pfeiffer, Loren N.; West, Ken W.; Rokhinson, Leonid P.
2015-06-01
Search for Majorana fermions renewed interest in semiconductor-superconductor interfaces, while a quest for higher-order non-Abelian excitations demands formation of superconducting contacts to materials with fractionalized excitations, such as a two-dimensional electron gas in a fractional quantum Hall regime. Here we report induced superconductivity in high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas in gallium arsenide heterostructures and development of highly transparent semiconductor-superconductor ohmic contacts. Supercurrent with characteristic temperature dependence of a ballistic junction has been observed across 0.6 μm, a regime previously achieved only in point contacts but essential to the formation of well separated non-Abelian states. High critical fields (>16 T) in NbN contacts enables investigation of an interplay between superconductivity and strongly correlated states in a two-dimensional electron gas at high magnetic fields.
Wan, Zhong; Kazakov, Aleksandr; Manfra, Michael J.; Pfeiffer, Loren N.; West, Ken W.; Rokhinson, Leonid P.
2015-01-01
Search for Majorana fermions renewed interest in semiconductor–superconductor interfaces, while a quest for higher-order non-Abelian excitations demands formation of superconducting contacts to materials with fractionalized excitations, such as a two-dimensional electron gas in a fractional quantum Hall regime. Here we report induced superconductivity in high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas in gallium arsenide heterostructures and development of highly transparent semiconductor–superconductor ohmic contacts. Supercurrent with characteristic temperature dependence of a ballistic junction has been observed across 0.6 μm, a regime previously achieved only in point contacts but essential to the formation of well separated non-Abelian states. High critical fields (>16 T) in NbN contacts enables investigation of an interplay between superconductivity and strongly correlated states in a two-dimensional electron gas at high magnetic fields. PMID:26067452
Induced superconductivity in high mobility two dimensional electron gas in GaAs heterostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rokhinson, Leonid P.
Search for Majorana fermions renewed interest in semiconductor-superconductor interfaces, while a quest for higher order non-Abelian excitations demands formation of superconducting contacts to materials with fractionalized excitations, e.g. a two-dimensional electron gas in a fractional quantum Hall regime. Here we report induced superconductivity in high mobility two-dimensional electron gas in GaAs heterostructures and development of highly transparent semiconductor-superconductor ohmic contacts. Supercurrent with characteristic temperature dependence of a ballistic junction has been observed across 0.6 μm, a regime previously achieved only in point contacts but essential to the formation of well separated non-Abelian states. High critical fields (> 16 Tesla) in NbN contacts enables investigation of an interplay between superconductivity and strongly correlated states in a two dimensional electron gas at high magnetic fields.
Spin-orbit coupling in GaxIn1-xAs/InP two-dimensional electron gases and quantum wire structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schäpers, Th; Guzenko, V. A.; Bringer, A.; Akabori, M.; Hagedorn, M.; Hardtdegen, H.
2009-06-01
In this work, the effect of spin-orbit coupling in two-dimensional electron gases and quantum wire structures is discussed. First, the theoretical framework is introduced including spin-orbit coupling due to structural inversion asymmetry, the so-called Rashba effect, as well as the Dresselhaus term. The latter originates from bulk inversion asymmetry. With regard to wire structures, special attention is devoted to the influence of the particular shape of the confinement potential on the energy spectrum. As a model system GaxIn1-xAs/InP heterostructures are chosen, where different thicknesses of the strained Ga0.23In0.77As channel layer were introduced, in order to adjust the strength of the spin-orbit coupling. Hall bar structures as well as sets of identical wires with different widths were prepared. In two-dimensional electron gases, the strength of the spin-orbit coupling was extracted by analyzing the characteristic beating pattern in the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations. In addition, the weak antilocalization was utilized to obtain information on the spin-orbit coupling. It is shown that for decreasing width of the strained layer the Rashba effect, which dominates in our layer systems, is increased. This behavior is attributed to the larger interface contribution if the electron wavefunction is strongly confined. The measurements on the wire structures revealed a transition from weak antilocalization to weak localization if the wire width is decreased. This effect is attributed to an enhanced spin diffusion length for strongly confined systems.
Ellguth, Martin; Tusche, Christian; Kirschner, Jürgen
2015-12-31
Linearly polarized light with an energy of 3.1 eV has been used to excite highly spin-polarized electrons in an ultrathin film of face-centered-tetragonal cobalt to majority-spin quantum well states (QWS) derived from an sp band at the border of the Brillouin zone. The spin-selective excitation process has been studied by spin- and momentum-resolved two-photon photoemission. Analyzing the photoemission patterns in two-dimensional momentum planes, we find that the optically driven transition from the valence band to the QWS acts almost exclusively on majority-spin electrons. The mechanism providing the high spin polarization is discussed by the help of a density-functional theory calculation. Additionally, a sizable effect of spin-orbit coupling for the QWS is evidenced. PMID:26765012
2013-01-01
In J-aggregates of cyanine dyes, closely packed molecules form mesoscopic tubes with nanometer-diameter and micrometer-length. Their efficient energy transfer pathways make them suitable candidates for artificial light harvesting systems. This great potential calls for an in-depth spectroscopic analysis of the underlying energy deactivation network and coherence dynamics. We use two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with sub-10 fs laser pulses in combination with two-dimensional decay-associated spectra analysis to describe the population flow within the aggregate. Based on the analysis of Fourier-transform amplitude maps, we distinguish between vibrational or vibronic coherence dynamics as the origin of pronounced oscillations in our two-dimensional electronic spectra. PMID:23461650
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chuburin, Yu. P.
2016-03-01
We study the possibility to control the spin polarization and spin-dependent transport in a graphene sheet by considering a ferromagnetic layer in the presence of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction. Studying the scattering problem with the help of the Green function (which was found explicitly), we obtained simple analytical expressions for the spin dependent transmission probability. Using the small exchange parameter and Rashba coupling constant, we can obtain any degree of spin polarization, but in the case of a small interaction region, only for slow electrons.
King, P.D.C.
2012-03-01
We demonstrate the formation of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at the (100) surface of the 5d transition-metal oxide KTaO{sub 3}. From angle-resolved photoemission, we find that quantum confinement lifts the orbital degeneracy of the bulk band structure and leads to a 2DEG composed of ladders of subband states of both light and heavy carriers. Despite the strong spin-orbit coupling, we find no experimental signatures of a Rashba spin splitting, which has important implications for the interpretation of transport measurements in both KTaO{sub 3}- and SrTiO{sub 3}-based 2DEGs. The polar nature of the KTaO{sub 3}(100) surface appears to help mediate formation of the 2DEG as compared to non-polar SrTiO{sub 3}(100).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Volkov, V. A.; Takhtamirov, É. E.
2007-04-01
A multielectron approach is developed to explain the resistance magnetooscillations in two-dimensional electron systems that have recently been detected under the action of microwave pumping [1] or a strong dc electric field [23]. A qualitative change in the screened impurity potential in a strong electric field is taken into account for the first time. When considered in the rest frame of the center of the cyclotron orbit, the impurity potential becomes nonstationary and, thus, should be screened dynamically. This fact substantially changes the picture of impurity scattering in a “pure” two-dimensional system: a dissipative current is induced by the excitation of two-dimensional plasmons rather than by one-electron transitions between the Landau levels. In the case of microwave pumping, every period of resistance oscillation in a reciprocal magnetic field is formed by the excitation of the corresponding magnetoplasmon branch, and the fine structure of oscillations is formed by the singularities of the magnetoplasmon density of states. In a “dirty” two-dimensional system, the role of electron-electron interaction weakens, collective excitations cease to exist, and the results transform into the well-known results obtained in terms of a one-electron approach.
THE TWO-DIMENSIONAL VALENCE ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE OF A MONOLYAER OF Ag ON Cu(00l)
Tobin, J.G.; Robey, S.W.; Shirley, D.A.
1985-05-01
The metal overlayer system c(10x2)Ag/Cu(001) was studied at coverages near one monolayer with angle-resolved photoemission. The observed spectroscopic features indicate a two-dimensional d-band electronic structure that can be interpreted using a model with planar, hexagonal symmetry in which crystal field effects dominate over spin-orbit effects.
Experimental researches on quantum transport in semiconductor two-dimensional electron systems
Kawaji, Shinji
2008-01-01
The author reviews contribution of Gakushuin University group to the progress of the quantum transport in semiconductor two-dimensional electron systems (2DES) for forty years from the birth of the 2DES in middle of the 1960s till the finding of temperature dependent collapse of the quantized Hall resistance in the beginning of this century. PMID:18941299
Numerical Studies of Collective Phenomena in Two-Dimensional Electron and Cold Atom Systems
Rezayi, Edward
2013-07-25
Numerical calculations were carried out to investigate a number of outstanding questions in both two-dimensional electron and cold atom systems. These projects aimed to increase our understanding of the properties of and prospects for non-Abelian states in quantum Hall matter.
Dynamical correlation of fractionally charged excitons with a two-dimensional electron system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nomura, S.; Yamaguchi, M.; Tamura, H.; Akazaki, T.; Hirayama, Y.
2011-12-01
We investigate a circularly polarized photoluminescence using a gated single GaAs quantum well sample in the fractional quantum Hall effect regime. We have found that the lower energy peak χS- is polarized to σ+ polarization. This result is explained by considering the equilibrium between fractionally charged excitons and a two-dimensional electron system.
Two-dimensional calculation of finite-beta modifications of drift and trapped-electron modes
Rewoldt, G.; Tang, W.M.; Frieman, E.A.
1980-05-01
A previous electrostatic calculation for the two-dimensional spatial structure of drift and trapped-electron modes is extended to include finite-..beta.. effects. Specifically, the parallel perturbed vector potential and the parallel Ampere's law are added to the calculation. Illustrative results are presented.
Two-dimensional electromagnetic Child-Langmuir law of a short-pulse electron flow
Chen, S. H.; Tai, L. C.; Liu, Y. L.; Ang, L. K.; Koh, W. S.
2011-02-15
Two-dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulations were performed to study the effect of the displacement current and the self-magnetic field on the space charge limited current density or the Child-Langmuir law of a short-pulse electron flow with a propagation distance of {zeta} and an emitting width of W from the classical regime to the relativistic regime. Numerical scaling of the two-dimensional electromagnetic Child-Langmuir law was constructed and it scales with ({zeta}/W) and ({zeta}/W){sup 2} at the classical and relativistic regimes, respectively. Our findings reveal that the displacement current can considerably enhance the space charge limited current density as compared to the well-known two-dimensional electrostatic Child-Langmuir law even at the classical regime.
On the screening of impurities by a two dimensional electron gas in high magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heift, K.; Hajdu, J.
We consider the effective potential of an impurity charge placed into a two dimensional non-interacting electron gas at zero temperature and in the presence of a perpendicular, quantum limit magnetic field. Restricting ourselves to a one band model and describing the electronic self-energy due to the impurity scattering in the generalized Born approximation (GBA), it is possible to derive a selfconsistency equation for the RPA-dielectric function.
Marocchino, A.; Lapenta, G.; Evstatiev, E. G.; Nebel, R. A.; Park, J.
2006-10-15
Theoretical works by Barnes and Nebel [D. C. Barnes and R. A. Nebel, Phys. Plasmas 5, 2498 (1998); R. A. Nebel and D. C. Barnes, Fusion Technol. 38, 28 (1998)] have suggested that a tiny oscillating ion cloud (referred to as the periodically oscillating plasma sphere or POPS) may undergo a self-similar collapse in a harmonic oscillator potential formed by a uniform electron background. A major uncertainty in this oscillating plasma scheme is the stability of the virtual cathode that forms the harmonic oscillator potential. The electron-electron two-stream stability of the virtual cathode has previously been studied with a fluid model, a slab kinetic model, a spherically symmetric kinetic model, and experimentally [R. A. Nebel and J. M. Finn, Phys. Plasmas 8, 1505 (2001); R. A. Nebel et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 040501 (2005)]. Here the mode is studied with a two-dimensional particle-in-cell code. Results indicate stability limits near those of the previously spherically symmetric case.
Simulations of the Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy of the Photosystem II Reaction Center
Lewis, K. L. M.; Fuller, F. D.; Myers, J. A.; Yocum, C. F.; Mukamel, S.; Abramavicius, D.; Ogilvie, J. P.
2013-01-01
We report simulations of the two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy of the Qy band of the D1-D2-Cyt b559 photosystem II reaction center at 77 K. We base the simulations on an existing Hamiltonian that was derived by simultaneous fitting to a wide range of linear spectroscopic measurements and described within modified Redfield theory. The model obtains reasonable agreement with most aspects of the two-dimensional spectra, including the overall peak shapes and excited state absorption features. It does not reproduce the rapid equilibration from high energy to low energy excitonic states evident by a strong cross-peak below the diagonal. We explore modifications to the model to incorporate new structural data and improve agreement with the two-dimensional spectra. We find that strengthening the system–bath coupling and lowering the degree of disorder significantly improves agreement with the cross-peak feature, while lessening agreement with the relative diagonal/antidiagonal width of the 2D spectra. We conclude that two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy provides a sensitive test of excitonic models of the photosystem II reaction center and discuss avenues for further refinement of such models. PMID:23210463
The effect of depolarization fields on the electronic properties of two-dimensional materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shin, Young-Han; Kim, Hye Jung; Noor-A-Alam, Mohammad
2015-03-01
Graphene is a two-dimensional semimetal with a zero band gap. By weakening the sp2 covalent bonding of graphene with additional elements such as hydrogen or fluorine, however, it is possible to make it insulating. We can expect that the band gap converges to that of a three-dimensional analogue by repeating such two-dimensional layers along the normal to the layer. If we control the position of additional elements to make a dipole monolayer, the system will have an intrinsic internal field decreases as the number of layers increases. But, for two-dimensional bilayers, depolarization field is so strong that its electronic properties can be much different from its monolayer analogue. In this presentation, we show that the internal fields induced by dipole moments can change electronic properties of two-dimensional materials such as graphene-like structures and complex metal oxides. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea Grant by the Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology (2009-0093818, 2012-014007, 2014M3A7B4049367)
Exchange-correlations in a dilute quasi-two-dimensional electron gas at finite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhukal, Nisha; Moudgil, R. K.
2012-06-01
We have studied the extent to which temperature and finite transversal confinement can influence the exchange-correlations in a dilute two-dimensional electron gas as realized in a narrow GaAs-based single quantum well. The correlations are treated within the self-consistent mean-field theory of Singwi et al. Numerical results are presented for the local-field correction factor at experimentally realized electron densities and temperature, choosing a harmonic confinement model. We find that the local-field correction factor, which is a direct measure of exchange-correlation correction to the bare Coulomb interaction potential, becomes less (at least over the currently accessible wave vector region to experiments) with increasing T/TF and/or decreasing confinement; TF is the Fermi temperature. These findings are expected to be useful in the theoretical understanding of dynamical excitation spectra and transport properties of a two-dimensional electron system.
Two-dimensional electron gas in monolayer InN quantum wells
Pan, W. E-mail: e.dimakis@hzdr.de; Wang, G. T.; Dimakis, E. E-mail: e.dimakis@hzdr.de; Moustakas, T. D.; Tsui, D. C.
2014-11-24
We report in this letter experimental results that confirm the two-dimensional nature of the electron systems in a superlattice structure of 40 InN quantum wells consisting of one monolayer of InN embedded between 10 nm GaN barriers. The electron density and mobility of the two-dimensional electron system (2DES) in these InN quantum wells are 5 × 10{sup 15 }cm{sup −2} (or 1.25 × 10{sup 14 }cm{sup −2} per InN quantum well, assuming all the quantum wells are connected by diffused indium contacts) and 420 cm{sup 2}/Vs, respectively. Moreover, the diagonal resistance of the 2DES shows virtually no temperature dependence in a wide temperature range, indicating the topological nature of the 2DES.
Finite two-dimensional electron gas in a patterned semiconductor system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ciftja, Orion; Livingston, Victoria; Thomas, Elsa; Saganti, Seth
On various occasions, fabrication of a two-dimensional semiconductor quantum dot leads to a small system of electrons confined in a domain that is not circular and may have a pronounced square (or rectangular) shape. In this work we consider a square-shaped semiconductor quantum dot configuration and treat the system of electrons as a finite two-dimensional electron gas. Within this framework, we adopt a Hartree-Fock approach and study the properties of a small two-dimensional system of electrons confined in a finite square region. We calculate the energy for various finite systems of fully spin-polarized (spinless) electrons interacting with a Coulomb potential. The results give a fairly accurate picture of how the energy of the finite system evolves towards the bulk value as the size of the system increases. The calculations for a square domain are challenging since expressions depend in each component of particle's position and not the radial distance from the center of the square-shaped semiconductor quantum dot. Therefore, we also consider a possible circularly symmetric approximation to the problem. We assess the quality of this approximation and discuss instances where its use is not only desirable, but also accurate. This research was supported in part by U.S. Army Research Office (ARO) Grant No. W911NF-13-1-0139 and National Science Foundation (NSF) Grant No. DMR-1410350.
Phenomenological Rashba model for calculating the electron energy spectrum on a cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Savinskiĭ, S. S.; Belosludtsev, A. V.
2007-05-01
The energy spectrum of an electron on the surface of a cylinder is calculated using the Pauli equation with an additional term that takes into account the spin-orbit interaction. This term is taken in the approximation of a phenomenological Rashba model, which provides exact expressions for the wave functions and the electron energy spectrum on the cylinder surface in a static magnetic field.
Theory of microwave-induced zero-resistance states in two-dimensional electron systems
Mikhailov, S. A.
2011-04-15
The phenomena of microwave-induced zero-resistance states (MIZRS) and microwave-induced resistance oscillations (MIRO) were discovered in ultraclean two-dimensional electron systems in 2001-2003 and have attracted great interest from researchers. In spite of numerous theoretical efforts, the true origin of these effects remains unknown so far. We show that the MIRO-ZRS phenomena are naturally explained by the influence of the ponderomotive forces which arise in the near-contact regions of two-dimensional electron gas under the action of microwaves. The proposed analytical theory is in agreement with all experimental facts accumulated so far and provides a simple and self-evident explanation of the microwave frequency, polarization, magnetic field, mobility, power, and temperature dependencies of the observed effects.
Many-body effects of a two-dimensional electron gas on trion-polaritons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baeten, Maarten; Wouters, Michiel
2015-03-01
We theoretically investigate the trion-polariton and the effects of a two-dimensional electron gas on its single-particle properties. Focusing on the trion and exciton transitions, we set up an effective model and calculate the optical absorption of the quantum well containing the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). Including the light-matter coupling, we compute the Rabi splitting and polariton line shapes as a function of 2DEG density. The role of finite temperature is investigated. The spatial extent of the trion-polariton is also calculated. We find a substantial charge buildup at short distances as long as the Rabi frequency does not exceed the trion binding energy. All our calculations take into account the Fermi edge singularity and the Anderson orthogonality catastrophe.
Two-Dimensional Crystallization of Integral Membrane Proteins for Electron Crystallography
Stokes, David L.; Rice, William J.; Hu, Minghui; Kim, Changki; Ubarretxena, Iban
2011-01-01
Although membrane proteins make up 30% of the proteome and are a common target for therapeutic drugs, determination of their atomic structure remains a technical challenge. Electron crystallography represents an alternative to the conventional methods of X-ray diffraction and NMR and relies on the formation of two-dimensional crystals. These crystals are produced by reconstituting purified, detergent-solubilized membrane proteins back into the native environment of a lipid bilayer. This chapter reviews methods for producing two-dimensional crystals and for screening them by negative stain electron microscopy. In addition, we show examples of the different morphologies that are commonly obtained and describe basic image analysis procedures that can be used to evaluate their promise for structure determination by cryoelectron microsopy. PMID:20665267
Interaction-induced huge magnetoresistance in a high mobility two-dimensional electron gas
Bockhorn, L.; Haug, R. J.; Gornyi, I. V.; Schuh, D.; Wegscheider, W.
2013-12-04
A strong negative magnetoresistance is observed in a high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas in a GaAs/Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As quantum well. We discuss that the negative magnetoresistance consists of a small peak induced by a combination of two types of disorder and a huge magnetoresistance explained by the interaction correction to the conductivity for mixed disorder.
Interaction induced staggered spin-orbit order in two-dimensional electron gas
Das, Tanmoy
2012-06-05
Decoupling spin and charge transports in solids is among the many prerequisites for realizing spin electronics, spin caloritronics, and spin-Hall effect. Beyond the conventional method of generating and manipulating spin current via magnetic knob, recent advances have expanded the possibility to optical and electrical method which are controllable both internally and externally. Yet, due to the inevitable presence of charge excitations and electrical polarizibility in these methods, the separation between spin and charge degrees of freedom of electrons remains a challenge. Here we propose and formulate an interaction induced staggered spin-orbit order as a new emergent phase of matter. We show that when some form of inherent spin-splitting via Rashba-type spin-orbit coupling renders two helical Fermi surfaces to become significantly nested, a Fermi surface instability arises. To lift this degeneracy, a spontaneous symmetry breaking spin-orbit density wave develops, causing a surprisingly large quasiparticle gapping with chiral electronic states, with no active charge excitations. Since the staggered spin-orbit order is associated with a condensation energy, quantified by the gap value, destroying such spin-orbit interaction costs sufficiently large perturbation field or temperature or de-phasing time. BiAg2 surface state is shown to be a representative system for realizing such novel spin-orbit interaction with tunable and large strength, and the spin-splitting is decoupled from charge excitations.
Measurement of cyclotron resonance relaxation time in the two-dimensional electron system
Andreev, I. V. Muravev, V. M.; Kukushkin, I. V.; Belyanin, V. N.
2014-11-17
Dependence of cyclotron magneto-plasma mode relaxation time on electron concentration and temperature in the two-dimensional electron system in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells has been studied. Comparative analysis of cyclotron and transport relaxation time has been carried out. It was demonstrated that with the temperature increase transport relaxation time tends to cyclotron relaxation time. It was also shown that cyclotron relaxation time, as opposed to transport relaxation time, has a weak electron density dependence. The cyclotron time can exceed transport relaxation time by an order of magnitude in a low-density range.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fidler, Andrew F.; Singh, Ved P.; Long, Phillip D.; Dahlberg, Peter D.; Engel, Gregory S.
2014-02-01
Time-resolved ultrafast optical probes of chiral dynamics provide a new window allowing us to explore how interactions with such structured environments drive electronic dynamics. Incorporating optical activity into time-resolved spectroscopies has proven challenging because of the small signal and large achiral background. Here we demonstrate that two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy can be adapted to detect chiral signals and that these signals reveal how excitations delocalize and contract following excitation. We dynamically probe the evolution of chiral electronic structure in the light-harvesting complex 2 of purple bacteria following photoexcitation by creating a chiral two-dimensional mapping. The dynamics of the chiral two-dimensional signal directly reports on changes in the degree of delocalization of the excitonic states following photoexcitation. The mechanism of energy transfer in this system may enhance transfer probability because of the coherent coupling among chromophores while suppressing fluorescence that arises from populating delocalized states. This generally applicable spectroscopy will provide an incisive tool to probe ultrafast transient molecular fluctuations that are obscured in non-chiral experiments.
Orbital dependent Rashba splitting and electron-phonon coupling of 2D Bi phase on Cu(100) surface
Gargiani, Pierluigi; Lisi, Simone; Betti, Maria Grazia; Ibrahimi, Amina Taleb; Bertran, François; Le Fèvre, Patrick; Chiodo, Letizia
2013-11-14
A monolayer of bismuth deposited on the Cu(100) surface forms a highly ordered c(2×2) reconstructed phase. The low energy single particle excitations of the c(2×2) Bi/Cu(100) present Bi-induced states with a parabolic dispersion in the energy region close to the Fermi level, as observed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The electronic state dispersion, the charge density localization, and the spin-orbit coupling have been investigated combining photoemission spectroscopy and density functional theory, unraveling a two-dimensional Bi phase with charge density well localized at the interface. The Bi-induced states present a Rashba splitting, when the charge density is strongly localized in the Bi plane. Furthermore, the temperature dependence of the spectral density close to the Fermi level has been evaluated. Dispersive electronic states offer a large number of decay channels for transitions coupled to phonons and the strength of the electron-phonon coupling for the Bi/Cu(100) system is shown to be stronger than for Bi surfaces and to depend on the electronic state symmetry and localization.
Edge spin accumulation in a two-dimensional electron gas with two subbands
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khaetskii, Alexander; Egues, J. Carlos
We have studied the edge spin accumulation in 2D electron gas due to the intrinsic mechanism of spin-orbit interaction for the case of a two-subband structure. This study is strongly motivated by recent experiments which observed the spin accumulation near the edges of a high mobility 2D electron system in a bilayer symmetric GaAs structure in contrast to zero effect in a single-layer configuration. Our theoretical explanation is based on the Rashba-like spin-orbit interaction which arises as a result of the coupling between two subband states of opposite parities in a symmetric quantum well. Following the method developed in, we have calculated the edge spin density in a quasi-ballistic regime, and explained the experimental results, in particular, a large magnitude of the edge spin density. We showed that one can easily proceed from the regime of strong spin accumulation to the regime of weak one. It opens up a possibility to construct an interesting new spintronic device Supported by FAPESP (Brazil).
Quantum Hall effect in black phosphorus two-dimensional electron system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Likai; Yang, Fangyuan; Ye, Guo Jun; Zhang, Zuocheng; Zhu, Zengwei; Lou, Wenkai; Zhou, Xiaoying; Li, Liang; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Chang, Kai; Wang, Yayu; Chen, Xian Hui; Zhang, Yuanbo
2016-07-01
The development of new, high-quality functional materials has been at the forefront of condensed-matter research. The recent advent of two-dimensional black phosphorus has greatly enriched the materials base of two-dimensional electron systems (2DESs). Here, we report the observation of the integer quantum Hall effect in a high-quality black phosphorus 2DES. The high quality is achieved by embedding the black phosphorus 2DES in a van der Waals heterostructure close to a graphite back gate; the graphite gate screens the impurity potential in the 2DES and brings the carrier Hall mobility up to 6,000 cm2 V‑1 s‑1. The exceptional mobility enabled us to observe the quantum Hall effect and to gain important information on the energetics of the spin-split Landau levels in black phosphorus. Our results set the stage for further study on quantum transport and device application in the ultrahigh mobility regime.
Spin coherence of the two-dimensional electron gas in a GaAs quantum well
Larionov, A. V.
2015-01-15
The coherent spin dynamics of the quasi-two-dimensional electron gas in a GaAs quantum well is experimentally investigated using the time-resolved spin Kerr effect in an optical cryostat with a split coil inducing magnetic fields of up to 6 T at a temperature of about 2 K. The electron spin dephasing times and degree of anisotropy of the spin relaxation of electrons are measured in zero magnetic field at different electron densities. The dependence of the spin-orbit splitting on the electron-gas density is established. In the integral quantum-Hall-effect mode, the unsteady behavior of the spin dephasing time of 2D electrons of the lower Landau spin sublevel near the odd occupation factor ν = 3 is found. The experimentally observed unsteady behavior of the spin dephasing time can be explained in terms of new-type cyclotron modes that occur in a liquid spin texture.
Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations in a two-dimensional electron gas under subterahertz radiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Q.; Martin, P. D.; Hatke, A. T.; Zudov, M. A.; Watson, J. D.; Gardner, G. C.; Manfra, M. J.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.
2015-08-01
We report on magnetotransport measurements in a two-dimensional (2D) electron gas subject to subterahertz radiation in the regime where Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations (SdHOs) and microwave-induced resistance oscillations (MIROs) coexist over a wide magnetic field range, spanning several harmonics of the cyclotron resonance. Surprisingly, we find that the SdHO amplitude is modified by the radiation in a nontrivial way, owing to the oscillatory correction which has the same period and phase as MIROs. This finding challenges our current understanding of microwave photoresistance in 2D electron gas, calling for future investigations.
Electron- and photon-induced plasmonic excitations in two-dimensional silver nanostructures
Hoang, C. V.; Rana, M.; Nagao, T.
2014-06-23
Plasmons are the quasi particles of collective oscillations of electrons and form the basis of plasmonics and optical metamaterials. We combined electron spectroscopy and optical spectroscopy techniques to study plasmons in atomically smooth Ag films and in epitaxial Ag nanodisks to map the momentum-energy dispersion curves of the two-dimensional (2D) sheet plasmon and the quasi-2D plasmons to clarify the essential differences between them. Our experimental results combined with the results of numerical electromagnetic simulations showed that the bulk-like nature of the silver plasmon starts in layers that are only two atoms thick.
Influence of oval defects on transport properties in high-mobility two-dimensional electron gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bockhorn, L.; Velieva, A.; Hakim, S.; Wagner, T.; Rugeramigabo, E. P.; Schuh, D.; Reichl, C.; Wegscheider, W.; Haug, R. J.
2016-02-01
Rare macroscopic growth defects next to a two-dimensional electron gas influence transport properties and cause a negative magnetoresistance. On the basis of this, we show that the number of oval defects seen on the material surface is comparable with the density of macroscopic growth defects determined from the negative magnetoresistance. We examine several materials with different densities of oval defects nS which were grown in one cycle under the same conditions to verify our observations. Paradoxically, the material with the largest number of oval defects has also the highest electron mobility.
Lyo, Sungkwun K.; Pan, Wei
2014-08-07
In this paper, we study the Bloch oscillations of a two-dimensional electron gas with a strong periodic potential-modulation and miniband transport along the field at low temperatures, assuming a free motion in the transverse direction. The dependence of the current on the field, the electron density, and the temperature is investigated by using a relaxation-time approximation for inelastic scattering. Moreover, for a fixed total scattering rate, the field dependence of the current is sensitive to the ratio of the elastic and inelastic scattering rates in contrast with the recent result of a multiband but otherwise similar model with a weak potential modulation.
Amplification and directional emission of surface acoustic waves by a two-dimensional electron gas
Shao, Lei; Pipe, Kevin P.
2015-01-12
Amplification of surface acoustic waves (SAWs) by electron drift in a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is analyzed analytically and confirmed experimentally. Calculations suggest that peak power gain per SAW radian occurs at a more practical carrier density for a 2DEG than for a bulk material. It is also shown that SAW emission with tunable directionality can be achieved by modulating a 2DEG's carrier density (to effect SAW generation) in the presence of an applied DC field that amplifies SAWs propagating in a particular direction while attenuating those propagating in the opposite direction.
Iñarrea, Jesús; Platero, Gloria
2010-08-01
Magnetoabsorption and microwave-induced resistance oscillations in two-dimensional electron systems are calculated with the same theoretical approach, the microwave-driven Larmor orbit model. This theory, which first was developed to obtain microwave-induced zero resistance states and resistance oscillations, permits us also to calculate the microwave magnetoabsorption. We study the influence of temperature on magnetoabsorption, obtaining a progressive quenching of the absorption peak as temperature increases. We compare this quenching with the similar behavior that the microwave-induced magnetoresistance oscillations present. This quenching is explained in terms of electron-acoustic phonons scattering for both effects. PMID:20622297
Transverse plasmon mode in a screened two-dimensional electron system
Fateev, D. V. Melnikova, V. S.; Popov, V. V.
2015-02-15
The dispersion and damping of the transverse plasmon mode in a screened two-dimensional (2D) electron system are theoretically studied. It is shown that the transverse plasmon mode has a much larger quality factor and a smaller retardation factor at terahertz (THz) frequencies in comparison with those known for the longitudinal plasmon mode. In addition, the electric dipole moment of the transverse plasmon mode in the screened 2D electron system can be comparable with the dipole moment of the longitudinal plasmon mode. These properties of the transverse plasmon mode make it attractive for use in plasmon devices of the THz frequency range.
Quantum transport in Rashba spin-orbit materials: a review
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bercioux, Dario; Lucignano, Procolo
2015-10-01
In this review article we describe spin-dependent transport in materials with spin-orbit interaction of Rashba type. We mainly focus on semiconductor heterostructures, however we consider topological insulators, graphene and hybrid structures involving superconductors as well. We start from the Rashba Hamiltonian in a two dimensional electron gas and then describe transport properties of two- and quasi-one-dimensional systems. The problem of spin current generation and interference effects in mesoscopic devices is described in detail. We address also the role of Rashba interaction on localisation effects in lattices with nontrivial topology, as well as on the Ahronov-Casher effect in ring structures. A brief section, in the end, describes also some related topics including the spin-Hall effect, the transition from weak localisation to weak anti localisation and the physics of Majorana fermions in hybrid heterostructures involving Rashba materials in the presence of superconductivity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramaswamy, Rahul
Two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in semiconductor heterostructures was identified as a promising medium for hot-electron bolometers (HEB) in the early 90s. Up until now all research based on 2DEG HEBs is done using high mobility AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures. These systems have demonstrated very good performance, but only in the sub terahertz (THz) range. However, above ˜0.5 THz the performance of AlGaAs/GaAs detectors drastically deteriorates. It is currently understood, that detectors fabricated from standard AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures do not allow for reasonable coupling to THz radiation while maintaining high conversion efficiency. In this work we have developed 2DEG HEBs based on disordered Gallium Nitride (GaN) semiconductor, that operate at frequencies beyond 1THz at room temperature. We observe strong free carrier absorption at THz frequencies in our disordered 2DEG film due to Drude absorption. We show the design and fabrication procedures of novel micro-bolometers having ultra-low heat capacities. In this work the mechanism of 2DEG response to THz radiation is clearly identified as bolometric effect through our direct detection measurements. With optimal doping and detector geometry, impedances of 10--100 O have been achieved, which allow integration of these devices with standard THz antennas. We also demonstrate performance of the antennas used in this work in effectively coupling THz radiation to the micro-bolometers through polarization dependence and far field measurements. Finally heterodyne mixing due to hot electrons in the 2DEG micro-bolometer has been performed at sub terahertz frequencies and a mixing bandwidth greater than 3GHz has been achieved. This indicates that the characteristic cooling time in our detectors is fast, less than 50ps. Due to the ultra-low heat capacity; these detectors can be used in a heterodyne system with a quantum cascade laser (QCL) as a local oscillator (LO) which typically provides output powers in the micro
The Instability of Terahertz Plasma Waves in Two Dimensional Gated and Ungated Quantum Electron Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Liping
2016-04-01
The instability of terahertz (THz) plasma waves in two-dimensional (2D) quantum electron gas in a nanometer field effect transistor (FET) with asymmetrical boundary conditions has been investigated. We analyze THz plasma waves of two parts of the 2D quantum electron gas: gated and ungated regions. The results show that the radiation frequency and the increment (radiation power) in 2D ungated quantum electron gas are much higher than that in 2D gated quantum electron gas. The quantum effects always enhance the radiation power and enlarge the region of instability in both cases. This allows us to conclude that 2D quantum electron gas in the transistor channel is important for the emission and detection process and both gated and ungated parts take part in that process. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 10975114)
Resistance oscillations of two-dimensional electrons in crossed electric and tilted magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mayer, William; Vitkalov, Sergey; Bykov, A. A.
2016-06-01
The effect of dc electric field on transport of highly mobile two-dimensional electrons is studied in wide GaAs single quantum wells placed in titled magnetic fields. The study shows that in perpendicular magnetic field resistance oscillates due to electric-field induced Landau-Zener transitions between quantum levels that correspond to geometric resonances between cyclotron orbits and periodic modulation of electron density of states. Magnetic field tilt inverts these oscillations. Surprisingly the strongest inverted oscillations are observed at a tilt corresponding to nearly absent modulation of the electron density of states in regime of magnetic breakdown of semiclassical electron orbits. This phenomenon establishes an example of quantum resistance oscillations due to Landau quantization, which occur in electron systems with a constant density of states.
Two-dimensional quasi-double-layers in two-electron-temperature, current-free plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Merino, Mario; Ahedo, Eduardo
2013-02-01
The expansion of a plasma with two disparate electron populations into vacuum and channeled by a divergent magnetic nozzle is analyzed with an axisymmetric model. The purpose is to study the formation and two-dimensional shape of a current-free double-layer in the case when the electric potential steepening can still be treated within the quasineutral approximation. The properties of this quasi-double-layer are investigated in terms of the relative fraction of the high-energy electron population, its radial distribution when injected into the nozzle, and the geometry and intensity of the applied magnetic field. The two-dimensional double layer presents a curved shape, which is dependent on the natural curvature of the equipotential lines in a magnetically expanded plasma and the particular radial distribution of high-energy electrons at injection. The double layer curvature increases the higher the nozzle divergence is, the lower the magnetic strength is, and the more peripherally hot electrons are injected. A central application of the study is the operation of a helicon plasma thruster in space. To this respect, it is shown that the curvature of the double layer does not increment the thrust, it does not modify appreciably the downstream divergence of the plasma beam, but it increases the magnetic-to-pressure thrust ratio. The present study does not attempt to cover current-free double layers involving plasmas with multiple populations of positive ions.
High-mobility capacitively-induced two-dimensional electrons in a lateral superlattice potential
Lu, Tzu -Ming; Laroche, Dominique; Huang, S. -H.; Chuang, Y.; Li, J. -Y.; Liu, C. W.
2016-01-01
In the presence of a lateral periodic potential modulation, two-dimensional electrons may exhibit interesting phenomena, such as a graphene-like energy-momentum dispersion, Bloch oscillations, or the Hofstadter butterfly band structure. To create a sufficiently strong potential modulation using conventional semiconductor heterostructures, aggressive device processing is often required, unfortunately resulting in strong disorder that masks the sought-after effects. Here, we report a novel fabrication process flow for imposing a strong lateral potential modulation onto a capacitively induced two-dimensional electron system, while preserving the host material quality. Using this process flow, the electron density in a patterned Si/SiGe heterostructure can be tuned overmore » a wide range, from 4.4 × 1010 cm–2 to 1.8 × 1011 cm–2, with a peak mobility of 6.4 × 105 cm2/V·s. The wide density tunability and high electron mobility allow us to observe sequential emergence of commensurability oscillations as the density, the mobility, and in turn the mean free path, increase. Magnetic-field-periodic quantum oscillations associated with various closed orbits also emerge sequentially with increasing density. We show that, from the density dependence of the quantum oscillations, one can directly extract the steepness of the imposed superlattice potential. Lastly, this result is then compared to a conventional lateral superlattice model potential.« less
High-mobility capacitively-induced two-dimensional electrons in a lateral superlattice potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, T. M.; Laroche, D.; Huang, S.-H.; Chuang, Y.; Li, J.-Y.; Liu, C. W.
2016-02-01
In the presence of a lateral periodic potential modulation, two-dimensional electrons may exhibit interesting phenomena, such as a graphene-like energy-momentum dispersion, Bloch oscillations, or the Hofstadter butterfly band structure. To create a sufficiently strong potential modulation using conventional semiconductor heterostructures, aggressive device processing is often required, unfortunately resulting in strong disorder that masks the sought-after effects. Here, we report a novel fabrication process flow for imposing a strong lateral potential modulation onto a capacitively induced two-dimensional electron system, while preserving the host material quality. Using this process flow, the electron density in a patterned Si/SiGe heterostructure can be tuned over a wide range, from 4.4 × 1010 cm-2 to 1.8 × 1011 cm-2, with a peak mobility of 6.4 × 105 cm2/V·s. The wide density tunability and high electron mobility allow us to observe sequential emergence of commensurability oscillations as the density, the mobility, and in turn the mean free path, increase. Magnetic-field-periodic quantum oscillations associated with various closed orbits also emerge sequentially with increasing density. We show that, from the density dependence of the quantum oscillations, one can directly extract the steepness of the imposed superlattice potential. This result is then compared to a conventional lateral superlattice model potential.
High-mobility capacitively-induced two-dimensional electrons in a lateral superlattice potential
Lu, Tzu -Ming; Laroche, Dominique; Huang, S. -H.; Chuang, Y.; Li, J. -Y.; Liu, C. W.
2016-01-01
In the presence of a lateral periodic potential modulation, two-dimensional electrons may exhibit interesting phenomena, such as a graphene-like energy-momentum dispersion, Bloch oscillations, or the Hofstadter butterfly band structure. To create a sufficiently strong potential modulation using conventional semiconductor heterostructures, aggressive device processing is often required, unfortunately resulting in strong disorder that masks the sought-after effects. Here, we report a novel fabrication process flow for imposing a strong lateral potential modulation onto a capacitively induced two-dimensional electron system, while preserving the host material quality. Using this process flow, the electron density in a patterned Si/SiGe heterostructure can be tuned over a wide range, from 4.4 × 10^{10} cm^{–2} to 1.8 × 10^{11} cm^{–2}, with a peak mobility of 6.4 × 10^{5} cm^{2}/V·s. The wide density tunability and high electron mobility allow us to observe sequential emergence of commensurability oscillations as the density, the mobility, and in turn the mean free path, increase. Magnetic-field-periodic quantum oscillations associated with various closed orbits also emerge sequentially with increasing density. We show that, from the density dependence of the quantum oscillations, one can directly extract the steepness of the imposed superlattice potential. Lastly, this result is then compared to a conventional lateral superlattice model potential.
Two-dimensional quasi-double-layers in two-electron-temperature, current-free plasmas
Merino, Mario; Ahedo, Eduardo
2013-02-15
The expansion of a plasma with two disparate electron populations into vacuum and channeled by a divergent magnetic nozzle is analyzed with an axisymmetric model. The purpose is to study the formation and two-dimensional shape of a current-free double-layer in the case when the electric potential steepening can still be treated within the quasineutral approximation. The properties of this quasi-double-layer are investigated in terms of the relative fraction of the high-energy electron population, its radial distribution when injected into the nozzle, and the geometry and intensity of the applied magnetic field. The two-dimensional double layer presents a curved shape, which is dependent on the natural curvature of the equipotential lines in a magnetically expanded plasma and the particular radial distribution of high-energy electrons at injection. The double layer curvature increases the higher the nozzle divergence is, the lower the magnetic strength is, and the more peripherally hot electrons are injected. A central application of the study is the operation of a helicon plasma thruster in space. To this respect, it is shown that the curvature of the double layer does not increment the thrust, it does not modify appreciably the downstream divergence of the plasma beam, but it increases the magnetic-to-pressure thrust ratio. The present study does not attempt to cover current-free double layers involving plasmas with multiple populations of positive ions.
High-mobility capacitively-induced two-dimensional electrons in a lateral superlattice potential
Lu, T. M.; Laroche, D.; Huang, S.-H.; Chuang, Y.; Li, J.-Y.; Liu, C. W.
2016-01-01
In the presence of a lateral periodic potential modulation, two-dimensional electrons may exhibit interesting phenomena, such as a graphene-like energy-momentum dispersion, Bloch oscillations, or the Hofstadter butterfly band structure. To create a sufficiently strong potential modulation using conventional semiconductor heterostructures, aggressive device processing is often required, unfortunately resulting in strong disorder that masks the sought-after effects. Here, we report a novel fabrication process flow for imposing a strong lateral potential modulation onto a capacitively induced two-dimensional electron system, while preserving the host material quality. Using this process flow, the electron density in a patterned Si/SiGe heterostructure can be tuned over a wide range, from 4.4 × 1010 cm−2 to 1.8 × 1011 cm−2, with a peak mobility of 6.4 × 105 cm2/V·s. The wide density tunability and high electron mobility allow us to observe sequential emergence of commensurability oscillations as the density, the mobility, and in turn the mean free path, increase. Magnetic-field-periodic quantum oscillations associated with various closed orbits also emerge sequentially with increasing density. We show that, from the density dependence of the quantum oscillations, one can directly extract the steepness of the imposed superlattice potential. This result is then compared to a conventional lateral superlattice model potential. PMID:26865160
Hydrostatic pressure response of an oxide-based two-dimensional electron system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zabaleta, J.; Borisov, V. S.; Wanke, R.; Jeschke, H. O.; Parks, S. C.; Baum, B.; Teker, A.; Harada, T.; Syassen, K.; Kopp, T.; Pavlenko, N.; Valentí, R.; Mannhart, J.
2016-06-01
Two-dimensional electron systems with fascinating properties exist in multilayers of standard semiconductors, on helium surfaces, and in oxides. Compared to the two-dimensional (2D) electron gases of semiconductors, the 2D electron systems in oxides are typically more strongly correlated and more sensitive to the microscopic structure of the hosting lattice. This sensitivity suggests that the oxide 2D systems are highly tunable by hydrostatic pressure. Here we explore the effects of hydrostatic pressure on the well-characterized 2D electron system formed at LaAlO3-SrTiO3 interfaces [A. Ohtomo and H. Y. Hwang, Nature (London) 427, 423 (2004), 10.1038/nature02308] and measure a pronounced, unexpected response. Pressure of ˜2 GPa reversibly doubles the 2D carrier density ns at 4 K. Along with the increase of ns, the conductivity and mobility are reduced under pressure. First-principles pressure simulations reveal the same behavior of the carrier density and suggest a possible mechanism of the mobility reduction, based on the dielectric properties of both materials and their variation under external pressure.
Superradiant decay of cyclotron resonance of two-dimensional electron gases.
Zhang, Qi; Arikawa, Takashi; Kato, Eiji; Reno, John L; Pan, Wei; Watson, John D; Manfra, Michael J; Zudov, Michael A; Tokman, Mikhail; Erukhimova, Maria; Belyanin, Alexey; Kono, Junichiro
2014-07-25
We report on the observation of collective radiative decay, or superradiance, of cyclotron resonance (CR) in high-mobility two-dimensional electron gases in GaAs quantum wells using time-domain terahertz magnetospectroscopy. The decay rate of coherent CR oscillations increases linearly with the electron density in a wide range, which is a hallmark of superradiant damping. Our fully quantum mechanical theory provides a universal formula for the decay rate, which reproduces our experimental data without any adjustable parameter. These results firmly establish the many-body nature of CR decoherence in this system, despite the fact that the CR frequency is immune to electron-electron interactions due to Kohn's theorem. PMID:25105654
Superradiant Decay of Cyclotron Resonance of Two-Dimensional Electron Gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Qi; Arikawa, Takashi; Kato, Eiji; Reno, John L.; Pan, Wei; Watson, John D.; Manfra, Michael J.; Zudov, Michael A.; Tokman, Mikhail; Erukhimova, Maria; Belyanin, Alexey; Kono, Junichiro
2014-07-01
We report on the observation of collective radiative decay, or superradiance, of cyclotron resonance (CR) in high-mobility two-dimensional electron gases in GaAs quantum wells using time-domain terahertz magnetospectroscopy. The decay rate of coherent CR oscillations increases linearly with the electron density in a wide range, which is a hallmark of superradiant damping. Our fully quantum mechanical theory provides a universal formula for the decay rate, which reproduces our experimental data without any adjustable parameter. These results firmly establish the many-body nature of CR decoherence in this system, despite the fact that the CR frequency is immune to electron-electron interactions due to Kohn's theorem.
Electronic structures and optical properties of two-dimensional ScN and YN nanosheets
Liu, Jian; Li, Xi-Bo; Zhang, Hui; Yin, Wen-Jin; Liu, Li-Min E-mail: limin.liu@csrc.ac.cn; Zhang, Hai-Bin; Peng, Ping E-mail: limin.liu@csrc.ac.cn
2014-03-07
Two-dimensional (2D) materials exhibit different electronic properties than their bulk materials. Here, we present a systematic study of 2D tetragonal materials of ScN and YN using density functional theory calculations. Several thermodynamically stable 2D tetragonal structures were determined, and such novel tetragonal structures have good electronic and optical properties. Both bulk ScN and YN are indirect band gap semiconductors while the electronic structures of 2D ScN and YN are indirect gap semiconductors, with band gaps of 0.62–2.21 eV. The calculated optical spectra suggest that 2D tetragonal ScN and YN nanosheets have high visible light absorption efficiency. These electronic properties indicate that 2D ScN and YN have great potential for applications in photovoltaics and photocatalysis.
Hybrid two-dimensional electron transport in self-consistent electromagnetic fields
Mason, R.J.; Cranfill, C.W.
1986-02-01
The paper outlines features of the implicit hybrid simulation code ANTHEM, which uniquely provides histories for the transport and deposition of suprathermal and thermal electrons in laser-produced plasmas. The code models two-dimensional electron transport through steep density gradients and across contiguous collisional and collisionless target regions with the plasma dynamics dominated by self-consistent EPSILON and BETA fields. ANTHEM employs separate Eulerian fluid ion and thermal electron treatments and models suprathermal electrons as either a third fluid or as a set of collisional particle-in-cell (PIC) particles. The authors outline new techniques required to obtain implicit electromagnetic fields in two spatial dimensions permitting time steps well in excess of the local plasma period. A new implicit scattering model is discussed. The utility of our approach is demonstrated with sample applications to collisional surface transport on foil targets.
Islam, Mohammad A; Saldana-Greco, Diomedes; Gu, Zongquan; Wang, Fenggong; Breckenfeld, Eric; Lei, Qingyu; Xu, Ruijuan; Hawley, Christopher J; Xi, X X; Martin, Lane W; Rappe, Andrew M; Spanier, Jonathan E
2016-01-13
We report intense, narrow line-width, surface chemisorption-activated and reversible ultraviolet (UV) photoluminescence from radiative recombination of the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) with photoexcited holes at LaAlO3/SrTiO3. The switchable luminescence arises from an electron transfer-driven modification of the electronic structure via H-chemisorption onto the AlO2-terminated surface of LaAlO3, at least 2 nm away from the interface. The control of the onset of emission and its intensity are functionalities that go beyond the luminescence of compound semiconductor quantum wells. Connections between reversible chemisorption, fast electron transfer, and quantum-well luminescence suggest a new model for surface chemically reconfigurable solid-state UV optoelectronics and molecular sensing. PMID:26675987
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lei, X. L.; Liu, S. Y.
2005-08-01
Effects of microwave radiation on magnetoresistance are analyzed in a balance-equation scheme that covers regimes of inter- and intra-Landau level processes and takes into account photon-asissted electron transitions as well as radiation-induced change of the electron distribution for high-mobility two-dimensional systems. Short-range scatterings due to background impurities and defects are shown to be the dominant direct contributors to photoresistant oscillations. The electron temperature characterizing the system heating due to irradiation is derived by balancing the energy absorption from the radiation field and the energy dissipation to the lattice through realistic electron-phonon couplings, exhibiting resonant oscillation. Microwave modulations of the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillation amplitude are produced together with microwave-induced resistance oscillations, in agreement with experimental findings. In addition, the suppression of the magnetoresistance caused by low-frequency radiation in the higher magnetic field side is also demonstrated.
Simulation of two-dimensional electronic spectra of phycoerythrin 545 at ambient temperature.
Leng, Xuan; Liang, Xian-Ting
2014-10-30
By using a hierarchical equations-of-motion approach, we reproduce the two-dimensional electronic spectra of phycoerythrin 545 from Rhodomonas CS24 at ambient temperature (294 K). The simulated spectra are in agreement with the experimental results reported in Wong et al. (Nat. Chem. 2012, 4, 396). The evolutions of cross peaks for rephasing spectra and diagonal peaks for nonrephasing spectra have also been plotted. The peaks oscillate with the population times, with frequencies, phases, and amplitudes of the oscillating curves also being qualitatively consistent with the experimental results. PMID:25299464
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yar, Abdullah; Sabeeh, Kashif
2015-11-01
Zero-resistance states (ZRS) are normally associated with superconducting and quantum Hall phases. Experimental detection of ZRS in two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) systems irridiated by microwave(MW) radiation in a magnetic field has been quite a surprise. We develop a semiclassical transport formalism to explain the phenomena. We find a sequence of Zero-Resistance States (ZRS) inherited from the suppression of Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations under the influence of high-frequency and large amplitude microwave radiation. Furthermore, the ZRS are well pronounced and persist up to broad intervals of magnetic field as observed in experiments on microwave illuminated 2DEG systems.
Non-diffusive spin dynamics in a two-dimensional electron gas
Weber, C.P.
2010-04-28
We describe measurements of spin dynamics in the two-dimensional electron gas in GaAs/GaAlAs quantum wells. Optical techniques, including transient spin-grating spectroscopy, are used to probe the relaxation rates of spin polarization waves in the wavevector range from zero to 6 x 10{sup 4} cm{sup -1}. We find that the spin polarization lifetime is maximal at nonzero wavevector, in contrast with expectation based on ordinary spin diffusion, but in quantitative agreement with recent theories that treat diffusion in the presence of spin-orbit coupling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schluck, Jakob; Fasbender, Stefan; Wissenberg, Stephan; Heinzel, Thomas; Pierz, Klaus; Schumacher, Hans-Werner; Kazazis, Dimitris; Gennser, Ulf
Hybrid lateral superlattices composed of a square array of antidots and a periodic one-dimensional magnetic modulation are prepared in Ga[Al]As heterostructures. The two-dimensional electron gases exposed to these superlattices are characterized by magnetotransport experiments in various magnetic field configurations. Commensurability resonances as a function of a parallel external magnetic field are observed even in the absence of closed orbits, and interpreted with the help of numerical simulations based on the semiclassical Kubo model. In additional homogeneous perpendicular magnetic fields, quantum effects emerge, which can be attributed to the formation of closed quantized orbits.
Novel relativistic plasma excitations in a gated two-dimensional electron system.
Muravev, V M; Gusikhin, P A; Andreev, I V; Kukushkin, I V
2015-03-13
The microwave response of a two-dimensional electron system (2DES) covered by a conducting top gate is investigated in the relativistic regime for which the 2D conductivity σ_{2D}>c/2π. Weakly damped plasma waves are excited in the gated region of the 2DES. The frequency and amplitude of the resulting plasma excitations show a very unusual dependence on the magnetic field, conductivity, gate geometry, and separation from the 2DES. We show that such relativistic plasmons survive for temperatures up to 300 K, allowing for new room-temperature microwave and terahertz applications. PMID:25815956
Tunable two-dimensional electron gas at the surface of thermoelectric material In4Se3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukutani, K.; Sato, T.; Galiy, P. V.; Sugawara, K.; Takahashi, T.
2016-05-01
We report the discovery of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at the surface of thermoelectric material In4Se3 by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The observed 2DEG exhibits a nearly isotropic band dispersion with a considerably small effective mass of m*=0.16 m0, and its carrier density shows a significant temperature dependence, leading to unconventional metal-semiconductor transition at the surface. The observed wide-range thermal tunability of 2DEG in In4Se3 gives rise to additional degrees of freedom to better control the surface carriers of semiconductors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shevyrin, A. A.; Pogosov, A. G.; Bakarov, A. K.; Shklyaev, A. A.
2016-07-01
The electrical response of a two-dimensional electron gas to vibrations of a nanomechanical cantilever containing it is studied. Vibrations of perpendicularly oriented cantilevers are experimentally shown to oppositely change the conductivity near their bases. This indicates the piezoelectric nature of electromechanical coupling. A physical model is developed, which quantitatively explains the experiment. It shows that the main origin of the conductivity change is a rapid change in the mechanical stress on the boundary between suspended and nonsuspended areas, rather than the stress itself.
Shevyrin, A A; Pogosov, A G; Bakarov, A K; Shklyaev, A A
2016-07-01
The electrical response of a two-dimensional electron gas to vibrations of a nanomechanical cantilever containing it is studied. Vibrations of perpendicularly oriented cantilevers are experimentally shown to oppositely change the conductivity near their bases. This indicates the piezoelectric nature of electromechanical coupling. A physical model is developed, which quantitatively explains the experiment. It shows that the main origin of the conductivity change is a rapid change in the mechanical stress on the boundary between suspended and nonsuspended areas, rather than the stress itself. PMID:27419592
Zhang, Miao-Lei; Deng, Guang-Wei; Li, Shu-Xiao; Li, Hai-Ou; Cao, Gang; Tu, Tao; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guang-Can; Guo, Guo-Ping; Jiang, Hong-Wen; Siddiqi, Irfan
2014-02-24
We have designed and fabricated a half-wavelength reflection line resonator that consists of a pair of coupled microstrip lines on a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. By changing the top gate voltage on a small square with a two-dimensional electron gas under the resonator, the quality factor was tuned over a large range from 2700 to below 600. Apart from being of fundamental interest, this gate modulation technique has the potential for use in on-chip resonator applications.
Phonon blocking by two dimensional electron gas in polar CdTe/PbTe heterojunctions
Zhang, Bingpo; Cai, Chunfeng; Zhu, He; Wu, Feifei; Ye, Zhenyu; Chen, Yongyue; Li, Ruifeng; Kong, Weiguang; Wu, Huizhen
2014-04-21
Narrow-gap lead telluride crystal is an important thermoelectric and mid-infrared material in which phonon functionality is a critical issue to be explored. In this Letter, efficient phonon blockage by forming a polar CdTe/PbTe heterojunction is explicitly observed by Raman scattering. The unique phonon screening effect can be interpreted by recent discovery of high-density two dimensional electrons at the polar CdTe/PbTe(111) interface which paves a way for design and fabrication of thermoelectric devices.
Zhang, Yizhu; Yan, T-M; Jiang, Y H
2016-09-01
A new method determining the precise phase of pulse sequences in two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES) is proposed merely using the already built-in spectral interferometry. The approach is easily implemented without the supplementary instrumental construction, only at the expense of a few additional scanning and data-fitting processes. This method is executed with the sample in place, effectively avoiding the phase ambiguities of the beam propagation in samples, thus calibrating the absolute phase at the exact interaction region. The new proposed method is expected to improve the phasing procedure in 2DES in a more convenient way. PMID:27607991
Modeling A.C. Electronic Transport through a Two-Dimensional Quantum Point Contact
Aronov, I.E.; Beletskii, N.N.; Berman, G.P.; Campbell, D.K.; Doolen, G.D.; Dudiy, S.V.
1998-12-07
We present the results on the a.c. transport of electrons moving through a two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor quantum point contact (QPC). We concentrate our attention on the characteristic properties of the high frequency admittance ({omega}{approximately}0 - 50 GHz), and on the oscillations of the admittance in the vicinity of the separatrix (when a channel opens or closes), in presence of the relaxation effects. The experimental verification of such oscillations in the admittance would be a strong confirmation of the semi-classical approach to the a.c. transport in a QPC, in the separatrix region.
Control of Electron Transport in Two-Dimensional Array of Si Nanodisks for Spiking Neuron Device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Igarashi, Makoto; Huang, Chi-Hsien; Morie, Takashi; Samukawa, Seiji
2010-08-01
We fabricated a device with a two-dimensional Si-nanodisk array (2D ND array) with spiking neurons. The 2D ND array was prepared using a 2D array of iron-oxide cores as a uniform mask and a defect-free chlorine neutral beam as an etcher. The transformation from a pulse input signal (voltage) to a decayed analog output (current) was clearly observed, which may have resulted from the random hopping of electrons in the 2D ND array. Additionally, these analog outputs could be integrated in this 2D array by applying consecutive pulse inputs.
Valley-degenerate two-dimensional electrons in the lowest Landau level
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kott, Tomasz M.; Hu, Binhui; Brown, S. H.; Kane, B. E.
2014-01-01
We report low temperature magnetotransport measurements on a high mobility (μ =325000cm2/Vs) two-dimensional electron system on a H-terminated Si(111) surface. We observe the integral quantum Hall effect at all filling factors ν ≤6 and find that ν =2 develops in an unusually narrow temperature range. An extended, exclusively even numerator, fractional quantum Hall hierarchy occurs surrounding ν =3/2, consistent with twofold valley-degenerate composite fermions (CFs). We determine activation energies and estimate the CF mass.
Hybrid two-dimensional electronic systems and other applications of sp-2 bonded light elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kessler, Brian Maxwell
The field-effect is a cornerstone of modern technology lying at the heart of transistors in consumer electronics. Experimentally, it allows one to continuously vary the carrier concentration in a material while studying its properties. The recent isolation of graphene, the first truly two-dimensional crystal, allows application of the field effect to a much wider range of physical situations. In the first part of the thesis, we investigate hybrid materials formed by coupling metals to the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in graphene. We couple superconducting materials to the graphene sheet by cluster deposition. This material displays a superconducting phase whose properties are tuned by the carrier density via the field effect. The transition temperature is well-described by Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless vortex unbinding. The ground state properties show interesting effects due to the distribution of cluster spacings. Observations related to other hybrid electronic systems including ferromagnets and normal metals are presented. The second part of this thesis involves energy applications of light element materials. The mechanisms affecting coating of carbon nanotubes using atomic layer deposition is developed and applied to photovoltaic systems. The gas adsorption properties of activated boron nitride are investigated and the relative influence of surface area and hydrogen binding affinity is elaborated. The third part of this thesis explores electromechanical properties of suspended graphene membranes. We investigate buckling and strain in exfoliated graphene membranes as well as their deformation under an applied gate potential.
Quantum point contacts on two-dimensional electron gases with a strong spin-orbit coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Joon Sue; Pendaharkar, Mihir; Shojaei, Borzoyeh; McFadden, Anthony P.; Palmstrøm, Chris
Studies of electrical transport in one-dimensional semiconductors in a presence of a strong spin-orbit interaction are crucial not only for exploring the emergent phenomena, such as topological superconductivity, but also for potential spintronic applications by controlling of the electron spins. We investigate the electrical transport properties of one-dimensional confinement defined by electrostatic potentials on large area two-dimensional electron gases of InAs and InSb, which have a strong spin-orbit coupling. The high-quality InAs and InSb quantum wells are grown on antimonide buffers by molecular beam epitaxy, and the gate-tunable regions are created using Al2O3 or HfO2 gate dielectrics by atomic layer deposition. We will discuss the modulation of spin-orbit coupling in the two-dimensional electron gases and the spin-orbit-induced spin splitting by the split-gate quantum point contacts. This work was supported by Microsoft Research.
Observation of Spin Coulomb Drag in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas
Weber, C.P.
2011-08-19
An electron propagating through a solid carries spin angular momentum in addition to its mass and charge. Of late there has been considerable interest in developing electronic devices based on the transport of spin, which offer potential advantages in dissipation, size, and speed over charge-based devices. However, these advantages bring with them additional complexity. Because each electron carries a single, fixed value (-e) of charge, the electrical current carried by a gas of electrons is simply proportional to its total momentum. A fundamental consequence is that the charge current is not affected by interactions that conserve total momentum, notably collisions among the electrons themselves. In contrast, the electron's spin along a given spatial direction can take on two values, {+-} {h_bar}/2 (conventionally {up_arrow}, {down_arrow}), so that the spin current and momentum need not be proportional. Although the transport of spin polarization is not protected by momentum conservation, it has been widely assumed that, like the charge current, spin current is unaffected by electron-electron (e-e) interactions. Here we demonstrate experimentally not only that this assumption is invalid, but that over a broad range of temperature and electron density, the flow of spin polarization in a two-dimensional gas of electrons is controlled by the rate of e-e collisions.
Dynamical correlation effects on structure factor of spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gas
Singh, Gurvinder; Moudgil, R. K.; Kumar, Krishan; Garg, Vinayak
2015-06-24
We report a theoretical study on static density structure factor S(q) of a spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gas over a wide range of electron number density r{sub s}. The electron correlations are treated within the dynamical version of the self-consistent mean-field theory of Singwi, Tosi, Land, and Sjolander, the so-called qSTLS approach. The calculated S(q) exhibits almost perfect agreement with the quantum Monte Carlo simulation data at r{sub s}=1. However, the extent of agreement somewhat diminishes with increasing r{sub s}, particularly for q around 2k{sub F}. Seen in conjunction with the success of qSTLS theory in dealing with correlations in the unpolarized phase, our study suggests that the otherwise celebrated qSTLS theory is not that good in treating the like-spin correlations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Albert, Julian; Falge, Mirjam; Gomez, Sandra; Sola, Ignacio R.; Hildenbrand, Heiko; Engel, Volker
2015-07-01
We theoretically investigate the photon-echo spectroscopy of coupled electron-nuclear quantum dynamics. Two situations are treated. In the first case, the Born-Oppenheimer (adiabatic) approximation holds. It is then possible to interpret the two-dimensional (2D) spectra in terms of vibrational motion taking place in different electronic states. In particular, pure vibrational coherences which are related to oscillations in the time-dependent third-order polarization can be identified. This concept fails in the second case, where strong non-adiabatic coupling leads to the breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer-approximation. Then, the 2D-spectra reveal a complicated vibronic structure and vibrational coherences cannot be disentangled from the electronic motion.
Two-dimensional electron gas in GaAs/SrHfO3 heterostructure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jianli; Yuan, Mengqi; Tang, Gang; Li, Huichao; Zhang, Junting; Guo, Sandong
2016-06-01
The III-V/perovskite-oxide system can potentially create new material properties and new device applications by combining the rich properties of perovskite-oxides together with the superior optical and electronic properties of III-Vs. The structural and electronic properties of the surface and interface are studied using first-principles calculations for the GaAs/SrHfO3 heterostructure. We investigate the specific adsorption sites and the atomic structure at the initial growth stage of GaAs on the SrHfO3 (001) substrate. Ga and As adsorption atoms preferentially adsorb at the top sites of oxygen atoms under different coverage. The energetically favorable interfaces are presented among the atomic arrangements of the GaAs/SrHfO3 interfaces. Our calculations predict the existing of the two-dimensional electron gas in the GaAs/SrHfO3 heterostructure.
Ballistic thermopower of suspended semiconductor Hall bars with two dimensional electron gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhdanov, E. Yu; Pogosov, A. G.; Budantsev, M. V.; Pokhabov, D. A.; Bakarov, A. K.; Toropov, A. I.
2015-11-01
We study ballistic electron transport in suspended semiconductor nanostructures containing high mobility two dimensional electron gas structured with periodical square lattice of artificial scatters — antidots. Thermopower demonstrates magnetic field commensurability oscillations resulting from geometrical resonances similar to those earlier observed in magnetoresistance, thus indicating the retaining of the ballistic regime in thermopower measurement on suspended structures and the validity of the Mott rule in this case. In spite of peculiarities of the heat transport in suspended structures leading to the observed anomalies in non-linear effects, the amplitude of thermopower oscillations remains unchanged after the suspension. This can be explained by short Thouless time compared to the time of electron- phonon interaction.
Liu, Xiuhong; Wang, Yu; Li, Feng; Li, Yafei
2016-06-01
By means of state-of-the-art density functional theory (DFT) computations, we systematically studied the structural, electronic, and optical properties of a novel two dimensional material, namely stanane (SnH). According to our computational results, stanane is semiconducting with a direct band gap of 1.00 eV, which can be flexibly tuned by applying an external strain. Remarkably, stanane has much higher electron and hole mobilities than those of a MoS2 monolayer at room temperature. Moreover, stanane has rather strong optical absorption in the visible as well as infrared regions of the solar spectrum. These results provide many useful insights for the wide application of stanane in electronics and optoelectronics. PMID:27181028
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, K. F.; Liu, H. W.; Mishima, T. D.; Santos, M. B.; Nagase, K.; Hirayama, Y.
2011-08-01
The spin polarization (P) of high-density InSb two-dimensional electron systems (2DESs) has been measured using both parallel and tilted magnetic fields. P is found to exhibit a superlinear increase with the total field B. This P-B nonlinearity results in a difference in spin susceptibility between its real value χs and χgm~ m*g* (m* and g* are the effective mass and g factor, respectively) as routinely used in experiments. We demonstrate that such a P-B nonlinearity originates from the linearly P-dependent g* due to the exchange coupling of electrons rather than from the electron correlation as predicted for the low-density 2DES.
Anisotropic two-dimensional electron gas at SrTiO3(110)
Wang, Zhiming; Zhong, Zhicheng; Hao, Xianfeng; Gerhold, Stefan; Stöger, Bernhard; Schmid, Michael; Sánchez-Barriga, Jaime; Varykhalov, Andrei; Franchini, Cesare; Held, Karsten; Diebold, Ulrike
2014-01-01
Two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) at oxide heterostructures are attracting considerable attention, as these might one day substitute conventional semiconductors at least for some functionalities. Here we present a minimal setup for such a 2DEG––the SrTiO3(110)-(4 × 1) surface, natively terminated with one monolayer of tetrahedrally coordinated titania. Oxygen vacancies induced by synchrotron radiation migrate underneath this overlayer; this leads to a confining potential and electron doping such that a 2DEG develops. Our angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and theoretical results show that confinement along (110) is strikingly different from the (001) crystal orientation. In particular, the quantized subbands show a surprising “semiheavy” band, in contrast with the analog in the bulk, and a high electronic anisotropy. This anisotropy and even the effective mass of the (110) 2DEG is tunable by doping, offering a high flexibility to engineer the properties of this system. PMID:24591596
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ogilvie, Jennifer
2010-03-01
Two-dimensional (2D) Fourier transform electronic spectroscopy has recently emerged as a powerful tool for the study of energy transfer in complex condensed-phase systems. Its experimental implementation is challenging but can be greatly simplified by implementing a pump-probe geometry, where the two phase-stable collinear pump pulses are created with an acousto-optic pulse-shaper. This approach also allows the use of a continuum probe pulse, expanding the available frequency range of the detection axis and allowing studies of energy transfer and electronic coupling over a broad range of frequencies. We discuss several benefits of 2D electronic spectroscopy and present 2D data on the D1-D2 reaction center complex of Photosystem II from spinach. We discuss the ability of 2D spectroscopy to distinguish between current models of energy and charge transfer in this system.
Two-dimensional electron gas in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures
Li, J.Z.; Lin, J.Y.; Jiang, H.X.; Khan, M.A.; Chen, Q.
1997-07-01
The formation of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) system by an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure has been further confirmed by measuring its electrical properties. The effect of persistent photoconductivity (PPC) has been observed and its unique features have been utilized to study the properties of 2DEG formed by the AlGaN/GaN heterointerface. Sharp electronic transitions from the first to the second subbands in the 2DEG channel have been observed by monitoring the 2DEG carrier mobility as a function of carrier concentration through the use of PPC. These results are expected to have significant implications on field-effect transistor and high electron mobility transistor applications based on the GaN system. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Vacuum Society.}
Albert, Julian; Falge, Mirjam; Hildenbrand, Heiko; Engel, Volker; Gomez, Sandra; Sola, Ignacio R.
2015-07-28
We theoretically investigate the photon-echo spectroscopy of coupled electron-nuclear quantum dynamics. Two situations are treated. In the first case, the Born-Oppenheimer (adiabatic) approximation holds. It is then possible to interpret the two-dimensional (2D) spectra in terms of vibrational motion taking place in different electronic states. In particular, pure vibrational coherences which are related to oscillations in the time-dependent third-order polarization can be identified. This concept fails in the second case, where strong non-adiabatic coupling leads to the breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer-approximation. Then, the 2D-spectra reveal a complicated vibronic structure and vibrational coherences cannot be disentangled from the electronic motion.
Single-electron tunneling by using a two-dimensional Corbino nano-scale disk
Taira, H.; Suzuki, A.
2015-09-15
We investigate a single-electron tunneling effect of two-dimensional electron systems formed in the Corbino nano-scale disk. By controlling bias and gate voltages, the transistor using this effect is able to control electrons one by one. The present study focuses on the electronic transmission probability affected by the charging energy in the Corbino-type single-electron transistor. We reformulated the Schrödinger equation for an electron in the Corbino disk in order to consider the effect of the curvature of the disk, taking into account the charging effect on the performance of the Corbino-type single-electron transistor. We formulated the transmission probability of the electron by applying the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) method. The electron’s energy in the formula of the transmission probability is then associated to the energy eigenvalue of the Schrödinger equation for an electron in an effective confining potential. We numerically solved the Schrödinger equation to evaluate the transmission probability. Our results show that the transmission probability strongly depends on the charging energy stored in the Corbino disk depending on its size.
Electron counting and a large family of two-dimensional semiconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miao, Maosheng; Botana, Jorge; Zurek, Eva; Liu, Jingyao; Yang, Wen
Two-dimensional semiconductors (2DSC) are currently the focus of many studies, thanks to their novel and superior transport properties that may greatly influence future electronic devices. The potential applications of 2DSCs range from low-dimensional electronics, topological insulators and vallytronics all the way to novel photolysis. However, compared with the conventional semiconductors that are comprised of main group elements and cover a large range of band gaps and lattice constants, the choice of 2D materials is very limited. In this work, we propose and demonstrate a large family of 2DSCs, all adopting the same structure and consisting of only main group elements. Using advanced density functional calculations, we demonstrate the attainability of these materials, and show that they cover a large range of lattice constants, band gaps and band edge states, making them good candidate materials for heterojunctions. This family of two dimensional materials may be instrumental in the fabrication of 2DSC devices that may rival the currently employed 3D semiconductors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khan, Mahtab; Erementchouk, Mikhail; Leuenberger, Michael
Defects play an important role in tailoring electronic and optical properties of two-dimensional monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs). Recently it has been shown that the presence of vacancy defects (VDs) in two-dimensional monolayer MoS_2 induces localized states which give rise to extra resonance peaks in both in-plane χ∥ and out-of-plane χ⊥ susceptibilities.1 In-plane χ∥ and out-of-plane χ⊥ susceptibilities are related to the presence of even and odd states with respect to the Mo plane, respectively1. Moreover, monolayer TMDCs have a large spin orbit coupling (SOC), originating from d-orbitals of heavy transition metals and being of the order of a few 100 meV. We present a more general picture of the electronic and optical properties of defected monolayer TMDCs. In particular, we consider MoS2, MoSe2, WS2 and WSe2 with three types of VDs (i) Mo, W vacancy, (ii) S2, Se2 vacancy, and (iii) S, Se vacancy. In addition, we investigate the effects of SOC on the band structures and the optical susceptibilities of VDs in TMDCs. 1. Mikhail Erementchouk, M. A. Khan, and Michael N. Leuenberger, Phys. Rev. B 92, 121401(R) (2015).
Two-dimensional group-IV monochalcogenides: structural, electronic and optical properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gomes, Lidia; Carvalho, Alexandra; Castro Neto, A. H.
Two-dimensional materials have attracted a massive attention of the scientific and industrial communities due to their unusual and interesting properties. The layered group-IV monochalcogenides-SnS, SnSe, GeS and GeSe- has gained attention as a promising group with potentially useful applications in diverse fields. The bulk SnS, a naturally occurring mineral, has been considered as an alternative to be used in film PV cells, due to its electronic and optical properties. We use first principles calculations to explore structural, electronic and optical properties of this group, with focus in their two-dimensional forms. We show that all those binary compounds are semiconducting, with bandgap energies covering most of the visible range. They have multiple valleys in the valence and conduction bands, with spin-orbit splitting of the order of 19-86 meV. An enhanced static dielectric permittivity is found for the monolayers. Structural analysis shows that the 2D form of these materials presents very high piezoelectric constants, exceeding values recently observed for other 2D-systems. The existence of a negative Poisson ratio is predicted for the GeS compound. We acknowledge the NRF-CRP award ``Novel 2D materials with tailored properties: beyond graphene'' (R-144-000-295-281).
Ho Park, Youn; Kim, Hyung-jun; Chang, Joonyeon; Hee Han, Suk; Eom, Jonghwa; Choi, Heon-Jin; Cheol Koo, Hyun
2013-12-16
The Rashba spin-orbit interaction effective field is always in the plane of the two-dimensional electron gas and perpendicular to the carrier wavevector but the direction of the Dresselhaus field depends on the crystal orientation. These two spin-orbit interaction parameters can be determined separately by measuring and analyzing the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations for various crystal directions. In the InAs quantum well system investigated, the Dresselhaus term is just 5% of the Rashba term. The gate dependence of the oscillation patterns clearly shows that only the Rashba term is modulated by an external electric field.
Doppler Velocimetry of Current Driven Spin Helices in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Luyi
Spins in semiconductors provide a pathway towards the development of spin-based electronics. The appeal of spin logic devices lies in the fact that the spin current is even under time reversal symmetry, yielding non-dissipative coupling to the electric field. To exploit the energy-saving potential of spin current it is essential to be able to control it. While recent demonstrations of electrical-gate control in spin-transistor configurations show great promise, operation at room temperature remains elusive. Further progress requires a deeper understanding of the propagation of spin polarization, particularly in the high mobility semiconductors used for devices. This thesis presents the demonstration and application of a powerful new optical technique, Doppler spin velocimetry, for probing the motion of spin polarization at the level of 1 nm on a picosecond time scale. We discuss experiments in which this technique is used to measure the motion of spin helices in high mobility n-GaAs quantum wells as a function of temperature, in-plane electric field, and photoinduced spin polarization amplitude. We find that the spin helix velocity changes sign as a function of wave vector and is zero at the wave vector that yields the largest spin lifetime. This observation is quite striking, but can be explained by the random walk model that we have developed. We discover that coherent spin precession within a propagating spin density wave is lost at temperatures near 150 K. This finding is critical to understanding why room temperature operation of devices based on electrical gate control of spin current has so far remained elusive. We report that, at all temperatures, electron spin polarization co-propagates with the high-mobility electron sea, even when this requires an unusual form of separation of spin density from photoinjected electron density. Furthermore, although the spin packet co-propagates with the two-dimensional electron gas, spin diffusion is strongly suppressed
Two-dimensional superconductor-insulator quantum phase transitions in an electron-doped cuprate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeng, S. W.; Huang, Z.; Lv, W. M.; Bao, N. N.; Gopinadhan, K.; Jian, L. K.; Herng, T. S.; Liu, Z. Q.; Zhao, Y. L.; Li, C. J.; Harsan Ma, H. J.; Yang, P.; Ding, J.; Venkatesan, T.; Ariando
2015-07-01
We use an ionic liquid-assisted electric-field effect to tune the carrier density in an electron-doped cuprate ultrathin film and cause a two-dimensional superconductor-insulator transition (SIT). The low upper critical field in this system allows us to perform magnetic-field (B)-induced SIT in the liquid-gated superconducting film. Finite-size scaling analysis indicates that SITs induced both by electric and by magnetic fields are quantum phase transitions and the transitions are governed by percolation effects—quantum mechanical in the former and classical in the latter cases. Compared to the hole-doped cuprates, the SITs in the electron-doped system occur at critical sheet resistances (Rc) much lower than the pair quantum resistance RQ=h /(2e ) 2=6.45 k Ω , suggesting the possible existence of fermionic excitations at finite temperatures at the insulating phase near the SITs.
Energy Transfer Observed in Live Cells Using Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy
Dahlberg, Peter D.; Fidler, Andrew F.; Caram, Justin R.; Long, Phillip D.; Engel, Gregory S.
2013-01-01
Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES) elucidates electronic structure and dynamics on a femtosecond time scale and has proven to be an incisive tool for probing congested linear spectra of biological systems. However, samples that scatter light intensely frustrate 2DES analysis, necessitating the use of isolated protein chromophore complexes when studying photosynthetic energy transfer processes. We present a method for conducting 2DES experiments that takes only seconds to acquire thousands of 2DES spectra and permits analysis of highly scattering samples, specifically whole cells of the purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides. These in vivo 2DES experiments reveal similar timescales for energy transfer within the antennae complex (light harvesting complex 2, LH2) both in the native photosynthetic membrane environment and in isolated detergent micelles. PMID:24478821
Terahertz Radiation Heterodyne Detector Using Two-Dimensional Electron Gas in a GaN Heterostructure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Karasik, Boris S.; Gill, John J.; Mehdi, Imran; Crawford, Timothy J.; Sergeev, Andrei V.; Mitin, Vladimir V.
2012-01-01
High-resolution submillimeter/terahertz spectroscopy is important for studying atmospheric and interstellar molecular gaseous species. It typically uses heterodyne receivers where an unknown (weak) signal is mixed with a strong signal from the local oscillator (LO) operating at a slightly different frequency. The non-linear mixer devices for this frequency range are unique and are not off-the-shelf commercial products. Three types of THz mixers are commonly used: Schottky diode, superconducting hot-electron bolometer (HEB), and superconductor-insulation-superconductor (SIS) junction. A HEB mixer based on the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) formed at the interface of two slightly dissimilar semiconductors was developed. This mixer can operate at temperatures between 100 and 300 K, and thus can be used with just passive radiative cooling available even on small spacecraft.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Krishan; Garg, Vinayak; Moudgil, R. K.
2013-06-01
We report a theoretical study on the spin-resolved pair-correlation functions gσσ'(r) of a two-dimensional electron gas having arbitrary spin polarization ζ by including the dynamics of exchange-correlations within the dynamical self-consistent mean-field theory of Hasegawa and Shimizu. The calculated g↑↑(r), g↓↓(r) and g↑↓(r) exhibit a nice agreement with the recent quantum Monte Carlo simulation data of Gori-Giorgi et al. However, the agreement for the minority spin correlation function g↓↓(r) decreases with increase in ζ and/or decrease in electron density. Nevertheless, the spin-summed correlation function remains close to the simulation data.
Magnetoresistance quantum oscillations in a magnetic two-dimensional electron gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kunc, J.; Piot, B. A.; Maude, D. K.; Potemski, M.; Grill, R.; Betthausen, C.; Weiss, D.; Kolkovsky, V.; Karczewski, G.; Wojtowicz, T.
2015-08-01
Magnetotransport measurements of Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations have been performed on two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) confined in CdTe and CdMnTe quantum wells. The quantum oscillations in CdMnTe, where the 2DEG interacts with magnetic Mn ions, can be described by incorporating the electron-Mn exchange interaction into the traditional Lifshitz-Kosevich formalism. The modified spin splitting leads to characteristic beating pattern in the SdH oscillations, the study of which indicates the formation of Mn clusters resulting in direct anti-ferromagnetic Mn-Mn interaction. The Landau-level broadening in this system shows a peculiar decrease with increasing temperature, which could be related to statistical fluctuations of the Mn concentration.
Huard; Cox; Saminadayar; Arnoult; Tatarenko
2000-01-01
The dependence of the optical absorption spectrum of a semiconductor quantum well on two-dimensional electron concentration n(e) is studied using CdTe samples. The trion peak (X-) seen at low n(e) evolves smoothly into the Fermi edge singularity at high n(e). The exciton peak (X) moves off to high energy, weakens, and disappears. The X,X- splitting is linear in n(e) and closely equal to the Fermi energy plus the trion binding energy. For Cd0.998Mn0.002Te quantum wells in a magnetic field, the X,X- splitting reflects unequal Fermi energies for M = +/-1/2 electrons. The data are explained by Hawrylak's theory of the many-body optical response including spin effects. PMID:11015866
A new equation in two dimensional fast magnetoacoustic shock waves in electron-positron-ion plasmas
Masood, W.; Jehan, Nusrat; Mirza, Arshad M.
2010-03-15
Nonlinear properties of the two dimensional fast magnetoacoustic waves are studied in a three-component plasma comprising of electrons, positrons, and ions. In this regard, Kadomtsev-Petviashvili-Burger (KPB) equation is derived using the small amplitude perturbation expansion method. Under the condition that the electron and positron inertia are ignored, Burger-Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (Burger-KP) for a fast magnetoacoustic wave is derived for the first time, to the best of author's knowledge. The solutions of both KPB and Burger-KP equations are obtained using the tangent hyperbolic method. The effects of positron concentration, kinematic viscosity, and plasma beta are explored both for the KPB and the Burger-KP shock waves and the differences between the two are highlighted. The present investigation may have relevance in the study of nonlinear electromagnetic shock waves both in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas.
Light adatoms influences on electronic structures of the two-dimensional arsenene nanosheets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yang; Xia, Congxin; Wang, Tianxing; Tan, Xiaoming; Zhao, Xu; Wei, Shuyi
2016-03-01
Gray arsenic monolayer named as arsenene is a new kind of two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor material. Herein, we focus on the electronic structures of the light atoms (such as B, C, N, O, F) adsorbed arsenene nanosheets by using first-principles calculations. The results show that most adatoms prefer to occupy the bridge site on the arsenene nanosheets except for the C adatom which prefer to valley site. The defect states can be found in the middle gap of the F adsorbed arsenene nanosheets, and N adatom can induce the n-type doping in the system. Moreover, O adatom has negligible effects on its electronic structures. In addition, B, C, N and F adatoms can induce the magnetism in the arsenene nanosheets.
Lyo, Sungkwun K.; Pan, Wei
2014-08-07
In this paper, we study the Bloch oscillations of a two-dimensional electron gas with a strong periodic potential-modulation and miniband transport along the field at low temperatures, assuming a free motion in the transverse direction. The dependence of the current on the field, the electron density, and the temperature is investigated by using a relaxation-time approximation for inelastic scattering. Moreover, for a fixed total scattering rate, the field dependence of the current is sensitive to the ratio of the elastic and inelastic scattering rates in contrast with the recent result of a multiband but otherwise similar model with a weakmore » potential modulation.« less
Bizimana, Laurie A.; Brazard, Johanna; Carbery, William P.; Gellen, Tobias; Turner, Daniel B.
2015-10-28
Coherent multidimensional optical spectroscopy is an emerging technique for resolving structure and ultrafast dynamics of molecules, proteins, semiconductors, and other materials. A current challenge is the quality of kinetics that are examined as a function of waiting time. Inspired by noise-suppression methods of transient absorption, here we incorporate shot-by-shot acquisitions and balanced detection into coherent multidimensional optical spectroscopy. We demonstrate that implementing noise-suppression methods in two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy not only improves the quality of features in individual spectra but also increases the sensitivity to ultrafast time-dependent changes in the spectral features. Measurements on cresyl violet perchlorate are consistent with the vibronic pattern predicted by theoretical models of a highly displaced harmonic oscillator. The noise-suppression methods should benefit research into coherent electronic dynamics, and they can be adapted to multidimensional spectroscopies across the infrared and ultraviolet frequency ranges.
Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of two-dimensional electron gasses at high magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Curtis, Jeremy A.
This dissertation covers two projects that were in the logical path to studying decoherence in a high mobility GaAs two--dimensional electron gas at high magnetic fields. The first project is the ultrafast non--degenerate pump--probe spectroscopic study of bulk GaAs in the Split Florida Helix at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory at Florida State University. This project was undertaken as a proof of concept that ultrafast optics could be done in the Split Florida Helix so that we might study a high mobility two dimensional electron gas using THz time--domain spectroscopy at high magnetic fields, which is a much more complicated measurement than the pump--probe discussed here. This demonstration was a success. We completed the first ultrafast optical study of any kind in the Florida Split Helix. We collected differential reflection data from this bulk sample that exhibited electronic and oscillatory components. These components were treated independently in the analysis by treating the electronic dynamics with a four level approximation. The electronic transition rates were extracted and agreed well with published values. This agreement is a demonstration that the spectrometer functioned as desired. The oscillatory response was found to be a result of the emission of coherent phonons upon electronic transition between the four levels. The frequency of the oscillatory response was extracted and agreed well with the theoretical value. The second project is the study of the temperature dependence of the cyclotron decay lifetimes in a Landau quantized GaAs high mobility two dimensional electron gas using THz time--domain spectroscopy at relatively low magnetic field (1.25 T). We find that the cyclotron decay lifetimes decrease monotonically with increasing temperature from 0.4 K to 100 K and that the primary pulse amplitudes increase from 0.4 K to 1.2 K, saturates above 1.2 K up to 50 K, and decreases rapidly above 50 K. We attribute this rapid drop in
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hernandez, F. G. G.; Ullah, S.; Ferreira, G. J.; Kawahala, N. M.; Gusev, G. M.; Bakarov, A. K.
2016-07-01
We imaged the transport of current-induced spin coherence in a two-dimensional electron gas confined in a triple quantum well. Nonlocal Kerr rotation measurements, based on the optical resonant amplification of the electrically-induced polarization, revealed a large spatial variation of the electron g factor and the efficient generation of a current-controlled spin-orbit field in a macroscopic Hall bar device. We observed coherence times in the nanoseconds range transported beyond half-millimeter distances in a direction transverse to the applied electric field. The measured long spin transport length can be explained by two material properties: large mean free path for charge diffusion in clean systems and enhanced spin-orbit coefficients in the triple well.
Transport through an electrostatically defined quantum dot lattice in a two-dimensional electron gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goswami, Srijit; Aamir, M. A.; Siegert, Christoph; Pepper, Michael; Farrer, Ian; Ritchie, David A.; Ghosh, Arindam
2012-02-01
Quantum dot lattices (QDLs) have the potential to allow for the tailoring of optical, magnetic, and electronic properties of a user-defined artificial solid. We use a dual gated device structure to controllably tune the potential landscape in a GaAs/AlGaAs two-dimensional electron gas, thereby enabling the formation of a periodic QDL. The current-voltage characteristics, I(V), follow a power law, as expected for a QDL. In addition, a systematic study of the scaling behavior of I(V) allows us to probe the effects of background disorder on transport through the QDL. Our results are particularly important for semiconductor-based QDL architectures which aim to probe collective phenomena.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bizimana, Laurie A.; Brazard, Johanna; Carbery, William P.; Gellen, Tobias; Turner, Daniel B.
2015-10-01
Coherent multidimensional optical spectroscopy is an emerging technique for resolving structure and ultrafast dynamics of molecules, proteins, semiconductors, and other materials. A current challenge is the quality of kinetics that are examined as a function of waiting time. Inspired by noise-suppression methods of transient absorption, here we incorporate shot-by-shot acquisitions and balanced detection into coherent multidimensional optical spectroscopy. We demonstrate that implementing noise-suppression methods in two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy not only improves the quality of features in individual spectra but also increases the sensitivity to ultrafast time-dependent changes in the spectral features. Measurements on cresyl violet perchlorate are consistent with the vibronic pattern predicted by theoretical models of a highly displaced harmonic oscillator. The noise-suppression methods should benefit research into coherent electronic dynamics, and they can be adapted to multidimensional spectroscopies across the infrared and ultraviolet frequency ranges.
Subband structure of two-dimensional electron gases in SrTiO{sub 3}
Raghavan, Santosh; Stemmer, Susanne; James Allen, S.
2013-11-18
Tunneling between two parallel, two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) in a complex oxide heterostructure containing a large, mobile electron density of ∼3 × 10{sup 14} cm{sup −2} is used to probe the subband structure of the 2DEGs. Temperature-dependent current-voltage measurements are performed on SrTiO{sub 3}/GdTiO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} junctions, where GdTiO{sub 3} serves as the tunnel barrier, and each interface contains a high-density 2DEG. Resonant tunneling features in the conductance and its derivative occur when subbands on either side of the barrier align in energy as the applied bias is changed, and are used to analyze subband energy spacings in the two 2DEGs. We show that the results agree substantially with recent theoretical predictions for such interfaces.
Density-dependent thermopower oscillations in mesoscopic two-dimensional electron gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Narayan, Vijay; Kogan, Eugene; Ford, Chris; Pepper, Michael; Kaveh, Moshe; Griffiths, Jonathan; Jones, Geb; Beere, Harvey; Ritchie, Dave
2014-08-01
We present thermopower S and resistance R measurements on GaAs-based mesoscopic two-dimensional electron gases as functions of the electron density ns. At high ns we observe good agreement between the measured S and SMOTT, the Mott prediction for a non-interacting metal. As ns is lowered, we observe a crossover from Mott-like behaviour to that where S shows strong oscillations and even sign changes. Remarkably, there are absolutely no features in R corresponding to those in S. In fact, R is devoid of even any universal conductance fluctuations. A statistical analysis of the thermopower oscillations from two devices of dissimilar dimensions suggest a universal nature of the oscillations. We critically examine whether they can be mesoscopic fluctuations of the kind described by Lesovik and Khmelnitskii (1988 Sov. Phys. JETP 67 957).
Solving non-centrosymmetric two-dimensional crystal structures by dynamic electron diffraction.
Koch, Christoph T
2005-03-01
Despite the fast increase in expertise developed in the field of electron crystallography, dynamic scattering effects still remain a severe obstacle in this field, a hurdle that is being circumvented rather than fully tackled. In this paper, a new way of straightforward interpretation of conventional many-beam zone-axis dynamical electron diffraction patterns is presented that helps to solve the phase problem for non-centrosymmetric two-dimensional crystal structures, in particular if these contain only a few heavier atoms. While the implementation of this method is easiest for fairly weak multiple scattering, its extension to arbitrarily strong dynamical effects is mentioned. A method to obtain high-resolution diffraction data in the presence of specimen bending is proposed. PMID:15724073
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ungier, W.
2014-05-01
Theoretical description of Rashba effects in three-dimensional electron gas at electric-dipole spin resonance conditions is presented in the frame of conductivity tensor formalism. The details due to anisotropy of the effective mass tensor, as well as the Lande factor, are considered. The absorbed power is calculated for arbitrary orientation of the sample with respect to external fields: constant magnetic field and rf electric field. The differences between resonance signals in two- and three-dimensional electron gas are pointed out.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Chongyun; Chen, Yonghai; Ma, Hui; Yu, Jinling; Liu, Yu
2011-06-01
In this letter we investigated the InAs/InAlAs quantum wires (QWRs) superlattice by optically exciting the structure with near-infrared radiation. By varying the helicity of the radiation at room temperature we observed the circular photogalvanic effect related to the C2v symmetry of the structure, which could be attributed to the formation of a quasi-two-dimensional system underlying in the vicinity of the QWRs pattern. The ratio of Rashba and Dresselhaus terms shows an evolution of the spin-orbit interaction in quasi-two-dimensional structure with the QWR layer deposition thickness.
Jiang Chongyun; Chen Yonghai; Ma Hui; Yu Jinling; Liu Yu
2011-06-06
In this letter we investigated the InAs/InAlAs quantum wires (QWRs) superlattice by optically exciting the structure with near-infrared radiation. By varying the helicity of the radiation at room temperature we observed the circular photogalvanic effect related to the C{sub 2v} symmetry of the structure, which could be attributed to the formation of a quasi-two-dimensional system underlying in the vicinity of the QWRs pattern. The ratio of Rashba and Dresselhaus terms shows an evolution of the spin-orbit interaction in quasi-two-dimensional structure with the QWR layer deposition thickness.
Quantum Hall effect in black phosphorus two-dimensional electron system.
Li, Likai; Yang, Fangyuan; Ye, Guo Jun; Zhang, Zuocheng; Zhu, Zengwei; Lou, Wenkai; Zhou, Xiaoying; Li, Liang; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Chang, Kai; Wang, Yayu; Chen, Xian Hui; Zhang, Yuanbo
2016-07-01
The development of new, high-quality functional materials has been at the forefront of condensed-matter research. The recent advent of two-dimensional black phosphorus has greatly enriched the materials base of two-dimensional electron systems (2DESs). Here, we report the observation of the integer quantum Hall effect in a high-quality black phosphorus 2DES. The high quality is achieved by embedding the black phosphorus 2DES in a van der Waals heterostructure close to a graphite back gate; the graphite gate screens the impurity potential in the 2DES and brings the carrier Hall mobility up to 6,000 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). The exceptional mobility enabled us to observe the quantum Hall effect and to gain important information on the energetics of the spin-split Landau levels in black phosphorus. Our results set the stage for further study on quantum transport and device application in the ultrahigh mobility regime. PMID:27018659
Coherent Terahertz Magneto-Spectroscopy of High-Mobility Two-Dimensional Electron Gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Qi; Arikawa, Takashi; Pan, Wei; Reno, John; Watson, John; Manfra, Michael; Kono, Junichiro; Rice University Team; Sandia National Laboratory Collaboration; Purdue University Collaboration
2013-03-01
Landau-quantized high-mobility two-dimensional electron gases (2DEG) in GaAs quantum wells provide an ideal platform for studying and controlling the coherence of many-electron states. Here, we study the coherent dynamics of cyclotron resonance (CR) in a 2DEGin the terahertz range. It is well known that Kohn's theorem protects the CR frequency from the influence of electron-electron interactions, but how the coherence of CR decays via electron-electron interactions is an open question. Since the 1980s, studies have focused on CR decoherence time measurements, primarily using incoherent far-infrared spectroscopy, which fails to obtain the true CR linewidth due to the `saturation effect' in high-mobility systems. By using coherent time-domain magneto-terahertz spectroscopy, we have systematically studied the CR decoherence time in an ultrahigh-mobility 2DEG as a function of both temperature and magnetic field. These results show a clear saturation of the CR decoherence time at low temperature, which decreases monotonically with increasing magnetic field. No filling-factor-dependent oscillations of CR dephasing time have been observed. Possible CR decoherence mechanisms will be discussed in light of these new findings.
High-Current Gain Two-Dimensional MoS₂-Base Hot-Electron Transistors.
Torres, Carlos M; Lan, Yann-Wen; Zeng, Caifu; Chen, Jyun-Hong; Kou, Xufeng; Navabi, Aryan; Tang, Jianshi; Montazeri, Mohammad; Adleman, James R; Lerner, Mitchell B; Zhong, Yuan-Liang; Li, Lain-Jong; Chen, Chii-Dong; Wang, Kang L
2015-12-01
The vertical transport of nonequilibrium charge carriers through semiconductor heterostructures has led to milestones in electronics with the development of the hot-electron transistor. Recently, significant advances have been made with atomically sharp heterostructures implementing various two-dimensional materials. Although graphene-base hot-electron transistors show great promise for electronic switching at high frequencies, they are limited by their low current gain. Here we show that, by choosing MoS2 and HfO2 for the filter barrier interface and using a noncrystalline semiconductor such as ITO for the collector, we can achieve an unprecedentedly high-current gain (α ∼ 0.95) in our hot-electron transistors operating at room temperature. Furthermore, the current gain can be tuned over 2 orders of magnitude with the collector-base voltage albeit this feature currently presents a drawback in the transistor performance metrics such as poor output resistance and poor intrinsic voltage gain. We anticipate our transistors will pave the way toward the realization of novel flexible 2D material-based high-density, low-energy, and high-frequency hot-carrier electronic applications. PMID:26524388
Automated Electron Microscopy for Evaluating Two-dimensional Crystallization of Membrane Proteins
Hu, Minghui; Vink, Martin; Kim, Changki; Derr, KD; Koss, John; D'Amico, Kevin; Cheng, Anchi; Pulokas, James; Ubarretxena-Belandia, Iban; Stokes, David
2010-01-01
Membrane proteins fulfill many important roles in the cell and represent the target for a large number of therapeutic drugs. Although structure determination of membrane proteins has become a major priority, it has proven to be technically challenging. Electron microscopy of two-dimensional (2D) crystals has the advantage of visualizing membrane proteins in their natural lipidic environment, but has been underutilized in recent structural genomics efforts. To improve the general applicability of electron crystallography, high-throughput methods are needed for screening large numbers of conditions for 2D crystallization, thereby increasing the chances of obtaining well ordered crystals and thus achieving atomic resolution. Previous reports describe devices for growing 2D crystals on a 96-well format. The current report describes a system for automated imaging of these screens with an electron microscope. Samples are inserted with a two-part robot: a SCARA robot for loading samples into the microscope holder, and a Cartesian robot for placing the holder into the electron microscope. A standard JEOL 1230 electron microscope was used, though a new tip was designed for the holder and a toggle switch controlling the airlock was rewired to allow robot control. A computer program for controlling the robots was integrated with the Leginon program, which provides a module for automated imaging of individual samples. The resulting images are uploaded into the Sesame laboratory information management system database where they are associated with other data relevant to the crystallization screen. PMID:20197095
Bulk and shear viscosities of the two-dimensional electron liquid in a doped graphene sheet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Principi, Alessandro; Vignale, Giovanni; Carrega, Matteo; Polini, Marco
2016-03-01
Hydrodynamic flow occurs in an electron liquid when the mean free path for electron-electron collisions is the shortest length scale in the problem. In this regime, transport is described by the Navier-Stokes equation, which contains two fundamental parameters, the bulk and shear viscosities. In this paper, we present extensive results for these transport coefficients in the case of the two-dimensional massless Dirac fermion liquid in a doped graphene sheet. Our approach relies on microscopic calculations of the viscosities up to second order in the strength of electron-electron interactions and in the high-frequency limit, where perturbation theory is applicable. We then use simple interpolation formulas that allow to reach the low-frequency hydrodynamic regime where perturbation theory is no longer directly applicable. The key ingredient for the interpolation formulas is the "viscosity transport time" τv, which we calculate in this paper. The transverse nature of the excitations contributing to τv leads to the suppression of scattering events with small momentum transfer, which are inherently longitudinal. Therefore, contrary to the quasiparticle lifetime, which goes as -1 /[T2ln(T /TF) ] , in the low-temperature limit we find τv˜1 /T2 .
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adjizian, Jean-Joseph; Lherbier, Aurélien; M.-M. Dubois, Simon; Botello-Méndez, Andrés Rafael; Charlier, Jean-Christophe
2016-01-01
Two-dimensional (2D) conjugated polymers exhibit electronic structures analogous to that of graphene with the peculiarity of π-π* bands which are fully symmetric and isolated. In the present letter, the suitability of these materials for electronic applications is analyzed and discussed. In particular, realistic 2D conjugated polymer networks with a structural disorder such as monomer vacancies are investigated. Indeed, during bottom-up synthesis, these irregularities are unavoidable and their impact on the electronic properties is investigated using both ab initio and tight-binding techniques. The tight-binding model is combined with a real space Kubo-Greenwood approach for the prediction of transport characteristics for monomer vacancy concentrations ranging from 0.5% to 2%. As expected, long mean free paths and high mobilities are predicted for low defect densities. At low temperatures and for high defect densities, strong localization phenomena originating from quantum interferences of multiple scattering paths are observed in the close vicinity of the Dirac energy region while the absence of localization effects is predicted away from this region suggesting a sharp mobility transition. These predictions show that 2D conjugated polymer networks are good candidates to pave the way for the ultimate scaling and performances of future molecular nanoelectronic devices.Two-dimensional (2D) conjugated polymers exhibit electronic structures analogous to that of graphene with the peculiarity of π-π* bands which are fully symmetric and isolated. In the present letter, the suitability of these materials for electronic applications is analyzed and discussed. In particular, realistic 2D conjugated polymer networks with a structural disorder such as monomer vacancies are investigated. Indeed, during bottom-up synthesis, these irregularities are unavoidable and their impact on the electronic properties is investigated using both ab initio and tight-binding techniques. The
Dielectric response of metal/SrTiO{sub 3}/two-dimensional electron liquid heterostructures
Mikheev, Evgeny; Raghavan, Santosh; Stemmer, Susanne
2015-08-17
Maximizing the effective dielectric constant of the gate dielectric stack is important for electrostatically controlling high carrier densities inherent to strongly correlated materials. SrTiO{sub 3} is uniquely suited for this purpose, given its extremely high dielectric constant, which can reach 10{sup 4}. Here, we present a systematic study of the thickness dependence of the dielectric response and leakage of SrTiO{sub 3} that is incorporated into a vertical structure on a high-carrier-density two-dimensional electron liquid (2DEL). A simple model can be used to interpret the data. The results show a need for improved interface control in the design of metal/SrTiO{sub 3}/2DEL devices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerhardts, Rolf R.
2015-11-01
Model calculations for commensurability oscillations of the low-field magnetoresistance of two-dimensional electron systems (2DES) in lateral superlattices, consisting of unit cells with an internal structure, are compared with recent experiments. The relevant harmonics of the effective modulation potential depend not only on the geometrical structure of the modulated unit cell, but also strongly on the nature of the modulation. While higher harmonics of an electrostatically generated surface modulation are exponentially damped at the position of the 2DES about 90 nm below the surface, no such damping appears for strain-induced modulation generated, e.g., by the deposition of stripes of calixarene resist on the surface before cooling down the sample.
Controllable electronic and magnetic properties in a two-dimensional germanene heterostructure.
Zhang, Run-Wu; Ji, Wei-Xiao; Zhang, Chang-Wen; Li, Sheng-Shi; Li, Ping; Wang, Pei-Ji; Li, Feng; Ren, Miao-Juan
2016-04-28
The control of spin without a magnetic field is one of the challenges in developing spintronic devices. Here, based on first-principles calculations, we predict a new kind of ferromagnetic half-metal (HM) with a Curie temperature of 244 K in a two-dimensional (2D) germanene van der Waals heterostructure (HTS). Its electronic band structures and magnetic properties can be tuned with respect to external strain and electric field. More interestingly, a transition from HM to bipolar-magnetic-semiconductor (BMS) to spin-gapless-semiconductor (SGS) in a HTS can be realized by adjusting the interlayer spacing. These findings provide a promising platform for 2D germanene materials, which hold great potential for application in nanoelectronic and spintronic devices. PMID:27076272
Field-effect-induced two-dimensional electron gas utilizing modulation-doped ohmic contacts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mondal, Sumit; Gardner, Geoffrey C.; Watson, John D.; Fallahi, Saeed; Yacoby, Amir; Manfra, Michael J.
2014-11-01
Modulation-doped AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures are utilized extensively in the study of quantum transport in nanostructures, but charge fluctuations associated with remote ionized dopants often produce deleterious effects. Electric field-induced carrier systems offer an attractive alternative if certain challenges can be overcome. We demonstrate a field-effect transistor in which the active channel is locally devoid of modulation-doping, but silicon dopant atoms are retained in the ohmic contact region to facilitate reliable low-resistance contacts. A high quality two-dimensional electron gas is induced by a field-effect and is tunable over a wide range of density. Device design, fabrication, and low temperature (T=0.3 K) transport data are reported.
Spin-dependent transport in a magnetic two-dimensional electron gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smorchkova, I. P.; Kikkawa, J. M.; Samarth, N.; Awschalom, D. D.
1998-07-01
Magneto-transport and magneto-optical probes are used to interrogate spin-dependent transport in magnetic heterostructures wherein a two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is exchange-coupled to local moments. At low temperatures, the significant s-d exchange-enhanced spin splitting in these “magnetic” 2DEGs is responsible for the observation of unusual transport properties such as a complete spin polarization of the gas at large Landau level filling factors and a pronounced, non-monotonic background magneto-resistance. Magneto-transport measurements of gated samples performed in a parallel field geometry are used to systematically study the variation of the magneto-resistance with sheet concentration, yielding new insights into the dependence of spin transport on the Fermi energy of the majority spin carriers.
A conceptual design study for a two-dimensional, electronically scanned thinned array radiometer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mutton, Philip; Chromik, Christopher C.; Dixon, Iain; Statham, Richard B.; Stillwagen, Frederic H.; Vontheumer, Alfred E.; Sasamoto, Washito A.; Garn, Paul A.; Cosgrove, Patrick A.; Ganoe, George G.
1993-01-01
A conceptual design for the Two-Dimensional, Electronically Steered Thinned Array Radiometer (ESTAR) is described. This instrument is a synthetic aperture microwave radiometer that operates in the L-band frequency range for the measurement of soil moisture and ocean salinity. Two auxiliary instruments, an 8-12 micron, scanning infrared radiometer and a 0.4-1.0 micron, charge coupled device (CCD) video camera, are included to provided data for sea surface temperature measurements and spatial registration of targets respectively. The science requirements were defined by Goddard Space Flight Center. Instrument and the spacecraft configurations are described for missions using the Pegasus and Taurus launch vehicles. The analyses and design trades described include: estimations of size, mass and power, instrument viewing coverage, mechanical design trades, structural and thermal analyses, data and communications performance assessments, and cost estimation.
Quantum Hall Effect in Black Phosphorus Two-dimensional Electron System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Likai; Yang, Fangyuan; Ye, Guo Jun; Zhang, Zuocheng; Zhu, Zengwei; Lou, Wenkai; Zhou, Xiaoying; Li, Liang; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Chang, Kai; Wang, Yayu; Chen, Xian Hui; Zhang, Yuanbo
The recent advent of black phosphorus has greatly enriched the material base of two-dimensional electron systems (2DES). In this work, we reached a milestone in black phosphorus research - the observation of integer quantum Hall (QH) effect in high quality black phosphorus 2DES. We achieved high carrier mobility by embedding the black phosphorus 2DES in a van der Waals heterostructure close to a graphite back gate; the graphite gate screens the impurity potential in the 2DES, and brings the Hall mobility up to 6000 cm2/Vs. The exceptional mobility enabled us, for the first time, to observe QH effect, and to gain important information on the energetics of the spin-split Landau levels in black phosphorus. Our results set the stage for further study on quantum transport and device application in the ultrahigh mobility regime.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Shiyong; Tan, Liang Z.; Wang, Weihua; Louie, Steven G.; Lin, Nian
2014-11-01
We demonstrate that Dirac fermions can be created and manipulated in a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). Using a cryogenic scanning tunneling microscope, we arranged coronene molecules one by one on a Cu(111) surface to construct artificial graphene nanoribbons with perfect zigzag (ZGNRs) or arm-chairedges and confirmed that new states localized along the edges emerge only in the ZGNRs. We further made and studied several typical defects, such as single vacancies, Stone-Wales defects, and dislocation lines, and found that all these defects introduce localized states at or near the Dirac point in the quasiparticle spectra. Our results confirm that artificial systems built on a 2DEG provide rigorous experimental verifications for several long-sought theoretical predications of aperiodic graphene structures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, K. F.; Liu, H. W.; Nagase, K.; Amakata, K.; Mishima, T. D.; Santos, M. B.; Hirayama, Y.
2011-12-01
We measure the spin polarization (P) of two-dimensional electron gases confined to an InSb quantum well using parallel and tilted magnetic fields. The nonlinear field dependence of P is prominent, leading to a direct deduction of the spin susceptibility (χs) over a wide range of P from 0.07 to 1. χs is found to increase nonlinearly with P and exceed χgm ∝ m*g* (where m* and g* are the effective mass and g factor) as commonly used in experiments. We show that χs and χgm obey a square law χs/χ0 = (χgm/χ0)2, where χ0 is the paramagnetic spin susceptibility.
Simulation of femtosecond two-dimensional electronic spectra of conical intersections.
Krčmář, Jindřich; Gelin, Maxim F; Domcke, Wolfgang
2015-08-21
We have simulated femtosecond two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectra for an excited-state conical intersection using the wave-function version of the equation-of-motion phase-matching approach. We show that 2D spectra at fixed values of the waiting time provide information on the structure of the vibronic eigenstates of the conical intersection, while the evolution of the spectra with the waiting time reveals predominantly ground-state wave-packet dynamics. The results show that 2D spectra of conical intersection systems differ significantly from those obtained for chromophores with well separated excited-state potential-energy surfaces. The spectral signatures which can be attributed to conical intersections are discussed. PMID:26298135
Tunable electronic and optical behaviors of two-dimensional germanium carbide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Zhuo; Li, Yangping; Li, Chenxi; Liu, Zhengtang
2016-03-01
The electronic and optical properties of two-dimensional graphene-like germanium carbide (2D-GeC) are calculated using first-principle calculation based on density functional theory. Monolayer GeC has a direct band gap of 2.19 eV. The imaginary part of the dielectric function shows a wide energy range of absorption spectrum for monolayer GeC. Tunable band structures are found for monolayer GeC through in-plane strain. In addition, the band structures and optical properties of bilayer GeC under strain along the c axis are analyzed. Multilayer GeC exhibits a direct band gap like monolayer GeC, and new options of interband transitions are found between layers. The results suggest that 2D-GeC could be a good candidate for optoelectronic such as light-emitting diodes, photodiodes, and solar cells.
Kim, Young-Cheol; Jang, Sung-Ho; Oh, Se-Jin; Lee, Hyo-Chang; Chung, Chin-Wook
2013-05-15
A real-time measurement method for two-dimensional (2D) spatial distribution of the electron temperature and plasma density was developed. The method is based on the floating harmonic method and the real time measurement is achieved with little plasma perturbation. 2D arrays of the sensors on a 300 mm diameter wafer-shaped printed circuit board with a high speed multiplexer circuit were used. Experiments were performed in an inductive discharge under various external conditions, such as powers, gas pressures, and different gas mixing ratios. The results are consistent with theoretical prediction. Our method can measure the 2D spatial distribution of plasma parameters on a wafer-level in real-time. This method can be applied to plasma diagnostics to improve the plasma uniformity of plasma reactors for plasma processing.
Imaginary time density-density correlations for two-dimensional electron gases at high density
Motta, M.; Galli, D. E.; Moroni, S.; Vitali, E.
2015-10-28
We evaluate imaginary time density-density correlation functions for two-dimensional homogeneous electron gases of up to 42 particles in the continuum using the phaseless auxiliary field quantum Monte Carlo method. We use periodic boundary conditions and up to 300 plane waves as basis set elements. We show that such methodology, once equipped with suitable numerical stabilization techniques necessary to deal with exponentials, products, and inversions of large matrices, gives access to the calculation of imaginary time correlation functions for medium-sized systems. We discuss the numerical stabilization techniques and the computational complexity of the methodology and we present the limitations related to the size of the systems on a quantitative basis. We perform the inverse Laplace transform of the obtained density-density correlation functions, assessing the ability of the phaseless auxiliary field quantum Monte Carlo method to evaluate dynamical properties of medium-sized homogeneous fermion systems.
Instability of the QHE induced by a nearby two-dimensional-electron system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jörger, C.; Wegscheider, W.; Dietsche, W.; von Klitzing, K.
1998-12-01
We report on the observation of structures in the longitudinal resistance of a single two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in a perpendicular magnetic field at filling factor ν≅1±0.1. The observed structures can be switched off by depleting a second 2DEG, which is separated from the first by a 30 nm or a 60 nm AlGaAs-barrier, using a gate-electrode. Measurements as a function of temperature and drive current indicate that these structures are precursors of the breakdown of the quantum-Hall-effect (QHE) at ν=1. The QHE becomes unstable when another 2DEG is in the neighbourhood. This effect is most likely due to macroscopic effects like screening, because other coupling processes between these two 2DEGs, such as frictional drag, are weak.
Effect of valley degeneracy on spin susceptibility of a two-dimensional quantum electron liquid
Kumar, Krishan Singh, Gurvinder; Moudgil, R. K.
2014-04-24
We investigate theoretically the effect of valley degeneracy on the spin susceptibility of a two-dimensional quantum electron liquid by determining the spin-polarization dependence of the ground-state energy within the selfconsistent mean-field approximation of Singwi et al. Specifically, we have studied a two valley system as realized in the Si (100) inversion layer. In qualitative agreement with the recent quantum Monte Carlo study by Marchi et al., we find that the valley degeneracy results in suppression of spin susceptibility over the single valley case. However, the quality of agreement diminishes with increasing value of the coupling parameter r{sub s}. This indicates the limitation of mean-field theory to deal with the exchange-correlation effects in the strong coupling region. But, our results show considerable improvement over the random-phase approximation which ignores these correlations completely.
Simulation of femtosecond two-dimensional electronic spectra of conical intersections
Krčmář, Jindřich; Gelin, Maxim F.; Domcke, Wolfgang
2015-08-21
We have simulated femtosecond two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectra for an excited-state conical intersection using the wave-function version of the equation-of-motion phase-matching approach. We show that 2D spectra at fixed values of the waiting time provide information on the structure of the vibronic eigenstates of the conical intersection, while the evolution of the spectra with the waiting time reveals predominantly ground-state wave-packet dynamics. The results show that 2D spectra of conical intersection systems differ significantly from those obtained for chromophores with well separated excited-state potential-energy surfaces. The spectral signatures which can be attributed to conical intersections are discussed.
Heisler, Ismael A. Moca, Roberta; Meech, Stephen R.; Camargo, Franco V. A.
2014-06-15
We report an improved experimental scheme for two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2D-ES) based solely on conventional optical components and fast data acquisition. This is accomplished by working with two choppers synchronized to a 10 kHz repetition rate amplified laser system. We demonstrate how scattering and pump-probe contributions can be removed during 2D measurements and how the pump probe and local oscillator spectra can be generated and saved simultaneously with each population time measurement. As an example the 2D-ES spectra for cresyl violet were obtained. The resulting 2D spectra show a significant oscillating signal during population evolution time which can be assigned to an intramolecular vibrational mode.
Decoherence mechanisms of Landau level THz excitations in two dimensional electron gases
Maissen, Curdin; Scalari, Giacomo; Faist, Jérôme; Reichl, Christian; Wegscheider, Werner
2013-12-04
We report coherent THz transmission measurements on different two dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) in magnetic field. The investigated 2DEGs form in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures. A short (1 ps) linearly polarized THz pulse is used to excite inter Landau level transitions. The circular polarized radiation emitted by the 2DEG is then measured by electro optic sampling of the linear component orthogonal to the pump pulse polarization. Here we present measurements on two high mobility samples with μ = 5×10{sup 6}cm{sup 2}/Vs and μ = 16×10{sup 6}cm{sup 2}/Vs respectively. The decay times of the emitted radiation are 5.5 ps and 9 ps respectively at 2 K.
Fermi Edge Polaritons in a Microcavity Containing a High Density Two-Dimensional Electron Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gabbay, A.; Preezant, Yulia; Cohen, E.; Ashkinadze, B. M.; Pfeiffer, L. N.
2007-10-01
Sharp, near band gap lines are observed in the reflection and photoluminescence spectra of GaAs/AlGaAs structures consisting of a modulation doped quantum well (MDQW) that contains a high density two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) and is embedded in a microcavity (MC). The energy dependence of these lines on the MC-confined photon energy shows level anticrossings and Rabi splittings very similar to those observed in systems of undoped QW’s embedded in a MC. The spectra are analyzed by calculating the optical susceptibility of the MDQW in the near band gap spectral range and using it within the transfer matrix method. The calculated reflection spectra indicate that the sharp spectral lines are due to k∥=0 cavity polaritons that are composed of e-h pair excitations just above the 2DEG Fermi edge and are strongly coupled to the MC-confined photons.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berl, M.; Tiemann, L.; Dietsche, W.; Karl, H.; Wegscheider, W.
2016-03-01
We present a reliable method to obtain patterned back gates compatible with high mobility molecular beam epitaxy via local oxygen ion implantation that suppresses the conductivity of an 80 nm thick silicon doped GaAs epilayer. Our technique was optimized to circumvent several constraints of other gating and implantation methods. The ion-implanted surface remains atomically flat which allows unperturbed epitaxial overgrowth. We demonstrate the practical application of this gating technique by using magneto-transport spectroscopy on a two-dimensional electron system (2DES) with a mobility exceeding 20 × 106 cm2/V s. The back gate was spatially separated from the Ohmic contacts of the 2DES, thus minimizing the probability for electrical shorts or leakage and permitting simple contacting schemes.
New perspectives for Rashba spin-orbit coupling.
Manchon, A; Koo, H C; Nitta, J; Frolov, S M; Duine, R A
2015-09-01
In 1984, Bychkov and Rashba introduced a simple form of spin-orbit coupling to explain the peculiarities of electron spin resonance in two-dimensional semiconductors. Over the past 30 years, Rashba spin-orbit coupling has inspired a vast number of predictions, discoveries and innovative concepts far beyond semiconductors. The past decade has been particularly creative, with the realizations of manipulating spin orientation by moving electrons in space, controlling electron trajectories using spin as a steering wheel, and the discovery of new topological classes of materials. This progress has reinvigorated the interest of physicists and materials scientists in the development of inversion asymmetric structures, ranging from layered graphene-like materials to cold atoms. This Review discusses relevant recent and ongoing realizations of Rashba physics in condensed matter. PMID:26288976
New perspectives for Rashba spin-orbit coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manchon, A.; Koo, H. C.; Nitta, J.; Frolov, S. M.; Duine, R. A.
2015-09-01
In 1984, Bychkov and Rashba introduced a simple form of spin-orbit coupling to explain the peculiarities of electron spin resonance in two-dimensional semiconductors. Over the past 30 years, Rashba spin-orbit coupling has inspired a vast number of predictions, discoveries and innovative concepts far beyond semiconductors. The past decade has been particularly creative, with the realizations of manipulating spin orientation by moving electrons in space, controlling electron trajectories using spin as a steering wheel, and the discovery of new topological classes of materials. This progress has reinvigorated the interest of physicists and materials scientists in the development of inversion asymmetric structures, ranging from layered graphene-like materials to cold atoms. This Review discusses relevant recent and ongoing realizations of Rashba physics in condensed matter.
Quantum well states in Rashba semiconductor BiTeI
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Yang; Zhu, Zhihuai; Hamidian, Mohammad; Chen, Pengcheng; Yam, Yau Chuen; Hoffman, Jennifer
BiTeI displays large Rashba-type spin splitting in both valence and conduction bands. In this work, we use scanning tunneling microscopy to reveal the bipolar nature of BiTeI, confirming the previously observed p-n junction electronic structure. We also discover two-dimensional quantum well states both below and above the semiconducting gap on the Te-terminated surface. This work sheds light on the origin of the giant Rashba splitting in the system. This effort is funded by the NSF Grant DMR-1410480.
Dahlberg, Peter D.; Norris, Graham J.; Wang, Cheng; Viswanathan, Subha; Singh, Ved P.; Engel, Gregory S.
2015-01-01
Energy transfer through large disordered antenna networks in photosynthetic organisms can occur with a quantum efficiency of nearly 100%. This energy transfer is facilitated by the electronic structure of the photosynthetic antennae as well as interactions between electronic states and the surrounding environment. Coherences in time-domain spectroscopy provide a fine probe of how a system interacts with its surroundings. In two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy, coherences can appear on both the ground and excited state surfaces revealing detailed information regarding electronic structure, system-bath coupling, energy transfer, and energetic coupling in complex chemical systems. Numerous studies have revealed coherences in isolated photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes, but these coherences have not been observed in vivo due to the small amplitude of these signals and the intense scatter from whole cells. Here, we present data acquired using ultrafast video-acquisition gradient-assisted photon echo spectroscopy to observe quantum beating signals from coherences in vivo. Experiments were conducted on isolated light harvesting complex II (LH2) from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, whole cells of R. sphaeroides, and whole cells of R. sphaeroides grown in 30% deuterated media. A vibronic coherence was observed following laser excitation at ambient temperature between the B850 and the B850∗ states of LH2 in each of the 3 samples with a lifetime of ∼40-60 fs. PMID:26373989
Long-lived spin plasmons in a spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agarwal, Amit; Polini, Marco; Vignale, Giovanni; Flatté, Michael E.
2014-10-01
Collective charge-density modes (plasmons) of the clean two-dimensional unpolarized electron gas are stable, for momentum conservation prevents them from decaying into single-particle excitations. Collective spin-density modes (spin plasmons) possess no similar protection and rapidly decay by production of electron-hole pairs. Nevertheless, if the electron gas has a sufficiently high degree of spin polarization (P >1/7, where P is the ratio of the equilibrium spin density and the total electron density, for a parabolic single-particle spectrum) we find that a long-lived spin plasmon—a collective mode in which the densities of up and down spins oscillate with opposite phases—can exist within a "pseudogap" of the single-particle excitation spectrum. The ensuing collectivization of the spin excitation spectrum is quite remarkable and should be directly visible in Raman-scattering experiments. The predicted mode could dramatically improve the efficiency of coupling between spin-wave-generating devices, such as spin-torque oscillators.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dahlberg, Peter D.; Norris, Graham J.; Wang, Cheng; Viswanathan, Subha; Singh, Ved P.; Engel, Gregory S.
2015-09-01
Energy transfer through large disordered antenna networks in photosynthetic organisms can occur with a quantum efficiency of nearly 100%. This energy transfer is facilitated by the electronic structure of the photosynthetic antennae as well as interactions between electronic states and the surrounding environment. Coherences in time-domain spectroscopy provide a fine probe of how a system interacts with its surroundings. In two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy, coherences can appear on both the ground and excited state surfaces revealing detailed information regarding electronic structure, system-bath coupling, energy transfer, and energetic coupling in complex chemical systems. Numerous studies have revealed coherences in isolated photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes, but these coherences have not been observed in vivo due to the small amplitude of these signals and the intense scatter from whole cells. Here, we present data acquired using ultrafast video-acquisition gradient-assisted photon echo spectroscopy to observe quantum beating signals from coherences in vivo. Experiments were conducted on isolated light harvesting complex II (LH2) from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, whole cells of R. sphaeroides, and whole cells of R. sphaeroides grown in 30% deuterated media. A vibronic coherence was observed following laser excitation at ambient temperature between the B850 and the B850∗ states of LH2 in each of the 3 samples with a lifetime of ˜40-60 fs.
Dahlberg, Peter D.; Norris, Graham J.; Wang, Cheng; Viswanathan, Subha; Singh, Ved P.; Engel, Gregory S.
2015-09-14
Energy transfer through large disordered antenna networks in photosynthetic organisms can occur with a quantum efficiency of nearly 100%. This energy transfer is facilitated by the electronic structure of the photosynthetic antennae as well as interactions between electronic states and the surrounding environment. Coherences in time-domain spectroscopy provide a fine probe of how a system interacts with its surroundings. In two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy, coherences can appear on both the ground and excited state surfaces revealing detailed information regarding electronic structure, system-bath coupling, energy transfer, and energetic coupling in complex chemical systems. Numerous studies have revealed coherences in isolated photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes, but these coherences have not been observed in vivo due to the small amplitude of these signals and the intense scatter from whole cells. Here, we present data acquired using ultrafast video-acquisition gradient-assisted photon echo spectroscopy to observe quantum beating signals from coherences in vivo. Experiments were conducted on isolated light harvesting complex II (LH2) from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, whole cells of R. sphaeroides, and whole cells of R. sphaeroides grown in 30% deuterated media. A vibronic coherence was observed following laser excitation at ambient temperature between the B850 and the B850{sup ∗} states of LH2 in each of the 3 samples with a lifetime of ∼40-60 fs.
Graphene/MoS2 hybrid technology for large-scale two-dimensional electronics.
Yu, Lili; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Ling, Xi; Santos, Elton J G; Shin, Yong Cheol; Lin, Yuxuan; Dubey, Madan; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Kong, Jing; Wang, Han; Palacios, Tomás
2014-06-11
Two-dimensional (2D) materials have generated great interest in the past few years as a new toolbox for electronics. This family of materials includes, among others, metallic graphene, semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides (such as MoS2), and insulating boron nitride. These materials and their heterostructures offer excellent mechanical flexibility, optical transparency, and favorable transport properties for realizing electronic, sensing, and optical systems on arbitrary surfaces. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel technology for constructing large-scale electronic systems based on graphene/molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) heterostructures grown by chemical vapor deposition. We have fabricated high-performance devices and circuits based on this heterostructure, where MoS2 is used as the transistor channel and graphene as contact electrodes and circuit interconnects. We provide a systematic comparison of the graphene/MoS2 heterojunction contact to more traditional MoS2-metal junctions, as well as a theoretical investigation, using density functional theory, of the origin of the Schottky barrier height. The tunability of the graphene work function with electrostatic doping significantly improves the ohmic contact to MoS2. These high-performance large-scale devices and circuits based on this 2D heterostructure pave the way for practical flexible transparent electronics. PMID:24810658
Electronic and magnetism properties of two-dimensional stacked nickel hydroxides and nitrides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Xiao-Lin; Tang, Zhen-Kun; Guo, Gen-Cai; Ma, Shangyi; Liu, Li-Min
2015-06-01
Two-dimensional (2D) layered materials receive a lot of attention because of their outstanding intrinsic properties and wide applications. In this work, the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of nickel hydroxides (Ni(OH)2) and nitrides XN (X = B, Al, and Ga) heterostructures are studied by first-principles calculations. The results show that the pristine monolayer Ni(OH)2 owns no macro magnetism with antiferromagnetic (AFM) coupling between two nearest Ni atoms, the electronic structure can be modulated through the heterostructures. The Ni(OH)2-GaN and Ni(OH)2-AlN heterostructures retain the AFM coupling, while Ni(OH)2-BN heterostructure have a larger magnetic moment with ferromagnetic (FM) coupling. The complete electron-hole separation is found in the Ni(OH)2-GaN heterostructure. The tunable electronic and magnetic properties of the Ni(OH)2-XN heterostructures open a new door to design the spintronic devices in the 2D stacked nanostructures.
A deterministic computational model for the two dimensional electron and photon transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Badavi, Francis F.; Nealy, John E.
2014-12-01
A deterministic (non-statistical) two dimensional (2D) computational model describing the transport of electron and photon typical of space radiation environment in various shield media is described. The 2D formalism is casted into a code which is an extension of a previously developed one dimensional (1D) deterministic electron and photon transport code. The goal of both 1D and 2D codes is to satisfy engineering design applications (i.e. rapid analysis) while maintaining an accurate physics based representation of electron and photon transport in space environment. Both 1D and 2D transport codes have utilized established theoretical representations to describe the relevant collisional and radiative interactions and transport processes. In the 2D version, the shield material specifications are made more general as having the pertinent cross sections. In the 2D model, the specification of the computational field is in terms of a distance of traverse z along an axial direction as well as a variable distribution of deflection (i.e. polar) angles θ where -π/2<θ<π/2, and corresponding symmetry is assumed for the range of azimuth angles (0<φ<2π). In the transport formalism, a combined mean-free-path and average trajectory approach is used. For candidate shielding materials, using the trapped electron radiation environments at low Earth orbit (LEO), geosynchronous orbit (GEO) and Jupiter moon Europa, verification of the 2D formalism vs. 1D and an existing Monte Carlo code are presented.
Electronic Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometry in two-dimensional topological insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferraro, D.; Wahl, C.; Rech, J.; Jonckheere, T.; Martin, T.
2014-02-01
The edge states of a two-dimensional topological insulator are characterized by their helicity, a very remarkable property which is related to the time-reversal symmetry and the topology of the underlying system. We theoretically investigate a Hong-Ou-Mandel-type setup as a tool to probe it. Collisions of two electrons with the same spin show a Pauli dip, analogous to the one obtained in the integer quantum Hall case. Moreover, the collisions between electrons of opposite spin also lead to a dip, known as Z2 dip, which is a direct consequence of the constraints imposed by time-reversal symmetry. In contrast to the integer quantum Hall case, the visibility of these dips is reduced by the presence of the additional edge channels, and crucially depends on the properties of the quantum point contact. As a unique feature of this system, we show the possibility of three-electron interference, which leads to a total suppression of the noise independently of the point contact configuration. This is assured by the peculiar interplay between Fermi statistics and topology. This work intends to extend the domain of applicability of electron quantum optics.
Synthesis and applications of two-dimensional hexagonal boron nitride in electronics manufacturing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bao, Jie; Jeppson, Kjell; Edwards, Michael; Fu, Yifeng; Ye, Lilei; Lu, Xiuzhen; Liu, Johan
2016-01-01
In similarity to graphene, two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) has some remarkable properties, such as mechanical robustness and high thermal conductivity. In addition, hBN has superb chemical stability and it is electrically insulating. 2D hBN has been considered a promising material for many applications in electronics, including 2D hBN based substrates, gate dielectrics for graphene transistors and interconnects, and electronic packaging insulators. This paper reviews the synthesis, transfer and fabrication of 2D hBN films, hBN based composites and hBN-based van der Waals heterostructures. In particular, this review focuses on applications in manufacturing electronic devices where the insulating and thermal properties of hBN can potentially be exploited. 2D hBN and related composite systems are emerging as new and industrially important materials, which could address many challenges in future complex electronics devices and systems. [Figure not available: see fulltext.
Spin current swapping and Hanle spin Hall effect in a two-dimensional electron gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Ka; Raimondi, R.; Vignale, G.
2015-07-01
We analyze the effect known as "spin current swapping" (SCS) due to electron-impurity scattering in a uniform spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gas. In this effect a primary spin current Jia (lower index for spatial direction, upper index for spin direction) generates a secondary spin current Jai if i ≠a , or Jjj, with j ≠i , if i =a . Contrary to naive expectation, the homogeneous spin current associated with the uniform drift of the spin polarization in the electron gas does not generate a swapped spin current by the SCS mechanism. Nevertheless, a swapped spin current will be generated, if a magnetic field is present, by a completely different mechanism, namely, the precession of the spin Hall spin current in the magnetic field. We refer to this second mechanism as Hanle spin Hall effect, and we notice that it can be observed in an experiment in which a homogeneous drift current is passed through a uniformly magnetized electron gas. In contrast to this, we show that an unambiguous observation of SCS requires inhomogeneous spin currents, such as those that are associated with spin diffusion in a metal, and no magnetic field. An experimental setup for the observation of the SCS is therefore proposed.
Electric instability in a two-dimensional electron gas system under high magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Ching-Ping; Chi, C. C.; Chen, Jeng-Chung
2015-11-01
We present a study of electric instability in a two-dimensional electron gas system under high magnetic fields. As the applied dc electric current exceeds a threshold value It h, we find that the longitudinal magnetoresistance Rx x fluctuates and exhibits negative differential resistivity (NDR). The observed instability occurs only in well-separated low-lying Landau levels (LLs) with a filling factor ν ≤2 , and the onset of NDR can be described by the theory of Andreev et al. We find that It h increases with increasing magnetic field B and the lattice temperature TL. In contrast, NDR becomes more pronounced at higher B , but gradually diminishes with increasing TL. Data analysis suggests that NDR is actuated by the suppression of Rx x with increasing electric field, which can be understood in terms of the capability of the spectral diffusion of electrons and of electron transfer to higher levels via inelastic inter-LLs scattering in the limit of one-occupied LL.
Adjizian, Jean-Joseph; Lherbier, Aurélien; M-M Dubois, Simon; Botello-Méndez, Andrés Rafael; Charlier, Jean-Christophe
2016-01-21
Two-dimensional (2D) conjugated polymers exhibit electronic structures analogous to that of graphene with the peculiarity of π-π* bands which are fully symmetric and isolated. In the present letter, the suitability of these materials for electronic applications is analyzed and discussed. In particular, realistic 2D conjugated polymer networks with a structural disorder such as monomer vacancies are investigated. Indeed, during bottom-up synthesis, these irregularities are unavoidable and their impact on the electronic properties is investigated using both ab initio and tight-binding techniques. The tight-binding model is combined with a real space Kubo-Greenwood approach for the prediction of transport characteristics for monomer vacancy concentrations ranging from 0.5% to 2%. As expected, long mean free paths and high mobilities are predicted for low defect densities. At low temperatures and for high defect densities, strong localization phenomena originating from quantum interferences of multiple scattering paths are observed in the close vicinity of the Dirac energy region while the absence of localization effects is predicted away from this region suggesting a sharp mobility transition. These predictions show that 2D conjugated polymer networks are good candidates to pave the way for the ultimate scaling and performances of future molecular nanoelectronic devices. PMID:26692370
High Pressure Studies of the Second Landau Level Region of a Two-Dimensional Electron System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schreiber, Katherine; Samkharadze, Nodar; Gardner, Geoffrey; Fradkin, Eduardo; Manfra, Michael; Csathy, Gabor
Hydrostatic pressure has become a prevalent tool in condensed matter systems because the application of pressure to crystalline structures results in the shrinking of the lattice constant. This allows one to tune the Bloch wavefunction of the electrons and therefore all band parameters such as effective carrier mass, carrier density, and effective g-factor. In this manner, pressure acts as a probe into various strongly interacting electronic states. Motivated in particular by the capability to discern the spin polarization of quantum Hall states, we apply hydrostatic pressure up to 10 kbar to a two dimensional electron system (2DES) in a high-mobility GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well. This 2DES is subjected to milliKelvin temperatures and strong magnetic fields to observe the effect of pressure on fractional quantum Hall states, especially those in higher Landau levels, a regime not previously studied under pressure. We report our findings, focusing on the observation of a pressure-driven transition from a fractional quantum Hall state to the quantum Hall nematic phase in the second Landau level. Grants: Researchers at Purdue and N. Samkharadze: US DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, DE-SC0006671. E. Fradkin: US NSF, DMR 1408713.
Two-dimensional GeS with tunable electronic properties via external electric field and strain.
Zhang, Shengli; Wang, Ning; Liu, Shangguo; Huang, Shiping; Zhou, Wenhan; Cai, Bo; Xie, Meiqiu; Yang, Qun; Chen, Xianping; Zeng, Haibo
2016-07-01
Experimentally, GeS nanosheets have been successfully synthesized using vapor deposition processes and the one-pot strategy. Quite recently, GeS monolayer, the isoelectronic counterpart of phosphorene, has attracted much attention due to promising properties. By means of comprehensive first-principles calculations, we studied the stability and electronic properties of GeS monolayer. Especially, electric field and in-plane strain were used to tailor its electronic band gap. Upon applying electric field, the band gap of GeS monolayer greatly reduces and a semiconductor-metal transition happens under the application of a certain external electric field. Our calculations reveal that the band gaps of GeS monolayer are rather sensitive to the external electric field. On the other hand, for GeS under external strain, quite interestingly, we found that the band gap presents an approximately linear increase not only under compression strain but also under tensile strain from -10% to 10%. For biaxial compressive and tensile strains, the band gap follows the same trend as that of the uniaxial in the zigzag x direction. The present results provide a simple and effective route to tune the electronic properties of GeS monolayer over a wide range and also facilitate the design of GeS-based two-dimensional devices. PMID:27232104
Schmidt-Krey, Ingeborg; Rubinstein, John L.
2010-01-01
Membrane protein structure and function can be studied by two powerful and highly complementary electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) methods: electron crystallography of two-dimensional (2D) crystals and single particle analysis of detergent-solubilized protein complexes. To obtain the highest-possible resolution data from membrane proteins, whether prepared as 2D crystals or single particles, cryo-EM samples must be vitrified with great care. Grid preparation for cryo-EM of 2D crystals is possible by back-injection, the carbon sandwich technique, drying in sugars before cooling in the electron microscope, or plunge-freezing. Specimen grids for single particle cryo-EM studies of membrane proteins are usually produced by plunge-freezing protein solutions, supported either by perforated or a continuous carbon film substrate. This review outlines the different techniques available and the suitability of each method for particular samples and studies. Experimental considerations in sample preparation and preservation include the protein itself and the presence of lipid or detergent. The appearance of cryo-EM samples in different conditions is also discussed. PMID:20678942
Two-dimensional GeS with tunable electronic properties via external electric field and strain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Shengli; Wang, Ning; Liu, Shangguo; Huang, Shiping; Zhou, Wenhan; Cai, Bo; Xie, Meiqiu; Yang, Qun; Chen, Xianping; Zeng, Haibo
2016-07-01
Experimentally, GeS nanosheets have been successfully synthesized using vapor deposition processes and the one-pot strategy. Quite recently, GeS monolayer, the isoelectronic counterpart of phosphorene, has attracted much attention due to promising properties. By means of comprehensive first-principles calculations, we studied the stability and electronic properties of GeS monolayer. Especially, electric field and in-plane strain were used to tailor its electronic band gap. Upon applying electric field, the band gap of GeS monolayer greatly reduces and a semiconductor–metal transition happens under the application of a certain external electric field. Our calculations reveal that the band gaps of GeS monolayer are rather sensitive to the external electric field. On the other hand, for GeS under external strain, quite interestingly, we found that the band gap presents an approximately linear increase not only under compression strain but also under tensile strain from ‑10% to 10%. For biaxial compressive and tensile strains, the band gap follows the same trend as that of the uniaxial in the zigzag x direction. The present results provide a simple and effective route to tune the electronic properties of GeS monolayer over a wide range and also facilitate the design of GeS-based two-dimensional devices.
Yang, Ji-Hui; Zhang, Yueyu; Yin, Wan-Jian; Gong, X G; Yakobson, Boris I; Wei, Su-Huai
2016-02-10
Two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors can be very useful for novel electronic and optoelectronic applications because of their good material properties. However, all current 2D materials have shortcomings that limit their performance. As a result, new 2D materials are highly desirable. Using atomic transmutation and differential evolution global optimization methods, we identified two group IV-VI 2D materials, Pma2-SiS and silicene sulfide. Pma2-SiS is found to be both chemically, energetically, and thermally stable. Most importantly, Pma2-SiS has shown good electronic and optoelectronic properties, including direct bandgaps suitable for solar cells, good mobility for nanoelectronics, good flexibility of property tuning by layer control and applied strain, and good air stability as well. Therefore, Pma2-SiS is expected to be a promising 2D material in the field of 2D electronics and optoelectronics. The designing principles demonstrated in identifying these two tantalizing examples have great potential to accelerate the finding of new functional 2D materials. PMID:26741149
Graphene-MoS2 Hybrid Technology for Large-Scale Two-Dimensional Electronics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Lili; Wang, Han; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Ling, Xi; Shin, Yong-Cheol; Santos, Elton J. G.; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Kong, Jing; Palacios, Tomas
2014-03-01
Two-dimensional (2D) materials have generated great interest in the last few years as a new toolbox for electronics. This family of materials includes, among others, metallic graphene, semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides (such as MoS2) and insulating Boron Nitride. These materials and their heterostructures offer excellent mechanical flexibility, optical transparency and favorable transport properties for realizing electronic, sensing and optical systems on arbitrary surfaces. In this work, we develop several etch stop layer technologies that allow the fabrication of complex 2D devices and present for the first time the large scale integration of graphene with molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) , both grown using the fully scalable CVD technique. Transistor devices and logic circuits with MoS2 channel and graphene as contacts and interconnects are constructed and show high performances. In addition, the graphene/MoS2 heterojunction contact has been systematically compared with MoS2-metal junctions experimentally and studied using density functional theory. The tunability of the graphene work function significantly improves the ohmic contact to MoS2. These high-performance large-scale devices and circuits based on 2D heterostructure pave the way for practical flexible transparent electronics in the future. The authors acknowledge financial support from the Office of Naval Research (ONR) Young Investigator Program, the ONR GATE MURI program, and the Army Research Laboratory. This research has made use of the MI.
Abe, Kazuhiro
2016-01-01
Electron crystallography of two-dimensional (2D) crystals has provided important information on the structural biology of P-type ATPases. Here, I describe the procedure for making 2D crystals of gastric H(+),K(+)-ATPase purified from pig stomach. The 2D crystals are produced by dialyzing detergent-solubilized H(+),K(+)-ATPase mixed with synthetic phospholipids. Removal of the detergent induces the reconstitution of H(+),K(+)-ATPase molecules into the lipid bilayer. In the presence of fluorinated phosphate analogs, or in combination with transporting cations or the specific antagonist SCH28080, H(+),K(+)-ATPase forms crystalline 2D arrays. The molecular conformation and morphology of the 2D crystals vary depending on the crystallizing conditions. Using these 2D crystals, three-dimensional structures of H(+),K(+)-ATPase can be generated by data correction from ice-embedded 2D crystals using cryo-electron microscopy, followed by processing the recorded images using electron crystallography methods. PMID:26695054
Electronic and Optical Properties of Two-dimensional Covalent Organic Frameworks
Zhou, Yungang; Wang, Zhiguo; Yang, Ping; Zu, Xiaotao; Gao, Fei
2012-07-20
Two-dimensional covalent organic film with macrocyclic network under simple solvothermal conditions was recently synthesized experimentally [Colson, J. W.; et al. Science 2011, 332, 228], which offers immense potentials for optoelectronic applications as in the case of graphene. Here we systematically investigate the electronic and optical properties of such novel covalent organic frameworks (COF-5, TP-COF and NiPc PBBA-COF) as free-standing sheets using density-functional theory. The results shed considerable light on the nature of spatial carrier confinement with band offset. COF-5 exhibits a type-II heterojunction alignment with the significant valence and conduction band offsets, suggesting an effective spatial carrier separation of electrons and holes. In TP-COF, the valence offset is close to zero related to the dispersed distribution of photoexcited holes over the entire structure, while the conduction-band offset is still remarkable, indicating the effective confinement of photoexcited electrons. NiPc PBBACOF presents a type-I heterojunction alignment where the band-edged wave functions are localized in the same region, achieving the effective spatial carrier congregation. The calculated absorption peaks of the optical absorption of TP-COF and NiPc-PBBA COF frameworks are in agreement with experimental measurements, thus providing theoretical insights into experimental observed transmission spectra of these frameworks.
Transmission electron microscopy of structural disorder in two-dimensional materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Pinshane Yeh
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of two-dimensional materials (2D) offers an unprecedented opportunity to study disordered systems down to the single-atom level. The reduced dimensionality of these systems provides a two-fold opportunity: first, 2D materials serve as model systems for exploring direct correlations between the structure and properties of individual atomic features. Second, these studies enable the development of new 2D materials and devices with precisely tailored optical, electronic, and mechanical properties. The experiments presented in this thesis show the first atomic-resolution images of extended one- and two-dimensional disorder in 2D materials and the extraordinary range of consequences they have on the local materials properties. The thesis begins with studies that probe the structure and properties of the 1D defects that make up grain boundaries in atomically-thin layers of graphene and molybdenum disulfide. These experiments span length scales across five orders of magnitude to image every atom at the grain boundaries through atomic-resolution scanning TEM and rapidly map the location, orientation, and shape of several hundred grains with dark-field TEM. Correlating these images with local probes of electrical, mechanical, and optical properties reveals that grain boundaries have effects that range from the unmeasurable to the extreme. A second set of projects utilizes aberration-corrected electron microscopy of a newly discovered 2D polymorph of SiO2 to conduct some of the first atomic resolution studies of glass. Images of the atomic structure of 2D SiO2 strikingly resemble Zachariasen's foundational cartoon models of glasses and reveal distributions of medium-range ordering that will be critical for refining theoretical models for how and why glasses form. Additional experiments use the electron beam to excite and image atomic rearrangements in this 2D SiO2, producing dramatic videos that visualize the structural building blocks
a Study of a Two-Dimensional Electron System in the Variable-Range Hopping Regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Xuelong
A two-dimensional electron system is investigated in a gated heterostructure of GaAs/rm Al _{x}Ga_{1-x}As in the variable-range hopping regime. We report the first convincing evidence of a Coulomb gap in the density of states in a two-dimensional electron system and the screening of the Coulomb gap by a metallic gate for large hopping lengths. The Coulomb gap in the density of states is observed from measurements of the hopping conductivity. For large hopping lengths, Mott hopping is observed. The general expression for the hopping conductivity can be described in the form sigma_{xx} = sigma_1(T_{p}/T)^ {0.8} exp(-T_{p}/T) ^{p}, with p = 1/2 in the Coulomb gap and p = 1/3 in the Mott hopping regimes, respectively. For the temperature range investigated the transition between the Coulomb gap and Mott hopping regimes occurs at localization lengths in the range of 1 mum, which is about three times the separation of electron layer from the metallic gate. The behavior of the transition is in good agreement with the theoretical predictions by Aleiner and Shklovskii. The scaled conductivity prefactor sigma_1 is found to be independent of magnetic field but dependent on the degree of disorder. A divergence of the dielectric constant with localization length is not observed in this experiment. The dependence of the localization length on the electron density is consistent with the scaling theory of localization. A giant negative magnetoresistance with R(0)/R(B) as great as 100 is observed in the variable-range hopping regime at 24 mK. The experiment agrees with the quantum interference model in the sense that the magnetoresistance varies with the magnetic field as ln(R(B)/R(0)) = - gamma r_{M}/l_{B} ~ - B^{1/2} at low fields, where r_{M} is the Mott hopping length and l_ {B} = sqrt{eB/h} is the magnetic length. The numerical parameter gamma extrapolated from the experiment increases with an increase in the degree of disorder. This contradicts the prediction from a computer
Entanglement of electronic subbands and coherent superposition of spin states in a Rashba nanoloop
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Safaiee, R.; Golshan, M. M.
2011-10-01
The present work is concerned with an analysis of the entanglement between the electronic coherent superpositions of spin states and subbands in a quasi-one-dimensional Rashba nanoloop acted upon by a strong perpendicular magnetic field. We explicitly include the confining potential and the Rashba spin-orbit coupling into the Hamiltonian and then proceed to calculate the von Neumann entropy, a measure of entanglement, as a function of time. An analysis of the von Neumann entropy demonstrates that, as expected, the dynamics of entanglement strongly depends upon the initial state and electronic subband excitations. When the initial state is a pure one formed by a subband excitation and the z-component of spin states, the entanglement exhibits periodic oscillations with local minima (dips). On the other hand, when the initial state is formed by the subband states and a coherent superposition of spin states, the entanglement still periodically oscillates, exhibiting stronger correlations, along with elimination of the dips. Moreover, in the long run, the entanglement for the latter case undergoes the phenomenon of collapse-revivals. This behaviour is absent for the first case of the initial states. We also show that the degree of entanglement strongly depends upon the electronic subband excitations in both cases.
Controlling the two-dimensional electron gas at complex oxide interfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Janotti, Anderson
2014-03-01
Heterostructures of complex oxides have attracted great interest since the demonstration of a high-density two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at the SrTiO3/LaAlO3 (STO/LAO) interface. Still, the density of the 2DEG is only one tenth of what was expected from simple electron counting, i.e., 1/2 electron per unit-cell area. Since then, the origin and amount of the charge, the electrical properties of the 2DEG, the role of native defects, and the abrupt variation of the electron density with the thickness of the LAO top layer have been the subject of numerous theoretical and experimental studies. More recently, a 2DEG with the full density of 1/2 electron per unit cell area has been observed at the interface between the band insulator STO and the Mott insulator GdTiO3 (GTO), shedding additional light on the origin of the 2DEG, and raising important questions on the differences between the STO/LAO and STO/GTO heterostructures. Here we will discuss the similarities of the 2DEG at the STO/LAO and STO/GTO heterostructures from the perspective of first-principles simulations. We will address the differences in band alignments in the STO/LAO and STO/GTO heterostructures, and how the 2DEG is affected by the surface of the LAO top layer in the STO/LAO, but apparently not in the STO/GTO case. Finally, we will also discuss how heterostructures can be used to drastically alter the electronic structure of STO, transforming it from a band insulator into a Mott insulator. This work was performed in collaboration with Lars Bjaalie, Luke Gordon, Burak Himmetoglu, and Chris G. Van de Walle, and supported by ARO and NSF.
Li Hong; Liu Hui; Yu Daren; Zhang Fengkui
2010-07-15
It is demonstrated that the features of measured electron current profile in the near-wall region of a Hall effect thruster are mainly due to the substantive breakdown of electron Hall drifts caused by the azimuthal field of the two-dimensional dynamic sheath. This kind of cross-field diffusion shows its close connection with the anomalous electron transport.
Khanin, Yu. N.; Vdovin, E. E.; Makarovsky, O.; Henini, M.
2013-09-15
Magnetotunneling between two-dimensional GaAs/InAs electron systems in vertical resonant tunneling GaAs/InAs/AlAs heterostructures is studied. A new-type of singularity in the tunneling density of states, specifically a dip at the Fermi level, is found; this feature is drastically different from that observed previously for the case of tunneling between two-dimensional GaAs tunnel systems in terms of both the kind of functional dependence and the energy and temperature parameters. As before, this effect manifests itself in the suppression of resonant tunneling in a narrow range near zero bias voltage in a high magnetic field parallel to the current direction. Magnetic-field and temperature dependences of the effect's parameters are obtained; these dependences are compared with available theoretical and experimental data. The observed effect can be caused by a high degree of disorder in two-dimensional correlated electron systems as a result of the introduction of structurally imperfect strained InAs layers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mitin, V.; Ramaswamy, R.; Wang, K.; Choi, J. K.; Pakmehr, M.; Muraviev, A.; Shur, M.; Gaska, R.; Pogrebnyak, V.; Sergeev, A.
2012-05-01
We present the results of design, fabrication, and characterization of the room-temperature, low electron heat capacity hot-electron THz microbolometers based on two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures. The 2DEG sensor is integrated with a broadband THz antenna and a coplanar waveguide. Devices with various patterning of 2DEG have been fabricated and tested. Optimizing the material properties, geometrical parameters of the 2DEG, and antenna design, we match the impedances of the sensor and antenna to reach strong coupling of THz radiation to 2DEG via the Drude absorption. Testing the detectors, we found that the THz-induced photocurrent, ΔI, is proportional to the bias current, I, and the temperature derivative of the resistance and inversely proportional to the area of 2DEG sensor, S. The analysis allowed us to identify the mechanism of the 2DEG response to THz radiation as electron heating. The responsivity of our sensors, normalized to the bias current and to unit area of 2DEG, R*= ΔI•S/ (I•P), is ~ 103 W-1 μm2. So, for our typical sensor with an area of 1000 μm2 and bias currents of ~ 10 mA, the responsivity is ~ 0.01 A/W. The measurements of mixing at sub-terahertz frequencies showed that the mixing bandwidth is above 2 GHz, which corresponds to a characteristic electron relaxation time to be shorter than 0.7 ps. Further decrease of the size of 2DEG sensors will increase the responsivity as well as allows for decreasing the local oscillator power in heterodyne applications.
Hexagonal boron nitride: Ubiquitous layered dielectric for two-dimensional electronics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jain, Nikhil
Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), a layer-structured dielectric with very similar crystalline lattice to that of graphene, has been studied as a ubiquitous dielectric for two-dimensional electronics. While 2D materials may lead to future platform for electronics, traditional thin-film dielectrics (e.g., various oxides) make highly invasive interface with graphene. Multiple key roles of h-BN in graphene electronics are explored in this thesis. 2D graphene/h-BN heterostructures are designed and implemented in diverse configurations in which h-BN is evaluated as a supporting substrate, a gate dielectric, a passivation layer, or an interposing barrier in "3D graphene" superlattice. First, CVD-grown graphene on h-BN substrate shows improved conductivity and resilience to thermally induced breakdown, as compared with graphene on SiO2, potentially useful for high-speed graphene devices and on-chip interconnects. h-BN is also explored as a gate dielectric for graphene field-effect transistor with 2D heterostructure design. The dielectric strength and tunneling behavior of h-BN are investigated, confirming its robust nature. Next, h-BN is studied as a passivation layer for graphene electronics. In addition to significant improvement in current density and breakdown threshold, fully encapsulated graphene exhibits minimal environmental sensitivity, a key benefit to 2D materials which have only surfaces. Lastly, reduction in interlayer carrier scattering is observed in a double-layered graphene setup with ultrathin h-BN multilayer as an interposing layer. The DFT simulation and Raman spectral analysis indicate reduction in interlayer scattering. The decoupling of the two graphene monolayers is further confirmed by electrical characterization, as compared with other referencing mono- and multilayer configurations. The heterostructure serves as the building element in "3D graphene", a versatile platform for future electronics.
Nazir, Safdar; Behtash, Maziar; Yang, Kesong
2015-03-21
We explore the possibility of achieving highly confined two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) within one single atomic layer through a comprehensive comparison study on three prototypical perovskite heterostructures, LaAlO{sub 3}/ATiO{sub 3} (A = Ca, Sr, and Ba), using first-principles electronic structure calculations. We predict that the heterostructure LaAlO{sub 3}/BaTiO{sub 3} has a highly confined 2DEG within a single atomic layer of the substrate BaTiO{sub 3}, and exhibits relatively higher interfacial charge carrier density and larger magnetic moments than the well-known LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} system. The long Ti-O bond length in the ab-plane of the LaAlO{sub 3}/BaTiO{sub 3} heterostructure is responsible for the superior charge confinement. We propose BaTiO{sub 3} as an exceptional substrate material for 2DEG systems with potentially superior properties.
Pelliccione, M.; Bartel, J.; Goldhaber-Gordon, D.; Sciambi, A.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.
2014-11-03
Correlated electron states in high mobility two-dimensional electron systems (2DESs), including charge density waves and microemulsion phases intermediate between a Fermi liquid and Wigner crystal, are predicted to exhibit complex local charge order. Existing experimental studies, however, have mainly probed these systems at micron to millimeter scales rather than directly mapping spatial organization. Scanning probes should be well-suited to study the spatial structure of these states, but high mobility 2DESs are found at buried semiconductor interfaces, beyond the reach of conventional scanning tunneling microscopy. Scanning techniques based on electrostatic coupling to the 2DES deliver important insights, but generally with resolution limited by the depth of the 2DES. In this letter, we present our progress in developing a technique called “virtual scanning tunneling microscopy” that allows local tunneling into a high mobility 2DES. Using a specially designed bilayer GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure where the tunnel coupling between two separate 2DESs is tunable via electrostatic gating, combined with a scanning gate, we show that the local tunneling can be controlled with sub-250 nm resolution.
Stability of trions in strongly spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gases
Crooker, S. A.; Johnston-Halperin, E.; Awschalom, D. D.; Knobel, R.; Samarth, N.
2000-06-15
Low-temperature magnetophotoluminescence studies of negatively charged excitons (X{sub s}{sup -} trions) are reported for n-type modulation-doped ZnSe/Zn(Cd,Mn)Se quantum wells over a wide range of Fermi energy and spin splitting. The magnetic composition is chosen such that these magnetic two-dimensional electron gases are highly spin polarized even at low magnetic fields, throughout the entire range of electron densities studied (5x10{sup 10} to 6.5x10{sup 11} cm-2). This spin polarization has a pronounced effect on the formation and energy of X{sub s}{sup -}, with the striking result that the trion ionization energy (the energy separating X{sub s}{sup -} from the neutral exciton) follows the temperature- and magnetic field-tunable Fermi energy. The large Zeeman energy destabilizes X{sub s}{sup -} at the {nu}=1 quantum limit, beyond which a separate photoluminescence peak appears and persists to 60 T, suggesting the formation of spin-triplet charged excitons. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pelliccione, M.; Bartel, J.; Sciambi, A.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.; Goldhaber-Gordon, D.
2014-11-01
Correlated electron states in high mobility two-dimensional electron systems (2DESs), including charge density waves and microemulsion phases intermediate between a Fermi liquid and Wigner crystal, are predicted to exhibit complex local charge order. Existing experimental studies, however, have mainly probed these systems at micron to millimeter scales rather than directly mapping spatial organization. Scanning probes should be well-suited to study the spatial structure of these states, but high mobility 2DESs are found at buried semiconductor interfaces, beyond the reach of conventional scanning tunneling microscopy. Scanning techniques based on electrostatic coupling to the 2DES deliver important insights, but generally with resolution limited by the depth of the 2DES. In this letter, we present our progress in developing a technique called "virtual scanning tunneling microscopy" that allows local tunneling into a high mobility 2DES. Using a specially designed bilayer GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure where the tunnel coupling between two separate 2DESs is tunable via electrostatic gating, combined with a scanning gate, we show that the local tunneling can be controlled with sub-250 nm resolution.
2015-01-01
Time-resolved two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectra (ES) tracking the evolution of the excited state manifolds of the retinal chromophore have been simulated along the photoisomerization pathway in bovine rhodopsin, using a state-of-the-art hybrid QM/MM approach based on multiconfigurational methods. Simulations of broadband 2D spectra provide a useful picture of the overall detectable 2D signals from the near-infrared (NIR) to the near-ultraviolet (UV). Evolution of the stimulated emission (SE) and excited state absorption (ESA) 2D signals indicates that the S1 → SN (with N ≥ 2) ESAs feature a substantial blue-shift only after bond inversion and partial rotation along the cis → trans isomerization angle, while the SE rapidly red-shifts during the photoinduced skeletal relaxation of the polyene chain. Different combinations of pulse frequencies are proposed in order to follow the evolution of specific ESA signals. These include a two-color 2DVis/NIR setup especially suited for tracking the evolution of the S1 → S2 transitions that can be used to discriminate between different photochemical mechanisms of retinal photoisomerization as a function of the environment. The reported results are consistent with the available time-resolved pump–probe experimental data, and may be used for the design of more elaborate transient 2D electronic spectroscopy techniques. PMID:24794143
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Guoxiong; De, Debtanu; Hadjiev, Viktor G.; Peng, Haibing
2014-06-01
Layered two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors beyond graphene have been emerging as potential building blocks for the next-generation electronic/photonic applications. Representative metal chalcogenides, including the widely studied MoS2, possess similar layered crystal structures with weak interaction between adjacent layers, thus allowing the formation of stable thin-layer crystals with thickness down to a few or even single atomic layer. Other important chalcogenides, involving earth-abundant and environment-friendly materials desirable for sustainable applications, include SnS2 (band gap: 2.1 eV) and SnS (band gap: 1.1 eV). So far, commonly adopted for research purpose are mechanical and liquid exfoliation methods for creating thin layers of such 2D semiconductors. Most recently, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was attracting significant attention as a practical method for producing thin films or crystal grains of MoS2. However, critical yet still absent is an effective experimental approach for controlling the positions of thin crystal grains of layered 2D semiconductors during the CVD process. Here we report the controlled CVD synthesis of thin crystal arrays of representative layered semiconductors (including SnS2 and SnS) at designed locations on chip, promising large-scale optoelectronic applications. Our work opens a window for future practical applications of layered 2D semiconductors in integrated nano-electronic/photonic systems.
'Metal'-like transport in high-resistance, high aspect ratio two-dimensional electron gases.
Backes, Dirk; Hall, Richard; Pepper, Michael; Beere, Harvey; Ritchie, David; Narayan, Vijay
2016-01-13
We investigate the striking absence of strong localisation observed in mesoscopic two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) (Baenninger et al 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 016805, Backes et al 2015 arXiv:1505.03444) even when their resistivity [Formula: see text]. In particular, we try to understand whether this phenomenon originates in quantum many-body effects, or simply percolative transport through a network of electron puddles. To test the latter scenario, we measure the low temperature (low-T) transport properties of long and narrow 2DEG devices in which percolation effects should be heavily suppressed in favour of Coulomb blockade. Strikingly we find no indication of Coulomb blockade and that the high-ρ, low-T transport is exactly similar to that previously reported in mesoscopic 2DEGs with different geometries. Remarkably, we are able to induce a 'metal'-insulator transition (MIT) by applying a perpendicular magnetic field B. We present a picture within which these observations fit into the more conventional framework of the 2D MIT. PMID:26647878
Two dimensional planar and nonplanar ion acoustic shock waves in electron-positron-ion plasmas
Masood, W.; Rizvi, H.
2009-09-15
Two dimensional ion acoustic shock waves (IASWs) are studied in an unmagnetized plasma consisting of electrons, positrons, and adiabatically hot positive ions. This is done by deriving the nonplanar Kadomstev-Petviashvili-Burgers (KPB) equation under the small amplitude perturbation expansion method. The dissipation is introduced by taking into account the kinematic viscosity among the plasma constituents. The limiting cases of the nonplanar KPB equation are also discussed. The analytical solution of the planar KPB equation is obtained using the tangent hyperbolic method that is used as the initial profile to numerically solve the nonplanar KPB equation. It is found that the strength of IASW is maximum for spherical, intermediate for cylindrical, and minimum for planar geometry. It is observed that the positron concentration and the plasma kinematic viscosity significantly modify the shock structure. Finally, the temporal evolution of the nonplanar IASW is investigated and the results are discussed from the numerical stand point. The results of the present study may be applicable in the study of small amplitude localized electrostatic shock structures in electron-positron-ion plasmas.
Huang, Y H; Chen, R S; Zhang, J R; Huang, Y S
2015-12-01
The electronic transport properties of two-dimensional (2D) niobium diselenide (NbSe2) layer materials with two-hexagonal single-crystalline structures grown by chemical vapor transport were investigated. Those NbSe2 nanostructures isolated simply using mechanical exfoliation were found to exhibit lower conductivity and semiconducting properties, compared with their bulk metallic counterparts. Benefiting from lower dark conductivity, NbSe2 nanoflakes exhibit a remarkable photoresponse under different wavelengths and intensity excitations. The photocurrent responsivity and photoconductive gain can reach 3.8 A W(-1) and 300, respectively; these values are higher than those of graphene and MoS2 monolayers and are comparable with those of GaS and GaSe nanosheets. The presence of electron trap states at the surface was proposed as an explanation for the reduced dark conductivity and enhanced photoconductivity in the 2D NbSe2 nanostructures. This work identifies another possibility for the application of a metallic layer material as an optoelectronic component in addition to an ultrathin transparent conducting material. PMID:26511167
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fortini, André
1996-02-01
A calculation of the anisotropic screened potential of frozen-phonon modes is worked out, in the Thomas-Fermi approximation, in a simplified system consisting of a tetragonal ion lattice embedded in a set of parallel equidistant conductive planes, assuming purely ionic interaction. The screening is shown to be rather moderate in phonon mode with transverse polarization of the breathing type. Inasmuch as this system can be regarded as typifying the CuO 2 planes of high-temperature superconductors, in the itinerant electron scheme, this is in good agreement with experiment in almost all series of materials, and lends support to the early invoked contribution of long-range interactions. Further, owing to the two-dimensionality of electrons, the qz-component of the phonon momentum is a free variable, allowing for a separate integration. This is well emphasized in the expression of a typical one-mode contribution to the effective BCS coupling, together with the sensitivity of the result to the screening, in the lifting of the long-wavelength Coulombic divergence. Extensions could be contemplated to actual materials, taking into account in a more realistic way the structure of the phonon modes and the topology of the Fermi surface. Possibly, the screening of anharmonic lattice motion could be investigated along the same lines.
Tunable insulator-quantum Hall transition in a weakly interacting two-dimensional electron system
2013-01-01
We have performed low-temperature measurements on a gated two-dimensional electron system in which electron–electron (e-e) interactions are insignificant. At low magnetic fields, disorder-driven movement of the crossing of longitudinal and Hall resistivities (ρxx and ρxy) can be observed. Interestingly, by applying different gate voltages, we demonstrate that such a crossing at ρxx ~ ρxy can occur at a magnetic field higher, lower, or equal to the temperature-independent point in ρxx which corresponds to the direct insulator-quantum Hall transition. We explicitly show that ρxx ~ ρxy occurs at the inverse of the classical Drude mobility 1/μD rather than the crossing field corresponding to the insulator-quantum Hall transition. Moreover, we show that the background magnetoresistance can affect the transport properties of our device significantly. Thus, we suggest that great care must be taken when calculating the renormalized mobility caused by e-e interactions. PMID:23819745
Low Temperature Force Microscopy on a Deeply Embedded Two Dimensional Electron Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hedberg, James Augustin
2011-12-01
Experimental physics in the low temperature limit has consistently produced major advances for condensed matter research. Likewise, scanning probe microscopy offers a unique view of the nanometer scale features that populate the quantum landscape. This work discusses the merger of the two disciplines via the development of the Ultra Low Temperature Scanning Probe Microscope, the ULT-SPM. We focus on the novel characterization of an exotic condensed matter system: a deeply buried two dimensional electron gas with a cleaved edge overgrowth geometry. By coupling the dynamics of the force sensing probe microscope to the electrostatics of the electron gas, we can remotely and non-invasively measure charge transport features which are normally only observable using physically contacted electrodes. Focusing on the quantum Hall regime, we can exploit the high sensitivity of the local force sensor to study spatially dependent phenomena associated with electronic potential distributions. The instrument shows promise for many exciting experiments in which low temperatures, high magnetic fields, and local measurements are critical. Designed for operation at 50 mK, in magnetic fields reaching 16 T, many components of the instrument are not commercially available and were therefore designed and constructed in- house. As such, the intricate details of its design, construction and operation are documented thoroughly. This includes: the microscope assembly, the modular components such as the scan head and coarse motors, the electronics developed for controlling the instrument, and the general integration into the low temperature infrastructure. A quartz tuning fork is used as the force sensor in this instrument, enabling a wide selection between different modes of operation, the most relevant being electrostatic force microscopy. Noise limits are investigated and matched sources of experimental noise are identified. Detailed schematics of the instrument are also included.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Jingbo; Mayorov, Alexander S.; Wood, Christopher D.; Mistry, Divyang; Li, Lianhe; Muchenje, Wilson; Rosamond, Mark C.; Chen, Li; Linfield, Edmund H.; Davies, A. Giles; Cunningham, John E.
2015-10-01
Terahertz frequency time-domain spectroscopy employing free-space radiation has frequently been used to probe the elementary excitations of low-dimensional systems. The diffraction limit, however, prevents its use for the in-plane study of individual laterally-defined nanostructures. Here, we demonstrate a planar terahertz frequency plasmonic circuit in which photoconductive material is monolithically integrated with a two-dimensional electron system. Plasmons with a broad spectral range (up to ~ 400 GHz) are excited by injecting picosecond-duration pulses, generated and detected by a photoconductive semiconductor, into a high mobility two-dimensional electron system. Using voltage modulation of a Schottky gate overlying the two-dimensional electron system, we form a tuneable plasmonic cavity, and observe electrostatic manipulation of the plasmon resonances. Our technique offers a direct route to access the picosecond dynamics of confined electron transport in a broad range of lateral nanostructures.
Wu, Jingbo; Mayorov, Alexander S; Wood, Christopher D; Mistry, Divyang; Li, Lianhe; Muchenje, Wilson; Rosamond, Mark C; Chen, Li; Linfield, Edmund H; Davies, A Giles; Cunningham, John E
2015-01-01
Terahertz frequency time-domain spectroscopy employing free-space radiation has frequently been used to probe the elementary excitations of low-dimensional systems. The diffraction limit, however, prevents its use for the in-plane study of individual laterally-defined nanostructures. Here, we demonstrate a planar terahertz frequency plasmonic circuit in which photoconductive material is monolithically integrated with a two-dimensional electron system. Plasmons with a broad spectral range (up to ~ 400 GHz) are excited by injecting picosecond-duration pulses, generated and detected by a photoconductive semiconductor, into a high mobility two-dimensional electron system. Using voltage modulation of a Schottky gate overlying the two-dimensional electron system, we form a tuneable plasmonic cavity, and observe electrostatic manipulation of the plasmon resonances. Our technique offers a direct route to access the picosecond dynamics of confined electron transport in a broad range of lateral nanostructures. PMID:26487263
Wu, Jingbo; Mayorov, Alexander S.; Wood, Christopher D.; Mistry, Divyang; Li, Lianhe; Muchenje, Wilson; Rosamond, Mark C.; Chen, Li; Linfield, Edmund H.; Davies, A. Giles; Cunningham, John E.
2015-01-01
Terahertz frequency time-domain spectroscopy employing free-space radiation has frequently been used to probe the elementary excitations of low-dimensional systems. The diffraction limit, however, prevents its use for the in-plane study of individual laterally-defined nanostructures. Here, we demonstrate a planar terahertz frequency plasmonic circuit in which photoconductive material is monolithically integrated with a two-dimensional electron system. Plasmons with a broad spectral range (up to ~ 400 GHz) are excited by injecting picosecond-duration pulses, generated and detected by a photoconductive semiconductor, into a high mobility two-dimensional electron system. Using voltage modulation of a Schottky gate overlying the two-dimensional electron system, we form a tuneable plasmonic cavity, and observe electrostatic manipulation of the plasmon resonances. Our technique offers a direct route to access the picosecond dynamics of confined electron transport in a broad range of lateral nanostructures. PMID:26487263
Doppler Velocimetry of Current Driven Spin Helices in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas
Yang, Luyi
2013-05-17
Spins in semiconductors provide a pathway towards the development of spin-based electronics. The appeal of spin logic devices lies in the fact that the spin current is even under time reversal symmetry, yielding non-dissipative coupling to the electric field. To exploit the energy-saving potential of spin current it is essential to be able to control it. While recent demonstrations of electrical-gate control in spin-transistor configurations show great promise, operation at room temperature remains elusive. Further progress requires a deeper understanding of the propagation of spin polarization, particularly in the high mobility semiconductors used for devices. This dissertation presents the demonstration and application of a powerful new optical technique, Doppler spin velocimetry, for probing the motion of spin polarization at the level of 1 nm on a picosecond time scale. We discuss experiments in which this technique is used to measure the motion of spin helices in high mobility n-GaAs quantum wells as a function of temperature, in-plane electric field, and photoinduced spin polarization amplitude. We find that the spin helix velocity changes sign as a function of wave vector and is zero at the wave vector that yields the largest spin lifetime. This observation is quite striking, but can be explained by the random walk model that we have developed. We discover that coherent spin precession within a propagating spin density wave is lost at temperatures near 150 K. This finding is critical to understanding why room temperature operation of devices based on electrical gate control of spin current has so far remained elusive. We report that, at all temperatures, electron spin polarization co-propagates with the high-mobility electron sea, even when this requires an unusual form of separation of spin density from photoinjected electron density. Furthermore, although the spin packet co-propagates with the two-dimensional electron gas, spin diffusion is strongly
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadeghi, S. S.; Phirouznia, A.; Fallahi, V.
2015-06-01
In this study, the optical conductivity of substitutionary doped graphene is investigated in the presence of the Rashba spin orbit coupling (RSOC). Calculations have been performed within the coherent potential approximation (CPA) beyond the Dirac cone approximation. Results of the current study demonstrate that the optical conductivity is increased by increasing the RSOC strength. Meanwhile it was observed that the anisotropy of the band energy results in a considerable anisotropic optical conductivity (AOC) in monolayer graphene. The sign and magnitude of this anisotropic conductivity was shown to be controlled by the external field frequency. It was also shown that the Rashba interaction results in electron-hole asymmetry in monolayer graphene.
Two-dimensional materials as a new platform for atomically thin electronics and optoelectronics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Rui
The discovery of graphene, made of single-layer carbon atoms, defines the starting point in the research and development of stable two-dimensional layer materials (2DLMs). Graphene has been one of the most extensively studied materials due to its unique band structure, the linear dispersion at the K point. It gives rise to novel phenomena, such as the anomalous quantum Hall effect, and has opened up a new category of "Fermi-Dirac" physics. Graphene has also attracted enormous attention for future electronics because of its exceptional high carrier mobility, high carrier saturation velocity, and large critical current density. Graphene's success has shown that other 2D materials beyond graphene may also exhibit fascinating properties and be used for accelerate the development of technology. Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), are emerging as an exciting material system for future electronics due to their unique electronic properties and atomically thin geometry. In this dissertation, I will firstly present my research studies on the first experimental observation of a dramatic enhancement of the conductance in a GNR field-effect transistor by a perpendicular magnetic field. Very large negative MR of nearly 100% with conductance enhanced over 10,000 times was observed at low temperatures; and more than 50% remained at room temperature. Then I will show a new approach for the scalable fabrication of high performance graphene transistors with transferred gate stacks. This unique device structure enables scalable fabrication of self-aligned graphene transistors with unprecedented performance including a record high cut-off frequency up to 427 GHz. Taking a step further, I will demonstrate the best performed MoS2 transistors with an on-off ratio exceeding 107, excellent current saturation and a highest intrinsic gain over 30. On-chip microwave measurements demonstrate a highest intrinsic cut-off frequency fT of 42
Huang, Bing; Zhuang, Houlong L.; Yoon, Mina; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Wei, Su-Huai
2015-03-03
We report that the discovery of stable two-dimensional, earth-abundant, semiconducting materials is of great interest and may impact future electronic technologies. By combining global structural prediction and first-principles calculations, we have theoretically discovered several previously unknown semiconducting silicon phosphides (Si_{x}P_{y}) monolayers, which could be formed stably at the stoichiometries of y/x ≥1. Unexpectedly, some of these compounds, i.e., P-6m2 Si_{1}P_{1} and Pm Si_{1}P_{2}, have comparable or even lower formation enthalpies than their previously known bulk allotropes. The band gaps (Eg) of Si_{x}P_{y} compounds can be dramatically tuned in an extremely wide range (0< E_{g} < 3 eV) by simply changing the number of layers or applying an in-plane strain. Furthermore, we find that carrier doping can drive the ground state of C2/m Si_{1}P_{3} from a nonmagnetic state into a robust half-metallic spin-polarized state, originating from its unique valence band structure, which can extend the use of Si-related compounds for spintronics.
Dark States in the Light-Harvesting complex 2 Revealed by Two-dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy.
Ferretti, Marco; Hendrikx, Ruud; Romero, Elisabet; Southall, June; Cogdell, Richard J; Novoderezhkin, Vladimir I; Scholes, Gregory D; van Grondelle, Rienk
2016-01-01
Energy transfer and trapping in the light harvesting antennae of purple photosynthetic bacteria is an ultrafast process, which occurs with a quantum efficiency close to unity. However the mechanisms behind this process have not yet been fully understood. Recently it was proposed that low-lying energy dark states, such as charge transfer states and polaron pairs, play an important role in the dynamics and directionality of energy transfer. However, it is difficult to directly detect those states because of their small transition dipole moment and overlap with the B850/B870 exciton bands. Here we present a new experimental approach, which combines the selectivity of two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with the availability of genetically modified light harvesting complexes, to reveal the presence of those dark states in both the genetically modified and the wild-type light harvesting 2 complexes of Rhodopseudomonas palustris. We suggest that Nature has used the unavoidable charge transfer processes that occur when LH pigments are concentrated to enhance and direct the flow of energy. PMID:26857477
Excitations in a spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kreil, Dominik; Hobbiger, Raphael; Drachta, Jürgen T.; Böhm, Helga M.
2015-11-01
A remarkably long-lived spin plasmon may exist in two-dimensional electron liquids with imbalanced spin-up and spin-down population. The predictions for this interesting mode by Agarwal et al. [Phys. Rev. B 90, 155409 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.90.155409] are based on the random phase approximation. Here, we show how to account for spin-dependent correlations from known ground-state pair correlation functions and study the consequences on the various spin-dependent longitudinal response functions. The spin-plasmon dispersion relation and its critical wave vector for Landau damping by minority spins turn out to be significantly lower. We further demonstrate that spin-dependent effective interactions imply a rich structure in the excitation spectrum of the partially spin-polarized system. Most notably, we find a "magnetic antiresonance," where the imaginary part of both, the spin-spin as well as the density-spin response function vanish. The resulting minimum in the double-differential cross section is awaiting experimental confirmation.
Dark States in the Light-Harvesting complex 2 Revealed by Two-dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferretti, Marco; Hendrikx, Ruud; Romero, Elisabet; Southall, June; Cogdell, Richard J.; Novoderezhkin, Vladimir I.; Scholes, Gregory D.; van Grondelle, Rienk
2016-02-01
Energy transfer and trapping in the light harvesting antennae of purple photosynthetic bacteria is an ultrafast process, which occurs with a quantum efficiency close to unity. However the mechanisms behind this process have not yet been fully understood. Recently it was proposed that low-lying energy dark states, such as charge transfer states and polaron pairs, play an important role in the dynamics and directionality of energy transfer. However, it is difficult to directly detect those states because of their small transition dipole moment and overlap with the B850/B870 exciton bands. Here we present a new experimental approach, which combines the selectivity of two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with the availability of genetically modified light harvesting complexes, to reveal the presence of those dark states in both the genetically modified and the wild-type light harvesting 2 complexes of Rhodopseudomonas palustris. We suggest that Nature has used the unavoidable charge transfer processes that occur when LH pigments are concentrated to enhance and direct the flow of energy.
Two-Dimensional Fourier Transform Electronic Spectroscopy of Peridinin and Peridinin Analogs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khosravi, Soroush; Bishop, Michael; Obaid, Razib; Whitelock, Hope; Carroll, Ann Marie; Lafountain, Amy; Frank, Harry; Beck, Warren; Gibson, George; Berrah, Nora
2016-05-01
The peridinin chlorophyll- a protein (PCP) is a light harvesting complex in dinoflagellates that exhibits a carotenoid-to-chlorophyll (Chl) a excitation energy transfer (EET) efficiency of 85-95%. Unlike most light harvesting complexes, where the number of carotenoids is less than Chl, each subunit of PCP contains eight tightly-packed peridinins surrounding two Chl a molecules. The unusual solvent polarity dependence of the lowest excited S1 state of peridinin suggests the presence of an intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) state. The nature of the ICT state, its coupling to the S1 of peridinin, and whether it enables the high EET efficiency is still unclear. Two-dimensional electronic Fourier transform spectroscopy (2DES) is a powerful method capable of examining these issues. The present work examines the ICT state of peridinin and peridinin analogs that have diminished ICT character. 2DES data adding new insight into the spectral signatures and nature of the ICT state in peridinin will be presented. Funded by the DoE-BES, Grant No. DE-SC0012376.
Yu, P.N.; Ginzburg, N.S.; Sergeev, A.S.
1995-12-31
In the report we present a time domain approach to the theory of FELs with one and two dimensional Bragg resonators. It is demonstrated that traditional 1-D Bragg resonators provide possibilities for effective longitudinal mode control. In particular, simulation of the FEL realized in the joint experiment of JINR (Dybna) and IAP (N. Novgord) confirms achievement of the single mode operating regime with high efficiency of about 20%. However, 1-D Bragg resonators lose their selectivity as the transverse size of the system is increased. We simulate mode competition in FELs with coaxial 1-D Bragg resonators and observe a progressively more complicated azimuthal mode competition pattern as the perimeter of the resonator is increased. At the same time, using 2-D Bragg resonators for the same electron beam and microwave system perimeter gives very fast establishment of the single frequency regime with an azimuthally symmetric operating mode. Therefore, FELs utilising 2-D Bragg resonators with coaxial and planar geometry may be considered as attractive sources of high power spatially coherent radiation in the mm and sub-mm wave bands.
Huang, Bing; Zhuang, Houlong L.; Yoon, Mina; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Wei, Su-Huai
2015-03-03
We report that the discovery of stable two-dimensional, earth-abundant, semiconducting materials is of great interest and may impact future electronic technologies. By combining global structural prediction and first-principles calculations, we have theoretically discovered several previously unknown semiconducting silicon phosphides (SixPy) monolayers, which could be formed stably at the stoichiometries of y/x ≥1. Unexpectedly, some of these compounds, i.e., P-6m2 Si1P1 and Pm Si1P2, have comparable or even lower formation enthalpies than their previously known bulk allotropes. The band gaps (Eg) of SixPy compounds can be dramatically tuned in an extremely wide range (0< Eg < 3 eV) by simply changingmore » the number of layers or applying an in-plane strain. Furthermore, we find that carrier doping can drive the ground state of C2/m Si1P3 from a nonmagnetic state into a robust half-metallic spin-polarized state, originating from its unique valence band structure, which can extend the use of Si-related compounds for spintronics.« less
Simulated two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy of the eight-bacteriochlorophyll FMO complex
Yeh, Shu-Hao; Kais, Sabre
2014-12-21
The Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) protein-pigment complex acts as a molecular wire conducting energy between the outer antenna system and the reaction center; it is an important photosynthetic system to study the transfer of excitonic energy. Recent crystallographic studies report the existence of an additional (eighth) bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) in some of the FMO monomers. To understand the functionality of this eighth BChl, we simulated the two-dimensional electronic spectra of both the 7-site (apo form) and the 8-site (holo form) variant of the FMO complex from green sulfur bacteria, Prosthecochloris aestuarii. By comparing the spectrum, it was found that the eighth BChl can affect two different excitonic energy transfer pathways: (1) it is directly involved in the first apo form pathway (6 → 3 → 1) by passing the excitonic energy to exciton 6; and (2) it facilitates an increase in the excitonic wave function overlap between excitons 4 and 5 in the second pathway (7 → 4,5 → 2 → 1) and thus increases the possible downward sampling routes across the BChls.
Broadband Transient Absorption and Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy of Methylene Blue.
Dean, Jacob C; Rafiq, Shahnawaz; Oblinsky, Daniel G; Cassette, Elsa; Jumper, Chanelle C; Scholes, Gregory D
2015-08-27
Broadband transient absorption and two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES) studies of methylene blue in aqueous solution are reported. By isolating the coherent oscillations of the nonlinear signal amplitude and Fourier transforming with respect to the population time, we analyzed a significant number of coherences in the frequency domain and compared them with predictions of the vibronic spectrum from density function theory (DFT) calculations. We show here that such a comparison enables reliable assignments of vibrational coherences to particular vibrational modes, with their constituent combination bands and overtones also being identified via Franck–Condon analysis aided by DFT. Evaluation of the Fourier transform (FT) spectrum of transient absorption recorded to picosecond population times, in coincidence with 2D oscillation maps that disperse the FT spectrum into the additional excitation axis, is shown to be a complementary approach toward detailed coherence determination. Using the Franck–Condon overlap integrals determined from DFT calculations, we modeled 2D oscillation maps up to two vibrational quanta in the ground and excited state (six-level model), showing agreement with experiment. This semiquantitative analysis is used to interpret the geometry change upon photoexcitation as an expansion of the central sulfur/nitrogen containing ring due to the increased antibonding character in the excited state. PMID:26274093
Dark States in the Light-Harvesting complex 2 Revealed by Two-dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy
Ferretti, Marco; Hendrikx, Ruud; Romero, Elisabet; Southall, June; Cogdell, Richard J.; Novoderezhkin, Vladimir I.; Scholes, Gregory D.; van Grondelle, Rienk
2016-02-09
Energy transfer and trapping in the light harvesting antennae of purple photosynthetic bacteria is an ultrafast process, which occurs with a quantum efficiency close to unity. However the mechanisms behind this process have not yet been fully understood. Recently it was proposed that low-lying energy dark states, such as charge transfer states and polaron pairs, play an important role in the dynamics and directionality of energy transfer. However, it is difficult to directly detect those states because of their small transition dipole moment and overlap with the B850/B870 exciton bands. Here we present a new experimental approach, which combines themore » selectivity of two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with the availability of genetically modified light harvesting complexes, to reveal the presence of those dark states in both the genetically modified and the wild-type light harvesting 2 complexes of Rhodopseudomonas palustris. In conclusion, we suggest that Nature has used the unavoidable charge transfer processes that occur when LH pigments are concentrated to enhance and direct the flow of energy.« less
Electrical detection of spin transport in Si two-dimensional electron gas systems.
Chang, Li-Te; Fischer, Inga Anita; Tang, Jianshi; Wang, Chiu-Yen; Yu, Guoqiang; Fan, Yabin; Murata, Koichi; Nie, Tianxiao; Oehme, Michael; Schulze, Jörg; Wang, Kang L
2016-09-01
Spin transport in a semiconductor-based two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) system has been attractive in spintronics for more than ten years. The inherent advantages of high-mobility channel and enhanced spin-orbital interaction promise a long spin diffusion length and efficient spin manipulation, which are essential for the application of spintronics devices. However, the difficulty of making high-quality ferromagnetic (FM) contacts to the buried 2DEG channel in the heterostructure systems limits the potential developments in functional devices. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate electrical detection of spin transport in a high-mobility 2DEG system using FM Mn-germanosilicide (Mn(Si0.7Ge0.3)x) end contacts, which is the first report of spin injection and detection in a 2DEG confined in a Si/SiGe modulation doped quantum well structure (MODQW). The extracted spin diffusion length and lifetime are l sf = 4.5 μm and [Formula: see text] at 1.9 K respectively. Our results provide a promising approach for spin injection into 2DEG system in the Si-based MODQW, which may lead to innovative spintronic applications such as spin-based transistor, logic, and memory devices. PMID:27479155
Electrical detection of spin transport in Si two-dimensional electron gas systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Li-Te; Fischer, Inga Anita; Tang, Jianshi; Wang, Chiu-Yen; Yu, Guoqiang; Fan, Yabin; Murata, Koichi; Nie, Tianxiao; Oehme, Michael; Schulze, Jörg; Wang, Kang L.
2016-09-01
Spin transport in a semiconductor-based two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) system has been attractive in spintronics for more than ten years. The inherent advantages of high-mobility channel and enhanced spin–orbital interaction promise a long spin diffusion length and efficient spin manipulation, which are essential for the application of spintronics devices. However, the difficulty of making high-quality ferromagnetic (FM) contacts to the buried 2DEG channel in the heterostructure systems limits the potential developments in functional devices. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate electrical detection of spin transport in a high-mobility 2DEG system using FM Mn-germanosilicide (Mn(Si0.7Ge0.3)x) end contacts, which is the first report of spin injection and detection in a 2DEG confined in a Si/SiGe modulation doped quantum well structure (MODQW). The extracted spin diffusion length and lifetime are l sf = 4.5 μm and {τ }{{s}}=16 {{ns}} at 1.9 K respectively. Our results provide a promising approach for spin injection into 2DEG system in the Si-based MODQW, which may lead to innovative spintronic applications such as spin-based transistor, logic, and memory devices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Bing; Zhuang, Houlong L.; Yoon, Mina; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Wei, Su-Huai
2015-03-01
The discovery of stable two-dimensional, earth-abundant, semiconducting materials is of great interest and may impact future electronic technologies. By combining global structural prediction and first-principles calculations, we have theoretically discovered several semiconducting silicon phosphide (SixPy ) monolayers, which could be formed stably at the stoichiometries of y /x ≥1 . Interestingly, some of these compounds, i.e., P -6 m 2 Si1P1 and P m Si1P2 , have comparable or even lower formation enthalpies than their known allotropes. The band gaps (Eg) of SixPy compounds can be dramatically tuned in an extremely wide range (0
Dark States in the Light-Harvesting complex 2 Revealed by Two-dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy
Ferretti, Marco; Hendrikx, Ruud; Romero, Elisabet; Southall, June; Cogdell, Richard J.; Novoderezhkin, Vladimir I.; Scholes, Gregory D.; van Grondelle, Rienk
2016-01-01
Energy transfer and trapping in the light harvesting antennae of purple photosynthetic bacteria is an ultrafast process, which occurs with a quantum efficiency close to unity. However the mechanisms behind this process have not yet been fully understood. Recently it was proposed that low-lying energy dark states, such as charge transfer states and polaron pairs, play an important role in the dynamics and directionality of energy transfer. However, it is difficult to directly detect those states because of their small transition dipole moment and overlap with the B850/B870 exciton bands. Here we present a new experimental approach, which combines the selectivity of two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with the availability of genetically modified light harvesting complexes, to reveal the presence of those dark states in both the genetically modified and the wild-type light harvesting 2 complexes of Rhodopseudomonas palustris. We suggest that Nature has used the unavoidable charge transfer processes that occur when LH pigments are concentrated to enhance and direct the flow of energy. PMID:26857477
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wiebe, Jens
2011-03-01
Magnetic atoms doped into a semiconductor are the building blocks for bottom up spintronic and quantum logic devices. They also provide model systems for the investigation of fundamental effects. In order to correlate the dopant's atomic structure with its magnetism magnetically sensitive techniques with atomic resolution are a prerequisite. Here, I show electrical excitation and read-out [ 1 ] of single magnetic dopant associated spins in a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) confined to a semiconductor surface [ 2 ] using spin-resolved scanning tunneling spectroscopy [ 3 ] . I will review our real-space study of the quantum Hall transition in the 2DEG [ 2 ] and of the magnetic properties of the dopants [ 1 ] . Finally, I will demonstrate that the dopant serves as an atomic scale probe for local magnetometry of the 2DEG. This work was done in collaboration with A. A. Khajetoorians, B. Chillian, S. Schuwalow, F. Lechermann, K. Hashimoto, C. Sohrmann, T. Inaoka, F. Meier, Y. Hirayama, R. A. Römer, M. Morgenstern, and R. Wiesendanger. [ 1 ] A. A. Khajetoorians et al., Nature 467, 1084 (2010). [ 2 ] K. Hashimoto et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 256802 (2008). [ 3 ] J. Wiebe et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4871 (2004). We acknowledge financial support from ERC Advanced Grant ``FURORE'', by the DFG via SFB668 and GrK1286, and by the city of Hamburg via the cluster of excellence ``Nanospintronics''.
Fateev, D. V. Mashinsky, K. V.; Bagaeva, T. Yu.; Popov, V. V.
2015-01-15
The problem of the rectification of terahertz radiation due to plasmonic nonlinearities in a periodic two-dimensional electron system upon the excitation of plasma oscillations by the attenuated total reflection method is solved. This model allows the independent study of different plasmonic rectification mechanisms, i.e., plasmonic electron drag and plasmonic ratchet effects.
Oliver, Thomas A A; Lewis, Nicholas H C; Fleming, Graham R
2014-07-15
Multidimensional nonlinear spectroscopy, in the electronic and vibrational regimes, has reached maturity. To date, no experimental technique has combined the advantages of 2D electronic spectroscopy and 2D infrared spectroscopy, monitoring the evolution of the electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom simultaneously. The interplay and coupling between the electronic state and vibrational manifold is fundamental to understanding ensuing nonradiative pathways, especially those that involve conical intersections. We have developed a new experimental technique that is capable of correlating the electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom: 2D electronic-vibrational spectroscopy (2D-EV). We apply this new technique to the study of the 4-(di-cyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-p-(dimethylamino)styryl-4H-pyran (DCM) laser dye in deuterated dimethyl sulfoxide and its excited state relaxation pathways. From 2D-EV spectra, we elucidate a ballistic mechanism on the excited state potential energy surface whereby molecules are almost instantaneously projected uphill in energy toward a transition state between locally excited and charge-transfer states, as evidenced by a rapid blue shift on the electronic axis of our 2D-EV spectra. The change in minimum energy structure in this excited state nonradiative crossing is evident as the central frequency of a specific vibrational mode changes on a many-picoseconds timescale. The underlying electronic dynamics, which occur on the hundreds of femtoseconds timescale, drive the far slower ensuing nuclear motions on the excited state potential surface, and serve as a excellent illustration for the unprecedented detail that 2D-EV will afford to photochemical reaction dynamics. PMID:24927586
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramanayaka, A. N.; Mani, R. G.; Wegscheider, W.
2013-12-01
We extract the electron temperature in the microwave photo-excited high mobility GaAs/AlGaAs two dimensional electron system (2DES) by studying the influence of microwave radiation on the amplitude of Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations (SdHOs) in a regime where the cyclotron frequency, ωc, and the microwave angular frequency, ω, satisfy 2ω ≤ ωc ≤ 3.5ω The results indicate that increasing the incident microwave power has a weak effect on the amplitude of the SdHOs and therefore the electron temperature, in comparison to the influence of modest temperature changes on the dark-specimen SdH effect. The results indicate negligible electron heating under modest microwave photo-excitation, in good agreement with theoretical predictions.
Ramanayaka, A. N.; Mani, R. G.; Wegscheider, W.
2013-12-04
We extract the electron temperature in the microwave photo-excited high mobility GaAs/AlGaAs two dimensional electron system (2DES) by studying the influence of microwave radiation on the amplitude of Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations (SdHOs) in a regime where the cyclotron frequency, ω{sub c}, and the microwave angular frequency, ω, satisfy 2ω ≤ ω{sub c} ≤ 3.5ω The results indicate that increasing the incident microwave power has a weak effect on the amplitude of the SdHOs and therefore the electron temperature, in comparison to the influence of modest temperature changes on the dark-specimen SdH effect. The results indicate negligible electron heating under modest microwave photo-excitation, in good agreement with theoretical predictions.
Strain-modulated electronic and thermal transport properties of two-dimensional O-silica.
Han, Yang; Qin, Guangzhao; Jungemann, Christoph; Hu, Ming
2016-07-01
Silica is one of the most abundant materials in the Earth's crust and is a remarkably versatile and important engineering material in various modern science and technology. Recently, freestanding and well-ordered two-dimensional (2D) silica monolayers with octahedral (O-silica) building blocks were found to be theoretically stable by (Wang G et al 2015 J. Phys. Chem. C 119 15654-60). In this paper, by performing first-principles calculations, we systematically investigated the electronic and thermal transport properties of 2D O-silica and also studied how these properties can be tuned by simple mechanical stretching. Unstrained 2D O-silica is an insulator with an indirect band gap of 6.536 eV. The band gap decreases considerably with bilateral strain up to 29%, at which point a semiconductor-metal transition occurs. More importantly, the in-plane thermal conductivity of freestanding 2D O-silica is found to be unusually high, which is around 40 to 50 times higher than that of bulk α-quartz and more than two orders of magnitude higher than that of amorphous silica. The thermal conductivity of O-silica decreases by almost two orders of magnitude when the bilateral stretching strain reaches 10%. By analyzing the mode-dependent phonon properties and phonon-scattering channel, the phonon lifetime is found to be the dominant factor that leads to the dramatic decrease of the lattice thermal conductivity under strain. The very sensitive response of both band gap and phonon transport properties to the external mechanical strain will enable 2D O-silica to easily adapt to the different environment of realistic applications. Our study is expected to stimulate experimental exploration of further physical and chemical properties of 2D silica systems, and offers perspectives on modulating the electronic and thermal properties of related low-dimensional structures for applications such as thermoelectric, photovoltaic, and optoelectronic devices. PMID:27199352
Strain-modulated electronic and thermal transport properties of two-dimensional O-silica
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Yang; Qin, Guangzhao; Jungemann, Christoph; Hu, Ming
2016-07-01
Silica is one of the most abundant materials in the Earth’s crust and is a remarkably versatile and important engineering material in various modern science and technology. Recently, freestanding and well-ordered two-dimensional (2D) silica monolayers with octahedral (O-silica) building blocks were found to be theoretically stable by (Wang G et al 2015 J. Phys. Chem. C 119 15654–60). In this paper, by performing first-principles calculations, we systematically investigated the electronic and thermal transport properties of 2D O-silica and also studied how these properties can be tuned by simple mechanical stretching. Unstrained 2D O-silica is an insulator with an indirect band gap of 6.536 eV. The band gap decreases considerably with bilateral strain up to 29%, at which point a semiconductor–metal transition occurs. More importantly, the in-plane thermal conductivity of freestanding 2D O-silica is found to be unusually high, which is around 40 to 50 times higher than that of bulk α-quartz and more than two orders of magnitude higher than that of amorphous silica. The thermal conductivity of O-silica decreases by almost two orders of magnitude when the bilateral stretching strain reaches 10%. By analyzing the mode-dependent phonon properties and phonon-scattering channel, the phonon lifetime is found to be the dominant factor that leads to the dramatic decrease of the lattice thermal conductivity under strain. The very sensitive response of both band gap and phonon transport properties to the external mechanical strain will enable 2D O-silica to easily adapt to the different environment of realistic applications. Our study is expected to stimulate experimental exploration of further physical and chemical properties of 2D silica systems, and offers perspectives on modulating the electronic and thermal properties of related low-dimensional structures for applications such as thermoelectric, photovoltaic, and optoelectronic devices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Bihe
An innovative plasma diagnostic technique, electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI), was successfully developed and implemented on the TEXT-U and RTP tokamaks for the study of plasma electron temperature profiles and fluctuations. Due to the high spatial and temporal resolution of this new diagnostic, plasma filamentation was observed during high power electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) in TEXT-U, and was identified as multiple rotating magnetic islands. In RTP, under special plasma conditions, evidence for magnetic bubbling was first observed, which is characterized by the flattening of the electron temperature and pressure profiles over a small annular region of about 1-2 cm extent near the q = 2 surface. More important results arose from the detailed study of the broadband plasma turbulence in TEXT-U and RTP. With the first measurements of poloidal wavenumbers and dispersion relations, turbulent Te fluctuations in the confinement region of TEXT-U plasmas were identified as electron drift wave turbulence. The fluctuation amplitude is found to follow the mixing length scaling, and the fluctuation-induced conducted- heat flux can account for the observed anomalous energy transport in TEXT-U. In RTP, detailed ECEI study of broadband Te fluctuations has shown that many characteristics of the observed fluctuations are consistent with the predictions of toroidal ηi mode theory. These include the global dependence of the fluctuation frequency and amplitude on the plasma density and current. The measured isotope and impurity scalings quantitatively match the predictions of toroidal ηi mode theory. The ECEI measurements in combination with ECRH modification of T e profiles argue against the Te gradients serving as the driving force of the turbulence. With the detailed 2- D measurements of the fluctuation distribution over the plasma minor cross-section, large scale, coherent structures similar to the eigenmode structures predicted by toroidal ηi mode theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neogi, Suneeta Shamanna
The purpose of this research has been to develop a methodologoy to map two-dimensional dopant distributions in silicon and investigate the factors that influence the interpretation of the results. The analysis exploits the image contrast obtained by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) using cross-section specimens which have undergone selective chemical etching. The appearance of iso-thickness contours in a selectively etched TEM sample must represent iso-concentration contours when imaged under constant diffraction conditions. The application of this technique is two-fold: (1) to establish a physical metrology of semiconductor devices for the purpose of research and development efforts that impact on future nodes outlined in the semiconductor roadmap and (2) to provide physical data for validation of simulation tools in technology computer aided design (TCAD). The research involves an investigation into the selective removal of doped regions for both test and device structures, followed by an analysis to obtain two-dimensional (2-D) dopant profiles. The critical issues which arise in the development of a methodology to profile dopant distributions and which are addressed in this investigation are, wedge technique versus conventional dimple and ion-mill procedures for thin-film preparation, thin-film versus bulk chemical etching, data acquisition using TEM and choice of diffraction conditions, sensitivity in terms of the etch detection limit, resolution influenced by the effective extinction length of the operating reflection, digital image processing to extract profiles from thickness contours, calibration of the 2-D profiles using a one-dimensional (1-D) calibrator and role of structure/dopant interactions such as stress, interfaces and point defects in test structures and real device structures containing additional processing sequences. Selective chemical etching in combination with TEM has the sensitivity, resolution and reproducibility required to be used
Two-dimensional electronic-vibrational spectra: modeling correlated electronic and nuclear motion.
Terenziani, F; Painelli, A
2015-05-21
We calculate 2D electronic-vibrational (2D-EV) spectra of solvated organic dyes modeled in terms of a reduced set of electronic diabatic states (the essential states) non-adiabatically coupled to molecular vibrations. An effective overdamped coordinate, whose dynamics is described by the Smoluchowski diffusion equation, accounts for polar solvation. Results are discussed for two dyes with distinctively different spectroscopic behavior: 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM) and 8-(N,N-dibutylamino)-2-azachrysene (AAC). Linear absorption and fluorescence spectra of DCM are well reproduced based on a minimal two-state model. The same model leads to 2D-EV spectra in good agreement with the recent experimental data reported by Oliver and coworkers for DCM in DMSO. In contrast, linear spectra of AAC show a subtle interplay between a locally-excited (LE) and a charge-transfer (CT) excitation, calling for a three-state model. Calculated 2D-EV spectra for AAC show a qualitatively different behavior, demonstrating that the experimental data for DCM do not support a LE/CT interplay. This resolves the long-lasting discussion about the nature of low-lying excitations of DCM in favor of the simplest picture. PMID:25912698
Griffin, M.S.
1992-01-01
A review of the theoretical framework necessary for the description and calculation of electronic transport characteristics in two dimensional Bismuth Tellurium Sulfide (BTS) is given. The processes for preparing and cooling one quintuple layer BTS samples to temperatures of approximately one Kelvin are described. BTS samples with a conductance greater than e[sup 2]/h are shown to demonstrate weak antilocalization effects and magnetoconductance that are dependent upon the sample temperature and the applied electric field. BTS samples with a conductance much less than e[sup 2]/h are shown to demonstrate strong localization and variable range hopping (VRH) effects and magnetoconductance that are dependent upon the sample temperature and the applied electric field in a manner similar to that in the weak localization regime. In both the weak and strong localization regimes it is shown that the temperature dependence of the magnetoconductance can be suppressed by a strong electric field. The characteristic magnetic field values for the dominant scattering processes in both weak and strong localization regimes are found by fitting digamma functions to experimental data. The absence of h/e periodicity in VRH is observed. A dominant linear magnetic field dependence of the magnetoconductance for low applied magnetic fields in the VRH regime is shown. The mixing of weak and strong localization mechanisms in the moderately localized regime is reported. Evidence for the Coulomb blockade in tunneling processes for very high resistance BTS samples is presented. The Coulomb blockade is used to partially explain the inability to fit BTS magnetoconductance curves to the present theories for the dependence of the magnetoconductance on temperature and electric field.
Charge imbalance and bilayer two-dimensional electron systems at νT=1
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Champagne, A. R.; Finck, A. D. K.; Eisenstein, J. P.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.
2008-11-01
We use interlayer tunneling to study bilayer two-dimensional electron systems at νT=1 over a wide range of charge-density imbalance Δν=ν1-ν2 between the two layers. We find that the strongly enhanced tunneling associated with the coherent excitonic νT=1 phase at small layer separation can survive at least up to an imbalance of Δν=0.5 , i.e., (ν1,ν2)=(3/4,1/4) . Phase transitions between the excitonic νT=1 state and bilayer states which lack significant interlayer correlations can be induced in three different ways: by increasing the effective interlayer spacing d/ℓ , the temperature T , or the charge imbalance Δν . We observe that close to the phase boundary the coherent νT=1 phase can be absent at Δν=0 , present at intermediate Δν , and then absent again at large Δν , thus indicating an intricate phase competition between it and incoherent quasi-independent layer states. At zero imbalance, the critical d/ℓ shifts linearly with temperature, while at Δν=1/3 the critical d/ℓ is only weakly dependent on T . At Δν=1/3 we report on an observation of a direct phase transition between the coherent excitonic νT=1 bilayer integer quantum Hall phase and the pair of single-layer fractional quantized Hall states at ν1=2/3 and ν2=1/3 .
Temperature Dependent Transport of Two-Dimensional Electrons in the Integral Quantum Hall Regime.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Hsuang-Ping
This thesis is concerned with the temperature (T) dependent electronic transport properties of a two dimensional electron gas subject to background potential fluctuations and a perpendicular magnetic field. We have carried out an extensive temperature dependent study of the transport coefficients, in the region of an integral quantum plateau, in an In(,x)Ga(,1-x)As/InP heterostructure for 4.2K < T < 50K. By assuming a simple thermal activation picture, we demonstrate a quantitative deduction of the electron density of states. Our results indicate that there exists a significant number of states (1 x 10('10)cm(' -2)meV('-1)) even at the middle between two Landau levels, which is unexpected from model calculations based on short ranged randomness. In addition, the different T dependent behavior of (rho)(,xx) between the states in the tails and those near the center of a Landau level, indicates the existence of different electron states in a Landau level. Moreover, we have performed T dependent trans- port measurements in the transition region between two quantum plateaus, in several different materials. In the In(,x)Ga(,1-x)As/InP sample, when T(, )> 4K, the transport behavior can be attributed to the T dependent distribution function. When T(, )< 4K, our experi- mental T-driven (sigma)(,xx) vs. (sigma)(,xy) flow diagram is consistent with the pre- dicted theoretical renormalization group flow diagram, and suggests the existence of a critical point related to the localization to delocali- zation transition. However, in the GaAs/Al(,x)Ga(,1-x)As samples there is a difference in the T dependent behavior of (sigma)(,xx), between N = 1(UPARR) and 1(DARR) electrons. First, (sigma)(,xx)(1(UPARR)) decreases with decreasing T; whereas (sigma)(,xx)(1(DARR)) increases with decreasing T for 0.3K(, )< T < 4.2K. Second, (sigma)(,xx)('max) (1(DARR)) ('(TURN)) 3(sigma)(,xx)('max) (1(UPARR)) at T('(TURN))0.5K in all of our samples. These results indicate the existence of spin
Study of two-dimensional device-error-redundant single-electron oscillator system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murakami, Yoshisato; Oya, Takahide
2012-10-01
This paper reports the study of a two-dimensional device-error-redundant single-electron (SE) circuit. The circuit is an SE reaction-diffusion (RD) circuit that imitates the unique behavior of the chemical RD system and is expected to be a new information processing system. The original RD system is a complex chemical system that is said to express selforganizing dynamics in nature. It can also be assumed to operate as parallel information processing systems. Therefore, by imitating the original RD system for SE circuits, this SE-RD circuit can perform parallel information processing that is based on a natural phenomenon. However, the circuit is very sensitive to noise because it is controlled by a very small amount of energy. It is also sensitive to device errors (e.g., circuit parameter fluctuations in the fabrication process). Generally, fluctuations caused by errors introduced in manufacturing the circuit components trigger incorrect circuit operations, including noises. To overcome such noises, the circuit requires redundant properties for noise. To address this issue, we consider mimicking the information processing method of the natural world for the circuit to obtain noise redundancy. Actually, we previously proposed a unique method based on a model of neural networks with a stochastic resonance (SR) for the circuit. The SR phenomenon, which was discovered in studies of living things (e.g., insects), can be considered a type of noise-energy-harnessing system. Many researchers have proposed SR-based applications for novel electronic devices or systems. In networks where SR exists, signals can generally be distinguished from noise by harnessing noise energy. We previously designed SE-SR systems and succeeded in making an architecture for an SE circuit that has thermal noise redundancy. At the time, we applied an SR model proposed by Collins to our circuit. Prior to our current study, however, it had not yet been confirmed whether SE circuits have device
Fermi surface distortion induced by interaction between Rashba and Zeeman effects
Choi, Won Young; Koo, Hyun Cheol; Chang, Joonyeon; Kim, Hyung-jun; Lee, Kyung-Jin
2015-05-07
To evaluate Fermi surface distortion induced by interaction between Rashba and Zeeman effects, the channel resistance in an InAs quantum well layer is investigated with an in-plane magnetic field transverse to the current direction. In the magnetoresistance curve, the critical point occurs at ∼3.5 T, which is approximately half of the independently measured Rashba field. To get an insight into the correlation between the critical point in magnetoresistance curve and the Rashba strength, the channel conductivity is calculated using a two-dimensional free-electron model with relaxation time approximation. The critical point obtained from the model calculation is in agreement with the experiment, suggesting that the observation of critical point can be an alternative method to experimentally determine the Rashba parameter.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lewis, Nicholas H. C.; Dong, Hui; Oliver, Thomas A. A.; Fleming, Graham R.
2015-05-01
Two-dimensional electronic-vibrational (2DEV) spectroscopy is an experimental technique that shows great promise in its ability to provide detailed information concerning the interactions between the electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom in molecular systems. The physical quantities 2DEV is particularly suited for measuring have not yet been fully determined, nor how these effects manifest in the spectra. In this work, we investigate the use of the center line slope of a peak in a 2DEV spectrum as a measure of both the dynamic and static correlations between the electronic and vibrational states of a dye molecule in solution. We show how this center line slope is directly related to the solvation correlation function for the vibrational degrees of freedom. We also demonstrate how the strength with which the vibration on the electronic excited state couples to its bath can be extracted from a set of 2DEV spectra. These analytical techniques are then applied to experimental data from the laser dye 3,3'-diethylthiatricarbocyanine iodide in deuterated chloroform, where we determine the lifetime of the correlation between the electronic transition frequency and the transition frequency for the backbone C = C stretch mode to be ˜1.7 ps. Furthermore, we find that on the electronic excited state, this mode couples to the bath ˜1.5 times more strongly than on the electronic ground state.
Lewis, Nicholas H. C.; Dong, Hui; Oliver, Thomas A. A.; Fleming, Graham R.
2015-05-07
Two-dimensional electronic-vibrational (2DEV) spectroscopy is an experimental technique that shows great promise in its ability to provide detailed information concerning the interactions between the electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom in molecular systems. The physical quantities 2DEV is particularly suited for measuring have not yet been fully determined, nor how these effects manifest in the spectra. In this work, we investigate the use of the center line slope of a peak in a 2DEV spectrum as a measure of both the dynamic and static correlations between the electronic and vibrational states of a dye molecule in solution. We show how this center line slope is directly related to the solvation correlation function for the vibrational degrees of freedom. We also demonstrate how the strength with which the vibration on the electronic excited state couples to its bath can be extracted from a set of 2DEV spectra. These analytical techniques are then applied to experimental data from the laser dye 3,3′-diethylthiatricarbocyanine iodide in deuterated chloroform, where we determine the lifetime of the correlation between the electronic transition frequency and the transition frequency for the backbone C = C stretch mode to be ∼1.7 ps. Furthermore, we find that on the electronic excited state, this mode couples to the bath ∼1.5 times more strongly than on the electronic ground state.
Lewis, Nicholas H C; Dong, Hui; Oliver, Thomas A A; Fleming, Graham R
2015-05-01
Two-dimensional electronic-vibrational (2DEV) spectroscopy is an experimental technique that shows great promise in its ability to provide detailed information concerning the interactions between the electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom in molecular systems. The physical quantities 2DEV is particularly suited for measuring have not yet been fully determined, nor how these effects manifest in the spectra. In this work, we investigate the use of the center line slope of a peak in a 2DEV spectrum as a measure of both the dynamic and static correlations between the electronic and vibrational states of a dye molecule in solution. We show how this center line slope is directly related to the solvation correlation function for the vibrational degrees of freedom. We also demonstrate how the strength with which the vibration on the electronic excited state couples to its bath can be extracted from a set of 2DEV spectra. These analytical techniques are then applied to experimental data from the laser dye 3,3'-diethylthiatricarbocyanine iodide in deuterated chloroform, where we determine the lifetime of the correlation between the electronic transition frequency and the transition frequency for the backbone C = C stretch mode to be ∼1.7 ps. Furthermore, we find that on the electronic excited state, this mode couples to the bath ∼1.5 times more strongly than on the electronic ground state. PMID:25956093
Magnetoabsorption and radiation-induced resistance oscillations in two-dimensional electron systems
Inarrea, J.; Platero, G.
2011-12-23
Magnetoabsorption and resistance oscillations in two-dimensional systems are calculated in the framework of the same theory: the microwave driven Larmor orbit model. On the one hand, this theory allows to obtain resistance oscillations with multiple peaks, depending on the microwave frequency. On the other hand, it permits also to calculate the microwave magnetoabsorption..
Two-dimensional materials for novel electronic applications: The graphene mixer and TaS2 hyper-FET
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hollander, Matthew J.
iii Abstract First successfully isolated in 2004, graphene is a two-dimensional crystal comprised of a one-atom thick layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice. Initial demonstrations of the exceptional material and electronic properties of graphene sparked a period of accelerated research and investigation into two-dimensional material systems and the unique properties they offer. During this period, there have been continuous breakthroughs with regard to isolation, growth, and characterization of two-dimensional systems, enabling the number of known two-dimensional and layered materials to rapidly expand. As the number of two-dimensional and layered material systems investigated increases, so too does the number of potential applications. Currently, there exist several fundamental questions as to the role these materials might play in future electronic applications. As an example, graphene has been suggested for use as the channel material in high frequency transistors due to its exceptionally high carrier mobility, but also as an interconnect for integrated circuits due to its excellent thermal properties and ability to support very high current densities. Furthermore, there exist several fundamental challenges to implementing graphene and other two dimensional materials in many of the proposed applications. For the case of graphene this includes high contact resistivities and the inability to control edge morphology in highly scaled geometries. This dissertation focuses specifically on the two-dimensional materials of graphene and tantalum di-sulfide in an attempt to elucidate some of the potential applications and challenges facing these two materials. It addresses several issues related to the development of a graphene based transistor for use in high frequency applications and the optimization of the graphene based transistor for mixing applications, including an analysis of graphene mixer design and the use of graphene nano-ribbon geometries to
Masutomi, Ryuichi; Triyama, Naotaka; Okamoto, Tohru
2013-12-04
We have performed not only magnetotransport measurements on two-dimensional electron systems (2DESs) formed at the cleaved surfaces of p-InAs but also observations of the surface morphology of the adsorbate atoms, which induced the 2DES at the surfaces of narrow band-gap semiconductors, with use of a scanning tunneling microscopy. The electron density of the 2DESs is compared to the atomic density of the isolated Ag adatoms on InAs surfaces.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yadav, Amarjeet; Mishra, P. C.
2014-04-01
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) form an important class of molecules as they are ubiquitous, pollute air and cause severe health problems. Lowest vertical π-π* singlet-singlet or triplet-triplet excitation energies and corresponding oscillator strengths were studied for several linear and two-dimensional PAHs employing time-dependent density functional theory. Excited-state electron density, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and spin density distributions in the PAHs, along with ground-state chemical hardness, were also studied. It has been found that, generally, excitation energies and oscillator strengths decrease with increase in PAH size, and excitation energies and chemical hardness are strongly linearly correlated. Enhanced electron density edge effect, which was found to occur in the ground states of the molecules, continues to hold in their excited states also. A strong similarity between the ground and π-π* excited-state MEP maps suggests that σ electrons are the main contributors to the enhanced electron density at the edges. Due to their strong electronic absorption transitions in the visible and infrared regions, the PAHs can be used for harnessing solar energy efficiently.
Exploring size and state dynamics in CdSe quantum dots using two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy
Caram, Justin R.; Zheng, Haibin; Rolczynski, Brian S.; Griffin, Graham B.; Engel, Gregory S.; Dahlberg, Peter D.; Dolzhnikov, Dmitriy S.; Talapin, Dmitri V.
2014-02-28
Development of optoelectronic technologies based on quantum dots depends on measuring, optimizing, and ultimately predicting charge carrier dynamics in the nanocrystal. In such systems, size inhomogeneity and the photoexcited population distribution among various excitonic states have distinct effects on electron and hole relaxation, which are difficult to distinguish spectroscopically. Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy can help to untangle these effects by resolving excitation energy and subsequent nonlinear response in a single experiment. Using a filament-generated continuum as a pump and probe source, we collect two-dimensional spectra with sufficient spectral bandwidth to follow dynamics upon excitation of the lowest three optical transitions in a polydisperse ensemble of colloidal CdSe quantum dots. We first compare to prior transient absorption studies to confirm excitation-state-dependent dynamics such as increased surface-trapping upon excitation of hot electrons. Second, we demonstrate fast band-edge electron-hole pair solvation by ligand and phonon modes, as the ensemble relaxes to the photoluminescent state on a sub-picosecond time-scale. Third, we find that static disorder due to size polydispersity dominates the nonlinear response upon excitation into the hot electron manifold; this broadening mechanism stands in contrast to that of the band-edge exciton. Finally, we demonstrate excitation-energy dependent hot-carrier relaxation rates, and we describe how two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy can complement other transient nonlinear techniques.
Exploring size and state dynamics in CdSe quantum dots using two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy
Caram, Justin R.; Zheng, Haibin; Dahlberg, Peter D.; Rolczynski, Brian S.; Griffin, Graham B.; Dolzhnikov, Dmitriy S.; Talapin, Dmitri V.; Engel, Gregory S.
2014-01-01
Development of optoelectronic technologies based on quantum dots depends on measuring, optimizing, and ultimately predicting charge carrier dynamics in the nanocrystal. In such systems, size inhomogeneity and the photoexcited population distribution among various excitonic states have distinct effects on electron and hole relaxation, which are difficult to distinguish spectroscopically. Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy can help to untangle these effects by resolving excitation energy and subsequent nonlinear response in a single experiment. Using a filament-generated continuum as a pump and probe source, we collect two-dimensional spectra with sufficient spectral bandwidth to follow dynamics upon excitation of the lowest three optical transitions in a polydisperse ensemble of colloidal CdSe quantum dots. We first compare to prior transient absorption studies to confirm excitation-state-dependent dynamics such as increased surface-trapping upon excitation of hot electrons. Second, we demonstrate fast band-edge electron-hole pair solvation by ligand and phonon modes, as the ensemble relaxes to the photoluminescent state on a sub-picosecond time-scale. Third, we find that static disorder due to size polydispersity dominates the nonlinear response upon excitation into the hot electron manifold; this broadening mechanism stands in contrast to that of the band-edge exciton. Finally, we demonstrate excitation-energy dependent hot-carrier relaxation rates, and we describe how two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy can complement other transient nonlinear techniques. PMID:24588185
Kammerlander, David; Marques, Miguel A. L.; Castro, Alberto
2011-04-15
Quantum optimal control theory is a powerful tool for engineering quantum systems subject to external fields such as the ones created by intense lasers. The formulation relies on a suitable definition for a target functional, that translates the intended physical objective to a mathematical form. We propose the use of target functionals defined in terms of the one-particle density and its current. A strong motivation for this is the possibility of using time-dependent density-functional theory for the description of the system dynamics. We exemplify this idea by defining an objective functional that on one hand attempts a large overlap with a target density and on the other hand minimizes the current. The latter requirement leads to optimized states with increased stability, which we prove with a few examples of one- and two-dimensional one-electron systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Haiping; Qian, Yan; Lu, Ruifeng; Tan, Weishi
2016-02-01
Motivated by the recent synthesis of bulk MoN2 which exhibits the layered structure just like the bulk MoS2, the monolayered MoN2 exfoliated from the bulk counterpart is investigated systematically by using density-functional calculations in this work. The result shows that the ground-state two-dimensional monolayered MoN2 behaves as an indirect band gap semiconductor with the energy gap of ∼0.12 eV. Subsequently, the external strain from -6% to 6% is employed to engineer the band structure, and the energy gap can be efficiently tuned from 0 to 0.70 eV. Notably, when the strain is beyond 5% or -3%, the two-dimensional monolayered MoN2 would transfer from an indirect band gap to a direct band gap semiconductor. This work introduces a new member of two-dimensional transition-metal family, which is important for industry applications, especially for the utilization in the long-wavelength infrared field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scalettar, Richard
2004-03-01
We study the temperature and (Zeeman) magnetic field-dependent conductivity σ(B,T) of the two-dimensional disordered Hubbard model. In the absence of a field, calculations of the current-current correlation function using the Determinant Quantum Monte Carlo method show that repulsion between electrons can significantly enhance the conductivity, and, at temperatures in the same range as those of experiments (about 0.1 E_f), change the sign of dσ/dT from positive (insulating behavior) to negative (conducting behavior). This result suggests the possibility of a metallic phase, and consequently a metal--insulator transition, in a two-dimensional microscopic model containing both interactions and disorder. A Zeeman magnetic field suppresses the metallic behavior and is able to induce a metal--insulator transition at a critical field strength. We argue that the qualitative features of this magnetoconductance are in agreement with experimental findings in two-dimensional electron- and hole-gases in semiconductor structures. Finally, we discuss the role of particle-hole symmetry in determining the effects of disorder on the transport and thermodynamic properties. This work was supported by NSF-DMR-0312261. ``Conducting phase in the two-dimensional disordered Hubbard model,'' P.J.H. Denteneer, R.T. Scalettar, and N. Trivedi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4610 (1999). ``Particle-Hole Symmetry and the Effect of Disorder on the Mott--Hubbard Insulator,'' P.J.H. Denteneer, R.T. Scalettar, and N. Trivedi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 146401 (2001). ``Interacting electrons in a two-dimensional disordered environment: Effect of a Zeeman magnetic field,'' P.J.H. Denteneer and R.T. Scalettar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 246401 (2003).
Bian, Guang; Wang, Zhengfei; Wang, Xiao-Xiong; Xu, Caizhi; Xu, SuYang; Miller, Thomas; Hasan, M Zahid; Liu, Feng; Chiang, Tai-Chang
2016-03-22
We report on the fabrication of a two-dimensional topological insulator Bi(111) bilayer on Sb nanofilms via a sequential molecular beam epitaxy growth technique. Our angle-resolved photoemission measurements demonstrate the evolution of the electronic band structure of the heterostructure as a function of the film thickness and reveal the existence of a two-dimensional spinful massless electron gas within the top Bi bilayer. Interestingly, our first-principles calculation extrapolating the observed band structure shows that, by tuning down the thickness of the supporting Sb films into the quantum dimension regime, a pair of isolated topological edge states emerges in a partial energy gap at 0.32 eV above the Fermi level as a consequence of quantum confinement effect. Our results and methodology of fabricating nanoscale heterostructures establish the Bi bilayer/Sb heterostructure as a platform of great potential for both ultra-low-energy-cost electronics and surface-based spintronics. PMID:26932368
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Nianpei
The two dimensional electron gas subjected to a magnetic field has been a model system in contemporary condensed matter physics which generated many beautiful experiments as well as novel fundamental concepts. These novel concepts are of broad interests and have benefited other fields of research. For example, the observations of conventional odd-denominator fractional quantum Hall states have enriched many-body physics with important concepts such as fractional statistics and composite fermions. The subsequent discovery of the enigmatic even-denominator nu=5/2 fractional quantum Hall state has led to more interesting concepts such as non-Abelian statistics and pairing of composite fermions which can be intimately connected to the electron pairing in superconductivity. Moreover, the observations of stripe phases and reentrant integer quantum Hall states have stimulated research on exotic electron solids which have more intricate structures than the Wigner Crystal. In contrast to fractional quantum Hall states and stripes phases, the reentrant integer quantum Hall states are very little studied and their ground states are the least understood. There is a lack of basic information such as exact filling factors, temperature dependence and energy scales for the reentrant integer quantum Hall states. A critical experimental condition in acquiring this information is a stable ultra-low temperature environment. In the first part of this dissertation, I will discuss our unique setup of 3He immersion cell in a state-of-art dilution refrigerator which achieves the required stability of ultra-low temperature. With this experimental setup, we are able to observe for the first time very sharp magnetotransport features of reentrant integer quantum Hall states across many Landau levels for the first time. I will firstly present our results in the second Landau level. The temperature dependence measurements reveal a surprisingly sharp peak signature that is unique to the reentrant
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avetisyan, Siranush; Chakraborty, Tapash; Pietiläinen, Pekka
2016-07-01
Magnetization of anisotropic quantum dots in the presence of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction has been studied for three and four interacting electrons in the dot for non-zero values of the applied magnetic field. We observe unique behaviors of magnetization that are direct reflections of the anisotropy and the spin-orbit interaction parameters independently or concurrently. In particular, there are saw-tooth structures in the magnetic field dependence of the magnetization, as caused by the electron-electron interaction, that are strongly modified in the presence of large anisotropy and high strength of the spin-orbit interactions. We also report the temperature dependence of magnetization that indicates the temperature beyond which these structures due to the interactions disappear. Additionally, we found the emergence of a weak sawtooth structure in magnetization for three electrons in the high anisotropy and large spin-orbit interaction limit that was explained as a result of merging of two low-energy curves when the level spacings evolve with increasing values of the anisotropy and the spin-orbit interaction strength.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abanov, Alexander G.; Gromov, Andrey
2014-07-01
We compute electromagnetic, gravitational, and mixed linear response functions of two-dimensional free fermions in an external quantizing magnetic field at an integer filling factor. The results are presented in the form of the effective action and as an expansion of currents and stresses in wave vectors and frequencies of the probing electromagnetic and metric fields. In addition to the well-studied U (1) Chern-Simons and Wen-Zee terms we find a gravitational Chern-Simons term that controls the correction to the Hall viscosity due to the background curvature. We relate the coefficient in front of the term with the chiral central charge.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Politano, A.; Chiarello, G.; Cupolillo, A.
2015-08-01
The discovery of quasi-two-dimensional (Q2D) crystals has started a new era of materials science. Novel materials, atomically thin and mechanically, thermally and chemically stable, with a large variety of electronic properties are available and they can be assembled in ultrathin flexible devices. Understanding collective electronic excitations (plasmons) in Q2D systems is mandatory for engineering applications in plasmonics. In view of recent developments in the emerging field of graphene-based plasmonics, the correspondence between the theoretically calculated quantities and the observables experimentally measured in Q2D crystals is still unsatisfactory. Motivated by recent Nazarov’s findings (Nazarov 2015 New J. Phys. 17 073018), here we discuss some crucial issues of current theoretical approaches as well as the computational methods applied to two-dimensional materials with special emphasis to cover their peculiarities, range of application and pitfalls.
Yeager, Mark; Dryden, Kelly A.; Ganser-Pornillos, Barbie K.
2014-01-01
Electron microscopy provides an efficient method for rapidly assessing whether a solution of macromolecules is homogeneous and monodisperse. If the macromolecules can be induced to form two-dimensional crystals that are a single layer in thickness, then electron crystallography of frozen-hydrated crystals has the potential of achieving three-dimensional density maps at sub-nanometer or even atomic resolution. Here we describe the lipid monolayer and sparse matrix screening methods for growing two-dimensional crystals and present successful applications to soluble macromolecular complexes: carboxysome shell proteins and HIV CA, respectively. Since it is common to express recombinant proteins with poly-His tags for purification by metal affinity chromatography, the monolayer technique using bulk lipids doped with Ni2+ lipids has the potential for broad application. Likewise, the sparse matrix method uses screening conditions for three-dimensional crystallization and is therefore of broad applicability. PMID:23132079
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hara, Masahiro; Shibata, Junya; Kimura, Takashi; Otani, Yoshichika
2006-02-01
We have developed a method of measuring magnetization process in a ferromagnetic ring by analyzing a characteristic response of a semiconductor two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) lying beneath the ring. A 2DEG microcross structure is formed underneath a ferromagnetic ring to detect the position of paired domain walls of the onion state. The variation of the bend resistance due to the rotation of the paired domain walls is quantitatively reproduced by a semiclassical billiard model.
Zhu, Guomin; Jiang, Yingying; Lin, Fang; Zhang, Hui; Jin, Chuanhong; Yuan, Jun; Yang, Deren; Zhang, Ze
2014-08-28
We investigated the growth of two-dimensional (2D) palladium dendritic nanostructures (DNSs) using in situ liquid-cell transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Detailed in situ and ex situ high-resolution scanning TEM (S/TEM) characterization and fractal dimension analyses reveal that the diffusion-limited aggregation and direct atomic deposition are responsible for the growth of palladium dendritic nanostructures. PMID:24938863
Yu, Chao; Wei, Hui; Wang, Xu; Le, Anh -Thu; Lu, Ruifeng; Lin, C. D.
2015-10-27
Imaging the transient process of molecules has been a basic way to investigate photochemical reactions and dynamics. Based on laser-induced electron diffraction and partial one-dimensional molecular alignment, here we provide two effective methods for reconstructing two-dimensional structure of polyatomic molecules. We demonstrate that electron diffraction images in both scattering angles and broadband energy can be utilized to retrieve complementary structure information, including positions of light atoms. Lastly, with picometre spatial resolution and the inherent femtosecond temporal resolution of lasers, laser-induced electron diffraction method offers significant opportunities for probing atomic motion in a large molecule in a typical pump-probe measurement.
Lo, Shun-Tsung; Hsu, Chang-Shun; Lin, Y. M.; Lin, S.-D.; Lee, C. P.; Ho, Sheng-Han; Chuang, Chiashain; Wang, Yi-Ting; Liang, C.-T.
2014-07-07
We study interference and interactions in an InAs/InAsSb two-dimensional electron system. In such a system, spin-orbit interactions are shown to be strong, which result in weak antilocalization (WAL) and thereby positive magnetoresistance around zero magnetic field. After suppressing WAL by the magnetic field, we demonstrate that classical positive magnetoresistance due to spin-orbit coupling plays a role. With further increasing the magnetic field, the system undergoes a direct insulator-quantum Hall transition. By analyzing the magnetotransport behavior in different field regions, we show that both electron-electron interactions and spin-related effects are essential in understanding the observed direct transition.
Yu, Chao; Wei, Hui; Wang, Xu; Le, Anh-Thu; Lu, Ruifeng; Lin, C. D.
2015-01-01
Imaging the transient process of molecules has been a basic way to investigate photochemical reactions and dynamics. Based on laser-induced electron diffraction and partial one-dimensional molecular alignment, here we provide two effective methods for reconstructing two-dimensional structure of polyatomic molecules. We demonstrate that electron diffraction images in both scattering angles and broadband energy can be utilized to retrieve complementary structure information, including positions of light atoms. With picometre spatial resolution and the inherent femtosecond temporal resolution of lasers, laser-induced electron diffraction method offers significant opportunities for probing atomic motion in a large molecule in a typical pump-probe measurement. PMID:26503116
Vostokov, N. V. Shashkin, V. I.
2015-11-28
We consider the problem of non-resonant detection of terahertz signals in a short gate length field-effect transistor having a two-dimensional electron channel with zero external bias between the source and the drain. The channel resistance, gate-channel capacitance, and quadratic nonlinearity parameter of the transistor during detection as a function of the gate bias voltage are studied. Characteristics of detection of the transistor connected in an antenna with real impedance are analyzed. The consideration is based on both a simple one-dimensional model of the transistor and allowance for the two-dimensional distribution of the electric field in the transistor structure. The results given by the different models are discussed.
Two-dimensional electron gas formed on the indium-adsorbed Si(111)3×3-Au surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, J. K.; Kim, K. S.; McChesney, J. L.; Rotenberg, E.; Hwang, H. N.; Hwang, C. C.; Yeom, H. W.
2009-08-01
Electronic structure of the In-adsorbed Si(111)3×3-Au surface was investigated by core-level and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. On the Si(111)3×3-Au surface, In adsorbates were reported to remove the characteristic domain-wall network and produce a very well-ordered 3×3 surface phase. Detailed band dispersions and Fermi surfaces were mapped for the pristine and In-dosed Si(111)3×3-Au surfaces. After the In adsorption, the surface bands shift toward a higher binding energy, increasing substantially the electron filling of the metallic band along with a significant sharpening of the spectral features. The resulting Fermi surface indicates the formation of a perfect isotropic two-dimensional electron-gas system filled with 0.3 electrons. This band structure agrees well with that expected, in a recent density-functional theory calculation, for the conjugate-honeycomb trimer model of the pristine Si(111)3×3-Au surface. Core-level spectra indicate that In adsorbates interact mostly with Si surface atoms. The possible origins of the electronic structure modification by In adsorbates are discussed. The importance of the domain wall and the indirect role of In adsorbates are emphasized. This system provides an interesting playground for the study of two-dimensional electron gas on solid surfaces.
Control of a two-dimensional electron gas on SrTiO₃(111) by atomic oxygen.
Walker, S McKeown; de la Torre, A; Bruno, F Y; Tamai, A; Kim, T K; Hoesch, M; Shi, M; Bahramy, M S; King, P D C; Baumberger, F
2014-10-24
We report on the formation of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at the bare surface of (111) oriented SrTiO3. Angle resolved photoemission experiments reveal highly itinerant carriers with a sixfold symmetric Fermi surface and strongly anisotropic effective masses. The electronic structure of the 2DEG is in good agreement with self-consistent tight-binding supercell calculations that incorporate a confinement potential due to surface band bending. We further demonstrate that alternate exposure of the surface to ultraviolet light and atomic oxygen allows tuning of the carrier density and the complete suppression of the 2DEG. PMID:25379937
Kukushkin, I V; Akimov, M Yu; Smet, J H; Mikhailov, S A; von Klitzing, K; Aleiner, I L; Falko, V I
2004-06-11
We observe a new type of magneto-oscillations in the photovoltage and the longitudinal resistance of a two-dimensional electron system. The oscillations are induced by microwave radiation and are periodic in magnetic field. The period is determined by the microwave frequency, the electron density, and the distance between potential probes. The phenomenon is accounted for by interference of coherently excited edge magnetoplasmons in the contact regions and offers perspectives for developing new tunable microwave and terahertz detection schemes and spectroscopic techniques. PMID:15245184
Control of a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas on SrTiO3(111) by Atomic Oxygen
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McKeown Walker, S.; de la Torre, A.; Bruno, F. Y.; Tamai, A.; Kim, T. K.; Hoesch, M.; Shi, M.; Bahramy, M. S.; King, P. D. C.; Baumberger, F.
2014-10-01
We report on the formation of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at the bare surface of (111) oriented SrTiO3. Angle resolved photoemission experiments reveal highly itinerant carriers with a sixfold symmetric Fermi surface and strongly anisotropic effective masses. The electronic structure of the 2DEG is in good agreement with self-consistent tight-binding supercell calculations that incorporate a confinement potential due to surface band bending. We further demonstrate that alternate exposure of the surface to ultraviolet light and atomic oxygen allows tuning of the carrier density and the complete suppression of the 2DEG.
Large in-plane spin-dephasing anisotropy in a [0 0 1]-grown two-dimensional electron system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korn, T.; Stich, D.; Schulz, R.; Schuh, D.; Wegscheider, W.; Schüller, C.
2008-03-01
A large anisotropy in the spin dephasing times for the different in-plane directions of [0 0 1] quantum wells has been predicted in calculations by Averkiev and Golub [Phys. Rev. B 60 (1999) 15582] for systems with both Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit fields. Here, we present time-resolved Faraday rotation measurements performed in the Voigt geometry on a high-mobility 2D electron system grown on a [0 0 1] substrate. An out-of-plane spin polarization is created in the sample by a circularly polarized pump pulse. The magnetic field applied in the sample plane forces the spins to precess perpendicular to it. For a magnetic field applied along [1 1 0], the spins precess into the [1 1bar 0] direction, which is in the sample plane, for a magnetic field along [1 1bar 0], the spins precess into the [1 1 0] direction. The experimentally determined spin dephasing times for these two different cases differ by about 60%, demonstrating that the predicted anisotropy is present in our sample.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hussain, S.; Ur-Rehman, Hafeez; Mahmood, S.
2014-06-01
Two dimensional ion acoustic shocks in electron-positron-ion (e-p-i) plasma with warm ions, and nonthermal electrons and positrons following the q-nonextensive velocity distribution are studied in the presence of weak transverse perturbations. The kinematic viscosity of warm ions is included for the dissipation in the plasma system. Kadomtsev-Petviashvili-Burgers (KPB) equation is derived by using reductive perturbation method in small amplitude limit and its analytical solution is also presented. The effects of variations of positrons concentration, q-indices of electrons and positrons, ion temperature and kinematic viscosity of ions, on the propagation characteristic of two dimensional shock profile are also discussed.
Effects of finite pulse width on two-dimensional Fourier transform electron spin resonance.
Liang, Zhichun; Crepeau, Richard H; Freed, Jack H
2005-12-01
Two-dimensional (2D) Fourier transform ESR techniques, such as 2D-ELDOR, have considerably improved the resolution of ESR in studies of molecular dynamics in complex fluids such as liquid crystals and membrane vesicles and in spin labeled polymers and peptides. A well-developed theory based on the stochastic Liouville equation (SLE) has been successfully employed to analyze these experiments. However, one fundamental assumption has been utilized to simplify the complex analysis, viz. the pulses have been treated as ideal non-selective ones, which therefore provide uniform irradiation of the whole spectrum. In actual experiments, the pulses are of finite width causing deviations from the theoretical predictions, a problem that is exacerbated by experiments performed at higher frequencies. In the present paper we provide a method to deal with the full SLE including the explicit role of the molecular dynamics, the spin Hamiltonian and the radiation field during the pulse. The computations are rendered more manageable by utilizing the Trotter formula, which is adapted to handle this SLE in what we call a "Split Super-Operator" method. Examples are given for different motional regimes, which show how 2D-ELDOR spectra are affected by the finite pulse widths. The theory shows good agreement with 2D-ELDOR experiments performed as a function of pulse width. PMID:16150620
Ballistic superconductivity in high mobility two dimensional electron gas in GaAs heterostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wan, Zhong; Kazakov, Aleksandr; Manfra, Michael; Pfeiffer, Loren; West, Ken; Rokhinson, Leonid
2015-03-01
Introduction of a Josephson field effect transistor (JoFET) concept sparked active research on proximity effects in semiconductors. Induced superconductivity and electrostatic control of critical current has been demonstrated in two-dimensional gases in InAs, graphene and topological insulators, and in one-dimensional systems including quantum spin Hall edges. Recently, interest in superconductor-semiconductor interfaces was renewed by the search for non-Abelian states when fractional quantum Hall edge states interface with superconductivity. However, the highest mobility 2D gases in GaAs, where variety of strongly correlated states including fractional quantum Hall effect can be observed, are notoriously absent from the list of materials where superconductivity have been induced. We report formation of transparent superconducting contacts to the high mobility 2DEG in GaAs and demonstrate induced superconductivity across several microns. Ballistic supercurrent has been observed across 0.6 μm of 2DEG, a regime essential to the formation of well separated non-Abelian states. High critical fields (> 16 Tesla) in NbN contacts enables investigation of a regime of an interplay between superconductivity and strongly correlated states in a 2DEG at high magnetic fields.
Spin Related Transport in Rashba 2DEG Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nitta, Junsaku
Transport in mesoscopic conductors is determined not only by orbital motion of carriers but also by quantum interference effect. However, it is well known that the quantum interference such as weak localization is much modified in the presence of spin-orbit interaction (SOI), leading to weak anti-localization. We discuss the origin of the Rashba SOI and spin related mesoscopic transport in InGaAs based two dimensional electron gases (2DEG) affected by the Rashba SOI. It is experimentally shown that the strength of the Rashba SOI in InGaAs 2DEG systems can be controlled by the gate voltage.1 The spin dynamics in solid systems is commonly determined by the competition between Zeeman effect and SOI. The spin relaxation time and dephasing time are studied from weak anti-localization analysis as a function of the relative strength of the Zeeman energy (EZ) and the Rashba SOI energy (ESOI). The (EZ) was introduced by applying magnetic field parallel to the 2DEG plane. This in-pane magnetic field does not affect the orbital motion of electrons. The spin relaxation time increases with the Zeeman energy. The dephasing time associated with the spin-induced time reversal symmetry (TRS) breaking saturates when EZ becomes comparable to ESOI. Moreover, we show that the spin-induced TRS breaking mechanism is a universal function of the ratio EZ/ESOI within the experimental accuracy.2 Note from Publisher: This article contains the abstract only.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Sungmu
In this thesis, devices using the ballistic transport of two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in GaAs High Electron Mobility Transistor(HEMT) structure is fabricated and their dc and ac properties are characterized. This study gives insight on operation and applications of modern submicron devices with ever reduced gate length comparable to electron mean free path. The ballistic transport is achieved using both temporal and spatial limits in this thesis. In temporal limit, when frequency is higher than the scattering frequency (1/(2pitau)), ballistic transport can be achieved. At room temperature, generally the scattering frequency is around 500 GHz but at cryogenic temperature (≤4K) with high mobility GaAs HEMT structure, the frequency is much lower than 2 GHz. On this temporal ballistic transport regime, effect of contact impedance and different dc mobility on device operation is characterized with the ungated 2DEG of HEMT structure. In this ballistic regime, impedance and responsivity of plasma wave detector are investigated using the gated 2DEG of HEMT at different ac boundary conditions. Plasma wave is generated at asymmetric ac boundary conditions of HEMTs, where source is short to ground and drain is open while rf power is applied to gate. The wave velocity can be tuned by gate bias voltage and induced drain to source voltage(Vds ) shows the resonant peak at odd number of fundamental frequency. Quantitative power coupling to plasma wave detector leads to experimental characterization of resonant response of plasma wave detector as a function of frequency. Because plasma wave resonance is not limited by transit time, the physics learned in this study can be directly converted to room temperature terahertz detection by simply reducing gate length(Lgate) to submicron for the terahertz application such as non destructive test, bio medical analysis, homeland security, defense and space. In same HEMT structure, the dc and rf characterization on device is also
Two-dimensional plasma expansion in a magnetic nozzle: Separation due to electron inertia
Ahedo, Eduardo; Merino, Mario
2012-08-15
A previous axisymmetric model of the supersonic expansion of a collisionless, hot plasma in a divergent magnetic nozzle is extended here in order to include electron-inertia effects. Up to dominant order on all components of the electron velocity, electron momentum equations still reduce to three conservation laws. Electron inertia leads to outward electron separation from the magnetic streamtubes. The progressive plasma filling of the adjacent vacuum region is consistent with electron-inertia being part of finite electron Larmor radius effects, which increase downstream and eventually demagnetize the plasma. Current ambipolarity is not fulfilled and ion separation can be either outwards or inwards of magnetic streamtubes, depending on their magnetization. Electron separation penalizes slightly the plume efficiency and is larger for plasma beams injected with large pressure gradients. An alternative nonzero electron-inertia model [E. Hooper, J. Propul. Power 9, 757 (1993)] based on cold plasmas and current ambipolarity, which predicts inwards electron separation, is discussed critically. A possible competition of the gyroviscous force with electron-inertia effects is commented briefly.
Pugachev, L. P. Andreev, N. E. Levashov, P. R.; Malkov, Yu. A. Stepanov, A. N. Yashunin, D. A.
2015-07-15
The electron acceleration mechanism associated with the generation of a plasma wave due to self-modulation instability of laser radiation in a subcritical plasma produced by a laser prepulse coming 10 ns before the arrival of the main intense femtosecond pulse is considered. Three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of the interaction of laser radiation with two-dimensionally inhomogeneous subcritical plasma have shown that, for a sufficiently strong plasma inhomogeneity and a sharp front of the laser pulse, efficient plasma wave excitation, electron trapping, and generation of collimated electron beams with energies on the order of 0.2–0.5 MeV can occur. The simulation results agree with experiments on the generation of collimated beams of accelerated electrons from metal targets irradiated by intense femtosecond laser pulses.
Spectroscopy and Dynamics of a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas on Ultrathin Helium Films on Cu(111).
Armbrust, N; Güdde, J; Höfer, U; Kossler, S; Feulner, P
2016-06-24
Electrons in image-potential states on the surface of bulk helium represent a unique model system of a two-dimensional electron gas. Here, we investigate their properties in the extreme case of reduced film thickness: a monolayer of helium physisorbed on a single-crystalline (111)-oriented Cu surface. For this purpose we have utilized a customized setup for time-resolved two-photon photoemission at very low temperatures under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. We demonstrate that the highly polarizable metal substrate increases the binding energy of the first (n=1) image-potential state by more than 2 orders of magnitude as compared to the surface of liquid helium. An electron in this state is still strongly decoupled from the metal surface due to the large negative electron affinity of helium and we find that even 1 monolayer of helium increases its lifetime by 1 order of magnitude compared to the bare Cu(111) surface. PMID:27391738
Spectroscopy and Dynamics of a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas on Ultrathin Helium Films on Cu(111)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Armbrust, N.; Güdde, J.; Höfer, U.; Kossler, S.; Feulner, P.
2016-06-01
Electrons in image-potential states on the surface of bulk helium represent a unique model system of a two-dimensional electron gas. Here, we investigate their properties in the extreme case of reduced film thickness: a monolayer of helium physisorbed on a single-crystalline (111)-oriented Cu surface. For this purpose we have utilized a customized setup for time-resolved two-photon photoemission at very low temperatures under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. We demonstrate that the highly polarizable metal substrate increases the binding energy of the first (n =1 ) image-potential state by more than 2 orders of magnitude as compared to the surface of liquid helium. An electron in this state is still strongly decoupled from the metal surface due to the large negative electron affinity of helium and we find that even 1 monolayer of helium increases its lifetime by 1 order of magnitude compared to the bare Cu(111) surface.
Cai, Libing; Wang, Jianguo; Zhu, Xiangqin; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Dianhui
2015-01-15
Based on the secondary electron emission avalanche (SEEA) model, the SEEA discharge on the vacuum insulator surface is simulated by using a 2D PIC-MCC code developed by ourselves. The evolutions of the number of discharge electrons, insulator surface charge, current, and 2D particle distribution are obtained. The effects of the strength of the applied electric field, secondary electron yield coefficient, rise time of the pulse, length of the insulator on the discharge are investigated. The results show that the number of the SEEA electrons presents a quadratic dependence upon the applied field strength. The SEEA current, which is on the order of Ampere, is directly proportional to the field strength and secondary electron yield coefficient. Finally, the electron-stimulated outgassing is included in the simulation code, and a three-phase discharge curve is presented by the simulation, which agrees with the experimental data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Libing; Wang, Jianguo; Zhu, Xiangqin; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Dianhui
2015-01-01
Based on the secondary electron emission avalanche (SEEA) model, the SEEA discharge on the vacuum insulator surface is simulated by using a 2D PIC-MCC code developed by ourselves. The evolutions of the number of discharge electrons, insulator surface charge, current, and 2D particle distribution are obtained. The effects of the strength of the applied electric field, secondary electron yield coefficient, rise time of the pulse, length of the insulator on the discharge are investigated. The results show that the number of the SEEA electrons presents a quadratic dependence upon the applied field strength. The SEEA current, which is on the order of Ampere, is directly proportional to the field strength and secondary electron yield coefficient. Finally, the electron-stimulated outgassing is included in the simulation code, and a three-phase discharge curve is presented by the simulation, which agrees with the experimental data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakraborty, S.; Hatke, A. T.; Engel, L. W.; Watson, J. D.; Manfra, M. J.
2014-11-01
We investigate a two-dimensional electron system (2DES) under microwave illumination at cyclotron resonance subharmonics. The 2DES carries sufficient direct current, I , that the differential resistivity oscillates as I is swept. At magnetic fields sufficient to resolve individual Landau levels, we find the number of oscillations within an I range systematically changes with increasing microwave power. Microwave absorption and emission of N photons, where N is controlled by the microwave power, describes our observations in the framework of the displacement mechanism of impurity scattering between Hall-field tilted Landau levels.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smrčka, L.
2016-03-01
We report on a theoretical study of the commensurability oscillations in a quasi-two-dimensional electron gas modulated by a unidirectional periodic potential and subject to tilted magnetic fields with a strong in-plane component. As a result of coupling of the in-plane field component and the confining potential in the finite-width quantum well, the originally circular cyclotron orbits become anisotropic and tilted out of the sample plane. A quasi-classical approach to the theory, that relates the magneto-resistance oscillations to the guiding-center drift, is extended to this case.
Anna, Jessica M; Ostroumov, Evgeny E; Maghlaoui, Karim; Barber, James; Scholes, Gregory D
2012-12-20
Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES) was used to investigate the ultrafast energy-transfer dynamics of trimeric photosystem I of the cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus. We demonstrate the ability of 2DES to resolve dynamics in a large pigment-protein complex containing ∼300 chromophores with both high frequency and time resolution. Monitoring the waiting-time-dependent changes of the line shape of the inhomogeneously broadened Qy(0-0) transition, we directly observe downhill energy equilibration on the 50 fs time scale. PMID:26291095
Optical Imaging of Quantum Hall Current in GaAs/AlGaAs Two-dimensional Electron System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oto, K.; Kaneko, S.; Inaba, R.; Takada, Y.; Yamada, T.; Muro, K.
2010-01-01
We have measured the current distribution in GaAs/AlGaAs two-dimensional electron system at quantum Hall effect regime, where the critical current shows sub-linear dependence on the channel width. An optical-fiber-based potential imaging system by Pockels effect is improved by using a twin-optical bridge detector which reduces retardation noise in the optical fiber. We have also mapped the resistance change by the local photo-excitation in the QHE regime. Both the observed images show the evidence of current concentration at center region of the channel, and the extent of current concentration increases with increasing the current.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Shiyong; Wang, Weihua; Tan, Liang Z.; Li, Xing Guang; Shi, Zilang; Kuang, Guowen; Liu, Pei Nian; Louie, Steven G.; Lin, Nian
2013-12-01
We report on the modulation of two-dimensional (2D) bands of Cu(111) surface-state electrons by three isostructural supramolecular honeycomb architectures with different periodicity or constituent molecules. Using Fourier-transformed scanning tunneling spectroscopy and model calculations, we resolved the 2D band structures and found that the intrinsic surface-state band is split into discrete bands. The band characteristics including band gap, band bottom, and bandwidth are controlled by the network unit cell size and the nature of the molecule-surface interaction. In particular, Dirac cones emerge where the second and third bands meet at the K points of the Brillouin zone of the supramolecular lattice.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Finck, A. D. K.; Champagne, A. R.; Eisenstein, J. P.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.
2008-08-01
The area and perimeter dependences of the Josephson-like interlayer tunneling signature of the coherent νT=1 quantum Hall phase in bilayer two-dimensional electron systems is examined. Electrostatic top gates of various sizes and shapes are used to locally define distinct νT=1 regions in the same sample. Near the phase boundary with the incoherent νT=1 state at large layer separation, our results demonstrate that the tunneling conductance in the coherent phase is closely proportional to the total area of the tunneling region. This implies that tunneling at νT=1 is a bulk phenomenon in this regime.
Observations of nascent superfluidity in a bilayer two-dimensional electron system at νT=1
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kellogg, M.; Eisenstein, J. P.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.
2006-08-01
Single-layer longitudinal and Hall resistances have been measured in a bilayer two-dimensional electron system at νT=1 with equal but oppositely directed currents flowing in the two layers. At small effective layer separation and low temperature, the bilayer system enters an interlayer coherent state expected to exhibit superfluid properties. We detect this nascent superfluidity through the vanishing of both resistances as the temperature is reduced. This corresponds to the counterflow conductivity rising rapidly as the temperature falls, reaching σxxCF=580(e2/h) by T=35 mK. This supports the prediction that the ground state of this system is an excitonic superfluid.
The origin of two-dimensional electron gas formed in LaGaO3/SrTiO3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Funing; Li, Jichao; Du, Yanling; Zhang, Xinhua; Liu, Hanzhang; Liu, Jian; Wang, Chunlei; Mei, Liangmo
2015-11-01
The first-principles calculations are employed to investigate the electrical properties of (0 0 1) epitaxial LaGaO3/SrTiO3 heterostructure. It is found that the interface remains metallic and the atomic displacements occur mostly in the SrTiO3 side after atomic relaxation. The interface crystal field induces the Ti t2g orbitals to split into the nondegenerate dxy and two-fold degenerate dxz/yz orbitals. The partly filled nondegenerate dxy orbitals are the origin of two-dimensional electron gas at the interface of LaGaO3/SrTiO3 (0 0 1).
Roslyak, O.; Gumbs, Godfrey; Mukamel, S.
2012-01-01
We study the localization of dressed Dirac electrons in a cylindrical quantum dot (QD) formed on monolayer and bilayer graphene by spatially different potential profiles. Short lived excitonic states which are too broad to be resolved in linear spectroscopy are revealed by cross peaks in the photon-echo nonlinear technique. Signatures of the dynamic gap in the two-dimensional spectra are discussed. The effect of the Coulomb induced exciton-exciton scattering and the formation of biexciton molecules are demonstrated. PMID:22612079
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kozlov, D. A.; Kvon, Z. D.; Plotnikov, A. E.
2009-03-01
Commensurate peaks of magnetoresistance and Shubnikov-de Haas and Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in a lattice of antidots with hard potential walls have been experimentally studied. The behavior of both classical magnetoresistance peaks and quantum oscillations has been shown to fundamentally depend on the lattice period and the antidot size, as well as on the smoothness of the potential at the 2DEG-antidot interface. This result indicates the necessity of revising the interpretation of all numerous experiments with antidot lattices, since this effect has been explicitly or implicitly neglected in them.
2011-01-01
A direct insulator-quantum Hall (I-QH) transition corresponds to a crossover/transition from the insulating regime to a high Landau level filling factor ν > 2 QH state. Such a transition has been attracting a great deal of both experimental and theoretical interests. In this study, we present three different two-dimensional electron systems (2DESs) which are in the vicinity of nanoscaled scatterers. All these three devices exhibit a direct I-QH transition, and the transport properties under different nanaoscaled scatterers are discussed. PMID:21711637
Bykov, A. A.; Marchishin, I. V.; Goran, A. V.; Dmitriev, D. V.
2010-08-23
Microwave induced photoconductivity of a two-dimensional electron gas in selectively doped GaAs/AlAs heterostructures has been studied using the Corbino geometry with capacitive contacts at a temperature T=1.6 K and magnetic field B up to 0.5 T. Zero-conductance states have been observed in the samples under study subject to microwave radiation, similarly to the samples with Ohmic contacts. It has been shown that Ohmic contacts do not play a significant role for observation of zero-conductance states induced by microwave radiation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Nitesh; Shekhar, Chandra; Wu, Shu-Chun; Leermakers, Inge; Young, Olga; Zeitler, Uli; Yan, Binghai; Felser, Claudia
2016-06-01
Topological insulators are characterized by an inverted band structure in the bulk and metallic surface states on the surface. In LaBi, a semimetal with a band inversion equivalent to a topological insulator, we observe surface-state-like behavior in the magnetoresistance. The electrons responsible for this pseudo-two-dimensional transport, however, originate from the bulk states rather topological surface states, which is witnessed by the angle-dependent quantum oscillations of the magnetoresistance and ab initio calculations. As a consequence, the magnetoresistance exhibits strong anisotropy with large amplitude (˜105%) .
Gaynor, James D; Courtney, Trevor L; Balasubramanian, Madhumitha; Khalil, Munira
2016-06-15
The development of coherent Fourier transform two-dimensional electronic-vibrational (2D EV) spectroscopy with acousto-optic pulse-shaper-generated near-UV pump pulses and an octave-spanning broadband mid-IR probe pulse is detailed. A 2D EV spectrum of a silicon wafer demonstrates the full experimental capability of this experiment, and a 2D EV spectrum of dissolved hexacyanoferrate establishes the viability of our 2D EV experiment for studying condensed phase molecular ensembles. PMID:27304316
Hybrid two-dimensional Monte-Carlo electron transport in self-consistent electromagnetic fields
Mason, R.J.; Cranfill, C.W.
1985-01-01
The physics and numerics of the hybrid electron transport code ANTHEM are described. The need for the hybrid modeling of laser generated electron transport is outlined, and a general overview of the hybrid implementation in ANTHEM is provided. ANTHEM treats the background ions and electrons in a laser target as coupled fluid components moving relative to a fixed Eulerian mesh. The laser converts cold electrons to an additional hot electron component which evolves on the mesh as either a third coupled fluid or as a set of Monte Carlo PIC particles. The fluids and particles move in two-dimensions through electric and magnetic fields calculated via the Implicit Moment method. The hot electrons are coupled to the background thermal electrons by Coulomb drag, and both the hot and cold electrons undergo Rutherford scattering against the ion background. Subtleties of the implicit E- and B-field solutions, the coupled hydrodynamics, and large time step Monte Carlo particle scattering are discussed. Sample applications are presented.
Atomic structure and electronic properties of the two-dimensional (Au ,Al )/Si (111 )2 ×2 compound
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gruznev, D. V.; Bondarenko, L. V.; Matetskiy, A. V.; Tupchaya, A. Y.; Chukurov, E. N.; Hsing, C. R.; Wei, C. M.; Eremeev, S. V.; Zotov, A. V.; Saranin, A. A.
2015-12-01
A combination of scanning tunneling microscopy, angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, ab initio random structure searching, and density functional theory electronic structure calculations was applied to elucidate the atomic arrangement and electron band structure of the (Au ,Al )/Si (111 )2 ×2 two-dimensional compound formed upon Al deposition onto the mixed 5 ×2 /√{3 }×√{3 } Au/Si(111) surface. It was found that the most stable 2 ×2 -(Au, Al) compound incorporates four Au atoms, three Al atoms, and two Si atoms per 2 ×2 unit cell. Its atomic arrangement can be visualized as an array of meandering Au atomic chains with two-thirds of the Al atoms incorporated into the chains and one-third of the Al atoms interconnecting the chains. The compound is metallic and its electronic properties can be controlled by appropriate Al dosing since energetic location of the bands varies by ˜0.5 eV during increasing of Al contents. The 2 ×2 -(Au, Al) structure appears to be lacking the C3 v symmetry typical for the hexagonal lattices. The consequence of the peculiar atomic structure of the two-dimensional alloy is spin splitting of the metallic states, which should lead to anisotropy of the current-induced in-plane spin polarization.
The electronic properties of bare and alkali metal adsorbed two-dimensional GeSi alloy sheet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiu, Wenhao; Ye, Han; Yu, Zhongyuan; Liu, Yumin
2016-09-01
In this paper, the structural and electronic properties of both bare and alkali metal (AM) atoms adsorbed two-dimensional GeSi alloy sheet (GeSiAS) are investigated by means of first-principles calculations. The band gaps of bare GeSiAS are shown slightly opened at Dirac point with the energy dispersion remain linear due to the spin-orbit coupling effect at all concentrations of Ge atoms. For metal adsorption, AM atoms (including Li, Na and K) prefer to occupy the hexagonal hollow site of GeSiAS and the primary chemical bond between AM adatom and GeSiAS is ionic. The adsorption energy has an increase tendency with the increase of the Ge concentration in supercell. Besides, single-side adsorption of AM atoms introduces band gap at Dirac point, which can be tuned by the Ge concentration and the species of AM atoms. The strong relation between the band gaps and the distribution of Si and Ge atoms inside GeSiAS are also demonstrated. The opened band gaps of AM covered GeSiAS range from 14.8 to 269.1 meV along with the effective masses of electrons ranging from 0.013 to 0.109 me, indicating the high tunability of band gap as well as high mobility of carriers. These results provide a development in two-dimensional alloys and show potential applications in novel micro/nano-electronic devices.
Two dimensional electrostatic shock waves in relativistic electron positron ion plasmas
Masood, W.; Rizvi, H.
2010-05-15
Ion-acoustic shock waves (IASWs) are studied in an unmagnetized plasma consisting of electrons, positrons and hot ions. In this regard, Kadomtsev-Petviashvili-Burgers (KPB) equation is derived using the small amplitude perturbation expansion method. The dependence of the IASWs on various plasma parameters is numerically investigated. It is observed that ratio of ion to electron temperature, kinematic viscosity, positron concentration, and the relativistic ion streaming velocity affect the structure of the IASW. Limiting case of the KPB equation is also discussed. Stability of KPB equation is also presented. The present investigation may have relevance in the study of electrostatic shock waves in relativistic electron-positron-ion plasmas.
Two-dimensional single-stream electron motion in a coaxial diode with magnetic insulation
Fuks, Mikhail I.; Schamiloglu, Edl
2014-05-15
One of the most widespread models of electrons drifting around the cathode in magnetrons is the single-stream state, which is the Brillouin stream with purely azimuthal motion. We describe a single-stream state in which electrons not only move in the azimuthal direction, but also along the axial direction, which is useful for consideration, for example, of relativistic magnetrons, MILOs, and coaxial transmission lines. Relations are given for the conditions of magnetic insulation for 2D electron motion, for 1D azimuthal and axial motion, and for synchronism of these streams with the operating waves of M-type microwave sources. Relations are also provided for the threshold of generation in magnetrons with 2D electron motion.
Goswami, Srijit; Aamir, Mohammed Ali; Shamim, Saquib; Ghosh, Arindam; Siegert, Christoph; Farrer, Ian; Ritchie, David A.; Pepper, Michael
2013-12-04
We use a dual gated device structure to introduce a gate-tuneable periodic potential in a GaAs/AlGaAs two dimensional electron gas (2DEG). Using only a suitable choice of gate voltages we can controllably alter the potential landscape of the bare 2DEG, inducing either a periodic array of antidots or quantum dots. Antidots are artificial scattering centers, and therefore allow for a study of electron dynamics. In particular, we show that the thermovoltage of an antidot lattice is particularly sensitive to the relative positions of the Fermi level and the antidot potential. A quantum dot lattice, on the other hand, provides the opportunity to study correlated electron physics. We find that its current-voltage characteristics display a voltage threshold, as well as a power law scaling, indicative of collective Coulomb blockade in a disordered background.
Shi, Likun; Lou, Wenkai; Cheng, F.; Zou, Y. L.; Yang, Wen; Chang, Kai
2015-01-01
Based on the Born-Oppemheimer approximation, we divide the total electron Hamiltonian in a spin-orbit coupled system into the slow orbital motion and the fast interband transition processes. We find that the fast motion induces a gauge field on the slow orbital motion, perpendicular to the electron momentum, inducing a topological phase. From this general designing principle, we present a theory for generating artificial gauge field and topological phase in a conventional two-dimensional electron gas embedded in parabolically graded GaAs/InxGa1−xAs/GaAs quantum wells with antidot lattices. By tuning the etching depth and period of the antidot lattices, the band folding caused by the antidot potential leads to the formation of minibands and band inversions between neighboring subbands. The intersubband spin-orbit interaction opens considerably large nontrivial minigaps and leads to many pairs of helical edge states in these gaps. PMID:26471126
Zeng, Shengwei; Lü, Weiming; Huang, Zhen; Liu, Zhiqi; Han, Kun; Gopinadhan, Kalon; Li, Changjian; Guo, Rui; Zhou, Wenxiong; Ma, Haijiao Harsan; Jian, Linke; Venkatesan, Thirumalai; Ariando
2016-04-26
Electric field effect in electronic double layer transistor (EDLT) configuration with ionic liquids as the dielectric materials is a powerful means of exploring various properties in different materials. Here, we demonstrate the modulation of electrical transport properties and extremely high mobility of two-dimensional electron gas at LaAlO3/SrTiO3 (LAO/STO) interface through ionic liquid-assisted electric field effect. With a change of the gate voltages, the depletion of charge carrier and the resultant enhancement of electron mobility up to 19 380 cm(2)/(V s) are realized, leading to quantum oscillations of the conductivity at the LAO/STO interface. The present results suggest that high-mobility oxide interfaces, which exhibit quantum phenomena, could be obtained by ionic liquid-assisted field effect. PMID:26974812
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Likun; Lou, Wenkai; Cheng, F.; Zou, Y. L.; Yang, Wen; Chang, Kai
2015-10-01
Based on the Born-Oppemheimer approximation, we divide the total electron Hamiltonian in a spin-orbit coupled system into the slow orbital motion and the fast interband transition processes. We find that the fast motion induces a gauge field on the slow orbital motion, perpendicular to the electron momentum, inducing a topological phase. From this general designing principle, we present a theory for generating artificial gauge field and topological phase in a conventional two-dimensional electron gas embedded in parabolically graded GaAs/InxGa1-xAs/GaAs quantum wells with antidot lattices. By tuning the etching depth and period of the antidot lattices, the band folding caused by the antidot potential leads to the formation of minibands and band inversions between neighboring subbands. The intersubband spin-orbit interaction opens considerably large nontrivial minigaps and leads to many pairs of helical edge states in these gaps.
Studies of scattering mechanisms in gate tunable InAs/(Al,Ga)Sb two dimensional electron gases
Shojaei, B.; McFadden, A.; Schultz, B. D.; Shabani, J.; Palmstrøm, C. J.
2015-06-01
A study of scattering mechanisms in gate tunable two dimensional electron gases confined to InAs/(Al,Ga)Sb heterostructures with varying interface roughness and dislocation density is presented. By integrating an insulated gate structure the evolution of the low temperature electron mobility and single-particle lifetime was determined for a previously unexplored density regime, 10{sup 11}–10{sup 12 }cm{sup −2}, in this system. Existing theoretical models were used to analyze the density dependence of the electron mobility and single particle lifetime in InAs quantum wells. Scattering was found to be dominated by charged dislocations and interface roughness. It was demonstrated that the growth of InAs quantum wells on nearly lattice matched GaSb substrate results in fewer dislocations, lower interface roughness, and improved low temperature transport properties compared to growth on lattice mismatched GaAs substrates.
Control of a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas on SrTiO3 (111) by Atomic Oxygen
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McKeown Walker, Siobhan; de la Torre, A.; Bruno, F. Y.; Tamai, A.; Kim, T. K.; Hoesch, M.; Shi, M.; Bahramy, M. S.; King, P. D. C.; Baumberger, F.
2015-03-01
We report on the formation of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at the bare surface of (111) oriented SrTiO3. Angle resolved photoemission experiments reveal highly itinerant carriers with a 6-fold symmetric Fermi surface and strongly anisotropic effective masses. The electronic structure of the 2DEG is in good agreement with self-consistent tight-binding supercell calculations that incorporate a confinement potential due to surface band bending. Our measurements provide insight into the nontrivial consequences of quantum confinement along the [111] direction which is directly relevant to an understanding of electronic structure at (111) orientated interfaces. We further demonstrate that alternate exposure of the surface to ultraviolet light and atomic oxygen allows tuning of the carrier density and the complete suppression of the 2DEG.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goswami, Srijit; Aamir, Mohammad Ali; Shamim, Saquib; Siegert, Christoph; Pepper, Michael; Farrer, Ian; Ritchie, David; Ghosh, Arindam
2012-02-01
We use a dual gated device structure to introduce a gate-tunable periodic potential in a GaAs/AlGaAs two dimensional electron gas (2DEG). Using a suitable choice of gate voltages we can controllably alter the potential landscape in the 2DEG, thereby inducing either a periodic array of antidots or quantum dots. Antidots are artificial scattering centers, and therefore allow for a study of electron dynamics. On the other hand, a quantum dot lattice provides the opportunity to study correlated electron physics. We use a variety of electrical measurements such as magneto-resistance, thermo-voltage and current-voltage characteristics to probe these two contrasting regimes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goswami, Srijit; Aamir, Mohammed Ali; Shamim, Saquib; Siegert, Christoph; Pepper, Michael; Farrer, Ian; Ritchie, David A.; Ghosh, Arindam
2013-12-01
We use a dual gated device structure to introduce a gate-tuneable periodic potential in a GaAs/AlGaAs two dimensional electron gas (2DEG). Using only a suitable choice of gate voltages we can controllably alter the potential landscape of the bare 2DEG, inducing either a periodic array of antidots or quantum dots. Antidots are artificial scattering centers, and therefore allow for a study of electron dynamics. In particular, we show that the thermovoltage of an antidot lattice is particularly sensitive to the relative positions of the Fermi level and the antidot potential. A quantum dot lattice, on the other hand, provides the opportunity to study correlated electron physics. We find that its current-voltage characteristics display a voltage threshold, as well as a power law scaling, indicative of collective Coulomb blockade in a disordered background.
Oliver, Thomas A. A.; Lewis, Nicholas H. C.; Fleming, Graham R.
2014-01-01
Multidimensional nonlinear spectroscopy, in the electronic and vibrational regimes, has reached maturity. To date, no experimental technique has combined the advantages of 2D electronic spectroscopy and 2D infrared spectroscopy, monitoring the evolution of the electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom simultaneously. The interplay and coupling between the electronic state and vibrational manifold is fundamental to understanding ensuing nonradiative pathways, especially those that involve conical intersections. We have developed a new experimental technique that is capable of correlating the electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom: 2D electronic–vibrational spectroscopy (2D-EV). We apply this new technique to the study of the 4-(di-cyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-p-(dimethylamino)styryl-4H-pyran (DCM) laser dye in deuterated dimethyl sulfoxide and its excited state relaxation pathways. From 2D-EV spectra, we elucidate a ballistic mechanism on the excited state potential energy surface whereby molecules are almost instantaneously projected uphill in energy toward a transition state between locally excited and charge-transfer states, as evidenced by a rapid blue shift on the electronic axis of our 2D-EV spectra. The change in minimum energy structure in this excited state nonradiative crossing is evident as the central frequency of a specific vibrational mode changes on a many-picoseconds timescale. The underlying electronic dynamics, which occur on the hundreds of femtoseconds timescale, drive the far slower ensuing nuclear motions on the excited state potential surface, and serve as a excellent illustration for the unprecedented detail that 2D-EV will afford to photochemical reaction dynamics. PMID:24927586
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baghani, Erfan; O'Leary, Stephen K.
2013-07-01
We determine the role that a two-dimensional electron gas, formed at a ZnMgO/ZnO heterojunction, plays in shaping the corresponding temperature dependence of the low-field electron Hall mobility. This analysis is cast within the framework of the model of Shur et al. [M. Shur et al., J. Electron. Mater. 25, 777 (1996)], and the contributions to the mobility related to the ionized impurity, polar optical phonon, piezoelectric, and acoustic deformation potential scattering processes are considered, the overall mobility being determined through the application of Mathiessen's rule. The best fit to the ZnMgO/ZnO experimental results of Makino et al. [T. Makino et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 022101 (2005)] is obtained by setting the free electron concentration to 3×1018 cm-3 and the ionized impurity concentration to 1017 cm-3, i.e., within the two-dimensional electron gas formed at the heterojunction, the free electron gas concentration is a factor of 30 times the corresponding ionized impurity concentration. How this enhanced free electron concentration influences the contributions to the low-field electron mobility corresponding to these different scattering processes is also examined. It is found that the enhanced free electron concentration found within the two-dimensional electron gas dramatically decreases the ionized impurity and piezoelectric scattering rates and this is found to increase the overall low-field electron Hall mobility.
LaTiO₃/KTaO₃ interfaces: A new two-dimensional electron gas system
Zou, K.; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab; Kisslinger, Kim; Shen, Xuan; Su, Dong; Walker, F. J.; Ahn, C. H.
2015-03-01
We report a new 2D electron gas (2DEG) system at the interface between a Mott insulator, LaTiO₃, and a band insulator, KTaO₃. For LaTiO₃/KTaO₃ interfaces, we observe metallic conduction from 2 K to 300 K. One serious technological limitation of SrTiO₃-based conducting oxide interfaces for electronics applications is the relatively low carrier mobility (0.5-10 cm²/V s) of SrTiO₃ at room temperature. By using KTaO₃, we achieve mobilities in LaTiO₃/KTaO₃ interfaces as high as 21 cm²/V s at room temperature, over a factor of 3 higher than observed in doped bulk SrTiO₃. By density functional theory, we attribute the higher mobility in KTaO₃ 2DEGs to the smaller effective mass for electrons in KTaO₃.
LaTiO₃/KTaO₃ interfaces: A new two-dimensional electron gas system
Zou, K.; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab; Kisslinger, Kim; Shen, Xuan; Su, Dong; Walker, F. J.; Ahn, C. H.
2015-03-01
We report a new 2D electron gas (2DEG) system at the interface between a Mott insulator, LaTiO₃, and a band insulator, KTaO₃. For LaTiO₃/KTaO₃ interfaces, we observe metallic conduction from 2 K to 300 K. One serious technological limitation of SrTiO₃-based conducting oxide interfaces for electronics applications is the relatively low carrier mobility (0.5-10 cm²/V s) of SrTiO₃ at room temperature. By using KTaO₃, we achieve mobilities in LaTiO₃/KTaO₃ interfaces as high as 21 cm²/V s at room temperature, over a factor of 3 higher than observed in doped bulk SrTiO₃. By density functional theory, we attribute the higher mobilitymore » in KTaO₃ 2DEGs to the smaller effective mass for electrons in KTaO₃.« less
Two-dimensional model of resonant electron collisions with diatomic molecules and molecular cations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vana, Martin; Hvizdos, David; Houfek, Karel; Curik, Roman; Greene, Chris H.; Rescigno, Thomas N.; McCurdy, C. William
2016-05-01
A simple model for resonant collisions of electrons with diatomic molecules with one electronic and one nuclear degree of freedom (2D model) which was solved numerically exactly within the time-independent approach was used to probe the local complex potential approximation and nonlocal approximation to nuclear dynamics of these collisions. This model was reformulated in the time-dependent picture and extended to model also electron collisions with molecular cations, especially with H2+.This model enables an assessment of approximate methods, such as the boomerang model or the frame transformation theory. We will present both time-dependent and time-independent results and show how we can use the model to extract deeper insight into the dynamics of the resonant collisions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Debbichi, L.; Eriksson, O.; Lebègue, S.
2014-05-01
By means of first-principles GW calculations, we have studied the electronic structure properties of MX2 (M =Mo, W; X =S, Se, Te) bilayers, including hybrid structures of MX2 building blocks. The effect of spin-orbit coupling on the electronic structure and the effect of van der Waals interaction on the geometry were taken into account. All the homogeneous bilayers are identified as indirect band-gap materials, with an increase of the band gap when Mo is changed to W, and a decrease of the band gap when the atomic number of X is increased. The same behavior is also observed for hybrid bilayers with common chalcogen atoms, while bilayers with common metal atoms have a direct band gap. Finally, it is shown that due to their particular band alignment, some heterobilayers enable electron-hole separation, which is of interest for solar cell applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seridonio, A. C.; Siqueira, E. C.; Souza, F. M.; Machado, R. S.; Lyra, S. S.; Shelykh, I. A.
2013-11-01
We explore theoretically the density of states (LDOS) probed by a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) tip of two-dimensional systems hosting an adatom and a subsurface impurity, both capacitively coupled to atomic force microscope (AFM) tips and traversed by antiparallel magnetic fields. Two kinds of setups are analyzed, a monolayer of graphene and a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). The AFM tips set the impurity levels at the Fermi energy, where two contrasting behaviors emerge: The Fano factor for the graphene diverges, while in the 2DEG it approaches zero. As result, the spin degeneracy of the LDOS is lifted exclusively in the graphene system, in particular, for the asymmetric regime of Fano interference. The aftermath of this limit is a counterintuitive phenomenon, which consists of a dominant Fano factor due to the subsurface impurity even with a stronger STM-adatom coupling. Thus we find a full polarized conductance, achievable just by displacing vertically the position of the STM tip. Our work proposes the Fano effect as the mechanism to filter spins in graphene. This feature arises from the massless Dirac electrons within the band structure and allows us to employ the graphene host as a relativistic Fano spin filter.
High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy with two-dimensional energy and momentum mapping.
Zhu, Xuetao; Cao, Yanwei; Zhang, Shuyuan; Jia, Xun; Guo, Qinlin; Yang, Fang; Zhu, Linfan; Zhang, Jiandi; Plummer, E W; Guo, Jiandong
2015-08-01
High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) is a powerful technique to probe vibrational and electronic excitations at surfaces. The dispersion relation of surface excitations, i.e., energy as a function of momentum, has in the past, been obtained by measuring the energy loss at a fixed angle (momentum) and then rotating sample, monochromator, or analyzer. Here, we introduce a new strategy for HREELS, utilizing a specially designed lens system with a double-cylindrical Ibach-type monochromator combined with a commercial VG Scienta hemispherical electron energy analyzer, which can simultaneously measure the energy and momentum of the scattered electrons. The new system possesses high angular resolution (<0.1°), detecting efficiency and sampling density. The capabilities of this system are demonstrated using Bi2Sr2CaCu2O(8+δ). The time required to obtain a complete dispersion spectrum is at least one order of magnitude shorter than conventional spectrometers, with improved momentum resolution and no loss in energy resolution. PMID:26329206
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khan, Shahab Ullah; Adnan, Muhammad; Qamar, Anisa; Mahmood, Shahzad
2016-07-01
The propagation of linear and nonlinear electrostatic waves is investigated in magnetized dusty plasma with stationary negatively or positively charged dust, cold mobile ions and non-extensive electrons. Two normal modes are predicted in the linear regime, whose characteristics are investigated parametrically, focusing on the effect of electrons non-extensivity, dust charge polarity, concentration of dust and magnetic field strength. Using the reductive perturbation technique, a Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) type equation is derived which governs the dynamics of small-amplitude solitary waves in magnetized dusty plasma. The properties of the solitary wave structures are analyzed numerically with the system parameters i.e. electrons non-extensivity, concentration of dust, polarity of dust and magnetic field strength. Following Allen and Rowlands (J. Plasma Phys. 53:63, 1995), we have shown that the pulse soliton solution of the ZK equation is unstable, and have analytically traced the dependence of the instability growth rate on the nonextensive parameter q for electrons, dust charge polarity and magnetic field strength. The results should be useful for understanding the nonlinear propagation of DIA solitary waves in laboratory and space plasmas.
High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy with two-dimensional energy and momentum mapping
Zhu, Xuetao; Cao, Yanwei; Zhang, Shuyuan; Jia, Xun; Guo, Qinlin; Yang, Fang; Zhu, Linfan; Zhang, Jiandi; Plummer, E. W.; Guo, Jiandong
2015-08-15
High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) is a powerful technique to probe vibrational and electronic excitations at surfaces. The dispersion relation of surface excitations, i.e., energy as a function of momentum, has in the past, been obtained by measuring the energy loss at a fixed angle (momentum) and then rotating sample, monochromator, or analyzer. Here, we introduce a new strategy for HREELS, utilizing a specially designed lens system with a double-cylindrical Ibach-type monochromator combined with a commercial VG Scienta hemispherical electron energy analyzer, which can simultaneously measure the energy and momentum of the scattered electrons. The new system possesses high angular resolution (<0.1°), detecting efficiency and sampling density. The capabilities of this system are demonstrated using Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+δ}. The time required to obtain a complete dispersion spectrum is at least one order of magnitude shorter than conventional spectrometers, with improved momentum resolution and no loss in energy resolution.
Regeta, K. Allan, M.
2015-05-14
Detailed experimental information on the motion of a nuclear packet on a complex (resonant) anion potential surface is obtained by measuring 2-dimensional (2D) electron energy loss spectra. The cross section is plotted as a function of incident electron energy, which determines which resonant anion state is populated, i.e., along which normal coordinate the wave packet is launched, and of the electron energy loss, which reveals into which final states each specific resonant state decays. The 2D spectra are presented for acrylonitrile and methacrylonitrile, at the incident energy range 0.095-1.0 eV, where the incoming electron is temporarily captured in the lowest π{sup ∗} orbital. The 2D spectra reveal selectivity patterns with respect to which vibrations are excited in the attachment and de-excited in the detachment. Further insight is gained by recording 1D spectra measured along horizontal, vertical, and diagonal cuts of the 2D spectrum. The methyl group in methacrylonitrile increases the resonance width 7 times. This converts the sharp resonances of acrylonitrile into boomerang structures but preserves the essence of the selectivity patterns. Selectivity of vibrational excitation by higher-lying shape resonances up to 8 eV is also reported.
Tur, A.; Fruit, G.; Louarn, P.
2014-03-15
In the general context of understanding the possible destabilization of a current sheet with applications to magnetospheric substorms or solar flares, a kinetic model is proposed for studying the resonant interaction between electromagnetic fluctuations and trapped bouncing electrons in a 2D current sheet. Tur et al. [A. Tur et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 102905 (2010)] and Fruit et al. [G. Fruit et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 022113 (2013)] already used this model to investigate the possibilities of electrostatic instabilities. Here, the model is completed for full electromagnetic perturbations. Starting with a modified Harris sheet as equilibrium state, the linearized gyrokinetic Vlasov equation is solved for electromagnetic fluctuations with period of the order of the electron bounce period. The particle motion is restricted to its first Fourier component along the magnetic field and this allows the complete time integration of the non local perturbed distribution functions. The dispersion relation for electromagnetic modes is finally obtained through the quasineutrality condition and the Ampere's law for the current density. It is found that for mildly strechted current, undamped modes oscillate at typical electron bounce frequency with wavelength of the order of the plasma sheet half thickness. As the stretching of the plasma sheet becomes more intense, the frequency of these normal modes decreases and beyond a certain threshold in ε = B{sub z}/B{sub lobes}, the mode becomes explosive with typical growth rate of a few tens of seconds. The free energy contained in the bouncing motion of the electrons may trigger an electromagnetic instability able to disrupt the cross-tail current in a few seconds. This new instability–electromagnetic electron-bounce instability–may explain fast and global scale destabilization of current sheets as required to describe substorm phenomena.
Franck, John M; Chandrasekaran, Siddarth; Dzikovski, Boris; Dunnam, Curt R; Freed, Jack H
2015-06-01
The development, applications, and current challenges of the pulsed ESR technique of two-dimensional Electron-Electron Double Resonance (2D ELDOR) are described. This is a three-pulse technique akin to 2D Exchange Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, but involving electron spins, usually in the form of spin-probes or spin-labels. As a result, it required the extension to much higher frequencies, i.e., microwaves, and much faster time scales, with π/2 pulses in the 2-3 ns range. It has proven very useful for studying molecular dynamics in complex fluids, and spectral results can be explained by fitting theoretical models (also described) that provide a detailed analysis of the molecular dynamics and structure. We discuss concepts that also appear in other forms of 2D spectroscopy but emphasize the unique advantages and difficulties that are intrinsic to ESR. Advantages include the ability to tune the resonance frequency, in order to probe different motional ranges, while challenges include the high ratio of the detection dead time vs. the relaxation times. We review several important 2D ELDOR studies of molecular dynamics. (1) The results from a spin probe dissolved in a liquid crystal are followed throughout the isotropic → nematic → liquid-like smectic → solid-like smectic → crystalline phases as the temperature is reduced and are interpreted in terms of the slowly relaxing local structure model. Here, the labeled molecule is undergoing overall motion in the macroscopically aligned sample, as well as responding to local site fluctuations. (2) Several examples involving model phospholipid membranes are provided, including the dynamic structural characterization of the boundary lipid that coats a transmembrane peptide dimer. Additionally, subtle differences can be elicited for the phospholipid membrane phases: liquid disordered, liquid ordered, and gel, and the subtle effects upon the membrane, of antigen cross-linking of receptors on the surface of plasma membrane
Franck, John M.; Dzikovski, Boris; Freed, Jack H.
2015-01-01
The development, applications, and current challenges of the pulsed ESR technique of two-dimensional Electron-Electron Double Resonance (2D ELDOR) are described. This is a three-pulse technique akin to 2D Exchange Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, but involving electron spins, usually in the form of spin-probes or spin-labels. As a result, it required the extension to much higher frequencies, i.e., microwaves, and much faster time scales, with π/2 pulses in the 2-3 ns range. It has proven very useful for studying molecular dynamics in complex fluids, and spectral results can be explained by fitting theoretical models (also described) that provide a detailed analysis of the molecular dynamics and structure. We discuss concepts that also appear in other forms of 2D spectroscopy but emphasize the unique advantages and difficulties that are intrinsic to ESR. Advantages include the ability to tune the resonance frequency, in order to probe different motional ranges, while challenges include the high ratio of the detection dead time vs. the relaxation times. We review several important 2D ELDOR studies of molecular dynamics. (1) The results from a spin probe dissolved in a liquid crystal are followed throughout the isotropic → nematic → liquid-like smectic → solid-like smectic → crystalline phases as the temperature is reduced and are interpreted in terms of the slowly relaxing local structure model. Here, the labeled molecule is undergoing overall motion in the macroscopically aligned sample, as well as responding to local site fluctuations. (2) Several examples involving model phospholipid membranes are provided, including the dynamic structural characterization of the boundary lipid that coats a transmembrane peptide dimer. Additionally, subtle differences can be elicited for the phospholipid membrane phases: liquid disordered, liquid ordered, and gel, and the subtle effects upon the membrane, of antigen cross-linking of receptors on the surface of plasma membrane
Franck, John M.; Chandrasekaran, Siddarth; Dzikovski, Boris; Dunnam, Curt R.; Freed, Jack H.
2015-06-07
The development, applications, and current challenges of the pulsed ESR technique of two-dimensional Electron-Electron Double Resonance (2D ELDOR) are described. This is a three-pulse technique akin to 2D Exchange Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, but involving electron spins, usually in the form of spin-probes or spin-labels. As a result, it required the extension to much higher frequencies, i.e., microwaves, and much faster time scales, with π/2 pulses in the 2-3 ns range. It has proven very useful for studying molecular dynamics in complex fluids, and spectral results can be explained by fitting theoretical models (also described) that provide a detailed analysis of the molecular dynamics and structure. We discuss concepts that also appear in other forms of 2D spectroscopy but emphasize the unique advantages and difficulties that are intrinsic to ESR. Advantages include the ability to tune the resonance frequency, in order to probe different motional ranges, while challenges include the high ratio of the detection dead time vs. the relaxation times. We review several important 2D ELDOR studies of molecular dynamics. (1) The results from a spin probe dissolved in a liquid crystal are followed throughout the isotropic → nematic → liquid-like smectic → solid-like smectic → crystalline phases as the temperature is reduced and are interpreted in terms of the slowly relaxing local structure model. Here, the labeled molecule is undergoing overall motion in the macroscopically aligned sample, as well as responding to local site fluctuations. (2) Several examples involving model phospholipid membranes are provided, including the dynamic structural characterization of the boundary lipid that coats a transmembrane peptide dimer. Additionally, subtle differences can be elicited for the phospholipid membrane phases: liquid disordered, liquid ordered, and gel, and the subtle effects upon the membrane, of antigen cross-linking of receptors on the surface of plasma membrane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Franck, John M.; Chandrasekaran, Siddarth; Dzikovski, Boris; Dunnam, Curt R.; Freed, Jack H.
2015-06-01
The development, applications, and current challenges of the pulsed ESR technique of two-dimensional Electron-Electron Double Resonance (2D ELDOR) are described. This is a three-pulse technique akin to 2D Exchange Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, but involving electron spins, usually in the form of spin-probes or spin-labels. As a result, it required the extension to much higher frequencies, i.e., microwaves, and much faster time scales, with π/2 pulses in the 2-3 ns range. It has proven very useful for studying molecular dynamics in complex fluids, and spectral results can be explained by fitting theoretical models (also described) that provide a detailed analysis of the molecular dynamics and structure. We discuss concepts that also appear in other forms of 2D spectroscopy but emphasize the unique advantages and difficulties that are intrinsic to ESR. Advantages include the ability to tune the resonance frequency, in order to probe different motional ranges, while challenges include the high ratio of the detection dead time vs. the relaxation times. We review several important 2D ELDOR studies of molecular dynamics. (1) The results from a spin probe dissolved in a liquid crystal are followed throughout the isotropic → nematic → liquid-like smectic → solid-like smectic → crystalline phases as the temperature is reduced and are interpreted in terms of the slowly relaxing local structure model. Here, the labeled molecule is undergoing overall motion in the macroscopically aligned sample, as well as responding to local site fluctuations. (2) Several examples involving model phospholipid membranes are provided, including the dynamic structural characterization of the boundary lipid that coats a transmembrane peptide dimer. Additionally, subtle differences can be elicited for the phospholipid membrane phases: liquid disordered, liquid ordered, and gel, and the subtle effects upon the membrane, of antigen cross-linking of receptors on the surface of plasma membrane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tizei, Luiz H. G.; Lin, Yung-Chang; Lu, Ang-Yu; Li, Lain-Jong; Suenaga, Kazu
2016-04-01
We have explored the benefits of performing monochromated Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) in samples at cryogenic temperatures. As an example, we have observed the excitonic absorption peaks in single layer Transition Metal Dichalcogenides. These peaks appear separated by small energies due to spin orbit coupling. We have been able to distinguish the split for MoS2 below 300 K and for MoSe2 below 220 K. However, the distinction between peaks is only clear at 150 K. We have measured the change in absorption threshold between 150 K and 770 K for MoS2 and MoSe2. We discuss the effect of carbon and ice contamination in EELS spectra. The increased spectral resolution available made possible with modern monochromators in electron microscopes will require the development of stable sample holders which reaches temperatures far below that of liquid nitrogen.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, H. L.; Zhang, X. W.; Wang, Z. P.; Dai, B.; Ren, Y.
2016-05-01
We study theoretically the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect of 2-dimensional electron system (2DES) by the transfer matrix method. To produce the inhomogeneous magnetic field, two magnetic strips are pre-deposited on the surface of 2DES. In our work, we fix the magnetization M in one magnetic strip and adjust the tilting angle θ of magnetization in the other. The result shows that the electronic transmission and conductance vary significantly for different θ. The minimum conductance can be obtained at θ = π which corresponds to the magnetization anti-parallel alignment. The magnetoresistance ratio (MRR) calculation also indicates we would get the maximum in that case. Furthermore, we consider the magnetization M dependence of MRR in this work. When M increases, MRR peaks get higher and broader and more numbers of peaks can be observed. These results offer an alternative to get a tunable GMR device which can be controlled by adjusting the magnetization M and the magnetized angle θ.
Lateral quantization of two-dimensional electron states by embedded Ag nanocrystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Van Haesendonck, Chris; Schouteden, Koen
2013-03-01
We show that quantization of image-potential state (IS)electrons above the surface of nanostructures can be experimentally achieved by Ag nanocrystals that appear as stacking fault tetrahedrons (SFTs) at Ag(111) surfaces. By means of cryogenic scanning tunneling spectroscopy the n = 1 IS of the Ag(111) surface is revealed to split up in discrete energy levels, which is accompanied by the formation of pronounced standing wave patterns that directly reflect the eigenstates of the SFT surface. The IS confinement behavior is compared to that of the surface state electrons in the SFT surface and can be directly linked to the particle-in-a-box model. ISs provide a novel playground for investigating quantum size effects and defect induced scattering above nanostructured surfaces. This work has been supported by the Research Foundation - Flanders (FWO, Belgium). K.S. is a postdoctoral researcher of the FWO.
Lateral Quantization of Two-Dimensional Electron States by Embedded Ag Nanocrystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schouteden, K.; Van Haesendonck, C.
2012-02-01
We show that quantization of image-potential state (IS) electrons above the surface of nanostructures can be experimentally achieved by Ag nanocrystals that appear as stacking-fault tetrahedrons (SFTs) at Ag(111) surfaces. By means of cryogenic scanning tunneling spectroscopy, the n=1 IS of the Ag(111) surface is revealed to split up in discrete energy levels, which is accompanied by the formation of pronounced standing wave patterns that directly reflect the eigenstates of the SFT surface. The IS confinement behavior is compared to that of the surface state electrons in the SFT surface and can be directly linked to the particle-in-a-box model. ISs provide a novel playground for investigating quantum size effects and defect-induced scattering above nanostructured surfaces.
Design of transparent conductors and periodic two-dimensional electron gases without doping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xiuwen; Zhang, Lijun; Zunger, Alex; Perkins, John; Materials by Design Team; John D. Perkins Collaboration
The functionality of transparency plus conductivity plays an important role in renewable energy and information technologies, including applications such as solar cells, touch-screen sensors, and flat panel display. However, materials with such seemingly contraindicated properties are difficult to come by. The traditional strategy for designing bulk transparent conductors (TCs) starts from a wide-gap insulator and finds ways to make it conductive by extensive doping. We propose a different strategy for TC design--starting with a metallic conductor and designing transparency by control of intrinsic interband transitions and intraband plasmonic frequency. We identified specific design principles for prototypical intrinsic TC classes and searched computationally for materials that satisfy them. The electron gases in the 3D intrinsic TCs demonstrate intriguing properties, such as periodic 2D electron gas regions with very high carrier density. We will discuss a more extended search of these functionalities, in parallel with stability and growability calculations
Monisha, P J; Sankar, I V; Sil, Shreekantha; Chatterjee, Ashok
2016-01-01
Persistent current in a correlated quantum ring threaded by an Aharonov-Bohm flux is studied in the presence of electron-phonon interactions and Rashba spin-orbit coupling. The quantum ring is modeled by the Holstein-Hubbard-Rashba Hamiltonian and the energy is calculated by performing the conventional Lang-Firsov transformation followed by the diagonalization of the effective Hamiltonian within a mean-field approximation. The effects of Aharonov-Bohm flux, temperature, spin-orbit and electron-phonon interactions on the persistent current are investigated. It is shown that the electron-phonon interactions reduce the persistent current, while the Rashba coupling enhances it. It is also shown that temperature smoothens the persistent current curve. The effect of chemical potential on the persistent current is also studied. PMID:26831831
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monisha, P. J.; Sankar, I. V.; Sil, Shreekantha; Chatterjee, Ashok
2016-02-01
Persistent current in a correlated quantum ring threaded by an Aharonov-Bohm flux is studied in the presence of electron-phonon interactions and Rashba spin-orbit coupling. The quantum ring is modeled by the Holstein-Hubbard-Rashba Hamiltonian and the energy is calculated by performing the conventional Lang-Firsov transformation followed by the diagonalization of the effective Hamiltonian within a mean-field approximation. The effects of Aharonov-Bohm flux, temperature, spin-orbit and electron-phonon interactions on the persistent current are investigated. It is shown that the electron-phonon interactions reduce the persistent current, while the Rashba coupling enhances it. It is also shown that temperature smoothens the persistent current curve. The effect of chemical potential on the persistent current is also studied.
Monisha, P. J.; Sankar, I. V.; Sil, Shreekantha; Chatterjee, Ashok
2016-01-01
Persistent current in a correlated quantum ring threaded by an Aharonov-Bohm flux is studied in the presence of electron-phonon interactions and Rashba spin-orbit coupling. The quantum ring is modeled by the Holstein-Hubbard-Rashba Hamiltonian and the energy is calculated by performing the conventional Lang-Firsov transformation followed by the diagonalization of the effective Hamiltonian within a mean-field approximation. The effects of Aharonov-Bohm flux, temperature, spin-orbit and electron-phonon interactions on the persistent current are investigated. It is shown that the electron-phonon interactions reduce the persistent current, while the Rashba coupling enhances it. It is also shown that temperature smoothens the persistent current curve. The effect of chemical potential on the persistent current is also studied. PMID:26831831
Liljeroth, Peter; Vanmaekelbergh, Daniël; Ruiz, Virginia; Kontturi, Kyösti; Jiang, Hua; Kauppinen, Esko; Quinn, Bernadette M
2004-06-01
This article reports the use of the scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM) to investigate the electronic properties of Langmuir monolayers of alkane thiol protected gold nanocrystals (NCs). A substantial increase in monolayer conductivity upon mechanical compression of the Au NC monolayer is reported for the first time. This may be the room temperature signature of the insulator to metal transition previously reported for comparable silver NC monolayers. Factors influencing the conductivity of the monolayer NC array are discussed. PMID:15174884
Drift and diffusion of spin and charge density waves in a two-dimensional electron gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Luyi; Koralek, J. D.; Orenstein, J.; Tibbetts, D. R.; Reno, J. L.; Lilly, M. P.
2011-03-01
We use transient grating spectroscopy (TGS) to study the persistent spin helix (PSH) state and electron-hole density wave (EHDW) in a 2D electron gas in the presence of an in-plane electric field parallel to the wavevector of the PSH or EHDW. By directly measuring the phase, we can measure the PSH and EHDW displacement with 10 nm spatial and sub-picosecond time resolution. We obtain both the spin diffusion and mobility and ambipolar diffusion and mobility from the TGS measurements of PSH and EHDW, respectively. The spin transresistivity extracted from the spin diffusion is in excellent agreement with the RPA theory of spin Coulomb drag (SCD). The spin mobility data indicate that SCD may also play a role in the spin wave drifting process. From the ambipolar diffusion and mobility, we obtain the transresistivity of electrons and holes in the same layer, which is much stronger than is typically seen in the conventional Coulomb drag experiments on coupled quantum wells.
Enhanced thermopower in ZnO two-dimensional electron gas.
Shimizu, Sunao; Bahramy, Mohammad Saeed; Iizuka, Takahiko; Ono, Shimpei; Miwa, Kazumoto; Tokura, Yoshinori; Iwasa, Yoshihiro
2016-06-01
Control of dimensionality has proven to be an effective way to manipulate the electronic properties of materials, thereby enabling exotic quantum phenomena, such as superconductivity, quantum Hall effects, and valleytronic effects. Another example is thermoelectricity, which has been theoretically proposed to be favorably controllable by reducing the dimensionality. Here, we verify this proposal by performing a systematic study on a gate-tuned 2D electron gas (2DEG) system formed at the surface of ZnO. Combining state-of-the-art electric-double-layer transistor experiments and realistic tight-binding calculations, we show that, for a wide range of carrier densities, the 2DEG channel comprises a single subband, and its effective thickness can be reduced to [Formula: see text] 1 nm at sufficiently high gate biases. We also demonstrate that the thermoelectric performance of the 2DEG region is significantly higher than that of bulk ZnO. Our approach opens up a route to exploit the peculiar behavior of 2DEG electronic states and realize thermoelectric devices with advanced functionalities. PMID:27222585
Enhanced thermopower in ZnO two-dimensional electron gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shimizu, Sunao; Saeed Bahramy, Mohammad; Iizuka, Takahiko; Ono, Shimpei; Miwa, Kazumoto; Tokura, Yoshinori; Iwasa, Yoshihiro
2016-06-01
Control of dimensionality has proven to be an effective way to manipulate the electronic properties of materials, thereby enabling exotic quantum phenomena, such as superconductivity, quantum Hall effects, and valleytronic effects. Another example is thermoelectricity, which has been theoretically proposed to be favorably controllable by reducing the dimensionality. Here, we verify this proposal by performing a systematic study on a gate-tuned 2D electron gas (2DEG) system formed at the surface of ZnO. Combining state-of-the-art electric-double-layer transistor experiments and realistic tight-binding calculations, we show that, for a wide range of carrier densities, the 2DEG channel comprises a single subband, and its effective thickness can be reduced to ˜ 1 nm at sufficiently high gate biases. We also demonstrate that the thermoelectric performance of the 2DEG region is significantly higher than that of bulk ZnO. Our approach opens up a route to exploit the peculiar behavior of 2DEG electronic states and realize thermoelectric devices with advanced functionalities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shukla, Chandrasekhar; Das, Amita; Patel, Kartik
2015-11-01
Relativistic electron beam propagation in plasma is fraught with several micro instabilities like two stream, filamentation, etc., in plasma. This results in severe limitation of the electron transport through a plasma medium. Recently, however, there has been an experimental demonstration of improved transport of Mega Ampere of electron currents (generated by the interaction of intense laser with solid target) in a carbon nanotube structured solid target [G. Chatterjee et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 235005 (2012)]. This then suggests that the inhomogeneous plasma (created by the ionization of carbon nanotube structured target) helps in containing the growth of the beam plasma instabilities. This manuscript addresses this issue with the help of a detailed analytical study and 2-D Particle-In-Cell simulations. The study conclusively demonstrates that the growth rate of the dominant instability in the 2-D geometry decreases when the plasma density is chosen to be inhomogeneous, provided the scale length 1/ks of the inhomogeneous plasma is less than the typical plasma skin depth (c/ω0) scale. At such small scale lengths channelization of currents is also observed in simulation.
High speed photodetectors based on a two-dimensional electron/hole gas heterostructure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gallo, Eric M.; Cola, Adriano; Quaranta, Fabio; Spanier, Jonathan E.
2013-04-01
We report on high-speed metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) resonant cavity enhanced photodetectors based on Schottky-contacted (Al,In)GaAs heterostructures containing both electron and hole quantum wells. Interdigitated detectors were fabricated and characterized with and without an underlying Distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR). All detectors had very low dark currents and high linear responsivities. The fastest measured temporal response with a 16 ps full-width at half-maximum and a 29 ps fall time was demonstrated on a device with 1 μm gap between electrodes and an underlying DBR. Single quantum well detectors have previously demonstrated increased responsivity and speed but were limited by a slow decaying tail in the high speed photoresponse, attributed to the long collection path of minority carriers. The use of an electron and hole well, separated by a 110 nm absorption region as well as an underlying DBR, eliminates the slow tail by providing an enhanced collection path for both optically generated electrons and holes. Here, we present the fabricated device structure along with the DC and high speed photoresponse under varying incident powers. We briefly compare these results to those of the previous single well devices and attribute improvements in the time response tail to enhanced diffusion created by the presence of the separated dual well structure.
Renormalization of Fermi Velocity in a Composite Two Dimensional Electron Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weger, M.; Burlachkov, L.
We calculate the self-energy Σ(k, ω) of an electron gas with a Coulomb interaction in a composite 2D system, consisting of metallic layers of thickness d ≳ a0, where a0 = ħ2ɛ1/me2 is the Bohr radius, separated by layers with a dielectric constant ɛ2 and a lattice constant c perpendicular to the planes. The behavior of the electron gas is determined by the dimensionless parameters kFa0 and kFc ɛ2/ɛ1. We find that when ɛ2/ɛ1 is large (≈5 or more), the velocity v(k) becomes strongly k-dependent near kF, and v(kF) is enhanced by a factor of 5-10. This behavior is similar to the one found by Lindhard in 1954 for an unscreened electron gas; however here we take screening into account. The peak in v(k) is very sharp (δk/kF is a few percent) and becomes sharper as ɛ2/ɛ1 increases. This velocity renormalization has dramatic effects on the transport properties; the conductivity at low T increases like the square of the velocity renormalization and the resistivity due to elastic scattering becomes temperature dependent, increasing approximately linearly with T. For scattering by phonons, ρ ∝ T2. Preliminary measurements suggest an increase in vk in YBCO very close to kF.
Shukla, Chandrasekhar; Das, Amita; Patel, Kartik
2015-11-15
Relativistic electron beam propagation in plasma is fraught with several micro instabilities like two stream, filamentation, etc., in plasma. This results in severe limitation of the electron transport through a plasma medium. Recently, however, there has been an experimental demonstration of improved transport of Mega Ampere of electron currents (generated by the interaction of intense laser with solid target) in a carbon nanotube structured solid target [G. Chatterjee et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 235005 (2012)]. This then suggests that the inhomogeneous plasma (created by the ionization of carbon nanotube structured target) helps in containing the growth of the beam plasma instabilities. This manuscript addresses this issue with the help of a detailed analytical study and 2-D Particle-In-Cell simulations. The study conclusively demonstrates that the growth rate of the dominant instability in the 2-D geometry decreases when the plasma density is chosen to be inhomogeneous, provided the scale length 1/k{sub s} of the inhomogeneous plasma is less than the typical plasma skin depth (c/ω{sub 0}) scale. At such small scale lengths channelization of currents is also observed in simulation.
Quenching Plasma Waves in Two Dimensional Electron Gas by a Femtosecond Laser Pulse
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shur, Michael; Rudin, Sergey; Greg Rupper Collaboration; Andrey Muraviev Collaboration
Plasmonic detectors of terahertz (THz) radiation using the plasma wave excitation in 2D electron gas are capable of detecting ultra short THz pulses. To study the plasma wave propagation and decay, we used femtosecond laser pulses to quench the plasma waves excited by a short THz pulse. The femtosecond laser pulse generates a large concentration of the electron-hole pairs effectively shorting the 2D electron gas channel and dramatically increasing the channel conductance. Immediately after the application of the femtosecond laser pulse, the equivalent circuit of the device reduces to the source and drain contact resistances connected by a short. The total response charge is equal to the integral of the current induced by the THz pulse from the moment of the THz pulse application to the moment of the femtosecond laser pulse application. This current is determined by the plasma wave rectification. Registering the charge as a function of the time delay between the THz and laser pulses allowed us to follow the plasmonic wave decay. We observed the decaying oscillations in a sample with a partially gated channel. The decay depends on the gate bias and reflects the interplay between the gated and ungated plasmons in the device channel. Army Research Office.
Giant capacitance of a plane capacitor with a two-dimensional electron gas in a magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skinner, Brian; Shklovskii, B. I.
2013-01-01
If a clean two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) with a low concentration n comprises one electrode of a plane capacitor, the resulting capacitance C can be higher than the “geometric capacitance” Cg determined by the physical separation d between electrodes. A recent paper [B. Skinner and B. I. Shklovskii, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.82.155111 82, 155111 (2010)] argued that when the effective Bohr radius aB of the 2DEG satisfies aB≪d, one can achieve C≫Cg at a low concentration nd2≪1. Here we show that even for devices with aB>d, including graphene, for which aB is effectively infinite, one also arrives at C≫Cg at low electron concentrations if there is a strong perpendicular magnetic field.
Rancova, Olga; Abramavicius, Darius; Jankowiak, Ryszard
2015-06-07
Two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy at cryogenic and room temperatures reveals excitation energy relaxation and transport, as well as vibrational dynamics, in molecular systems. These phenomena are related to the spectral densities of nuclear degrees of freedom, which are directly accessible by means of hole burning and fluorescence line narrowing approaches at low temperatures (few K). The 2D spectroscopy, in principle, should reveal more details about the fluctuating environment than the 1D approaches due to peak extension into extra dimension. By studying the spectral line shapes of a dimeric aggregate at low temperature, we demonstrate that 2D spectra have the potential to reveal the fluctuation spectral densities for different electronic states, the interstate correlation of static disorder and, finally, the time scales of spectral diffusion with high resolution.
ZUDOV,M.A.; PONOMAREV,I.V.; EFROS,A.L.; DU,R.R.; SIMMONS,JERRY A.; RENO,JOHN L.
2000-05-11
The authors report a new type of oscillations in magnetoresistance observed in high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG), in GaAs-AIGaAs heterostructures. Being periodic in 1/B these oscillations appear in weak magnetic field (B < 0.3 T) and only in a narrow temperature range (3 K < T < 7 K). Remarkably, these oscillations can be understood in terms of magneto-phonon resonance originating from the interaction of 2DEG and leaky interface-acoustic phonon modes. The existence of such modes on the GaAs:AIGaAs interface is demonstrated theoretically and their velocities are calculated. It is shown that the electron-phonon scattering matrix element exhibits a peak for the phonons carrying momentum q = 2k{sub F} (k{sub F} is the Fermi wave-vector of 2DEG).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bickers, N. E.; Scalapino, D. J.; White, S. R.
1989-01-01
A semianalytical approach is described for strongly correlated electronic systems which satisfies microscopic conservation laws, treats strong frequency and momentum dependences, and provides information on both static and dynamic properties. This approach may be used to treat large systems and temperatures lower than those currently accessible to finite-temperature quantum Monte Carlo techniques. Examples of such systems include heavy-electron compounds, organic Bechegaard salts, bis-(ethylenedithiolo)-TTF superconductors, and the oxide superconductors. The technique is based on the derivation and self-consistent solution of infinite-order conserving approximations. The technique is used to derive a low-temperature phase diagram and dynamic correlation functions for the two-dimensional Hubbard lattice model.
Lymberopoulos, D.P.; Economou, D.J.
1995-07-01
Over the pst few years multidimensional self-consistent plasma simulations including complex chemistry have been developed which are promising tools for furthering the understanding of reactive gas plasmas and for reactor design and optimization. These simulations must be benchmarked against experimental data obtained in well-characterized systems such as the Gaseous Electronics Conference (GEC) reference cell. Two-dimensional simulations relevant to the GEC Cell are reviewed in this paper with emphasis on fluid simulations. Important features observed experimentally, such as off-axis maxima in the charge density and hot spots of metastable species density near the electrode edges in capacitively-coupled GEC cells, have been captured by these simulations. Glow discharge plasmas are used extensively in the processing of electronic materials especially for etching and deposition of thin films.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shashkin, A. A.; Dolgopolov, V. T.; Deviatov, E. V.; Irmer, B.; Haubrich, A. G. C.; Kotthaus, J. P.; Bichler, M.; Wegscheider, W.
1999-12-01
We study the lateral tunneling through the gate-voltage-controlled barrier, which arises as a result of partial elimination of the donor layer of a heterostructure along a fine strip using an atomic force microscope, between edge channels at the depletion-induced edges of a gated two-dimensional electron system. For a sufficiently high barrier a typical current-voltage characteristic is found to be strongly asymmetric and includes, apart from a positive tunneling branch, the negative branch that corresponds to the current overflowing the barrier. We establish that the barrier height depends linearly on both gate voltage and magnetic field and we describe the data in terms of electron tunneling between the outermost edge channels.
Zhukov, Alexander V. Bouffanais, Roland; Fedorov, E. G.; Belonenko, Mikhail B.
2014-05-28
Propagation of ultrashort laser pulses through various nano-objects has recently became an attractive topic for both theoretical and experimental studies due to its promising perspectives in a variety of problems of modern nanoelectronics. Here, we study the propagation of extremely short two-dimensional bipolar electromagnetic pulses in a heterogeneous array of semiconductor carbon nanotubes. Heterogeneity is defined as a region of enhanced electron density. The electromagnetic field in an array of nanotubes is described by Maxwell's equations, reduced to a multidimensional wave equation. Our numerical analysis shows the possibility of stable propagation of an electromagnetic pulse in a heterogeneous array of nanotubes. Furthermore, we establish that, depending on its speed of propagation, the pulse can pass through the area of increased electron concentration or be reflected therefrom.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fujita, Jun-ichi; Ikeda, Yuta; Suzuki, Ikumi
2009-06-01
We demonstrate an in-situ visualization of electric field distribution and the two-dimensional (2D) mapping of a local field by using a conventional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) system combined with a grid detector. The deflection of the primary electron that obeys Rutherford scattering projects a cross grid shape to a shadow constructed by concentric rings and radial spokes that appear to superimpose immediately behind the conventional SEM image. The correlation of the beam scanning position with the deflection position gives the true local field intensity, and thus, the 2D electric field distribution is obtained. The resulting 2D field distribution agrees well with the field element method (FEM) simulation.
Measurement of electronic splitting in PbS quantum dots by two-dimensional nonlinear spectroscopy
Harel, E.; Rupich, S. M.; Schaller, R. D.; Talapin, D. V.; Engel, G. S.
2012-01-01
Quantum dots exhibit rich and complex electronic structure that makes them ideal for studying the basic physics of semiconductors in the intermediate regime between bulk materials and single atoms. The remarkable nonlinear optical properties of these nanostructures make them strong candidates for photonics applications. Here, we experimentally probe changes in the fine structure on ultrafast timescales of a colloidal solution of PbS quantum dots through their nonlinear optical response despite extensive inhomogeneous spectral broadening. Using continuum excitation and detection, we observe electronic coupling between nearly degenerate exciton states split by intervalley scattering at low exciton occupancy and a sub-100 fs frequency shift presumably due to phonon-assisted transitions. At high excitation intensities, we observe multi-exciton effects and sharp absorbance bands indicative of exciton-exciton coupling. Our experiments directly probe the nonlinear optical response of nearly degenerate quantum confined nanostructures with femtosecond temporal resolution despite extensive line broadening caused by the finite size distribution found in colloidal solutions.
Two-dimensional boron based nanomaterials: electronic, vibrational, Raman, and STM signatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Massote, Daniel V. P.; Liang, Liangbo; Kharche, Neerav; Meunier, Vincent
Because boron has only three electrons on its outer shell, planar mono-elemental boron nanostructures are expected to be much more challenging to assemble than their carbon counterparts. Several studies proposed schemes in which boron is stabilized to form flat semiconducting sheets consisting of a hexagonal lattice of boron atoms with partial hexagon filling (PRL 99 115501, ACSNano 6 7443-7453) . Other structures were proposed based on results from an evolutionary algorithm (PRL 112 085502). These structures are metallic and one even features a distorted Dirac cone near the Fermi level. Experimental evidence for 2D boron is still lacking but the recently proposed molecular synthesis of a flat all-boron molecule is a promising route to achieve this goal (Nat.Comms. 5 3113). Our research aims at providing a first-principles based description of these materials' properties to help in their identification. DFT is used to calculate phonon dispersion and associated Raman scattering spectra. We report some marked discrepancy between our findings and results from the recent literature and address the deviation using two methods for phonon dispersion. We also simulated STM images at various bias potentials to reveal the electronic symmetry of each material.
Seibt, Joachim; Pullerits, Tõnu
2014-09-21
While the theoretical description of population transfer subsequent to electronic excitation in combination with a line shape function description of vibrational dynamics in the context of 2D-spectroscopy is well-developed under the assumption of different timescales of population transfer and fluctuation dynamics, the treatment of the interplay between both kinds of processes lacks a comprehensive description. To bridge this gap, we use the cumulant expansion approach to derive response functions, which account for fluctuation dynamics and population transfer simultaneously. We compare 2D-spectra of a model system under different assumptions about correlations between fluctuations and point out under which conditions a simplified treatment is justified. Our study shows that population transfer and dissipative fluctuation dynamics cannot be described independent of each other in general. Advantages and limitations of the proposed calculation method and its compatibility with the modified Redfield description are discussed.
Fingerprints of intrinsic phase separation: magnetically doped two-dimensional electron gas.
Terletska, H; Dobrosavljević, V
2011-05-01
In addition to Anderson and Mott localization, intrinsic phase separation has long been advocated as the third fundamental mechanism controlling the doping-driven metal-insulator transitions. In electronic system, where charge neutrality precludes global phase separation, it may lead to various inhomogeneous states and dramatically affect transport. Here we theoretically predict the precise experimental signatures of such phase separation-driven metal-insulator transitions. We show that anomalous transport is expected in an intermediate regime around the transition, displaying very strong temperature and magnetic field dependence but very weak density dependence. Our predictions find striking agreement with recent experiments on Mn-doped CdTe quantum wells, a system where we identify the microscopic origin for intrinsic phase separation. PMID:21635108
Formation and Relaxation of Two-Dimensional Vortex Crystals in a Magnetized Pure-Electron Plasma
Kiwamoto, Y.; Hashizume, N.; Soga, Y.; Aoki, J.; Kawai, Y.
2007-09-14
Systematic examinations are carried out experimentally about the contribution of background vorticity distributions (BGVD's) to the spontaneous formation and decay of ordered arrays (vortex crystals) composed of strong vortices (clumps) by using a pure-electron plasma. It is found that the BGVD level needs to be higher for an increasing number of clumps to form vortex crystals and that the number of the clumps constituting the crystal decreases in time as {proportional_to}{gamma}lnt in contrast to {proportional_to}t{sup -{xi}} with {xi}{approx_equal}1 as accepted well in turbulence models. The decay rate {gamma} increases with the BGVD level. The observed configurations of the clumps cover the theoretically predicted catalogue of vortex arrays in superfluid helium, suggesting a possible relaxation path of the crystal states.
Two-dimensional misorientation mapping by rocking dark-field transmission electron microscopy.
Tyutyunnikov, Dmitry; Mitsuhara, Masatoshi; Koch, Christoph T
2015-12-01
In this paper we introduce an approach for precise orientation mapping of crystalline specimens by means of transmission electron microscopy. We show that local orientation values can be reconstructed from experimental dark-field image data acquired at different specimen tilts and multiple Bragg reflections. By using the suggested method it is also possible to determine the orientation of the tilt axis with respect to the image or diffraction pattern. The method has been implemented to automatically acquire the necessary data and then map crystal orientation for a given region of interest. We have applied this technique to a specimen prepared from a Ni-based super-alloy CMSX-4. The functionality and limitations of our method are discussed and compared to those of other techniques available. PMID:26255118
Magnetic quantum phase diagram of magnetic impurities in two-dimensional disordered electron systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Hyun Yong; Kettemann, Stefan
2014-04-01
The quantum phase diagram of disordered electron systems as a function of the concentration of magnetic impurities nm and the local exchange coupling J is studied in the dilute limit. We take into account the Anderson localization of the electrons by a nonperturbative numerical treatment of the disorder potential. The competition between Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interaction JRKKY and the Kondo effect, as governed by the temperature scale TK, is known to give rise to a rich magnetic quantum phase diagram, the Doniach diagram. Our numerical calculations show that in a disordered system both the Kondo temperature TK and JRKKY as well as their ratio JRKKY/TK is widely distributed. However, we find a sharp cutoff of that distribution, which allows us to define a critical density of magnetic impurities nc below which Kondo screening wins at all sites of the system above a critical coupling Jc, forming the Kondo phase [see Fig. 3(b)]. As disorder is increased, Jc increases and a spin coupled phase is found to grow at the expense of the Kondo phase. From these distribution functions we derive the magnetic susceptibility which show anomalous power-law behavior. In the Kondo phase that power is determined by the wide distribution of the Kondo temperature, while in the spin coupled phase it is governed by the distribution of JRKKY. At low densities and small J
Ma, H. J. Harsan E-mail: ariando@nus.edu.sg; Zeng, S. W.; Annadi, A.; Ariando E-mail: ariando@nus.edu.sg; Huang, Z.; Venkatesan, T.
2015-08-15
The two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) formed at the perovskite oxides heterostructures is of great interest because of its potential applications in oxides electronics and nanoscale multifunctional devices. A canonical example is the 2DEG at the interface between a polar oxide LaAlO{sub 3} (LAO) and non-polar SrTiO{sub 3} (STO). Here, the LAO polar oxide can be regarded as the modulating or doping layer and is expected to define the electronic properties of 2DEG at the LAO/STO interface. However, to practically implement the 2DEG in electronics and device design, desired properties such as tunable 2D carrier density are necessary. Here, we report the tuning of conductivity threshold, carrier density and electronic properties of 2DEG in LAO/STO heterostructures by insertion of a La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} (LSTO) layer of varying thicknesses, and thus modulating the amount of polarization of the oxide over layers. Our experimental result shows an enhancement of carrier density up to a value of about five times higher than that observed at the LAO/STO interface. A complete thickness dependent metal-insulator phase diagram is obtained by varying the thickness of LAO and LSTO providing an estimate for the critical thickness needed for the metallic phase. The observations are discussed in terms of electronic reconstruction induced by polar oxides.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, T. M.; Liu, J.; Kim, J.; Lai, K.; Tsui, D. C.; Xie, Y. H.
2007-04-01
The authors demonstrate that a high mobility two-dimensional electron gas can be capacitively induced in an undoped Si /Si1-xGex heterostructure using atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 as the dielectric. The density is tuned up to 4.2×1011/cm2, limited by the gate leakage current. The mobility increases with the density rapidly and reaches 5.5×104cm2/Vs at the highest density. The observation of well developed quantum Hall states and two-dimensional metal-insulator transition shows that the devices are suitable for two-dimensional electron physics studies.
Nitride multilayers as a platform for parallel two-dimensional electron-hole gases: MgO/ScN(111)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Botana, Antia S.; Pardo, Victor; Pickett, Warren E.
2016-02-01
At interfaces between insulating oxides LaAlO3 and SrTiO3, a two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) has been observed and well studied, while the predicted hole gas (2DHG) has not been realized due to the strong tendency of holes in oxygen 2 p orbitals to localize. Here we propose, via ab initio calculations, an unexplored class of materials for the realization of parallel two dimensional (2D), two carrier (electron+hole) gases: nitride-oxide heterostructures, with (111)-oriented ScN and MgO as the specific example. Beyond a critical thickness of five ScN layers, this interface hosts spatially separated conducting Sc -3 d electrons and N -2 p holes, each confined to ˜ two atomic layers—the transition metal nitride provides both gases. A guiding concept is that the N3 - anion should promote robust two carrier 2D hole conduction compared to that of O2 -; metal mononitrides are mostly metallic and even superconducting while most metal monoxides are insulating. A second positive factor is that the density of transition metal ions, hence of a resulting 2DG, is about three times larger for a rocksalt (111) interface than for a perovskite (001) interface. Our results, including calculation of Hall coefficient and thermopower for each conducting layer separately, provide guidance for new exploration, both experimental and theoretical, on nitride-based conducting gases that should promote study of long sought exotic states viz. new excitonic phases and distinct, nanoscale parallel superconducting nanolayers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chu, Min; Koehler, Andrew D.; Gupta, Amit; Nishida, Toshikazu; Thompson, Scott E.
2010-11-01
The gauge factor of AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistor was determined theoretically, considering the effect of stress on the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) sheet carrier density and electron mobility. Differences in the spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization between the AlGaN and GaN layers, with and without external mechanical stress, were investigated to calculate the stress-altered 2DEG density. Strain was incorporated into a sp3d5-sp3 empirical tight-binding model to obtain the change in electron effective masses under biaxial and uniaxial stress. The simulated longitudinal gauge factor (-7.9±5.2) is consistent with experimental results (-2.4±0.5) obtained from measurements eliminating parasitic charge trapping effects through continuous subbandgap optical excitation.
Quinn, John
2009-11-30
Work related to this project introduced the idea of an effective monopole strength Q* that acted as the effective angular momentum of the lowest shell of composite Fermions (CF). This allowed us to predict the angular momentum of the lowest band of energy states for any value of the applied magnetic field simply by determining N{sub QP} the number of quasielectrons (QE) or quasiholes (QH) in a partially filled CF shell and adding angular momenta of the N{sub QP} Fermions excitations. The approach reported treated the filled CF level as a vacuum state which could support QE and QH excitations. Numerical diagonalization of small systems allowed us to determine the angular momenta, the energy, and the pair interaction energies of these elementary excitations. The spectra of low energy states could then be evaluated in a Fermi liquid-like picture, treating the much smaller number of quasiparticles and their interactions instead of the larger system of N electrons with Coulomb interactions.
Cao, Duc; Moses, Gregory; Delettrez, Jacques
2015-08-15
An implicit, non-local thermal conduction algorithm based on the algorithm developed by Schurtz, Nicolai, and Busquet (SNB) [Schurtz et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 4238 (2000)] for non-local electron transport is presented and has been implemented in the radiation-hydrodynamics code DRACO. To study the model's effect on DRACO's predictive capability, simulations of shot 60 303 from OMEGA are completed using the iSNB model, and the computed shock speed vs. time is compared to experiment. Temperature outputs from the iSNB model are compared with the non-local transport model of Goncharov et al. [Phys. Plasmas 13, 012702 (2006)]. Effects on adiabat are also examined in a polar drive surrogate simulation. Results show that the iSNB model is not only capable of flux-limitation but also preheat prediction while remaining numerically robust and sacrificing little computational speed. Additionally, the results provide strong incentive to further modify key parameters within the SNB theory, namely, the newly introduced non-local mean free path. This research was supported by the Laboratory for Laser Energetics of the University of Rochester.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Duc; Moses, Gregory; Delettrez, Jacques
2015-08-01
An implicit, non-local thermal conduction algorithm based on the algorithm developed by Schurtz, Nicolai, and Busquet (SNB) [Schurtz et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 4238 (2000)] for non-local electron transport is presented and has been implemented in the radiation-hydrodynamics code DRACO. To study the model's effect on DRACO's predictive capability, simulations of shot 60 303 from OMEGA are completed using the iSNB model, and the computed shock speed vs. time is compared to experiment. Temperature outputs from the iSNB model are compared with the non-local transport model of Goncharov et al. [Phys. Plasmas 13, 012702 (2006)]. Effects on adiabat are also examined in a polar drive surrogate simulation. Results show that the iSNB model is not only capable of flux-limitation but also preheat prediction while remaining numerically robust and sacrificing little computational speed. Additionally, the results provide strong incentive to further modify key parameters within the SNB theory, namely, the newly introduced non-local mean free path. This research was supported by the Laboratory for Laser Energetics of the University of Rochester.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Shuai; Qiu, Wen-Xuan; Gao, Jin-Hua
2016-06-01
Recently, a new kind of artificial two dimensional (2D) electron lattice on the nanoscale, i.e. molecular graphene, has drawn a lot of interest, where the metal surface electrons are transformed into a honeycomb lattice via absorbing a molecular lattice on the metal surface [Gomes et al., Nature, 2012, 438, 306; Wang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 2014, 113, 196803]. In this work, we theoretically demonstrate that this technique can be readily used to build other complex 2D electron lattices on a metal surface, which are of high interest in the field of condensed matter physics. The main challenge to build a complex 2D electron lattice is that this is a quantum antidot system, where the absorbed molecule normally exerts a repulsive potential on the surface electrons. Thus, there is no straightforward corresponding relation between the molecular lattice pattern and the desired 2D lattice of surface electrons. Here, we give an interesting example about the Kagome lattice, which has exotic correlated electronic states. We design a special molecular pattern and show that this molecular lattice can transform the surface electrons into a Kagome-like lattice. The numerical simulation is conducted using a Cu(111) surface and CO molecules. We first estimate the effective parameters of the Cu/CO system by fitting experimental data of the molecular graphene. Then, we calculate the corresponding energy bands and LDOS of the surface electrons in the presence of the proposed molecular lattice. Finally, we interpret the numerical results by the tight binding model of the Kagome lattice. We hope that our work can stimulate further theoretical and experimental interest in this novel artificial 2D electron lattice system.
Li, Shuai; Qiu, Wen-Xuan; Gao, Jin-Hua
2016-07-01
Recently, a new kind of artificial two dimensional (2D) electron lattice on the nanoscale, i.e. molecular graphene, has drawn a lot of interest, where the metal surface electrons are transformed into a honeycomb lattice via absorbing a molecular lattice on the metal surface [Gomes et al., Nature, 2012, 438, 306; Wang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 2014, 113, 196803]. In this work, we theoretically demonstrate that this technique can be readily used to build other complex 2D electron lattices on a metal surface, which are of high interest in the field of condensed matter physics. The main challenge to build a complex 2D electron lattice is that this is a quantum antidot system, where the absorbed molecule normally exerts a repulsive potential on the surface electrons. Thus, there is no straightforward corresponding relation between the molecular lattice pattern and the desired 2D lattice of surface electrons. Here, we give an interesting example about the Kagome lattice, which has exotic correlated electronic states. We design a special molecular pattern and show that this molecular lattice can transform the surface electrons into a Kagome-like lattice. The numerical simulation is conducted using a Cu(111) surface and CO molecules. We first estimate the effective parameters of the Cu/CO system by fitting experimental data of the molecular graphene. Then, we calculate the corresponding energy bands and LDOS of the surface electrons in the presence of the proposed molecular lattice. Finally, we interpret the numerical results by the tight binding model of the Kagome lattice. We hope that our work can stimulate further theoretical and experimental interest in this novel artificial 2D electron lattice system. PMID:27279292
Two dimensional, electronic particle tracking in liquids with a graphene-based magnetic sensor array
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neumann, Rodrigo F.; Engel, Michael; Steiner, Mathias
2016-07-01
nanoparticles in the liquid with high accuracy and (b) the reconstruction of a particle's flow-driven trajectory across the integrated sensor array with sub-pixel precision as a function of time, in what we call the ``Magnetic nanoparticle velocimetry'' technique. Since the method does not rely on optical detection, potential lab-on-chip applications include particle tracking and flow analysis in opaque media at the sub-micron scale. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Movie that illustrates the reconstruction of particle trajectories and additional results to be used as a guideline for the choice of operational parameters such as nanoparticle diameter, nanoparticle concentration and magnetic field components. See DOI: 10.1039/C6NR03434A
Measurements of correlated two-dimensional electrons in the lowest Landau level on silicon(111)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kott, Tomasz Maria
Degenerate, multicomponent systems in a single Landau level have generated interest due to the possibilities for novel correlated ground states in the integer and fractional quantum Hall (FQH) regimes. Early experiments focused on measurements of engineered GaAs materials with a tunable spin degeneracy. Subsequent development of AlAs quantum wells with tunable valley degeneracy allowed the study of a spin-like degeneracy in the same limit. Recently, there has been great interest in the sub-lattice (valley) degeneracy in graphene, where experiments show that the FQH hierarchy is affected by the underlying valley symmetry. Measurements on silicon had been hampered by high disorder at interfaces. Lately, however, Si(100)/SiGe heterostructures have shown mobilities up to ˜ 106 cm2/Vs. Nonetheless, Si(100) is known to have an intrinsic valley splitting due to surface effects. Si(100) is not the only face of silicon used in transport measurements. On (111) oriented silicon surfaces, 2D electrons have three pairs of opposite momentum valleys. In contrast to either AlAs or Si(100), the last pair of valleys in Si(111) cannot be broken within the effective mass approximation; valleys in graphene cannot be broken in this way either. Additionally, both AlAs and Si(111) exhibit anisotropic effective mass tensors, which also affects transport properties, adding interest to these cases. We present transport data on a very high mobility (micro = 3.25 x 105 cm2/V sec at a temperature T = 90 mK and a carrier density ns = 4.15 x 10 11 cm-2) hydrogen-terminated Si(111) surface. Using a novel device structure free from complications created by disorder at Si-SiO2, we have probed many-valley effects. In particular, we observe an anisotropy between orthogonal current directions that is consistent with an expected anisotropy due to the effective mass tensor. Additionally, we observe an extended fractional quantum Hall hierarchy around filling factor nu = 3/2. We argue that the FQH
Luo, Xiaoguang Long, Kailin; Wang, Jun; Qiu, Teng; He, Jizhou; Liu, Nian
2014-06-28
Theoretical thermoelectric nanophysics models of low-dimensional electronic heat engine and refrigerator devices, comprising two-dimensional hot and cold reservoirs and an interconnecting filtered electron transport mechanism have been established. The models were used to numerically simulate and evaluate the thermoelectric performance and energy conversion efficiencies of these low-dimensional devices, based on three different types of electron transport momentum-dependent filters, referred to herein as k{sub x}, k{sub y}, and k{sub r} filters. Assuming the Fermi-Dirac distribution of electrons, expressions for key thermoelectric performance parameters were derived for the resonant transport processes, in which the transmission of electrons has been approximated as a Lorentzian resonance function. Optimizations were carried out and the corresponding optimized design parameters have been determined, including but not limited to the universal theoretical upper bound of the efficiency at maximum power for heat engines, and the maximum coefficient of performance for refrigerators. From the results, it was determined that k{sub r} filter delivers the best thermoelectric performance, followed by the k{sub x} filter, and then the k{sub y} filter. For refrigerators with any one of three filters, an optimum range for the full width at half maximum of the transport resonance was found to be <2k{sub B}T.
Pseudogaps and Emergence of Coherence in Two-Dimensional Electron Liquids in SrTiO3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marshall, Patrick B.; Mikheev, Evgeny; Raghavan, Santosh; Stemmer, Susanne
2016-07-01
Using tunneling spectroscopy, we show that pseudogaps emerge in strongly correlated, two-dimensional electron liquids in SrTiO3 quantum wells that are tuned near a quantum critical point. Coherence peaks emerge at low temperatures in quantum wells embedded in antiferromagnetic SmTiO3 that remain itinerant to the lowest thickness. Quantum wells embedded in ferrimagnetic GdTiO3 that become ferromagnetic at low temperatures show no indication of quasiparticle coherence. They undergo a symmetry-lowering metal-to-insulator transition at the lowest thicknesses that coincides with a vanishing single-particle density of states (DOS) around the Fermi level. Both types of quantum wells show a power-law depletion of the DOS at high energies. The results show that the different pseudogap behaviors are closely correlated with the type of magnetism in the proximity of the quantum wells and thus provide insights into the microscopic mechanisms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolasiński, K.; Szafran, B.; Hackens, B.
2015-05-01
We consider conductance mapping of systems based on the two-dimensional electron gas with scanning gate microscopy using two or more tips of an atomic force microscope. The paper contains the results of numerical simulations for a model tip potential. In addition, a few procedures are proposed for the extraction and manipulation of ballistic transport properties. In particular, we demonstrate that the multitip techniques can be used to obtain a readout of the Fermi wavelength, to detect potential defects, to filter specific transverse modes, and to tune the system into resonant conditions under which a stable map of the local density of states can be extracted from conductance maps using a third tip.
Koudinov, A V; Kehl, C; Rodina, A V; Geurts, J; Wolverson, D; Karczewski, G
2014-04-11
The excitations of a two-dimensional electron gas in quantum wells with intermediate carrier density (ne∼1011 cm-2), i.e., between the exciton-trion and the Fermi-sea range, are so far poorly understood. We report on an approach to bridge this gap by a magnetophotoluminescence study of modulation-doped (Cd,Mn)Te quantum well structures. Employing their enhanced spin splitting, we analyzed the characteristic magnetic-field behavior of the individual photoluminescence features. Based on these results and earlier findings by other authors, we present a new approach for understanding the optical transitions at intermediate densities in terms of four-particle excitations, the Suris tetrons, which were up to now only predicted theoretically. All characteristic photoluminescence features are attributed to emission from these quasiparticles when attaining different final states. PMID:24766011
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koudinov, A. V.; Kehl, C.; Rodina, A. V.; Geurts, J.; Wolverson, D.; Karczewski, G.
2014-04-01
The excitations of a two-dimensional electron gas in quantum wells with intermediate carrier density (ne˜1011 cm-2), i.e., between the exciton-trion and the Fermi-sea range, are so far poorly understood. We report on an approach to bridge this gap by a magnetophotoluminescence study of modulation-doped (Cd,Mn)Te quantum well structures. Employing their enhanced spin splitting, we analyzed the characteristic magnetic-field behavior of the individual photoluminescence features. Based on these results and earlier findings by other authors, we present a new approach for understanding the optical transitions at intermediate densities in terms of four-particle excitations, the Suris tetrons, which were up to now only predicted theoretically. All characteristic photoluminescence features are attributed to emission from these quasiparticles when attaining different final states.
Joe, Yong S; Lee, Sun H; Hedin, Eric R; Kim, Young D
2013-06-01
We utilize a two-dimensional four-channel DNA model, with a tight-binding (TB) Hamiltonian, and investigate the temperature and the magnetic field dependence of the transport behavior of a short DNA molecule. Random variation of the hopping integrals due to the thermal structural disorder, which partially destroy phase coherence of electrons and reduce quantum interference, leads to a reduction of the localization length and causes suppressed overall transmission. We also incorporate a variation of magnetic field flux density into the hopping integrals as a phase factor and observe Aharonov-Bohm (AB) oscillations in the transmission. It is shown that for non-zero magnetic flux, the transmission zero leaves the real-energy axis and moves up into the complex-energy plane. We also point out that the hydrogen bonds between the base pair with flux variations play a role to determine the periodicity of AB oscillations in the transmission. PMID:23862423
Pseudogaps and Emergence of Coherence in Two-Dimensional Electron Liquids in SrTiO_{3}.
Marshall, Patrick B; Mikheev, Evgeny; Raghavan, Santosh; Stemmer, Susanne
2016-07-22
Using tunneling spectroscopy, we show that pseudogaps emerge in strongly correlated, two-dimensional electron liquids in SrTiO_{3} quantum wells that are tuned near a quantum critical point. Coherence peaks emerge at low temperatures in quantum wells embedded in antiferromagnetic SmTiO_{3} that remain itinerant to the lowest thickness. Quantum wells embedded in ferrimagnetic GdTiO_{3} that become ferromagnetic at low temperatures show no indication of quasiparticle coherence. They undergo a symmetry-lowering metal-to-insulator transition at the lowest thicknesses that coincides with a vanishing single-particle density of states (DOS) around the Fermi level. Both types of quantum wells show a power-law depletion of the DOS at high energies. The results show that the different pseudogap behaviors are closely correlated with the type of magnetism in the proximity of the quantum wells and thus provide insights into the microscopic mechanisms. PMID:27494486
Du, Juan; Xia, Congxin; Xiong, Wenqi; Zhao, Xu; Wang, Tianxing; Jia, Yu
2016-08-10
Based on first-principles calculations, the electronic structures and magnetism are investigated in 3d transition metal (TM)-embedded porous two-dimensional (2D) C2N monolayers. Numerical results indicate that except Mn and Co atoms, other TM atoms can be embedded stably in the 2D C2N monolayer. Moreover, the magnetic moments of the TM-embedded C2N monolayer depend highly on the atomic number of the TM atoms. The Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Ni atom-embedded C2N monolayers possess a ferromagnetic ground state, while embedding Cu can induce paramagnetic characteristics in the 2D C2N monolayer. Meanwhile, the Zn-embedded C2N monolayer exhibits a nonmagnetic ground state. These results indicate that the magnetism of 2D C2N monolayers can be tuned via embedding TM atoms. PMID:27476579
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amar, Achraf Ben; Faucher, Marc; Grimbert, Bertrand; Cordier, Yvon; Fran\\{c}ois, Marc; Tilmant, Pascal; Werquin, Matthieu; Zhang, Victor; Ducatteau, Damien; Gaquière, Christophe; Buchaillot, Lionel; Théron, Didier
2012-06-01
The piezoelectric actuation of a micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) resonator based on an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure is studied under various bias conditions. Using an actuator electrode that is also a transistor gate, we correlate the mechanical behaviour to the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) presence. The measured amplitude of the actuated resonator is maximum at moderate negative biases and drops near the pinch-off voltage in concordance with the 2DEG becoming depleted. Below the pinch-off voltage, residual actuation is still present, which is attributed to a more complex electric field pattern supported by quantitative modelling. The results confirm that epitaxial AlGaN barriers are fully adapted to the piezoelectric actuation of MEMS.
A New Method to Modify Two-Dimensional Electron Gas Density by GaN Cap Etching
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhongda; Chow, T. Paul
2013-08-01
We have experimentally demonstrated a new method for modifying the two-dimensional electron density (2DEG) at the AlGaN/GaN interface by etching of the GaN cap layer on top of the AlGaN. GaN MOS capacitors have been fabricated on samples with partially or fully etched GaN cap, and the 2DEG density has been extracted. The results show a linear relation between the 2DEG density and the thickness of the GaN cap being etched. We have also fabricated van der Pauw structures and obtained the 2DEG density using Hall measurements, and the results are consistent with that from the GaN MOS capacitors.
Muller, J.; Brandenburg, J.; Schweitzer, D.; Schlueter, J. A.
2012-05-01
We study the low-frequency dynamical properties of correlated charge carriers in various of the quasi-two-dimensional organic charge-transfer salts {kappa}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}X by means of fluctuation (noise) spectroscopy. Close to the critical endpoint of the Mott metal-insulator transition, a pronounced increase of the 1/f-noise level accompanied by a substantial shift of spectral weight to low frequencies indicates a sudden increase of the time scale of the charge fluctuations. For the less correlated, more metallic materials, we find a crossover/transition from hopping transport of more-or-less localized carriers at elevated temperatures to a low-temperature regime, where a metallic coupling of the layers allows for coherent interlayer transport of delocalized electrons.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Shi; Zhu, Minyi; Hu, Shuming; Mitas, Lubos
2013-03-01
Very recently, a quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) method was proposed for Rashba spin-orbit operators which expands the applicability of QMC to systems with variable spins. It is based on incorporating the spin-orbit into the Green's function and thus samples (ie, rotates) the spinors in the antisymmetric part of the trial function [1]. Here we propose a new alternative for both variational and diffusion Monte Carlo algorithms for calculations of systems with variable spins. Specifically, we introduce a new spin representation which allows us to sample the spin configurations efficiently and without introducing additional fluctuations. We develop the corresponding Green's function which treats the electron spin as a dynamical variable and we use the fixed-phase approximation to eliminate the negative probabilities. The trial wave function is a Slater determinant of spinors and spin-indepedent Jastrow correlations. The method also has the zero variance property. We benchmark the method on the 2D electron gas with the Rashba interaction and we find very good overall agreement with previously obtained results. Research supported by NSF and ARO.
Threshold field for soft damage and electron drift velocity in InGaN two-dimensional channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ardaravičius, L.; Kiprijanovič, O.; Liberis, J.; Šermukšnis, E.; Matulionis, A.; Ferreyra, R. A.; Avrutin, V.; Özgür, Ü.; Morkoç, H.
2015-10-01
Experimental investigation of electron transport along a two-dimensional channel confined in an InGaN alloy of Al{}0.82In{}0.18N/AlN/In{}0.1Ga{}0.9N/GaN structure was performed at room temperature under near-equilibrium thermal-bath temperature. A soft damage was observed at a threshold electric field applied in the channel plane. The threshold current for soft damage and the supplied electric power were lower in the channels with a higher electron density. The results are interpreted in terms of plasmon-assisted heat dissipation. In agreement with ultra-fast decay of hot phonons in the vicinity of the resonance with plasmons, the electron drift velocity acquires a highest value of ˜2 × 107 cm s-1 at 180 kV cm-1 in channels with 1 × 1013 cm-2 and decreases as the electron density increases. No negative differential resistance is observed. The effective hot-phonon lifetime is estimated as ˜ 2 ps at 1.6 × 1013 cm-2 at low electric fields and is found to decrease as the field increases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhongxin, Zheng; Jiandong, Sun; Yu, Zhou; Zhipeng, Zhang; Hua, Qin
2015-10-01
The broadband terahertz (THz) emission from drifting two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure at 6 K is reported. The devices are designed as THz plasmon emitters according to the Smith-Purcell effect and the ‘shallow water’ plasma instability mechanism in 2DEG. Plasmon excitation is excluded since no signature of electron-density dependent plasmon mode is observed. Instead, the observed THz emission is found to come from the heated lattice and/or the hot electrons. Simulated emission spectra of hot electrons taking into account the THz absorption in air and Fabry-Pérot interference agree well with the experiment. It is confirmed that a blackbody-like THz emission will inevitably be encountered in similar devices driven by a strong in-plane electric field. A conclusion is drawn that a more elaborate device design is required to achieve efficient plasmon excitation and THz emission. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (No. G2009CB929303), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61271157), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (No. 2014M551678), and the Jiangsu Planned Projects for Postdoctoral Research Funds (No. 1301054B).
Anisotropic two-dimensional electron gas at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 (110) interface
Annadi, A.; Zhang, Q.; Renshaw Wang, X.; Tuzla, N.; Gopinadhan, K.; Lü, W. M.; Roy Barman, A.; Liu, Z. Q.; Srivastava, A.; Saha, S.; Zhao, Y. L.; Zeng, S. W.; Dhar, S.; Olsson, E.; Gu, B.; Yunoki, S.; Maekawa, S.; Hilgenkamp, H.; Venkatesan, T.; Ariando
2013-01-01
The observation of a high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas between two insulating complex oxides, especially LaAlO3/SrTiO3, has enhanced the potential of oxides for electronics. The occurrence of this conductivity is believed to be driven by polarization discontinuity, leading to an electronic reconstruction. In this scenario, the crystal orientation has an important role and no conductivity would be expected, for example, for the interface between LaAlO3 and (110)-oriented SrTiO3, which should not have a polarization discontinuity. Here we report the observation of unexpected conductivity at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface prepared on (110)-oriented SrTiO3, with a LaAlO3-layer thickness-dependent metal-insulator transition. Density functional theory calculation reveals that electronic reconstruction, and thus conductivity, is still possible at this (110) interface by considering the energetically favourable (110) interface structure, that is, buckled TiO2/LaO, in which the polarization discontinuity is still present. The conductivity was further found to be strongly anisotropic along the different crystallographic directions with potential for anisotropic superconductivity and magnetism, leading to possible new physics and applications. PMID:23673623
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rödel, T. C.; Fortuna, F.; Bertran, F.; Gabay, M.; Rozenberg, M. J.; Santander-Syro, A. F.; Le Fèvre, P.
2015-07-01
We report the existence of metallic two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) at the (001) and (101) surfaces of bulk-insulating TiO2 anatase due to local chemical doping by oxygen vacancies in the near-surface region. Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we find that the electronic structure at both surfaces is composed of two occupied subbands of dx y orbital character. While the Fermi surface observed at the (001) termination is isotropic, the 2DEG at the (101) termination is anisotropic and shows a charge carrier density three times larger than at the (001) surface. Moreover, we demonstrate that intense UV synchrotron radiation can alter the electronic structure and stoichiometry of the surface up to the complete disappearance of the 2DEG. These results open a route for the nanoengineering of confined electronic states, the control of their metallic or insulating nature, and the tailoring of their microscopic symmetry, using UV illumination at different surfaces of anatase.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korolev, A. M.; Shulga, V. M.; Turutanov, O. G.; Shnyrkov, V. I.
2016-07-01
A technically simple and physically clear method is suggested for direct measurement of the brightness temperature of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in the channel of a high electron mobility transistor (HEMT). The usage of the method was demonstrated with the pseudomorphic HEMT as a specimen. The optimal HEMT dc regime, from the point of view of the "back action" problem, was found to belong to the unsaturated area of the static characteristics possibly corresponding to the ballistic electron transport mode. The proposed method is believed to be a convenient tool to explore the ballistic transport, electron diffusion, 2DEG properties and other electrophysical processes in heterostructures.
Electric field controlled spin interference in a system with Rashba spin-orbit coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ciftja, Orion
2016-05-01
There have been intense research efforts over the last years focused on understanding the Rashba spin-orbit coupling effect from the perspective of possible spintronics applications. An important component of this line of research is aimed at control and manipulation of electron's spin degrees of freedom in semiconductor quantum dot devices. A promising way to achieve this goal is to make use of the tunable Rashba effect that relies on the spin-orbit interaction in a two-dimensional electron system embedded in a host semiconducting material that lacks inversion-symmetry. This way, the Rashba spin-orbit coupling effect may potentially lead to fabrication of a new generation of spintronic devices where control of spin, thus magnetic properties, is achieved via an electric field and not a magnetic field. In this work we investigate theoretically the electron's spin interference and accumulation process in a Rashba spin-orbit coupled system consisting of a pair of two-dimensional semiconductor quantum dots connected to each other via two conducting semi-circular channels. The strength of the confinement energy on the quantum dots is tuned by gate potentials that allow "leakage" of electrons from one dot to another. While going through the conducting channels, the electrons are spin-orbit coupled to a microscopically generated electric field applied perpendicular to the two-dimensional system. We show that interference of spin wave functions of electrons travelling through the two channels gives rise to interference/conductance patterns that lead to the observation of the geometric Berry's phase. Achieving a predictable and measurable observation of Berry's phase allows one to control the spin dynamics of the electrons. It is demonstrated that this system allows use of a microscopically generated electric field to control Berry's phase, thus, enables one to tune the spin-dependent interference pattern and spintronic properties with no need for injection of spin
Peelaers, H.; Gordon, L.; Steiauf, D.; Janotti, A.; Van de Walle, C. G.; Krishnaswamy, K.; Sarwe, A.
2015-11-02
High-density two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) can be formed at complex oxide interfaces such as SrTiO{sub 3}/GdTiO{sub 3} and SrTiO{sub 3}/LaAlO{sub 3}. The electric field in the vicinity of the interface depends on the dielectric properties of the material as well as on the electron distribution. However, it is known that electric fields can strongly modify the dielectric constant of SrTiO{sub 3} as well as other complex oxides. Solving the electrostatic problem thus requires a self-consistent approach in which the dielectric constant varies according to the local magnitude of the field. We have implemented the field dependence of the dielectric constant in a Schrödinger-Poisson solver in order to study its effect on the electron distribution in a 2DEG. Using the SrTiO{sub 3}/GdTiO{sub 3} interface as an example, we demonstrate that including the field dependence results in the 2DEG being confined closer to the interface compared to assuming a single field-independent value for the dielectric constant. Our conclusions also apply to SrTiO{sub 3}/LaAlO{sub 3} as well as other similar interfaces.
Chakrabarti, S; Chatterjee, B; Debbarma, S; Ghatak, K P
2015-09-01
In this paper we study the influence of strong electric field on the two dimensional (2D)effective electron mass (EEM) at the Fermi level in quantum wells of III-V, ternary and quaternary semiconductors within the framework of k x p formalism by formulating a new 2D electron energy spectrum. It appears taking quantum wells of InSb, InAs, Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te and In(1-x)Ga(x)As(1-y)P(y) lattice matched to InP as examples that the EEM increases with decreasing film thickness, increasing electric field and increases with increasing surface electron concentration exhibiting spikey oscillations because of the crossing over of the Fermi level by the quantized level in quantum wells and the quantized oscillation occurs when the Fermi energy touches the sub-band energy. The electric field makes the mass quantum number dependent and the oscillatory mass introduces quantum number dependent mass anisotropy in addition to energy. The EEM increases with decreasing alloy composition where the variations are totally band structure dependent. Under certain limiting conditions all the results for all the cases get simplified into the well-known parabolic energy bands and thus confirming the compatibility test. The content of this paper finds three applications in the fields of nano-science and technology. PMID:26716200
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müller-Caspary, Knut; Oelsner, Andreas; Potapov, Pavel
2015-08-01
A delay-line detector is established for electron detection in the field of scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and applied to two-dimensional strain mapping in Si-based field effect transistors. We initially outline the functional principle of position-sensitive delay-line detection, based on highly accurate time measurements for electronic pulses travelling in meandering wires. In particular, the detector is a single-counting device essentially providing an infinite time stream of position-resolved events so that acquisition speed is not hindered by detector read-outs occurring in conventional charge-coupled devices. By scanning the STEM probe over stressor- and gate regions of a field effect transistor on a 100 × 100 raster, 10 000 diffraction patterns have been acquired within 3-6.5 min, depending on the scan speed. Evaluation of the 004 and 220 reflections yields lateral and vertical strain at a spatial resolution of 1.6 nm. Dose-dependent strain precisions of 1.2 -1.8 ×10-3 could be achieved for frame times of 40 and 20 ms, respectively. Finally, the detector is characterised as to quantum efficiency and further scopes of application are outlined.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Su-Huai; Yang, Ji-Hui; Zhang, Yueyu; Yin, Wan-Jian; Gong, X. G.; Yakobson, Boris I.
Two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors have many unique electronic and optoelectronic properties that is suitable for novel device applications. Most of the current study are focused on group IV or transition metal chalcogenides. In this study, using atomic transmutation and global optimization methods, we identified two group IV-VI 2D materials, Pma2-SiS and silicene sulfide that can overcome shortcomings encountered in conventional 2D semiconducttord. Pma2-SiS is found to be both chemically, energetically, and thermally stable. Most importantly, Pma2-SiS has unique electronic and optoelectronic properties, including direct bandgaps suitable for solar cells, good mobility for nanoelectronics, good flexibility of property tuning by layer thickness and strain appliance, and good air stability as well. Therefore, Pma2-SiS is expected to be a very promising 2D material in the field of 2D electronics and optoelectronics. Silicene sulfide also shows similar properties. We believe that the designing principles and approaches used to identify these materials have great potential to accelerate future finding of new functional materials within the 2D families.
Two-dimensional electron gas with six-fold symmetry at the (111) surface of KTaO3
Bareille, C.; Fortuna, F.; Rödel, T. C.; Bertran, F.; Gabay, M.; Cubelos, O. Hijano; Taleb-Ibrahimi, A.; Le Fèvre, P.; Bibes, M.; Barthélémy, A.; Maroutian, T.; Lecoeur, P.; Rozenberg, M. J.; Santander-Syro, A. F.
2014-01-01
Two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) at transition-metal oxide (TMO) interfaces, and boundary states in topological insulators, are being intensively investigated. The former system harbors superconductivity, large magneto-resistance, and ferromagnetism. In the latter, honeycomb-lattice geometry plus bulk spin-orbit interactions lead to topologically protected spin-polarized bands. 2DEGs in TMOs with a honeycomb-like structure could yield new states of matter, but they had not been experimentally realized, yet. We successfully created a 2DEG at the (111) surface of KTaO3, a strong insulator with large spin-orbit coupling. Its confined states form a network of weakly-dispersing electronic gutters with 6-fold symmetry, a topology novel to all known oxide-based 2DEGs. If those pertain to just one Ta-(111) bilayer, model calculations predict that it can be a topological metal. Our findings demonstrate that completely new electronic states, with symmetries not realized in the bulk, can be tailored in oxide surfaces, promising for TMO-based devices. PMID:24394996
Two-dimensional electron gas with six-fold symmetry at the (111) surface of KTaO3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bareille, C.; Fortuna, F.; Rödel, T. C.; Bertran, F.; Gabay, M.; Cubelos, O. Hijano; Taleb-Ibrahimi, A.; Le Fèvre, P.; Bibes, M.; Barthélémy, A.; Maroutian, T.; Lecoeur, P.; Rozenberg, M. J.; Santander-Syro, A. F.
2014-01-01
Two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) at transition-metal oxide (TMO) interfaces, and boundary states in topological insulators, are being intensively investigated. The former system harbors superconductivity, large magneto-resistance, and ferromagnetism. In the latter, honeycomb-lattice geometry plus bulk spin-orbit interactions lead to topologically protected spin-polarized bands. 2DEGs in TMOs with a honeycomb-like structure could yield new states of matter, but they had not been experimentally realized, yet. We successfully created a 2DEG at the (111) surface of KTaO3, a strong insulator with large spin-orbit coupling. Its confined states form a network of weakly-dispersing electronic gutters with 6-fold symmetry, a topology novel to all known oxide-based 2DEGs. If those pertain to just one Ta-(111) bilayer, model calculations predict that it can be a topological metal. Our findings demonstrate that completely new electronic states, with symmetries not realized in the bulk, can be tailored in oxide surfaces, promising for TMO-based devices.
Borisov, A. G.; Juaristi, J. I.
2006-01-15
Time-dependent density-functional theory is used to calculate quantum-size effects in the energy loss of antiprotons interacting with a confined two-dimensional electron gas. The antiprotons follow a trajectory normal to jellium circular clusters of variable size, crossing every cluster at its geometrical center. Analysis of the characteristic time scales that define the process is made. For high-enough velocities, the interaction time between the projectile and the target electrons is shorter than the time needed for the density excitation to travel along the cluster. The finite-size object then behaves as an infinite system, and no quantum-size effects appear in the energy loss. For small velocities, the discretization of levels in the cluster plays a role and the energy loss does depend on the system size. A comparison to results obtained using linear theory of screening is made, and the relative contributions of electron-hole pair and plasmon excitations to the total energy loss are analyzed. This comparison also allows us to show the importance of a nonlinear treatment of the screening in the interaction process.
Sang, Ling; Yang, Xuelin Cheng, Jianpeng; Guo, Lei; Hu, Anqi; Xiang, Yong; Yu, Tongjun; Xu, Fujun; Tang, Ning; Jia, Lifang; He, Zhi; Wang, Maojun; Wang, Xinqiang; Shen, Bo; Ge, Weikun
2015-08-03
High-temperature transport properties in high-mobility lattice-matched InAlN/GaN heterostructures have been investigated. An interesting hysteresis phenomenon of the two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) density is observed in the temperature-dependent Hall measurements. After high-temperature thermal cycles treatment, the reduction of the 2DEG density is observed, which is more serious in thinner InAlN barrier samples. This reduction can then be recovered by light illumination. We attribute these behaviors to the shallow trap states with energy level above the Fermi level in the GaN buffer layer. The electrons in the 2DEG are thermal-excited when temperature is increased and then trapped by these shallow trap states in the buffer layer, resulting in the reduction and hysteresis phenomenon of their density. Three trap states are observed in the GaN buffer layer and C{sub Ga} may be one of the candidates responsible for the observed behaviors. Our results provide an alternative approach to assess the quality of InAlN/GaN heterostructures for applications in high-temperature electronic devices.
Yuan, Hongtao; Wang, Haotian; Cui, Yi
2015-01-20
Electron occupation of orbitals in two-dimensional (2D) layered materials controls the magnitude and anisotropy of the interatomic electron transfer and exerts a key influence on the chemical bonding modes of 2D layered lattices. Therefore, their orbital occupations are believed to be responsible for massive variations of the physical and chemical properties from electrocatalysis and energy storage, to charge density waves, superconductivity, spin-orbit coupling, and valleytronics. Especially in nanoscale structures such as nanoribbons, nanoplates, and nanoflakes, 2D layered materials provide opportunities to exploit new quantum phenomena. In this Account, we report our recent progress in the rational design and chemical, electrochemical, and electrical modulations of the physical and chemical properties of layered nanomaterials via modification of the electron occupation in their electronic structures. Here, we start with the growth and fabrication of a group of layered chalcogenides with varied orbital occupation (from 4d/5d electron configuration to 5p/6p electron configuration). The growth techniques include bottom-up methods, such as vapor-liquid-solid growth and vapor-solid growth, and top-down methods, such as mechanical exfoliation with tape and AFM tip scanning. Next, we demonstrate the experimental strategies for the tuning of the chemical potential (orbital occupation tuned with electron filling) and the resulting modulation of the electronic states of layered materials, such as electric-double-layer gating, electrochemical intercalation, and chemical intercalation with molecule and zerovalence metal species. Since the properties of layered chalcogenides are normally dominated by the specific band structure around which the chemical potential is sitting, their desired electronic states and properties can be modulated in a large range, showing unique phenomena including quantum electronic transport and extraordinary optical transmittance. As the most
Duan, Hong-Guang; Stevens, Amy L; Nalbach, Peter; Thorwart, Michael; Prokhorenko, Valentyn I; Miller, R J Dwayne
2015-09-10
We have performed broad-band two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy of light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) at ambient temperature. We found that electronic dephasing occurs within ∼60 fs and inhomogeneous broadening is approximately 120 cm(-1). A three-dimensional global fit analysis allows us to identify several time scales in the dynamics of the 2D spectra ranging from 100 fs to ∼10 ps and to uncover the energy-transfer pathways in LHCII. In particular, the energy transfer between the chlorophyll b and chlorophyll a pools occurs within ∼1.1 ps. Retrieved 2D decay-associated spectra also uncover the spectral positions of corresponding diagonal peaks in the 2D spectra. Residuals in the decay traces exhibit periodic modulations with different oscillation periods. However, only one of them can be associated with the excitonic cross-peaks in the 2D spectrum, while the remaining ones are presumably of vibrational origin. For the interpretation of the spectroscopic data, we have applied a refined exciton model for LHCII. It reproduces the linear absorption, circular dichroism, and 2D spectra at different waiting times. Several components of the energy transport are revealed from theoretical simulations that agree well with the experimental observations. PMID:26301382
Egorova, Dassia
2015-06-07
Several recent experiments report on possibility of dark-state detection by means of so called beating maps of two-dimensional photon-echo spectroscopy [Ostroumov et al., Science 340, 52 (2013); Bakulin et al., Ultrafast Phenomena XIX (Springer International Publishing, 2015)]. The main idea of this detection scheme is to use coherence induced upon the laser excitation as a very sensitive probe. In this study, we investigate the performance of ground-state coherence in the detection of dark electronic states. For this purpose, we simulate beating maps of several models where the excited-state coherence can be hardly detected and is assumed not to contribute to the beating maps. The models represent strongly coupled electron-nuclear dynamics involving avoided crossings and conical intersections. In all the models, the initially populated optically accessible excited state decays to a lower-lying dark state within few hundreds femtoseconds. We address the role of Raman modes and of interstate-coupling nature. Our findings suggest that the presence of low-frequency Raman active modes significantly increases the chances for detection of dark states populated via avoided crossings, whereas conical intersections represent a more challenging task.
‘Metal’-like transport in high-resistance, high aspect ratio two-dimensional electron gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Backes, Dirk; Hall, Richard; Pepper, Michael; Beere, Harvey; Ritchie, David; Narayan, Vijay
2016-01-01
We investigate the striking absence of strong localisation observed in mesoscopic two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) (Baenninger et al 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 016805, Backes et al 2015 arXiv:1505.03444) even when their resistivity ρ \\gg h/{{e}2} . In particular, we try to understand whether this phenomenon originates in quantum many-body effects, or simply percolative transport through a network of electron puddles. To test the latter scenario, we measure the low temperature (low-T) transport properties of long and narrow 2DEG devices in which percolation effects should be heavily suppressed in favour of Coulomb blockade. Strikingly we find no indication of Coulomb blockade and that the high-ρ, low-T transport is exactly similar to that previously reported in mesoscopic 2DEGs with different geometries. Remarkably, we are able to induce a ‘metal’-insulator transition (MIT) by applying a perpendicular magnetic field B. We present a picture within which these observations fit into the more conventional framework of the 2D MIT.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trevisanutto, Paolo E.; Vignale, Giovanni
2016-05-01
Ab initio electronic structure calculations of two-dimensional layered structures are typically performed using codes that were developed for three-dimensional structures, which are periodic in all three directions. The introduction of a periodicity in the third direction (perpendicular to the layer) is completely artificial and may lead in some cases to spurious results and to difficulties in treating the action of external fields. In this paper we develop a new approach, which is "native" to quasi-2D materials, making use of basis function that are periodic in the plane, but atomic-like in the perpendicular direction. We show how some of the basic tools of ab initio electronic structure theory — density functional theory, GW approximation and Bethe-Salpeter equation — are implemented in the new basis. We argue that the new approach will be preferable to the conventional one in treating the peculiarities of layered materials, including the long range of the unscreened Coulomb interaction in insulators, and the effects of strain, corrugations, and external fields.
Trevisanutto, Paolo E; Vignale, Giovanni
2016-05-28
Ab initio electronic structure calculations of two-dimensional layered structures are typically performed using codes that were developed for three-dimensional structures, which are periodic in all three directions. The introduction of a periodicity in the third direction (perpendicular to the layer) is completely artificial and may lead in some cases to spurious results and to difficulties in treating the action of external fields. In this paper we develop a new approach, which is "native" to quasi-2D materials, making use of basis function that are periodic in the plane, but atomic-like in the perpendicular direction. We show how some of the basic tools of ab initio electronic structure theory - density functional theory, GW approximation and Bethe-Salpeter equation - are implemented in the new basis. We argue that the new approach will be preferable to the conventional one in treating the peculiarities of layered materials, including the long range of the unscreened Coulomb interaction in insulators, and the effects of strain, corrugations, and external fields. PMID:27250294
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Qi; Gao, Weilu; Watson, John; Manfra, Michael; Kono, Junichiro
2015-03-01
Density-dependent Coulomb interactions can drive electron-hole (e - h) pairs in semiconductors through an excitonic Mott transition from an excitonic gas into an e - h plasma. Theoretical studies suggest that these interactions can be strongly modified by an external magnetic field, including the absence of inter-exciton interactions in the high magnetic field limit in two dimensions, due to an e - h charge symmetry, which results in ultrastable magneto-excitons. Here, we present a systematic experimental study of e - h pairs in photo-excited undoped GaAs quantum wells in magnetic fields with ultrafast terahertz spectroscopy. We simultaneously monitored the dynamics of the intraexcitonic 1 s-2 p transition (which splits into 1 s-2p+ and 1 s-2p- transitions in a magnetic field) and the cyclotron resonance of unbound electrons and holes up to 10 Tesla. We found that the 1 s-2p- absorption feature is robust at high magnetic fields even under high excitation fluences, indicating magnetically enhanced stability of excitons. We will discuss the Mott physics of magneto-excitons as a function of temperature, e - h pair density, optical pump delay time, as well as magnetic field, and also compare two-dimensional excitons in GaAs quantum wells with three-dimensional excitons in bulk GaAs.
Nenov, Artur; Mukamel, Shaul; Garavelli, Marco; Rivalta, Ivan
2015-08-11
First-principles simulations of two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy in the ultraviolet region (2DUV) require computationally demanding multiconfigurational approaches that can resolve doubly excited and charge transfer states, the spectroscopic fingerprints of coupled UV-active chromophores. Here, we propose an efficient approach to reduce the computational cost of accurate simulations of 2DUV spectra of benzene, phenol, and their dimer (i.e., the minimal models for studying electronic coupling of UV-chromophores in proteins). We first establish the multiconfigurational recipe with the highest accuracy by comparison with experimental data, providing reference gas-phase transition energies and dipole moments that can be used to construct exciton Hamiltonians involving high-lying excited states. We show that by reducing the active spaces and the number of configuration state functions within restricted active space schemes, the computational cost can be significantly decreased without loss of accuracy in predicting 2DUV spectra. The proposed recipe has been successfully tested on a realistic model proteic system in water. Accounting for line broadening due to thermal and solvent-induced fluctuations allows for direct comparison with experiments. PMID:26574458
Cresti, Alessandro . E-mail: cresti@df.unipi.it; Grosso, Giuseppe . E-mail: grosso@df.unipi.it; Parravicini, Giuseppe Pastori . E-mail: pastori@fisicavolta.unipv.it
2006-05-15
We have derived closed analytic expressions for the Green's function of an electron in a two-dimensional electron gas threaded by a uniform perpendicular magnetic field, also in the presence of a uniform electric field and of a parabolic spatial confinement. A workable and powerful numerical procedure for the calculation of the Green's functions for a large infinitely extended quantum wire is considered exploiting a lattice model for the wire, the tight-binding representation for the corresponding matrix Green's function, and the Peierls phase factor in the Hamiltonian hopping matrix element to account for the magnetic field. The numerical evaluation of the Green's function has been performed by means of the decimation-renormalization method, and quite satisfactorily compared with the analytic results worked out in this paper. As an example of the versatility of the numerical and analytic tools here presented, the peculiar semilocal character of the magnetic Green's function is studied in detail because of its basic importance in determining magneto-transport properties in mesoscopic systems.